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Sample records for continuous czochralski process

  1. LSA Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Continuous Czochralski Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A commercial Czochralski crystal growing furnace was converted to a continuous growth facility by installation of a small, in-situ premelter with attendant silicon storage and transport mechanisms. Using a vertical, cylindrical graphite heater containing a small fused quartz test tube linear from which the molten silicon flowed out the bottom, approximately 83 cm of nominal 5 cm diamter crystal was grown with continuous melt addition furnished by the test tube premelter. High perfection crystal was not obtained, however, due primarily to particulate contamination of the melt. A major contributor to the particulate problem was severe silicon oxide buildup on the premelter which would ultimately drop into the primary melt. Elimination of this oxide buildup will require extensive study and experimentation and the ultimate success of continuous Czochralski depends on a successful solution to this problem. Economically, the continuous Czochralski meets near-term cost goals for silicon sheet material.

  2. LSSA large area silicon sheet task continuous Czochralski process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    A Czochralski crystal growing furnace was converted to a continuous growth facility by installation of a premelter to provide molten silicon flow into the primary crucible. The basic furnace is operational and several trial crystals were grown in the batch mode. Numerous premelter configurations were tested both in laboratory-scale equipment as well as in the actual furnace. The best arrangement tested to date is a vertical, cylindrical graphite heater containing small fused silicon test tube liner in which the incoming silicon is melted and flows into the primary crucible. Economic modeling of the continuous Czochralski process indicates that for 10 cm diameter crystal, 100 kg furnace runs of four or five crystals each are near-optimal. Costs tend to asymptote at the 100 kg level so little additional cost improvement occurs at larger runs. For these conditions, crystal cost in equivalent wafer area of around $20/sq m exclusive of polysilicon and slicing was obtained.

  3. Continuous replenishment of molten semiconductor in a Czochralski-process, single-crystal-growing furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A replenishment crucible is mounted adjacent the usual drawing crucible, from which a monocrystalline boule is drawn according to the Czochralski method. A siphon tube for molten semiconductor transfer extends from the replenishment crucible to the drawing crucible. Each crucible is enclosed within its own hermetic shell and is provided with its own heater. The siphon tube is initially filled with molten semiconductor by raising the inert atmospheric pressure in the shell surrounding the replenishment crucible above that surrounding the drawing crucible. Thereafter, adjustment of the level of molten semiconductor in the drawing crucible may be achieved by adjusting the level in either crucible, since the siphon tube will establish the same level in both crucibles. For continuous processing, solid semiconductor may be added to and melted in the replenishment crucible during the process of drawing crystals from the drawing crucible. A constant liquid level of melted semiconductor is maintained in the system by an optical monitoring device and any of several electromechanical controls of the rate of replenishment or crucible height.

  4. Growing Organic Crystals By The Czochralski Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Angela; Frazier, Donald O.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Wang, W. S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus grows high-quality single crystals of organic compounds by Czochralski method. In Czochralski process, growing crystal lifted from middle of molten material without touching walls. Because of low melting temperatures of organic crystals, glass vessels usable. Traditional method for inorganic semiconductors adapted to optically nonlinear organic materials.

  5. Furnace and support equipment for space processing. [space manufacturing - Czochralski method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazelsky, R.; Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Johnson, R. A.; Hopkins, R. H.; Roland, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    A core facility capable of performing a majority of materials processing experiments is discussed. Experiment classes are described, the needs peculiar to each experiment type are outlined, and projected facility requirements to perform the experiments are treated. Control equipment (automatic control) and variations of the Czochralski method for use in space are discussed.

  6. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design and development of an advanced Czochralski crystal grower are described. Several exhaust gas analysis system equipment specifications studied are discussed. Process control requirements were defined and design work began on the melt temperature, melt level, and continuous diameter control. Sensor development included assembly and testing of a bench prototype of a diameter scanner system.

  7. Cold crucible Czochralski for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trumble, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency and radiation resistance of present silicon solar cells are a function of the oxygen and carbon impurities and the boron doping used to provide the proper resistivity material. The standard Czochralski process used grow single crystal silicon contaminates the silicon stock material due to the use of a quartz crucible and graphite components. The use of a process which replaces these elements with a water cooled copper to crucible has provided a major step in providing gallium doped (100) crystal orientation, low oxygen, low carbon, silicon. A discussion of the Cold Crucible Czochralski process and recent float Zone developments is provided.

  8. Cold crucible Czochralski for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, T. M.

    The efficiency and radiation resistance of present silicon solar cells are a function of the oxygen and carbon impurities and the boron doping used to provide the proper resistivity material. The standard Czochralski process used grow single crystal silicon contaminates the silicon stock material due to the use of a quartz crucible and graphite components. The use of a process which replaces these elements with a water cooled copper to crucible has provided a major step in providing gallium doped (100) crystal orientation, low oxygen, low carbon, silicon. A discussion of the Cold Crucible Czochralski process and recent float Zone developments is provided.

  9. Do thermal donors reduce the lifetimes of Czochralski-grown silicon crystals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamura, Y.; Harada, H.; Nakano, S.; Nishizawa, S.; Kakimoto, K.

    2018-05-01

    High-performance electronics require long carrier lifetimes within their silicon crystals. This paper reports the effects of thermal donors on the lifetimes of carriers in as-grown n-type silicon crystals grown by the Czochralski method. We grew silicon crystals with two different concentrations of thermal donors using the following two cooling processes: one was cooled with a 4-h halt after detaching the crystal from the melt, and the other was cooled continuously. The crystal grown with the cooling halt contained higher concentrations of thermal donors of the order of 1 × 1013 cm-3, while the crystal without the halt had no thermal donors. The measured bulk lifetimes were in the range of 15-18 ms. We concluded that thermal donors in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals do not act to reduce their lifetimes.

  10. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area silicon sheet task of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The primary objective of this contract is to develop equipment and methods for the economic production of single crystal ingot material by the continuous Czochralski (CZ) process. Continuous CZ is defined for the purpose of this work as the growth of at least 100 kilograms of ingot from only one melt container. During the reporting period (October, 1977 - September, 1978), a modified grower was made fully functional and several recharge runs were performed. The largest run lasted 44 hours and over 42 kg of ingot was produced. Little, if any, degradation in efficiency was observed as a result of pulling multiple crystals from one crucible. Solar efficiencies observed were between 9.3 and 10.4% AMO (13.0 and 14.6% AMI) compared to 10.5% (14.7% AMI) for optimum CZ material control samples. Using the SAMICS/IPEG format, economic analysis of continuous CZ suggests that 1986 DoE cost goals can only be met by the growth of large diameter, large mass crystals.

  11. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  12. Dynamic global model of oxide Czochralski process with weighing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, V. M.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of oxide Czochralski growth with weighing control has been developed for the first time. A time-dependent approach is used for the calculation of temperature fields in different parts of a crystallization set-up and convection patterns in a melt, while internal radiation in crystal is considered in a quasi-steady approximation. A special algorithm is developed for the calculation of displacement of a triple point and simulation of a crystal surface formation. To calculate variations in the heat generation, a model of weighing control with a commonly used PID regulator is applied. As an example, simulation of the growth process of gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) crystals starting from the stage of seeding is performed.

  13. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  14. A preliminary review of organic materials single crystal growth by the Czochralski technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A. W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-09-01

    The growth of single crystals of organic compounds by the Czochralski method is reviewed. From the literature it is found that single crystals of benzil, a nonlinear optical material with a d sub 11 value of 11.2 + or - 1.5 x d sub 11 value of alpha quartz, has fewer dislocations than generally contained in Bridgman crystals. More perfect crystals were grown by repeated Czochralski growth. This consists of etching away the defect-containing portion of a Czochralski grown crystal and using it as a seed for further growth. Other compounds used to grow single crystals are benzophenone, 12-tricosanone (laurone), and salol. The physical properties, growth apparatus, and processing conditions presented in the literature are discussed. Moreover, some of the possible advantages of growing single crystals of organic compounds in microgravity to obtain more perfect crystals than on Earth are reviewed.

  15. A preliminary review of organic materials single crystal growth by the Czochralski technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A. W.; Frazier, D. O.

    1988-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of organic compounds by the Czochralski method is reviewed. From the literature it is found that single crystals of benzil, a nonlinear optical material with a d sub 11 value of 11.2 + or - 1.5 x d sub 11 value of alpha quartz, has fewer dislocations than generally contained in Bridgman crystals. More perfect crystals were grown by repeated Czochralski growth. This consists of etching away the defect-containing portion of a Czochralski grown crystal and using it as a seed for further growth. Other compounds used to grow single crystals are benzophenone, 12-tricosanone (laurone), and salol. The physical properties, growth apparatus, and processing conditions presented in the literature are discussed. Moreover, some of the possible advantages of growing single crystals of organic compounds in microgravity to obtain more perfect crystals than on Earth are reviewed.

  16. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  17. Large area Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, S. N.; Gleim, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    The overall cost effectiveness of the Czochralski process for producing large-area silicon was determined. The feasibility of growing several 12 cm diameter crystals sequentially at 12 cm/h during a furnace run and the subsequent slicing of the ingot using a multiblade slurry saw were investigated. The goal of the wafering process was a slice thickness of 0.25 mm with minimal kerf. A slice + kerf of 0.56 mm was achieved on 12 cm crystal using both 400 grit B4C and SiC abrasive slurries. Crystal growth experiments were performed at 12 cm diameter in a commercially available puller with both 10 and 12 kg melts. Several modifications to the puller hoz zone were required to achieve stable crystal growth over the entire crystal length and to prevent crystallinity loss a few centimeters down the crystal. The maximum practical growth rate for 12 cm crystal in this puller design was 10 cm/h, with 12 to 14 cm/h being the absolute maximum range at which melt freeze occurred.

  18. Czochralski growth of LaPd2Al2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doležal, P.; Rudajevová, A.; Vlášková, K.; Kriegner, D.; Václavová, K.; Prchal, J.; Javorský, P.

    2017-10-01

    The present study is focused on the preparation of single crystalline LaPd2Al2 by the Czochralski method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses reveal that LaPd2Al2 is an incongruently melting phase which causes difficulties for the preparation of single crystalline LaPd2Al2 by the Czochralski method. Therefore several non-stoichiometric polycrystalline samples were studied for its preparation. Finally the successful growth of LaPd2Al2 without foreign phases has been achieved by using a non-stoichiometric precursor with atomic composition 22:39:39 (La:Pd:Al). X-ray powder diffraction, EDX analysis and DSC were used for the characterisation. A single crystalline sample was separated from the ingot prepared by the Czochralski method using the non-stoichiometric precursor. The presented procedure for the preparation of pure single phase LaPd2Al2 could be modified for other incongruently melting phases.

  19. Oxygen-induced recombination centers in as-grown Czochralski silicon crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauka, K.; Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative microprofiles of the interstitial oxygen concentration and of the excess carrier lifetime are obtained in Czochralski-grown Si crystals employing double laser absorption scanning. It is found that oxygen concentration maxima and minima along the crystal growth direction coincide with lifetime minima and maxima, respectively. Another finding is that the magnitude of oxygen-induced lifetime changes increases dramatically in going from the center to the periphery of the crystal. The findings discussed imply that 'as-grown' oxygen precipitates figure in lifetime-limiting processes.

  20. Reduction of carbon contamination during the melting process of Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Gao, Bing; Nakano, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Generation, incorporation, and accumulation of carbon (C) were investigated by transient global simulations of heat and mass transport during the melting process of Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) crystal growth. Contact reaction between the quartz crucible and graphite susceptor was introduced as an extra origin of C contamination. The contribution of the contact reaction on C accumulation is affected by the back diffusion of C monoxide (CO) from the gap between the gas-guide and the crucible. The effect of the gas-guide coating on C reduction was elucidated by taking the reaction between the silicon carbide (SiC) coating and gaseous Si monoxide (SiO) into account. Application of the SiC coating on the gas-guide could effectively reduce the C contamination because of its higher thermochemical stability relative to that of graphite. Gas flow control on the back diffusion of the generated CO was examined by the parametric study of argon gas flow rate. Generation and back diffusion of CO were both effectively suppressed by the increase in the gas flow rate because of the high Péclet number of species transport. Strategies for C content reduction were discussed by analyzing the mechanisms of C accumulation process. According to the elucidated mechanisms of C accumulation, the final C content depends on the growth duration and contamination flux at the gas/melt interface.

  1. Modeling of dislocation dynamics in germanium Czochralski growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, V. V.; Smirnov, A. D.; Kalaev, V. V.; Mamedov, V. M.; Sidko, A. P.; Podkopaev, O. I.; Kravtsova, E. D.; Shimansky, A. F.

    2017-06-01

    Obtaining very high-purity germanium crystals with low dislocation density is a practically difficult problem, which requires knowledge and experience in growth processes. Dislocation density is one of the most important parameters defining the quality of germanium crystal. In this paper, we have performed experimental study of dislocation density during 4-in. germanium crystal growth using the Czochralski method and comprehensive unsteady modeling of the same crystal growth processes, taking into account global heat transfer, melt flow and melt/crystal interface shape evolution. Thermal stresses in the crystal and their relaxation with generation of dislocations within the Alexander-Haasen model have been calculated simultaneously with crystallization dynamics. Comparison to experimental data showed reasonable agreement for the temperature, interface shape and dislocation density in the crystal between calculation and experiment.

  2. Numerical simulation of thermal stress distributions in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. Avinash; Srinivasan, M.; Ramasamy, P.

    2018-04-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the important tools in the investigation and optimization of the single-crystal silicon grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. A 2D steady global heat transfer model was used to investigate the temperature distribution and the thermal stress distributions at particular crystal position during the Cz growth process. The computation determines the thermal stress such as von Mises stress and maximum shear stress distribution along grown crystal and shows possible reason for dislocation formation in the Cz-grown single-crystal silicon.

  3. A first-principle model of 300 mm Czochralski single-crystal Si production process for predicting crystal radius and crystal growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongchao; Seto, Tatsuru; Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Mizuta, Masahiko; Hasebe, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    The Czochralski (CZ) process is the dominant method for manufacturing large cylindrical single-crystal ingots for the electronics industry. Although many models and control methods for the CZ process have been proposed, they were only tested with small equipment and only a few industrial application were reported. In this research, we constructed a first-principle model for controlling industrial CZ processes that produce 300 mm single-crystal silicon ingots. The developed model, which consists of energy, mass balance, hydrodynamic, and geometrical equations, calculates the crystal radius and the crystal growth rate as output variables by using the heater input, the crystal pulling rate, and the crucible rise rate as input variables. To improve accuracy, we modeled the CZ process by considering factors such as changes in the positions of the crucible and the melt level. The model was validated with the operation data from an industrial 300 mm CZ process. We compared the calculated and actual values of the crystal radius and the crystal growth rate, and the results demonstrated that the developed model simulated the industrial process with high accuracy.

  4. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  5. Potential productivity benefits of float-zone versus Czochralski crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, T.

    1985-01-01

    Efficient mass production of single-crystal silicon is necessary for the efficient silicon solar arrays needed in the coming decade. However, it is anticipated that there will be difficulty growing such volumes of crystals using conventional Czochralski (Cz) methods. While the productivity of single crystals might increase with a crystal diameter increase, there are two obstacles to the mass production of large diameter Czochralski crystals, the long production cycle due to slow growth rate and the high heat requirements of the furnaces. Also counterproductive would be the large resistivity gradient along the growth direction of the crystals due to impurity concentration. Comparison between Float zone (FZ) and Cz crystal growth on the basis of a crystal 150 mm in diameter is on an order of two to four times in favor of the FZ method. This advantage results from high growth rates and steady-state growth while maintaining a dislocation-free condition and impurity segregation.

  6. Record Efficiency on Large Area P-Type Czochralski Silicon Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallam, Brett; Wenham, Stuart; Lee, Haeseok; Lee, Eunjoo; Lee, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jisun; Shin, Jeongeun; Cho, Kyeongyeon; Kim, Jisoo

    2012-10-01

    In this work we report a world record independently confirmed efficiency of 19.4% for a large area p-type Czochralski grown solar cell fabricated with a full area aluminium back surface field. This is achieved using the laser doped selective emitter solar cell technology on an industrial screen print production line with the addition of laser doping and light induced plating equipment. The use of a modified diffusion process is explored in which the emitter is diffused to a sheet resistance of 90 Ω/square and subsequent etch back of the emitter to 120 Ω/square. This results in a lower surface concentration of phosphorus compared to that of emitters diffused directly to 120 Ω/square. This modified diffusion process subsequently reduces the conductivity of the surface in relation to that of the heavily diffused laser doped contacts and avoids parasitic plating, resulting an average absolute increase in efficiency of 0.4% compared to cells fabricated without an emitter etch back process.

  7. Telescoping low vibration pulling mechanism for Czochralski crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iseler, G. W.

    1985-02-01

    A telescoping low vibration pulling mechanism is described for use in Czochralski crystal growth apparatus, comprising a broached brushing which defines an internal circumference of teeth on the circumference of a splined shaft. The brushing is coupled to the means for rotation via a hollow tube and the splined shaft, couplable to a seed shaft, and an elevation means telescopes through said brushing within said hollow tube.

  8. Silicon Solar Cell Process Development, Fabrication and Analysis, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.; Iles, P. A.; Tanner, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Solar cells from RTR ribbons, EFG (RF and RH) ribbons, dendritic webs, Silso wafers, cast silicon by HEM, silicon on ceramic, and continuous Czochralski ingots were fabricated using a standard process typical of those used currently in the silicon solar cell industry. Back surface field (BSF) processing and other process modifications were included to give preliminary indications of possible improved performance. The parameters measured included open circuit voltage, short circuit current, curve fill factor, and conversion efficiency (all taken under AM0 illumination). Also measured for typical cells were spectral response, dark I-V characteristics, minority carrier diffusion length, and photoresponse by fine light spot scanning. the results were compared to the properties of cells made from conventional single crystalline Czochralski silicon with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. Limited efforts were made to identify growth defects which will influence solar cell performance.

  9. Numerical modeling of Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals for heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Velázquez, Matias; Veber, Philippe; Ahmine, Abdelmounaim; Sand, Jean-Baptiste; Buşe, Gabriel; Cabane, Hugues; Duffar, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    Lithium molybdate Li2MoO4 (LMO) crystals of mass ranging between 350 and 500 g are excellent candidates to build heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers likely to be used for the detection of rare events in astroparticle physics. In this work, numerical modeling is applied in order to investigate the Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals in an inductive furnace. The numerical model was validated by comparing the numerical predictions of the crystal-melt interface shape to experimental visualization of the growth interface. Modeling was performed for two different Czochralski furnaces that use inductive heating. The simulation of the first furnace, which was used to grow Li2MoO4 crystals of 3-4 cm in diameter, reveals non-optimal heat transfer conditions for obtaining good quality crystals. The second furnace, which will be used to grow crystals of 5 cm in diameter, was numerically optimized in order to reduce the temperature gradients in the crystal and to avoid fast crystallization of the bath at the later stages of the growth process.

  10. Analytical studies on the crystal melt interface shape in the Czochralski process for oxide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ja Hoon; Kang, In Seok

    2000-09-01

    Effects of the operating conditions on the crystal-melt interface shape are analytically investigated for the Czochralski process of the oxide single crystals. The ideas, which were used for the silicon single-crystal growth by Jeong et al. (J. Crystal Growth 177 (1997) 157), are extended to the oxide single-crystal growth problem by considering the internal radiation in the crystal phase and the melt phase heat transfer with the high Prandtl number. The interface shape is approximated in the simplest form as a quadratic function of radial position and an expression for the deviation from the flat interface shape is derived as a function of operating conditions. The radiative heat transfer rate between the interface and the ambient is computed by calculating the view factors for the curved interface shape with the assumption that the crystal phase is completely transparent. For the melt phase, the well-known results from the thermal boundary layer analysis are applied for the asymptotic case of high Prandtl number based on the idea that the flow field near the crystal-melt interface can be modeled as either a uniaxial or a biaxial flow. Through this work, essential information on the interface shape deformation and the effects of operating conditions are brought out for the oxide single-crystal growth.

  11. Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) approach for study of fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in Czochralski melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sudeep; Dewan, Anupam

    2018-01-01

    The Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) approach has been applied for the first time to model turbulent flow and heat transfer in an ideal Czochralski set up with the realistic boundary conditions. This method provides variable level of resolution ranging from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modelling to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) based on the filter control parameter. For the present case, a low-Re PANS model has been developed for Czochralski melt flow, which includes the effect of coriolis, centrifugal, buoyant and surface tension induced forces. The aim of the present study is to assess improvement in results on switching to PANS modelling from unsteady RANS (URANS) approach on the same computational mesh. The PANS computed results were found to be in good agreement with the reported experimental, DNS and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data. A clear improvement in computational accuracy is observed in switching from the URANS approach to the PANS methodology. The computed results further improved with a reduction in the PANS filter width. Further the capability of the PANS model to capture key characteristics of the Czochralski crystal growth is also highlighted. It was observed that the PANS model was able to resolve the three-dimensional turbulent nature of the melt, characteristic flow structures arising due to flow instabilities and generation of thermal plumes and vortices in the Czochralski melt.

  12. Digital Control of the Czochralski Growth of Gallium Arsenide. System Reference Manual. Valid for Czochralski Growth Controller Software Version 2.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-04

    Controller Routine .......... ........................ 405 -viii- ’ O, ...1 . • N SList of Illustrations i p List of Illustrations . Fig. 1: A...J------ - - - 6 - -- -w -- -w -r n . w ~ - P a CGCS Program Versions ~CGCS Program Versions This section describes the "evolution" of the...8217 ~- 134 - ,d" - 1’ , n "W , ’." " a 4 r P . ’ ,’ r t r 1 "."." , . L t * 5.1 CGCS Concept and Structure 5. The Czochralski Growth Control System Software

  13. Real time thermal imaging for analysis and control of crystal growth by the Czochralski technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargo, M. J.; Witt, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    A real time thermal imaging system with temperature resolution better than +/- 0.5 C and spatial resolution of better than 0.5 mm has been developed. It has been applied to the analysis of melt surface thermal field distributions in both Czochralski and liquid encapsulated Czochralski growth configurations. The sensor can provide single/multiple point thermal information; a multi-pixel averaging algorithm has been developed which permits localized, low noise sensing and display of optical intensity variations at any location in the hot zone as a function of time. Temperature distributions are measured by extraction of data along a user selectable linear pixel array and are simultaneously displayed, as a graphic overlay, on the thermal image.

  14. In Situ Determination of Thermal Profiles during Czochralski Silicon Crystal Growth by an Eddy Current Technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Kwang Su.

    An eddy current testing method was developed to continuously monitor crystal growth process and determine thermal profiles in situ during Czochralski silicon crystal growth. The work was motivated by the need to improve the quality of the crystal by controlling thermal gradients and annealing history over the growth cycle. The experimental concept is to monitor intrinsic electrical conductivities of the growing crystal and deduce temperature values from them. The experiments were performed in a resistance-heated Czochralski puller with a 203 mm (8 inch) diameter crucible containing 6.5 kg melt. The silicon crystals being grown were about 80 mm in diameter and monitored by an encircling sensor operating at three different test frequencies (86, 53 and 19 kHz). A one-dimensional analytical solution was employed to translate the detected signals into electrical conductivities. In terms of experiments, the effects of changes in growth condition, which is defined by crystal and crucible rotation rates, crucible position, pull rate, and hot-zone configuration, were investigated. Under a given steady-state condition, the thermal profile was usually stable over the entire length of crystal growth. The profile shifted significantly, however, when the crucible rotation rate was kept too high. As a direct evidence to the effects of melt flow on heat transfer process, a thermal gradient minimum was observed about the crystal/crucible rotation combination of 20/-10 rpm cw. The thermal gradient reduction was still most pronounced when the pull rate or the radiant heat loss to the environment was decreased: a nearly flat axial thermal gradient was achieved when either the pull rate was halved or the height of the exposed crucible wall was effectively doubled. Under these conditions, the average axial thermal gradient along the surface of the crystal was about 4-5 ^{rm o}C/mm. Regardless of growth condition, the three-frequency data revealed radial thermal gradients much larger

  15. Impurity engineering of Czochralski silicon used for ultra large-scaled-integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deren; Chen, Jiahe; Ma, Xiangyang; Que, Duanlin

    2009-01-01

    Impurities in Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) used for ultra large-scaled-integrated (ULSI) circuits have been believed to deteriorate the performance of devices. In this paper, a review of the recent processes from our investigation on internal gettering in Cz-Si wafers which were doped with nitrogen, germanium and/or high content of carbon is presented. It has been suggested that those impurities enhance oxygen precipitation, and create both denser bulk microdefects and enough denuded zone with the desirable width, which is benefit of the internal gettering of metal contamination. Based on the experimental facts, a potential mechanism of impurity doping on the internal gettering structure is interpreted and, a new concept of 'impurity engineering' for Cz-Si used for ULSI is proposed.

