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Sample records for continuous cropping

  1. Prokaryotic diversity in continuous cropping and rotational cropping soybean soil.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hui; Xiao, Cuihong; Ma, Jinzhu; Yu, Miao; Li, Yumei; Wang, Genlin; Zhang, Liping

    2009-09-01

    In spite of the techniques based on the amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) to compare bacterial communities that are now widely in use in microbial ecology, little is known about the composition of the soybean continuous cropping (CC) and rotational cropping (RC) soil microbial community. To address this, we compared the levels of bacterial community diversity in RC and 5-year CC rhizosphere soil samples. We selected 407 clones in RC and 490 clones in CC for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A total of 123 phylotypes were identified among the 16S rDNA clones, while 78 unique and 21 common phylotypes were identified among the CC soil isolates. Analysis of sequences from a subset of the phylotypes showed that at least 11 bacterial divisions were represented in the clone libraries. The phylotype richness, frequency distribution (evenness), and composition of the two clone libraries were investigated using a variety of diversity indices. Although the analysis of diversity indices and LIBSHUFF comparisons revealed that the compared libraries were not significantly different (P=0.05) between the RC vs. CC soils, some differences could be observed in terms of specific phyla and groups. We concluded that the group variance was not determined immediately by the cropping system's induction, but was a long-term and slow process.

  2. Microbial Communities of Continuously Cropped, Irrigated Rice Fields

    PubMed Central

    Reichardt, W.; Mascarina, G.; Padre, B.; Doll, J.

    1997-01-01

    In continuously cropped, irrigated rice fields, soil microbial biomass as measured by total phospholipid fatty acid concentrations declined during the second half of the crop cycle. This decline was also observed in other components of the microbial community assessed by viable counts, including denitrifiers and sporeformers. Simultaneous with total biomass decline was the increase in potential indicators of nutrient stress--such as ratios of cyclopropanol ((Sigma)[cy/(omega)7c]) and trans ((Sigma)[(omega)7t/(omega)7c]) phospholipid fatty acids--in plain crop soil but not in the rhizosphere. Polyhydroxyalkanoate levels were enhanced in the root environment of mature rice. Polyunsaturated eukaryotic biomarkers accounted for only 13 to 16 mol% of the total phospholipids, including 2 mol% of 18:2(omega)6, which is considered a fungal biomarker. Single biomarkers for defined physiological groups of bacteria did not follow the declining trend of total microbial biomass. Signature compounds for gram-positive and gram-negative fermenters (plasmalogen phospholipids), methanogenic bacteria (diether lipids), and methanotrophs (18:1(omega)8c) increased as the crop approached maturity. Methanotrophs were not particularly enriched in the rhizosphere. Methanogenic biomarkers were, however, most abundant in root extracts from mature rice plants. Assuming that soil microbial biomass plays a significant role as a passive nutrient pool, its reduction during the second half of the cropping season suggests a mechanism that may ultimately contribute to declining productivity in irrigated, continuous rice cropping systems. PMID:16535489

  3. Using digital cameras for continuous monitoring of crop status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Gitelson, A. A.; Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Wardlow, B.; Shibayama, M.

    2011-12-01

    Crop physiological and phenological status is an important factor that characterizes crop yield as well as carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere in agroecosystems. It is difficult to establish high frequency observations of crop status in multiple locations using conventional approaches such as agronomical sampling and also remote sensing techniques that use spectral radiometers because of the labor intensive work required for field surveys and the high cost of radiometers designed for scientific use. This study explored the potential utility of an inexpensive camera observation system called crop phenology recording system (CPRS) as an alternative approach for the fixed-point observation of seasonal change in crop growth. The CPRS consisting of two compact digital cameras was used to capture visible and near infrared (NIR) images of maize in 2009 and soybean in 2010 every hour day and night, continuously. In addition, a four channel sensor SKYE measured crop reflectance and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images were acquired over crop fields. The six different camera- radiometer- and MODIS-derived vegetation indices (VIs) were calculated and compared with the ground-measured crop biophysical parameters. In addition to VIs that use digital numbers, we proposed to use daytime exposure value-adjusted VIs. The camera-derived VIs were compared with the VIs calculated from spectral reflectance observations based on SKYE and MODIS. It was found that new camera-derived VIs using daytime exposure values are good proxies of crop biophysical parameters. Camera-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was more sensitive to high biomass conditions of maize and soybean than the SKYE-derived NDVI. The performance of several camera-derived VIs are comparable to VIs derived from the spectral-reflectance data based on SKYE and MODIS. As a result, camera-derived green chlorophyll index (CIgreen), simple

  4. Replacing fallow with continuous cropping reduces crop water productivity of semiarid wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water supply frequently limits crop yield in semiarid cropping systems; water deficits can restrict yields in drought-affected subhumid regions. In semiarid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.)-based cropping systems, replacing an uncropped fallow period with a crop can increase precipitation use efficiency ...

  5. [Responses of physiological ecology and quality evaluation of Rehmannia gltinosa in continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyi; Li, Gailing; Niu, Miaomiao; Fan, Huamin; Li, Juan; Lin, Wenxiong

    2011-05-01

    To study responses of physiological ecology and quality evaluation of Rehmannia glutinosa in continuous cropping. The potted plant R. glutinosa which consists of first cropping, 1 year continuous cropping and 2 year continuous cropping were used as experimental materials. The photosynthetic activity, descending axis vitality, the protective enzymes system and MDA content were measured, the quality was evaluated by FTIR and HPLC. Continuous cropping reduced the content of chlorophyll in the non-first cropping R. glutinos, the photosynthetic activity and descending axis vitality were weakened. Because of the increase of the free radical in the R. glutinos due to the continuous cropping, the activity of protective enzymes including POD, SOD and CAT were enhanced and MDA content were increased, more importantly the medical potency declined . And along with the increasing years of the continuous cropping, this effect becomes even stronger. Continuous cropping affects the descending axis ability of absorbing water and nutrition and photosynthesis are inhibited R. glutinosa, at the same time, it also causes the disorders of antioxidation systems in R. glutinos, resulting in continuous cropping obstacle and decline of the medicinal materials quality.

  6. [Fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato].

    PubMed

    Meng, Pin-Pin; Liu, Xing; Qiu, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Shen, Qi-Rong

    2012-11-01

    Continuous cropping obstacle is one of the main restriction factors in potato industry. In order to explore the mechanisms of potato's continuous cropping obstacle and to reduce the impact on potato's tuber yield, a field experiment combined with PCR-DGGE molecular fingerprinting was conducted to investigate the fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato. With the increasing year of potato' s continuous cropping, the numbers of visible bands in rhizosphere fungal DGGE profiles increased obviously. As compared with that of CK (rotation cropping), the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in treatments of one to five years continuous cropping was increased by 38.5%, 38.5%, 30.8%, 46.2%, and 76.9% respectively, indicating that potato's continuous cropping caused an obvious increase in the individual numbers of dominant fungal populations in rhizosphere soil. Also with the increasing year of potato's continuous cropping, the similarity of the fungal population structure among the treatments had a gradual decrease. The sequencing of the fungal DGGE bands showed that with the increasing year of continuous cropping, the numbers of the potato's rhizosphere soil-borne pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani increased obviously, while the number of Chaetomium globosum, as a biocontrol species, had a marked decrease in the fifth year of continuous cropping. It was suggested that potato' s continuous cropping caused the pathogen fungal populations become the dominant microbial populations in rhizosphere soil, and the rhizosphere micro-ecological environment deteriorated, which in turn affected the root system, making the root vigor and its absorption area reduced, and ultimately, the tuber yield decreased markedly.

  7. [Effect of different treatment on endophytic bacterial communities in continuous cropping of Chrysanthemum morifoliu].

    PubMed

    Peng, San-meil; Wang, Bo-lin; Xu, Jian-zhong; Ding, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xiao-feng

    2014-12-01

    To reveal the effect of rotation cropping and bacterial manure on the growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium and screen the beneficial endophytic, the diversity of endophytic and dominant genera of different treatment groups were analyzed. Four different treatments were continuous cropping, rotation, self-made organic fertilizer and commercially available fertilizer, respectively. Endophytic bacterial diversity and dominant genera in different organs were examined using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). The results showed that enzyme Hae III was more appropriate than enzyme Hinfl because the number of TRFs digested by enzyme Hae III was more than that of enzyme Hinfl. In comparison of diversity, the endophytic bacterial communities' diversity index in group of cropping rotation and fertilizer was higher than that of continuous cropping which indicated that the addition of exogenous microorganism in soil could increase the diversity of plant endophyte. 18 dominant species were selected, including 3 kinds of Firmicutes, 4 kinds of Actinomycetes and 11 kinds of Proteobacteria. The results of dominant species comparison showed that the number of dominant species in continuous cropping of Ch. morifolium was significantly less than that of the rotation group. Some dominant bacteria in rotation group and fertilizer group such as Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Streptomyces, Flavobacterium and Mycobacterium were not found in the continuous cropping of Ch. mortfolium group. Dominant species of fertilizer treatment group was similar with the rotation group, and the continuous cropping group's dominant species was more abundant. It indicates that these bacteria may be able to mitigate hindrance in continuous cropping, especially the Flavobacterium which can decompose the pathogenic fungi is worthy of further attention. Compared with leaves, there are more dominant species in roots and stems. The diversity of edophytic bacterial communities in continuous

  8. Continuous cropping with 13 - 15 inches of precipitation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers in the Great Plains have use fallow to adjust for inconsistent and often, inadequate rainfall. The prevalent rotation in this region is winter wheat-fallow. Fallow, however, is damaging to soil health. No-till practices have enabled producers to include more crops in the rotation. This...

  9. Dynamic Succession of Soil Bacterial Community during Continuous Cropping of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant–microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales

  10. Dynamic succession of soil bacterial community during continuous cropping of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingna; Li, Xiao; Yang, Qingli; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Lijuan; Chen, Na; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Tong; Wang, Mian; Yu, Shanlin

    2014-01-01

    Plant health and soil fertility are affected by plant-microbial interactions in soils. Peanut is an important oil crop worldwide and shows considerable adaptability, but growth and yield are negatively affected by continuous cropping. In this study, 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses were used to study the succession of soil bacterial communities under continuous peanut cultivation. Six libraries were constructed for peanut over three continuous cropping cycles and during its seedling and pod-maturing growth stages. Cluster analyses indicated that soil bacterial assemblages obtained from the same peanut cropping cycle were similar, regardless of growth period. The diversity of bacterial sequences identified in each growth stage library of the three peanut cropping cycles was high and these sequences were affiliated with 21 bacterial groups. Eight phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were dominant. The related bacterial phylotypes dynamic changed during continuous cropping progress of peanut. This study demonstrated that the bacterial populations especially the beneficial populations were positively selected. The simplification of the beneficial microbial communities such as the phylotypes of Alteromonadales, Burkholderiales, Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales could be important factors contributing to the decline in peanut yield under continuous cropping. The microbial phylotypes that did not successively changed with continuous cropping, such as populations related to Rhizobiales and Rhodospirillales, could potentially resist stress due to continuous cropping and deserve attention. In addition, some phylotypes, such as Acidobacteriales, Chromatiales and Gemmatimonadales, showed a contrary tendency, their abundance or diversity increased with continuous peanut cropping progress. Some bacterial phylotypes including Acidobacteriales

  11. Effect of Continuous Cropping Generations on Each Component Biomass of Poplar Seedlings during Different Growth Periods

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhang, Shuyong; Li, Tian; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Guangcan

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping. PMID:25401150

  12. Effect of continuous cropping generations on each component biomass of poplar seedlings during different growth periods.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhang, Shuyong; Li, Tian; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Guangcan

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping.

  13. [Continuous remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by co-cropping system enhanced with chelator].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Bin; Guo, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Qi-Tang; Long, Xin-Xian

    2014-11-01

    In order to elucidate the continuous effectiveness of co-cropping system coupling with chelator enhancement in remediating heavy metal contaminated soils and its environmental risk towards underground water, soil lysimeter (0.9 m x 0.9 m x 0.9 m) experiments were conducted using a paddy soil affected by Pb and Zn mining in Lechang district of Guangdong Province, 7 successive crops were conducted for about 2.5 years. The treatments included mono-crop of Sedum alfredii Hance (Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator), mono-crop of corn (Zea mays, cv. Yunshi-5, a low-accumulating cultivar), co-crop of S. alfredii and corn, and co-crop + MC (Mixture of Chelators, comprised of citric acid, monosodium glutamate waste liquid, EDTA and KCI with molar ratio of 10: 1:2:3 at the concentration of 5 mmol x kg(-1) soil). The changes of heavy metal concentrations in plants, soil and underground water were monitored. Results showed that the co-cropping system was suitable only in spring-summer seasons and significantly increased Zn and Cd phytoextraction. In autumn-winter seasons, the growth of S. alfredii and its phytoextraction of Zn and Cd were reduced by co-cropping and MC application. In total, the mono-crops of S. alfredii recorded a highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd. However, the greatest reduction of soil Zn, Cd and Pb was observed with the co-crop + MC treatment, the reduction rates were 28%, 50%, and 22%, respectively, relative to the initial soil metal content. The reduction of this treatment was mainly attributed to the downwards leaching of metals to the subsoil caused by MC application. The continuous monitoring of leachates during 2. 5 year's experiment also revealed that the addition of MC increased heavy metal concentrations in the leaching water, but they did not significantly exceed the III grade limits of the underground water standard of China.

  14. Diversity of Rhizosphere Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Various Soybean Cultivars under Different Continuous Cropping Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Weiguang; Liu, Xiaorui; Cai, Baiyan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous cropping in soybean causes substantial changes to the microbial community in rhizosphere soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous cropping for various time periods on the diversity of rhizosphere soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in various soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The soybean cultivars Heinong 37 (an intermediate cultivar), Heinong 44 (a high-fat cultivar) and Heinong 48 (a high-protein cultivar) were seeded in a field and continuously cropped for two or three years. We analyzed the diversity of rhizosphere soil AM fungi of these soybean plants at the branching stage using morphological and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques. The clustering analysis of unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was then used to investigate the AM fungal community shifts. The results showed that increasing the number of years of continuous cropping can improve the colonization rate of AM fungi in different soybean cultivars at the branching stage. The dominant AM fungi in the experimental fields were Funneliformismosseae and Glomus spp. The number of years of continuous cropping and the soybean cultivar both had obvious effects on the diversity of AM fungi, which was consistent with the results of colonization rate analysis. This study establishes a basis for screening dominant AM fungi of soybean. In addition, the results of this study may be useful for the development of AM fungal inoculants. PMID:23977368

  15. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrogen fertilizer fate after introducing maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemann, Irabella; He, Yao; Siemens, Jan; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Lehndorf, Eva; Amelung, Wulf

    2017-04-01

    After introducing upland crops into permanent flooded cropping systems, soil conditions temporally change from anaerobic to aerobic, which profoundly impacts nitrogen (N) dynamics. In the framework of the DFG research unit 1701 ICON we applied a single 15N-urea pulse in a field experiment in the Philippines with three different crop rotations: continuous paddy rice, paddy rice-dry rice, and paddy rice-maize. Subsequently, we traced the fate of the labelled urea in bulk soil, rhizosphere, roots, biomass and microbial residues (amino sugars) within the following two years. 15N recovery in the first 5 cm of bulk soil was highest in the first dry season of continuous paddy rice cropping (37.8 % of applied 15N) and lowest in the paddy rice-maize rotation (19.2 %). While an accumulation over time could be observed in bulk soil in 5-20 cm depth of the continuous paddy rice system, the recoveries decreased over time within the following two years in the other cropping systems. Highest 15N-recovery in shoots and roots were found in the continuous paddy rice system in the first dry season (27.3 % in shoots, 3.2 % in roots) as well as in the following wet season (4.2 % in shoots, 0.3 % in roots). Lowest recoveries in biomass were found for the paddy rice-dry rice rotation. Long-term fixation of 15N in microbial biomass residues was observed in all cropping systems (2-3 % in the 3rd dry season). The results indicate that the introduction of maize into a continuous paddy rice cropping system can reduce the fertilizer N use efficiency especially in the first year, most likely due to nitrate leaching and gaseous losses to the atmosphere.

  17. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  18. Breaking continuous potato cropping with legumes improves soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and tuber yield

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Cao, Li; Zhang, Junlian; Shi, Shangli; Liu, Yuhui

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato–Common vetch (P–C), Potato–Black medic (P–B) and Potato–Longdong alfalfa (P–L) in a semi–arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p < 0.05) under P–B rotation by 78%, 85% and 83% in the 2, 4 and 7–year continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P–C rotation. The highest fungi/bacteria ratio was found in P–C (0.218), followed by P–L (0.184) and then P–B (0.137) rotation over the different cropping years. In the continuous potato cropping soils, the greatest fungi/bacteria ratio was recorded in the 4–year (0.4067) and 7–year (0.4238) cropping soils and these were significantly higher than 1–year (0.3041), 2–year (0.2545) and 3–year (0.3030) cropping soils. Generally, actinomycetes numbers followed the trend P–L>P–C>P–B. The P–L rotation increased aerobic azotobacters in 2–year (by 26% and 18%) and 4–year (40% and 21%) continuous cropping soils compared to P–C and P–B rotation, respectively. Generally, the highest urease and alkaline phosphate activity, respectively, were observed in P–C (55.77 mg g–1) and (27.71 mg g–1), followed by P–B (50.72 mg mg–1) and (25.64 mg g–1) and then P–L (41.61 mg g–1) and (23.26 mg g–1) rotation. Soil urease, alkaline phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase activities decreased with increasing years of continuous potato cropping. On average, the P–B rotation significantly increased (p <0.05) tuber yield by 19% and 18%, compared to P–C and P–L rotation respectively. P–L rotation also increased potato tuber yield compared to P–C, but the effect was lesser relative to P–B rotation. These results suggest that adopting potato–legume rotation

  19. Partitioning evapotranspiration via continuous sampling of water vapor isotopes over common row crops and candidate biofuel crops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Black, C. K.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Global demand for renewable energy is accelerating land conversion from common row crops such as maize and soybean to cellulosic biofuel crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass. This land conversion is expected to alter ecohydrology via changes in evapotranspiration (ET). However, the direction in which evapotranspiration will shift, either partitioning more moisture through soil evaporation (E) or through plant transpiration (T) is uncertain. To investigate how land conversion from maize to miscanthus affects ET partitioning we measured the isotopic composition of water vapor via continuous air sampling. We obtained continuous diurnal measurements of δ2H and δ18O for miscanthus and maize on multiple days over the course of the growing season. Water vapor isotopes drawn from two heights were measured at 2 Hz using a cavity ringdown spectrometer and partitioned into components of E and T using a simple mixing equation. A second approach to partitioning was accomplished by subtracting transpiration measurements, obtained through sap flow sensors, from total ET, measured via eddy covariance. Preliminary results reveal that both methods compare favorably and that transpiration dominates variations in ET in miscanthus fields more so than in fields of maize.

  20. Acquisition and management of continuous data streams for crop water management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wireless sensor network systems for decision support in crop water management offer many advantages including larger spatial coverage and multiple types of data input. However, collection and management of multiple and continuous data streams for near real-time post analysis can be problematic. Thi...

  1. Changes in population structure of the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici during continuous wheat cropping.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Lionel; Lucas, Philippe; Dugas, Françoise; Guillerm, Anne-Yvonne; Schoeny, Alexandra; Sarniguet, Alain

    2004-11-01

    A method was developed to assess the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) populations and test the hypothesis of an association between disease level in the field with changes in pathogen populations. A long-term wheat monoculture experiment, established since 1994, generated different take-all epidemics with varying the number of wheat crop successions in the 1999-2000 cropping season. Genetic polymorphism in Ggt populations was investigated over natural, local epidemics. Four populations of 30 isolates were isolated from necrotic wheat roots in a first, third, fourth, and sixth wheat crop in the same year. Each Ggt isolate was characterized with RAPD (Random Amplification Polymorphism DNA) markers and AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fingerprinting. Seventeen multilocus genotypes based on the combination of RAPD and AFLP markers were identified among all these populations. The 120 isolates were divided into two main groups, G1 and G2, according to bootstrap values higher than 86%, except for an unique isolate from the third wheat crop. Within each group, populations ranged between 93 and 100% similarity. Both groups included isolates collected from the first, third, fourth or sixth wheat crop. However, G1 group profiles dominated amongst isolates sampled in the first and the sixth wheat crops, whereas G2 group profiles largely dominated amongst isolates collected from the third and fourth wheat crops. Aggressiveness of group G2 (38%) was significantly greater than that of G1 (29.5%). These results suggest that changes in Ggt population structure occur during continuous wheat cropping. The distinction of two Ggt groups provides a simple basis for further spatio-temporal analysis of Ggt population during polyetic take-all decline.

  2. [Influence of continuous cropping on growth of Artemisia annua and bacterial communities in soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Yuan, Ling; Yang, Shui-Ping; Cheng, Yu-Yuan; Cui, Guang-Lin; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2016-05-01

    In this study, several types of Artemisia annua in soil, including the soil which had not been planted, or planted for one year, or continuously planted for three or five years were collected, in order to study the influences of continuous cropping on the growth of A. annua, content of artemisinin, available nutrient of soil, and bacterial community structure through adopting routine analysis and Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that continuous cropping inhibited significantly the growth of A. annua and reduced leaf biomass, content and yield of artemisinin, with the maximum decreasing amplitude of 30.20%, 7.70% and 35.58% respectively. The content of soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and 16S rRNA sequence number were increased to different extents after continuous cropping of A. annua. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, 634-812 types of common bacteria belonged to 21 categories were planted in different soil of A. annua with different planting years, which represented that the distribution distance of the point of bacterial community with different years among coordinate system of principal component was relative distant, and community structure had significant changes (P<0.05). As the planting years increased, the abundance of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes decreased in contrast to Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. In the top 20 types of predominant bacteria,Nitrospira japonica and Nitrospira disappeared, among which, only Gemmatimonadaceae, Micromonosporaceae, Nitrosomonadaceae, Xanthobacteraceae, and unculture bacterium JG30-KF-AS9 were similar, indicating that the planting and continuous cropping of A. annua selectively inhibited the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, and influenced the supply and transform of soil nutrient, leading to a poor growth and resulting in reduction of artemisinin content and yield. Therefore, it is necessary to

  3. [Effects of continuous cropping of vegetables on ammonia oxidizers community structure].

    PubMed

    Meng, De-Long; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yan-Zheng; Wu, Min-Na; Qin, Hong-Ling; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2012-04-01

    Investigations were conducted on the effects of intensive application of chemical fertilizers in crop production on soil nitrifier communities and the relationship between nitrifier communities and soil nitrification ability. Two series of vegetable soils were selected from Huangxing, Changsha, reflecting continuous vegetable cropping with about 20 years and new vegetable field with only about 2 years vegetable growing history. In each series five independent topsoils (0-20 cm) were sampled and each soil was a mixture of 10 cores randomly taken in the same field. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantity PCR (Q-PCR) were used to determine the composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) communities. Results indicated that long-term and continuous vegetable cropping obviously changed the compositions of both AOB and AOA amoA gene, soil pH and Olsen-P content were the dominant factors affecting the composition of AOB amoA. In the vegetable soils, although the copy number of AOA amoA gene was about 5 times higher than AOB amoA gene, no significant correlation was detected between AOA amoA gene abundance and soil nitrification rate. It was not sure whether long-term and continuous vegetable cropping could shift the abundance of AOB and AOA, but it resulted in the enrichment of some dominant AOB species and increase of soil nitrification potential (PNF).

  4. [Variation of microflora and enzyme activity in continuous cropping cucumber soil in solar greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunhua; Wei, Min; Wang, Xiufeng

    2004-06-01

    Variation of microflora and enzyme activity in solar greenhouse soil continuous cropping for 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 years was studied, in addition to the relationship between soil properities and microflora and enzyme activity. The results showed that number of bacteria, actinomyce as well as total microflora showed a trend with a saddle-shaped curve, while the number of fungi appeared an liner increase. Continuous cropping soil microflora shifted from bacteria type to fungi type significantly, of which Ammoniation bacterium and Fusarium oxysporum were main physiology groups. Path analysis results showed that microelements (Mn, Cu, Fe), organic matter, available N and bulk density are main restricted factors of soil microflora and enzyme activity in solar greenhouse.

  5. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  6. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system. PMID:26317364

  7. Cover crops do not increase C sequestration in production crops: evidence from 12 years of continuous measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysse, Pauline; Bodson, Bernard; Debacq, Alain; De Ligne, Anne; Heinesch, Bernard; Manise, Tanguy; Moureaux, Christine; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The numerous reports on carbon (C) loss from cropland soils have recently raised awareness on the climate change mitigation potential of these ecosystems, and on the necessity to improve C sequestration in these soils. Among the multiple solutions that are proposed, several field measurement and modelling studies reported that growing cover crops over fall and winter time could appear as an efficient solution. However, while the large majority of these studies are based on SOC stock inventories and very few information exists from the CO2 flux dynamics perspective. In the present work, we use the results from long-term (12 years) eddy-covariance measurements performed at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO, candidate ICOS site, Belgium) and focus on six intercrop periods managed with (3) and without (3) cover crops after winter wheat main crops, in order to compare their response to environmental factors and to investigate the impact of cover crops on Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE). Our results showed that cumulated NEE was not significantly affected by the presence of cover crops. Indeed, while larger CO2 assimilation occurred during cover crop growth, this carbon gain was later lost by larger respiration rates due to larger crop residue amounts brought to the soil. As modelled by a Q10-like relationship, significantly larger R10 values were indeed observed during the three intercrop periods cultivated with cover crops. These CO2 flux-based results therefore tend to moderate the generally acknowledged positive impact of cover crops on net C sequestration by croplands. Our results indicate that the effect of growing cover crops on C sequestration could be less important than announced, at least at certain sites.

  8. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. [Effects of bio-organic fertilizer and fungicide application on continuous cropping obstacles of cut chrysanthemum].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhao, Shuang; Yao, Jian-jun; Ye, Yan-ping; Song, Ai-ping; Chen, Fa-di; Chen, Su-mei; Dong, Xue-na

    2015-04-01

    Abstract: Fusarium wilt is a soil borne disease caused by plant continuous cropping in monoculture Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' monoculture not only declines plant quality and yield but also decreases soil enzymes and soil microbial diversity over successive cultivation. In this article, the effects of fungicide (Carbendazim MBC), antifungal enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and their combined application on the quality and soil enzymes activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' in continuous cropping systems were investigated. The results showed that both bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) and fungicide (MBC) single application could effectively prevent the occurrence of Fusarium wilt disease of cut chrysanthemum. Bio-organic fertilizer application was more effective on root activity, soil enzymes activities and quality (shoot height, stem diameter, leaf SPAD value, ray floret number, shoot fresh mass) improvement of cut chrysanthemum, while fungicide single application was responsible for soil enzymatic activities suppression to some extent. The combined application treatment (MBC+BOF) showed the best effects on quality improvement and soil enzyme activities promotion.

  10. [Effect of Crop Rotation and Biological Manure on Quality and Yield of "Chuju" Chrysanthemum morifolium and Continuous Cropping Soil Enzyme Activities].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and biological manure on continuous cropping soil enzyme activities and quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Field experiments were conducted at the research base of Anhui Jutai Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium Herbal Technology Co. , Ltd. ,in Shiji Town, Nanqiao Country, Anhui Province. Samples were collected from treatments under chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg/667 m2, conventional chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and chrysanthemum continuous cropping system. Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and biological manure obviously influenced the quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium and continuous cropping soil enzyme activities. Compared with chrysanthemum continuous cropping system, total flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, soluble sugar and free amino acid contents, quantitative of ray floret, inflorescence diameter, diameter of tubular floret, number of branch, number of flower and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium and the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, invertase and protease in soil were increased to 42.59 mg/g, 2.52 mg/g, 4.04 mg/g, 73.33 mg/100 g, 179.56, 5.57 cm, 1.43 cm, 36.10, 330.00 and 400.09 kg/667 m2, respectively, while hydrogen peroxidase of soil under chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system was decreased. Bio-organic manure application of 200 kg/667 m2 is benefit to soil environment establishment of chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and enhancement of quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium while reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  11. Biodegradation of Fresh vs. Oven-Dried Inedible Crop Residue in a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kamau; Strayer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The degradation of soluble organics and mineral recovery from fresh and oven-dried biomass were compared in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (8 L working volume) to determine if drying crop residue improves performance in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The study was conducted in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (ISAB) CSTR with dimensions of 390 mm height x 204 mm diameter. The pH in the bioreactor was controlled at 6.0, temperature at 30 C, and aeration at 7.0 L/min. Gases monitored were CO2 evolution and dissolved oxygen. Homogeneously mixed wheat cultures, used either fresh or oven-dried biomass and were leached, then placed in the ISAB for a 4-day degradation period. Studies found that mineral recovery was greater for leached oven-dried crop residue. However, after activity by the mixed microbial communities in the ISAB CSTR, there were little notable differences in the measured mineral recovery and degradation of soluble organic compounds. Degradation of soluble organic compounds was also shown to improve for leached oven-dried crop residue, but after mixing in the CSTR the degradation of the fresh biomass seemed to be slightly greater. Time for the biomass to turn in the CSTR appeared to be one factor for the experimental differences between the fresh and oven-dried biomass. Other factors, although not as defined, were the differing physical structures in the cell walls and varying microbial components of the fresh and oven-dried treatments due to changes in chemical composition after drying of the biomass.