  16. Physical modelling of Czochralski crystal growth in horizontal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grants, Ilmārs; Pal, Josef; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2017-07-01

    This study addresses experimentally the heat transfer, the temperature azimuthal non-uniformity and the onset of oscillations in a low temperature physical model of a medium-sized Czochralski crystal growth process with a strong horizontal magnetic field (HMF). It is observed that under certain conditions the integral heat flux may decrease with increasing magnetic field strength at the same time as the flow velocity increases. The azimuthal non-uniformity of the temperature field in the melt near the crystal model rim is only little influenced by its rotation rate outside of a narrow range where the centrifugal force balances the buoyant one. The flow oscillation onset has been observed for two values of the HMF strength. Conditions of this onset are little influenced by the crystal rotation. The critical temperature difference of the oscillation onset considerably exceeds that of the Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) cell in a strong HMF.

  17. Single crystal growth of Ga3Ni2 by the Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wencka, Magdalena; Pillaca, Mirtha; Gille, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Intermetallic compounds have proved to be interesting alternatives to heterogeneous catalysts prepared from pure noble metals or their alloys. As to study their intrinsic properties, to determine the crystalline structures of specific surfaces and finally to understand elementary processes of heterogeneous catalysis, single crystals of these intermetallics are needed. Inspired by the recent discovery of Ga-Ni catalysts for carbon dioxide reduction to methanol, we have grown for the first time cm3-size single crystals of trigonal Ga3Ni2. We report in detail on the synthesis and Czochralski growth from high-temperature solution using Ga as native solvent. Inclusion formation of Ga-rich fluid proved to be the most severe problem that was minimized by using an extremely low pulling rate down to 25 μm/h.

  18. New electron trap in p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    A new electron trap (acceptor level) was discovered in p-type Czochralski (CZ) silicon by current transient spectroscopy. The behavior of this trap was found to be similar to that of the oxygen thermal donors; thus, 450 C annealing increases the trap concentration while high-temperature annealing (1100-1200 C) leads to the virtual elimination of the trap. The new trap is not observed in either float-zone or n-type CZ silicon. Its energy level depends on the group III doping element in the sample. These findings suggest that the trap is related to oxygen, and probably to the acceptor impurity as well.

  19. Global simulation of the Czochralski silicon crystal growth in ANSYS FLUENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpo, Maksims

    2013-05-01

    Silicon crystals for high efficiency solar cells are produced mainly by the Czochralski (CZ) crystal growth method. Computer simulations of the CZ process established themselves as a basic tool for optimization of the growth process which allows to reduce production costs keeping high quality of the crystalline material. The author shows the application of the general Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS FLUENT to solution of the static two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric global model of the small industrial furnace for growing of silicon crystals with a diameter of 100 mm. The presented numerical model is self-sufficient and incorporates the most important physical phenomena of the CZ growth process including latent heat generation during crystallization, crystal-melt interface deflection, turbulent heat and mass transport, oxygen transport, etc. The demonstrated approach allows to find the heater power for the specified pulling rate of the crystal but the obtained power values are smaller than those found in the literature for the studied furnace. However, the described approach is successfully verified with the respect to the heater power by its application for the numerical simulations of the real CZ pullers by "Bosch Solar Energy AG".

  20. Computational analysis of heat transfer, thermal stress and dislocation density during resistively Czochralski growth of germanium single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Hossein; Renani, Elahe Kabiri; Honarmandnia, Mohtaram; Ezheiyan, Mahdi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a set of numerical simulations of fluid flow, temperature gradient, thermal stress and dislocation density for a Czochralski setup used to grow IR optical-grade Ge single crystal have been done for different stages of the growth process. A two-dimensional steady state finite element method has been applied for all calculations. The obtained numerical results reveal that the thermal field, thermal stress and dislocation structure are mainly dependent on the crystal height, heat radiation and gas flow in the growth system.

  1. Development of advanced Czochralski Growth Process to produce low cost 150 KG silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The goals in this program for advanced czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness are outlined. To provide a modified CG2000 crystal power capable of pulling a minimum of five crystals, each of approximately 30 kg in weight, 150 mm diameter from a single crucible with periodic melt replenishment. Crystals to have: resistivity of 1 to 3 ohm cm, p-type; dislocation density below 1- to the 6th power per cm; orientation (100); after growth yield of greater than 90%. Growth throughput of greater than 2.5 kg per hour of machine operation using a radiation shield. Prototype equipment suitable for use as a production facility. The overall cost goal is $.70 per peak watt by 1986. To accomplish these goals, the modified CG2000 grower and development program includes: (1) increased automation with a microprocessor based control system; (2) sensors development which will increase the capability of the automatic controls system, and provide technology transfer of the developed systems.

  2. Effect of Rapid Thermal Processing on Light-Induced Degradation of Carrier Lifetime in Czochralski p-Type Silicon Bare Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouhlane, Y.; Bouhafs, D.; Khelifati, N.; Belhousse, S.; Menari, H.; Guenda, A.; Khelfane, A.

    2016-11-01

    The electrical properties of Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) p-type boron-doped bare wafers have been investigated after rapid thermal processing (RTP) with different peak temperatures. Treated wafers were exposed to light for various illumination times, and the effective carrier lifetime ( τ eff) measured using the quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC) technique. τ eff values dropped after prolonged illumination exposure due to light-induced degradation (LID) related to electrical activation of boron-oxygen (BO) complexes, except in the sample treated with peak temperature of 785°C, for which the τ eff degradation was less pronounced. Also, a reduction was observed when using the 830°C peak temperature, an effect that was enhanced by alteration of the wafer morphology (roughness). Furthermore, the electrical resistivity presented good stability under light exposure as a function of temperature compared with reference wafers. Additionally, the optical absorption edge shifted to higher wavelength, leading to increased free-carrier absorption by treated wafers. Moreover, a theoretical model is used to understand the lifetime degradation and regeneration behavior as a function of illumination time. We conclude that RTP plays an important role in carrier lifetime regeneration for Cz-Si wafers via modification of optoelectronic and structural properties. The balance between an optimized RTP cycle and the rest of the solar cell elaboration process can overcome the negative effect of LID and contribute to achievement of higher solar cell efficiency and module performance.

  3. Modeling dislocation generation in high pressure Czochralski growth of indium phosphide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendurti, Srinivas

    InP is an important material for opto-electronic and high speed electronics applications. Its main use today is as the substrate material for epitaxy to produce GaInAsP lasers. The present technology for growing bulk InP is the high pressure Czochralski process. Bulk InP grown through this technique suffers from presence of a high density of line defects or dislocations, which are produced by thermal stresses the material goes through during its growth in the high temperature furnace. Modeling of these thermal stresses and the resulting plastic deformation, giving rise to dislocation densities, entails simulation of the entire thermal history of the crystal during its growth in the furnace, and studying the deformation of the crystal through suitable visco-plastic constitutive equations. Accordingly, a suitable visco-plastic model for deformation of InP was constructed, integrated with the ABAQUS finite element code, and verified through experimental data for uniaxial constant strain rate deformation tests available in literature. This was then coupled with a computation fluid dynamics model, predicting the entire temperature history in the furnace during crystal growth, to study the plastic deformation and dislocation density evolution in the crystal during growth. Growth in a variety of conditions was simulated and those conditions that generate minimum dislocation density identified. Macroscopic controllable parameters that affect the dislocation densities the most, have also been delineated. It was found that the strength of gas convection in the Czochralski furnace has the strongest effect on the dislocation densities in the fully grown crystal. Comparison of the simulated dislocation densities on wafers, with experimentally recorded etch pit profiles on as-grown crystals was reasonable. Finally some limitations in the work are discussed and avenues for future work identified.

  4. Reduction of oxygen concentration by heater design during Czochralski Si growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bing; Chen, Wenliang; Li, Zhihui; Yue, Ruicun; Liu, Guowei; Huang, Xinming

    2018-02-01

    Oxygen is one of the highest-concentration impurities in single crystals grown by the Czochralski (CZ) process, and seriously impairs the quality of the Si wafer. In this study, computer simulations were applied to design a new CZ system. A more appropriate thermal field was acquired by optimization of the heater structure. The simulation results showed that, compared with the conventional system, the oxygen concentration in the newly designed CZ system was reduced significantly throughout the entire CZ process because of the lower crucible wall temperature and optimized convection. To verify the simulation results, experiments were conducted on an industrial single-crystal furnace. The experimental results showed that the oxygen concentration was reduced significantly, especially at the top of the CZ-Si ingot. Specifically, the oxygen concentration was 6.19 × 1017 atom/cm3 at the top of the CZ-Si ingot with the newly designed CZ system, compared with 9.22 × 1017 atom/cm3 with the conventional system. Corresponding light-induced degradation of solar cells based on the top of crystals from the newly designed CZ system was 1.62%, a reduction of 0.64% compared with crystals from the conventional system (2.26%).

  5. Microhardness of carbon-doped (111) p-type Czochralski silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.; Lim, D. S.; Kalejs, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of carbon on (111) p-type Czochralski silicon is examined. The preparation of the silicon and microhardness test procedures are described, and the equation used to determine microhardness from indentations in the silicon wafers is presented. The results indicate that as the carbon concentration in the silicon increases the microhardness increases. The linear increase in microhardness is the result of carbon hindering dislocation motion, and the effect of temperature on silicon deformation and dislocation mobility is explained. The measured microhardness was compared with an analysis which is based on dislocation pinning by carbon; a good correlation was observed. The Labusch model for the effect of pinning sites on dislocation motion is given.

  6. Nonlinear resonance ultrasonic vibrations in Czochralski-silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, S.; Tarasov, I.

    2000-04-01

    A resonance effect of generation of subharmonic acoustic vibrations is observed in as-grown, oxidized, and epitaxial silicon wafers. Ultrasonic vibrations were generated into a standard 200 mm Czochralski-silicon (Cz-Si) wafer using a circular ultrasound transducer with major frequency of the radial vibrations at about 26 kHz. By tuning frequency (f) of the transducer within a resonance curve, we observed a generation of intense f/2 subharmonic acoustic mode assigned as a "whistle." The whistle mode has a threshold amplitude behavior and narrow frequency band. The whistle is attributed to a nonlinear acoustic vibration of a silicon plate. It is demonstrated that characteristics of the whistle mode are sensitive to internal stress and can be used for quality control and in-line diagnostics of oxidized and epitaxial Cz-Si wafers.

  7. Microtube-Czochralski technique (μT-CZ):. a novel way of seeding the melt to grow bulk single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.; Ramasamy, P.

    1998-09-01

    A novel microtube seeding has been proposed in the conventional Czochralski pulling technique to grow a bulk single crystal. The versatility of the technique has been shown by adopting this method for the growth of benzil. Benzil single crystals having hexagonal facets are grown by this technique called the microtube-Czochralski technique (μT-CZ). Due to capillary rise, a fine column of melt was crystallized inside the microtube, which leads to the formation of the single crystal nucleation and ends up with hexagonal morphology. The reproducibility for getting single crystal is about 80%. It is evident that this technique is more viable to grow a bulk single crystal from the melt without a pregrown-seed. Further, the proposed μT-CZ technique can also be extended to other newer materials with the proper choice of the microtube.

  8. Digital Control of the Czochralski Growth of Gallium Arsenide-Controller Software Reference Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-15

    possible with regard to the format of the commands. Several help menus and extensive command prompts guide the operator. The dialog between the...single-zone heater is in use.) - 4 - Kfc ^&S^^ p IS’ K: i 1. Digital Control of Czochralski GaAs Crystal Growth (2) Four tachometers which are...commands for the display of menus or auxiliary information. The scrolled portion shrinks to four lines if auxiliary data display is re- quested with the

  9. Lifetime degradation of n-type Czochralski silicon after hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaqueiro-Contreras, M.; Markevich, V. P.; Mullins, J.; Halsall, M. P.; Murin, L. I.; Falster, R.; Binns, J.; Coutinho, J.; Peaker, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen plays an important role in the passivation of interface states in silicon-based metal-oxide semiconductor technologies and passivation of surface and interface states in solar silicon. We have shown recently [Vaqueiro-Contreras et al., Phys. Status Solidi RRL 11, 1700133 (2017)] that hydrogenation of n-type silicon slices containing relatively large concentrations of carbon and oxygen impurity atoms {[Cs] ≥ 1 × 1016 cm-3 and [Oi] ≥ 1017 cm-3} can produce a family of C-O-H defects, which act as powerful recombination centres reducing the minority carrier lifetime. In this work, evidence of the silicon's lifetime deterioration after hydrogen injection from SiNx coating, which is widely used in solar cell manufacturing, has been obtained from microwave photoconductance decay measurements. We have characterised the hydrogenation induced deep level defects in n-type Czochralski-grown Si samples through a series of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), minority carrier transient spectroscopy (MCTS), and high-resolution Laplace DLTS/MCTS measurements. It has been found that along with the hydrogen-related hole traps, H1 and H2, in the lower half of the gap reported by us previously, hydrogenation gives rise to two electron traps, E1 and E2, in the upper half of the gap. The activation energies for electron emission from the E1 and E2 trap levels have been determined as 0.12, and 0.14 eV, respectively. We argue that the E1/H1 and E2/H2 pairs of electron/hole traps are related to two energy levels of two complexes, each incorporating carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms. Our results show that the detrimental effect of the C-O-H defects on the minority carrier lifetime in n-type Si:O + C materials can be very significant, and the carbon concentration in Czochralski-grown silicon is a key parameter in the formation of the recombination centers.

  10. Solar silicon via the Dow Corning process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, L. P.; Dosaj, V. D.

    1979-01-01

    Technical feasibility for high volume production of solar cell-grade silicon is investigated. The process consists of producing silicon from pure raw materials via the carbothermic reduction of quartz. This silicon was then purified to solar grade by impurity segregation during Czochralski crystal growth. Commercially available raw materials were used to produce 100 kg quantities of silicon during 60 hour periods in a direct arc reactor. This silicon produced single crystalline ingot, during a second Czochralski pull, that was fabricated into solar cells having efficiencies ranging from 8.2 percent to greater than 14 percent. An energy analysis of the entire process indicated a 5 month payback time.

  11. Low-temperature TCT characterization of heavily proton irradiated p-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Kassamakov, I.; Autioniemi, M.; Tuominen, E.; Sane, P.; Pusa, P.; Räisänen, J.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Li, Z.

    2007-12-01

    n +/p -/p + pad detectors processed at the Microelectronics Center of Helsinki University of Technology on boron-doped p-type high-resistivity magnetic Czochralski (MCz-Si) silicon substrates have been investigated by the transient current technique (TCT) measurements between 100 and 240 K. The detectors were irradiated by 9 MeV protons at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Helsinki up to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 2×10 15 n/cm 2. In some of the detectors the thermal donors (TD) were introduced by intentional heat treatment at 430 °C. Hole trapping time constants and full depletion voltage values were extracted from the TCT data. We observed that hole trapping times in the order of 10 ns were found in heavily (above 1×10 15 n eq/cm 2) irradiated samples. These detectors could be fully depleted below 500 V in the temperature range of 140-180 K.

  12. Modeling Czochralski growth of oxide crystals for piezoelectric and optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, C.; Duffar, T.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical modeling is applied to investigate the impact of crystal and crucible rotation on the flow pattern and crystal-melt interface shape in Czochralski growth of oxide semi-transparent crystals used for piezoelectric and optical applications. Two cases are simulated in the present work: the growth of piezoelectric langatate (LGT) crystals of 3 cm in diameter in an inductive furnace, and the growth of sapphire crystals of 10 cm in diameter in a resistive configuration. The numerical results indicate that the interface shape depends essentially on the internal radiative heat exchanges in the semi-transparent crystals. Computations performed by applying crystal/crucible rotation show that the interface can be flattened during LGT growth, while flat-interface growth of large diameter sapphire crystals may not be possible.

  13. Growth of a decagonal Al 70Ni 15Co 15 single quasicrystal by the Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, H. T.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, W. T.; Kim, D. H.; Inkson, B. J.

    2000-07-01

    Single decagonal quasicrystals of Al 70Ni 15Co 15 were grown by the Czochralski method at Ar atmosphere. The grown crystals were of single decagonal phase without any secondary phases due to the peritectic reaction and contained a large single quasicrystal of cm order size. The high quality and single quasicrystallinity of them were examined by the Laue transmission photography, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy investigations.

  14. Luminescence and Scintillation Properties of Czochralski Grown LYGBO Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawad, U.; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, H.; Kim, Sunghwan; Khan, Sajid

    2016-06-01

    Mixed crystals Li6YxGd1-x(BO3)3:Ce3+ (LYGBO) (where, x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) are grown by using Czochralski method with different proportions of Li6Y(BO3)3 and Li6Gd(BO3)3. All crystals are doped with 3 mole% optimized concentrations of Ce3+ ions. The grown crystals are 20-70 mm in length and 5-10 mm in diameter. Detailed sintering and crystal growth procedure is presented in this study. The required phase of the grown crystals is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence and X-ray induced luminescence of the grown crystals at room temperature are measured. Various scintillation properties such as energy resolution, light yield, α/β ratio and fluorescence decay time under the excitation by 137Cs γ-ray and 241Am particles are also presented.

  15. Process research of non-Czochralski silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous diffusion of liquid precursors containing phosphorus and boron into dendritic web silicon to form solar cell structures was investigated. A simultaneous junction formation techniques was developed. It was determined that to produce high quality cells, an annealing cycle (nominal 800 C for 30 min) should follow the diffusion process to anneal quenched-in defects. Two ohm-cm n-base cells were fabricated with efficiencies greater than 15%. A cost analysis indicated that the simultansous diffusion process costs can be as low as 65% of the costs of the sequential diffusion process.

  16. Optical Properties of LiNbO3 Single Crystal Grown by Czochralski Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahar, M. R.; Naim, N. M.; Hamzah, K.

    2011-03-01

    Pure LiNbO3 single crystal was grown by Czochralski method using Automatic Diameter Control—Crystal Growth System (ADC-CGS). The transmission spectrum was determined by using Infrared Spectroscopy while the refractive index was determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy via the Sellmeier equation. The density was also measured using the Archimedes principle. It was found that the peak for the absorption vibrational spectrum for LiNbO3 crystal occurs at 801 cm-1, 672 cm-1, 639 cm-1 and 435 cm-1. The refractive index, ne was found to be 2.480 and the crystal density was around 4.64 g/cm3.

  17. Processing experiments on non-Czochralski silicon sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, R. A.; Grenon, L. A.; Sakiotis, N. G.; Pastirik, E. M.; Sparks, T. O.; Legge, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    A program is described which supports and promotes the development of processing techniques which may be successfully and cost-effectively applied to low-cost sheets for solar cell fabrication. Results are reported in the areas of process technology, cell design, cell metallization, and production cost simulation.

  18. Infrared studies of defects formed during postirradiation anneals of Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londos, C. A.; Sarlis, N. V.; Fytros, L. G.

    1998-10-01

    This article reports on defect studies of neutron-irradiated Czochralski-grown silicon (Cz-Si) material by means of infrared spectroscopy. In particular, the investigation was focused on the evolution of the 828 cm-1 well-known band of A-center, due to isochronal anneals from room temperature (RT) up to ≈700 °C. The strength of the VO band begins to increase above ≈200 gradually up to 300 °C (stage I); then, it begins to decrease up to ≈400 °C (stage II), where upon it stabilizes up to ≈550 °C (stage III). Upon re-irradiation under exactly the same conditions and repeating the annealing process, the increase of the VO signal in stage I disappears. The phenomenon is ascribed to the existence of defect aggregates labeled as Xi centers which are correlated with (impurity-defect) clusters that compete with Oi in capturing vacancies. The presence of Xi centers is related to the thermal annealings performed. Comparison of the evolution of VO (828 cm-1) and VO2 (887 cm-1) bands between irradiated and re-irradiated materials, during stage II, is made and the results are discussed in the framework of established reaction patterns. The stabilization of the amplitude of the 828 cm-1 line in stage III is examined. The prevailing aspect is that a portion of A-centers in neutron-irradiated Si acquires larger thermal stability by relaxing in the vicinity of larger defects.

  19. Czochralski growth of Gd3(Al5-xGax)O12 (GAGG) single crystals and their scintillation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei; Chani, Valery I.; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Ce:Gd3(AlxGa1-x)5O12 (x=2.5/5 and 3/5, Ce:GAGG-2.5 and Ce:GAGG-3) crystals were grown by the Czochralski process in order to reduce cost of the starting materials as compared with conventional Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG-2) crystal which have high light output. Although perovskite phase was detected in Ce:GAGG-3, Ce:GAGG-2.5 had single-phase garnet structure. Solidification fraction for the Ce:GAGG-2.5 growth was 0.52. Optical properties including transmittance, emission, and excitation spectra of 30 samples cut from the Ce:GAGG-2.5 bulk ingot did not depend on their original position along the growth axis. These samples had light outputs of approximately 58,000±3000 photons/MeV. However, scintillation decay times varied from 140 to 200 ns and depended on the position clearly.

  20. Mutiple Czochralski growth of silicon crystals from a single crucible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, R. L.; Kachare, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals is presented which is capable of producing multiple ingots from a single crucible. The growth chamber features a refillable crucible with a water-cooled, vacuum-tight isolation valve located between the pull chamber and the growth furnace tank which allows the melt crucible to always be at vacuum or low argon pressure when retrieving crystal or introducing recharge polysilicon feed stock. The grower can thus be recharged to obtain 100 kg of silicon crystal ingots from one crucible, and may accommodate crucibles up to 35 cm in diameter. Evaluation of the impurity contents and I-V characteristics of solar cells fabricated from seven ingots grown from two crucibles reveals a small but consistent decrease in cell efficiency from 10.4% to 9.6% from the first to the fourth ingot made in a single run, which is explained by impurity build-up in the residual melt. The crystal grower thus may offer economic benefits through the extension of crucible lifetime and the reduction of furnace downtime.

  1. Properties of high quality GaP single crystals grown by computer controlled liquid encapsulated Czochralski technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Y.; Washizuka, S.; Ushizawa, J.; Watanabe, M.; Fukuda, T.

    1982-11-01

    The properties of GaP single crystals grown by an automatically diameter controlled liquid encapsulated Czochralski technique using a computer have been studied. A dislocation density less than 5×104 cm-2 has been observed for crystal grown in a temperature gradient lower than 70 °C/cm near the solid-liquid interface. Crystals have about 10% higher electron mobility than that of commercially available coracle controlled crystals and have 0.2˜0.5 compensation ratios. Yellow light emitting diodes using computer controlled (100) substrates have shown extremely high external quantum efficiency of 0.3%.

  2. Recent progress in continuous and semi-continuous processing of solid oral dosage forms: a review.

    PubMed

    Teżyk, Michał; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Ernst, Andrzej; Lulek, Janina

    2016-08-01

    Continuous processing is an innovative production concept well known and successfully used in other industries for many years. The modern pharmaceutical industry is facing the challenge of transition from a traditional manufacturing approach based on batch-wise production to a continuous manufacturing model. The aim of this article is to present technological progress in manufacturing based on continuous and semi-continuous processing of the solid oral dosage forms. Single unit processes possessing an alternative processing pathway to batch-wise technology or, with some modification, an altered approach that may run continuously, and are thus able to seamlessly switch to continuous manufacturing are briefly presented. Furthermore, the concept of semi-continuous processing is discussed. Subsequently, more sophisticated production systems created by coupling single unit processes and comprising all the steps of production, from powder to final dosage form, were reviewed. Finally, attempts of end-to-end production approach, meaning the linking of continuous synthesis of API from intermediates with the production of final dosage form, are described. There are a growing number of scientific articles showing an increasing interest in changing the approach to the production of pharmaceuticals in recent years. Numerous scientific publications are a source of information on the progress of knowledge and achievements of continuous processing. These works often deal with issues of how to modify or replace the unit processes in order to enable seamlessly switching them into continuous processing. A growing number of research papers concentrate on integrated continuous manufacturing lines in which the production concept of "from powder to tablet" is realized. Four main domains are under investigation: influence of process parameters on intermediates or final dosage forms properties, implementation of process analytical tools, control-managing system responsible for keeping

  3. The effect of isolated dislocations on substrate and device properties in low-dislocation czochralski GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A. T.; Kimura, H.; Olsen, H. M.; Winston, H. V.