  12. Biodegradation of Fresh vs. Oven-Dried Inedible Crop Residue in a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kamau; Strayer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The degradation of soluble organics and mineral recovery from fresh and oven-dried biomass were compared in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (8 L working volume) to determine if drying crop residue improves performance in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The study was conducted in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (ISAB) CSTR with dimensions of 390 mm height x 204 mm diameter. The pH in the bioreactor was controlled at 6.0, temperature at 30 C, and aeration at 7.0 L/min. Gases monitored were CO2 evolution and dissolved oxygen. Homogeneously mixed wheat cultures, used either fresh or oven-dried biomass and were leached, then placed in the ISAB for a 4-day degradation period. Studies found that mineral recovery was greater for leached oven-dried crop residue. However, after activity by the mixed microbial communities in the ISAB CSTR, there were little notable differences in the measured mineral recovery and degradation of soluble organic compounds. Degradation of soluble organic compounds was also shown to improve for leached oven-dried crop residue, but after mixing in the CSTR the degradation of the fresh biomass seemed to be slightly greater. Time for the biomass to turn in the CSTR appeared to be one factor for the experimental differences between the fresh and oven-dried biomass. Other factors, although not as defined, were the differing physical structures in the cell walls and varying microbial components of the fresh and oven-dried treatments due to changes in chemical composition after drying of the biomass.

  13. Rhizospheric soil and root endogenous fungal diversity and composition in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yong; Cui, Yinshan; Li, Haoyu; Kuang, Anxiu; Li, Xiaoran; Wei, Yunlin; Ji, Xiuling

    2017-01-01

    Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng. The fungal diversity in the rhizospheric soil and roots of root-rot P. notoginseng plants are less than that of healthy plants in the same cultivating year, thus showing that root-rot disease also affects the community structure and diversity of rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi. Similarities in the major fungal components show that endophytic fungal communities are similar to rhizospheric soil fungal community based on a specialized subset of organisms. Canonical correspondence analysis on the fungal communities in root-rot rhizospheric from both healthy plants and rotation soils reveals that the soil pH and organic matter have the greatest impact upon the microbial community composition during continuous cropping, whereas soil nutrition status does not significantly affect the fungal community composition in response to continuous cropping practices. In addition, the results suggest that the unclassified genera Leotiomycetes, Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and Mycocentrospora are shown as the potential pathogens which are responsible for the obstacles in continuous cropping of P. notoginseng. Further exploration of these potential pathogens might be useful for the biological control of continuous cropping of P. notoginseng. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Continual observation on crop leaf area index using wireless sensors network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Sihong

    2014-03-01

    Crop structural parameter, i.e. leaf area index(LAI), is the main factor that can effect the solar energy re-assignment in the canopy. An automatic measuring system which is designed on the basis of wireless sensors network(WSN) is present in this paper. The system is comprised of two types of node. One is the measurement nodes which measured solar irradiance and were deployed beneath and above the canopy respectively, and another is a sink node which was used to collect data from the other measurement nodes. The measurement nodes also have ability to repeater data from one node to another and finally transfer signal to the sink node. Then the collected data of sink node are transferred to the data center through GPRS network. Using the field data collected by WSN, canopy structural parameters can be calculated using the direct transmittance which is the ratio of sun radiation captured by the measurement node beneath and above the canopy on different sun altitude angles. The proposed WSN measurement systems which is consisted of about 45 measurement node was deployed in the Heihe watershed to continually observe the crop canopy structural parameters from 25 June to 24 August 2012. To validate the performance of the WSN measured crop structural parameters, the LAI values were also measured by LAI2000. The field preliminary validation results show that the designed system can capture the varies of solar direct canopy transmittance on different time in a day, which is the basis to calculate the target canopy structural parameters. The validation results reveal that the measured LAI values derived from our propose measurement system have acceptable correlation coefficient(R2 from 0.27 to 0.96 and averaged value 0.42) with those derived from LAI2000. So it is a promising way in the agriculture application to utilize the proposed system and thus will be an efficient way to measure the crop structural parameters in the large spatial region and on the long time series.

  15. [Effect of organic amendments on soil fungi community and continuous cropping Panax quinquefolium].

    PubMed

    Bi, Wu; Yang, Jia-Xue; Gao, Wei-Wei

    2008-07-01

    To study the effect of different organic amendments treated replant soil and to find the relations between the soil fungi community and the growth of Panax quinquefolium L. seedling. The soil was treated with bone meal and Perilla frutescens root meal, the rate of seedling emergence, incidence of rot root and root weight were investigated. The fungi community and the pathogen, Fusarium solani and Phytophthora cactorum population were counted by soil dilution plating technique. The organic amendments especially Perilla frutescens root meal treated soil could reduce the population of Fusarium solani and Phytophthora cactorum in soil, thus lessen the root disease of continuous cropping Panax quinquefolium and increase survival of weedling. Adding suitable organic amendments in soil can change the soil fungi community and be beneficial to solving the replant problem of Panax quinquefolium.

  16. Conversion to No-Till Improves Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Continuous Cover Cropping System.

    PubMed

    Habbib, Hazzar; Verzeaux, Julien; Nivelle, Elodie; Roger, David; Lacoux, Jérôme; Catterou, Manuella; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric; Tétu, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A two-year experiment was conducted in the field to measure the combined impact of tilling and N fertilization on various agronomic traits related to nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to grain yield in maize cultivated in the presence of a cover crop. Four years after conversion to no-till, a significant increase in N use efficiency N harvest index, N remobilization and N remobilization efficiency was observed both under no and high N fertilization conditions. Moreover, we observed that grain yield and grain N content were higher under no-till conditions only when N fertilizers were applied. Thus, agronomic practices based on continuous no-till appear to be a promising for increasing N use efficiency in maize.

  17. Conversion to No-Till Improves Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Continuous Cover Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Habbib, Hazzar; Verzeaux, Julien; Nivelle, Elodie; Roger, David; Lacoux, Jérôme; Catterou, Manuella; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric; Tétu, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A two-year experiment was conducted in the field to measure the combined impact of tilling and N fertilization on various agronomic traits related to nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to grain yield in maize cultivated in the presence of a cover crop. Four years after conversion to no-till, a significant increase in N use efficiency N harvest index, N remobilization and N remobilization efficiency was observed both under no and high N fertilization conditions. Moreover, we observed that grain yield and grain N content were higher under no-till conditions only when N fertilizers were applied. Thus, agronomic practices based on continuous no-till appear to be a promising for increasing N use efficiency in maize. PMID:27711154

  18. [Continuous cropping obstacle and rhizospheric microecology. II. Root exudates and phenolic acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Gao, Z

    2000-02-01

    This paper discussed the effect of main crop root exudates the relationship between the kinds and amounts of root exudates and the growth of different kinds of crops and their environments. From the aspects of the decompostion of crop residues and the excretion of root systems, the source, form and adsorption mechanism of soil phenolic acids and their effect on crop growth and soil bio-activity were also elaborated.

  19. Soil Chemical Property Changes in Eggplant/Garlic Relay Intercropping Systems under Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg−1, significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg−1 in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg−1 in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg−1 in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

  20. Soil chemical property changes in eggplant/garlic relay intercropping systems under continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg(-1), significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg(-1) in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg(-1) in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg(-1) in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production.

  1. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency.

  2. Effects of different mechanized soil fertilization methods on corn soil fertility under continuous cropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qingwen; Wang, Huixin; Bai, Chunming; Wu, Di; Song, Qiaobo; Gao, Depeng; Dong, Zengqi; Cheng, Xin; Dong, Qiping; Zhang, Yahao; Mu, Jiahui; Chen, Qinghong; Liao, Wenqing; Qu, Tianru; Zhang, Chunling; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Yifei; Han, Xiaori

    2017-05-01

    Experiments for mechanized soil fertilization for corns were conducted in Faku demonstration zone. On this basis, we studied effects on corn soil fertility under continuous cropping due to different mechanized soil fertilization methods. Our study would serve as a theoretical basis further for mechanized soil fertilization improvement and soil quality improvement in brown soil area. Based on the survey of soil physical characteristics during different corn growth periods, we collected soil samples from different corn growth periods to determine and make statistical analysis accordingly. Stalk returning to field with deep tillage proved to be the most effective on available nutrient improvement for arable soil in the demonstration zone. Different mechanized soil fertilization methods were remarkably effective on total phosphorus improvement for arable soil in the demonstration zone, while less effective on total nitrogen or total potassium, and not so effective on C/N ratio in soil. Stalk returning with deep tillage was more favorable to improve content of organic matter in soil, when compared with surface application, and organic granular fertilizer more favorable when compared with decomposed cow dung for such a purpose, too.

  3. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community. PMID:27506379

  4. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community.

  5. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  6. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  7. 16S rRNA-based PCR-DGGE analysis of actinomycete communities in fields with continuous cotton cropping in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Long, XuanQi; Huo, XiangDong; Chen, YiFeng; Lou, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variations in the microbial community structure of soil actinomycetes in fields with continuous cropping of cotton in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. Soil samples were collected from four depths in fields with 7-year continuous cotton cropping. The community structure of soil actinomycetes was examined using the 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-density gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques. The microbial diversity indices of the soil samples from different depths generally decreased along with the period of continuous cotton cropping. When the period of continuous cropping of cotton reached 5 years, the diversity indices rose again and gradually stabilized at a level slightly lower than that of soils with original ecology (i.e., 0-year cotton cropping). Cluster analysis showed that at the 1-20-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure of the soil subjected to 1-year cotton cropping was similar to that of soil subjected to 0-year cotton cropping, whereas that of soils after 3-year continuous cotton cropping showed high similarity. At the 21-40-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure showed various changes but generally recovered to its original pattern after repeated fluctuations. Principal component analysis showed that at the 1-30-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure varied similarly regardless of the period of continuous cotton cropping. In contrast, there were no clear actinomycete community structure variation trends at the 31-40-cm soil depth. Homology comparison of sequences recovered from the DGGE bands showed that the obtained sequences shared similarities >88 %. Alignment with the known homologous sequences indicated a lack of microorganisms related to soil-borne cotton diseases. Continuous cotton cropping exerted significant influences on the community structure of soil actinomycetes in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, which were largely determined by the soil depth and

  8. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  9. [Effects of applying endophytic fungi on the soil biological characteristics and enzyme activities under continuously cropped peanut].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xing-Xiang; Lü, Li-Xin; Xiao, Yi; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2012-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of applying endophytic fungi Phomopsis liquidambari strain B3, Phomopsis sp. strain NJ4.1, and Ceratobasidum stevensii strain B6 on the soil biological characteristics and enzyme activities under continuously cropped peanut at its different growth stages. Compared with the control, applying B3 increased the peanut yield significantly by 19.8%, and applying NJ4.1, B3 and B6 increased the peanut nodule number significantly by 20.4%, 29.3% and 27.6%, respectively. In the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi, the average population of soil bacteria and actinomycetes in the whole growth period of peanut was higher than that of the control, and the soil microbial biomass carbon was significantly greater at germination and seedling stages. The soil microbial biomass nitrogen increased at germination stage, but decreased at flowering stage. The DGGE analysis indicated that at flowering stage, the soil bacteria and fungi in treatment B3 had the largest band number and diversity. From germination stage to maturing stage, the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi had higher activities of soil invertase and catalase than the control, but less difference in soil urease activity. It was suggested that applying endophytic fungi could improve the peanut continuous cropping soil environment, and applying B3 had the best effect.

  10. Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Luu, Van Thi; Weinhold, Arne; Goldberg, Jay; Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-09-08

    Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant's native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium-Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems.

  11. Soil carbon sequestration potential of permanent pasture and continuous cropping soils in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McNally, Sam R; Beare, Mike H; Curtin, Denis; Meenken, Esther D; Kelliher, Francis M; Calvelo Pereira, Roberto; Shen, Qinhua; Baldock, Jeff

    2017-04-11

    Understanding soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is important to develop strategies to increase the SOC stock and, thereby, offset some of the increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Although the capacity of soils to store SOC in a stable form is commonly attributed to the fine (clay + fine silt) fraction, the properties of the fine fraction that determine the SOC stabilization capacity are poorly known. The aim of this study was to develop an improved model to estimate the SOC stabilization capacity of Allophanic (Andisols) and non-Allophanic topsoils (0-15 cm) and, as a case study, to apply the model to predict the sequestration potential of pastoral soils across New Zealand. A quantile (90th) regression model, based on the specific surface area and extractable aluminium (pyrophosphate) content of soils, provided the best prediction of the upper limit of fine fraction carbon (FFC) (i.e. the stabilization capacity), but with different coefficients for Allophanic and non-Allophanic soils. The carbon (C) saturation deficit was estimated as the difference between the stabilization capacity of individual soils and their current C concentration. For long-term pastures, the mean saturation deficit of Allophanic soils (20.3 mg C g(-1) ) was greater than that of non-Allophanic soils (16.3 mg C g(-1) ). The saturation deficit of cropped soils was 1.14-1.89 times that of pasture soils. The sequestration potential of pasture soils ranged from 10 t C ha(-1) (Ultic soils) to 42 t C ha(-1) (Melanic soils). Although meeting the estimated national soil C sequestration potential (124 Mt C) is unrealistic, improved management practices targeted to those soils with the greatest sequestration potential could contribute significantly to off-setting New Zealand's greenhouse gas emissions. As the first national-scale estimate of SOC sequestration potential that encompasses both Allophanic and non-Allophanic soils, this serves as an informative case study for the

  12. Application of PCR-denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method to examine microbial community structure in asparagus fields with growth inhibition due to continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE.

  13. Application of PCR-Denaturing-Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) Method to Examine Microbial Community Structure in Asparagus Fields with Growth Inhibition due to Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Urashima, Yasufumi; Sonoda, Takahiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uragami, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    Growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus is a major problem; the yield of asparagus in replanted fields is low compared to that in new fields, and missing plants occur among young seedlings. Although soil-borne disease and allelochemicals are considered to be involved in this effect, this is still controversial. We aimed to develop a technique for the biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping. Therefore, in this study, fungal community structure and Fusarium community structure in continuously cropped fields of asparagus were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction/denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Soil samples were collected from the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Soil samples were taken from both continuously cropped fields of asparagus with growth inhibition and healthy neighboring fields of asparagus. The soil samples were collected from the fields of 5 sets in 2008 and 4 sets in 2009. We were able to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium by using Alfie1 and Alfie2GC as the second PCR primers and PCR-DGGE. Fungal community structure was not greatly involved in the growth inhibition of asparagus due to continuous cropping. By contrast, the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi in growth-inhibited fields were higher than those in neighboring healthy fields. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the band ratios of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi and the ratios of missing asparagus plants. We showed the potential of biological field diagnosis of growth inhibition due to continuous cropping of asparagus using PCR-DGGE. PMID:22200640

  14. Continuous-feeding vermicomposting as a recycling management method to revalue tomato-fruit wastes from greenhouse crops.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Nogales, Rogelio; Insam, Heribert; Romero, Esperanza; Goberna, Marta

    2010-12-01

    Huge quantities of discarded fruits generated from greenhouse crops represent a worldwide environmental problem. The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of vermicomposting as a recycling management option for biotransforming tomato-fruit wastes from greenhouses into an organic nutrient-rich product available for agricultural purposes. A pilot vermireactor was constructed. It was provided with a manure layer, where an initial population of Eisenia fetida was introduced and fed continuously at a high organic loading rate (13.6 kg TOC m(-3)wk(-1)) for 150 days. Vermicompost chemical and enzymatic parameters as well as the bacterial and fungal community structure were determined for 210 days (vermicomposting plus a maturation period). Earthworm biomass increased after 90 days, and then declined due to increasing pH, electrical conductivity and ammonium concentration. The temporal patterns of dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, protease and urease were related to earthworm growth and the stabilization of organic matter. Bacterial DGGE profiles differed between the period of degradation of labile substrates and the maturation step. Fungal communities at the stage of maximum earthworm biomass differed most, suggesting a gut passage effect. The end product was chemically stable and enriched in nutrients, demonstrating that tomato-fruit wastes can be successfully vermicomposted into a valuable soil amendment. We suggest continuous-feeding vermicomposting as an environmentally sound management option for greenhouse wastes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with three crop residues for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Wei, Luoyu; Duan, Qiwu; Hu, Guoquan; Zhang, Guozhi

    2014-03-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic semi-continuous co-digestion of dairy manure (DM) with three crop straw residues (SRs), rice straw, corn stalks and wheat straw under five mass mixing ratios (SRs/DM) were investigated. During the anaerobic digestion (AD) process, four periods were identified: startup, first stage of stabilization, second stage of stabilization, and suppression. Following the four periods, the biogas production rate varied between 101 and 576mL L(-1)d(-1). A high CH4 content and volatile solid reduction was maintained at the SRs/DM mass mixing ratio 1:9. The highest cumulative biogas production of more than 19L was obtained at ratio 5:5. However, ratio 9:1 performed worst in the whole process. Systematic analysis of the elements revealed nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements contents were important for the AD. Overall, the semi-continuous AD is efficient within a wide range of SRs/DM mass mixing ratios.

  16. Native root-associated bacteria rescue a plant from a sudden-wilt disease that emerged during continuous cropping

    PubMed Central

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Luu, Van Thi; Weinhold, Arne; Goldberg, Jay; Oh, Youngjoo; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    Plants maintain microbial associations whose functions remain largely unknown. For the past 15 y, we have planted the annual postfire tobacco Nicotiana attenuata into an experimental field plot in the plant’s native habitat, and for the last 8 y the number of plants dying from a sudden wilt disease has increased, leading to crop failure. Inadvertently we had recapitulated the common agricultural dilemma of pathogen buildup associated with continuous cropping for this native plant. Plants suffered sudden tissue collapse and black roots, symptoms similar to a Fusarium–Alternaria disease complex, recently characterized in a nearby native population and developed into an in vitro pathosystem for N. attenuata. With this in vitro disease system, different protection strategies (fungicide and inoculations with native root-associated bacterial and fungal isolates), together with a biochar soil amendment, were tested further in the field. A field trial with more than 900 plants in two field plots revealed that inoculation with a mixture of native bacterial isolates significantly reduced disease incidence and mortality in the infected field plot without influencing growth, herbivore resistance, or 32 defense and signaling metabolites known to mediate resistance against native herbivores. Tests in a subsequent year revealed that a core consortium of five bacteria was essential for disease reduction. This consortium, but not individual members of the root-associated bacteria community which this plant normally recruits during germination from native seed banks, provides enduring resistance against fungal diseases, demonstrating that native plants develop opportunistic mutualisms with prokaryotes that solve context-dependent ecological problems. PMID:26305938

  17. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield. PMID

  18. Growth and physiological changes in continuously cropped eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) upon relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Relay intercropping represents an alternative for sustainable production of vegetables, but the changes of internally antioxidant defense combined with the growth and yield are not clear. Field experiment was carried out to investigate the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and plant height, stem diameter, maximal leaf area, and yield of eggplant grown under successive cropping in the year 2011 and 2012 to see if relay intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) could benefit to eggplant growth and yield. Three experimental treatments with three repeats in each were carried out (completely randomized block design): eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG), and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). In both years, the MDA content was significantly lower and SOD and POD activities were generally lower in NG and GG compared with CK in most sampling dates. PPO activity trends were generally opposite to those of POD. The general trend of PAL activity was similar to MDA. The plant height and stem of eggplant was lower, but the maximal leaf area was larger in NG and GG in 2011; in 2012 the plant growth was stronger in relay intercropping treatments. For eggplant yield in 2011, NG was 2.85% higher than CK; after the time for the green garlic pulled out was moved forward in 2012, the yield was increased by 6.26 and 7.80%, respectively, in NG and GG. The lower MDA content and enzyme activities in relay intercropping treatments showed that the eggplant suffered less damage from environment and continuous cropping obstacles, which promoted healthier plant. Thus from both the growth and physiological perspective, it was concluded that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice maintaining stronger plant growth and higher yield.

  19. [Effects of different application rates of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in cucumber continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-peng; Ning, Tang-yuan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Shu-min; Wang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of CaCN2 combined with cucumber straw retention on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) , soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and soil enzyme activities under cucumber continuous cropping system. Four treatments were used in this study as follows: CK (null CaCN2), CaCN2-90 (1350 kg CaCN2 . hm-2) CaCN2-60 (900 kg CaCN2 . hm-2), CaCN2-30 (450 kg CaCN2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, compared with the other treatments, CaCN2-90 treatment significantly decreased SMBC in 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling stage, but increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer after early-fruit stage. Compared with CK, CaCN2 increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer at late-fruit stage, and increased SMBN in 0-10 cm soil layer at mid- and late-fruit stages, however there was no significant trend among CaCN2 treatments in the first year (2012), while in the second year (2013) SMBN increased with the increasing CaCN2 amount after mid-fruit stage. CaCN2 increased straw decaying and nutrients releasing, and also increased soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CaCN2-90 could accelerate straw decomposition. Compared with CK, CaCN2 effectively increased soil urease, catalase and polyphenol oxidase activity. The soil urease activity increased while the polyphenol oxidase activity decreased with the increase of CaCN2, and CaCN2-60 could significantly improve catalase activity. Soil organic matter, urease activity and catalase activity had significant positive correlations with SMBC and SMBN. However, polyphenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated to SMBC and SMBN. Our findings indicated that CaCN2 application at 900 kg . hm-2 combined with cucumber straw retention could effectively improve soil environment, alleviating the soil obstacles under the cucumber continuous cropping system.

  20. [Effects of rotation and fallowing on the microbial communities and enzyme activities in a solar greenhouse soil under continuous cucumber cropping].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng-juan; Wu, Huan-tao; Wei, Min; Wang, Xiu-feng; Shi, Qing-hua

    2009-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of rotation and fallowing on the microbial communities and enzyme activities in a greenhouse soil continuously cropped with cucumber and on the growth and yield of followed cucumber. Comparing with continuous cropping, rotation improved the components of soil microbial communities, which was manifested in the increase of bacteria and actinomycetes and the decrease of fungi. Rotation and fallowing enhanced the activities of soil invertase, urease, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase significantly. The quantities of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the activity of soil invertase increased at the fruiting stage of cucumber plants, being the maximum at harvest stage, but decreased thereafter. In contrast, the quantity of soil fungi had a linear increase, and the activities of soil urease, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased gradually during fruit development. Welsh onion and waxy maize promoted the growth and fruiting of the followed cucumber plants significantly, being the optimal rotation crops for cucumber.

  1. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of

  2. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils.

  3. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  4. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using two years of continuous in-situ ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use a high quality dataset of in-situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We inter-compare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics such as AOT40 and M7 for the two major crop growing seasons of Kharif (June-October) and Rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop yield exposure relationship for South Asian wheat and rice cultivars. These are a factor of two more sensitive to ozone induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27-41% for wheat, 21-26% for rice, 9-11% for maize and 47-58% for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 10.3 million t in fiscal year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 million t in fiscal year 2012-2013 and 3.2 million t year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana jointly. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice/wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. Mitigation of ozone related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide >50% of the wheat and ~10% of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 billion in the fiscal year 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 billion in the fiscal year 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on the minimum support price of the crop, which is lower than the actual production costs. The upper limit for ozone related crop yield losses in entire India currently amounts to 3.5-20% of India's GDP. Mitigation of high surface ozone

  5. Analysis on Fungal Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Continuous Cropping Potato Subjected to Different Furrow-Ridge Mulching Managements.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Xu, Xuexue; Liu, Yuhui; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about fungi diversity following different planting patterns could improve our understanding of soil processes and thus help us to develop sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different furrow-ridge mulching techniques on fungal diversity in rhizosphere soil under continuous cropping system. The investigated treatments were: flat plot without mulch (CK); flat plot with mulch (T1); on-ridge planting with full mulch (T2); on-furrow planting with full mulch (T3); on-ridge planting with half mulch (T4); and on-furrow planting with half mulch (T5). NGS (Illumina) methods and ITS1 sequences were used in monitoring fungi diversity of the potato rhizosphere soil. The fungi diversity in the rhizosphere soil was ranked in the order T5 > T2 > T4 > T1 > CK at the early growth stage and T2 > T3 > T1 > T4 > CK at the late growth stage of potato. The fungal communities found in the rhizosphere soil were Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and other unidentified fungal communities. Among the fungal community in the rhizosphere soil, Ascomycota was found to be dominant fungi population, with the highest percentage (89%) in the T5 soil whereas the T2 soils had the lowest percentage (67%). The Fusarium abundance in fully-mulched treated soils was higher than in half-mulched treated soil. The dominant genus in the T4 soil was Mortierella, whereas lower populations (1-2%) of Scutellinia, Cryphonectria, Acremonium, and Alternaria were found in that treatment. Among the eumycetes, the dominant fungal class in all treated soils was the Sordariomycetes, which ranged from 57 to 85% in T2 and T5 soils, respectively. The Fusarium percentages in half-mulched treated soils (T4 and T5) were 55 and 28% lower than that of complete mulched treated soils (T2 and T3), respectively. The cluster analysis results showed that, CK, T4, and T5 treated soils and T1, T2, and T3 treated soils had similarities in microbial

  6. Analysis on Fungal Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Continuous Cropping Potato Subjected to Different Furrow-Ridge Mulching Managements

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shuhao; Yeboah, Stephen; Xu, Xuexue; Liu, Yuhui; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about fungi diversity following different planting patterns could improve our understanding of soil processes and thus help us to develop sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different furrow-ridge mulching techniques on fungal diversity in rhizosphere soil under continuous cropping system. The investigated treatments were: flat plot without mulch (CK); flat plot with mulch (T1); on-ridge planting with full mulch (T2); on-furrow planting with full mulch (T3); on-ridge planting with half mulch (T4); and on-furrow planting with half mulch (T5). NGS (Illumina) methods and ITS1 sequences were used in monitoring fungi diversity of the potato rhizosphere soil. The fungi diversity in the rhizosphere soil was ranked in the order T5 > T2 > T4 > T1 > CK at the early growth stage and T2 > T3 > T1 > T4 > CK at the late growth stage of potato. The fungal communities found in the rhizosphere soil were Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and other unidentified fungal communities. Among the fungal community in the rhizosphere soil, Ascomycota was found to be dominant fungi population, with the highest percentage (89%) in the T5 soil whereas the T2 soils had the lowest percentage (67%). The Fusarium abundance in fully-mulched treated soils was higher than in half-mulched treated soil. The dominant genus in the T4 soil was Mortierella, whereas lower populations (1–2%) of Scutellinia, Cryphonectria, Acremonium, and Alternaria were found in that treatment. Among the eumycetes, the dominant fungal class in all treated soils was the Sordariomycetes, which ranged from 57 to 85% in T2 and T5 soils, respectively. The Fusarium percentages in half-mulched treated soils (T4 and T5) were 55 and 28% lower than that of complete mulched treated soils (T2 and T3), respectively. The cluster analysis results showed that, CK, T4, and T5 treated soils and T1, T2, and T3 treated soils had similarities in microbial

  7. Enrichment of natural (15)N abundance during soil N losses under 20years of continuous cereal cropping.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew R; Dalal, Ram C

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the enrichment of natural (15)N abundance in soil over time is reflective of historic N cycling and loss, but this process in cropping soils is not yet clear. In this study, we identified an enrichment gradient of natural (15)N abundance during 20-year chronosequence of cereal cropping on Alfisols in southwest Queensland, Australia, that have no history of fertilisation. We demonstrate that the increase in soil (15)N abundance is explained by isotopic fractionation of (15)N during organic N mineralisation and nitrification, which lead to isotopically heavier ammonium retained in the soil and isotopically lighter soil nitrate taken up and removed by seasonal crops during harvest. Here we present a framework for natural (15)N isotopic fractionation co-occurring with N losses during long-term cultivation.

  8. Microbial Community Composition and Functionality As Affected by An Integrated Crop-Livestock System Compared to Continuous Cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water availability is a primary limiting factor facing agricultural systems in most semi-arid regions across the world. This study is part of a larger long-term project to develop and evaluate integrated crop and livestocksystems in order to reduce dependence on underground water sources by optimizi...