    1986-07-01

    Czochralski GaAs grown with In incorporated into the melt has large regions with fewer than 100 cm-2 dislocations. We have examined the effect of these dislocations on substrate and device properties. Infrared transmission images reveal dark filaments of high EL2 concentration a few tens of microns in diameter surrounding dislocations, Cathodo and photoluminescence images show orders of magnitude contrast in band-edge luminescence intensity near dislocations. Single dislocations appear to be surrounded by bright rings ˜200 μm in diameter in luminescence images, with dark spots 50 to 75 μm across centered on the dislocation. More complex luminescence structures with larger dark regions (˜150 μ across) and central bright spots are centered on small dislocation clusters. Differences in lifetime of photogenerated electrons or holes are the most likely cause of the luminescence contrast. Anneals typical of our post-implant processing substantially lower the luminescence contrast, suggesting the defect lowering the lifetime is removed by annealing. This may partially explain why we do not observe any effect of dislocation proximity on the properties of devices made in the material, in spite of the enormous luminescence contrast observed near dislocations.

  4. A multiple p-n junction structure obtained from as-grown Czochralski silicon crystals by heat treatment - Application to solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, J. Y.; Gatos, H. C.; Mao, B. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Multiple p-n junctions have been prepared in as-grown Czochralski p-type silicon through overcompensation near the oxygen periodic concentration maxima by oxygen thermal donors generated during heat treatment at 450 C. Application of the multiple p-n-junction configuration to photovoltaic energy conversion has been investigated. A new solar-cell structure based on multiple p-n-junctions was developed. Theoretical analysis showed that a significant increase in collection efficiency over the conventional solar cells can be achieved.

  5. Boron codoping of Czochralski grown lutetium aluminum garnet and the effect on scintillation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Camera; Koschan, Merry; Wu, Yuntao; Melcher, Charles L.

    2018-03-01

    Many single crystal scintillators, such as Lu3Al5O12, have intrinsic defects that impede their performance. In addition to doping with activators such as cerium, codoping can be used to improve the scintillation properties of a variety of scintillators. In particular, boron has been shown to improve the light yield, energy resolution, and self-absorption of other garnet scintillators, such as GGAG, when incorporated into the lattice via codoping. In this study, single crystals of LuAG: 0.2 at.% Ce codoped with varying concentrations of boron were grown via the Czochralski method at a rate of 1.2 mm/h. Results will show the effect boron codoping has on the scintillation properties of LuAG: Ce, including light yield, decay time, and self-absorption.

  6. Analysis of the effect of symmetric/asymmetric CUSP magnetic fields on melt/crystal interface during Czochralski silicon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daggolu, Parthiv; Ryu, Jae Woo; Galyukov, Alex; Kondratyev, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    With the use of 300 mm silicon wafers for industrial semiconductor device manufacturing, the Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth process has to be optimized to achieve higher quality and productivity. Numerical studies based on 2D global thermal models combined with 3D simulation of melt convection are widely used today to save time and money in the process development. Melt convection in large scale Cz Si growth is controlled by a CUSP or transversal magnetic field (MF) to suppress the melt turbulence. MF can be optimized to meet necessary characteristics of the growing crystal, in terms of point defects, as MF affects the melt/crystal interface geometry and allows adjustment of the pulling rate. Among the different knobs associated with the CUSP magnetic field, the nature of its configuration, going from symmetric to asymmetric, is also reported to be an important tool for the control of crystallization front. Using a 3D unsteady model of the CGSim software, we have studied these effects and compared with several experimental results. In addition, physical mechanisms behind these observations are explored through a detailed modeling analysis of the effect of an asymmetric CUSP MF on convection features governing the heat transport in the silicon melt.

  7. Spectral and multi-wavelength continuous-wave laser properties of Yb3+:BaLaGa3O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shufang; Xu, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Yb3+ doped BaLaGa3O7 crystal has been successfully grown by Czochralski method. The polarized absorption spectra, the fluorescence spectra and the fluorescence decay lifetime of Yb3+:BaLaGa3O7 crystal were measured at room temperature. The spectroscopic parameters of Yb3+:BaLaGa3O7 crystal are calculated. A continuous wave output power of 1.32W was obtained with four-wavelength emission corresponding to an optical-optical slope efficiency of 55%.

  8. Comparison on mechanical properties of heavily phosphorus- and arsenic-doped Czochralski silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kang; Sun, Yuxin; Lu, Yunhao; Liang, Xingbo; Tian, Daxi; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2018-04-01

    Heavily phosphorus (P)- and arsenic (As)-doped Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) wafers generally act as the substrates for the epitaxial silicon wafers used to fabricate power and communication devices. The mechanical properties of such two kinds of n-type heavily doped CZ silicon wafers are vital to ensure the quality of epitaxial silicon wafers and the manufacturing yields of devices. In this work, the mechanical properties including the hardness, Young's modulus, indentation fracture toughness and the resistance to dislocation motion have been comparatively investigated for heavily P- and As-doped CZ-Si wafers. It is found that heavily P-doped CZ-Si possesses somewhat higher hardness, lower Young's modulus, larger indentation fracture toughness and stronger resistance to dislocation motion than heavily As-doped CZ-Si. The mechanisms underlying this finding have been tentatively elucidated by considering the differences in the doping effects of P and As in silicon.

  9. Electromigration process for the purification of molten silicon during crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Shlichta, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the purification of molten materials during crystal growth by electromigration of impurities to localized dirty zones. The process has particular applications for silicon crystal growth according to Czochralski techniques and edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) conditions. In the Czochralski crystal growing process, the impurities are electromigrated away from the crystallization interface by applying a direct electrical current to the molten silicon for electromigrating the charged impurities away from the crystal growth interface. In the EFG crystal growth process, a direct electrical current is applied between the two faces which are used in forming the molten silicon into a ribbon. The impurities are thereby migrated to one side only of the crystal ribbon. The impurities may be removed or left in place. If left in place, they will not adversely affect the ribbon when used in solar collectors. The migration of the impurity to one side only of the silicon ribbon is especially suitable for use with asymmetric dies which preferentially crystallize uncharged impurities along one side or face of the ribbon.

  10. Continuous Manufacturing in Pharmaceutical Process Development and Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Burcham, Christopher L; Florence, Alastair J; Johnson, Martin D

    2018-06-07

    The pharmaceutical industry has found new applications for the use of continuous processing for the manufacture of new therapies currently in development. The transformation has been encouraged by regulatory bodies as well as driven by cost reduction, decreased development cycles, access to new chemistries not practical in batch, improved safety, flexible manufacturing platforms, and improved product quality assurance. The transformation from batch to continuous manufacturing processing is the focus of this review. The review is limited to small, chemically synthesized organic molecules and encompasses the manufacture of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and the subsequent drug product. Continuous drug product is currently used in approved processes. A few examples of production of APIs under current good manufacturing practice conditions using continuous processing steps have been published in the past five years, but they are lagging behind continuous drug product with respect to regulatory filings.

  11. Analysis of Phase Separation in Czochralski Grown Single Crystal Ilmenite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, R.; Powell, Kirk St. A.; Loregnard, Kieron R.; Lin, Sy-Chyi; Muthusami, Jayakumar; Zhou, Feng; Pandey, R. K.; Brown, Geoff; Hawley, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiOs) is a wide bandgap semiconductor with an energy gap of 2.58 eV. Ilmenite has properties suited for radiation tolerant applications, as well as a variety of other electronic applications. Single crystal ilmenite has been grown from the melt using the Czochralski method. Growth conditions have a profound effect on the microstructure of the samples. Here we present data from a variety of analytical techniques which indicate that some grown crystals exhibit distinct phase separation during growth. This phase separation is apparent for both post-growth annealed and unannealed samples. Under optical microscopy, there appear two distinct areas forming a matrix with an array of dots on order of 5 pm diameter. While appearing bright in the optical micrograph, atomic force microscope (AFM) shows the dots to be shallow pits on the surface. Magnetic force microscope (MFM) shows the dots to be magnetic. Phase identification via electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) indicates two major phases in the unannealed samples and four in the annealed samples, where the dots appear to be almost pure iron. This is consistent with micrographs taken with a scanning probe microscope used in the magnetic force mode. Samples that do not exhibit the phase separation have little or no discernible magnetic structure detectable by the MFM.

  12. Recollection is a continuous process: implications for dual-process theories of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Mickes, Laura; Wais, Peter E; Wixted, John T

    2009-04-01

    Dual-process theory, which holds that recognition decisions can be based on recollection or familiarity, has long seemed incompatible with signal detection theory, which holds that recognition decisions are based on a singular, continuous memory-strength variable. Formal dual-process models typically regard familiarity as a continuous process (i.e., familiarity comes in degrees), but they construe recollection as a categorical process (i.e., recollection either occurs or does not occur). A continuous process is characterized by a graded relationship between confidence and accuracy, whereas a categorical process is characterized by a binary relationship such that high confidence is associated with high accuracy but all lower degrees of confidence are associated with chance accuracy. Using a source-memory procedure, we found that the relationship between confidence and source-recollection accuracy was graded. Because recollection, like familiarity, is a continuous process, dual-process theory is more compatible with signal detection theory than previously thought.

  13. Simulation of the temperature distribution in crystals grown by Czochralski method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudokovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Production of perfect crystals, free of residual strain and dislocations and with prescribed dopant concentration, by the Czochralski method is possible only if the complex, interacting phenomena that affect crystal growth in a Cz-puller are fully understood and quantified. Natural and forced convection in the melt, thermocapillary effect and heat transfer in and around the crystal affect its growth rate, the shape of the crystal-melt interface and the temperature gradients in the crystal. The heat transfer problem in the crystal and between the crystal and all other surfaces present in the crystal pulling apparatus are discussed at length. A simulation and computer algorithm are used, based on the following assumptions: (1) only conduction occurs in the crystal (experimentally determined conductivity as a function of temperature is used), (2) melt temperature and the melt-crystal heat transfer coefficient are available (either as constant values or functions of radial position), (3) pseudo-steady state is achieved with respect to temperature gradients, (4) crystal radius is fixed, and (5) both direct and reflected radiation exchange occurs among all surfaces at various temperatures in the crystal puller enclosure.

  14. Applications of immobilized catalysts in continuous flow processes.

    PubMed

    Kirschning, Andreas; Jas, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    As part of the dramatic changes associated with automation in pharmaceutical and agrochemical research laboratories, the search for new technologies has become a major topic in the chemical community. Commonly, high-throughput chemistry is still carried out in batches whereas flow-through processes are rather restricted to production processes, despite the fact that the latter concept allows facile automation, reproducibility, safety, and process reliability. Indeed, methods and technologies are missing that allow rapid transfer from the research level to process development. Continuous flow processes are considered as a universal lever to overcome these restrictions and only recently, joint efforts between synthetic and polymer chemists and chemical engineers have resulted in the first continuous flow devices and microreactors which allow rapid preparation of compounds with minimum workup. Importantly, more and more developments combine the use of immobilized reagents and catalysts with the concept of structured continuous flow reactors. Consequently, the present article focuses on this new research field, which is located at the interface of continuous flow processes and solid-phase-bound catalysts.

  15. A Roadmap for the Implementation of Continued Process Verification.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Marcus; Gampfer, Joerg; Zamamiri, Abdel; Payne, Robin

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the members of the BioPhorum Operations Group (BPOG) produced a 100-page continued process verification case study, entitled "Continued Process Verification: An Industry Position Paper with Example Protocol". This case study captures the thought processes involved in creating a continued process verification plan for a new product in response to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's guidance on the subject introduced in 2011. In so doing, it provided the specific example of a plan developed for a new molecular antibody product based on the "A MAb Case Study" that preceded it in 2009.This document provides a roadmap that draws on the content of the continued process verification case study to provide a step-by-step guide in a more accessible form, with reference to a process map of the product life cycle. It could be used as a basis for continued process verification implementation in a number of different scenarios: For a single product and process;For a single site;To assist in the sharing of data monitoring responsibilities among sites;To assist in establishing data monitoring agreements between a customer company and a contract manufacturing organization. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued guidance on the management of manufacturing processes designed to improve quality and control of drug products. This involved increased focus on regular monitoring of manufacturing processes, reporting of the results, and the taking of opportunities to improve. The guidance and practice associated with it is known as continued process verification This paper summarizes good practice in responding to continued process verification guidance, gathered from subject matter experts in the biopharmaceutical industry. © PDA, Inc. 2016.

  16. Intrinsic Gettering in Nitrogen-Doped and Hydrogen-Annealed Czochralski-Grown Silicon Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Hiroyuki; Pan, Lian-Sheng; Tanaka, Masafumi; Kashima, Kazuhiko

    2001-06-01

    The properties of nitrogen-doped and hydrogen-annealed Czochralski-grown silicon (NHA-CZ-Si) wafers were investigated in this study. The quality of the subsurface was investigated by monitoring the generation lifetime of minority carriers, as measured by the capacitance-time measurements of a metal oxide silicon capacitor (MOS C-t). The intrinsic gettering (IG) ability was investigated by determining the nickel concentration on the surface and in the subsurface as measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after the wafer was deliberately contaminated with nickel. From the results obtained, the generation lifetimes of these NHA-CZ-Si wafers were determined to be almost the same as, or a little longer than those of epitaxial wafers, and the IG ability was proportional to the total volume of oxygen precipitates [i.e., bulk micro defects (BMDs)], which was influenced by the oxygen and nitrogen concentrations in the wafers. Therefore, it is suggested that the subsurface of the NHA-CZ-Si wafers is of good quality and the IG capacity is controllable by the nitrogen and oxygen concentrations in the wafers.

  17. Edge facet dynamics during the growth of heavily doped n-type silicon by the Czochralski-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockmeier, L.; Kranert, C.; Raming, G.; Miller, A.; Reimann, C.; Rudolph, P.; Friedrich, J.

    2018-06-01

    During the growth of [0 0 1]-oriented, heavily n-type doped silicon crystals by the Czochralski (CZ) method dislocation formation occurs frequently which leads to a reduction of the crystal yield. In this publication the evolution of the solid-liquid interface and the formation of the {1 1 1} edge facets are analyzed on a microscopic scale as possible reason for dislocation formation in heavily n-type doped [0 0 1]-oriented CZ crystals. A correlation between the length of the {1 1 1} edge facets and the curvature of the interface is found. They ultimately promote supercooled areas and interrupted growth kinetics, which increase the probability for dislocation formation at the boundary between the {1 1 1} edge facets and the atomically rough interface.

  18. Process for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor precursor between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to form a super conductor layer.

  19. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  20. Perspectives on integrated modeling of transport processes in semiconductor crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The wide range of length and time scales involved in industrial scale solidification processes is demonstrated here by considering the Czochralski process for the growth of large diameter silicon crystals that become the substrate material for modern microelectronic devices. The scales range in time from microseconds to thousands of seconds and in space from microns to meters. The physics and chemistry needed to model processes on these different length scales are reviewed.

  1. Three-dimensional evaluation of gettering ability for oxygen atoms at small-angle tilt boundaries in Czochralski-grown silicon crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Yutaka, E-mail: yutakaohno@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Inoue, Kaihei; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2015-06-22

    Three-dimensional distribution of oxygen atoms at small-angle tilt boundaries (SATBs) in Czochralski-grown p-type silicon ingots was investigated by atom probe tomography combined with transmission electron microscopy. Oxygen gettering along edge dislocations composing SATBs, post crystal growth, was observed. The gettering ability of SATBs would depend both on the dislocation strain and on the dislocation density. Oxygen atoms would agglomerate in the atomic sites under the tensile hydrostatic stress larger than about 2.0 GPa induced by the dislocations. It was suggested that the density of the atomic sites, depending on the tilt angle of SATBs, determined the gettering ability of SATBs.

  2. Crystal growth by Bridgman and Czochralski method of the ferromagnetic quantum critical material YbNi4P2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliemt, K.; Krellner, C.

    2016-09-01

    The tetragonal YbNi4P2 is one of the rare examples of compounds that allow the investigation of a ferromagnetic quantum critical point. We report in detail on two different methods which have been used to grow YbNi4P2 single crystals from a self-flux. The first, a modified Bridgman method, using a closed crucible system yields needle-shaped single crystals oriented along the [001]-direction. The second method, the Czochralski growth from a levitating melt, yields large single crystals which can be cut in any desired orientation. With this crucible-free method, samples without flux inclusions and a resistivity ratio at 1.8 K of RR1.8K = 17 have been grown.

  3. Numerical simulation of convection and heat transfer in Czochralski crystal growth by multiple-relaxation-time LBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ding; Huang, Weichao; Zhang, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric swirling model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in a pseudo Cartesian coordinate system is posited to simulate Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth in this paper. Specifically, the multiple-relaxation-time LBM (MRT-LBM) combined with the finite difference method (FDM) is used to analyze the melt convection and heat transfer in the process of Cz crystal growth. An incompressible axisymmetric swirling MRT-LB D2Q9 model is applied to solve for the axial and radial velocities by inserting thermal buoyancy and rotational inertial force into the two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann equation. In addition, the melt temperature and the azimuthal velocity are solved by MRT-LB D2Q5 models, and the crystal temperature is solved by FDM. The comparison results of stream functions values of different methods demonstrate that our hybrid model can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal coupling in the axisymmetric swirling model correctly and effectively. Furthermore, numerical simulations of melt convection and heat transfer are conducted under the conditions of high Grashof (Gr) numbers, within the range of 105 ˜ 107, and different high Reynolds (Re) numbers. The experimental results show our hybrid model can obtain the exact solution of complex crystal-growth models and analyze the fluid-thermal coupling effectively under the combined action of natural convection and forced convection.

  4. Laser-zone Growth in a Ribbon-to-ribbon (RTR) Process Silicon Sheet Growth Development for the Large Area Silicon Sheet Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baghdadi, A.; Gurtler, R. W.; Legge, R.; Sopori, B.; Rice, M. J.; Ellis, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for growing limited-length ribbons continually was demonstrated. This Rigid Edge technique can be used to recrystallize about 95% of the polyribbon feedstock. A major advantage of this method is that only a single, constant length silicon ribbon is handled throughout the entire process sequence; this may be accomplished using cassettes similar to those presently in use for processing Czochralski waters. Thus a transition from Cz to ribbon technology can be smoothly affected. The maximum size being considered, 3 inches x 24 inches, is half a square foot, and will generate 6 watts for 12% efficiency at 1 sun. Silicon dioxide has been demonstrated as an effective, practical diffusion barrier for use during the polyribbon formation.

  5. 40 CFR 130.5 - Continuing planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.5 Continuing planning process. (a) General. Each State shall... the Act. Each State is responsible for managing its water quality program to implement the processes... quality standards in effect under authority of section 303 of the Act. (2) The process for incorporating...

  6. 40 CFR 130.5 - Continuing planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.5 Continuing planning process. (a) General. Each State shall... the Act. Each State is responsible for managing its water quality program to implement the processes... quality standards in effect under authority of section 303 of the Act. (2) The process for incorporating...

  7. 40 CFR 130.5 - Continuing planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.5 Continuing planning process. (a) General. Each State shall... the Act. Each State is responsible for managing its water quality program to implement the processes... quality standards in effect under authority of section 303 of the Act. (2) The process for incorporating...

  8. Impact of Carbon Codoping on Generation and Dissociation of Boron-Oxygen Defects in Czochralski Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Meng; Yu, Xuegong; Wu, Yichao; Yang, Deren

    2018-06-01

    It has been previously reported that boron-oxygen (B-O) defects in Czochralski (CZ) silicon can be effectively suppressed by carbon codoping. In this work, the kinetics of B-O defect generation and dissociation in carbon-codoped CZ (CCZ) silicon has been investigated. It was found that the activation energy for B-O defect generation in CCZ silicon is 0.56 eV, much larger than that in conventional CZ silicon. However, the activation energy for B-O defect dissociation in CCZ silicon is almost the same as that in conventional CZ silicon, viz. ˜ 1.37 eV. Moreover, the binding energy of B-O defects in both CZ and CCZ silicon is determined to be 0.93 eV. Based on these results, it is believed that carbon atoms in CCZ silicon participate in formation of B-O latent centers before transforming into recombination-active centers under illumination.

  9. Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

  10. Heralded processes on continuous-variable spaces as quantum maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreyrol, Franck; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Blandino, Rémi

    2014-12-04

    Heralding processes, which only work when a measurement on a part of the system give the good result, are particularly interesting for continuous-variables. They permit non-Gaussian transformations that are necessary for several continuous-variable quantum information tasks. However if maps and quantum process tomography are commonly used to describe quantum transformations in discrete-variable space, they are much rarer in the continuous-variable domain. Also, no convenient tool for representing maps in a way more adapted to the particularities of continuous variables have yet been explored. In this paper we try to fill this gap by presenting such a tool.

  11. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chao; Lu, Yunhao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300-500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600-800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extended B2I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300-500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600-800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.

  12. Integrating interprofessional education into continuing education: a planning process for continuing interprofessional education programs.

    PubMed

    Owen, John A; Schmitt, Madeline H

    2013-01-01

    Informal continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) can be traced back decades in the United States; however, interest in formal CIPE is recent. Interprofessional education (IPE) now is recognized as an important component of new approaches to continuing education (CE) that are needed to increase health professionals' ability to improve outcomes of care. Although there are examples of CIPE programs that are being successfully implemented, a clearly articulated, step-by-step planning process to help guide educators in providing effective CIPE programs is lacking. This lack of guidance poses a significant barrier to increasing the number of CIPE programs in the United States. In this article, we describe a process for developing, implementing, and evaluating CIPE programs using the familiar systematic CE planning process. Limitations of traditional CE also are addressed, and the relationship between CIPE and other new approaches to CE is clarified. Four examples of CIPE programs are provided to illustrate how the planning process can be adapted to include IPE, while implementing recommended changes in traditional CE offerings. The article is concluded with a discussion of some of the challenges that will face CE educators in moving toward a new vision of CE integrated with IPE. Copyright © 2013 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  13. Processing of n+/p-/p+ strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3 field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T.; Junkes, A.; Wu, X.; Li, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n+ segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO2 interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×1015 neq/cm2 proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  14. Continuation-like semantics for modeling structural process anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biomedical ontologies usually encode knowledge that applies always or at least most of the time, that is in normal circumstances. But for some applications like phenotype ontologies it is becoming increasingly important to represent information about aberrations from a norm. These aberrations may be modifications of physiological structures, but also modifications of biological processes. Methods To facilitate precise definitions of process-related phenotypes, such as delayed eruption of the primary teeth or disrupted ocular pursuit movements, I introduce a modeling approach that draws inspiration from the use of continuations in the analysis of programming languages and apply a similar idea to ontological modeling. This approach characterises processes by describing their outcome up to a certain point and the way they will continue in the canonical case. Definitions of process types are then given in terms of their continuations and anomalous phenotypes are defined by their differences to the canonical definitions. Results The resulting model is capable of accurately representing structural process anomalies. It allows distinguishing between different anomaly kinds (delays, interruptions), gives identity criteria for interrupted processes, and explains why normal and anomalous process instances can be subsumed under a common type, thus establishing the connection between canonical and anomalous process-related phenotypes. Conclusion This paper shows how to to give semantically rich definitions of process-related phenotypes. These allow to expand the application areas of phenotype ontologies beyond literature annotation and establishment of genotype-phenotype associations to the detection of anomalies in suitably encoded datasets. PMID:23046705

  15. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  16. Multiplicative Forests for Continuous-Time Processes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jeremy C; Natarajan, Sriraam; Page, David

    2012-01-01

    Learning temporal dependencies between variables over continuous time is an important and challenging task. Continuous-time Bayesian networks effectively model such processes but are limited by the number of conditional intensity matrices, which grows exponentially in the number of parents per variable. We develop a partition-based representation using regression trees and forests whose parameter spaces grow linearly in the number of node splits. Using a multiplicative assumption we show how to update the forest likelihood in closed form, producing efficient model updates. Our results show multiplicative forests can be learned from few temporal trajectories with large gains in performance and scalability.