  9. Assessment of crop yield losses in Punjab and Haryana using 2 years of continuous in situ ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, B.; Singh Sangwan, K.; Maurya, Y.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Chandra, B. P.; Sinha, V.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we use a high-quality data set of in situ ozone measurements at a suburban site called Mohali in the state of Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize for Punjab and the neighbouring state Haryana for the years 2011-2013. We intercompare crop yield loss estimates according to different exposure metrics, such as AOT40 (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40) and M7 (mean 7-hour ozone mixing ratio from 09:00 to 15:59), for the two major crop growing seasons of kharif (June-October) and rabi (November-April) and establish a new crop-yield-exposure relationship for southern Asian wheat, maize and rice cultivars. These are a factor of 2 more sensitive to ozone-induced crop yield losses compared to their European and American counterparts. Relative yield losses based on the AOT40 metrics ranged from 27 to 41 % for wheat, 21 to 26 % for rice, 3 to 5 % for maize and 47 to 58 % for cotton. Crop production losses for wheat amounted to 20.8 ± 10.4 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 10.3 ± 4.7 million t in the fiscal year of 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. Crop production losses for rice totalled 5.4 ± 1.2 million t in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and 3.2 ± 0.8 million t in the year 2013-2014 for Punjab and Haryana taken together. The Indian National Food Security Ordinance entitles ~ 820 million of India's poor to purchase about 60 kg of rice or wheat per person annually at subsidized rates. The scheme requires 27.6 Mt of wheat and 33.6 Mt of rice per year. The mitigation of ozone-related crop production losses in Punjab and Haryana alone could provide > 50 % of the wheat and ~ 10 % of the rice required for the scheme. The total economic cost losses in Punjab and Haryana amounted to USD 6.5 ± 2.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2012-2013 and USD 3.7 ± 1.2 billion in the fiscal year of 2013-2014. This economic loss estimate represents a very conservative lower limit based on

  10. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  11. Continuous rice cropping has been sequestering carbon in soils in Java and South Korea for the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex B.; Hong, Suk Young; Sulaeman, Yiyi; Kim, Myung Sook; Zhang, Yong Seon; Kim, Yi Hyun; Han, Kyung Hwa

    2012-09-01

    The soil system represents the dominant terrestrial reservoir of carbon in the biosphere. Deforestation, poor land management, and excessive cropping lead to a decrease in soil carbon stocks, but intensive cropping can reverse this trend. We discuss long-term soil organic carbon data from two major rice-growing areas: Java (Indonesia) and South Korea. Soil organic carbon content in the top 15 cm for both countries has increased in recent decades. In South Korea, the top 15 cm of soils store about 31 Tg (1012 g) of carbon (C) with a sequestration rate of 0.3 Tg C per year. In Java, the agricultural topsoils accumulated more than 1.7 Tg C per year over the period 1990-2010. We attribute the increase in measured SOC mainly to increases in above- and below- ground biomass due to fertilization. Good agronomic practices can maintain and increase soil carbon, which ensures soil security to produce food and fiber.

  12. Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ning; Deng, Kaiying; Song, Yang; Wu, Yunchen; Zhao, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    The application method for a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) was developed to improve its biocontrol efficacy of Fusarium wilt (Ling et al. 2010). However, its efficacy on controlling Fusarium wilt and the variations of microbial community after long-term application for watermelon production had not been elucidated. To clarify, a 4-years pot experiment of mono-cropping watermelon was conducted. The results revealed that though the disease incidences were increased in all treatments with the increase of continuous cropping years, the treatment of BIO application both in nursery and pot soil always maintained the lowest disease incidence. The real-time PCR results showed that the population of Paenibacillus polymyxa was decreased with continuous cropping years, but in all seasons, the treatment with BIO application both in nursery and pot soil had a highest population of P. polymyxa than the other treatments. On the other hand, the abundance of the pathogen FON was increased with the increase of continuous cropping years and the lowest rate of increase was found by BIO application in both nursery and pot soil. DGGE patterns showed that the bacterial diversity was weakened after mono-cropping of watermelon for 4 years, but the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage resulted in the minimal change of bacterial diversity. More detailed differences on bacterial diversity between control and double application of BIO treatment after 4-years monoculture were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing, which showed the dominant phyla found in both samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the consecutive applications of BIO recruited more beneficial bacteria than control, such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Haliangium, Streptomyces. Overall, these results, to a certain extent, approved that the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage could effectively suppress watermelon Fusarium wilt by regulating the

  13. Appropriate exposure estimates for wildlife risk assessments of crop protection products based on continuous radio telemetry: A case study with woodpigeons.

    PubMed

    Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter; Ebeling, Markus; Fredricks, Timothy B; Murfitt, Roger C; Kragten, Steven

    2017-05-01

    The registration of pesticides follows guidance published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a default, the EFSA guidance document on risk assessment for birds and mammals assumes that animals feed exclusively on pesticide-treated fields. However, the guidance document suggests refining the risk via the proportion of food animals obtain from a treated field or specific crop (expressed via the portion of diet obtained from a treated area [PT value]). The EFSA guidance equalizes the portion of food taken from a treated area per day with the portion of time spent potentially foraging over the course of a day within this area. Therefore, radiotracking is commonly used to gather species-, crop-, and season-specific PT data, and radio telemetry of continuously tracked farmland species can deliver individual PT values for a given day, crop, and species. In the present study the authors introduce a way of calculating long-term PT values based on empirically recorded data via telemetry field studies for the most appropriate use in wildlife risk assessment of pesticides. The novel aspect of the proposal is that the authors follow the prerequisite given by EFSA to cover the long-term risk by introducing 21-d PT values that aim to cover both intra- and inter-individual variability of foraging focal farmland species in cropped habitats. Currently, the intra-individual variability is not taken into account for PT calculations. The authors demonstrate this approach and discuss EFSA guidance input requirements for PT values recorded in field studies, based on a PT field study conducted with woodpigeons (Columba palumbus) radiotracked in an agricultural landscape in the United Kingdom. The results indicate that a 21-d PT value considering intra-individual variability gives a more appropriate PT value for long-term risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1270-1277. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Soil microbial community structure, diversity and functionality in integrated livestock-crop production systems compared to continuous cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many regions of the world are facing soil quality and sustainability problems due to monoculture. In the Texas High Plains of US, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production under continuous monoculture and conventional tillage (since the 1940’s) has contributed to wind-induced soil erosion and organic m...

  15. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  16. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Strayer, R F; Finger, B W; Alazraki, M P; Cook, K; Garland, J L

    2002-09-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  17. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  18. Solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes to produce bioorganic fertilizer for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of cucumber in continuously cropped soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; Yang, Xingming; Raza, Waseem; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Fengge; Shen, Qirong

    2011-02-01

    Agro-industrial wastes of cattle dung, vinegar-production residue and rice straw were solid-state fermented by inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 (SQR-T037) for production of bioorganic fertilizers containing SQR-T037 and 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PAP) to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber in a continuously cropped soil. Fermentation days, temperature, inoculum and vinegar-production residue demonstrated significant effects on the SQR-T037 biomass and the yield of 6PAP, based on fractional factorial design. Three optimum conditions for producing the maximum SQR-T037 biomass and 6PAP yield were predicted by central composite design and validated. Bioorganic fertilizer containing 8.46 log(10) ITS copies g(-1) dry weight of SQR-T037 and 1291.73 mg kg(-1) dry weight of 6PAP, and having the highest (p<0.05) biocontrol efficacy, was achieved at 36.7 fermentation days, 25.9°C temperature, 7.6% inoculum content, 41.0% vinegar-production residue, 20.0% rice straw and 39.0% cattle dung. This is a way to offer a high value-added use for agro-industrial wastes.

  19. Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xuemei; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Lihong; Li, Hezi; Dong, Yinxin

    2013-01-01

    A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic. PMID:23637994

  20. Cover Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are a beneficial tool for use in conservation tillage systems. Cover crop residues reduce soil erosion from water and wind, increase soil water availability for subsequent crops, enhance soil organic matter and biological activity, and can decrease labor and energy inputs. Cover crop...

  1. Altered cropping pattern and cultural continuation with declined prosperity following abrupt and extreme arid event at ~4,200 yrs BP: Evidence from an Indus archaeological site Khirsara, Gujarat, western India.

    PubMed

    Pokharia, Anil K; Agnihotri, Rajesh; Sharma, Shalini; Bajpai, Sunil; Nath, Jitendra; Kumaran, R N; Negi, Bipin Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological sites hold important clues to complex climate-human relationships of the past. Human settlements in the peripheral zone of Indus culture (Gujarat, western India) are of considerable importance in the assessment of past monsoon-human-subsistence-culture relationships and their survival thresholds against climatic stress exerted by abrupt changes. During the mature phase of Harappan culture between ~4,600-3,900yrsBP, the ~4,100±100yrsBP time slice is widely recognized as one of the major, abrupt arid-events imprinted innumerous well-dated palaeo records. However, the veracity of this dry event has not been established from any archaeological site representing the Indus (Harappan) culture, and issues concerning timing, changes in subsistence pattern, and the likely causes of eventual abandonment (collapse) continue to be debated. Here we show a significant change in crop-pattern (from barley-wheat based agriculture to 'drought-resistant' millet-based crops) at ~4,200 yrs BP, based on abundant macrobotanical remains and C isotopes of soil organic matter (δ13CSOM) in an archaeological site at Khirsara, in the Gujarat state of western India. The crop-change appears to be intentional and was likely used as an adaptation measure in response to deteriorated monsoonal conditions. The ceramic and architectural remains of the site indicate that habitation survived and continued after the ~4,200yrsBP dry climatic phase, but with declined economic prosperity. Switching to millet-based crops initially helped inhabitants to avoid immediate collapse due to climatic stresses, but continued aridity and altered cropping pattern led to a decline in prosperity levels of inhabitants and eventual abandonment of the site at the end of the mature Harappan phase.

  2. Nurse crop

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Shepperd; John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    In forestry, a nurse crop generally is a crop of trees or shrubs that fosters the development of another tree species, usually by protecting the second species, during its youth, from frost, insolation, or wind (Ford-Robertson 1971). Aspen may be a nurse crop for shade-tolerant tree species that do not become established in full sunlight (e.g., Engelmann spruce)....

  3. Cover Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha−1 yr−1, respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000–250, 250–53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000–250 μm > 250–53μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient

  5. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Andong; Xu, Hu; Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and <53 μm) by dry- and wet-sieving. A laboratory incubation study of these separated particle-size fractions was used to evaluate the effect of long-term manure, in combination with/without chemical fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively) compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

  6. Non-target effect of continuous application of chlorpyrifos on soil microbes, nematodes and its persistence under sub-humid tropical rice-rice cropping system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Upendra; Berliner, J; Adak, Totan; Rath, Prakash C; Dey, Avro; Pokhare, Somnath S; Jambhulkar, Nitiprasad N; Panneerselvam, P; Kumar, Anjani; Mohapatra, Shyamranjan D

    2017-01-01

    Application of pesticide in agricultural fields is "unnecessary evil" for non-target microflora and fauna. Hence, to identify the safer pesticide molecules against non-target microbes, a long-term pesticide experiment was initiated at National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India. In the present study, the effect of continuous application of chlorpyrifos (0.5kgha(-1)) in rice fields on non-target groups of soil microbes and nematodes was studied for seven seasons (four wet and three dry seasons) during 2009-2013. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications of chlorpyrifos-treated (0.5kg a.i. ha(-1)) (CT) and untreated control (UT) plots. During seven seasons of experimentation, regular application of chlorpyrifos had no significant effect on population of heterotrophic aerobic, anaerobic, oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria in CT compared to UT, whereas, population of asymbiotic aerobic nitrogen fixer, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, gram positive and spore-forming bacteria were significantly reduced by nearly 0.25-2 fold in CT than UT. However, comparatively less deviation in population of actinomycetes, fungi, phosphate solubilizing and sulfur oxidizing bacteria were observed in CT than UT. Significant interactions were found between effects of chlorpyrifos with time in population dynamics of microbes. In plant parasitic nematode species, Meloidogyne graminicola (RRKN) and Hirschmanniella spp. (RRN), were significantly lower (p<0.01) in CT compared to UT after first year onwards. The overall observation of five years data indicated that the RRKN population showed a decreasing trend (R(2)=0.644) whereas RRN showed increasing trend (R(2)=0.932) in CT. The drastic chlorpyrifos dissipation was noticed after 15 days of application from the initial residue of 0.25mgkg(-1) soil, which indicated that chlorpyrifos residue in rice field soil was not persistent and its half-life was found to be 4.02 days. Overall, the present

  7. Integrating multiple satellite data for crop monitoring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing provides a valuable data source for detecting crop types, monitoring crop condition and predicting crop yields from space. Routine and continuous remote sensing data are critical for agricultural research and operational applications. Since crop field dimensions tend to be relatively ...

  8. [Impact of different tillage practices on soil organic carbon and water use efficiency under continuous wheat-maize binary cropping system].

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiang; Sun, Han-Yin; Taraqqi, A K; Wang, Xu-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Base on an 8-year field experiment, the effects of tillage practices coupled with or without straw return on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and water use efficiency (WUE) were investigated in Guanzhong Plain during the growing seasons from 2008 to 2009. The results showed that conservation tillage practices (sub-soiling, SS; rotary tillage, RT; no-till, NT) improved the SOC, WUE and crop yield compared with conventional tillage (CT), among which, SS coupled with straw return had the highest increment, with increase in SOC content of the 0-30 cm soil layer, WUE and crop yield by 19.5%, 16.9% and 20.5%, respectively. The NT practice effectively increased the SOC content of the 0-10 cm soil layer. Conclusively, under the current soil and climatic conditions in Guanzhong Plain, sub-soiling coupled with straw return is the most efficient tillage practice for promoting SOC accumulation, increasing water-use efficiency and yield.

  9. Containment of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica v.virgifera: continued successful management 2008 in southern Switzerland by monitoring and crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Bertossa, M

    2009-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Col.: Chrysomelidae), known as western corn rootworm (WCR) and endemic in North America, invaded Europe about two decades ago. Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to eradicate it from the Old World. Management with a variety of strategies is the option now remaining. WCR management in Southern Switzerland by a unique containment approach has been practiced successfully since 2003 using biotechnical means. Without any chemical pesticides or GMO input, the Swiss government mandated adherence to strict crop rotation. In addition to the economic benefits of this relatively simple approach, the environment was saved a considerable burden of pesticide applications. Other countries are invited to follow this example of sustainable pest management.

  10. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  11. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  12. Effects of irrigation, cover crop, and manure on soil greenhouse gas emissions after stover removal in no-till continuous corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn stover is used widely for livestock co-feed and is targeted as a near-term feedstock for the developing cellulosic ethanol industry. High biomass production in intensely managed systems, such as irrigated continuous corn, may have a greater potential to provide stover for either livestock or bi...

  13. Sunflower crop

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, B.H.

    1981-05-01

    A review of the sunflower as a major commercial crop, including its history, cultivation, hybridization and uses. It is grown principally for its oil which is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and used in a variety of foods. Recently it has been tested in diesel engines and a high protein meal is produced from the seed residues.

  14. Continuous Measurements of Canopy-level Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence for Inferring Diurnal and Seasonal Dynamics of Photosynthesis in Crop Fields in the Midwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, G.; Guan, K.; Yang, X.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Cai, Y.; Masters, M. D.; Peng, B.

    2016-12-01

    Plants emitted photons of red and far-red light, called chlorophyll fluorescence, after sunlight absorption for photosynthesis. This solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) is generated simultaneously while plants actively photosynthesize. The link between photosynthesis and SIF resulting from the competition for the same excitation energy has long been investigated and applied for inferring the rate of photosynthesis. Recent development of continuous SIF observational technology is furthering the inferring potential as well as our understandings of fluctuations of SIF and photosynthesis with changes in environmental conditions. To better understand this photosynthesis-SIF link at multiple time scales and their relationships with environmental drivers, we deployed two newly developed tower-based SIF systems (FluoSpec) in a corn (Zea mays L., C4 plant) field and a soybean (Glycine max L., C3 plant) field at University of Illinois Energy Farm and conducted continuous near-surface SIF measurements at canopy scale from mid-growing season of 2016. Eddy covariance flux towers were installed in parallel at both sites for canopy-scale gas exchange measurements. Relationship between SIF and flux tower photosynthesis will be analyzed to derive the empirical models for photosynthesis retrieval from SIF signals. Preliminary results indicate that canopy SIF can reflect diurnal and seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis. Mechanistic analysis on SIF fluctuations and responses to environmental variations will be conducted as well for a closer look at mechanism of photosynthetic responses. Corn and soybean SIF and photosynthesis-SIF relationship will be compared to investigate the difference between C4 and C3 plants.

  15. Continuous multi-criteria methods for crop and soil conservation planning on La Colacha (Río Cuarto, Province of Córdoba, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Cisneros, J. M.; Laguna, F. V.; Aguado, P. L.; Cantero, J. J.; Andina, D.; Sánchez, E.

    2012-08-01

    Agro-areas of Arroyos Menores (La Colacha) west and south of Río Cuarto (Prov. of Córdoba, Argentina) basins are very fertile but have high soil loses. Extreme rain events, inundations and other severe erosions forming gullies demand urgently actions in this area to avoid soil degradation and erosion supporting good levels of agro production. The authors first improved hydrologic data on La Colacha, evaluated the systems of soil uses and actions that could be recommended considering the relevant aspects of the study area and applied decision support systems (DSS) with mathematic tools for planning of defences and uses of soils in these areas. These were conducted here using multi-criteria models, in multi-criteria decision making (MCDM); first of discrete MCDM to chose among global types of use of soils, and then of continuous MCDM to evaluate and optimize combined actions, including repartition of soil use and the necessary levels of works for soil conservation and for hydraulic management to conserve against erosion these basins. Relatively global solutions for La Colacha area have been defined and were optimised by Linear Programming in Goal Programming forms that are presented as Weighted or Lexicographic Goal Programming and as Compromise Programming. The decision methods used are described, indicating algorithms used, and examples for some representative scenarios on La Colacha area are given.

  16. 7 CFR 457.132 - Cranberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cranberry crop insurance provisions. 457.132 Section 457.132 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.132 Cranberry crop insurance...

  17. 7 CFR 457.2 - Availability of Federal crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of Federal crop insurance. 457.2 Section 457.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.2 Availability of Federal crop...

  18. 75 FR 59057 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions and Macadamia Nut Crop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Provisions and Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... Provisions and applicable Crop Provisions, including the Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions. In addition, FCIC revised various Crop Provisions, including the Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, to...

  19. Simulating Stochastic Crop Management in Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction -- Crop simulation models are uniquely suitable for examining long term crop responses to environmental variability due to changes in climate or other factors. Long-term studies typically emphasize variability related to weather conditions; certain weather-dependent cropping practices m...

  20. Impact of crop rotation and soil amendments on long-term no-tilled soybean yields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Continuous cropping systems without cover crops are perceived as unsustainable for long-term yield and soil health. To test this, cropping sequence and cover crop effects on soybean (Glycine max L.) yields were assessed. Main effects were 10 cropping sequences of soybean, corn (Zea mays L.), and co...

  1. Energy crops for ethanol: a processing perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global production of bioethanol for fuel is over 13 billions gal per year. Continued expansion of ethanol production will necessitate developing lignocellulose as an alternative to today’s use of starch and sugar producing crops. Dedicated energy crops are one such option. In the U.S., it has bee...

  2. 7 CFR 985.10 - Crop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.10 Crop. Crop means...

  3. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop genetic diversity is concentrated within specific geographic regions worldwide. While access to this diversity is critical to continued increases in agricultural productivity, the geopolitical significance of the geography of crop diversity has not been quantified. We assess the degree to which...

  4. Energy crops for ethanol: a processing perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global production of bioethanol for fuel is over 13 billions gal per year. Continued expansion of ethanol production will necessitate developing lignocellulose as an alternative to today’s use of starch and sugar producing crops. Dedicated energy crops are one such option. In the U.S., it has bee...

  5. Improving selenium nutritional value of major crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Micronutrient efficiency and development of nutrient-dense crops continue to be one of the most important global challenges. Se is an essential micronutrient to humans and serves as a cancer preventative agent. In order to improve Se nutritional and health promoting values in food crops, a better un...

  6. Fiber crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much research continues to develop renewable, recyclable, sustainable, and bio-based products from agricultural feed stocks such as cotton and flax fiber. Primary requirements are sustainable production, low cost, and consistent and known quality. To better understand these products, research contin...

  7. Cover crop water use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are being widely promoted because of soil health benefits. However, semi-arid dryland production systems, chronically short of water for crop production, may not be able to profitably withstand the yield reduction that follows cover crops because of cover crop water use. Some studies sug...

  8. Summary of cover crop effects on cotton production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crop use in field crop research, especially cotton, dates back to Auburn University’s “Old Rotation”, the world’s oldest continuous cotton experiment, established in 1896. Despite the long history of cover crop research in the literature, meta-analytic methods have not been used to evaluate co...

  9. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the producer's share, times the approved yield, and times the price; (2) Add the values of all crops... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section 400.653 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...

  10. 7 CFR 407.2 - Availability of Federal crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of Federal crop insurance. 407.2 Section 407.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE... Federal crop insurance. (a) Insurance shall be offered under the provisions of this part on the insured...

  11. Genomic exploitation of genetic variation for crop improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop plants produce food, fiber, and fuel that are essential to human civilization and mainstays of economic prosperity. Our society continues to cultivate and improve the crop plants for better quality and productivity with sustainable environments. The process of crop genetic improvement has bee...

  12. 7 CFR 400.47 - Denial of crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of crop insurance. 400.47 Section 400.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION...; Denial of Benefits § 400.47 Denial of crop insurance. (a) Any person convicted under Federal or State...

  13. Effect of Mixed Systems on Crop Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this non-irrigated research has been to determine the effect of mixed systems integration on crop, soil, and beef cattle production in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. Over a 5-year period, growing spring wheat (HRSW-C) continuously year after year was compared to a 5-year crop rotation that included spring wheat (HRSW-R), cover crop (dual crop consisting of winter triticale/hairy vetch seeded in the fall and harvested for hay followed by a 7-species cover crop that was seeded in June after hay harvest), forage corn, field pea/barley, and sunflower. Control 5-year HRSW yield was 2690 kg/ha compared to 2757 kg/ha for HRSW grown in rotation. Available soil nitrogen (N) is often the most important limitation for crop production. Expensive fertilizer inputs were reduced in this study due to the mixed system's complementarity in which the rotation system that included beef cattle grazing sustained N availability and increased nutrient cycling, which had a positive effect on all crops grown in the rotation. Growing HRSW continuously requires less intensive management and in this research was 14.5% less profitable. Whereas, when crop management increased and complementing crops were grown in rotation to produce crops and provide feed for grazing livestock, soil nutrient cycling improved. Increased nutrient cycling increased crop rotation yields and yearling beef cattle steers that grazing annual forages in the rotation gain more body weight than similar steers grazing NGP native range. Results of this long-term research will be presented in a PICO format for participant discussion.

  14. Double- and relay-cropping of energy crops in the northern Great Plains, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a growing developing world, innovative cropping systems are necessary to obtain continuous and sustainable supplies of food, feed, fuel, and bio-based products. Double- and relay- cropping systems are an option to produce biofuels, food, and biomass feedstock in a single season on the same land w...

  15. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Takle, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  16. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  17. Sorghums as energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  18. Cucurbitaceae (Vine Crops)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cucurbitaceae or vine crop family is a distinct family without any close relatives. The Cucurbitaceae or vine crop family includes many important vegetables collectively referred to as cucurbits. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are major crop species originally from the Old World (cucumber fro...

  19. Cover crops for Alabama

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  20. Using pennycress, camelina, and canola cash crops to provision pollinators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As pollinator decline continues, the need to provide high value forage for insects continues to rise. Finding agricultural crops to diversify the landscape and provide forage is one way to improve pollinator health. Three winter industrial oilseed crops (pennycress, winter camelina, and winter canol...

  1. Analysis of scanner data for crop inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Kauth, R. J.; Malila, W. A.; Pont, W.; Thelen, B.; Sellman, A.

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments for a machine-oriented small grains labeler T&E, and for Argentina ground data collection are reported. Features of the small grains labeler include temporal-spectral profiles, which characterize continuous patterns of crop spectral development, and crop calendar shift estimation, which adjusts for planting date differences of fields within a crop type. Corn and soybean classification technology development for area estimation for foreign commodity production forecasting is reported. Presentations supporting quarterly project management reviews and a quarterly technical interchange meeting are also included.

  2. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in West Central Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to numerous alternatives in crop sequence and changes in crop yield and price, finding the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.)-based crop rotations for...

  3. Economic impact of GM crops

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  4. The potential of cover crops for improving soil function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoate, Chris; Crotty, Felicity

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops can be grown over the autumn and winter ensuring green cover throughout the year. They have been described as improving soil structure, reducing soil erosion and potentially even a form of grass weed control. These crops retain nutrients within the plant, potentially making them available for future crops, as well as increasing soil organic matter. Over the last three years, we have investigated how different cover crop regimes affect soil quality. Three separate experiments over each autumn/winter period have investigated how different cover crops affect soil biology, physics and chemistry, with each experiment building on the previous one. There have been significant effects of cover crops on soil structure, as well as significantly lower weed biomass and increased yields in the following crop - in comparison to bare stubble. For example, the effect of drilling the cover crops on soil structure in comparison to a bare stubble control that had not been driven on by machinery was quantified, and over the winter period the soil structure of the cover crop treatments changed, with compaction reduced in the cover crop treatments, whilst the bare stubble control remained unchanged. Weeds were found in significantly lower biomass in the cover crop mixes in comparison to the bare stubble control, and significantly lower weed biomass continued to be found in the following spring oat crop where the cover crops had been, indicating a weed suppressive effect that has a continued legacy in the following crop. The following spring oats have shown similar results in the last two years, with higher yields in the previous cover crop areas compared to the bare stubble controls. Overall, these results are indicating that cover crops have the potential to provide improvements to soil quality, reduce weeds and improve yields. We discuss the economic implications.

  5. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  6. Determination of crop coefficients (Kc) for irrigation management of crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weighing lysimeters are used to measure crop water use during the growing season. By relating the water use of a specific crop to a well-watered reference crop such as grass, crop coefficients (Kc) can be developed to assist in predicting crop needs using meteorological data available from weather ...

  7. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  8. Effects of potato-cotton cropping systems and nematicides on plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Crow, W T; Weingartner, D P; Dickson, D W

    2000-09-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used.

  9. Winter Cover Crops and Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Early Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. K.; Walter, M. T.; Reiss, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Winter cover crops mixtures can be used to manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during critical periods such as spring thaw. Legumes are added to cover crops mixtures to increase crop productivity, but it is unknown if this effect decreases N2O emissions. In this project we investigate the relationship between biodiversity, productivity and GHG fluxes in cover crops varieties typically grown for soil heath in agricultural systems. Surface GHG emissions were measured with closed chambers beginning during snowmelt events and continuing until crops were tilled into the soil in early summer. We found that nitrous oxide emissions were reduced in cover cropped plots during the early spring thaw period when compared to bare soil. GHG emission reductions in agriculture can be achieved with proper selection of winter hardy cover crops.

  10. Glyphosate-resistant crops: history, status and future.

    PubMed

    Dill, Gerald M

    2005-03-01

    The commercial launch of glyphosate-resistant soybeans in 1996 signaled the beginning of a new era in weed management in row crops. Today, over 80% of the soybeans grown in the USA are glyphosate resistant. Since that time, many crops have been transformed that have allowed crop applications of many classes of herbicide chemistries. Crops currently under production include maize, soybean, cotton and canola. Transformation technology and selection methods have improved and the rate of development as well as the breadth of crops being considered as commercial targets has increased. On the basis of recent adoption rates by growers around the world, it appears that glyphosate-resistant crops will continue to grow in number and in hectares planted. However, global public acceptance of biotechnology-derived products will continue to impact the rate of adoption of this and other new innovations derived from transformation technology.

  11. Waves and Crops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses wave patterns on the surfaces of ripening wheat and barley crops when the wind is moderately strong. Examines the structure of the turbulence over such natural surfaces and conditions under which the crop may be damaged by the wind. (JR)

  12. Concepts in crop rotations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop rotations have been a part of civilization since the Middle Ages. With colonization of what would become the United States came new crops of tobacco, cotton, and corn, the first two of which would play significant roles in both the economic beginnings and social fabric of the new country, how ...