  17. Teacher Research as Continuous Process Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Charles; Castle, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Teacher research (inquiry) has been characterized as practice improvement, professional development and action research, among numerous names and descriptions. The purpose of this paper is to support the case that teacher research is also a form of quality improvement known as continuous process improvement (CPI).…

  18. Czochralski and modified Bridgman-Stockbarger growth of pure, Cd 2+ and Nd 3+ doped benzil single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Wang, W. S.; Tambwe, M.

    1993-03-01

    Pure, Cd2+ and Nd3+-doped benzil C6H5COCOC6H5 have been grown from melt using the Czochralski and modified Bridgman-Stockbarger methods. Angle-tuned second harmonic generation of pure benzil from Nd:YAG laser radiation of λ = 1.06 μm with a conversion efficiency η = I2w/Iw = 0.4% has been demonstrated. We have used a Nd:YAG pulse laser to measure the radiation damage threshold as 15.9 MW/cm2 (c-axis) and 23.9 MW/cm2 (a-axis) under the conditions that laser pulse width is 10 ns. Under the same conditions, the conversion efficiency of Nd3+ and Cd2+-doped benzil, η= I2w/Iw = 1.1%, has been demonstrated. The radiation threshold is higher than for pure benzil crystals.

  19. Adapting viral safety assurance strategies to continuous processing of biological products.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Brown, Matthew R; Lute, Scott C; Brorson, Kurt A

    2017-01-01

    There has been a recent drive in commercial large-scale production of biotechnology products to convert current batch mode processing to continuous processing manufacturing. There have been reports of model systems capable of adapting and linking upstream and downstream technologies into a continuous manufacturing pipeline. However, in many of these proposed continuous processing model systems, viral safety has not been comprehensively addressed. Viral safety and detection is a highly important and often expensive regulatory requirement for any new biological product. To ensure success in the adaption of continuous processing to large-scale production, there is a need to consider the development of approaches that allow for seamless incorporation of viral testing and clearance/inactivation methods. In this review, we outline potential strategies to apply current viral testing and clearance/inactivation technologies to continuous processing, as well as modifications of existing unit operations to ensure the successful integration of viral clearance into the continuous processing of biological products. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 21-32. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Discretization of Continuous Time Discrete Scale Invariant Processes: Estimation and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezakhah, Saeid; Maleki, Yasaman

    2016-07-01

    Imposing some flexible sampling scheme we provide some discretization of continuous time discrete scale invariant (DSI) processes which is a subsidiary discrete time DSI process. Then by introducing some simple random measure we provide a second continuous time DSI process which provides a proper approximation of the first one. This enables us to provide a bilateral relation between covariance functions of the subsidiary process and the new continuous time processes. The time varying spectral representation of such continuous time DSI process is characterized, and its spectrum is estimated. Also, a new method for estimation time dependent Hurst parameter of such processes is provided which gives a more accurate estimation. The performance of this estimation method is studied via simulation. Finally this method is applied to the real data of S & P500 and Dow Jones indices for some special periods.

  2. Multiplicative Forests for Continuous-Time Processes

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jeremy C.; Natarajan, Sriraam; Page, David

    2013-01-01

    Learning temporal dependencies between variables over continuous time is an important and challenging task. Continuous-time Bayesian networks effectively model such processes but are limited by the number of conditional intensity matrices, which grows exponentially in the number of parents per variable. We develop a partition-based representation using regression trees and forests whose parameter spaces grow linearly in the number of node splits. Using a multiplicative assumption we show how to update the forest likelihood in closed form, producing efficient model updates. Our results show multiplicative forests can be learned from few temporal trajectories with large gains in performance and scalability. PMID:25284967

  3. Continuous Czochralski growth. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The improvement of growth rates using radiation shielding and investigation of the crucible melt interaction for improved yields were emphasized. Growth runs were performed from both 15 and 16 inch diameter crucibles, producing 30 and 37 kg ingots respectively. Efforts to increase the growth rate of 150 mm diameter ingots were limited by temperature instabilities believed to be caused by undesirable thermal convections in the larger melts. The radiation shield improved the growth rate somewhat, but the thermal instability was still evident, leading to nonround ingots and loss of dislocation-free structure. A 38 kg crystal was grown to demonstrate the feasibility of producing 150 kg with four growth cycles. After the grower construction phase, the Hamco microprocessor control system was interfaced to the growth facility, including the sensor for automatic control of seeding temperature, and the sensor for automatic shouldering. Efforts focused upon optimization of the seeding, necking, and shoulder growth automation programs.

  4. Fermentation Kinetics and Continuous Process of L-Asparaginase Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F. S.; Zajic, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining L-asparaginase in quantities from Erwinia aroideae, cell growth and enzyme formation were investigated in both batch and continuous fermentation. Using yeast extract as a growth-limiting substrate, the relationship between specific growth rate and substrate concentration was found to fit the Monod equation. The optimum temperature for enzyme production was 24 C, although cell growth was higher at 28 C. The enzyme yield reached its maximum of 4 IU/ml during the negative acceleration growth phase which occurs just prior to stationary growth. Compared to batch fermentations, the continuous fermentation process gave a lower enzyme yield except when the fermentation was conducted at a dilution rate of 0.1 hr-1. The graphical method frequently used for prediction of continuous fermentation does not apply to L-asparaginase production by E. aroideae. The optimum temperature for enzyme production in continuous process was 24 C, which was the same as in batch process. Increasing the temperature from 24 to 28 C resulted in a 20% loss of enzyme yield. PMID:4568894

  5. Design, fabrication and test of prototype furnace for continuous growth of wide silicon ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    A program having the overall objective of growing wide, thin silicon dendritic web crystals quasi-continuously from a semi-automated facility is discussed. The design considerations and fabrication of the facility as well as the test and operation phase are covered; detailed engineering drawings are included as an appendix. During the test and operation phase of the program, more than eighty growth runs and numerous thermal test runs were performed. At the conclusion of the program, 2.4 cm wide web was being grown at thicknesses of 100 to 300 micrometers. As expected, the thickness and growth rate are closely related. Solar cells made from this material were tested at NASA-Lewis and found to have conversion efficiencies comparable to devices fabricated from Czochralski material.

  6. Boron deactivation in heavily boron-doped Czochralski silicon during rapid thermal anneal: Atomic level understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Chao; Dong, Peng; Yi, Jun

    The changes in hole concentration of heavily boron (B)-doped Czochralski silicon subjected to high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and following conventional furnace anneal (CFA) have been investigated. It is found that decrease in hole concentration, namely, B deactivation, is observed starting from 1050 °C and increases with RTA temperature. The following CFA at 300–500 °C leads to further B deactivation, while that at 600–800 °C results in B reactivation. It is supposed that the interaction between B atoms and silicon interstitials (I) thus forming BI pairs leads to the B deactivation during the high temperature RTA, and, moreover, the formation of extendedmore » B{sub 2}I complexes results in further B deactivation in the following CFA at 300–500 °C. On the contrary, the dissociation of BI pairs during the following CFA at 600–800 °C enables the B reactivation. Importantly, the first-principles calculation results can soundly account for the above-mentioned supposition.« less

  7. Energy Transfer Processes in (Lu,Gd)AlO3:Ce

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    studies on energy transfer processes in Ce-activated Lu, Y and Gd aluminum perovskite crystals that contribute to production of scintillation light in...LuAIO3, GdA10 3, cerium, scintillators, VUV spectroscopy, luminescence, time profiles, energy transfer 1. INTRODUCTION The yttrium aluminum perovskite...The Czochralski-grown monocrystals of LuAP:Ce were first evaluated in a garnet -free perovskite phase by Lempicki et al. in 1994 .4 More detailed

  8. Effect of void shape in Czochralski-Si wafers on the intensity of laser-scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, J.; Kawakami, K.; Nakai, K.

    2001-06-01

    The shape effect of anisotropic-shaped microvoid defects in Czochralski-grown silicon wafers on the intensity of laser scattering has been investigated. The size and shape of the defects were examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. Octahedral voids in conventional (nitrogen-undoped) wafers showed an almost isotropic scattering property under the incident condition of a p-polarization beam. On the other hand, parallelepiped-plate-shaped voids in nitrogen-doped wafers showed an anisotropic scattering property on both p- and s-polarized components of scattered light, depending strongly on the incident laser direction. The measured results were explained not by scattering calculation using Born approximation but by calculation based on Rayleigh scattering. It was found that the s component is explained by an inclination of a dipole moment induced on a defect from the scattering plane. Furthermore, using numerical electromagnetic analysis it was shown that the asymmetric behavior of the s component on the parallelepiped-plate voids is ascribed to the parallelepiped shape effect. These results suggest that correction of the scattering intensity is necessary to evaluate the size and volume of anisotropic-shaped defects from the scattered intensity.

  9. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-10-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical

  10. Pseudomaster equation for the no-count process in a continuous photodetection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Tsung

    1994-01-01

    The detection of cavity radiation with the detector placed outside the cavity is studied. Each leaked photon has a certain probability of propagating away without being detected. It is viewed as a continuous quantum measurement in which the density matrix is continuously revised according to the readout of the detector. The concept of pseudomaster equation for the no-count process is introduced; its solution leads to the discovery of the superoperator for the same process. It has the potential to become the key equation for continuous measurement process.

  11. Generalized Processing Tree Models: Jointly Modeling Discrete and Continuous Variables.

    PubMed

    Heck, Daniel W; Erdfelder, Edgar; Kieslich, Pascal J

    2018-05-24

    Multinomial processing tree models assume that discrete cognitive states determine observed response frequencies. Generalized processing tree (GPT) models extend this conceptual framework to continuous variables such as response times, process-tracing measures, or neurophysiological variables. GPT models assume finite-mixture distributions, with weights determined by a processing tree structure, and continuous components modeled by parameterized distributions such as Gaussians with separate or shared parameters across states. We discuss identifiability, parameter estimation, model testing, a modeling syntax, and the improved precision of GPT estimates. Finally, a GPT version of the feature comparison model of semantic categorization is applied to computer-mouse trajectories.

  12. Nanofiber adsorbents for high productivity continuous downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Hardick, Oliver; Dods, Stewart; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2015-11-10

    An ever increasing focus is being placed on the manufacturing costs of biotherapeutics. The drive towards continuous processing offers one opportunity to address these costs through the advantages it offers. Continuous operation presents opportunities for real-time process monitoring and automated control with potential benefits including predictable product specification, reduced labour costs, and integration with other continuous processes. Specifically to chromatographic operations continuous processing presents an opportunity to use expensive media more efficiently while reducing their size and therefore cost. Here for the first time we show how a new adsorbent material (cellulosic nanofibers) having advantageous convective mass transfer properties can be combined with a high frequency simulated moving bed (SMB) design to provide superior productivity in a simple bioseparation. Electrospun polymeric nanofiber adsorbents offer an alternative ligand support surface for bioseparations. Their non-woven fiber structure with diameters in the sub-micron range creates a remarkably high surface area material that allows for rapid convective flow operations. A proof of concept study demonstrated the performance of an anion exchange nanofiber adsorbent based on criteria including flow and mass transfer properties, binding capacity, reproducibility and life-cycle performance. Binding capacities of the DEAE adsorbents were demonstrated to be 10mg/mL, this is indeed only a fraction of what is achievable from porous bead resins but in combination with a very high flowrate, the productivity of the nanofiber system is shown to be significant. Suitable packing into a flow distribution device has allowed for reproducible bind-elute operations at flowrates of 2,400 cm/h, many times greater than those used in typical beaded systems. These characteristics make them ideal candidates for operation in continuous chromatography systems. A SMB system was developed and optimised to

  13. Using continuous process improvement methodology to standardize nursing handoff communication.

    PubMed

    Klee, Kristi; Latta, Linda; Davis-Kirsch, Sallie; Pecchia, Maria

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the use of continuous performance improvement (CPI) methodology to standardize nurse shift-to-shift handoff communication. The goals of the process were to standardize the content and process of shift handoff, improve patient safety, increase patient and family involvement in the handoff process, and decrease end-of-shift overtime. This article will describe process changes made over a 4-year period as result of application of the plan-do-check-act procedure, which is an integral part of the CPI methodology, and discuss further work needed to continue to refine this critical nursing care process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Low C Concentration in Czochralski-Grown Si for Solar Cell Applications by Liquid-N-Temperature Photoluminescence After Electron Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Michio; Kiuchi, Hirotatsu; Higuchi, Fumito; Ishikawa, Yoichiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    The effectiveness of liquid-N-temperature photoluminescence (PL) after electron irradiation for quantification of low-level C has been demonstrated in Czochralski (CZ)-grown Si for solar cell applications. We focused on the intensity ratios of the C- and G-lines to the band-edge emission, which were used as indexes for determining the C concentration in the PL activation method at 4.2 K. Good correlations of the ratio between 4.2 K and 77 K were obtained for samples with similar P and O concentrations after electron irradiation at fluence varying from 1 × 1015 cm-2 to 10 × 1015 cm-2. We applied the present method to quantify the C concentration along the solidified fraction in CZ-Si ingots.

  15. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity, Interim Report VI: Recommendations for Continuing the Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granville, Arthur; And Others

    This interim report re-examines data on instrument suitability, comparability of groups, and adequacy of sample size in Year III of the process evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC) and offers preliminary recommendations concerning the feasibility of continuing the impact study. PDC is a Head Start demonstration program aimed at…

  16. An Analysis of Frame Semantics of Continuous Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-10

    in natural text involving a variety of continuous processes. Keywords: Frame Semantics; Qualitative Reasoning Introduction & Background Daily...We evaluate our mapping on science texts , but expect our approach to be domain general. Qualitative Process Theory In QP theory, changes within a...fragments from text could reason about real-world scenarios, predicting, for example, that our tub of water may overflow. However, the incremental

  17. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  19. Design and operation of a continuous integrated monoclonal antibody production process.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Ulmer, Nicole; Wolf, Moritz; Decker, Lara; Schneider, Veronika; Wälchli, Ruben; Karst, Daniel; Souquet, Jonathan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    The realization of an end-to-end integrated continuous lab-scale process for monoclonal antibody manufacturing is described. For this, a continuous cultivation with filter-based cell-retention, a continuous two column capture process, a virus inactivation step, a semi-continuous polishing step (twin-column MCSGP), and a batch-wise flow-through polishing step were integrated and operated together. In each unit, the implementation of internal recycle loops allows to improve the performance: (a) in the bioreactor, to simultaneously increase the cell density and volumetric productivity, (b) in the capture process, to achieve improved capacity utilization at high productivity and yield, and (c) in the MCSGP process, to overcome the purity-yield trade-off of classical batch-wise bind-elute polishing steps. Furthermore, the design principles, which allow the direct connection of these steps, some at steady state and some at cyclic steady state, as well as straight-through processing, are discussed. The setup was operated for the continuous production of a commercial monoclonal antibody, resulting in stable operation and uniform product quality over the 17 cycles of the end-to-end integration. The steady-state operation was fully characterized by analyzing at the outlet of each unit at steady state the product titer as well as the process (HCP, DNA, leached Protein A) and product (aggregates, fragments) related impurities. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1303-1313, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Future Supply Chains Enabled by Continuous Processing-Opportunities Challenges May 20-21 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Srai, Jagjit Singh; Badman, Clive; Krumme, Markus; Futran, Mauricio; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry in moving to a primarily "continuous processing"-based supply chain. The current predominantly "large batch" and centralized manufacturing system designed for the "blockbuster" drug has driven a slow-paced, inventory heavy operating model that is increasingly regarded as inflexible and unsustainable. Indeed, new markets and the rapidly evolving technology landscape will drive more product variety, shorter product life-cycles, and smaller drug volumes, which will exacerbate an already unsustainable economic model. Future supply chains will be required to enhance affordability and availability for patients and healthcare providers alike despite the increased product complexity. In this more challenging supply scenario, we examine the potential for a more pull driven, near real-time demand-based supply chain, utilizing continuous processing where appropriate as a key element of a more "flow-through" operating model. In this discussion paper on future supply chain models underpinned by developments in the continuous manufacture of pharmaceuticals, we have set out; The paper recognizes that although current batch operational performance in pharma is far from optimal and not necessarily an appropriate end-state benchmark for batch technology, the adoption of continuous supply chain operating models underpinned by continuous production processing, as full or hybrid solutions in selected product supply chains, can support industry transformations to deliver right-first-time quality at substantially lower inventory profiles. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Crystal front shape control by use of an additional heater in a Czochralski sapphire single crystal growth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Min-Jae; Han, Xue-Feng; Choi, Ho-Gil; Yi, Kyung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    The quality of sapphire single crystals used as substrates for LED production is largely influenced by two defects: dislocation density and bubbles trapped in the crystal. In particular, the dislocation density has a higher value in sapphire grown by the Czochralski (CZ) method than by other methods. In the present study, we predict a decreased value for the convexity and thermal gradient at the crystal front (CF) through the use of an additional heater in an induction-heated CZ system. In addition, we develop a solute concentration model by which the location of bubble formation in CZ growth is calculated, and the results are compared with experimental results. We further calculate the location of bubble entrapment corresponding with the use of an additional heater. We find that sapphire crystal growth with an additional heater yields a decreased thermal gradient at the CF, together with decreased CF convexity, improved energy efficiency, and improvements in terms of bubble formation location.

  2. Continuous magnetic separator and process

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2008-04-22

    A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

  3. Electronic properties of light-induced recombination centers in boron-doped Czochralski silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jan; Cuevas, Andrés

    1999-09-01

    In order to study the electronic properties of the recombination centers responsible for the light-induced carrier lifetime degradation commonly observed in high-purity boron-doped Czochralski (Cz) silicon, injection-level dependent carrier lifetime measurements are performed on a large number of boron-doped p-type Cz silicon wafers of various resistivities (1-31 Ω cm) prior to and after light degradation. The measurement technique used is the contactless quasi-steady-state photoconductance method, allowing carrier lifetime measurements over a very broad injection range between 1012 and 1017cm-3. To eliminate all recombination channels not related to the degradation effect, the difference of the inverse lifetimes measured after and before light degradation is evaluated. A detailed analysis of the injection level dependence of the carrier lifetime change using the Shockley-Read-Hall theory shows that the fundamental recombination center created during illumination has an energy level between Ev+0.35 and Ec-0.45 eV and an electron/hole capture time constant ratio between 0.1 and 0.2. This deep-level center is observed in all samples and is attributed to a new type of boron-oxygen complex. Besides this fundamental defect, in some samples an additional shallow-level recombination center at 0.15 eV below Ec or above Ev is found to be activated during light exposure. This second center dominates the light-degraded carrier lifetime only under high-injection conditions and is hence only of minor importance for low-injection operated devices.

  4. Continuous Flow in Labour-Intensive Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco Eng., Jhonny; Carbajal MSc., Eduardo; Stoll-Ing., Cesar, Dr.

    2017-06-01

    A continuous-flow manufacturing represents the peak of standard production, and usually it means high production in a strict line production. Furthermore, low-tech industry demands high labour-intensive, in this context the efficient of the line production is tied at the job shop organization. Labour-intensive manufacturing processes are a common characteristic for developing countries. This research aims to propose a methodology for production planning in order to fulfilment a variable monthly production quota. The main idea is to use a clock as orchestra director in order to synchronize the rate time (takt time) of customer demand with the manufacturing time. In this way, the study is able to propose a stark reduction of stock in process, over-processing, and unnecessary variability.

  5. Studying Implementation within a Continuous Continuous-Improvement Process: What Happens When We Design with Adaptations in Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Allen, Danielle; Socol, Allison Rose; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Rutledge, Stacey A.; Xing, Qi W.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: This study examines the implementation of an academic and social-emotional learning innovation called Personalization for Academic and Social-Emotional Learning, or PASL. The innovation was designed, tested, and implemented using a continuous continuous-improvement model. The model emphasized a top-and-bottom process in which…

  6. Process performance and product quality in an integrated continuous antibody production process.

    PubMed

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinebach, Fabian; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Continuous manufacturing is currently being seriously considered in the biopharmaceutical industry as the possible new paradigm for producing therapeutic proteins, due to production cost and product quality related benefits. In this study, a monoclonal antibody producing CHO cell line was cultured in perfusion mode and connected to a continuous affinity capture step. The reliable and stable integration of the two systems was enabled by suitable control loops, regulating the continuous volumetric flow and adapting the operating conditions of the capture process. For the latter, an at-line HPLC measurement of the harvest concentration subsequent to the bioreactor was combined with a mechanistic model of the capture chromatographic unit. Thereby, optimal buffer consumption and productivity throughout the process was realized while always maintaining a yield above the target value of 99%. Stable operation was achieved at three consecutive viable cell density set points (20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL), together with consistent product quality in terms of aggregates, fragments, charge isoforms, and N-linked glycosylation. In addition, different values for these product quality attributes such as N-linked glycosylation, charge variants, and aggregate content were measured at the different steady states. As expected, the amount of released DNA and HCP was significantly reduced by the capture step for all considered upstream operating conditions. This study is exemplary for the potential of enhancing product quality control and modulation by integrated continuous manufacturing. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 298-307. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Real-time assessment of critical quality attributes of a continuous granulation process.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Díaz, Damián Córdoba; Gildemyn, Delphine; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    There exists the intention to shift pharmaceutical manufacturing of solid dosage forms from traditional batch production towards continuous production. The currently applied conventional quality control systems, based on sampling and time-consuming off-line analyses in analytical laboratories, would annul the advantages of continuous processing. It is clear that real-time quality assessment and control is indispensable for continuous production. This manuscript evaluates strengths and weaknesses of several complementary Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools implemented in a continuous wet granulation process, which is part of a fully continuous from powder-to-tablet production line. The use of Raman and NIR-spectroscopy and a particle size distribution analyzer is evaluated for the real-time monitoring of critical parameters during the continuous wet agglomeration of an anhydrous theophylline- lactose blend. The solid state characteristics and particle size of the granules were analyzed in real-time and the critical process parameters influencing these granule characteristics were identified. The temperature of the granulator barrel, the amount of granulation liquid added and, to a lesser extent, the powder feed rate were the parameters influencing the solid state of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). A higher barrel temperature and a higher powder feed rate, resulted in larger granules.

  8. Design, experimentation, and modeling of a novel continuous biodrying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram

    Massive production of sludge in the pulp and paper industry has made the effective sludge management increasingly a critical issue for the industry due to high landfill and transportation costs, and complex regulatory frameworks for options such as sludge landspreading and composting. Sludge dewatering challenges are exacerbated at many mills due to improved in-plant fiber recovery coupled with increased production of secondary sludge, leading to a mixed sludge with a high proportion of biological matter which is difficult to dewater. In this thesis, a novel continuous biodrying reactor was designed and developed for drying pulp and paper mixed sludge to economic dry solids level so that the dried sludge can be economically and safely combusted in a biomass boiler for energy recovery. In all experimental runs the economic dry solids level was achieved, proving the process successful. In the biodrying process, in addition to the forced aeration, the drying rates are enhanced by biological heat generated through the microbial activity of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms naturally present in the porous matrix of mixed sludge. This makes the biodrying process more attractive compared to the conventional drying techniques because the reactor is a self-heating process. The reactor is divided into four nominal compartments and the mixed sludge dries as it moves downward in the reactor. The residence times were 4-8 days, which are 2-3 times shorter than the residence times achieved in a batch biodrying reactor previously studied by our research group for mixed sludge drying. A process variable analysis was performed to determine the key variable(s) in the continuous biodrying reactor. Several variables were investigated, namely: type of biomass feed, pH of biomass, nutrition level (C/N ratio), residence times, recycle ratio of biodried sludge, and outlet relative humidity profile along the reactor height. The key variables that were identified in the continuous

  9. An intelligent factory-wide optimal operation system for continuous production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Junwei; Zheng, Xiuping

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a novel intelligent factory-wide operation system for a continuous production process is designed to optimise the entire production process, which consists of multiple units; furthermore, this system is developed using process operational data to avoid the complexity of mathematical modelling of the continuous production process. The data-driven approach aims to specify the structure of the optimal operation system; in particular, the operational data of the process are used to formulate each part of the system. In this context, the domain knowledge of process engineers is utilised, and a closed-loop dynamic optimisation strategy, which combines feedback, performance prediction, feed-forward, and dynamic tuning schemes into a framework, is employed. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified using industrial experimental results.

  10. Process and continuous apparatus for chemical conversion of materials

    DOEpatents

    Rugg, Barry; Stanton, Robert

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose to glucose of the type wherein waste cellulose is continuously fed into an inlet port of a twin screw extruder, water is continuously fed into reaction zone in the extruder, downstream of the inlet port, the cellulose is continuously reacted with water in the presence of an acid catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure in the reaction zone while being continuously conveyed to an outlet port of the extruder having a given diameter and the reacted cellulose is discharged from the extruder while the elevated temperature and pressure in the reaction zone is maintained. The elevated pressure is maintained by forming a dynamic seal zone at the upstream end of the reaction and continuously discharging the reacted material downstream of the outlet port at a predetermined volume rate of flow to maintain the pressure by passing the discharge through an orifice pipe having a smaller diameter than the given diameter of the outlet port.

  11. Improving program documentation quality through the application of continuous improvement processes.

    PubMed

    Lovlien, Cheryl A; Johansen, Martha; Timm, Sandra; Eversman, Shari; Gusa, Dorothy; Twedell, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining the integrity of record keeping and retrievable information related to the provision of continuing education credit creates challenges for a large organization. Accurate educational program documentation is vital to support the knowledge and professional development of nursing staff. Quality review and accurate documentation of programs for nursing staff development occurred at one institution through the use of continuous improvement principles. Integration of the new process into the current system maintains the process of providing quality record keeping.

  12. Continuous Processing With Mars Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Jennings, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Current Martian missions call for the production of oxygen for breathing, and fuel and oxygen for propulsion to be produced from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Adsorption and freezing are the two methods considered for capturing CO2 from the atmosphere. However, the nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar), which make up less than 5 percent of the atmosphere, cause difficulties with both of these processes by blocking the CO2. This results in the capture process rapidly changing from a pressure driven process to a diffusion controlled process. To increase the CO2 capture rates, some type of mechanical pump is usually proposed to remove the N2 and Ar. The N2 and Ar are useful and have been proposed for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. Separation of the Martian gases with the required purity can be accomplished with a combination of membranes. These membrane systems do not require a high feed pressure and provide suitable separation. Therefore, by use of the appropriate membrane combination with the Martian atmosphere supplied by a compressor a continuous Supply Of CO2 for fuel and oxygen production can be supplied. This phase of our program has focused on the selection of the membrane system. Since permeation data for membranes did not exist for Martian atmospheric pressures and temperatures, this information had to be compiled. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective. In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar. This paper will present the membrane data, provide the design requirements for a compressor, and compare the results with adsorption and freezer methods.

  13. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Jennings, Paul; Delgado, Hugo (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current Martian missions call for the production of oxygen for breathing, and fuel and oxygen for propulsion to be produced from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Adsorption and freezing are the two methods considered for capturing CO, from the atmosphere. However, the nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar), which make up less than 5 percent of the atmosphere, cause difficulties with both of these processes by blocking the CO2, This results in the capture process rapidly changing from a pressure driven process to a diffusion controlled process. To increase the CO, capture rates, some type of mechanical pump is usually proposed to remove the N2 and Ar. The N2 and Ar are useful and have been proposed for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. Separation of the Martian gases with the required purity can be accomplished with a combination of membranes. These membrane systems do not require a high feed pressure and provide suitable separation. Therefore, by use of the appropriate membrane combination with the Martian atmosphere supplied by a compressor a continuous supply of CO2 for fuel and oxygen production can be supplied. This phase of our program has focused on the selection of the membrane system. Since permeation data for membranes did not exist for Martian atmospheric pressures and temperatures, this information had to be compiled. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective. In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar. This paper will present the membrane data, provide the design requirements for a compressor, and compare the results with adsorption and freezer methods.

  14. Continuous processing and the applications of online tools in pharmaceutical product manufacture: developments and examples.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Shing Ming; Sarkar, Srimanta; van Varenbergh, Griet; Schoeters, Kris; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2013-04-01

    Continuous processing and production in pharmaceutical manufacturing has received increased attention in recent years mainly due to the industries' pressing needs for more efficient, cost-effective processes and production, as well as regulatory facilitation. To achieve optimum product quality, the traditional trial-and-error method for the optimization of different process and formulation parameters is expensive and time consuming. Real-time evaluation and the control of product quality using an online process analyzer in continuous processing can provide high-quality production with very high-throughput at low unit cost. This review focuses on continuous processing and the application of different real-time monitoring tools used in the pharmaceutical industry for continuous processing from powder to tablets.

  15. Production of continuous mullite fiber via sol-gel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Sparks, J. Scott; Esker, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a continuous ceramic fiber which could be used in rocket engine and rocket boosters applications was investigated at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Methods of ceramic fiber production such as melt spinning, chemical vapor deposition, and precursor polymeric fiber decomposition are discussed and compared with sol-gel processing. The production of ceramics via the sol-gel method consists of two steps, hydrolysis and polycondensation, to form the preceramic, followed by consolidation into the glass or ceramic structure. The advantages of the sol-gel method include better homogeneity and purity, lower preparation temperature, and the ability to form unique compositions. The disadvantages are the high cost of raw materials, large shrinkage during drying and firing which can lead to cracks, and long processing times. Preparation procedures for aluminosilicate sol-gel and for continuous mullite fibers are described.

  16. A hybrid continuous-discrete method for stochastic reaction-diffusion processes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wing-Cheong; Zheng, Likun; Nie, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Stochastic fluctuations in reaction-diffusion processes often have substantial effect on spatial and temporal dynamics of signal transductions in complex biological systems. One popular approach for simulating these processes is to divide the system into small spatial compartments assuming that molecules react only within the same compartment and jump between adjacent compartments driven by the diffusion. While the approach is convenient in terms of its implementation, its computational cost may become prohibitive when diffusive jumps occur significantly more frequently than reactions, as in the case of rapid diffusion. Here, we present a hybrid continuous-discrete method in which diffusion is simulated using continuous approximation while reactions are based on the Gillespie algorithm. Specifically, the diffusive jumps are approximated as continuous Gaussian random vectors with time-dependent means and covariances, allowing use of a large time step, even for rapid diffusion. By considering the correlation among diffusive jumps, the approximation is accurate for the second moment of the diffusion process. In addition, a criterion is obtained for identifying the region in which such diffusion approximation is required to enable adaptive calculations for better accuracy. Applications to a linear diffusion system and two nonlinear systems of morphogens demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of the new hybrid method.

  17. A hybrid continuous-discrete method for stochastic reaction–diffusion processes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Likun; Nie, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic fluctuations in reaction–diffusion processes often have substantial effect on spatial and temporal dynamics of signal transductions in complex biological systems. One popular approach for simulating these processes is to divide the system into small spatial compartments assuming that molecules react only within the same compartment and jump between adjacent compartments driven by the diffusion. While the approach is convenient in terms of its implementation, its computational cost may become prohibitive when diffusive jumps occur significantly more frequently than reactions, as in the case of rapid diffusion. Here, we present a hybrid continuous-discrete method in which diffusion is simulated using continuous approximation while reactions are based on the Gillespie algorithm. Specifically, the diffusive jumps are approximated as continuous Gaussian random vectors with time-dependent means and covariances, allowing use of a large time step, even for rapid diffusion. By considering the correlation among diffusive jumps, the approximation is accurate for the second moment of the diffusion process. In addition, a criterion is obtained for identifying the region in which such diffusion approximation is required to enable adaptive calculations for better accuracy. Applications to a linear diffusion system and two nonlinear systems of morphogens demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of the new hybrid method. PMID:27703710

  18. Integrated continuous processing of proteins expressed as inclusion bodies: GCSF as a case study.

    PubMed

    Kateja, Nikhil; Agarwal, Harshit; Hebbi, Vishwanath; Rathore, Anurag S

    2017-07-01

    Affordability of biopharmaceuticals continues to be a challenge, particularly in developing economies. This has fuelled advancements in manufacturing that can offer higher productivity and better economics without sacrificing product quality in the form of an integrated continuous manufacturing platform. While platform processes for monoclonal antibodies have existed for more than a decade, development of an integrated continuous manufacturing process for bacterial proteins has received relatively scant attention. In this study, we propose an end-to-end integrated continuous downstream process (from inclusion bodies to unformulated drug substance) for a therapeutic protein expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion body. The final process consisted of a continuous refolding in a coiled flow inverter reactor directly coupled to a three-column periodic counter-current chromatography for capture of the product followed by a three-column con-current chromatography for polishing. The continuous bioprocessing train was run uninterrupted for 26 h to demonstrate its capability and the resulting output was analyzed for the various critical quality attributes, namely product purity (>99%), high molecular weight impurities (<0.5%), host cell proteins (<100 ppm), and host cell DNA (<10 ppb). All attributes were found to be consistent over the period of operation. The developed assembly offers smaller facility footprint, higher productivity, fewer hold steps, and significantly higher equipment and resin utilization. The complexities of process integration in the context of continuous processing have been highlighted. We hope that the study presented here will promote development of highly efficient, universal, end-to-end, fully continuous platforms for manufacturing of biotherapeutics. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:998-1009, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  20. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing; Keller, David Gerard; MacFadden, Kenneth Orville

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  1. Modeling the effect of crystal and crucible rotation on the interface shape in Czochralski growth of piezoelectric langatate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, C.; Nehari, A.; Lasloudji, I.; Lebbou, K.; Dumortier, M.; Cabane, H.; Duffar, T.

    2017-10-01

    Single La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT) crystals have been grown by using the Czochralski technique with inductive heating. Some ingots exhibit imperfections such as cracks, dislocations and striations. Numerical modeling is applied to investigate the factors affecting the shape of the crystal-melt interface during the crystallization of ingots having 3 cm in diameter. It was found that the conical shape of the interface depends essentially on the internal radiative exchanges in the semi-transparent LGT crystal. Numerical results are compared to experimental visualization of the growth interface, showing a good agreement. The effect of the forced convection produced by the crystal and crucible rotation is numerically investigated at various rotation rates. Increasing the crystal rotation rate up to 50 rpm has a significant flattening effect on the interface shape. Applying only crucible rotation enhances the downward flow underneath the crystal, leading to an increased interface curvature. Counter rotation between the crystal and the crucible results in a distorted shape of the interface.

  2. Future supply chains enabled by continuous processing--opportunities and challenges. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Srai, Jagjit Singh; Badman, Clive; Krumme, Markus; Futran, Mauricio; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry in moving to a primarily "continuous processing"-based supply chain. The current predominantly "large batch" and centralized manufacturing system designed for the "blockbuster" drug has driven a slow-paced, inventory heavy operating model that is increasingly regarded as inflexible and unsustainable. Indeed, new markets and the rapidly evolving technology landscape will drive more product variety, shorter product life-cycles, and smaller drug volumes, which will exacerbate an already unsustainable economic model. Future supply chains will be required to enhance affordability and availability for patients and healthcare providers alike despite the increased product complexity. In this more challenging supply scenario, we examine the potential for a more pull driven, near real-time demand-based supply chain, utilizing continuous processing where appropriate as a key element of a more "flow-through" operating model. In this discussion paper on future supply chain models underpinned by developments in the continuous manufacture of pharmaceuticals, we have set out; The significant opportunities to moving to a supply chain flow-through operating model, with substantial opportunities in inventory reduction, lead-time to patient, and radically different product assurance/stability regimes. Scenarios for decentralized production models producing a greater variety of products with enhanced volume flexibility. Production, supply, and value chain footprints that are radically different from today's monolithic and centralized batch manufacturing operations. Clinical trial and drug product development cost savings that support more rapid scale-up and market entry models with early involvement of SC designers within New Product Development. The major supply chain and industrial transformational challenges that need to be addressed. The paper recognizes that although current batch operational

  3. Taming hazardous chemistry in flow: the continuous processing of diazo and diazonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Deadman, Benjamin J; Collins, Stuart G; Maguire, Anita R

    2015-02-02

    The synthetic utilities of the diazo and diazonium groups are matched only by their reputation for explosive decomposition. Continuous processing technology offers new opportunities to make and use these versatile intermediates at a range of scales with improved safety over traditional batch processes. In this minireview, the state of the art in the continuous flow processing of reactive diazo and diazonium species is discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  5. 2 inch size Czochralski growth and scintillation properties of Li+ co-doped Ce:Gd3Ga3Al2O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Yoshino, Masao; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Nikl, Martin; Yoshino, Masao; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-03-01

    The 2 inch size Li 0.15 and 1.35 mol% co-doped Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 single crystals were prepared by the Czochralski (Cz) method. Absorption and luminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of Li co-doping. Ce4+ CT absorption below 350 nm is clearly enhanced by Li co-doping as same as divalent ions co-doping. By 1.35 at.% Li co-doping, light yield was decrease to 88% of the Ce: GAGG standard and decay time was accelerated to 34.3ns 21.0%, 84.6ns 68.7%, 480ns 10.3%. The timing resolution measurement for a pair of 3 × 3 × 3mm3 size Li,Ce:GAGG scintillator crystals was performed using Si-PMs and the timing resolution of the 1.35 at.% Li co-doped Ce:GAGG was 218ps.

  6. Continuous-time safety-first portfolio selection with jump-diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei

    2012-04-01

    This article is concerned with continuous-time portfolio selection based on a safety-first criterion under discontinuous price processes (jump-diffusion processes). The solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation of the problem is demonstrated. The analytical solutions are presented when there does not exist any riskless asset. Moreover, the problem is also discussed while there exists one riskless asset.

  7. Superior memory efficiency of quantum devices for the simulation of continuous-time stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Thomas J.; Gu, Mile

    2018-03-01

    Continuous-time stochastic processes pervade everyday experience, and the simulation of models of these processes is of great utility. Classical models of systems operating in continuous-time must typically track an unbounded amount of information about past behaviour, even for relatively simple models, enforcing limits on precision due to the finite memory of the machine. However, quantum machines can require less information about the past than even their optimal classical counterparts to simulate the future of discrete-time processes, and we demonstrate that this advantage extends to the continuous-time regime. Moreover, we show that this reduction in the memory requirement can be unboundedly large, allowing for arbitrary precision even with a finite quantum memory. We provide a systematic method for finding superior quantum constructions, and a protocol for analogue simulation of continuous-time renewal processes with a quantum machine.

  8. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2016-12-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed a new, continuous manufacturing process to make high molecular weight, high thermal conductivity polyethylene fibers and sheets to replace metals and ceramics in heat transfer applications.

  9. Old Assumptions, New Paradigms: Technology, Group Process, and Continuing Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kathryn N.; Lawler, Patricia A.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing educators must consider the impact of technology on group processes, including ways in which it affects group pressures, communication patterns, and social and emotional components of learning. Administrators and faculty should integrate group process frameworks with educational technologies in order to provide effective learning…

  10. The establishment of a production-ready manufacturing process utilizing thin silicon substrates for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Three inch diameter Czochralski silicon substrates sliced directly to 5 mil, 8 mil, and 27 mil thicknesses with wire saw techniques were procured. Processing sequences incorporating either diffusion or ion implantation technologies were employed to produce n+p or n+pp+ solar cell structures. These cells were evaluated for performance, ease of fabrication, and cost effectiveness. It was determined that the use of 7 mil or even 4 mil wafers would provide near term cost reductions for solar cell manufacturers.

  11. Pulsed excimer laser processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, D.

    1985-01-01

    The status of pulsed excimer laser processing of PV cells is presented. The cost effective feasibility of fabricating high efficiency solar cells on Czochralski wafers using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation, surface passivation, and front metallization. Laser annealing results were promising with the best AR coated cell having an efficiency of 16.1%. Better results would be expected with larger laser spot size because there was some degradation in open circuit voltage caused by laser spot overlap and edge effects. Surface heating and photolytic decomposition by the laser was used to deposit tungsten from the reaction of tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen. The line widths were 5 to 10 mils, and the depositions passed the tape adhesion test. Thinner lines are practical using an optimized optical system.

  12. Misfit strain of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski silicon studied with energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gröschel, A., E-mail: alexander.groeschel@fau.de; Will, J.; Bergmann, C.

    Annealed Czochralski Silicon wafers containing SiO{sub x} precipitates have been studied by high energy X-ray diffraction in a defocused Laue setup using a laboratory tungsten tube. The energy dispersive evaluation of the diffracted Bragg intensity of the 220 reflection within the framework of the statistical dynamical theory yields the static Debye-Waller factor E of the crystal, which gives access to the strain induced by the SiO{sub x} precipitates. The results are correlated with precipitate densities and sizes determined from transmission electron microscopy measurements of equivalent wafers. This allows for the determination of the constrained linear misfit ε between precipitate andmore » crystal lattice. For samples with octahedral precipitates the values ranging from ε = 0.39 (+0.28/−0.12) to ε = 0.48 (+0.34/−0.16) indicate that self-interstitials emitted into the matrix during precipitate growth contribute to the lattice strain. In this case, the expected value calculated from literature values is ε = 0.26 ± 0.05. Further, the precise evaluation of Pendellösung oscillations in the diffracted Bragg intensity of as-grown wafers reveals a thermal Debye-Waller parameter for the 220 reflection B{sup 220}(293 K) of 0.5582 ± 0.0039 Å{sup 2} for a structure factor based on spherically symmetric scattering contributions.« less

  13. Analysis and evaluation of processes and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that the specific add-on costs of the Cz-process can be expected to be reduced by about a factor of three by 1982, and about a factor of five by 1986. A format to guide in the accumulation of the data needed for thorough techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed.

  14. Method for Fabricating Composite Structures Including Continuous Press Forming and Pultrusion Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating composite structures at a low-cost, moderate-to-high production rate is disclosed. A first embodiment of the method includes employing a continuous press forming fabrication process. A second embodiment of the method includes employing a pultrusion process for obtaining composite structures. The methods include coating yarns with matrix material, weaving the yarn into fabric to produce a continuous fabric supply, and feeding multiple layers of net-shaped fabrics having optimally oriented fibers into a debulking tool to form an undebulked preform. The continuous press forming fabrication process includes partially debulking the preform, cutting the partially debulked preform, and debulking the partially debulked preform to form a netshape. An electron-beam or similar technique then cures the structure. The pultrusion fabric process includes feeding the undebulked preform into a heated die and gradually debulking the undebulked preform. The undebulked preform in the heated die changes dimension until a desired cross-sectional dimension is achieved. This process further includes obtaining a net-shaped infiltrated uncured preform, cutting the uncured preform to a desired length, and electron-beam curing (or similar technique) the uncured preform. These fabrication methods produce superior structures formed at higher production rates, resulting in lower cost and high structural performance.

  15. Segmenting Continuous Motions with Hidden Semi-markov Models and Gaussian Processes

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nagai, Takayuki; Mochihashi, Daichi; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Asoh, Hideki; Kaneko, Masahide

    2017-01-01

    Humans divide perceived continuous information into segments to facilitate recognition. For example, humans can segment speech waves into recognizable morphemes. Analogously, continuous motions are segmented into recognizable unit actions. People can divide continuous information into segments without using explicit segment points. This capacity for unsupervised segmentation is also useful for robots, because it enables them to flexibly learn languages, gestures, and actions. In this paper, we propose a Gaussian process-hidden semi-Markov model (GP-HSMM) that can divide continuous time series data into segments in an unsupervised manner. Our proposed method consists of a generative model based on the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM), the emission distributions of which are Gaussian processes (GPs). Continuous time series data is generated by connecting segments generated by the GP. Segmentation can be achieved by using forward filtering-backward sampling to estimate the model's parameters, including the lengths and classes of the segments. In an experiment using the CMU motion capture dataset, we tested GP-HSMM with motion capture data containing simple exercise motions; the results of this experiment showed that the proposed GP-HSMM was comparable with other methods. We also conducted an experiment using karate motion capture data, which is more complex than exercise motion capture data; in this experiment, the segmentation accuracy of GP-HSMM was 0.92, which outperformed other methods. PMID:29311889

  16. Control of three different continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes: Use of soft sensors.

    PubMed

    Rehrl, Jakob; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Nicolaï, Niels; Hörmann, Theresa; Horn, Martin; Korhonen, Ossi; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas; Khinast, Johannes G

    2018-05-30

    One major advantage of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing over traditional batch manufacturing is the possibility of enhanced in-process control, reducing out-of-specification and waste material by appropriate discharge strategies. The decision on material discharge can be based on the measurement of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentration at specific locations in the production line via process analytic technology (PAT), e.g. near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. The implementation of the PAT instruments is associated with monetary investment and the long term operation requires techniques avoiding sensor drifts. Therefore, our paper proposes a soft sensor approach for predicting the API concentration from the feeder data. In addition, this information can be used to detect sensor drift, or serve as a replacement/supplement of specific PAT equipment. The paper presents the experimental determination of the residence time distribution of selected unit operations in three different continuous processing lines (hot melt extrusion, direct compaction, wet granulation). The mathematical models describing the soft sensor are developed and parameterized. Finally, the suggested soft sensor approach is validated on the three mentioned, different continuous processing lines, demonstrating its versatility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multivariate statistical process control of a continuous pharmaceutical twin-screw granulation and fluid bed drying process.

    PubMed

    Silva, A F; Sarraguça, M C; Fonteyne, M; Vercruysse, J; De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; De Beer, T; Lopes, J A

    2017-08-07

    A multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) strategy was developed for the monitoring of the ConsiGma™-25 continuous tablet manufacturing line. Thirty-five logged variables encompassing three major units, being a twin screw high shear granulator, a fluid bed dryer and a product control unit, were used to monitor the process. The MSPC strategy was based on principal component analysis of data acquired under normal operating conditions using a series of four process runs. Runs with imposed disturbances in the dryer air flow and temperature, in the granulator barrel temperature, speed and liquid mass flow and in the powder dosing unit mass flow were utilized to evaluate the model's monitoring performance. The impact of the imposed deviations to the process continuity was also evaluated using Hotelling's T 2 and Q residuals statistics control charts. The influence of the individual process variables was assessed by analyzing contribution plots at specific time points. Results show that the imposed disturbances were all detected in both control charts. Overall, the MSPC strategy was successfully developed and applied. Additionally, deviations not associated with the imposed changes were detected, mainly in the granulator barrel temperature control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recollection is a continuous process: Evidence from plurality memory receiver operating characteristics.

    PubMed

    Slotnick, Scott D; Jeye, Brittany M; Dodson, Chad S

    2016-01-01

    Is recollection a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process? Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis can answer this question as the continuous model and the threshold model predict curved and linear recollection ROCs, respectively. As memory for plurality, an item's previous singular or plural form, is assumed to rely on recollection, the nature of recollection can be investigated by evaluating plurality memory ROCs. The present study consisted of four experiments. During encoding, words (singular or plural) or objects (single/singular or duplicate/plural) were presented. During retrieval, old items with the same plurality or different plurality were presented. For each item, participants made a confidence rating ranging from "very sure old", which was correct for same plurality items, to "very sure new", which was correct for different plurality items. Each plurality memory ROC was the proportion of same versus different plurality items classified as "old" (i.e., hits versus false alarms). Chi-squared analysis revealed that all of the plurality memory ROCs were adequately fit by the continuous unequal variance model, whereas none of the ROCs were adequately fit by the two-high threshold model. These plurality memory ROC results indicate recollection is a continuous process, which complements previous source memory and associative memory ROC findings.

  19. Quantum information processing by a continuous Maxwell demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Josey; Deffner, Sebastian

    Quantum computing is believed to be fundamentally superior to classical computing; however quantifying the specific thermodynamic advantage has been elusive. Experimentally motivated, we generalize previous minimal models of discrete demons to continuous state space. Analyzing our model allows one to quantify the thermodynamic resources necessary to process quantum information. By further invoking the semi-classical limit we compare the quantum demon with its classical analogue. Finally, this model also serves as a starting point to study open quantum systems.

  20. PROCESS INTENSIFICATION: MICROWAVE INITIATED REACTIONS USING A CONTINUOUS FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concept of process intensification has been used to develop a continuous narrow channel reactor at Clarkson capable of carrying out reactions under isothermal conditions whilst being exposed to microwave (MW) irradiation thereby providing information on the true effect of mi...