  13. Waves and Crops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses wave patterns on the surfaces of ripening wheat and barley crops when the wind is moderately strong. Examines the structure of the turbulence over such natural surfaces and conditions under which the crop may be damaged by the wind. (JR)

  14. Crop Sequence Economics in Dynamic Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    No-till production systems allow more intensified and diversified production in the northern Great Plains; however, this has increased the need for information on improving economic returns through crop sequence selection. Field research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan ND to determine the inf...

  15. Genetic transformation of major cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Xu, Xing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Of the more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, at least 10,000 species are cereal grains. Three major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum sp.), provide two-thirds of the world's food energy intake. Although crop yields have improved tremendously thanks to technological advances in the past 50 years, population increases and climate changes continue to threaten the sustainability of current crop productions. Whereas conventional and marker-assisted breeding programs continue to play a major role in crop improvement, genetic engineering has drawn an intense worldwide interest from the scientific community. In the past decade, genetic transformation technologies have revolutionized agricultural practices and millions of hectares of biotech crops have been cultured. Because of its unique ability to insert well-characterized gene sequences into the plant genome, genetic engineering can also provide effective tools to address fundamental biological questions. This technology is expected to continue to be an indispensable approach for both basic and applied research. Here, we overview briefly the development of the genetic transformation in the top seven cereals, namely maize, rice, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum sp.), oat (Avena sativa), and millets. The advantages and disadvantages of the two major transformation methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated and biolistic methods, are also discussed.

  16. An inventory of crop wild relatives of the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in breeding is likely to continue to intensify as utilization techniques improve and crop adaptation to climate change becomes more pressing. Significant gaps remain in the conservation of these genetic resources, constraining availability for research. As a fi...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from traditional and biofuels cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping systems can have a tremendous effect on the greenhouse gas emissions from soils. The objectives of this study were to compare greenhouse gas emissions from traditional (continuous corn or corn/soybean rotation) and biomass (miscanthus, sorghum, switchgrass) cropping systems. Biomass croppin...

  18. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  19. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.49 Other crop seed. (a) Seeds of plants...

  20. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  1. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  2. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  3. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.49 Other crop seed. (a) Seeds of plants...

  4. 7 CFR 201.18 - Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other agricultural seeds (crop seeds). 201.18 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.18 Other agricultural seeds (crop...

  5. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.49 Other crop seed. (a) Seeds of plants...

  6. 7 CFR 400.47 - Denial of crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Denial of crop insurance. 400.47 Section 400.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation...

  7. 7 CFR 400.47 - Denial of crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Denial of crop insurance. 400.47 Section 400.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation...

  8. 7 CFR 400.47 - Denial of crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Denial of crop insurance. 400.47 Section 400.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation...

  9. 7 CFR 400.47 - Denial of crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Denial of crop insurance. 400.47 Section 400.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation...

  10. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  12. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  13. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  14. 7 CFR 989.21 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 989.21 Section 989.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF...

  16. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF...

  17. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF...

  18. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF...

  19. 7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 930.4 Section 930.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF...

  20. A national research & development strategy for biomass crop feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-07-01

    Planning was initiated in 1996 with the objective of reevaluating current biomass feedstock research and development strategies to: (1) assure that by 2005, one or more commercial lignocellulosic to ethanol projects will be able to acquire a dependable supply of biomass crop feedstocks; (2) assure that recently initiated demonstrations of crops to electricity will be successful and; (3) assure that the research base needed to support future biomass industry expansion is being developed. Multiple trends and analyses indicate that biomass energy research and development strategies must take into account the fact that competition for land will define the upper limits of available biomass energy crop supplies and will largely dictate the price of those supplies. Only crop production and utilization strategies which contribute profit to the farmer or landowner and to energy producers will be used commercially for biomass energy production. Strategies for developing biomass {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} crop supplies must take into consideration all of the methods by which biomass crops will enter biomass energy markets. The lignocellulosic materials derived from crops can be available as primary residues or crop by-products; secondary residues or processing by-products; co-products (at both the crop production and processing stages); or, as dedicated energy crops. Basic research and development (R&D) leading to yield improvement continues to be recommended as a major long-term focus for dedicated energy crops. Many additional near term topics need attention, some of which are also applicable to by-products and co-products. Switchgrass R&D should be expanded and developed with greater collaboration of USDA and state extension groups. Woody crop research should continue with significant cost-share from industries developing the crops for other commercial products. Co-product options need more investigation.

  1. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  2. Using cover crops and cropping systems for nitrogen management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The reasons for using cover crops and optimized cropping sequences to manage nitrogen (N) are to maximize economic returns, improve soil quality and productivity, and minimize losses of N that might adversely impact environmental quality. Cover crops and cropping systems’ effects on N management are...

  3. Transgenics in crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  4. Transgenics in crops.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Wu, Y H; McAvoy, R; Duan, H

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  5. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  6. Influence of post-harvest crop residue fires on surface ozone mixing ratios in the N.W. IGP analyzed using 2 years of continuous in situ trace gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.

    2016-04-01

    O3, CO, and NOx affect air quality and tropospheric chemistry but factors that control them in the densely populated N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are poorly understood. This work presents the first simultaneous 2 year long in situ data set acquired from August 2011 to September 2013 at a N.W. IGP site (30.667°N, 76.729°E; 310 m asl). We investigate the impact of emissions and meteorology on the diel and seasonal variability of O3, CO, and NOx. Regional post-harvest crop residue fires contribute majorly to an enhancement of 19 ppb in hourly averaged ozone concentrations under similar meteorological conditions in summer and 7 ppb under conditions of lower radiation during the post monsoon. d[O3]/dt (from sunrise to daytime O3 maxima) was highest during periods influenced by post-harvest fires in post monsoon season (9.2 ppb h-1) and lowest during monsoon season (4.1 ppb h-1). Analysis of air mass clusters revealed that enhanced chemical formation of O3 and not transport was the driver of the summertime and post monsoon ambient O3 maxima. Despite having high daytime NOx (>12 ppb) and CO (>440 ppb) in winter, average daytime O3 was less than 40 ppb due to reduced photochemistry and fog. Average daytime O3 during the monsoon was less than 45 ppb due to washout of precursors and suppressed photochemistry due to cloud cover. The 8 h ambient air quality O3 standard was violated on 451 days in the period August 2011-September 2013. The results show that substantial mitigation efforts are required to reduce regional O3 pollution in the N.W. IGP.

  7. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  8. Grand challenges for crop science

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...

  9. Cover crops and N credits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  10. Rice crop risk map in Babahoyo canton (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde Arias, Omar; Tarquis, Ana; Garrido, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    It is widely known that extreme climatic phenomena occur with more intensity and frequency. This fact has put more pressure over farming, making agricultural and livestock production riskier. In order to reduce hazards and economic loses that could jeopardize farmer's incomes and even its business continuity, it is very important to implement agriculture risk management plans by governments and institutions. One of the main strategies is transfer risk by agriculture insurance. Agriculture insurance based in indexes has a significant growth in the last decade. And consist in a comparison between measured index values with a defined threshold that triggers damage losses. However, based index insurance could not be based on an isolated measurement. It is necessary to be integrated in a complete monitoring system that uses many sources of information and tools. For example, index influence areas, crop production risk maps, crop yields, claim statistics, and so on. Crop production risk is related with yield variation of crops and livestock, due to weather, pests, diseases, and other factors that affect both the quantity and quality of commodities produced. This is the risk which farmers invest more time managing, and it is completely under their control. The aim of this study is generate a crop risk map of rice that can provide risk manager important information about the status of crop facing production risks. Then, based on this information, it will be possible to make best decisions to deal with production risk. The rice crop risk map was generated qualifying a 1:25000 scale soil and climatic map of Babahoyo canton, which is located in coast region of Ecuador, where rice is one of the main crops. The methodology to obtain crop risk map starts by establishing rice crop requirements and indentifying the risks associated with this crop. A second step is to evaluate soil and climatic conditions of the study area related to optimal crop requirements. Based on it, we can

  11. 78 FR 47214 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation... the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to make the ELS Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions consistent with the Upland Cotton Crop...

  12. Crop stress detection and classification using hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irby, Jon Trenton

    Agricultural production has observed many changes in technology over the last 20 years. Producers are able to utilize technologies such as site-specific applicators and remotely sensed data to assist with decision making for best management practices which can improve crop production and provide protection to the environment. It is known that plant stress can interfere with photosynthetic reactions within the plant and/or the physical structure of the plant. Common types of stress associated with agricultural crops include herbicide induced stress, nutrient stress, and drought stress from lack of water. Herbicide induced crop stress is not a new problem. However, with increased acreage being planting in varieties/hybrids that contain herbicide resistant traits, herbicide injury to non-target crops will continue to be problematic for producers. With rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant cropping systems, it is likely that herbicide induced stress will continue to be a major concern. To date, commercially available herbicide-tolerant varieties/hybrids contain traits which allow herbicides like glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium to be applied as a broadcast application during the growing season. Both glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium are broad spectrum herbicides which have activity on a large number of plant species, including major crops like non-transgenic soybean, corn, and cotton. Therefore, it is possible for crop stress from herbicide applications to occur in neighboring fields that contain susceptible crop varieties/hybrids. Nutrient and moisture stress as well as stress caused by herbicide applications can interact to influence yields in agricultural fields. If remotely sensed data can be used to accurately identify specific levels of crop stress, it is possible that producers can use this information to better assist them in crop management to maximize yields and protect their investments. This research was conducted to evaluate classification of specific

  13. Dryland soil chemical properties and crop yields affected by long-term tillage and cropping sequence.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Allen, Brett L; Caesar-TonThat, Thecan; Lenssen, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Information on the effect of long-term management on soil nutrients and chemical properties is scanty. We examined the 30-year effect of tillage frequency and cropping sequence combination on dryland soil Olsen-P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, SO4-S, and Zn concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at the 0-120 cm depth and annualized crop yield in the northern Great Plains, USA. Treatments were no-till continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (NTCW), spring till continuous spring wheat (STCW), fall and spring till continuous spring wheat (FSTCW), fall and spring till spring wheat-barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 1984-1999) followed by spring wheat-pea (Pisum sativum L., 2000-2013) (FSTW-B/P), and spring till spring wheat-fallow (STW-F, traditional system). At 0-7.5 cm, P, K, Zn, Na, and CEC were 23-60% were greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Ca were 6-31% lower in NTCW, STCW, and FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 7.5-15 cm, K was 23-52% greater, but pH, buffer pH, and Mg were 3-21% lower in NTCW, STCW, FSTCW, FSTW-B/P than STW-F. At 60-120 cm, soil chemical properties varied with treatments. Annualized crop yield was 23-30% lower in STW-F than the other treatments. Continuous N fertilization probably reduced soil pH, Ca, and Mg, but greater crop residue returned to the soil increased P, K, Na, Zn, and CEC in NTCW and STCW compared to STW-F. Reduced tillage with continuous cropping may be adopted for maintaining long-term soil fertility and crop yields compared with the traditional system.

  14. Crop Coefficients of Some Selected Crops of Andhra Pradesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Chandrasekhar; Arunajyothy, S.; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2015-06-01

    Precise information on crop coefficients for estimating crop evapotranspiration (ETc) for regional scale irrigation planning is a major impediment in many regions. Crop coefficients suggested based on lysimeter data by earlier investigators have to be locally calibrated to account for the differences in the crop canopy under given climatic conditions. In the present study crop coefficients were derived based on reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) estimated from Penman-Monteith equation and lysimeter measured ETc for groundnut, paddy, tobacco, sugarcane and castor crops at Tirupati, Nellore, Rajahmundry, Anakapalli and Rajendranagar centers of Andhra Pradesh respectively. Crop coefficients derived were compared with those recommended by FAO-56. The mean crop coefficients at different stages of growth were significantly different from those of FAO-56 curve though a similar trend was observed. A third order polynomial crop coefficient model has therefore been developed as a function of time (days after sowing the crop) for deriving suitable crop coefficients. The crop coefficient models suggested may be adopted to estimate crop evapotranspiration in the study area with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  15. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse crops... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse crops... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse crops... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse crops... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  19. 7 CFR 1412.31 - Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... commodities, except pulse crops. (a) The direct payment yield for each covered commodity, except pulse crops... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Direct payment yields for covered commodities, except pulse crops. 1412.31 Section 1412.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued...

  20. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2, 3, and 4 yr. limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.) based crop rotations for grain yield, available soil water, crop water productivity, and profitability in co...

  1. Understanding crop genetic diversity under modern plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2015-11-01

    Maximizing crop yield while at the same time minimizing crop failure for sustainable agriculture requires a better understanding of the impacts of plant breeding on crop genetic diversity. This review identifies knowledge gaps and shows the need for more research into genetic diversity changes under plant breeding. Modern plant breeding has made a profound impact on food production and will continue to play a vital role in world food security. For sustainable agriculture, a compromise should be sought between maximizing crop yield under changing climate and minimizing crop failure under unfavorable conditions. Such a compromise requires better understanding of the impacts of plant breeding on crop genetic diversity. Efforts have been made over the last three decades to assess crop genetic diversity using molecular marker technologies. However, these assessments have revealed some temporal diversity patterns that are largely inconsistent with our perception that modern plant breeding reduces crop genetic diversity. An attempt was made in this review to explain such discrepancies by examining empirical assessments of crop genetic diversity and theoretical investigations of genetic diversity changes over time under artificial selection. It was found that many crop genetic diversity assessments were not designed to assess diversity impacts from specific plant breeding programs, while others were experimentally inadequate and contained technical biases from the sampling of cultivars and genomes. Little attention has been paid to theoretical investigations on crop genetic diversity changes from plant breeding. A computer simulation of five simplified breeding schemes showed the substantial effects of plant breeding on the retention of heterozygosity over generations. It is clear that more efforts are needed to investigate crop genetic diversity in space and time under plant breeding to achieve sustainable crop production.

  2. Brassinosteroid Mutants of Crops.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gerard J.

    2003-12-01

    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), were originally isolated from extracts of pollen because of their growth-promoting properties and their potential use for enhancing crop production. Mutants in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of brassinolide (BL), the most bioactive BR, are important resources in helping to establish BRs' essential role in plant growth and development. The dark green and distinctive dwarf phenotype of BR-related mutants identified in pea, tomato, and rice highlights the importance of BRs in crops. These mutants are helping to elucidate both the conserved and the unique features of BR biosynthesis and signaling. Such insights are providing the key knowledge and understanding that will enable the development of strategies towards the production of crops with enhanced qualities.

  3. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  4. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  5. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification. PMID:28157197

  6. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  7. Future generation energy crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although cropping systems in the Midwest that emphasize corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are some of the most highly productive in the US, the growing lack of agricultural diversity in this region threatens to jeopardize long-term sustainability. Added to this co...

  8. Crop Dusting Using GPS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and GPS-based swath guidance systems are used on agricultural aircraft for remote sensing, airplane guidance, and to support variable-rate aerial application of crop inputs such as insecticides, cotton growth regulators, and defoliants. Agricultural aircraf...

  9. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  10. Crop Biotechnology. Where Now?

    PubMed Central

    Miflin, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agbiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience. PMID:10806221

  11. Global crop forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G.

    1980-01-01

    The needs for and remote sensing means of global crop forecasting are discussed, and key results of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) are presented. Current crop production estimates provided by foreign countries are shown often to be inadequate, and the basic elements of crop production forecasts are reviewed. The LACIE project is introduced as a proof-of-concept experiment designed to assimilate remote sensing technology, monitor global wheat production, evaluate key technical problems, modify the technique accordingly and demonstrate the feasibility of a global agricultural monitoring system. The global meteorological data, sampling and aggregation techniques, Landsat data analysis procedures and yield forecast procedures used in the experiment are outlined. Accuracy assessment procedures employed to evaluate LACIE technology performance are presented, and improvements in system efficiency and capacity during the three years of operation are pointed out. Results of LACIE estimates of Soviet, U.S. and Canadian wheat production are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the remote-sensing approach for global food and fiber monitoring.

  12. Major Cucurbit Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit is a general term to denote all species within the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes approximately 800 species in 130 genera. Cucurbits are mostly annual, herbaceous, tendril-bearing and frost sensitive vines and are among the economically most important vegetable crops worldwide. Cucurb...

  13. Nitrogen catch crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High costs of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the potential for N losses to ground and surface water have resulted in increased interest in using catch crops to recover this N. Research on potatoes has shown that the amount of N lost to leaching can be as much as the amount of N removed from the field ...

  14. Crop biotechnology. Where now?

    PubMed

    Miflin, B J

    2000-05-01

    Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agobiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience.

  15. Selectable traits to increase crop photosynthesis and yield of grain crops.

    PubMed

    Richards, R A

    2000-02-01

    The grain yield of cereals has almost doubled this century as a result of genetic manipulation by plant breeding. Surprisingly, there has been no change in the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area to accompany these increases. However, total photosynthesis has increased as a result of an increase in leaf area, daily duration of photosynthesis or leaf area duration. There remain substantial opportunities to continue to improve total photosynthesis and crop yield genetically using conventional breeding practices. Selectable traits are discussed here in the context of increasing total above-ground biomass under favourable conditions. Opportunities exist to alter crop duration and the timing of crop development to match it better to radiation, temperature and vapour pressure during crop growth, and to increase the rate of development of early leaf area to achieve rapid canopy closure. The importance of these traits will depend on the environment in which the crop is grown. Increases in crop photosynthesis through breeding are also likely to come via indirect means. Selection for a high and sustained stomatal conductance during the period of stem elongation is one way. Increasing assimilate allocation to the reproductive primordia so as to establish a large potential sink should also indirectly increase total crop photosynthesis. Evidence in the major grain crops suggests that by anthesis the capacity for photosynthesis is high and that photosynthesis is not limiting during grain filling. To use this surplus capacity it is suggested that carbon and nitrogen partitioning to the reproductive meristem be increased so as to establish a high potential grain number and the potential for a large grain size. It is then expected that additional photosynthesis will follow, either by a longer daily duration of photosynthesis or by an extended leaf area duration.

  16. Crop kites: Determining crop-water production functions using crop coefficients and sensitivity indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilovic, Mikhail; Gleeson, Tom; Adamowski, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The crop-water production function quantitatively evaluates the relationship between seasonal water use and crop yield and is used to evaluate optimal irrigation depth and assess the potential of deficit and supplemental irrigation. A simple and easily applicable methodology to develop crop- and region-specific crop-water production functions using crop coefficients and sensitivity-indices is presented. Previous efforts to describe the crop-water production function have not accounted for the effects of the temporal distribution of water use and trivialize the associated variability in yields by assuming an optimized or arbitrary temporal distribution. The temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season can significantly influence crop yield, and the ability of farmers to manage both the timing and amount of irrigation water may result in higher yields. We propose crop kites, a tool that explicitly acknowledges crop yield as a function of the temporal distribution of water use to both evaluate the complete space of water use and crop yield relationships, and extract from this space specific crop-water production functions. An example for winter wheat is presented using previously validated crop-specific sensitivity indices. Crop-water production functions are extracted from the crop kite related to specific irrigation schedules and temporal distributions of water use. Crop-water production functions associated with maximizing agricultural production agree with previous efforts characterizing the shape as a diminishing curvilinear function. Crop kites provide the tools for water managers and policy makers to evaluate crop- and region-specific agricultural production as it relates to water management and the associated economics, and to determine appropriate policies for developing and supporting the infrastructure to increase water productivity.

  17. Crop genomics: advances and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The completion of reference genome sequences for many important crops and the ability to perform high-throughput resequencing are providing opportunities for improving our understanding of the history of plant domestication and to accelerate crop improvement. Crop plant comparative genomics is being...

  18. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  19. Crop Sequence Calculator, v. 3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers need to know how to sequence crops to develop sustainable dynamic cropping systems that take advantage of inherent internal resources, such as crop synergism, nutrient cycling, and soil water, and capitalize on external resources, such as weather, markets, and government programs. Version ...

  20. Preliminary process engineering evaluation of ethanol production from vegetative crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, A. R.; Linden, J. C.; Smith, D. H.; Villet, R. H.

    1982-12-01

    Vegetative crops show good potential as feedstock for ethanol production via cellulose hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. The low levels of lignin encountered in young plant tissues show an inverse relationship with the high cellulose digestibility during hydrolysis with cellulose enzymes. Ensiled sorghum species and brown midrib mutants of sorghum exhibit high glucose yields after enzyme hydrolysis as well. Vegetative crop materials as candidate feedstocks for ethanol manufacture should continue to be studied. The species studied so far are high value cash crops and result in relatively high costs for the final ethanol product. Unconventional crops, such as pigweed, kochia, and Russian thistle, which can use water efficiently and grow on relatively arid land under conditions not ideal for food production, should be carefully evaluated with regard to their cultivation requirements, photosynthesis rates, and cellulose digestibility. Such crops should result in more favorable process economics for alcohol production.

  1. Multi-scale indicators in CropWatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zeng, H.; Yan, N.; Zhang, N.; Zou, W.; Chang, S.; Liu, G.

    2013-12-01

    separately. For China, a special indicator (crop type proportion, CTP) will be used to estimate planting area by crop type. Based on the multi-scale remote sensing based indicators, CropWatch can identify recent and noteworthy changes affecting wheat, maize, rice and soybean, and focus on trends that are likely to continue.

  2. Oilseed crop with promise

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1986-02-01

    Cuphea, a relatively unknown plant outside the scientific community, might someday provide valuable oils for manufacturing soaps, detergents, surfactants, and lubricants, and may have medical, nutritional and dietetic applications as well. Unique properties of oils found in its seed make cuphea a potentially valuable new crop for the USA. Its seeds contain large quantities of medium-chain fatty acids such as lauric acid, which is used in manufacturing soaps and detergents. Other medium-chain fatty acids in cuphea can be used for clinical treatment of rare human ailments associated with fat absorption. New uses for the fatty acids in the seed may be developed and economic conditions may change, making the crop more or less valuable.

  3. Epigenetics and crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable excitement about the potential for epigenetic information to contribute to heritable variation in many species. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance is rapidly growing, and it is now possible to profile the epigenome at high resolution. Epigenetic information plays a role in developmental gene regulation, response to the environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Because of these central roles, there is the potential for epigenetics to play a role in crop improvement strategies including the selection for favorable epigenetic states, creation of novel epialleles, and regulation of transgene expression. In this review we consider the potential, and the limitations, of epigenetic variation in crop improvement.

  4. Salt resistant crop plants.

    PubMed

    Roy, Stuart J; Negrão, Sónia; Tester, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops. PMID:27679645

  6. Soil profile organic carbon as affected by tillage and cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in the entire rooting profile are limited. A long-term experiment with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage s...

  7. Corn and soybean grain yields in a long-term tillage and cropping systems study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on corn and soybean yields are limited. Yields have been measured in a long-term experiment (30+ years) with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage system...

  8. Effects of bt crops on arthropod natual enemies: a global synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The global adoption of transgenic crops producing the insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillaceae), (Bt) continues to grow with 66 M hectares of Bt crops grown in a total of 25 countries in 2011 (James 2011). Unintended environmental effects from the technology continue t...

  9. Weather based risks and insurances for crop production in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as late frosts, droughts, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The risk of soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that drought stress occurs in spring and summer. Conversely, waterlogging occurs mostly during early spring and autumn. Risks of temperature stress appear during winter and spring for chilling and during summer for heat. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, the regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims for different crops. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage as demonstrated for cropping systems in Belgium. Extreme weather events have already precipitated contraction of insurance coverage in some markets (e.g. hail insurance), and the process can be expected to continue if the losses or damages from such events increase in the future. Climate

  10. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    PubMed

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I M; Nawar, Ali I; Rohila, Jai S

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  12. Proteomics: a biotechnology tool for crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Eldakak, Moustafa; Milad, Sanaa I. M.; Nawar, Ali I.; Rohila, Jai S.

    2013-01-01

    A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path toward crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. PMID:23450788

  13. Irrigation management of crops rotations in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, J.; Teixeira, J.; Catalão, J.

    2012-04-01

    Due to climate change we cannot continue to perform irrigation systems design and irrigation management based only on historical records of weather stations, assuming that the statistical parameters of the meteorological data remains unchanged in time, being necessary to take into account the climatic data relative to climate change scenarios. For the Mediterranean basin the various climate models indicate an increase in temperature and a reduction in precipitation and a more frequent occurrence of extreme events which will increase the risk of crop failure. Thus, it is important to adopt strategies to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in a changing climate. A very interesting technique to achieve this is the adoption of crops rotations, since they increase the heterogeneity of farming systems distributing the risk between crops and minimizing costs. This study aims to evaluate the impact of climate change in the irrigation requirements of crop rotations for the Alentejo region in the South of Portugal, and the ability of crops rotation to reduce these impacts and stabilize crops production. The IrrigRotation software was used to estimate the water requirements of two crop rotations used in the Alentejo region, Sunflower-Wheat-Barley and Sugar beet-Maize-Tomato-Wheat. IrrigRotation is a soil water balance simulation model, continuous in time, based on the dual crop coefficients methodology, which allows to compute the irrigation requirements of crop rotations. The climate data used were the observed data of the Évora and Beja weather stations (1961-90), the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadRM3P model and the A2 scenarios of the HIRHAMh and HIRHAMhh models (2071-2100). The consideration of a set of climate change scenarios produces as a result a range of values for the irrigation requirements which can be used to define safety margins in irrigation design. The results show that for the Beja clay soils, with high values of soil water storage capacity

  14. The effects of weed-crop competition on nutrient uptake as affected by crop rotation and fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Mohammaddoust-E-Chamanabad, Hamid Reza; Asghari, Ali; Tulikov, Aleksander Mikhailovic

    2007-11-15

    A field study at the Agricultural University of Timiriazev, Moscow, was conducted to determine the effect of crop rotation and Long-term fertilizer application on differences in the competitive ability of spring barley and weeds to nutrient uptake in 2004 and 2005. Spring barley was cultivated in continuous and in crop rotation with winter rye, potato, clover, flax and fallow, with and without NPK application since 1912. Spring barley, especially in no fertilizer plots grown in crop rotation has greater dry mass than spring barley grown in continuous. While dry weed mass markedly decreased in crop rotation. Decrease dry weeds mass was greater when NPK had applied. The statistical analyses show that when spring barley grew in competition with weeds in the no fertilizer plots, crop rotation significantly increased nutrient content in spring barley, but when fertilizer applied the content of N, P2O5 and K2O in barley did not change. Lowest weeds nutrient content observed where soil fertility was increased by crop rotation and NPK application. Crop rotation significantly increased total nutrient uptake of soils by spring barley, but decreased total nutrient uptake by weeds.

  15. Soil Water Improvements with the Long Term Use of a Winter Rye Cover Crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.

  16. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  17. Meteorological risks and impacts on crop production systems in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2013-04-01

    the sensitive stages of summer crops increases and may be further aggravated by atmospheric moisture deficits and heat stress. Summer crops may therefore benefit from earlier planting dates and beneficial moisture conditions during early canopy development, but will suffer from increased drought and heat stress during crop maturity. During the harvesting stages, the number of waterlogged days increases in particular for tuber crops. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage. The approach allows for assessing the meteorological impacts on crop growth due to the sensitive stages occurring earlier during the growing season and due to extreme weather events. Though average yields have risen continuously between 1947 and 2008 mainly due to technological advances, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to adverse weather conditions such as atmospheric moisture deficit and temperature extremes has changed.

  18. [China's crop residues resources evaluation].

    PubMed

    Xie, Guanghui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Lantian

    2010-07-01

    The availability of crop residues in China is reviewed in this article. The definition of crop residues is clarified as the total byproducts of field production and processing industry thereafter, and methodology for evaluating crop residues is discussed. Based on literature, the progress on the crop residue assessment is addressed. The annual field crops residues in China from 1991 to 1999 were estimated between 6.0-6.8 hundred million tons, while the data for the process residues were not available. From 2000 to 2007, the annual crop residues were estimated between 5.9-7.3 hundred million tons, while the processing residues at the range of 0.9-1.1 hundred million tons. The reasons for the significant variations are due to the disagreement on crop residue definition, different, even inaccurate residue to grain ratio data used in the estimations, and the lacking of clear understanding on the statistical analysis and grain outputs related to the crop residue evaluation. With the complete statistic analysis method, the author's group evaluated the residues in 2006 and 2007 to be 7.4 hundred million tones in total, including 6.5 hundred million tons for field crop residues and 0.9 hundred million tons for process residues. Moreover, the geographic distribution of the field crop residues was analyzed based on the harvest indices (HI) tested within the near five years.