  1. 40 CFR 63.11975 - What are my continuous compliance requirements for process wastewater?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for process wastewater? 63.11975 Section 63.11975 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... What are my continuous compliance requirements for process wastewater? (a) For each process wastewater... in paragraph (b) of this section. For each process wastewater stream for which you initially...

  2. 40 CFR 63.11975 - What are my continuous compliance requirements for process wastewater?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements for process wastewater? 63.11975 Section 63.11975 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... What are my continuous compliance requirements for process wastewater? (a) For each process wastewater... in paragraph (b) of this section. For each process wastewater stream for which you initially...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11975 - What are my continuous compliance requirements for process wastewater?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for process wastewater? 63.11975 Section 63.11975 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... What are my continuous compliance requirements for process wastewater? (a) For each process wastewater... in paragraph (b) of this section. For each process wastewater stream for which you initially...

  4. Prilezhaev dihydroxylation of olefins in a continuous flow process.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Bas A M W; Becker, René; Kössl, Florian; Delville, Mariëlle M E; Nieuwland, Pieter J; Koch, Kaspar; Rutjes, Floris P J T

    2012-02-13

    Epoxidation of both terminal and non-terminal olefins with peroxy acids is a well-established and powerful tool in a wide variety of chemical processes. In an additional step, the epoxide can be readily converted into the corresponding trans-diol. Batch-wise scale-up, however, is often troublesome because of the thermal instability and explosive character of the peroxy acids involved. This article describes the design and semi-automated optimization of a continuous flow process and subsequent scale-up to preparative production volumes in an intrinsically safe manner. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. On the Processing of Martensitic Steels in Continuous Galvanizing Lines: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taejin; Kwak, Jaihyun; de Cooman, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    The conventional continuous hot-dip galvanizing (GI) and galvannealing (GA) processes can be applied to untransformed austenite to produce Zn and Zn-alloy coated low-carbon ultra-high-strength martensitic steel provided specific alloying additions are made. The most suitable austenite decomposition behavior results from the combined addition of boron, Cr, and Mo, which results in a pronounced transformation bay during isothermal transformation. The occurrence of this transformation bay implies a considerable retardation of the austenite decomposition in the temperature range below the bay, which is close to the stages in the continuous galvanizing line (CGL) thermal cycle related to the GI and GA processes. After the GI and GA processes, a small amount of granular bainite, which consists of bainitic ferrite and discrete islands of martensite/austenite (M/A) constituents embedded in martensite matrix, is present in the microstructure. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the steel after the GI and GA cycle was over 1300 MPa, and the stress-strain curve was continuous without any yielding phenomena.

  6. Economics of recombinant antibody production processes at various scales: Industry-standard compared to continuous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Nikolaus; Tscheliessnig, Anne; Sommer, Ralf; Helk, Bernhard; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-06-01

    Standard industry processes for recombinant antibody production employ protein A affinity chromatography in combination with other chromatography steps and ultra-/diafiltration. This study compares a generic antibody production process with a recently developed purification process based on a series of selective precipitation steps. The new process makes two of the usual three chromatographic steps obsolete and can be performed in a continuous fashion. Cost of Goods (CoGs) analyses were done for: (i) a generic chromatography-based antibody standard purification; (ii) the continuous precipitation-based purification process coupled to a continuous perfusion production system; and (iii) a hybrid process, coupling the continuous purification process to an upstream batch process. The results of this economic analysis show that the precipitation-based process offers cost reductions at all stages of the life cycle of a therapeutic antibody, (i.e. clinical phase I, II and III, as well as full commercial production). The savings in clinical phase production are largely attributed to the fact that expensive chromatographic resins are omitted. These economic analyses will help to determine the strategies that are best suited for small-scale production in parallel fashion, which is of importance for antibody production in non-privileged countries and for personalized medicine. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Feasibility of using continuous chromatography in downstream processing: Comparison of costs and product quality for a hybrid process vs. a conventional batch process.

    PubMed

    Ötes, Ozan; Flato, Hendrik; Winderl, Johannes; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Capito, Florian

    2017-10-10

    The protein A capture step is the main cost-driver in downstream processing, with high attrition costs especially when using protein A resin not until end of resin lifetime. Here we describe a feasibility study, transferring a batch downstream process to a hybrid process, aimed at replacing batch protein A capture chromatography with a continuous capture step, while leaving the polishing steps unchanged to minimize required process adaptations compared to a batch process. 35g of antibody were purified using the hybrid approach, resulting in comparable product quality and step yield compared to the batch process. Productivity for the protein A step could be increased up to 420%, reducing buffer amounts by 30-40% and showing robustness for at least 48h continuous run time. Additionally, to enable its potential application in a clinical trial manufacturing environment cost of goods were compared for the protein A step between hybrid process and batch process, showing a 300% cost reduction, depending on processed volumes and batch cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Generalization bounds of ERM-based learning processes for continuous-time Markov chains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Tao, Dacheng

    2012-12-01

    Many existing results on statistical learning theory are based on the assumption that samples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). However, the assumption of i.i.d. samples is not suitable for practical application to problems in which samples are time dependent. In this paper, we are mainly concerned with the empirical risk minimization (ERM) based learning process for time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain. This learning process covers many kinds of practical applications, e.g., the prediction for a time series and the estimation of channel state information. Thus, it is significant to study its theoretical properties including the generalization bound, the asymptotic convergence, and the rate of convergence. It is noteworthy that, since samples are time dependent in this learning process, the concerns of this paper cannot (at least straightforwardly) be addressed by existing methods developed under the sample i.i.d. assumption. We first develop a deviation inequality for a sequence of time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain and present a symmetrization inequality for such a sequence. By using the resultant deviation inequality and symmetrization inequality, we then obtain the generalization bounds of the ERM-based learning process for time-dependent samples drawn from a continuous-time Markov chain. Finally, based on the resultant generalization bounds, we analyze the asymptotic convergence and the rate of convergence of the learning process.

  9. On the Processing of Martensitic Steels in Continuous Galvanizing Lines: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taejin; Kwak, Jaihyun; de Cooman, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas low-carbon (<0.2 mass pct) martensitic grades can be produced easily in continuous annealing processing lines equipped with the required cooling capacity, the thermal cycles in continuous galvanizing lines make it difficult to produce hot-dip Zn or Zn-alloy coated high-strength martensitic grades. This is because of the tempering processes occurring during dipping of the strip in the liquid Zn bath and, in the case of galvannealed sheet steel, the short thermal treatment required to achieve the alloying between the Zn and the steel. These short additional thermal treatments last less than 30 seconds but severely degrade the mechanical properties. Using a combination of internal friction, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, it is shown that the ultrafine-grained lath microstructure allows for a rapid dislocation recovery and carbide formation during the galvanizing processes. In addition, the effective dislocation pinning occurring during the galvannealing process results in strain localization and the suppression of strain hardening.

  10. Influence of the washing program on the blood processing performance of a continuous autotransfusion device.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chiyul; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Jung Chan; Ko, Sung Ho; Ahn, Wonsik; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-03-01

    The continuous autotransfusion system has been widely used in surgical operations. It is known that if oil is added to blood, and this mixture is then processed by an autotransfusion device, the added oil is removed and reinfusion of fat is prevented by the device. However, there is no detailed report on the influence of the particular washing program selected on the levels of blood components including blood fat after continuous autotransfusion using such a system. Fresh bovine blood samples were processed by a commercial continuous autotransfusion device using the "emergency," "quality," and "high-quality" programs, applied in random order. Complete blood count (CBC) and serum chemistry were analyzed to determine how the blood processing performance of the device changes with the washing program applied. There was no significant difference in the CBC results obtained with the three washing programs. Although all of the blood lipids in the processed blood were decreased compared to those in the blood before processing, the levels of triglyceride, phospholipid, and total cholesterol after processing via the emergency program were significantly higher than those present after processing via the quality and high-quality programs. Although the continuous autotransfusion device provided consistent hematocrit quality, the levels of some blood lipid components showed significant differences among the washing programs.

  11. Information Processing in Toddlers: Continuity from Infancy and Persistence of Preterm Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2009-01-01

    The present report assesses information processing in the toddler years (24 and 36 months), using a cohort of preterms (<1750 g) and full-terms initially seen in infancy. The children received a battery of tasks tapping 11 specific abilities from four domains – memory, processing speed, attention, and representational competence. The same battery had been used earlier – at 7 and 12 months. There were four main findings. (1) Preterms showed no ‘catch-up,’ but rather persistent deficits in immediate recognition, recall, encoding speed, and attention. (2) There was significant continuity from infancy through the toddler years for most aspects of information processing. (3) These specific abilities combined additively to account for global cognitive ability, consistent with the componential theory of intelligence. (4) Toddler information processing abilities completely mediated the relative deficits of preterms in general cognitive ability. Thus, although the toddler years have often been characterized as a period of discontinuity and transformation, these results indicate that continuity prevails for information processing abilities over the first three years of life. PMID:20161244

  12. Processing Approaches for DAS-Enabled Continuous Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.; Wood, T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; McDonald, S.; Pevzner, R.; Lindsey, N.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Morales, A.; Ekblaw, I.; Wagner, A. M.; Ulrich, C.; Daley, T. M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is creating a "field as laboratory" capability for seismic monitoring of subsurface changes. By providing unprecedented spatial and temporal sampling at a relatively low cost, DAS enables field-scale seismic monitoring to have durations and temporal resolutions that are comparable to those of laboratory experiments. Here we report on seismic processing approaches developed during data analyses of three case studies all using DAS-enabled seismic monitoring with applications ranging from shallow permafrost to deep reservoirs: (1) 10-hour downhole monitoring of cement curing at Otway, Australia; (2) 2-month surface monitoring of controlled permafrost thaw at Fairbanks, Alaska; (3) multi-month downhole and surface monitoring of carbon sequestration at Decatur, Illinois. We emphasize the data management and processing components relevant to DAS-based seismic monitoring, which include scalable approaches to data management, pre-processing, denoising, filtering, and wavefield decomposition. DAS has dramatically increased the data volume to the extent that terabyte-per-day data loads are now typical, straining conventional approaches to data storage and processing. To achieve more efficient use of disk space and network bandwidth, we explore improved file structures and data compression schemes. Because noise floor of DAS measurements is higher than that of conventional sensors, optimal processing workflow involving advanced denoising, deconvolution (of the source signatures), and stacking approaches are being established to maximize signal content of DAS data. The resulting workflow of data management and processing could accelerate the broader adaption of DAS for continuous monitoring of critical processes.

  13. Computer Simulation of the Continuous TNT Process. Volume 1: The Nitration Section

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    isomerism and oxidation account for a yield lose of about 8 to 10% based on molar feed of toluene. PROCESS DESCRIPTION The continuous TNT process, which is...nitration section of the process in terms of the kinetic and mass transfer phenomena which are believed to occur there and account for most of the process...Reaction 10) It it pointed out that Reactions 1 through 10 are not mechanistic equations but rather stoichiometric equations which account for the

  14. Detectability of Granger causality for subsampled continuous-time neurophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lionel; Seth, Anil K

    2017-01-01

    Granger causality is well established within the neurosciences for inference of directed functional connectivity from neurophysiological data. These data usually consist of time series which subsample a continuous-time biophysiological process. While it is well known that subsampling can lead to imputation of spurious causal connections where none exist, less is known about the effects of subsampling on the ability to reliably detect causal connections which do exist. We present a theoretical analysis of the effects of subsampling on Granger-causal inference. Neurophysiological processes typically feature signal propagation delays on multiple time scales; accordingly, we base our analysis on a distributed-lag, continuous-time stochastic model, and consider Granger causality in continuous time at finite prediction horizons. Via exact analytical solutions, we identify relationships among sampling frequency, underlying causal time scales and detectability of causalities. We reveal complex interactions between the time scale(s) of neural signal propagation and sampling frequency. We demonstrate that detectability decays exponentially as the sample time interval increases beyond causal delay times, identify detectability "black spots" and "sweet spots", and show that downsampling may potentially improve detectability. We also demonstrate that the invariance of Granger causality under causal, invertible filtering fails at finite prediction horizons, with particular implications for inference of Granger causality from fMRI data. Our analysis emphasises that sampling rates for causal analysis of neurophysiological time series should be informed by domain-specific time scales, and that state-space modelling should be preferred to purely autoregressive modelling. On the basis of a very general model that captures the structure of neurophysiological processes, we are able to help identify confounds, and offer practical insights, for successful detection of causal connectivity

  15. CONVERTING FROM BATCH TO CONTINUOUS INTENSIFIED PROCESSING IN THE STT? REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory


    The fluid dynamics, the physical dimensions and characteristics of the reaction zones of continuous process intensification reactors are often quite different from those of the batch reactors they replace. Understanding these differences is critical to the successful transit...

  16. Development of Advanced Czochralski Growth Process to produce low cost 150 KG silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The modified CG2000 crystal grower construction, installation, and machine check-out was completed. The process development check-out proceeded with several dry runs and one growth run. Several machine calibrations and functional problems were discovered and corrected. Several exhaust gas analysis system alternatives were evaluated and an integrated system approved and ordered. A contract presentation was made at the Project Integration Meeting at JPL, including cost-projections using contract projected throughput and machine parameters. Several growth runs on a development CG200 RC grower show that complete neck, crown, and body automated growth can be achieved with only one operator input. Work continued for melt level, melt temperature, and diameter sensor development.

  17. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The process development continued, with a total of nine crystal growth runs. One of these was a 150 kg run of 5 crystals of approximately 30 kg each. Several machine and process problems were corrected and the 150 kg run was as successful as previous long runs on CG2000 RC's. The accelerated recharge and growth will be attempted when the development program resumes at full capacity in FY '82. The automation controls (Automatic Grower Light Computer System) were integrated to the seed dip temperature, shoulder, and diameter sensors on the CG2000 RC development grower. Test growths included four crystals, which were grown by the computer/sensor system from seed dip through tail off. This system will be integrated on the Mod CG2000 grower during the next quarter. The analytical task included the completion and preliminary testing of the gas chromatograph portion of the Furnace Atmosphere Analysis System. The system can detect CO concentrations and will be expanded to oxygen and water analysis in FY '82.

  18. Unraveling the sub-processes of selective attention: insights from dynamic modeling and continuous behavior.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Simon; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Görner, Max; Goschke, Thomas; Scherbaum, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Selective attention biases information processing toward stimuli that are relevant for achieving our goals. However, the nature of this bias is under debate: Does it solely rely on the amplification of goal-relevant information or is there a need for additional inhibitory processes that selectively suppress currently distracting information? Here, we explored the processes underlying selective attention with a dynamic, modeling-based approach that focuses on the continuous evolution of behavior over time. We present two dynamic neural field models incorporating the diverging theoretical assumptions. Simulations with both models showed that they make similar predictions with regard to response times but differ markedly with regard to their continuous behavior. Human data observed via mouse tracking as a continuous measure of performance revealed evidence for the model solely based on amplification but no indication of persisting selective distracter inhibition.

  19. CONTINUOUS DISSOLVER EXTRACTOR FOR PROCESSING METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, R.B.; Buckham, J.A.

    1959-02-01

    An apparatus is presented for the continuous dissolution of metal slugs in an aqueous acid and sequential continuous extraction of selected metal values from the acid solution by counter-current contact with an organic solvent. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical tank divided into upper and lower sections. Dissolution of the metal slug takes place in the lower section and the solution so produced is continuously fed to the topmost plate of the upper extraction section. An immiscible organic extractant is continuously passed by a pulsing pump into the lowermost unit of the extraction section. Suitable piping and valving permits of removing the aqueous raffinate solution from the lowermost portion of the extraction section, and simultaneous removal of organic solvent extractant containing the desired product from the uppermost portion of the extraction section.

  20. Twin Screw Extruders as Continuous Mixers for Thermal Processing: a Technical and Historical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charlie

    2016-02-01

    Developed approximately 100 years ago for natural rubber/plastics applications, processes via twin screw extrusion (TSE) now generate some of the most cutting-edge drug delivery systems available. After 25 or so years of usage in pharmaceutical environments, it has become evident why TSE processing offers significant advantages as compared to other manufacturing techniques. The well-characterized nature of the TSE process lends itself to ease of scale-up and process optimization while also affording the benefits of continuous manufacturing. Interestingly, the evolution of twin screw extrusion for pharmaceutical products has followed a similar path as previously trodden by plastics processing pioneers. Almost every plastic has been processed at some stage in the manufacturing train on a twin screw extruder, which is utilized to mix materials together to impart desired properties into a final part. The evolution of processing via TSEs since the early/mid 1900s is recounted for plastics and also for pharmaceuticals from the late 1980s until today. The similarities are apparent. The basic theory and development of continuous mixing via corotating and counterrotating TSEs for plastics and drug is also described. The similarities between plastics and pharmaceutical applications are striking. The superior mixing characteristics inherent with a TSE have allowed this device to dominate other continuous mixers and spurred intensive development efforts and experimentation that spawned highly engineered formulations for the commodity and high-tech plastic products we use every day. Today, twin screw extrusion is a battle hardened, well-proven, manufacturing process that has been validated in 24-h/day industrial settings. The same thing is happening today with new extrusion technologies being applied to advanced drug delivery systems to facilitate commodity, targeted, and alternative delivery systems. It seems that the "extrusion evolution" will continue for wide

  1. From empirical data to time-inhomogeneous continuous Markov processes.

    PubMed

    Lencastre, Pedro; Raischel, Frank; Rogers, Tim; Lind, Pedro G

    2016-03-01

    We present an approach for testing for the existence of continuous generators of discrete stochastic transition matrices. Typically, existing methods to ascertain the existence of continuous Markov processes are based on the assumption that only time-homogeneous generators exist. Here a systematic extension to time inhomogeneity is presented, based on new mathematical propositions incorporating necessary and sufficient conditions, which are then implemented computationally and applied to numerical data. A discussion concerning the bridging between rigorous mathematical results on the existence of generators to its computational implementation is presented. Our detection algorithm shows to be effective in more than 60% of tested matrices, typically 80% to 90%, and for those an estimate of the (nonhomogeneous) generator matrix follows. We also solve the embedding problem analytically for the particular case of three-dimensional circulant matrices. Finally, a discussion of possible applications of our framework to problems in different fields is briefly addressed.

  2. Physical and material properties of an emulsion-based lipstick produced via a continuous process.

    PubMed

    Beri, A; Pichot, R; Norton, I T

    2014-04-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions in lipsticks could have the potential to improve moisturizing properties and deliver hydrophilic molecules to the lips. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of a continuous process (scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE) and pin stirrer (PS)) on the physical and material properties of an emulsion-based lipstick by altering the processing conditions of both the SSHE and PS. Emulsion formation was achieved using a SSHE and PS. Emulsions were analysed using nuclear magnetic resonance restricted diffusion (droplet size), texture analysis and rheology (mechanical properties). Results showed that a higher impeller rotational velocity (IRV) (1500 r.p.m.) and a lower exit temperature (52°C) produce the smallest droplets (~ 4 μm), due to greater disruptive forces and a higher viscosity of the continuous phase. The addition of a PS reduces the droplet size (14-6 μm) if the SSHE has a low IRV (500 r.p.m.), due to greater droplet disruption as the emulsion passes through the PS unit. Results also show that if the jacket temperature of a SSHE is 65°C, so that crystallization occurs in both process and post-production, droplets can be integrated into the network resulting in a stiffer wax network (G' - 0.12, in comparison to 0.02 MPa). This is due to small crystals creating a shell around water droplets which can form connections with the continuous network forming a structured network. The addition of a pin stirrer can disrupt a formed network reducing the stiffness of the emulsion (0.3-0.05 MPa). This work suggests the potential use of a continuous process in producing an emulsion-based lipstick, particularly when wax crystals are produced in the process. Future work should consider the moisturizing or lubricating properties of wax continuous emulsions and the release of hydrophilic compounds from the aqueous phase.

  3. Impulsive Control for Continuous-Time Markov Decision Processes: A Linear Programming Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, F., E-mail: dufour@math.u-bordeaux1.fr; Piunovskiy, A. B., E-mail: piunov@liv.ac.uk

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we investigate an optimization problem for continuous-time Markov decision processes with both impulsive and continuous controls. We consider the so-called constrained problem where the objective of the controller is to minimize a total expected discounted optimality criterion associated with a cost rate function while keeping other performance criteria of the same form, but associated with different cost rate functions, below some given bounds. Our model allows multiple impulses at the same time moment. The main objective of this work is to study the associated linear program defined on a space of measures including the occupation measures ofmore » the controlled process and to provide sufficient conditions to ensure the existence of an optimal control.« less

  4. Relationships between Climate, Process, and Performance in Continuous Quality Improvement Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Roxanne; London, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relationships between group climate (participants' learning orientation, feelings of psychological safety, and self-disclosure), process (feedback and conflict), and performance in continuous quality improvement groups. Forty-nine participants in eight hospital groups were surveyed as the groups neared completion. Groups were…

  5. Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode.

    PubMed

    Klinkhammer, Sönke; Liu, Xin; Huska, Klaus; Shen, Yuxin; Vanderheiden, Sylvia; Valouch, Sebastian; Vannahme, Christoph; Bräse, Stefan; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli

    2012-03-12

    The fabrication and characterization of continuously tunable, solution-processed distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in the visible regime is reported. Continuous thin film thickness gradients were achieved by means of horizontal dipping of several conjugated polymer and blended small molecule solutions on cm-scale surface gratings of different periods. We report optically pumped continuously tunable laser emission of 13 nm in the blue, 16 nm in the green and 19 nm in the red spectral region on a single chip respectively. Tuning behavior can be described with the Bragg-equation and the measured thickness profile. The laser threshold is low enough that inexpensive laser diodes can be used as pump sources.

  6. Continuous-flow processes for the catalytic partial hydrogenation reaction of alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Marrodan, Carmen; Liguori, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic partial hydrogenation of substituted alkynes to alkenes is a process of high importance in the manufacture of several market chemicals. The present paper shortly reviews the heterogeneous catalytic systems engineered for this reaction under continuous flow and in the liquid phase. The main contributions appeared in the literature from 1997 up to August 2016 are discussed in terms of reactor design. A comparison with batch and industrial processes is provided whenever possible. PMID:28503209

  7. Continuous quality improvement for continuity of care.

    PubMed

    Kibbe, D C; Bentz, E; McLaughlin, C P

    1993-03-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) techniques have been used most frequently in hospital operations such as pharmaceutical ordering, patient admitting, and billing of insurers, and less often to analyze and improve processes that are close to the clinical interaction of physicians and their patients. This paper describes a project in which CQI was implemented in a family practice setting to improve continuity of care. A CQI study team was assembled in response to patients' complaints about not being able to see their regular physician providers when they wanted. Following CQI methods, the performance of the practice in terms of provider continuity was measured. Two "customer" groups were surveyed: physician faculty members were surveyed to assess their attitudes about continuity, and patients were surveyed about their preferences for provider continuity and convenience factors. Process improvements were selected in the critical pathways that influence provider continuity. One year after implementation of selected process improvements, repeat chart audit showed that provider continuity levels had improved from .45 to .74, a 64% increase from 1 year earlier. The project's main accomplishment was to establish the practicality of using CQI methods in a primary care setting to identify a quality issue of value to both providers and patients, in this case, continuity of provider care, and to identify processes that linked the performance of health care delivery procedures with patient expectations.

  8. Numerical study on the effect of temperature oscillations on the crystallization front shape during Czochralski growth of gadolinium gallium garnet crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiez, Reza; Rezaei, Yazdan

    2017-10-01

    Time-dependent, finite volume method calculations of momentum and heat transfer were carried out to investigate the correlation between oscillatory convection and the crystallization front dynamics during the Czochralski (Cz) growth of an oxide material. The present modeling allows us to illustrate the modification of the interface shape during the time period of oscillation of the flow manifesting as the formation of a cold plume beneath the phase boundary. It was shown that the instability mechanism is associated with an irreversible dramatic change in the interface shape, which occurs at a critical Reynolds number significantly lower than that is predicted by the quasi-stationary global model analysis of the Cz growth system. The baroclinic term which appears in the vorticity equation in a rotating stratified fluid is used to describe the numerical results of the model. The properties of the thermal waves were studied in the monitoring points located nearby the interface. The waves are regular but not in fact vertically correlated as observed in the case of baroclinic waves. The Rayleigh-Benard dynamics is suggested to be the predominant mechanism even though the instability is primarily baroclinic.