  19. Improving crop salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Flowers, T J

    2004-02-01

    Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very limited success, due to the complexity of the trait: salt tolerance is complex genetically and physiologically. Tolerance often shows the characteristics of a multigenic trait, with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tolerance identified in barley, citrus, rice, and tomato and with ion transport under saline conditions in barley, citrus and rice. Physiologically salt tolerance is also complex, with halophytes and less tolerant plants showing a wide range of adaptations. Attempts to enhance tolerance have involved conventional breeding programmes, the use of in vitro selection, pooling physiological traits, interspecific hybridization, using halophytes as alternative crops, the use of marker-aided selection, and the use of transgenic plants. It is surprising that, in spite of the complexity of salt tolerance, there are commonly claims in the literature that the transfer of a single or a few genes can increase the tolerance of plants to saline conditions. Evaluation of such claims reveals that, of the 68 papers produced between 1993 and early 2003, only 19 report quantitative estimates of plant growth. Of these, four papers contain quantitative data on the response of transformants and wild-type of six species without and with salinity applied in an appropriate manner. About half of all the papers report data on experiments conducted under conditions where there is little or no transpiration: such experiments may provide insights into components of tolerance, but are not grounds for claims of enhanced tolerance at the whole plant level. Whether enhanced

  20. Crop sequence effects on root maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae: Delia spp.) infestations in canola.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, L M; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Blackshaw, R E; Kutcher, H R; Gan, Y; Johnson, E N

    2012-08-01

    Strong market demand for canola, Brassica napus L., has prompted some western Canadian producers to increase the frequency of this crop in rotations with other crop species, but the impact of this practice on canola insect pests has not been determined. Here, we investigate 12 cropping sequences involving canola over a 3-yr period (2008-2010 inclusive) at five locations across western Canada. Cropping sequences varied from continuous production of two herbicide-tolerant canola varieties, to production in two of 3 yr, to canola production in one of the 3 yr. Treatments analyzed were the frequency and timing of canola within the rotational sequence. Damage by larvae of root maggots (Diptera: Anthomyiidae: Delia spp.) to canola taproots increased as the study progressed, particularly in 2010 after canola had been grown continuously for 3 yr. Yield declined with continuous canola production, and differences were greatest in 2010. At mean canola crop prices for 2010, the yield reduction from continuous production amounted to economic losses of approximately Can$282-$377/ha. Crop quality, in terms of oil and protein concentrations of harvested seed, was affected more by crop variety than cropping sequence. Crop sequence effects for root maggot damage, yield, and seed quality were relatively stable in the presence of environmental (location) variation. Results of our study suggest that continuous canola production could be unsustainable over the long-term even though market forces currently provide incentive for this practice.

  1. Soil moisture monitoring for crop management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Dale

    2015-07-01

    The 'Risk management through soil moisture monitoring' project has demonstrated the capability of current technology to remotely monitor and communicate real time soil moisture data. The project investigated whether capacitance probes would assist making informed pre- and in-crop decisions. Crop potential and cropping inputs are increasingly being subject to greater instability and uncertainty due to seasonal variability. In a targeted survey of those who received regular correspondence from the Department of Primary Industries it was found that i) 50% of the audience found the information generated relevant for them and less than 10% indicted with was not relevant; ii) 85% have improved their knowledge/ability to assess soil moisture compared to prior to the project, with the most used indicator of soil moisture still being rain fall records; and iii) 100% have indicated they will continue to use some form of the technology to monitor soil moisture levels in the future. It is hoped that continued access to this information will assist informed input decisions. This will minimise inputs in low decile years with a low soil moisture base and maximise yield potential in more favourable conditions based on soil moisture and positive seasonal forecasts

  2. Space Data for Crop Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.

  3. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that these genetic inferences are fundamentally compatible with recent archaeological data that support a view of domestication as a geographically diffuse, gradual process. In this review, we summarize methodologies ranging from QTL mapping to resequencing used in genetic analyses of crop evolution. We also highlight recent major insights regarding the timing and spatial patterning of crop domestication and the distinct genetic underpinnings of domestication, diversification, and improvement traits. PMID:20541451

  4. Crop demand of manganese.

    PubMed

    Marton, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate some of the popular rotation crops grown in Hungary for tolerance to low external Mn(2+) levels and to determine the critical tissue concentration of Mn(2+) deficiency during early stages of growth. The minimum Mn(2+) concentration required in soil nutrient contents was 42.5 mg kg(-1) for sunflower, 24.3 mg kg(-1) for tobacco and 10.2 mg kg(-1) for triticale. Sunflower, tobacco and triticale achieved optimum growth at 48.0-65.0 mg Mn(2+) kg(-1), 24.9-32.1 mg Mn( n+) kg(-1) and 28.7 to 29.6 mg Mn(2+) kg(-1), respectively. Critical shoot Mn(2+) concentration at early stages of growth was 53.6 mg kg(-1) in sunflower, 458.0 mg kg(-1) in tobacco and 193.8 mg kg(-1) in triticale. Our results demonstrate that the tolerance to low external Mn(2+) (triticale: <30.2 mg kg(-1); sunflower: <56.2 mg kg(-1); tobacco: <69.3 mg kg(-1)) and the critical tissue Mn(2+) levels for deficiency varied significantly between crop species tested.

  5. Safety of GM crops: compositional analysis.

    PubMed

    Brune, Philip D; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Ridley, William P; Walker, Kate

    2013-09-04

    The compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment program for these materials. The variety and complexity of genetically engineered traits and modes of action that will be used in GM crops in the near future, as well as our expanded knowledge of compositional variability and factors that can affect composition, raise questions about compositional analysis and how it should be applied to evaluate the safety of traits. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a nonprofit foundation whose mission is to provide science that improves public health and well-being by fostering collaboration among experts from academia, government, and industry, convened a workshop in September 2012 to examine these and related questions, and a series of papers has been assembled to describe the outcomes of that meeting.

  6. Microbial enhancement of crop resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Ian C; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2012-04-01

    Naturally occurring soil microbes may be used as inoculants to maintain crop yields despite decreased resource (water and nutrient) inputs. Plant symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi alter root aquaporin gene expression and greatly increase the surface area over which plant root systems take up water and nutrients. Soil bacteria on the root surface alter root phytohormone status thereby increasing growth, and can make nutrients more available to the plant. Combining different classes of soil organism within one inoculant can potentially take advantage of multiple plant growth-promoting mechanisms, but biological interactions between inoculant constituents and the plant are difficult to predict. Whether the yield benefits of such inocula allow modified nutrient and water management continues to challenge crop biotechnologists.

  7. Crop responses to climatic variation

    PubMed Central

    Porter, John R; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal resolution. This paper demonstrates the impacts of climate variability for crop production in a number of crops. Increasing temperature and precipitation variability increases the risks to yield, as shown via computer simulation and experimental studies. The issue of food quality has not been given sufficient importance when assessing the impact of climate change for food and this is addressed. Using simulation models of wheat, the concentration of grain protein is shown to respond to changes in the mean and variability of temperature and precipitation events. The paper concludes with discussion of adaptation possibilities for crops in response to drought and argues that characters that enable better exploration of the soil and slower leaf canopy expansion could lead to crop higher transpiration efficiency. PMID:16433091

  8. Crop responses to climatic variation.

    PubMed

    Porter, John R; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2005-11-29

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal resolution. This paper demonstrates the impacts of climate variability for crop production in a number of crops. Increasing temperature and precipitation variability increases the risks to yield, as shown via computer simulation and experimental studies. The issue of food quality has not been given sufficient importance when assessing the impact of climate change for food and this is addressed. Using simulation models of wheat, the concentration of grain protein is shown to respond to changes in the mean and variability of temperature and precipitation events. The paper concludes with discussion of adaptation possibilities for crops in response to drought and argues that characters that enable better exploration of the soil and slower leaf canopy expansion could lead to crop higher transpiration efficiency.

  9. Recent patterns of crop yield growth and stagnation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Foley, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    In the coming decades, continued population growth, rising meat and dairy consumption and expanding biofuel use will dramatically increase the pressure on global agriculture. Even as we face these future burdens, there have been scattered reports of yield stagnation in the world's major cereal crops, including maize, rice and wheat. Here we study data from ∼2.5 million census observations across the globe extending over the period 1961-2008. We examined the trends in crop yields for four key global crops: maize, rice, wheat and soybeans. Although yields continue to increase in many areas, we find that across 24-39% of maize-, rice-, wheat- and soybean-growing areas, yields either never improve, stagnate or collapse. This result underscores the challenge of meeting increasing global agricultural demands. New investments in underperforming regions, as well as strategies to continue increasing yields in the high-performing areas, are required.

  10. Assessing evapotranspiration, basal crop coefficient, and irrigation efficiency in production peach orchard in California's San Joaquin Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate field scale observations of crop water use are necessary to maximize crop productivity with limited water resources and to parameterize regional and continental satellite models to estimate near real-time crop water use. However, rapid, continuous observations of field-scale water use in Ca...

  11. Crop genomics: advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Peter L; Buckler, Edward S; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2011-12-29

    The completion of reference genome sequences for many important crops and the ability to perform high-throughput resequencing are providing opportunities for improving our understanding of the history of plant domestication and to accelerate crop improvement. Crop plant comparative genomics is being transformed by these data and a new generation of experimental and computational approaches. The future of crop improvement will be centred on comparisons of individual plant genomes, and some of the best opportunities may lie in using combinations of new genetic mapping strategies and evolutionary analyses to direct and optimize the discovery and use of genetic variation. Here we review such strategies and insights that are emerging.

  12. Modifying agricultural crops for improved nutrition.

    PubMed

    McGloughlin, Martina Newell

    2010-11-30

    The first generation of biotechnology products commercialized were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits whose value was often opaque to consumers. The coming generations of crop plants can be grouped into four broad areas each presenting what, on the surface, may appear as unique challenges and opportunities. The present and future focus is on continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and abiotic stress resistance in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and "bio-synthetics"; value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and food functionality; and plants as production factories for therapeutics and industrial products. From a consumer perspective, the focus on value-added traits, especially improved nutrition, is undoubtedly one of the areas of greatest interest. From a basic nutrition perspective, there is a clear dichotomy in demonstrated need between different regions and socioeconomic groups, the starkest being inappropriate consumption in the developed world and under-nourishment in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Dramatic increases in the occurrence of obesity and related ailments in affluent regions are in sharp contrast to chronic malnutrition in many LDCs. Both problems require a modified food supply, and the tools of biotechnology have a part to play. Developing plants with improved traits involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory and indeed perception hurdles inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex traits modifications. Continuing improvements in molecular and genomic technologies are contributing to the acceleration of product development to produce plants with the appropriate quality traits for the different regions and needs. Crops with improved traits in the pipeline, the evolving technologies and the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead are covered.

  13. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  14. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  15. 605 Salad crops: Root, bulb, and tuber Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root and tuber crops (potato, cassava, sweet potato, and yams) comprise 4 of the 10 major food staples of the world and serve as a major source of energy for the poor of developing nations. Minimal strain placed on agro ecosystems by root and tuber crops highlight their welcomed contribution to the ...

  16. Role of modern chemistry in sustainable arable crop protection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Keith; Evans, David A; El-Hiti, Gamal A

    2008-02-12

    Organic chemistry has been, and for the foreseeable future will remain, vitally important for crop protection. Control of fungal pathogens, insect pests and weeds is crucial to enhanced food provision. As world population continues to grow, it is timely to assess the current situation, anticipate future challenges and consider how new chemistry may help meet those challenges. In future, agriculture will increasingly be expected to provide not only food and feed, but also crops for conversion into renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. This will further increase the demand for higher crop yields per unit area, requiring chemicals used in crop production to be even more sophisticated. In order to contribute to programmes of integrated crop management, there is a requirement for chemicals to display high specificity, demonstrate benign environmental and toxicological profiles, and be biodegradable. It will also be necessary to improve production of those chemicals, because waste generated by the production process mitigates the overall benefit. Three aspects are considered in this review: advances in the discovery process for new molecules for sustainable crop protection, including tests for environmental and toxicological properties as well as biological activity; advances in synthetic chemistry that may offer efficient and environmentally benign manufacturing processes for modern crop protection chemicals; and issues related to energy use and production through agriculture.

  17. Thiamin biofortification of crops.

    PubMed

    Goyer, Aymeric

    2016-10-14

    Thiamin is essential for human health. While plants are the ultimate source of thiamin in most human diets, staple foods like white rice have low thiamin content. Therefore, populations whose diets are mainly based on low-thiamin staple crops suffer from thiamin deficiency. Biofortification of rice grain by engineering the thiamin biosynthesis pathway has recently been attempted, with up to 5-fold increase in thiamin content in unpolished seeds. However, polished seeds that retain only the starchy endosperm had similar thiamin content than that of non-engineered plants. Various factors such as limited supply of precursors, limited activity of thiamin biosynthetic enzymes, dependence on maternal tissues to supply thiamin, or lack of thiamin stabilizing proteins may have hindered thiamin increase in the endosperm.

  18. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  19. Why genetically modified crops?

    PubMed

    Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-05-13

    This paper is intended to convey the message of the talk I gave at the Theo Murphy meeting at the Kavli Centre in July 2010. It, like the talk, is polemical, and conveys the exasperation felt by a practitioner of genetically modified (GM) plant science at its widespread misrepresentation. I argue that sustainable intensification of agriculture, using GM as well as other technologies, reduces its environmental impact by reducing pesticide applications and conserving soil carbon by enabling low till methods. Current technologies (primarily insect resistance and herbicide tolerance) have been beneficial. Moreover, the near-term pipeline of new GM methods and traits to enhance our diet, increase crop yields and reduce losses to disease is substantial. It would be perverse to spurn this approach at a time when we need every tool in the toolbox to ensure adequate food production in the short, medium and long term.

  20. Improving photosynthesis and crop productivity by accelerating recovery from photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Kromdijk, Johannes; Głowacka, Katarzyna; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Gabilly, Stéphane T; Iwai, Masakazu; Niyogi, Krishna K; Long, Stephen P

    2016-11-18

    Crop leaves in full sunlight dissipate damaging excess absorbed light energy as heat. When sunlit leaves are shaded by clouds or other leaves, this protective dissipation continues for many minutes and reduces photosynthesis. Calculations have shown that this could cost field crops up to 20% of their potential yield. Here, we describe the bioengineering of an accelerated response to natural shading events in Nicotiana (tobacco), resulting in increased leaf carbon dioxide uptake and plant dry matter productivity by about 15% in fluctuating light. Because the photoprotective mechanism that has been altered is common to all flowering plants and crops, the findings provide proof of concept for a route to obtaining a sustainable increase in productivity for food crops and a much-needed yield jump. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Cover crop root, shoot, and rhizodeposit contributions to soil carbon in a no- till corn bioenergy cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, E.; Grandy, S.; Wickings, K.; McDaniel, M. D.; Robertson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may result in reduced soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass and as well as help to mitigate the negative effects of residue removal by adding belowground C to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern portion of the US corn belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace C in a winter rye (secale cereale) cover crop into different soil C pools for two years following rye termination. Corn stover contributed 66 (another 163 was in harvested corn stover), corn roots 57, rye shoot 61, rye roots 59, and rye rhizodeposits 27 g C m-2 to soil C. Five months following cover crop termination, belowground cover crop inputs were three times more likely to remain in soil C pools and much of the root-derived C was in mineral- associated soil fractions. Our results underscore the importance of cover crop roots vs. shoots as a source of soil C. Belowground C inputs from winter cover crops could substantially offset short term stover removal in this system.

  2. Irrigation modeling with AquaCrop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of UN-FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity, an...

  3. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  4. Transgenic horticultural crops in Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern biotechnology applications, including genetic engineering, are a powerful tool to complement the conventional methods of crop improvement. Asia currently has three countries cultivating biotech/transgenic crops – China, India, and the Philippines, but only China commercially grows a transgen...

  5. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  6. Transgenic Crops for Herbicide Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since their introduction in 1995, crops made resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate with transgenes are widely available and used in much of the world. As of 2008, over 80% of the transgenic crops grown world-wide have this transgenic trait. This technology has had m...

  7. High plains cover crop research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  8. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  9. Crop Residue and Soil Water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop yield is greatly influenced by the amount of water that moves from the soil, through the plant, and out into the atmosphere. Winter wheat yield responds linearly to available soil water content at planting (bu/a = 5.56 + 5.34*inches). Therefore, storing precipitation in the soil during non-crop...

  10. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  11. Alternative cropping systems for sugarcane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting cover crops during the fallow period prior to planting sugarcane has the potential to influence not only the following sugarcane crop, but the economics of the production system as a whole. Research was conducted at the USDA, ARS, Sugarcane Research Unit at Houma, LA to determine the impac...

  12. Integrated approaches to climate–crop modelling: needs and challenges

    PubMed Central

    A. Betts, Richard

    2005-01-01

    irrigation may be affected by changes in runoff as a direct consequence of climate change, and may also be affected by climate-related changes in demand for water for other uses. It is, therefore, necessary to consider the interactions between the responses of several impacts sectors to climate change. Overall, there is a strong case for a much closer coupling between models of climate, crops and hydrology, but this in itself poses challenges arising from issues of scale and errors in the models. A strategy is proposed whereby the pursuit of a fully coupled climate–chemistry–crop–hydrology model is paralleled by continued use of separate climate and land surface models but with a focus on consistency between the models. PMID:16433093

  13. Double- and relay-cropping oilseed and biomass crops for sustainable energy production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economically and environmentally sustainable bioenergy production requires strategic integration of biofuel crops into modern cropping systems. Double- and relay-cropping can offer a means of increasing production efficiency to boost profits and provide environmental benefits through crop diversific...

  14. Continuation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont Unified School District, CA.

    The Fremont, California Unified School District organized a continuing education program through a workshop held in the summer of 1968. This paper presents the results of that workshop. Following a statement of philosophy, an outline of the characteristics of the continuation student, and an outline of the functions of the program, an overview of…

  15. Orphan Crops Browser: a bridge between model and orphan crops.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Claire Lessa Alvim; Severing, Edouard I; Dechesne, Annemarie; Furrer, Heleen; Dolstra, Oene; Trindade, Luisa M

    Many important crops have received little attention by the scientific community, either because they are not considered economically important or due to their large and complex genomes. De novo transcriptome assembly, using next-generation sequencing data, is an attractive option for the study of these orphan crops. In spite of the large amount of sequencing data that can be generated, there is currently a lack of tools which can effectively help molecular breeders and biologists to mine this type of information. Our goal was to develop a tool that enables molecular breeders, without extensive bioinformatics knowledge, to efficiently study de novo transcriptome data from any orphan crop (http://www.bioinformatics.nl/denovobrowser/db/species/index). The Orphan Crops Browser has been designed to facilitate the following tasks (1) search and identification of candidate transcripts based on phylogenetic relationships between orthologous sequence data from a set of related species and (2) design specific and degenerate primers for expression studies in the orphan crop of interest. To demonstrate the usability and reliability of the browser, it was used to identify the putative orthologues of 17 known lignin biosynthetic genes from maize and sugarcane in the orphan crop Miscanthus sinensis. Expression studies in miscanthus stem internode tissue differing in maturation were subsequently carried out, to follow the expression of these genes during lignification. Our results showed a negative correlation between lignin content and gene expression. The present data are in agreement with recent findings in maize and other crops, and it is further discussed in this paper.

  16. Integrating soil conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops: impacts on soil.

    PubMed

    Locke, Martin A; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Reddy, Krishna N

    2008-04-01

    Conservation practices often associated with glyphosate-resistant crops, e.g. limited tillage and crop cover, improve soil conditions, but only limited research has evaluated their effects on soil in combination with glyphosate-resistant crops. It is assumed that conservation practices have similar benefits to soil whether or not glyphosate-resistant crops are used. This paper reviews the impact on soil of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crops, and presents data from a Mississippi field trial comparing glyphosate-resistant and non-glyphosate-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under limited tillage management. Results from the reduced-tillage study indicate differences in soil biological and chemical properties owing to glyphosate-resistant crops. Under continuous glyphosate-resistant maize, soils maintained greater soil organic carbon and nitrogen as compared with continuous non-glyphosate-resistant maize, but no differences were measured in continuous cotton or in cotton rotated with maize. Soil microbial community structure based on total fatty acid methyl ester analysis indicated a significant effect of glyphosate-resistant crop following 5 years of continuous glyphosate-resistant crop as compared with the non-glyphosate-resistant crop system. Results from this study, as well as the literature review, indicate differences attributable to the interaction of conservation practices and glyphosate-resistant crop, but many are transient and benign for the soil ecosystem. Glyphosate use may result in minor effects on soil biological/chemical properties. However, enhanced organic carbon and plant residues in surface soils under conservation practices may buffer potential effects of glyphosate. Long-term field research established under various cropping systems and ecological regions is needed for critical assessment of glyphosate-resistant crop and conservation practice interactions. Copyright (c) 2008 by John Wiley & Sons

  17. Cadmium stress tolerance in crop plants

    PubMed Central

    Singh Gill, Sarvajeet

    2011-01-01

    Plants can't move away and are therefore continuously confronted with unfavorable environmental conditions (such as soil salinity, drought, heat, cold, flooding and heavy metal contamination). Among heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential and toxic metal, rapidly taken up by roots and accumulated in various plant tissues which hamper the crop growth and productivity worldwide. Plants employ various strategies to counteract the inhibitory effect of Cd, among which nutrient management is one of a possible way to overcome Cd toxicity. Sulfur (S) uptake and assimilation are crucial for determining crop yield and resistance to Cd stress. Cd affects S assimilation pathway which leads to the activation of pathway responsible for the synthesis of cysteine (Cys), a precursor of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis. GSH, a non-protein thiol acts as an important antioxidant in mitigating Cd-induced oxidative stress. It also plays an important role in phytochelatins (PCs) synthesis, which has a proven role in Cd detoxification. Therefore, S assimilation is considered a crucial step for plant survival under Cd stress. The aim of this review is to discuss the regulatory mechanism of S uptake and assimilation, GSH and PC synthesis for Cd stress tolerance in crop plants. PMID:21330784

  18. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-08-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  19. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-02-28

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  20. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-02-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  1. Automatic image cropping for republishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheatle, Phil

    2010-02-01

    Image cropping is an important aspect of creating aesthetically pleasing web pages and repurposing content for different web or printed output layouts. Cropping provides both the possibility of improving the composition of the image, and also the ability to change the aspect ratio of the image to suit the layout design needs of different document or web page formats. This paper presents a method for aesthetically cropping images on the basis of their content. Underlying the approach is a novel segmentation-based saliency method which identifies some regions as "distractions", as an alternative to the conventional "foreground" and "background" classifications. Distractions are a particular problem with typical consumer photos found on social networking websites such as FaceBook, Flickr etc. Automatic cropping is achieved by identifying the main subject area of the image and then using an optimization search to expand this to form an aesthetically pleasing crop. Evaluation of aesthetic functions like auto-crop is difficult as there is no single correct solution. A further contribution of this paper is an automated evaluation method which goes some way towards handling the complexity of aesthetic assessment. This allows crop algorithms to be easily evaluated against a large test set.

  2. Investment risk in bioenergy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Skevas, Theodoros; Swinton, Scott M.; Tanner, Sophia; Sanford, Gregg; Thelen, Kurt D.

    2015-11-18

    Here, perennial, cellulosic bioenergy crops represent a risky investment. The potential for adoption of these crops depends not only on mean net returns, but also on the associated probability distributions and on the risk preferences of farmers. Using 6-year observed crop yield data from highly productive and marginally productive sites in the southern Great Lakes region and assuming risk neutrality, we calculate expected breakeven biomass yields and prices compared to corn (Zea mays L.) as a benchmark. Next we develop Monte Carlo budget simulations based on stochastic crop prices and yields. The crop yield simulations decompose yield risk into three components: crop establishment survival, time to maturity, and mature yield variability. Results reveal that corn with harvest of grain and 38% of stover (as cellulosic bioenergy feedstock) is both the most profitable and the least risky investment option. It dominates all perennial systems considered across a wide range of farmer risk preferences. Although not currently attractive for profit-oriented farmers who are risk neutral or risk averse, perennial bioenergy crops.

  3. Investment risk in bioenergy crops

    DOE PAGES

    Skevas, Theodoros; Swinton, Scott M.; Tanner, Sophia; ...

    2015-11-18

    Here, perennial, cellulosic bioenergy crops represent a risky investment. The potential for adoption of these crops depends not only on mean net returns, but also on the associated probability distributions and on the risk preferences of farmers. Using 6-year observed crop yield data from highly productive and marginally productive sites in the southern Great Lakes region and assuming risk neutrality, we calculate expected breakeven biomass yields and prices compared to corn (Zea mays L.) as a benchmark. Next we develop Monte Carlo budget simulations based on stochastic crop prices and yields. The crop yield simulations decompose yield risk into threemore » components: crop establishment survival, time to maturity, and mature yield variability. Results reveal that corn with harvest of grain and 38% of stover (as cellulosic bioenergy feedstock) is both the most profitable and the least risky investment option. It dominates all perennial systems considered across a wide range of farmer risk preferences. Although not currently attractive for profit-oriented farmers who are risk neutral or risk averse, perennial bioenergy crops.« less

  4. Seed fates in crop–wild hybrid sunflower: crop allele and maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M; Emry, Jason D; Mercer, Kristin L

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has resulted in selection upon seed traits found in wild populations, yet crop-wild hybrids retain some aspects of both parental phenotypes. Seed fates of germination, dormancy, and mortality can influence the success of crop allele introgression in crop-wild hybrid zones, especially if crop alleles or crop-imparted seed coverings result in out-of-season germination. We performed a seed burial experiment using crop, wild, and diverse hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cross types to test how a cross type's maternal parent and nuclear genetic composition might affect its fate under field conditions. We observed higher maladaptive fall germination in the crop- and F1- produced seeds than wild-produced seeds and, due to an interaction with percent crop alleles, fall germination was higher for cross types with more crop-like nuclear genetics. By spring, crop-produced cross types had the highest overwintering mortality, primarily due to higher fall germination. Early spring germination was identical across maternal types, but germination continued for F1-produced seeds. In conclusion, the more wild-like the maternal parent or the less proportion of the cross type's genome contributed by the crop, the greater likelihood a seed will remain ungerminated than die. Wild-like dormancy may facilitate introgression through future recruitment from the soil seed bank. PMID:25685189

  5. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  6. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  7. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Garland, J L; Sager, J C

    1996-12-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  8. Nutrient biofortification of food crops.

    PubMed

    Hirschi, Kendal D

    2009-01-01

    Plant-based foods offer an array of nutrients that are essential for human nutrition and promote good health. However, the major staple crops of the world are often deficient in some of these nutrients. Traditional agricultural approaches can marginally enhance the nutritional value of some foods, but the advances in molecular biology are rapidly being exploited to engineer crops with enhanced key nutrients. Nutritional targets include elevated mineral content, improved fatty acid composition, increased amino acid levels, and heightened antioxidant levels. Unfortunately, in many cases the benefits of these "biofortified" crops to human nutrition have not been demonstrated.

  9. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  10. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  11. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  12. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  13. Soil pH and exchangeable cation responses to tillage and fertilizer in dryland cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers can lead to soil acidification and other chemical changes that can lower fertility. Here, we present near-surface (0-7.6 cm) soil chemistry data from 16 years of two different crop rotations in the US northern Great Plains: (1) continuous crop (CC; spring w...

  14. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop year...

  15. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop year...

  16. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop year...

  17. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop year...

  18. 7 CFR 981.57 - Application of salable and reserve percentages after end of crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.57... established for any crop year shall continue in effect with respect to all almonds for which the reserve... requirements for all such almonds theretofore received for his own account or handled during that crop year...

  19. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  20. 7 CFR 205.602 - Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic crop production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonsynthetic substances prohibited for use in organic... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Administrative The... organic crop production. The following nonsynthetic substances may not be used in organic crop...

  1. Cover Crop and Liquid Manure Effects on Soil Quality Indicators in a Corn Silage System.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to a lack of surface residue and organic matter inputs, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) silage production is one of the most demanding cropping systems imposed on our soil resources. In this study, our objective was to determine if using cover/companion crops and/or applying low-solids liquid dair...

  2. Radiometer footprint model to estimate sunlit and shaded components for row crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes a geometric model for computing the relative proportion of sunlit vegetation, shaded vegetation, sunlit soil, and shaded soil appearing in a circular or elliptical radiometer footprint for row crops, where the crop rows were modeled as continuous ellipses. The model was validate...

  3. Producing biofuel crops: environmental and economic implications and strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growing need for sustainable fuel sources must become compatible with the continued need for food by an ever increasing world population and the effects of climate change on ability to produce food and biofuel. Growing more hectares of biofuel crops such as corn increases sediment and nutrient l...

  4. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  5. Alfalfa: a companion crop with corn for bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soybean or as a continuous corn crop for ethanol, including high energy inputs, high soil erosion potential, and high nutrient inputs and loss to the environme...

  6. Crop diversity on traditional great plains wheat farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, the vast majority of cropland in the western Great Plains was either seeded to continuous monoculture wheat or was in a wheat-fallow rotation. The objective of this paper is to determine the combined effects of crop diversity and tillage systems on wheat grain yield and net returns fo...

  7. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. Seed crop prospects for 1951.

    Treesearch

    Leo A. Isaac

    1950-01-01

    Abundance of winter flower buds, while not positive evidence, is at least a good indicator of next fall's seed crop. Management men can make good use of this information in working out their spring or early fall slash disposal program.

  13. Redox Strategies for Crop Improvement.

    PubMed

    Kerchev, Pavel; De Smet, Barbara; Waszczak, Cezary; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2015-11-10

    Recently, the agro-biotech industry has been driven by overcoming the limitations imposed by fluctuating environmental stress conditions on crop productivity. A common theme among (a)biotic stresses is the perturbation of the redox homeostasis. As a strategy to engineer stress-tolerant crops, many approaches have been centered on restricting the negative impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In this study, we discuss the scientific background of the existing redox-based strategies to improve crop performance and quality. In this respect, a special focus goes to summarizing the current patent landscape because this aspect is very often ignored, despite constituting the forefront of applied research. The current increased understanding of ROS acting as signaling molecules has opened new avenues to exploit redox biology for crop improvement required for sustainable food security.

  14. Growth stage estimation. [crop calendars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, V. S.; Phinney, D. E.; Crea, W. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Of the three candidate approaches to adjustment of the crop calendar to account for year-to-year weather differences, the Robertson triquadratic unit, a function of a nonlinear function of maximum and minimum temperature and day length, best described the rate of phenological development of wheat. The adjustable crop calendar (ACC) as implemented for LACIE is used to calculate the daily increment of development through six physiological stages of growth. Topics covered include dormancy modeling, the spring restart model, spring wheat starter model, winter starter model, winter wheat starter model, inclusion of the moisture variable, and display of crop stage estimation results. Assessment of the ACC accuracy over the period of LACIE operation indicates that the adjustable crop calendars used provided more accurate information than would have been available using historical norms. The models performed best under the conditions from which they were derived (Canadian spring wheat) and most poorly for the dwarf varieties and Southern Hemisphere applications.

  15. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    The ultimate economic feasibility of biomass depends on its cost of production and on the cost of competing fuels. The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the production costs of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass for energy use in Iowa. Herbaceous biomass production systems have costs similar to other crop production systems, such as corn, soybean, and forages. Thus, the factors influencing the costs of producing dedicated biomass energy crops include technological factors such as the cultivation system, species, treatments, soil type, and site and economic factors such as input prices and use of fixed resources. In order to investigate how these production alternatives are influenced by soil resources, and climate conditions, two locations in Iowa, Ames and Chariton, with different soil types and slightly different weather patterns were selected for both the agronomic and economic analyses. Nine crops in thirteen cropping systems were grown at the two sites for five years, from 1988 to 1992. Some of the systems had multiple cropping or interplanting, using combinations of cool-season species and warm-season species, in order to meet multiple objectives of maximum biomass, minimal soil loss, reduced nitrogen fertilization or diminished pesticide inputs. Six of the systems use continuous monocropping of herbaceous crops with an emphasis on production. The seven other systems consist of similar crops, but with crop rotation and soil conservation considerations. While the erosion and other off-site effects of these systems is an important consideration in their overall evaluation, this report will concentrate on direct production costs only.

  16. Heterocyclic chemistry in crop protection.

    PubMed

    Lamberth, Clemens

    2013-10-01

    An overview is given of the significance of heterocycles in crop protection chemistry, which is enormous as more than two-thirds of all agrochemicals launched to the market within the last 20 years belong to this huge group of chemicals. This review focuses on two important aspects of heterocyclic agrochemistry: the different roles of heterocyclic scaffolds in crop protection agents and the major possibilities for their synthesis.

  17. Maximum soil organic carbon storage in Midwest U.S. cropping systems when crops are optimally nitrogen-fertilized

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen fertilizer is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is actively debated. Using 60 site-years of maize (Zea mays L.) yield response to a wide range of N fertilizer rates in continuous maize and annually rotated maize-soybean [Glycine max...

  18. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-11-26

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  19. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients.

  20. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

  1. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in maize-soybean crops in the US Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. Z.; Hamilton, S. K.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Basso, B.; Thelen, K.; Robertson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evapotranspiration from maize and soybean crops is an important component of terrestrial water balance in the US Midwest. In this study we examine water use in continuous maize (corn) vs. maize-soybean rotations, with cover crops planted in some years. From 2010-14, we continuously measured growing season evapotranspiration (ET) based on daily drawdown of soil moisture content using TDR (time-domain reflectometry) probes installed throughout the root zone. Treatments included continuous maize (CM), continuous maize with cover crops (CMC) and maize-soybean rotation with cover crops (MSC), all grown without irrigation in a temperate humid climate (Michigan, USA). Cover crops were planted in the autumn after harvest of the main crop and harvested in spring prior to planting of the next main crop during 2012-2013 (2013) and 2013-2014 (2014). Four study years (2010, 2011, 2013 and 2014) had normal growing season rainfall (568, 555, 445, and 472 mm) while 2012 was an extreme drought season with a growing-season rainfall deficit of ~50% (210 mm below average). Growing season ET in CM, CMC and MSC during years of normal rainfall averaged 517, 433, and 443 mm, respectively, compared to 455, 374 and 304 mm in the 2012 drought year. Cover crop ET was inconsequential to the subsequent main crops due to abundant rainfall in the spring periods; soils held as much water as they could at the transition from cover crops to main crops. Grain yield in years of normal rainfall for CM, CMC and MSC averaged 12.6, 8.4 and 7.8 Mg ha-1, respectively, compared to 4.9, 4.0, and 4.0 Mg ha-1 in the 2012 drought year. Maximum biomass in years of normal rainfall averaged 38, 30 and 21 Mg ha-1 compared to 19, 13, and 13 Mg ha-1 in the drought year. Water use efficiencies, defined as ratio of maximum standing-stock biomass to growing season evapotranspiration, were 74, 69, and 47 kg ha-1 mm-1 for CM, CMC and MSC in years of normal rainfall, while values in the drought year were 41, 34 and 46 kg ha

  2. Impacts of changing cropping pattern on virtual water flows related to crops transfer: a case study for the Hetao irrigation district, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Pute; Wang, Yubao; Zhao, Xining; Sun, Shikun; Cao, Xinchun

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of cropping patterns is a prerequisite for their optimisation, and evaluation of virtual water flows could shed new light on water resources management. This study is intended to explore the effects of cropping pattern changes between 1960 and 2008 on virtual water flows related to crops transfer in the Hetao irrigation district, China. (1) The sown area of crops increased at an average rate of 3.57 × 10(3) ha year(-1) while the proportion of sown grain crops decreased from 92.83% in the 1960s to 50.22% in the 2000s. (2) Virtual water content decreased during the study period while net virtual water exports increased since the 1980s. (3) Assuming that the cropping pattern was constant and was equal to the average 1960s value, accumulated net virtual water export in 1980-2008 would have been 4.76 × 10(9) m(3) greater than that in the actual cropping pattern scenario. Cropping pattern changes in the Hetao irrigation district could not only be seen as resulting from the pursuit for higher economic returns, but also as a feedback response to limited water resources. A systematic framework is still needed for future cropping pattern planning by taking food security, continued agricultural expansion and other constraints into consideration. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  4. Spatial methods for deriving crop rotation history

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Converting multi-year remote sensing classification data into crop rotations is beneficial by defining length of crop rotation cycles and the specific sequences of intervening crops grown between the final year of a grass seed stand and establishment of a new perennial ryegrass seed crop. Markov mod...

  5. Zinc requirements of tropical legume cover crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical soils are deficient in essential plant nutrients, including zinc (Zn). Using cover crops in cropping systems is an important option to improve soil fertility for sustainable crop production. However, success of cover crops in highly weathered tropical infertile acid soils is greatly influen...

  6. Meeting the demand for crop production: the challenge of yield decline in crops grown in short rotations.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amanda J; Bending, Gary D; Chandler, David; Hilton, Sally; Mills, Peter

    2012-02-01

    There is a trend world-wide to grow crops in short rotation or in monoculture, particularly in conventional agriculture. This practice is becoming more prevalent due to a range of factors including economic market trends, technological advances, government incentives, and retailer and consumer demands. Land-use intensity will have to increase further in future in order to meet the demands of growing crops for both bioenergy and food production, and long rotations may not be considered viable or practical. However, evidence indicates that crops grown in short rotations or monoculture often suffer from yield decline compared to those grown in longer rotations or for the first time. Numerous factors have been hypothesised as contributing to yield decline, including biotic factors such as plant pathogens, deleterious rhizosphere microorganisms, mycorrhizas acting as pathogens, and allelopathy or autotoxicity of the crop, as well as abiotic factors such as land management practices and nutrient availability. In many cases, soil microorganisms have been implicated either directly or indirectly in yield decline. Although individual factors may be responsible for yield decline in some cases, it is more likely that combinations of factors interact to cause the problem. However, evidence confirming the precise role of these various factors is often lacking in field studies due to the complex nature of cropping systems and the numerous interactions that take place within them. Despite long-term knowledge of the yield-decline phenomenon, there are few tools to counteract it apart from reverting to longer crop rotations or break crops. Alternative cropping and management practices such as double-cropping or inter-cropping, tillage and organic amendments may prove valuable for combating some of the negative effects seen when crops are grown in short rotation. Plant breeding continues to be important, although this does require a specific breeding target to be identified. This

  7. The role of transgenic crops in sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Raymond Park, Julian; McFarlane, Ian; Hartley Phipps, Richard; Ceddia, Graziano

    2011-01-01

    The concept of sustainable development forms the basis for a wide variety of international and national policy making. World population continues to expand at about 80 M people per year, while the demand for natural resources continues to escalate. Important policies, treaties and goals underpin the notion of sustainable development. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate a range of scientific literature pertaining to the use of transgenic crops in meeting sustainable development goals. It is concluded that a considerable body of evidence has accrued since the first commercial growing of transgenic crops, which suggests that they can contribute in all three traditional pillars of sustainability, i.e. economically, environmentally and socially. Management of herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant transgenic crops to minimize the risk of weeds and pests developing resistance is discussed, together with the associated concern about the risk of loss of biodiversity. As the world population continues to rise, the evidence reviewed here suggests it would be unwise to ignore transgenic crops as one of the tools that can help meet aspirations for increasingly sustainable global development.

  8. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  9. Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

  10. 76 FR 32067 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC27 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop... Staple Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to remove all references to the Daily Spot Cotton Quotation and... Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions consistent with the Upland Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions....

  11. Fluorescence of crop residue: postmortem analysis of crop conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Chappelle, Emmett W.

    1997-07-01

    Fluorescence of crop residues at the end of the growing season may provide an indicator of the past crop's vegetative condition. Different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn and wheat at Beltsville, Maryland. The N fertilizer treatments produce a range of physiological conditions, pigment concentrations, biomass levels, and grain yields that resulted in varying growth and stress conditions in the living crops. After normal harvesting procedures the crop residues remained. The fluorescence spectral characteristics of the plant residues from crops grown under different levels of N nutrition were analyzed. The blue-green fluorescence response of in-vitro residue biomass of the N treated field corn had different magnitudes. A blue-green- yellow algorithm, (460/525)*600 nm, gave the best separations between prior corn growth conditions at different N fertilization levels. Relationships between total dry biomass, the grain yield, and fluorescence properties in the 400 - 670 nm region of the spectrum were found in both corn and wheat residues. The wheat residue was analyzed to evaluate the constituents responsible for fluorescence. A ratio of the blue-green, 450/550 nm, images gave the best separation among wheat residues at different N fertilization levels. Fluorescence of extracts from wheat residues showed inverse fluorescence intensities as a function of N treatments compared to that of the intact wheat residue or ground residue samples. The extracts also had an additional fluorescence emission peak in the red, 670 nm. Single band fluorescence intensity in corn and wheat residues is due mostly to the quantity of the material on the soil surface. Ratios of fluorescence bands varied as a result of the growth conditions created by the N treatments and are thought to be indicative of the varying concentrations of the plant residues fluorescing constituents. Estimates of the amount and cost effectiveness of N fertilizers to satisfy

  12. The dynamics of hydroponic crops for simulation studies of the CELSS initial reference configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1993-01-01

    During the past several years, the NASA Program in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) has continued apace with crop research and logistic, technological, and scientific strides. These include the CELSS Test Facility planned for the space station and its prototype Engineering Development Unit, soon to be active at Ames Research Center (as well as the advanced crop growth research chamber at Ames); the large environmental growth chambers and the planned human test bed facility at Johnson Space Center; the NSCORT at Purdue with new candidate crops and diverse research into the CELSS components; the gas exchange data for soy, potatoes, and wheat from Kennedy Space Center (KSC); and the high-precision gas exchange data for wheat from Utah State University (USU). All these developments, taken together, speak to the need for crop modeling as a means to connect the findings of the crop physiologists with the engineers designing the system. A need also exists for crop modeling to analyze and predict the gas exchange data from the various locations to maximize the scientific yield from the experiments. One fruitful approach employs what has been called the 'energy cascade'. Useful as a basis for CELSS crop growth experimental design, the energy cascade as a generic modeling approach for CELSS crops is a featured accomplishment in this report. The energy cascade is a major tool for linking CELSS crop experiments to the system design. The energy cascade presented here can help collaborations between modelers and crop experimenters to develop the most fruitful experiments for pushing the limits of crop productivity. Furthermore, crop models using the energy cascade provide a natural means to compare, feature for feature, the crop growth components between different CELSS experiments, for example, at Utah State University and Kennedy Space Center.

  13. Climate change impacts on crop yield: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Taoyuan; Cherry, Todd L; Glomrød, Solveig; Zhang, Tianyi

    2014-11-15

    When estimating climate change impact on crop yield, a typical assumption is constant elasticity of yield with respect to a climate variable even though the elasticity may be inconstant. After estimating both constant and inconstant elasticities with respect to temperature and precipitation based on provincial panel data in China 1980-2008, our results show that during that period, the temperature change contributes positively to total yield growth by 1.3% and 0.4% for wheat and rice, respectively, but negatively by 12% for maize. The impacts of precipitation change are marginal. We also compare our estimates with other studies and highlight the implications of the inconstant elasticities for crop yield, harvest and food security. We conclude that climate change impact on crop yield would not be an issue in China if positive impacts of other socio-economic factors continue in the future.

  14. Multi-Crop Specific Area Frame Stratification Based on Geospatial Crop Planting Frequency Data Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boryan, C. G.; Yang, Z.; Willis, P.; Di, L.

    2016-12-01

    Area sampling frames (ASFs) are the basis of many statistical programs around the world. When an ASF's stratification is based on generalized percent cultivation, the ASF usually cannot identify the planting location of specific crops targeted for agricultural surveys. To improve the accuracy, objectivity and efficiency of crop survey estimates, an automated stratification method based on geospatial crop planting frequency data is proposed. The Crop Planting Frequency Data Layers are crop specific geospatial data sets derived from multi-year Cropland Data Layers. Therefore, the ASF stratification based on the crop planting frequency data is crop specific. This paper investigates using 2008-2013 geospatial Crop Frequency Data Layers to create a novel multi-crop specific stratification for South Dakota, U.S. The crop specific ASF stratification is developed based on crop frequency statistics calculated at the primary sampling unit (PSU) level based on the corn, soybean and wheat planting frequency data layers, three major crops in South Dakota. Strata are formed using a k means clustering algorithm. It is observed that the crop frequency based ASF stratification predicts corn, soybean and wheat planting patterns well as verified by 2014 Farm Service Agency (FSA) Common Land Unit (CLU) and 578 administrative data. This finding demonstrates that the novel multi-crop specific stratification based on crop planting frequency data is crop type independent and applicable to all major crops. Further, these results indicate that the new multi-crop specific ASF stratification has great potential to improve ASF accuracy, efficiency and crop estimates.

  15. Crop identification using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, M. L.; Heilman, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Digital analysis of August 15 ERTS-I imagery for southeastern South Dakota was performed to determine the feasibility of conducting crop surveys from satellites. Selected areas of bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 positive transparencies were converted to digital form utilizing Signal Analysis and Dissemination Equipment (SADE). The optical transmission values were printed out in a spatial format. Visual analysis of the printouts indicated that cultivated areas were readily distinguished from non-cultivated areas in all four bands. Bare soil was easily recognized in all four bands. Corn and soybeans, the two major crops in the area, were treated as separate classes rather than as a single class called row crops. Bands 6 and 7 provided good results in distinguishing between corn and soybeans.

  16. Integrated forage crop refinery system

    SciTech Connect

    Barrier, J.W.; Broder, J.D.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    The proposed program involves the development of an integrated agricultural-chemical refining system for converting forage crops to useful foods, feeds, fuels, and chemicals. TVA has facilities and resources available to support extensive research and development activities. Modification can easily be made in the existing experimental facility being used to develop acid hydrolysis of corn stover, to include production of products other than fuel ethanol from forages. These products include protein, lignin-derived products, chemicals, single-cell protein, methane, aquaculture feed, and distillers solids. Refining forage crops in this manner has potential to increase the value of that crop and produce an economical integrated system. The results of the program will also be directly applicable to other areas and regions of the US. 11 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  18. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient with data in weighing lysimeters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate quantification of crop evapotranspiration (ET) is critical in optimizing irrigation water productivity, especially, in the semiarid regions of the world where limited rainfall is supplemented by irrigation for profitable crop production. In this context, cropping system models are potential...

  20. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  1. Space Technology for Crop Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas came up with a new method of drying agricultural crops derived from vacuum chamber technology called MIVAC, a compression of microwave vacuum drying system. A distant cousin of the home microwave oven, MIVAC dries by means of electrically- generated microwaves introduced to a crop-containing vacuum chamber. Microwaves remove moisture quickly and the very low pressure atmosphere in the chamber permits effective drying at much lower than customary temperatures. Thus energy demand is doubly reduced by lower heat requirement and by the shorter time electric power is needed.

  2. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  3. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  4. Connecting Groundwater, Crop Price, and Crop Production Variability in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, A.; Lobell, D. B.; Jain, M.

    2015-12-01

    Farmers in India rely on groundwater resources for irrigation and production of staple crops that provide over half of the calories consumed domestically each year. While this has been a productive strategy in increasing agricultural production and maintaining high yields, groundwater resources are depleting at a quicker rate than natural resources can replace. This issue gains relevance as climate variability concurrently adds to yearly fluctuations in farmer demand for irrigation each year, which can create high risk for farmers that depend on consistent yields, but do not have access to dwindling water resources. This study investigates variability in groundwater levels from 2005 to 2013 in relation to crop prices and production by analyzing district-level datasets made available through India's government. Through this analysis, we show the impact of groundwater variability on price variability, crop yield, and production during these years. By examining this nine-year timescale, we extend our analysis to forthcoming years to demonstrate the increasing importance of groundwater resources in irrigation, and suggest strategies to reduce the impact of groundwater shortages on crop production and prices.

  5. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  6. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  7. Maximum soil organic carbon storage in Midwest U.S. cropping systems when crops are optimally nitrogen-fertilized.

    PubMed

    Poffenbarger, Hanna J; Barker, Daniel W; Helmers, Matthew J; Miguez, Fernando E; Olk, Daniel C; Sawyer, John E; Six, Johan; Castellano, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is uncertain. Here, we clarify the impact of N fertilization on SOC in typical maize-based (Zea mays L.) Midwest U.S. cropping systems by accounting for site-to-site variability in maize yield response to N fertilization. Within continuous maize and maize-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems at four Iowa locations, we evaluated changes in surface SOC over 14 to 16 years across a range of N fertilizer rates empirically determined to be insufficient, optimum, or excessive for maximum maize yield. Soil organic C balances were negative where no N was applied but neutral (maize-soybean) or positive (continuous maize) at the agronomic optimum N rate (AONR). For continuous maize, the rate of SOC storage increased with increasing N rate, reaching a maximum at the AONR and decreasing above the AONR. Greater SOC storage in the optimally fertilized continuous maize system than in the optimally fertilized maize-soybean system was attributed to greater crop residue production and greater SOC storage efficiency in the continuous maize system. Mean annual crop residue production at the AONR was 22% greater in the continuous maize system than in the maize-soybean system and the rate of SOC storage per unit residue C input was 58% greater in the monocrop system. Our results demonstrate that agronomic optimum N fertilization is critical to maintain or increase SOC of Midwest U.S. cropland.

  8. Maximum soil organic carbon storage in Midwest U.S. cropping systems when crops are optimally nitrogen-fertilized

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Daniel W.; Helmers, Matthew J.; Miguez, Fernando E.; Olk, Daniel C.; Sawyer, John E.; Six, Johan; Castellano, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is critical to optimize short-term crop yield, but its long-term effect on soil organic C (SOC) is uncertain. Here, we clarify the impact of N fertilization on SOC in typical maize-based (Zea mays L.) Midwest U.S. cropping systems by accounting for site-to-site variability in maize yield response to N fertilization. Within continuous maize and maize-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems at four Iowa locations, we evaluated changes in surface SOC over 14 to 16 years across a range of N fertilizer rates empirically determined to be insufficient, optimum, or excessive for maximum maize yield. Soil organic C balances were negative where no N was applied but neutral (maize-soybean) or positive (continuous maize) at the agronomic optimum N rate (AONR). For continuous maize, the rate of SOC storage increased with increasing N rate, reaching a maximum at the AONR and decreasing above the AONR. Greater SOC storage in the optimally fertilized continuous maize system than in the optimally fertilized maize-soybean system was attributed to greater crop residue production and greater SOC storage efficiency in the continuous maize system. Mean annual crop residue production at the AONR was 22% greater in the continuous maize system than in the maize-soybean system and the rate of SOC storage per unit residue C input was 58% greater in the monocrop system. Our results demonstrate that agronomic optimum N fertilization is critical to maintain or increase SOC of Midwest U.S. cropland. PMID:28249014

  9. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  10. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai

    2016-01-01

    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  11. Sampling Simulations for Assessing the Accuracy of U.S. Agricultural Crop Mapping from Remotely Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Linnea; Yadav, Kamini; Congalton, Russell G.

    2017-04-01

    Providing adequate food and water for a growing, global population continues to be a major challenge. Mapping and monitoring crops are useful tools for estimating the extent of crop productivity. GFSAD30 (Global Food Security Analysis Data at 30m) is a program, funded by NASA, that is producing global cropland maps by using field measurements and remote sensing images. This program studies 8 major crop types, and includes information on cropland area/extent, if crops are irrigated or rainfed, and the cropping intensities. Using results from the US and the extensive reference data available, CDL (USDA Crop Data Layer), we will experiment with various sampling simulations to determine optimal sampling for thematic map accuracy assessment. These simulations will include varying the sampling unit, the sampling strategy, and the sample number. Results of these simulations will allow us to recommend assessment approaches to handle different cropping scenarios.

  12. Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fusuo; Cui, Zhenling; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Chen, Xinping; Jiang, Rongfeng

    2011-01-01

    During the past 47 yr (1961-2007), Chinese cereal production has increased by 3.2-fold, successfully feeding 22% of the global human population with only 9% of the world's arable land, but at high environmental cost and resource consumption. Worse, crop production has been stagnant since 1996 while the population and demand for food continue to rise. New advances for sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be needed during the coming 50 yr to reduce environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency. Here, we advocate and develop integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM). In this approach, the key points are (i) to take all possible soil quality improvement measures into consideration, (ii) to integrate the utilization of various nutrient resources and match nutrient supply to crop requirements, and (iii) to integrate soil and nutrient management with high-yielding cultivation systems. Recent field experiments have shed light on how ISSM can lead to significant increases in crop yields while increasing nutrient use efficiency and reducing environmental risk.

  13. Crop and pasture response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tubiello, Francesco N; Soussana, Jean-François; Howden, S Mark

    2007-12-11

    We review recent research of importance to understanding crop and pasture plant species response to climate change. Topics include plant response to elevated CO(2) concentration, interactions with climate change variables and air pollutants, impacts of increased climate variability and frequency of extreme events, the role of weeds and pests, disease and animal health, issues in biodiversity, and vulnerability of soil carbon pools. We critically analyze the links between fundamental knowledge at the plant and plot level and the additional socio-economic variables that determine actual production and trade of food at regional to global scales. We conclude by making recommendations for current and future research needs, with a focus on continued and improved integration of experimental and modeling efforts.

  14. Crop and pasture response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Tubiello, Francesco N.; Soussana, Jean-François; Howden, S. Mark

    2007-01-01

    We review recent research of importance to understanding crop and pasture plant species response to climate change. Topics include plant response to elevated CO2 concentration, interactions with climate change variables and air pollutants, impacts of increased climate variability and frequency of extreme events, the role of weeds and pests, disease and animal health, issues in biodiversity, and vulnerability of soil carbon pools. We critically analyze the links between fundamental knowledge at the plant and plot level and the additional socio-economic variables that determine actual production and trade of food at regional to global scales. We conclude by making recommendations for current and future research needs, with a focus on continued and improved integration of experimental and modeling efforts. PMID:18077401

  15. The limits of crop productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce; Monje, Oscar

    1992-01-01

    The component processes that govern yield limits in food crops are reviewed and how each process can be individually measured is described. The processes considered include absorption of photosynthetic radiation by green tissue, carbon-fixation efficiency in photosynthesis, carbon use efficiency in respiration, biomass allocation to edible products, and efficiency of photosynthesis and respiration. The factors limiting yields in optimal environments are considered.

  16. Risk Management of GM Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by biofuel demand, a significant increase in GM corn acreage is anticipated for the 2007 growing season with future planted GM corn acreage approaching 80% of the corn crop by 2009. As demand increases, grower non-compliance with mandated planting requirements is likely to...

  17. Crop stubble needs and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farmers in Australia and elsewhere around the world are being offered opportunities to market their crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, but many are not aware of how that could affect their soil resources. This report shares information from the USDA-ARS Renewable Energy Assessment Project (REAP...

  18. Sustainability of Switchgrass Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass that is native to the eastern two thirds of temperate North America. It has been used for conservation purposes and as a pasture grass since the 1940’s. It is currently being developed as a cellulosic biomass energy crop because it can produ...

  19. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  20. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  1. Risk Management of GM Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by biofuel demand, a significant increase in GM corn acreage is anticipated for the 2007 growing season with future planted GM corn acreage approaching 80% of the corn crop by 2009. As demand increases, grower non-compliance with mandated planting requirements is likely to...

  2. The limits of crop productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce; Monje, Oscar

    1992-01-01

    The component processes that govern yield limits in food crops are reviewed and how each process can be individually measured is described. The processes considered include absorption of photosynthetic radiation by green tissue, carbon-fixation efficiency in photosynthesis, carbon use efficiency in respiration, biomass allocation to edible products, and efficiency of photosynthesis and respiration. The factors limiting yields in optimal environments are considered.

  3. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  4. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  5. Papaya: environment and crop physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

  6. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Alluvione, Francesco; Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: (i) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and conventional moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; (ii) N fertilization levels [0-246 kg N ha(-1) for corn (Zea mays L.); 0 and 56 kg N ha(-1) for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); 0 and 112 kg N ha(-1) for barley (Hordeum distichon L.)]; and (iii) crop rotation under NT soil management [corn-barley (NT-CB); continuous corn (NT-CC); corn-dry bean (NT-CDb)] on CO(2) and CH(4) flux from a clay loam soil. Carbon dioxide and CH(4) fluxes were monitored one to three times per week using vented nonsteady state closed chambers. No-till reduced (14%) growing season (154 d) cumulative CO(2) emissions relative to CT (NT: 2.08 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1); CT: 2.41 Mg CO(2)-C ha(-1)), while N fertilization had no effect. Significantly lower (18%) growing season CO(2) fluxes were found in NT-CDb than NT-CC and NT-CB (11.4, 13.2 and 13.9 kg CO(2)-C ha(-1)d(-1) respectively). Growing season CH(4) emissions were higher in NT (20.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)) than in CT (1.2 g CH(4) ha(-1)). Nitrogen fertilization and cropping rotation did not affect CH(4) flux. Implementation of NT for 7 yr with no N fertilization was not adequate for restoring the CH(4) oxidation capacity of this clay loam soil relative to CT plowed and fertilized soil.

  7. Crop Genetics: The Seeds of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, H. Garrett

    1983-01-01

    Current research in plant genetics is described. Benefits of this research (which includes genetic engineering applications) will include reduction/elimination of crop diseases, assurance of genetic stability, and the creation of new crop varieties. (JN)

  8. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hefferon, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops. PMID:25679450

  9. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  10. Crop Genetics: The Seeds of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, H. Garrett

    1983-01-01

    Current research in plant genetics is described. Benefits of this research (which includes genetic engineering applications) will include reduction/elimination of crop diseases, assurance of genetic stability, and the creation of new crop varieties. (JN)

  11. Nutritionally enhanced food crops; progress and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2015-02-11

    Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world's poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  12. Can we save the seed crop?