  9. Experimental analysis and modeling of melt growth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Georg

    2002-04-01

    Melt growth processes provide the basic crystalline materials for many applications. The research and development of crystal growth processes is therefore driven by the demands which arise from these specific applications; however, common goals include an increased uniformity of the relevant crystal properties at the micro- and macro-scale, a decrease of deleterious crystal defects, and an increase of crystal dimensions. As melt growth equipment and experimentation becomes more and more expensive, little room remains for improvements by trial and error procedures. A more successful strategy is to optimize the crystal growth process by a combined use of experimental process analysis and computer modeling. This will be demonstrated in this paper by several examples from the bulk growth of silicon, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, and calcium fluoride. These examples also involve the most important melt growth techniques, crystal pulling (Czochralski methods) and vertical gradient freeze (Bridgman-type methods). The power and success of the above optimization strategy, however, is not limited only to the given examples but can be generalized and applied to many types of bulk crystal growth.

  10. Discrete event simulation tool for analysis of qualitative models of continuous processing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T. (Inventor); Basham, Bryan D. (Inventor); Harris, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artificial intelligence design and qualitative modeling tool is disclosed for creating computer models and simulating continuous activities, functions, and/or behavior using developed discrete event techniques. Conveniently, the tool is organized in four modules: library design module, model construction module, simulation module, and experimentation and analysis. The library design module supports the building of library knowledge including component classes and elements pertinent to a particular domain of continuous activities, functions, and behavior being modeled. The continuous behavior is defined discretely with respect to invocation statements, effect statements, and time delays. The functionality of the components is defined in terms of variable cluster instances, independent processes, and modes, further defined in terms of mode transition processes and mode dependent processes. Model construction utilizes the hierarchy of libraries and connects them with appropriate relations. The simulation executes a specialized initialization routine and executes events in a manner that includes selective inherency of characteristics through a time and event schema until the event queue in the simulator is emptied. The experimentation and analysis module supports analysis through the generation of appropriate log files and graphics developments and includes the ability of log file comparisons.

  11. Donders revisited: Discrete or continuous temporal processing underlying reaction time distributions?

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan; Yang, Taoxi; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Pöppel, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    Differences of reaction times to specific stimulus configurations are used as indicators of cognitive processing stages. In this classical experimental paradigm, continuous temporal processing is implicitly assumed. Multimodal response distributions indicate, however, discrete time sampling, which is often masked by experimental conditions. Differences in reaction times reflect discrete temporal mechanisms that are pre-semantically implemented and suggested to be based on entrained neural oscillations. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. 40 CFR 63.2455 - What requirements must I meet for continuous process vents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic Chemical... any continuous process vent that is combined with Group 1 batch process vents before a control device or recovery device because the requirements of § 63.2450(c)(2)(i) apply to the combined stream. (2...

  13. Model based adaptive control of a continuous capture process for monoclonal antibodies production.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Angarita, Monica; Karst, Daniel J; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-04-29

    A two-column capture process for continuous processing of cell-culture supernatant is presented. Similar to other multicolumn processes, this process uses sequential countercurrent loading of the target compound in order maximize resin utilization and productivity for a given product yield. The process was designed using a novel mechanistic model for affinity capture, which takes both specific adsorption as well as transport through the resin beads into account. Simulations as well as experimental results for the capture of an IgG antibody are discussed. The model was able to predict the process performance in terms of yield, productivity and capacity utilization. Compared to continuous capture with two columns operated batch wise in parallel, a 2.5-fold higher capacity utilization was obtained for the same productivity and yield. This results in an equal improvement in product concentration and reduction of buffer consumption. The developed model was used not only for the process design and optimization but also for its online control. In particular, the unit operating conditions are changed in order to maintain high product yield while optimizing the process performance in terms of capacity utilization and buffer consumption also in the presence of changing upstream conditions and resin aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Processing activities for STS-91 continue in OPF Bay 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Processing activities for STS-91 continue in KSC's Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 2. Two Get Away Special (GAS) canisters are shown after their installation into Discovery's payload bay. At left is G-648, an Canadian Space Agency-sponsored study of manufactured organic thin film by the physical vapor transport method, and the can on the right contains commemorative flags to be flown during the mission. STS-91 is scheduled to launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery for the ninth and final docking with the Russian Space Station Mir from KSC's Launch Pad 39A on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:04 p.m. EDT.

  15. Efficient 2(nd) and 4(th) harmonic generation of a single-frequency, continuous-wave fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, Thomas; Imai, Yutaka; Masuda, Hisashi; Eguchi, Naoya; Saito, Masaki; Kubota, Shigeo

    2008-02-04

    We demonstrate efficient cavity-enhanced second and fourth harmonic generation of an air-cooled, continuous-wave (cw), single-frequency 1064 nm fiber-amplifier system. The second harmonic generator achieves up to 88% total external conversion efficiency, generating more than 20-W power at 532 nm wavelength in a diffraction-limited beam (M(2) < 1.05). The nonlinear medium is a critically phase-matched, 20-mm long, anti-reflection (AR) coated LBO crystal operated at 25 degrees C. The fourth harmonic generator is based on an AR-coated, Czochralski-grown beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal optimized for low loss and high damage threshold. Up to 12.2 W of 266-nm deep-UV (DUV) output is obtained using a 6-mm long critically phase-matched BBO operated at 40 degrees C. This power level is more than two times higher than previously reported for cw 266-nm generation. The total external conversion efficiency from the fundamental at 1064 nm to the fourth harmonic at 266 nm is >50%.

  16. Information Processing from Infancy to 11 Years: Continuities and Prediction of IQ

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    This study provides the first direct evidence of cognitive continuity for multiple specific information processing abilities from infancy and toddlerhood to pre-adolescence, and provides support for the view that infant abilities and form the basis of later childhood abilities. Data from a large sample of children (N = 131) were obtained at five different time points (7, 12, 24, 36 months, and 11 years) for a large battery of tasks representing four cognitive domains (attention, processing speed, memory, and representational competence). Structural equation models of continuity were assessed for each domain, in which it was assumed that infant abilities → toddler abilities → 11-year abilities. Abilities at each age were represented by latent variables, which minimize task-specific variance and measurement error. The model for each domain fit the data. Moreover, abilities from the three age periods predicted global outcome, with infant, toddler, and contemporaneous 11-year measures, respectively, accounting for 12.3%, 18.5%, and 45.2% of the variance in 11-year IQ. These findings strengthen contentions that specific cognitive abilities that can be identified in infancy show long-term continuity and contribute importantly to later cognitive competence. PMID:23162179

  17. Continuous-variable quantum Gaussian process regression and quantum singular value decomposition of nonsparse low-rank matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddhartha; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian

    2018-02-01

    With the significant advancement in quantum computation during the past couple of decades, the exploration of machine-learning subroutines using quantum strategies has become increasingly popular. Gaussian process regression is a widely used technique in supervised classical machine learning. Here we introduce an algorithm for Gaussian process regression using continuous-variable quantum systems that can be realized with technology based on photonic quantum computers under certain assumptions regarding distribution of data and availability of efficient quantum access. Our algorithm shows that by using a continuous-variable quantum computer a dramatic speedup in computing Gaussian process regression can be achieved, i.e., the possibility of exponentially reducing the time to compute. Furthermore, our results also include a continuous-variable quantum-assisted singular value decomposition method of nonsparse low rank matrices and forms an important subroutine in our Gaussian process regression algorithm.

  18. Neural source dynamics of brain responses to continuous stimuli: Speech processing from acoustics to comprehension.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Christian; Presacco, Alessandro; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2018-05-15

    Human experience often involves continuous sensory information that unfolds over time. This is true in particular for speech comprehension, where continuous acoustic signals are processed over seconds or even minutes. We show that brain responses to such continuous stimuli can be investigated in detail, for magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, by combining linear kernel estimation with minimum norm source localization. Previous research has shown that the requirement to average data over many trials can be overcome by modeling the brain response as a linear convolution of the stimulus and a kernel, or response function, and estimating a kernel that predicts the response from the stimulus. However, such analysis has been typically restricted to sensor space. Here we demonstrate that this analysis can also be performed in neural source space. We first computed distributed minimum norm current source estimates for continuous MEG recordings, and then computed response functions for the current estimate at each source element, using the boosting algorithm with cross-validation. Permutation tests can then assess the significance of individual predictor variables, as well as features of the corresponding spatio-temporal response functions. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by computing spatio-temporal response functions for speech stimuli, using predictor variables reflecting acoustic, lexical and semantic processing. Results indicate that processes related to comprehension of continuous speech can be differentiated anatomically as well as temporally: acoustic information engaged auditory cortex at short latencies, followed by responses over the central sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, possibly related to somatosensory/motor cortex involvement in speech perception; lexical frequency was associated with a left-lateralized response in auditory cortex and subsequent bilateral frontal activity; and semantic composition was associated with bilateral temporal and

  19. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L [Knoxville, TN; Paulauskas, Felix L [Knoxville, TN; Bigelow, Timothy S [Knoxville, TN

    2010-11-02

    A system to continuously produce fully carbonized or graphitized carbon fibers using microwave-assisted plasma (MAP) processing comprises an elongated chamber in which a microwave plasma is excited in a selected gas atmosphere. Fiber is drawn continuously through the chamber, entering and exiting through openings designed to minimize in-leakage of air. There is a gradient of microwave power within the chamber with generally higher power near where the fiber exits and lower power near where the fiber enters. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), pitch, or any other suitable organic/polymeric precursor fibers can be used as a feedstock for the inventive system. Oxidized or partially oxidized PAN or pitch or other polymeric fiber precursors are run continuously through a MAP reactor in an inert, non-oxidizing atmosphere to heat the fibers, drive off the unwanted elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, and produce carbon or graphite fibers faster than conventionally produced carbon fibers.

  20. Sensory Processing in Rhesus Monkeys: Developmental Continuity, Prenatal Treatment, and Genetic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Adkins, Miriam; Barr, Christina S.; Larson, Julie A.; Resch, Leslie M.; Roberts, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sensory processing (tactile and vestibular function) was tested in 78 rhesus macaques from two experiments. At ages 4–5 years, striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding was examined using positron emission tomography. At ages 5–7 years, adult sensory processing was assessed. Findings were: (a) prenatal stress exposure yielded less optimal neonatal sensory processing; (b) animals carrying the short rh5-HTTLPR allele had less optimal neonatal sensory scores than monkeys homozygous for the long allele; (c) neonatal sensory processing was significantly related to striatal D2 receptor binding for carriers of the short allele, but not for animals homozygous for the long allele; and (d) there was moderate developmental continuity in sensory processing from the neonatal period to adulthood. PMID:27338151

  1. CATS, continuous automated testing of seismological, hydroacoustic, and infrasound (SHI) processing software.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Albert; Brown, David; Tomuta, Elena

    2017-04-01

    To detect nuclear explosions, waveform data from over 240 SHI stations world-wide flows into the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), located in Vienna, Austria. A complex pipeline of software applications processes this data in numerous ways to form event hypotheses. The software codebase comprises over 2 million lines of code, reflects decades of development, and is subject to frequent enhancement and revision. Since processing must run continuously and reliably, software changes are subjected to thorough testing before being put into production. To overcome the limitations and cost of manual testing, the Continuous Automated Testing System (CATS) has been created. CATS provides an isolated replica of the IDC processing environment, and is able to build and test different versions of the pipeline software directly from code repositories that are placed under strict configuration control. Test jobs are scheduled automatically when code repository commits are made. Regressions are reported. We present the CATS design choices and test methods. Particular attention is paid to how the system accommodates the individual testing of strongly interacting software components that lack test instrumentation.

  2. The design of an irradiator for the continuous processing of liquid latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, O.; Langley, R.; Zn, Wan Manshol Bin W.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents anew design concept for a gamma irradiation plant for the continuous processing of pumpable liquids. Typical applications of such a plant include ∗ the irradiation vulcanisation of natural latex rubber ∗ disinfection of municipal sewage sludge for agricultural use ∗ sterilisation of liquids in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries ∗ industrial processing of bulk liquids The authors describe the design and operation of the latex irradiator now operating on a small production scale in Malaysia and proposed developments. The design allows irradiation processing to be carried out under an inert or other gaseous environment. State-of-the-art computer control system ensures the fully automatic processing operation needed by industrial computers.

  3. Tracking Second Thoughts: Continuous and Discrete Revision Processes during Visual Lexical Decision

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of lexical decisions by asking participants to categorize lexical and nonlexical stimuli and recording their mouse movements toward response buttons during the choice. In a previous report we revealed greater trajectory curvature and attraction to competitors for Low Frequency words and Pseudowords. This analysis did not clarify whether the trajectory curvature in the two conditions was due to a continuous dynamic competition between the response alternatives or if a discrete revision process (a "change of mind") took place during the choice from an initially selected response to the opposite one. To disentangle these two possibilities, here we analyse the velocity and acceleration profiles of mouse movements during the choice. Pseudowords' peak movement velocity occurred with 100ms delay with respect to words and Letters Strings. Acceleration profile for High and Low Frequency words and Letters Strings exhibited a butterfly plot with one acceleration peak at 400ms and one deceleration peak at 650ms. Differently, Pseudowords' acceleration profile had double positive peaks (at 400 and 600ms) followed by movement deceleration, in correspondence with changes in the decision from lexical to nonlexical response buttons. These results speak to different online processes during the categorization of Low Frequency words and Pseudowords, with a continuous competition process for the former and a discrete revision process for the latter. PMID:25699992

  4. Design of a lamella settler for biomass recycling in continuous ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Tabera, J; Iznaola, M A

    1989-04-20

    The design and application of a settler to a continuous fermentation process with yeast recycle were studied. The compact lamella-type settler was chosen to avoid large volumes associated with conventional settling tanks. A rationale of the design method is covered. The sedimentation area was determined by classical batch settling rate tests and sedimentation capacity calculation. Limitations on the residence time of the microorganisms in the settler, rather than sludge thickening considerations, was the approach employed for volume calculation. Fermentation rate tests with yeast after different sedimentation periods were carried out to define a suitable residence time. Continuous cell recycle fermentation runs, performed with the old and new sedimentation devices, show that lamella settler improves biomass recycling efficiency, being the process able to operate at higher sugar concentrations and faster dilution rates.

  5. Enhancing Zeolite Performance by Catalyst Shaping in a Mesoscale Continuous-Flow Diels-Alder Process.

    PubMed

    Seghers, Sofie; Lefevere, Jasper; Mullens, Steven; De Vylder, Anton; Thybaut, Joris W; Stevens, Christian V

    2018-03-26

    In contrast to most lab-scale batch procedures, a continuous-flow implementation requires a thorough consideration of the solid catalyst design. In a previous study, irregular zeolite pellets were applied in a miniaturized continuous-flow reactor for the Diels-Alder reaction in the construction of norbornene scaffolds. After having faced the challenges of continuous operation, the aim of this study is to exploit catalyst structuring. To this end, microspheres with high uniformity and various sphere diameters were synthesized according to the vibrational droplet coagulation method. The influence of the use of these novel zeolite shapes in a mesoscale continuous-flow Diels-Alder process of cyclopentadiene and methyl acrylate is discussed. An impressive enhancement of catalyst lifetime is demonstrated, as even after a doubled process time of 14 h, the microspheres still exceeded the conversion after 7 h when using zeolite pellets by 30 %. A dual reason is found for this beneficial impact of catalyst shaping. The significant improvement in catalyst longevity can be attributed to the interplay of the chemical composition and the porosity structure of the microspheres. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Replication of a Continuing Education Workshop in the Evidence-Based Practice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gromoske, Andrea N.; Berger, Lisa K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To replicate the results of Parrish and Rubin's continuing education workshop in the evidence-based practice (EBP) process utilizing different workshop facilitators with participants in a different geographic location. Methods: We used a replicated, one-group pretest-posttest design with 3-month follow-up to evaluate the effectiveness…

  7. Application of a continuous twin screw-driven process for dilute acid pretreatment of rape straw.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Ho; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2012-04-01

    Rape straw, a processing residue generated from the bio-oil industry, was used as a model biomass for application of continuous twin screw-driven dilute acid pretreatment. The screw rotation speed and feeding rate were adjusted to 19.7rpm and 0.5g/min, respectively to maintain a residence time of 7.2min in the reaction zone, respectively. The sulfuric acid concentration was 3.5wt% and the reaction temperature was 165°C. The enzymatic digestibility of the glucan in the pretreated solids was 70.9%. The continuous process routinely gave around 28.8% higher yield for glucan digestibility than did the batch processing method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Downstream processing from melt granulation towards tablets: In-depth analysis of a continuous twin-screw melt granulation process using polymeric binders.

    PubMed

    Grymonpré, W; Verstraete, G; Vanhoorne, V; Remon, J P; De Beer, T; Vervaet, C

    2018-03-01

    The concept of twin-screw melt granulation (TSMG) has steadily (re)-gained interest in pharmaceutical formulation development as an intermediate step during tablet manufacturing. However, to be considered as a viable processing option for solid oral dosage forms there is a need to understand all critical sources of variability which could affect this granulation technique. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth analysis of the continuous TSMG process in order to expose the critical process parameters (CPP) and elucidate the impact of process and formulation parameters on the critical quality attributes (CQA) of granules and tablets during continuous TSMG. A first part of the study dealt with the screening of various amorphous polymers as binder for producing high-dosed melt granules of two model drug (i.e. acetaminophen and hydrochlorothiazide). The second part of this study described a quality-by-design (QbD) approach for melt granulation of hydrochlorothiazide in order to thoroughly evaluate TSMG, milling and tableting stage of the continuous TSMG line. Using amorphous polymeric binders resulted in melt granules with high milling efficiency due to their brittle behaviour without producing excessive amounts of fines, providing high granule yields with low friability. Therefore, it makes them extremely suitable for further downstream processing. One of the most important CPP during TSMG with polymeric binders was the granulation-torque, which - in case of polymers with high T g - increased during longer granulation runs to critical levels endangering the continuous process flow. However, by optimizing both screw speed and throughput or changing to polymeric binders with lower T g it was possible to significantly reduce this risk. This research paper highlighted that TSMG must be considered as a viable option during formulation development of solid oral dosage forms based on the robustness of the CQA of both melt granules and tablets. Copyright © 2017

  9. Influences of operational parameters on phosphorus removal in batch and continuous electrocoagulation process performance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Yoon, Yong Soo; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Kim, Sung Su; Chang, Soon Woong; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2017-11-01

    Performance of an electrocoagulation (EC) process in batch and continuous operating modes was thoroughly investigated and evaluated for enhancing wastewater phosphorus removal under various operating conditions, individually or combined with initial phosphorus concentration, wastewater conductivity, current density, and electrolysis times. The results revealed excellent phosphorus removal (72.7-100%) for both processes within 3-6 min of electrolysis, with relatively low energy requirements, i.e., less than 0.5 kWh/m 3 for treated wastewater. However, the removal efficiency of phosphorus in the continuous EC operation mode was better than that in batch mode within the scope of the study. Additionally, the rate and efficiency of phosphorus removal strongly depended on operational parameters, including wastewater conductivity, initial phosphorus concentration, current density, and electrolysis time. Based on experimental data, statistical model verification of the response surface methodology (RSM) (multiple factor optimization) was also established to provide further insights and accurately describe the interactive relationship between the process variables, thus optimizing the EC process performance. The EC process using iron electrodes is promising for improving wastewater phosphorus removal efficiency, and RSM can be a sustainable tool for predicting the performance of the EC process and explaining the influence of the process variables.

  10. Czochralski growth of 2 in. Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 single crystals for piezoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery I.; Kitahara, Masanori; Kudo, Tetsuo; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Medvedev, Andrey; Kochurikhin, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Growth of 2-in. diameter Al-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 crystals by Czochralski method is reported. The crystals were grown from the melt of Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition and had langasite structure. No inclusions of secondary phases were detected in these crystals. The Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 mixed crystals produced using non-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 seeds were defective. They had cracks and/or poly-crystalline structure. However, those grown on the seed of approximately Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition were defect-free. Phase diagram of the Ca3TaGa3Si2O14-Ca3TaAl3Si2O14 pseudo-binary system and segregation phenomenon are discussed in some details. Homogeneity of the crystals was evaluated by measuring 2D-mapping of leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) velocities for Y-cut Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 substrate. Although some inhomogeneities were observed due to slight variations in chemical composition, the crystal had acceptable homogeneity for applications in acoustic wave devices exhibiting the LSAW velocity variation within ±0.048%.

  11. Processing activities for STS-91 continue in OPF Bay 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Processing activities for STS-91 continue in KSC's Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 2. The payload bay of Space Shuttle Discovery is relatively empty as installation of the Get Away Special (GAS) canisters begins. Two GAS canisters can be seen in the center of the photograph. On the left is G-648, a Canadian Space Agency-sponsored study on manufactured organic thin film by the physical vapor transport method, and on the right is a can with hundreds of commemorative flags to be flown on the mission. STS-91 is scheduled to launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery for the ninth and final docking with the Russian Space Station Mir from KSC's Launch Pad 39A on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:04 p.m. EDT.

  12. CONTINUOUS PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE AND OXYGEN

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.B.; Bresee, J.C.; Ferris, L.M.

    1961-11-21

    A process for preparing UF/sub 6/ by reacting UF/sub 4/ and oxygen is described. The UF/sub 4/ and oxygen are continuously introduced into a fluidized bed of UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/ at a temperature of 600 to 900 deg C. The concentration of UF/sub 4/ in the bed is maintained below 25 weight per cent in order to avoid sintering and intermediate compound formation. By-product U0/sub 2/F/sub 2/ is continuously removed from the top of the bed recycled. In an alternative embodiment heat is supplied to the reaction bed by burning carbon monoxide in the bed. The product UF/sub 6/ is filtered to remove entrained particles and is recovered in cold traps and chemical traps. (AEC)

  13. Excimer laser annealing: A gold process for CZ silicon junction formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.; Bottenberg, William R.; Byron, Stanley; Alexander, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A cold process using an excimer laser for junction formation in silicon has been evaluated as a way to avoid problems associated with thermal diffusion. Conventional thermal diffusion can cause bulk precipitation of SiOx and SiC or fail to completely activate the dopant, leaving a degenerate layer at the surface. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of fabricating high quality p-n junctions using a pulsed excimer laser for junction formation at remelt temperature with ion-implanted surfaces. Solar-cell efficiency exceeding 16 percent was obtained using Czochralski single-crystal silicon without benefit of back surface field or surface passivation. Characterization shows that the formation of uniform, shallow junctions (approximately 0.25 micron) by excimer laser scanning preserves the minority carrier lifetime that leads to high current collection. However, the process is sensitive to initial surface conditions and handling parameters that drive the cost up.

  14. Information Processing from Infancy to 11 Years: Continuities and Prediction of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    This study provides the first direct evidence of cognitive continuity for multiple specific information processing abilities from infancy and toddlerhood to pre-adolescence, and provides support for the view that infant abilities form the basis of later childhood abilities. Data from a large sample of children (N = 131) were obtained at five…

  15. An integrated precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography process for antibody manufacturing: Process development strategy and continuous chromatography exploration.

    PubMed

    Großhans, Steffen; Wang, Gang; Fischer, Christian; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2018-01-19

    In the past decades, research was carried out to find cost-efficient alternatives to Protein A chromatography as a capture step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification processes. In this work, polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation has shown promising results in the case of mAb yield and purity. Especially with respect to continuous processing, PEG precipitation has many advantages, like low cost of goods, simple setup, easy scalability, and the option to handle perfusion reactors. Nevertheless, replacing Protein A has the disadvantage of renouncing a platform unit operation as well. Furthermore, PEG precipitation is not capable of reducing high molecular weight impurities (HMW) like aggregates or DNA. To overcome these challenges, an integrated process strategy combining PEG precipitation with cation-exchange chromatography (CEX) for purification of a mAb is presented. This work discusses the process strategy as well as the associated fast, easy, and material-saving process development platform. These were implemented through the combination of high-throughput methods with empirical and mechanistic modeling. The strategy allows the development of a common batch process. Additionally, it is feasible to develop a continuous process. In the presented case study, a mAb provided from cell culture fluid (HCCF) was purified. The precipitation and resolubilization conditions as well as the chromatography method were optimized, and the mutual influence of all steps was investigated. A mAb yield of over 95.0% and a host cell protein (HCP) reduction of over 99.0% could be shown. At the same time, the aggregate level was reduced from 3.12% to 1.20% and the DNA level was reduced by five orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the mAb was concentrated three times to a final concentration of 11.9mg/mL. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 42 CFR 456.236 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan... each continued stay of a recipient in the mental hospital, the committee, subgroup or designee reviews... committee, subgroup or designee finds that a recipient's continued stay in the mental hospital is needed...