    Treesearch

    Leo A. Isaac

    1949-01-01

    A news note has just announced a good seed crop this year for Douglas-fir and its associates. Foresters are asking; Can the crop be eaved for natural regeneration or must much of it be destroyed by slash burning?

  13. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  14. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  15. Genetically engineered crops: from idea to product.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jose Rafael; Segers, Gerrit; Voelker, Toni; Carson, Dave; Dobert, Raymond; Phillips, Jonathan; Cook, Kevin; Cornejo, Camilo; Monken, Josh; Grapes, Laura; Reynolds, Tracey; Martino-Catt, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Genetically engineered crops were first commercialized in 1994 and since then have been rapidly adopted, enabling growers to more effectively manage pests and increase crop productivity while ensuring food, feed, and environmental safety. The development of these crops is complex and based on rigorous science that must be well coordinated to create a plant with desired beneficial phenotypes. This article describes the general process by which a genetically engineered crop is developed from an initial concept to a commercialized product.

  16. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed.

  17. Selection of fungi by candidate cover crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diversified cropping systems that incorporate year-round ground cover, are known to maintain healthy soils. Information is available for producers regarding the benefits of specific cover crop species for soil fertility, weed and pest management. Even though it is widely recognized that cover crops ...

  18. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  19. 7 CFR 987.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 987.6 Section 987.6 Agriculture Regulations... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.6 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning October 1 of each year and ending September 30 of the following year. ...

  20. 7 CFR 993.20 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year. 993.20 Section 993.20 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.20 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning August 1 of any year and ending July 31 of the following year. ...

  1. Timely precipitation drives cover crop outcomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops can expand ecosystem services, though sound management recommendations for their use within semi-arid cropping systems is currently constrained by a lack of information. This study was conducted to determine agroecosystem responses to late-summer seeded cover crops under no-till managem...

  2. Control of crop diseases, third edition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The authors in the Control of Crop Diseases cover a wide range of topics from crop diseases and their diagnosis and eradication to a primer on fungicides and legislation. This wide range of topics, all critical to the topic of crop diseases, thus appeals to a wide audience from molecular biologists,...

  3. Roadmap to increased cover crop adoption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are increasingly utilized by farmers and promoted by agronomists for the multiple benefits they contribute to soil and crop management systems. Yet, only a small percentage of cropland is planted to cover crops. In June of 2012, the National Wildlife Federation brought together 36 of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  5. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  6. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  7. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  8. 7 CFR 1221.6 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.6 Crop year. Crop year means the time period by which the USDA reports crop production for sorghum and is indicated by...

  9. Possible future directions in crop yield forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines present and future possible applications of remote sensing to crop yield forecasting. It is concluded that there are ways in which Landsat data could be used to assist in crop yield forecasting using present technology. A framework for global crop yield forecasting which uses remote sensing, meteorological, field and ancillary data, as available, is proposed for the future.

  10. Estimating Crop Yields From Multispectral Reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C.

    1986-01-01

    Three reports describe research on proposed method for estimating crop yields by combining meteorological data with satellite measurements of reflected radiation to estimate crop-absorbed radiation. Concept, when tested over large areas, forms basis for evaluating crop conditions and estimating yields over regions where ground observations too costly or too difficult.

  11. 7 CFR 1437.12 - Crop definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CCC, and all crops are recognized by CCC as able to achieve the expected yield, as determined by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop definition. 1437.12 Section 1437.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.12 - Crop definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CCC, and all crops are recognized by CCC as able to achieve the expected yield, as determined by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop definition. 1437.12 Section 1437.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.12 - Crop definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CCC, and all crops are recognized by CCC as able to achieve the expected yield, as determined by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop definition. 1437.12 Section 1437.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.12 - Crop definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CCC, and all crops are recognized by CCC as able to achieve the expected yield, as determined by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop definition. 1437.12 Section 1437.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.12 - Crop definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CCC, and all crops are recognized by CCC as able to achieve the expected yield, as determined by CCC... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop definition. 1437.12 Section 1437.12 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General...

  16. Collection of sugarcane crop residue for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1982-12-01

    Crop residue left after sugarcane harvesting was recovered using a forage harvester and a large round baler. The quantity, bulk density and moisture content of the crop residue was determined in four fields. Crop residue from 7 ha was burned in boilers at a sugar mill. Samples of this residue were tested by a laboratory and compared to sugarcane bagasse.

  17. Water and nutrient deficits, crop yields, and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.R.; Reddy, A.R.; Hodges, H.F.; McKinion, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Plant responses to rising CO{sub 2} environments have been largely determined in nearly optimum conditions for growth. In many studies, the nature of the experiment allowed only limited or no control of environmental factors other than [CO{sub 2}]. Here, we report the results from cotton plants grown in naturally-lit chambers in which temperature, [CO{sub 2}], water, and nutrients were controlled and varied systematically. Photosynthesis and transpiration of crop canopies were measured continuously.

  18. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; ...

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  19. Evaluation of potential disinfectants for preslaughter broiler crop decontamination.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, E T; Sarlin, L L; Caldwell, D J; Byrd, J A; Corrier, D E; Hargis, B M

    1999-01-01

    The broiler crop has recently been implicated as a major source of Salmonella contamination at commercial processing. Furthermore, feed withdrawal has been positively correlated with increased Salmonella incidence in the crop, probably due to coprophagy. In the present study, a rapid screening assay was developed to evaluate several potential disinfectants in the presence of large quantities of organic matter, simulating the crop environment. An apparent synergistic combination of d-Limonene (DL) and citric acid (CA) was observed when evaluating the potential to eliminate Salmonella in the presence of organic material. A method of encapsulation of DL and CA was developed for voluntary consumption by broilers during feed withdrawal. During an 8-h feed withdrawal individual 8-wk-old broilers voluntarily consumed an average of 21.5 capsules (total of 3.44 g material). When eight capsules were force-administered to Salmonella-challenged 8-wk-old broilers during an abbreviated 4 h feed withdrawal, Salmonella was not recovered using selective enrichment. To evaluate the effect of voluntary capsule consumption, 8-wk-old broilers were challenged with 1 x 108 cfu of Salmonella 5 d prior to an 8 h feed withdrawal. When these broilers were allowed unlimited continuous access to capsules containing DL/CA during an 8 h feed withdrawal, 24.8 capsules per broiler were ingested without affecting Salmonella recovery from crops. When access to capsules containing DL/CA was limited to the final 45 min of an 8 h feed withdrawal in a similar experiment, an average of 22.2 capsules were consumed by each broiler, resulting in a significant decrease in the number of Salmonella-positive crops. Although a number of practical questions and considerations remain, these data suggest that appropriate disinfectants could be administered during preslaughter feed withdrawal for the purpose of reducing foodborne pathogens in crops.

  20. Estimating Crop Water use From Remotely Sensed NDVI, Crop Models and Reference ET

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop water use can be estimated from reference evapotranspiration, ETo, calculated from weather station data, and estimated crop coefficients, Kc. However, because Kc varies with crop growth rate, planting density, and management practices, generic Kc curves often don’t match actual crop water use....

  1. 75 FR 70850 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Insurance Provisions to remove all references to the Daily Spot Cotton Quotation and replace the reference with the...

  2. Use Of Crop Canopy Size To Estimate Water Requirements Of Vegetable Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Planting time, plant density, variety, and cultural practices vary widely for horticultural crops. It is difficult to estimate crop water requirements for crops with these variations. Canopy size, or factional ground cover, as an indicator of intercepted sunlight, is related to crop water use. We...

  3. 78 FR 33690 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... 33690-33691] [FR Doc No: 2013-13358] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 [Docket No. FCIC-11-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final...

  4. 75 FR 59057 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Stonefruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC21 Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Stonefruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION... published July 29, 2010 (75 FR 44709-44718). The regulation, as here ] pertinent, related to the...

  5. 78 FR 22411 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... / Tuesday, April 16, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Final...

  6. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  7. 75 FR 44709 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Stonefruit Crop Insurance Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes amendments to the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Stonefruit Crop Insurance Provisions, and removes the Plum Crop Insurance Provisions from the Code of Federal Regulations. The intended effect of this action is to allow coverage for plums under the Stonefruit Crop Insurance Provisions; provide policy changes and clarify existing policy provisions to better meet the needs of the producers; and to reduce vulnerability to program fraud, waste, and abuse to the Federal crop Insurance Program. The changes will be effective for the 2011 and succeeding crop years.

  8. Folate biofortification in food crops.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Simon; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-03-19

    Folates are essential vitamins in the human diet. Folate deficiency is still very common, provoking disorders such as birth defects and anemia. Biofortification via metabolic engineering is a proven powerful means to alleviate folate malnutrition. A variety of metabolic engineering approaches have been successfully implemented in different crops and tissues. Furthermore, ensuring folate stability is crucial for long-term storage of crop products. However, the current strategies, shown to be successful in rice and tomato, will need to be fine-tuned to enable adequate biofortification of other staples such as potato, wheat and cassava. Thus, there is a need to overcome remaining hurdles in folate biofortification. Overall, biofortification, via breeding or metabolic engineering, will be imperative to effectively combat folate deficiency.

  9. Biofortification of staple food crops.

    PubMed

    Nestel, Penelope; Bouis, Howarth E; Meenakshi, J V; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2006-04-01

    Deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc affect over one-half of the world's population. Progress has been made to control micronutrient deficiencies through supplementation and food fortification, but new approaches are needed, especially to reach the rural poor. Biofortification (enriching the nutrition contribution of staple crops through plant breeding) is one option. Scientific evidence shows this is technically feasible without compromising agronomic productivity. Predictive cost-benefit analyses also support biofortification as being important in the armamentarium for controlling micronutrient deficiencies. The challenge is to get producers and consumers to accept biofortified crops and increase their intake of the target nutrients. With the advent of good seed systems, the development of markets and products, and demand creation, this can be achieved.

  10. The effect of five biomass cropping systems on soil-saturated hydraulic conductivity across a topographic gradient

    Treesearch

    Usman Anwar; Lisa A. Schulte; Matthew Helmers; Randall K. Kolka

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental impact of bioenergy crops is needed to inform bioenergy policy development. We determined the effects of five biomass cropping systems—continuous maize (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max)-triticale (Triticosecale ×)/soybean-maize, maize-switchgrass (Panicum virgatum...

  11. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  12. Space Chambers for Crop Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Vacuum chambers, operated by McDonnell Douglas Corporation to test spacecraft, can also be used to dry water-soaked records. The drying temperature is low enough to allow paper to dry without curling or charging. Agricultural crops may also be dried using a spinoff system called MIVAC, which has proven effective in drying rice, wheat, soybeans, corn, etc. The system is energy efficient and can incorporate a sanitation process for destroying insects without contamination.

  13. Simple weighing lysimeters for measuring reference and crop evapotranspiration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of cotton crop evapotranspiration is important in scheduling irrigations, optimizing crop production, and modeling evapotranspiration and crop growth. The ability to measure, estimate, and predict evapotranspiration and cotton crop water requirements can result in better satisfying the cr...

  14. The crop growth research chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenbach, Kimberly

    1993-01-01

    The Crop Growth Research Chamber (CGRC) has been defined by CELSS principle investigators and science advisory panels as a necessary ground-based tool in the development of a regenerative life support system. The focus of CGRC research will be on the biomass production component of the CELSS system. The ground-based Crop Growth Research Chamber is for the study of plant growth and development under stringently controlled environments isolated from the external environment. The chamber has importance in three areas of CELSS activities: (1) crop research; (2) system control and integration, and (3) flight hardware design and experimentation. The laboratory size of the CGRC will be small enough to allow duplication of the unit, the conducting of controlled experiments, and replication of experiments, but large enough to provide information representative of larger plant communities. Experiments will focus on plant growth in a wide variety of environments and the effects of those environments on plant production of food, water, oxygen, toxins, and microbes. To study these effects in a closed system, tight control of the environment is necessary.

  15. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  16. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  17. From Crop Domestication to Super-domestication

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, D. A.; Balázs, E.; Heslop-Harrison, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact – we consider this to be ‘super-domestication’. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might – and can – advance in the future. PMID:17940074

  18. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  19. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  20. CROP type analysis using Landsat digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. E.; Thomas, R. W.; Wall, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Classification and statistical sampling techniques for crop type discrimination using Landsat digital data have been developed by the University of California in cooperation with NASA and the California Department of Water Resources. Ratioed bands (MSS 7/5 and 5/4) and a sun-angle corrected Euclidean albedo band were prepared from data for the Sacramento Valley for five different dates. The test area was stratified into general crop groupings based on the particular patterns of irrigation timing for each crop. Data classified within each stratum were used to produce a crop type map. Comparison with ground data indicates that certain crops and crop groups are discernable. Small grains and rice are easily identifiable, as are deciduous fruit varieties as a group. However, it is not feasible to separate various fruit and nut varieties, or separate vegetable crops with these techniques at present.

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Wilhelm; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops by farmers in many countries, controversies about this technology continue. Uncertainty about GM crop impacts is one reason for widespread public suspicion. Objective We carry out a meta-analysis of the agronomic and economic impacts of GM crops to consolidate the evidence. Data Sources Original studies for inclusion were identified through keyword searches in ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, EconLit, and AgEcon Search. Study Eligibility Criteria Studies were included when they build on primary data from farm surveys or field trials anywhere in the world, and when they report impacts of GM soybean, maize, or cotton on crop yields, pesticide use, and/or farmer profits. In total, 147 original studies were included. Synthesis Methods Analysis of mean impacts and meta-regressions to examine factors that influence outcomes. Results On average, GM technology adoption has reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, and increased farmer profits by 68%. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Limitations Several of the original studies did not report sample sizes and measures of variance. Conclusion The meta-analysis reveals robust evidence of GM crop benefits for farmers in developed and developing countries. Such evidence may help to gradually increase public trust in this technology. PMID:25365303

  2. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  3. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact.

    PubMed

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  4. Herbicide-Resistant Crops: Utilities and Limitations for Herbicide-Resistant Weed Management

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds. PMID:20586458

  5. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    PubMed

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Establishing Energy Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NiChonchubhair, Orlaith; Osborne, Bruce; Krol, Dominika; Williams, Mike; Jones, Mike; Lanigan, Gary

    2013-04-01

    of a dense canopy in its first year and correspondingly high net CO2 uptake, which increased further in the second year to a value close to that of year-3 Miscanthus. However, continued development of the Miscanthus crop to full maturity and maximum biomass yields is expected to enhance further the superior GHG sink strength of Miscanthus relative to RCG. This research highlights the high GHG efficiency of perennial biomass crops, which, combined with fossil fuel displacement during combustion, may present opportunities in the future for offsetting emissions in the agricultural sector.

  7. The components of crop productivity: measuring and modeling plant metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1995-01-01

    Several investigators in the CELSS program have demonstrated that crop plants can be remarkably productive in optimal environments where plants are limited only by incident radiation. Radiation use efficiencies of 0.4 to 0.7 g biomass per mol of incident photons have been measured for crops in several laboratories. Some early published values for radiation use efficiency (1 g mol-1) were inflated due to the effect of side lighting. Sealed chambers are the basic research module for crop studies for space. Such chambers allow the measurement of radiation and CO2 fluxes, thus providing values for three determinants of plant growth: radiation absorption, photosynthetic efficiency (quantum yield), and respiration efficiency (carbon use efficiency). Continuous measurement of each of these parameters over the plant life cycle has provided a blueprint for daily growth rates, and is the basis for modeling crop productivity based on component metabolic processes. Much of what has been interpreted as low photosynthetic efficiency is really the result of reduced leaf expansion and poor radiation absorption. Measurements and models of short-term (minutes to hours) and long-term (days to weeks) plant metabolic rates have enormously improved our understanding of plant environment interactions in ground-based growth chambers and are critical to understanding plant responses to the space environment.

  8. Engineering nitrogen use efficient crop plants: the current status.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chandra H; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G

    2012-12-01

    In the last 40 years the amount of synthetic nitrogen (N) applied to crops has risen drastically, resulting in significant increases in yield but with considerable impacts on the environment. A requirement for crops that require decreased N fertilizer levels has been recognized in the call for a 'Second Green Revolution' and research in the field of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) has continued to grow. This has prompted a search to identify genes that improve the NUE of crop plants, with candidate NUE genes existing in pathways relating to N uptake, assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, C/N storage and metabolism, signalling and regulation of N metabolism and translocation, remobilization and senescence. Herein is a review of the approaches taken to determine possible NUE candidate genes, an overview of experimental study of these genes as effectors of NUE in both cereal and non-cereal plants and the processes of commercialization of enhanced NUE crop plants. Patents issued regarding increased NUE in plants as well as gene pyramiding studies are also discussed as well as future directions of NUE research. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The components of crop productivity: measuring and modeling plant metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.

    1995-01-01

    Several investigators in the CELSS program have demonstrated that crop plants can be remarkably productive in optimal environments where plants are limited only by incident radiation. Radiation use efficiencies of 0.4 to 0.7 g biomass per mol of incident photons have been measured for crops in several laboratories. Some early published values for radiation use efficiency (1 g mol-1) were inflated due to the effect of side lighting. Sealed chambers are the basic research module for crop studies for space. Such chambers allow the measurement of radiation and CO2 fluxes, thus providing values for three determinants of plant growth: radiation absorption, photosynthetic efficiency (quantum yield), and respiration efficiency (carbon use efficiency). Continuous measurement of each of these parameters over the plant life cycle has provided a blueprint for daily growth rates, and is the basis for modeling crop productivity based on component metabolic processes. Much of what has been interpreted as low photosynthetic efficiency is really the result of reduced leaf expansion and poor radiation absorption. Measurements and models of short-term (minutes to hours) and long-term (days to weeks) plant metabolic rates have enormously improved our understanding of plant environment interactions in ground-based growth chambers and are critical to understanding plant responses to the space environment.

  10. Herbaceous Energy Crops Program. Annual progress report for FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Turhollow, A.F.; Johnston, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the activities and accomplishments of the Herbaceous Energy Crops Program (HECP) for the year ending September 30, 1985. HECP emphasizes lignocellulosic forage crops. In FY 1985 screening and selection trails began on seven species of perennial and annual grasses and legumes in five projects in the Southeast and the Midwest-Lake State regions. Research also continued on the development of winter rapeseed as a disel-fuel substitute. Activities in FY 1985 included crosses and selections to incorporate atrazine resistance and reduced vernalization requirements in genotypes with desirable seed and oil qualities. Exploratory research efforts in FY 1985 included the physiology and biochemistry of hydrocarbon production in latex bearing plants, the productivity of cattail stands under sustained harvesting, and the development of tissue culture techniques for hard-to-culture sorghum genotypes. Environmental and economic analyses in FY 1985 included completion of a resource assessment of the southwestern United States, a study on successful new crop introductions, and initiation of studies on near-term markets for lignocellulosic energy crops and on vegetable oil extraction facilities. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Plastid biotechnology for crop production: present status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The world population is expected to reach an estimated 9.2 billion by 2050. Therefore, food production globally has to increase by 70% in order to feed the world, while total arable land, which has reached its maximal utilization, may even decrease. Moreover, climate change adds yet another challenge to global food security. In order to feed the world in 2050, biotechnological advances in modern agriculture are essential. Plant genetic engineering, which has created a new wave of global crop production after the first green revolution, will continue to play an important role in modern agriculture to meet these challenges. Plastid genetic engineering, with several unique advantages including transgene containment, has made significant progress in the last two decades in various biotechnology applications including development of crops with high levels of resistance to insects, bacterial, fungal and viral diseases, different types of herbicides, drought, salt and cold tolerance, cytoplasmic male sterility, metabolic engineering, phytoremediation of toxic metals and production of many vaccine antigens, biopharmaceuticals and biofuels. However, useful traits should be engineered via chloroplast genomes of several major crops. This review provides insight into the current state of the art of plastid engineering in relation to agricultural production, especially for engineering agronomic traits. Understanding the bottleneck of this technology and challenges for improvement of major crops in a changing climate are discussed. PMID:21437683

  12. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity 1

    PubMed Central

    Bugbee, Bruce G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term vegetative and reproductive growth rates of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.) were determined in three separate studies (24, 45, and 79 days) in response to a wide range of photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF, 400-2080 micromoles per square meter per second; 22-150 moles per square meter per day; 16-20-hour photoperiod) in a near-optimum, controlled-environment. The CO2 concentration was elevated to 1200 micromoles per mole, and water and nutrients were supplied by liquid hydroponic culture. An unusually high plant density (2000 plants per square meter) was used to obtain high yields. Crop growth rate and grain yield reached 138 and 60 grams per square meter per day, respectively; both continued to increase up to the highest integrated daily PPF level, which was three times greater than a typical daily flux in the field. The conversion efficiency of photosynthesis (energy in biomass/energy in photosynthetic photons) was over 10% at low PPF but decreased to 7% as PPF increased. Harvest index increased from 41 to 44% as PPF increased. Yield components for primary, secondary, and tertiary culms were analyzed separately. Tillering produced up to 7000 heads per square meter at the highest PPF level. Primary and secondary culms were 10% more efficient (higher harvest index) than tertiary culms; hence cultural, environmental, or genetic changes that increase the percentage of primary and secondary culms might increase harvest index and thus grain yield. Wheat is physiologically and genetically capable of much higher productivity and photosynthetic efficiency than has been recorded in a field environment. PMID:11537442

  13. 7 CFR 205.205 - Crop rotation practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop rotation practice standard. 205.205 Section 205... Crop rotation practice standard. The producer must implement a crop rotation including but not limited to sod, cover crops, green manure crops, and catch crops that provide the following functions...

  14. 7 CFR 205.205 - Crop rotation practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop rotation practice standard. 205.205 Section 205... Crop rotation practice standard. The producer must implement a crop rotation including but not limited to sod, cover crops, green manure crops, and catch crops that provide the following functions...

  15. 7 CFR 205.205 - Crop rotation practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop rotation practice standard. 205.205 Section 205... Crop rotation practice standard. The producer must implement a crop rotation including but not limited to sod, cover crops, green manure crops, and catch crops that provide the following functions...

  16. 7 CFR 205.205 - Crop rotation practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop rotation practice standard. 205.205 Section 205... Crop rotation practice standard. The producer must implement a crop rotation including but not limited to sod, cover crops, green manure crops, and catch crops that provide the following functions...

  17. 7 CFR 205.205 - Crop rotation practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop rotation practice standard. 205.205 Section 205... Crop rotation practice standard. The producer must implement a crop rotation including but not limited to sod, cover crops, green manure crops, and catch crops that provide the following functions...

  18. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, <50 μm). Delta carbon-13 was determined by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. In addition, a site with natural vegetation (reference site, REF) was also sampled for delta carbon-13 determination. ANOVA and Tukey statistical analysis were carried out for all data. The SOC was higher in ICLS than in CCS at both depths (20.8 vs 17.7 g kg-1 for 0-5 cm and 16.1 vs 12.7 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm, respectively, P<0.05). MOC was

  19. Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.

  20. Time Series Analysis of Remote Sensing Observations for Citrus Crop Growth Stage and Evapotranspiration Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, S. A.; Chakraborty, M.; Suradhaniwar, S.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite based earth observation (EO) platforms have proved capability to spatio-temporally monitor changes on the earth's surface. Long term satellite missions have provided huge repository of optical remote sensing datasets, and United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat program is one of the oldest sources of optical EO datasets. This historical and near real time EO archive is a rich source of information to understand the seasonal changes in the horticultural crops. Citrus (Mandarin / Nagpur Orange) is one of the major horticultural crops cultivated in central India. Erratic behaviour of rainfall and dependency on groundwater for irrigation has wide impact on the citrus crop yield. Also, wide variations are reported in temperature and relative humidity causing early fruit onset and increase in crop water requirement. Therefore, there is need to study the crop growth stages and crop evapotranspiration at spatio-temporal scale for managing the scarce resources. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the citrus crop growth stages using Normalized Difference Time Series (NDVI) time series data obtained from Landsat archives (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/). Total 388 Landsat 4, 5, 7 and 8 scenes (from year 1990 to Aug. 2015) for Worldwide Reference System (WRS) 2, path 145 and row 45 were selected to understand seasonal variations in citrus crop growth. Considering Landsat 30 meter spatial resolution to obtain homogeneous pixels with crop cover orchards larger than 2 hectare area was selected. To consider change in wavelength bandwidth (radiometric resolution) with Landsat sensors (i.e. 4, 5, 7 and 8) NDVI has been selected to obtain continuous sensor independent time series. The obtained crop growth stage information has been used to estimate citrus basal crop coefficient information (Kcb). Satellite based Kcb estimates were used with proximal agrometeorological sensing system

  1. Temporal Downscaling of Crop Coefficient and Crop Water Requirement from Growing Stage to Substage Scales

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Songhao

    2012-01-01

    Crop water requirement is essential for agricultural water management, which is usually available for crop growing stages. However, crop water requirement values of monthly or weekly scales are more useful for water management. A method was proposed to downscale crop coefficient and water requirement from growing stage to substage scales, which is based on the interpolation of accumulated crop and reference evapotranspiration calculated from their values in growing stages. The proposed method was compared with two straightforward methods, that is, direct interpolation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient by assuming that stage average values occurred in the middle of the stage. These methods were tested with a simulated daily crop evapotranspiration series. Results indicate that the proposed method is more reliable, showing that the downscaled crop evapotranspiration series is very close to the simulated ones. PMID:22619572

  2. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  3. Establishing Crop Productivity Using RADARSAT-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNairn, H.; Shang, J.; Jiao, X.; Deschamps, B.

    2012-07-01

    Crop productivity is influenced by a number of management and environmental conditions, and variations in crop growth can occur in-season due to, for example, unfavourable meteorological conditions. Consequently information on crop growth must be temporally frequent in order to adequately characterize crop productivity. Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key indicator of crop productivity and a number of methods have been developed to derive LAI from optical satellite data. Integration of LAI estimates from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors would assist in efforts to monitor crop production through the growing season, particularly during periods of persistent cloud cover. Consequently, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has assessed the capability of RADARSAT-2 data to estimate LAI. The results of a sensitivity analysis revealed that several SAR polarimetric variables were strongly correlated with LAI derived from optical sensors for small grain crops. As the growing season progressed, contributions from volume scattering from the crop canopies increased. This led to the sensitivity of the intensity of linear cross-polarization backscatter, entropy and the Freeman-Durden volume scattering component, to LAI. For wheat and oats, correlations above 0.8 were reported. Following this sensitivity analysis, the Water Cloud Model (WCM) was parameterized using LAI, soil moisture and SAR data. A look up table inversion approach to estimate LAI from SAR parameters, using the WCM, was subsequently developed. This inversion approach can be used to derive LAI from sensors like RADARSAT-2 to support the monitoring of crop condition throughout the cropping season.

  4. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkel, Philip; Holcomb, Rodney B.

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  5. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  6. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  7. Ancestors of modern plant crops.

    PubMed

    Salse, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Recent accumulation of plant genomic resources offers the opportunity to compare modern genomes and model their evolutionary history from their reconstructed Most Recent Common Ancestors (MRCAs) that can be used as a guide to unveil the forces driving the evolutionary success of angiosperms and ultimately to perform applied translational research from models to crops. This article reviews the current state of art of recent structural comparative genomics studies through ancestral genome reconstruction, that is, the field of in silico paleogenomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil organic carbon dynamics and crop yield for different crop rotations in a degraded ferruginous tropical soil in a semi-arid region: a simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Soler, C M Tojo; Bado, V B; Traore, K; Bostick, W McNair; Jones, J W; Hoogenboom, G

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, simulation models have been used as a complementary tool for research and for quantifying soil carbon sequestration under widely varying conditions. This has improved the understanding and prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield responses to soil and climate conditions and crop management scenarios. The goal of the present study was to estimate the changes in SOC for different cropping systems in West Africa using a simulation model. A crop rotation experiment conducted in Farakô-Ba, Burkina Faso was used to evaluate the performance of the cropping system model (CSM) of the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) for simulating yield of different crops. Eight crop rotations that included cotton, sorghum, peanut, maize and fallow, and three different management scenarios, one without N (control), one with chemical fertilizer (N) and one with manure applications, were studied. The CSM was able to simulate the yield trends of various crops, with inconsistencies for a few years. The simulated SOC increased slightly across the years for the sorghum-fallow rotation with manure application. However, SOC decreased for all other rotations except for the continuous fallow (native grassland), in which the SOC remained stable. The model simulated SOC for the continuous fallow system with a high degree of accuracy normalized root mean square error (RMSE)=0·001, while for the other crop rotations the simulated SOC values were generally within the standard deviation (s.d.) range of the observed data. The crop rotations that included a supplemental N-fertilizer or manure application showed an increase in the average simulated aboveground biomass for all crops. The incorporation of this biomass into the soil after harvest reduced the loss of SOC. In the present study, the observed SOC data were used for characterization of production systems with different SOC dynamics. Following careful evaluation of the CSM with

  9. Parameterization of FAO's AquaCrop Model by Integrating a Hydrological Model and Climate Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.; Doria, R.; Jiskoot, H.; Cheng, H.

    2014-12-01

    One of the greatest global challenges is to meet growing food demand under rapidly changing climate conditions. Continued global population growth increases the pressure on the agriculture sector to produce enough food to feed the world. In 2013, the province of Alberta, Canada, set a record high for principal field crop production of 34.5 million tonnes (Matejovsky, 2014). AquaCrop, a crop yield and water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), attempts to balance the accuracy, simplicity and robustness of crop modelling (Steduto et al., 2009). The model is focused on the three components of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. AquaCrop is applied in this study for simulating hard red spring wheat and durum wheat yields, and simulated yields are verified against observed yields available from a crop insurer. One of the challenges of crop yield modelling is the selection of a realistic seeding date, which can vary by four to five weeks (end of March to end of April). In order to enable realistic simulation for the historical period 1950-2010 as well the future period 2041-2070, AquaCrop is coupled with the ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system to determine the soil moisture conditions after the spring snow melt, and with a WMO climate index which determines the climatological beginning of the growing season. Therefore, the selection of a realistic seeding data for individual years can be dynamically optimized, based on the combination of the beginning of the climatological growing season and soil moisture status. The results of the coupling of ACRU and calculated climate indices with AquaCrop will be presented to show how improvements of parameterization of the AquaCrop model can be used to simulate wheat yields in Southern Alberta under changing climate conditions.

  10. Linking Drought Information to Crop Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadgar, S.; Farahmand, A.; Li, L.; Aghakouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts have detrimental impacts on agricultural yields all over the world every year. This study analyzes the relationship between three drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI), Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) and the yields of five largest rain-fed crops in Australia (wheat, broad beans, canola, lupins and barley). Variation of the five chosen crop yields is overall in agreement with the three drought indicators SPI, SSI, and MSDI during the analysis period of 1980-2012. This study develops a bivariate copula model to investigate the statistical dependence of drought and crop yield. Copula functions are used to establish the existing connections between climate variables and crop yields during the Millennium drought in Australia. The proposed model estimates the likelihood of crop yields given the observed or predicted drought indicators SPI, SSI or MSDI. The results are also useful to estimate crop yields associated with different thresholds of precipitation or soil moisture.

  11. Engineering crops, a deserving venture.

    PubMed

    Lanfranco, Luisa

    2003-01-01

    Plant transformation has had a deep impact on several aspects of basic and applied research. Genetic transformation has offered new opportunities compared to traditional breeding practises since it allows the integration into a host genome of specific sequences leading to a strong reduction of the casualness of gene transfer. One of the first target areas was plant protection against pests, pathogens and environmental stresses while the recent plant engineering programs are aimed at increasing food quality, in particular at increasing nutritional characteristics of food crops. Moreover, transgenic plants, tissue or cell cultures represent an attractive biological system for producing heterologous proteins since they offer economic and qualitative benefits. High yield production can be obtained and large-scale commercial production will take advantage of the existing infrastructure for crop cultivation, processing and storage. There are also qualitative benefits since protein synthesis secretion and post-translational modifications are similar in plants and animal cells. There are no human viral pathogens harboured by plants: thus, especially for pharmaceuticals, plants represent the safer production system. Plant transformation has become an essential instrument also for basic research, in particular for the functional characterisation of genes identified by sequencing of whole genomes. Large collections of insertion mutants have been obtained in the model plant Arabidopsis to provide a high level of genome saturation that means 95% chance of inactivating any gene at least once. To instil greater public confidence in modern plant biotechnology recent advances have already been made to overcome the potential risks for human health and environment.

  12. Diversifying crops: the Nicaraguan experiment.

    PubMed

    Meyrat, A

    1992-01-01

    Over 1/2 of Nicaragua's population lives in the Pacific Plains where cotton has been grown intensively for 40 years. This single-crop economy has led to massive deforestation, wind and water erosion has affected the soil, and extensive use of pesticides has deposited excessive amounts of DDT in the breast milk of nursing mothers. After the downfall of the Somoza dictatorship the subsequent agrarian reform has been hampered by lack of information and training on sustainable methods of farming. The Pikin Guerrero project is a sustainable development experiment involving 2200 peasant families jointly run by the Nicaraguan Institute for Natural Resources and the Environment (IRENA) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The farmers grow corn and beans while exhausting the area's natural resources through forest clearing with the result of spreading erosion of fragile soils. 400 farmers have reshaped their production systems with the help of experts. Annual crops have become more diverse: yucca, 10 varieties of bean, 3 of pineapple, and 4 of corn, plus coffee, mango, bananas, and avocado. Soil conservation practices have been introduced, and farmers have built terraces. The initial pilot project comprised 5000 hectares, it is being expanded to cover another 10,000 hectares. The introduction of family planning to the local people is the next undertaking.

  13. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation. PMID:27790232

  15. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  16. Relay cropping as a sustainable approach: problems and opportunities for sustainable crop production.

    PubMed

    Tanveer, Mohsin; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Hussain, Saddam; Cerdà, Artemi; Ashraf, Umair

    2017-03-01

    Climate change, soil degradation, and depletion of natural resources are becoming the most prominent challenges for crop productivity and environmental sustainability in modern agriculture. In the scenario of conventional farming system, limited chances are available to cope with these issues. Relay cropping is a method of multiple cropping where one crop is seeded into standing second crop well before harvesting of second crop. Relay cropping may solve a number of conflicts such as inefficient use of available resources, controversies in sowing time, fertilizer application, and soil degradation. Relay cropping is a complex suite of different resource-efficient technologies, which possesses the capability to improve soil quality, to increase net return, to increase land equivalent ratio, and to control the weeds and pest infestation. The current review emphasized relay cropping as a tool for crop diversification and environmental sustainability with special focus on soil. Briefly, benefits, constraints, and opportunities of relay cropping keeping the goals of higher crop productivity and sustainability have also been discussed in this review. The research and knowledge gap in relay cropping was also highlighted in order to guide the further studies in future.

  17. What is crop heterosis: new insights into an old topic.

    PubMed

    Fu, Donghui; Xiao, Meili; Hayward, Alice; Jiang, Guanjie; Zhu, Longrong; Zhou, Qinghong; Li, Jiqiang; Zhang, Min

    2015-02-01

    Heterosis (or hybrid vigor) refers to a natural phenomenon whereby hybrid offspring of genetically diverse individuals out-perform their parents in multiple traits including yield, adaptability and resistances to biotic and abiotic stressors. Innovations in technology and research continue to clarify the mechanisms underlying crop heterosis, however the intrinsic relationship between the biological basis of heterosis remain unclear. In this review, we aim to provide insight into the molecular genetic basis of heterosis by presenting recent advances in the 'omics' of heterosis and the role of non-coding regions, particularly in relation to energy-use efficiency. We propose that future research should focus on integrating the expanding datasets from different species and hybrid combinations, to mine key heterotic genes and unravel interactive 'omics' networks associated with heterosis. Improved understanding of heterosis and the biological basis for its manipulation in agriculture should help to streamline its use in enhancing crop productivity.

  18. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Loretan, P. A.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.

    1992-07-01

    Among the crops selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for growth in controlled ecological life support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts - potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops have been produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent and high pressure sodium plus metal halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16°C and 28/22°C (day/night) temperatures have produced highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g m-e for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, have been produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  19. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Among the crops selected by NASA for growth in controlled ecological life-support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts: potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops can be produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent, and high-pressure sodium-plus-metal-halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16-C and 28/22-C (day/night) temperatures produce highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g/sq m for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, are produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  20. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS.

    PubMed

    Hill, W A; Mortley, D G; Mackowiak, C L; Loretan, P A; Tibbitts, T W; Wheeler, R M; Bonsi, C K; Morris, C E

    1992-01-01

    Among the crops selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for growth in controlled ecological life support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts -- potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops have been produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent , fluorescent plus incandescent and high pressure sodium plus metal halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16 degrees C and 28/22 degrees C (day/night) temperatures have produced highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g m-2 for for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, have been produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  1. Responses of Crop Water Use Efficiency to Climate Change and Agronomic Measures in the Semiarid Area of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingting; Ren, Wei; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; He, Di; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Tian, Hanqin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been concerned how crop water use efficiency (WUE) responds to climate change. Most of existing researches have emphasized the impact of single climate factor but have paid less attention to the effect of developed agronomic measures on crop WUE. Based on the long-term field observations/experiments data, we investigated the changing responses of crop WUE to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and agronomic practices (fertilization and cropping patterns) in the semi-arid area of northern China (SAC) during two periods, 1983–1999 and 2000–2010 (drier and warmer). Our results suggest that crop WUE was an intrinsical system sensitive to climate change and agronomic measures. Crops tend to reach the maximum WUE (WUEmax) in warm-dry environment while reach the stable minimum WUE (WUEmin) in warm-wet environment, with a difference between WUEmax and WUEmin ranging from 29.0%-55.5%. Changes in temperature and precipitation in the past three decades jointly enhanced crop WUE by 8.1%-30.6%. Elevated fertilizer and rotation cropping would increase crop WUE by 5.6–11.0% and 19.5–92.9%, respectively. These results indicate crop has the resilience by adjusting WUE, which is not only able to respond to subsequent periods of favorable water balance but also to tolerate the drought stress, and reasonable agronomic practices could enhance this resilience. However, this capacity would break down under impact of climate changes and unconscionable agronomic practices (e.g. excessive N/P/K fertilizer or traditional continuous cropping). Based on the findings in this study, a conceptual crop WUE model is constructed to indicate the threshold of crop resilience, which could help the farmer develop appropriate strategies in adapting the adverse impacts of climate warming. PMID:26336098

  2. Responses of Crop Water Use Efficiency to Climate Change and Agronomic Measures in the Semiarid Area of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingting; Ren, Wei; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; He, Di; Yang, Jia; Pan, Shufen; Tian, Hanqin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been concerned how crop water use efficiency (WUE) responds to climate change. Most of existing researches have emphasized the impact of single climate factor but have paid less attention to the effect of developed agronomic measures on crop WUE. Based on the long-term field observations/experiments data, we investigated the changing responses of crop WUE to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and agronomic practices (fertilization and cropping patterns) in the semi-arid area of northern China (SAC) during two periods, 1983-1999 and 2000-2010 (drier and warmer). Our results suggest that crop WUE was an intrinsical system sensitive to climate change and agronomic measures. Crops tend to reach the maximum WUE (WUEmax) in warm-dry environment while reach the stable minimum WUE (WUEmin) in warm-wet environment, with a difference between WUEmax and WUEmin ranging from 29.0%-55.5%. Changes in temperature and precipitation in the past three decades jointly enhanced crop WUE by 8.1%-30.6%. Elevated fertilizer and rotation cropping would increase crop WUE by 5.6-11.0% and 19.5-92.9%, respectively. These results indicate crop has the resilience by adjusting WUE, which is not only able to respond to subsequent periods of favorable water balance but also to tolerate the drought stress, and reasonable agronomic practices could enhance this resilience. However, this capacity would break down under impact of climate changes and unconscionable agronomic practices (e.g. excessive N/P/K fertilizer or traditional continuous cropping). Based on the findings in this study, a conceptual crop WUE model is constructed to indicate the threshold of crop resilience, which could help the farmer develop appropriate strategies in adapting the adverse impacts of climate warming.

  3. Modelling crop yield in Iberia under drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia

    2017-04-01

    The improved assessment of the cereal yield and crop loss under drought conditions are essential to meet the increasing economy demands. The growing frequency and severity of the extreme drought conditions in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been likely responsible for negative impacts on agriculture, namely on crop yield losses. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of vegetation activity and a reliable estimation of drought impacts is crucial to contribute for the agricultural drought management and development of suitable information tools. This works aims to assess the influence of drought conditions in agricultural yields over the IP, considering cereal yields from mainly rainfed agriculture for the provinces with higher productivity. The main target is to develop a strategy to model drought risk on agriculture for wheat yield at a province level. In order to achieve this goal a combined assessment was made using a drought indicator (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) to evaluate drought conditions together with a widely used vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) to monitor vegetation activity. A correlation analysis between detrended wheat yield and SPEI was performed in order to assess the vegetation response to each time scale of drought occurrence and also identify the moment of the vegetative cycle when the crop yields are more vulnerable to drought conditions. The time scales and months of SPEI, together with the months of NDVI, better related with wheat yield were chosen to perform a multivariate regression analysis to simulate crop yield. Model results are satisfactory and highlighted the usefulness of such analysis in the framework of developing a drought risk model for crop yields. In terms of an operational point of view, the results aim to contribute to an improved understanding of crop yield management under dry conditions, particularly adding substantial information on the advantages of combining

  4. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    PubMed

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W

    2015-08-01

    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species--Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices.

  5. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop...

  9. 7 CFR 1219.5 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.5 Crop...

  10. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  11. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....

  12. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....

  13. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....

  14. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....

  15. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....

  16. Crop emergence date determination from spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Estimating the emergence of a given crop, such as wheat or barley, is proposed using an analytic method which relies on the hypothesis that in the region (lambda = 0.70-1.35 microns) a given crop, after emergence, has a unique spectral profile in time. If the crop emerges early or late, relative to a reference standard determined for a given segment, the profile is displaced but has the same shape. Therefore, given the crop specific constants of the reference profile and a sufficient number of Landsat observations of reflectivity at specific times, the emergence date of a field can be determined.

  17. Seeing is believing I: The use of thermal sensing from satellite imagery to predict crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, Potgieter A.; D, Rodriguez; B, Power; J, Mclean; P, Davis

    2014-02-01

    Volatility in crop production has been part of the Australian environment since cropping began with the arrival of the first European settlers. Climate variability is the main factor affecting crop production at national, state and local scales. At field level spatial patterns on yield production are also determined by spatially changing soil properties in interaction with seasonal climate conditions and weather patterns at critical stages in the crop development. Here we used a combination of field level weather records, canopy characteristics, and satellite information to determine the spatial performance of a large field of wheat. The main objective of this research is to determine the ability of remote sensing technologies to capture yield losses due to water stress at the canopy level. The yield, canopy characteristics (i.e. canopy temperature and ground cover) and seasonal conditions of a field of wheat (~1400ha) (-29.402° South and 149.508°, New South Wales, Australia) were continuously monitored during the winter of 2011. Weather and crop variables were continuously monitored by installing three automatic weather stations in a transect covering different positions and soils in the landscape. Weather variables included rainfall, minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity, and crop characteristics included ground cover and canopy temperature. Satellite imagery Landsat TM 5 and 7 was collected at five different stages in the crop cycle. Weather variables and crop characteristics were used to calculate a crop stress index (CSI) at point and field scale (39 fields). Field data was used to validate a spatial satellite image derived index. Spatial yield data was downloaded from the harvester at the different locations in the field. We used the thermal band (land surface temperature, LST) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) bands from the MODIS (250 m for visible bands and 1km for thermal band) and a derived EVI from Landsat TM 7 (25 m for visible and

  18. Large area crop inventory experiment crop assessment subsystem software requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The functional data processing requirements are described for the Crop Assessment Subsystem of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment. These requirements are used as a guide for software development and implementation.

  19. Effect of diversified crop rotations on groundwater levels and crop water productivity in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Chen, Yuanquan; Pacenka, Steven; Gao, Wangsheng; Ma, Li; Wang, Guangya; Yan, Peng; Sui, Peng; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-03-01

    Water shortage is the major bottleneck that limits sustainable yield of agriculture in the North China Plain. Due to the over-exploitation of groundwater for irrigating the winter wheat-summer maize double cropping systems, a groundwater crisis is becoming increasingly serious. To help identify more efficient and sustainable utilization of the limited water resources, the water consumption and water use efficiency of five irrigated cropping systems were calculated and the effect of cropping systems on groundwater table changes was estimated based on a long term field experiment from 2003 to 2013 in the North China Plain interpreted using a soil-water-balance model. The five cropping systems included sweet potato → cotton → sweet potato → winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle), ryegrass-cotton → peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle), peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle), winter wheat-summer maize (WS, 1-year cycle), and continuous cotton (Cont C). The five cropping systems had a wide range of annual average actual evapotranspiration (ETa): Cont C (533 mm/year) < SpCSpWS (556 mm/year) < PWS (615 mm/year) < RCPWS (650 mm/year) < WS rotation (734 mm/year). The sequence of the simulated annual average groundwater decline due to the five cropping systems was WS (1.1 m/year) > RCPWS (0.7 m/year) > PWS (0.6 m/year) > SPCSPWS and Cont C (0.4 m/year). The annual average economic output water use efficiency (WUEe) increased in the order SpCSpWS (11.6 yuan ¥ m-3) > RCPWS (9.0 ¥ m-3) > PWS (7.3 ¥ m-3) > WS (6.8 ¥ m-3) > Cont C (5.6 ¥ m-3) from 2003 to 2013. Results strongly suggest that diversifying crop rotations could play a critically important role in mitigating the over-exploitation of the groundwater, while ensuring the food security or boosting the income of farmers in the North China Plain.

  20. Climate change impacts on crop production in Iran's Zayandeh-Rud River Basin.

    PubMed

    Gohari, Alireza; Eslamian, Saeid; Abedi-Koupaei, Jahangir; Massah Bavani, Alireza; Wang, Dingbao; Madani, Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates climate change impacts on crop production and water productivity of four major crops (wheat, barley, rice, and corn) in Iran's Zayandeh-Rud River Basin. Multi-model ensemble scenarios are used to deal with uncertainties in climate change projections for the study period (2015-2044). On average, monthly temperature will increase by 1.1 to 1.5°C under climate change. Monthly precipitation changes may be positive or negative in different months of the year. Nevertheless, on the annual basis, precipitation will decrease by 11 to 31% with climate change. While warming can potentially shorten the crop growth period, crop production and water productivity of all crops are expected to decrease due to lower precipitation and higher water requirements under higher temperature. Out of the four studied crops, rice and corn are more vulnerable to climate change due to their high irrigation water demand. So, their continued production can be compromised under climate change. This finding is of particular importance, given the locally high economic and food value of these crops in central Iran. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Status of market, regulation and research of genetically modified crops in Chile.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Miguel A; León, Gabriel

    2016-12-25

    Agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops are effective tools to substantially increase productivity, quality, and environmental sustainability in agricultural farming. Furthermore, they may contribute to improving the nutritional content of crops, addressing needs related to public health. Chile has become one of the most important global players for GM seed production for counter-season markets and research purposes. It has a comprehensive regulatory framework to carry out this activity, while at the same time there are numerous regulations from different agencies addressing several aspects related to GM crops. Despite imports of GM food/feed or ingredients for the food industry being allowed without restrictions, Chilean farmers are not using GM seeds for farming purposes because of a lack of clear guidelines. Chile is in a rather contradictory situation about GM crops. The country has invested considerable resources to fund research and development on GM crops, but the lack of clarity in the current regulatory situation precludes the use of such research to develop new products for Chilean farmers. Meanwhile, a larger scientific capacity regarding GM crop research continues to build up in the country. The present study maps and analyses the current regulatory environment for research and production of GM crops in Chile, providing an updated overview of the current status of GM seeds production, research and regulatory issues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crop protection by seed coating.

    PubMed

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  3. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  4. Maize residue removal and cover crop effects on subsequent soybean crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Residue removal and cover crop treatments often differentially affect cash crop yield across geographical regions. Objectives were to examine maize residue removal and cover crop treatment effects on soybean grain yield and seed components (moisture at harvest and mineral nutrients) near Brookings,...

  5. 76 FR 4201 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendment... Provisions to specify the correct crop year to which it was applicable. It was published September 27, 2010... background stated ``The 2011 contract change date for the Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions is...

  6. Cumulative and residual effects of potato cropping system management strategies on crop and soil health parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil and crop management practices can greatly affect parameters related to soil health, as well as crop productivity and disease development, and may provide options for more sustainable production. Different 3-yr potato cropping systems focused on specific management goals of soil conservation (SC...

  7. 78 FR 4305 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC39 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Citrus Fruit Crop... Fruit. DATES: Effective Date: January 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tim Hoffmann, Director... corrections revised the Florida Citrus Fruit Crop Insurance Provisions that published on Friday, December 21...

  8. Environmental enhancement using short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses as alternative agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Schiller, A.

    1995-12-31

    Short-rotation woody crops and perennial grasses are grown as biomass feedstocks for energy and fiber. When replacing traditional row crops on similar lands, these alternative crops can provide multiple environmental benefits in addition to enhancing rural economies and providing valuable feedstock resources. The Department of Energy is supporting research to address how these crops can provide environmental benefits to soil, water and native wildlife species in addition to providing bioenergy feedstocks. Research is underway to address the potential for biomass crops to provide soil conservation and water quality improvements in crop settings. Replacement of traditional erosive row crops with biomass crops on marginal lands and establishment of biomass plantations as filter strips adjacent to streams and wetlands are being studied. The habitat value of different biomass crops for selected wildlife species is also under study. To date, these studies have shown that in comparison with row crops biomass plantings of both grass and tree crops increased biodiversity of birds; however, the habitat value of tree plantations is not equivalent to natural forests. The effects on native wildlife of establishing multiple plantations across a landscape are being studied. Combining findings on wildlife use of individual plantations with information on the cumulative effects of multiple plantations on wildlife populations can provide guidance for establishing and managing biomass crops to enhance biodiversity while providing biomass feedstocks. Data from site-specific environmental studies can provide input for evaluation of the probable effects of large-scale plantings at both landscape and regional levels of resolution.

  9. A Centralized Regional Database for Winter Cover Crops in Annual Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce erosion, minimize losses of nitrogen and phosphorus, and increase soil carbon in annual cropping systems in the Midwest. Public support, however, for incentives to farmers to adopt cover crops is minimal. Therefore, development of location-specific rec...

  10. Integrated crop-livestock systems and cover crop grazing in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrating crops and livestock has been identified as an approach to sustainably intensify agricultural systems, increasing production while reducing the need for external inputs, building soil health, and increasing economic returns. Cover crops and grazing these cover crops are a natural fit with...

  11. Comparing cropping system productivity of fixed rotations and a flexible fallow system using Aqua-Crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Central High Plains, the predominant crop rotation is winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow. Producers are looking to add diversity and intensity to their cropping systems and improve water use efficiency by adding summer crops, however, the elimination of summer fallow may increase the ...

  12. Planting dates for multiple cropping of biofuel feedstock and specialty crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is necessary to determine planting and harvesting windows in order to develop production systems for biofuel feedstock and specialty crops in rotation. The biodiesel feedstock crops Canola and Sunflower; and the bioethanol feedstock crops Sorghum and Sweet corn were established at various dates ...

  13. Soil total carbon and crop yield affected by crop rotation and cultural practice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stacked crop rotation and improved cultural practice have been used to control pests, but their impact on soil organic C (SOC) and crop yield are lacking. We evaluated the effects of stacked vs. alternate-year rotations and cultural practices on SOC at the 0- to 125-cm depth and annualized crop yiel...

  14. Simulated acid rain on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

  15. Comparative genomics of Brassicaceae crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Li, Xiaonan; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2014-01-01

    The family Brassicaceae is one of the major groups of the plant kingdom and comprises diverse species of great economic, agronomic and scientific importance, including the model plant Arabidopsis. The sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome has revolutionized our knowledge in the field of plant biology and provides a foundation in genomics and comparative biology. Genomic resources have been utilized in Brassica for diversity analyses, construction of genetic maps and identification of agronomic traits. In Brassicaceae, comparative sequence analysis across the species has been utilized to understand genome structure, evolution and the detection of conserved genomic segments. In this review, we focus on the progress made in genetic resource development, genome sequencing and comparative mapping in Brassica and related species. The utilization of genomic resources and next-generation sequencing approaches in improvement of Brassica crops is also discussed. PMID:24987286

  16. Influence of seasonal weather and climate variability on crop yields in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Brown, Iain

    2013-07-01

    The climatic sensitivity of four important agriculture crops (wheat, barley, oats, potatoes) in a northern temperate bioclimatic region is investigated using national-level yield data for 1963-2005. The climate variables include monthly and annual meteorological data, derived bioclimatic metrics, and the North Atlantic Oscillation index. Statistical analysis shows that significant relationships between yield and climate vary depending on the crop type and month but highlight the influence of precipitation (negative correlation) and sunshine duration (positive correlation) rather than temperature. Soil moisture deficit is shown to be a particular useful indicator of yield with drier summers providing the best yields for Scotland as a whole. It is also tentatively inferred that the sensitivity of these crops, particularly wheat and barley, to soil moisture deficits has increased in recent years. This suggests that improved crop yields are optimised for dry sunny years despite the continued prevalence of considerable inter-annual variability in seasonal weather.

  17. The application of genomics and bioinformatics to accelerate crop improvement in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2016-04-01

    The changing climate and growing global population will increase pressure on our ability to produce sufficient food. The breeding of novel crops and the adaptation of current crops to the new environment are required to ensure continued food production. Advances in genomics offer the potential to accelerate the genomics based breeding of crop plants. However, relating genomic data to climate related agronomic traits for use in breeding remains a huge challenge, and one which will require coordination of diverse skills and expertise. Bioinformatics, when combined with genomics has the potential to help maintain food security in the face of climate change through the accelerated production of climate ready crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organic amendment of crop soil and its relation to hotspots of bacterial nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; McMillan, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Crop production in Australian soils requires a high use of fertilisers, including N, P and K for continues utilisation of the soil. Growers often grow crops in rotation of summer crop, such as cotton with winter crop, such as wheat in the same field. Growers are getting more and more aware about sustainability of the soil resources and the more adventurous ones use soil amendments, such as organic supplements in addition to the chemical fertilisers. We have collected soil samples from fields that were cultivated in preparation for planting cotton and tested the soil for its bacterial populations with potential to perform different functions, including those related to the nitrogen cycling. One of our aims was to determine whether organic amendments create hotspots for bacterial functions related to bacterial nitrogen cycling. This pan of the project will be discussed in this presentation.

  19. Influence of seasonal weather and climate variability on crop yields in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Iain

    2013-07-01

    The climatic sensitivity of four important agriculture crops (wheat, barley, oats, potatoes) in a northern temperate bioclimatic region is investigated using national-level yield data for 1963-2005. The climate variables include monthly and annual meteorological data, derived bioclimatic metrics, and the North Atlantic Oscillation index. Statistical analysis shows that significant relationships between yield and climate vary depending on the crop type and month but highlight the influence of precipitation (negative correlation) and sunshine duration (positive correlation) rather than temperature. Soil moisture deficit is shown to be a particular useful indicator of yield with drier summers providing the best yields for Scotland as a whole. It is also tentatively inferred that the sensitivity of these crops, particularly wheat and barley, to soil moisture deficits has increased in recent years. This suggests that improved crop yields are optimised for dry sunny years despite the continued prevalence of considerable inter-annual variability in seasonal weather.

  20. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.150 Dry bean crop insurance provisions. The dry bean crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  1. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  2. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  3. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  4. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  5. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  6. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  7. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  8. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  9. 7 CFR 457.166 - Blueberry crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as...

  10. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  11. 7 CFR 760.816 - Value loss crops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Value loss crops. 760.816 Section 760.816 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS 2005-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760.816 Value loss crops. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, this section applies to value loss crops and tropical crops...

  12. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...

  13. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  14. 7 CFR 457.123 - Almond crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  15. Soil quality and the solar corridor crop system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  16. Soil Quality and the Solar Corridor Crop System

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solar corridor crop system (SCCS) is designed for improved crop productivity based on highly efficient use of solar radiation by integrating row crops with drilled or solid-seeded crops in broad strips (corridors) that also facilitate establishment of cover crops for year-round soil cover. The S...

  17. The potential of climate change adjustment in crops: A synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter covers a study on various field crops like cereals, legumes, oil seeds, vegetables, cash crops, underutilized crops, and energy crops and their genetic adjustment to changing climates. More than 30 major field crops have been covered in different chapters of this book, which highlight h...

  18. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Malting barley crop insurance. 457.118 Section 457.118..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.118 Malting barley crop insurance. The malting barley crop insurance provisions for the 1996 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  19. 7 CFR 457.131 - Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. 457.131... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.131 Macadamia nut crop insurance provisions. The macadamia nut crop insurance provisions for the 2012 and succeeding crop...

  20. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national