  17. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating wasmore » effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.« less

  18. Continuous desalting of refolded protein solution improves capturing in ion exchange chromatography: A seamless process.

    PubMed

    Walch, Nicole; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-06-01

    Truly continuous biomanufacturing processes enable an uninterrupted feed stream throughout the whole production without the need for holding tanks. We have utilized microporous anion and cation exchangers into which only salts, but not proteins, can penetrate into the pores for desalting of protein solutions, while diafiltration or dilution is usually employed for feed adjustments. Anion exchange and cation exchange chromatography columns were connected in series to remove both anions and cations. To increase operation performance, a continuous process was developed comprised of four columns. Continuous mode was achieved by staggered cycle operation, where one set of columns, consisting of one anion exchange and one cation exchange column, was loaded during the regeneration of the second set. Refolding, desalting and subsequent ion exchange capturing with a scFv as the model protein was demonstrated. The refolding solution was successfully desalted resulting in a consistent conductivity below 0.5 mS/cm from initial values of 10 to 11 mS/cm. With continuous operation process time could be reduced by 39% while productivity was increased to 163% compared to batch operation. Desalting of the protein solution resulted in up to 7-fold higher binding capacities in the subsequent ion exchange capture step with conventional protein binding resins. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Hybrid Percolation Transition in Cluster Merging Processes: Continuously Varying Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. S.; Lee, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.; Kahng, B.

    2016-01-01

    Consider growing a network, in which every new connection is made between two disconnected nodes. At least one node is chosen randomly from a subset consisting of g fraction of the entire population in the smallest clusters. Here we show that this simple strategy for improving connection exhibits a more unusual phase transition, namely a hybrid percolation transition exhibiting the properties of both first-order and second-order phase transitions. The cluster size distribution of finite clusters at a transition point exhibits power-law behavior with a continuously varying exponent τ in the range 2 <τ (g )≤2.5 . This pattern reveals a necessary condition for a hybrid transition in cluster aggregation processes, which is comparable to the power-law behavior of the avalanche size distribution arising in models with link-deleting processes in interdependent networks.

  20. Analysis and evaluation of process and equipment in tasks 2 and 4 of the Low Cost Solar Array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several experimental and projected Czochralski crystal growing process methods were studied and compared to available operations and cost-data of recent production Cz-pulling, in order to elucidate the role of the dominant cost contributing factors. From this analysis, it becomes apparent that substantial cost reductions can be realized from technical advancements which fall into four categories: an increase in furnace productivity; the reduction of crucible cost through use of the crucible for the equivalent of multiple state-of-the-art crystals; the combined effect of several smaller technical improvements; and a carry over effect of the expected availability of semiconductor grade polysilicon at greatly reduced prices. A format for techno-economic analysis of solar cell production processes was developed, called the University of Pennsylvania Process Characterization (UPPC) format. The accumulated Cz process data are presented.

  1. Improvement for enhancing effectiveness of universal power system (UPS) continuous testing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriratana, Lerdlekha

    2018-01-01

    This experiment aims to enhance the effectiveness of the Universal Power System (UPS) continuous testing process of the Electrical and Electronic Institute by applying work scheduling and time study methods. Initially, the standard time of testing process has not been considered that results of unaccurate testing target and also time wasting has been observed. As monitoring and reducing waste time for improving the efficiency of testing process, Yamazumi chart and job scheduling theory (North West Corner Rule) were applied to develop new work process. After the improvements, the overall efficiency of the process possibly increased from 52.8% to 65.6% or 12.7%. Moreover, the waste time could reduce from 828.3 minutes to 653.6 minutes or 21%, while testing units per batch could increase from 3 to 4 units. Therefore, the number of testing units would increase from 12 units up to 20 units per month that also contribute to increase of net income of UPS testing process by 72%.

  2. System to continuously produce carbon fiber via microwave assisted plasma processing

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L; Paulauskas, Felix L; Bigelow, Timothy S

    2014-03-25

    A method for continuously processing carbon fiber including establishing a microwave plasma in a selected atmosphere contained in an elongated chamber having a microwave power gradient along its length defined by a lower microwave power at one end and a higher microwave power at the opposite end of the elongated chamber. The elongated chamber having an opening in each of the ends of the chamber that are adapted to allow the passage of the fiber tow while limiting incidental gas flow into or out of said chamber. A continuous fiber tow is introduced into the end of the chamber having the lower microwave power. The fiber tow is withdrawn from the opposite end of the chamber having the higher microwave power. The fiber to is subjected to progressively higher microwave energy as the fiber is being traversed through the elongated chamber.

  3. Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently implementing the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Program developed by the Carnegie Mellon University and recommended by NASA as the Risk Management (RM) implementation approach. The four most frequently used risk assessment tools in the center are: (a) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). There are some guidelines for selecting the type of risk assessment tools during the project formulation phase of a project, but there is not enough guidance as to how to apply these tools in the Continuous Risk Management process (CRM). But the ways the safety and risk assessment tools are used make a significant difference in the effectiveness in the risk management function. Decisions regarding, what events are to be included in the analysis, to what level of details should the analysis be continued, make significant difference in the effectiveness of risk management program. Tools of risk analysis also depends on the phase of a project e.g. at the initial phase of a project, when not much data are available on hardware, standard FMEA cannot be applied; instead a functional FMEA may be appropriate. This study attempted to provide some directives to alleviate the difficulty in applying FTA, PRA, and FMEA in the CRM process. Hazard Analysis was not included in the scope of the study due to the short duration of the summer research project.

  4. Tracking the Continuity of Language Comprehension: Computer Mouse Trajectories Suggest Parallel Syntactic Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas A.; Cargill, Sarah A.; Hindy, Nicholas C.; Dale, Rick; Spivey, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Although several theories of online syntactic processing assume the parallel activation of multiple syntactic representations, evidence supporting simultaneous activation has been inconclusive. Here, the continuous and non-ballistic properties of computer mouse movements are exploited, by recording their streaming x, y coordinates to procure…

  5. Process analytical technology in continuous manufacturing of a commercial pharmaceutical product.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jenny M; Nielsen, Sarah; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Gonzalez, Anthony; Aymat, Efrain Y; Almodovar, Elvin; Classe, Gustavo; Colón, Yleana; Sanchez, Eric; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2018-03-01

    The implementation of process analytical technology and continuous manufacturing at an FDA approved commercial manufacturing site is described. In this direct compaction process the blends produced were monitored with a Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic calibration model developed with partial least squares (PLS) regression. The authors understand that this is the first study where the continuous manufacturing (CM) equipment was used as a gravimetric reference method for the calibration model. A principal component analysis (PCA) model was also developed to identify the powder blend, and determine whether it was similar to the calibration blends. An air diagnostic test was developed to assure that powder was present within the interface when the NIR spectra were obtained. The air diagnostic test as well the PCA and PLS calibration model were integrated into an industrial software platform that collects the real time NIR spectra and applies the calibration models. The PCA test successfully detected an equipment malfunction. Variographic analysis was also performed to estimate the sampling analytical errors that affect the results from the NIR spectroscopic method during commercial production. The system was used to monitor and control a 28 h continuous manufacturing run, where the average drug concentration determined by the NIR method was 101.17% of label claim with a standard deviation of 2.17%, based on 12,633 spectra collected. The average drug concentration for the tablets produced from these blends was 100.86% of label claim with a standard deviation of 0.4%, for 500 tablets analyzed by Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) transmission spectroscopy. The excellent agreement between the mean drug concentration values in the blends and tablets produced provides further evidence of the suitability of the validation strategy that was followed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring continuous and integrated strategies for the up- and downstream processing of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Bárbara; Aguiar, Tiago; Silva, Marta M; Silva, Ricardo J S; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Pineda, Earl; Peixoto, Cristina; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2015-11-10

    The integration of up- and downstream unit operations can result in the elimination of hold steps, thus decreasing the footprint, and ultimately can create robust closed system operations. This type of design is desirable for the bioprocess of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), where high numbers of pure cells, at low volumes, need to be delivered for therapy applications. This study reports a proof of concept of the integration of a continuous perfusion culture in bioreactors with a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system for the concentration and washing of hMSC. Moreover, we have also explored a continuous alternative for concentrating hMSC. Results show that expanding cells in a continuous perfusion operation mode provided a higher expansion ratio, and led to a shift in cells' metabolism. TFF operated either in continuous or discontinuous allowed to concentrate cells, with high cell recovery (>80%) and viability (>95%); furthermore, continuous TFF permitted to operate longer with higher cell concentrations. Continuous diafiltration led to higher protein clearance (98%) with lower cell death, when comparing to discontinuous diafiltration. Overall, an integrated process allowed for a shorter process time, recovering 70% of viable hMSC (>95%), with no changes in terms of morphology, immunophenotype, proliferation capacity and multipotent differentiation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on parameters affecting the mechanical properties of dry fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, A.; Schledjewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    For continuous manufacturing processes mechanical preloading of the fibers occurs during the delivery of the fibers from the spool creel to the actual manufacturing process step. Moreover preloading of the dry roving bundles might be mandatory, e.g. during winding, to be able to produce high quality components. On the one hand too high tensile loads within dry roving bundles might result in a catastrophic failure and on the other hand the part produced under too low pre-tension might have low quality and mechanical properties. In this work, load conditions influencing mechanical properties of dry glass fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes were analyzed. Load conditions, i.e. fiber delivery speed, necessary pre-tension and other effects of the delivery system during continuous fiber winding, were chosen in process typical ranges. First, the strain rate dependency under static tensile load conditions was investigated. Furthermore different free gauge lengths up to 1.2 m, interactions between fiber points of contact regarding influence of sizing as well as impregnation were tested and the effect of twisting on the mechanical behavior of dry glass fiber bundles during the fiber delivery was studied.

  8. Evaluation of continuous oxydesulfurization processes. Final technical report, September 1979-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.F.; Wever, D.M.

    1981-07-01

    Three processes developed by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Ledgemont Laboratories, and Ames Laboratories for the oxydesulfurization of coal were evaluated in continuous processing equipment designed, built, and/or adapted for the purpose at the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuels and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP) located at TRW's Capistrano Test Site in California. The three processes differed primarily in the chemical additives (none, sodium carbonate, or ammonia), fed to the 20% to 40% coal/water slurries, and in the oxygen content of the feed gas stream. Temperature, pressure, residence time, flow rates, slurry concentration and stirrer speed were the other primary independent variables.more » The amount of organic sulfur removed, total sulfur removed and the Btu recovery were the primary dependent variables. Evaluation of the data presented was not part of the test effort.« less

  9. Weighing the evidence for a dorsal processing bias under continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Karin; Hesselmann, Guido

    2015-09-01

    With the introduction of continuous flash suppression (CFS) as a method to render stimuli invisible and study unconscious visual processing, a novel hypothesis has gained popularity. It states that processes typically ascribed to the dorsal visual stream can escape CFS and remain functional, while ventral stream processes are suppressed when stimuli are invisible under CFS. This notion of a CFS-specific "dorsal processing bias" has been argued to be in line with core characteristics of the influential dual-stream hypothesis of visual processing which proposes a dissociation between dorsally mediated vision-for-action and ventrally mediated vision-for-perception. Here, we provide an overview of neuroimaging and behavioral studies that either examine this dorsal processing bias or base their conclusions on it. We show that both evidence for preserved ventral processing as well as lack of dorsal processing can be found in studies using CFS. To reconcile the diverging results, differences in the paradigms and their effects are worthy of future research. We conclude that given the current level of information a dorsal processing bias under CFS cannot be universally assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Processing activities for STS-91 continue in OPF Bay 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Processing activities for STS-91 continue in Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 2. Two Get Away Special (GAS) canisters are shown after their installation into Discovery's payload bay. The GAS payload G-765, in the canister on the left, is sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency and managed by C-CORE/Memorial University of Newfoundland. It is a study to understand the transport of fluids in porous media as it pertains to improving methods for enhanced oil recovery. The GAS canister on the right houses the Space Experiment Module (SEM-05), part of an educational initiative of NASA's Shuttle Small Payloads Project. STS-91 is scheduled to launch aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery for the ninth and final docking with the Russian Space Station Mir from KSC's Launch Pad 39A on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:04 p.m. EDT.

  11. Frequency tagging to track the neural processing of contrast in fast, continuous sound sequences.

    PubMed

    Nozaradan, Sylvie; Mouraux, André; Cousineau, Marion

    2017-07-01

    The human auditory system presents a remarkable ability to detect rapid changes in fast, continuous acoustic sequences, as best illustrated in speech and music. However, the neural processing of rapid auditory contrast remains largely unclear, probably due to the lack of methods to objectively dissociate the response components specifically related to the contrast from the other components in response to the sequence of fast continuous sounds. To overcome this issue, we tested a novel use of the frequency-tagging approach allowing contrast-specific neural responses to be tracked based on their expected frequencies. The EEG was recorded while participants listened to 40-s sequences of sounds presented at 8Hz. A tone or interaural time contrast was embedded every fifth sound (AAAAB), such that a response observed in the EEG at exactly 8 Hz/5 (1.6 Hz) or harmonics should be the signature of contrast processing by neural populations. Contrast-related responses were successfully identified, even in the case of very fine contrasts. Moreover, analysis of the time course of the responses revealed a stable amplitude over repetitions of the AAAAB patterns in the sequence, except for the response to perceptually salient contrasts that showed a buildup and decay across repetitions of the sounds. Overall, this new combination of frequency-tagging with an oddball design provides a valuable complement to the classic, transient, evoked potentials approach, especially in the context of rapid auditory information. Specifically, we provide objective evidence on the neural processing of contrast embedded in fast, continuous sound sequences. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Recent theories suggest that the basis of neurodevelopmental auditory disorders such as dyslexia might be an impaired processing of fast auditory changes, highlighting how the encoding of rapid acoustic information is critical for auditory communication. Here, we present a novel electrophysiological approach to capture in humans

  12. Feasibility of utilizing bioindicators for testing microbial inactivation in sweetpotato purees processed with a continuous-flow microwave system.

    PubMed

    Brinley, T A; Dock, C N; Truong, V-D; Coronel, P; Kumar, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P; Cartwright, G D; Swartzel, K R; Jaykus, L-A

    2007-06-01

    Continuous-flow microwave heating has potential in aseptic processing of various food products, including purees from sweetpotatoes and other vegetables. Establishing the feasibility of a new processing technology for achieving commercial sterility requires evaluating microbial inactivation. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using commercially available plastic pouches of bioindicators containing spores of Geobacillius stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 35021 for evaluating the degree of microbial inactivation achieved in vegetable purees processed in a continuous-flow microwave heating unit. Sweetpotato puree seeded with the bioindicators was subjected to 3 levels of processing based on the fastest particles: undertarget process (F(0) approximately 0.65), target process (F(0) approximately 2.8), and overtarget process (F(0) approximately 10.10). After initial experiments, we found it was necessary to engineer a setup with 2 removable tubes connected to the continuous-flow microwave system to facilitate the injection of indicators into the unit without interrupting the puree flow. Using this approach, 60% of the indicators injected into the system could be recovered postprocess. Spore survival after processing, as evaluated by use of growth indicator dyes and standard plating methods, verified inactivation of the spores in sweetpotato puree. The log reduction results for B. subtilis were equivalent to the predesigned degrees of sterilization (F(0)). This study presents the first report suggesting that bioindicators such as the flexible, food-grade plastic pouches can be used for microbial validation of commercial sterilization in aseptic processing of foods using a continuous-flow microwave system.

  13. Modeling the Downstream Processing of Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Cost Advantages for Continuous Methods for a Broad Range of Manufacturing Scales.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jonathan; Pagkaliwangan, Mark; Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Davidovits, Terence; Stock, Rick; Ransohoff, Thomas; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2018-01-17

    The biopharmaceutical industry is evolving in response to changing market conditions, including increasing competition and growing pressures to reduce costs. Single-use (SU) technologies and continuous bioprocessing have attracted attention as potential facilitators of cost-optimized manufacturing for monoclonal antibodies. While disposable bioprocessing has been adopted at many scales of manufacturing, continuous bioprocessing has yet to reach the same level of implementation. In this study, the cost of goods of Pall Life Science's integrated, continuous bioprocessing (ICB) platform is modeled, along with that of purification processes in stainless-steel and SU batch formats. All three models include costs associated with downstream processing only. Evaluation of the models across a broad range of clinical and commercial scenarios reveal that the cost savings gained by switching from stainless-steel to SU batch processing are often amplified by continuous operation. The continuous platform exhibits the lowest cost of goods across 78% of all scenarios modeled here, with the SU batch process having the lowest costs in the rest of the cases. The relative savings demonstrated by the continuous process are greatest at the highest feed titers and volumes. These findings indicate that existing and imminent continuous technologies and equipment can become key enablers for more cost effective manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Creating Sustainable Education Projects in Roatán, Honduras through Continuous Process Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Arjan; Randolph, Adriane B.; Heil, Shelli

    2010-01-01

    The investigators worked together with permanent residents of Roatán, Honduras on sustainable initiatives to help improve the island's troubled educational programs. Our initiatives focused on increasing the number of students eligible and likely to attend a university. Using a methodology based in continuous process improvement, we developed…

  15. Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazka, Zbigniew; Ganschow, Steffen; Fiedler, Andreas; Bertram, Rainer; Klimm, Detlef; Irmscher, Klaus; Schewski, Robert; Pietsch, Mike; Albrecht, Martin; Bickermann, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally evaluated segregation of Cr, Ce and Al in bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method, as well as the impact of these dopants on optical properties. The segregation of Cr and Ce and their incorporation into the β-Ga2O3 crystal structure strongly depends on O2 concentration in the growth atmosphere which has a noticeable impact on decomposition of Ga2O3 and Cr2O3, as well as on the charge state of Cr and Ce. Effective segregation coefficients for Cr are in the range of 3.1-1.5 at 7-24 vol% O2, while for Ce they are roughly below 0.01 at 1.5-34 vol% O2. The effective segregation coefficient for Al is 1.1 at 1.5-21 vol% O2. Both dopants Ce and Al have a thermodynamically stabilizing effect on β-Ga2O3 crystal growth by supressing decomposition. While Ce has no impact on the optical transmittance in the ultraviolet and visible regions, in Cr doped crystals we observe three absorption bands due to Cr3+ on octahedral Ga sites, one in the ultraviolet merging with the band edge absorption of β-Ga2O3 and two in the visible spectrum, for which we estimate the absorption cross sections. Al doping also does not induce dopant related absorption bands but clearly shifts the absorption edge as one expects for a solid-solution crystal Ga2(1-x)Al2xO3 still in the monoclinic phase. For the highest doping concentration (Ga1.9Al0.1O3) we estimate an increase of the energy gap by 0.11 eV.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just asmore » the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.« less

  17. Word attributes and lateralization revisited: implications for dual coding and discrete versus continuous processing.

    PubMed

    Boles, D B

    1989-01-01

    Three attributes of words are their imageability, concreteness, and familiarity. From a literature review and several experiments, I previously concluded (Boles, 1983a) that only familiarity affects the overall near-threshold recognition of words, and that none of the attributes affects right-visual-field superiority for word recognition. Here these conclusions are modified by two experiments demonstrating a critical mediating influence of intentional versus incidental memory instructions. In Experiment 1, subjects were instructed to remember the words they were shown, for subsequent recall. The results showed effects of both imageability and familiarity on overall recognition, as well as an effect of imageability on lateralization. In Experiment 2, word-memory instructions were deleted and the results essentially reinstated the findings of Boles (1983a). It is concluded that right-hemisphere imagery processes can participate in word recognition under intentional memory instructions. Within the dual coding theory (Paivio, 1971), the results argue that both discrete and continuous processing modes are available, that the modes can be used strategically, and that continuous processing can occur prior to response stages.

  18. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder.

    PubMed

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes W; Dierkes, Wilma K; Reuvekamp, Louis E A M; Heideman, Geert; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacques W M

    2016-08-24

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1-3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid), extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor) and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling). The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  19. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    PubMed Central

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes W.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Reuvekamp, Louis E.A.M.; Heideman, Geert; Blume, Anke; Noordermeer, Jacques W.M.

    2016-01-01

    As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid), extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor) and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling). The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given. PMID:28773843

  20. Rapid and continuous analyte processing in droplet microfluidic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Strey, Helmut; Kimmerling, Robert; Bakowski, Tomasz

    The compositions and methods described herein are designed to introduce functionalized microparticles into droplets that can be manipulated in microfluidic devices by fields, including electric (dielectrophoretic) or magnetic fields, and extracted by splitting a droplet to separate the portion of the droplet that contains the majority of the microparticles from the part that is largely devoid of the microparticles. Within the device, channels are variously configured at Y- or T junctions that facilitate continuous, serial isolation and dilution of analytes in solution. The devices can be limited in the sense that they can be designed to output purified analytes thatmore » are then further analyzed in separate machines or they can include additional channels through which purified analytes can be further processed and analyzed.« less

  1. Development of a continuous process for α-thio-β-chloroacrylamide synthesis with enhanced control of a cascade transformation

    PubMed Central

    Dennehy, Olga C; Cacheux, Valérie M Y; Deadman, Benjamin J; Lynch, Denis

    2016-01-01

    A continuous process strategy has been developed for the preparation of α-thio-β-chloroacrylamides, a class of highly versatile synthetic intermediates. Flow platforms to generate the α-chloroamide and α-thioamide precursors were successfully adopted, progressing from the previously employed batch chemistry, and in both instances afford a readily scalable methodology. The implementation of the key α-thio-β-chloroacrylamide casade as a continuous flow reaction on a multi-gram scale is described, while the tuneable nature of the cascade, facilitated by continuous processing, is highlighted by selective generation of established intermediates and byproducts. PMID:28144320

  2. Use of a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system during formulation development and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-01-01

    Since small scale is key for successful introduction of continuous techniques in the pharmaceutical industry to allow its use during formulation development and process optimization, it is essential to determine whether the product quality is similar when small quantities of materials are processed compared to the continuous processing of larger quantities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether material processed in a single cell of the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system introduced by GEA Pharma Systems, Collette™, Wommelgem, Belgium) is predictive of granule and tablet quality during full-scale manufacturing when all drying cells are filled. Furthermore, the performance of the ConsiGma™-1 system (a mobile laboratory unit) was evaluated and compared to the ConsiGma™-25 system. A premix of two active ingredients, powdered cellulose, maize starch, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate was granulated with distilled water. After drying and milling (1000 μm, 800 rpm), granules were blended with magnesium stearate and compressed using a Modul™ P tablet press (tablet weight: 430 mg, main compression force: 12 kN). Single cell experiments using the ConsiGma™-25 system and ConsiGma™-1 system were performed in triplicate. Additionally, a 1h continuous run using the ConsiGma™-25 system was executed. Process outcomes (torque, barrel wall temperature, product temperature during drying) and granule (residual moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk and tapped density, hausner ratio, friability) as well as tablet (hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality attributes were evaluated. By performing a 1h continuous run, it was detected that a stabilization period was needed for torque and barrel wall temperature due to initial layering of the screws and the screw chamber walls with material. Consequently, slightly deviating

  3. Silicon Materials Task of the Low Cost Solar Array Project, Phase 3. Effect of Impurities and Processing on Silicon Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Blais, P. D.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R. B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R. E.; Mollenkopf, H. C.; Mccormick, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells are defined. Determinations of the segregation coefficients of tungsten, tantalum, and cobalt for the Czochralski pulling of silicon single crystals are reported. Sensitive neutron activation analysis was used to determine the metal impurity content of the silicon while atomic absorption was used to measure the metal content of the residual liquid from which the doped crystals were grown. Gettering of Ti doped silicon wafers improved cell performance by one to two percent for the highest temperatures and longest times. The HCl is more effective than POCl3 treatments for deactivating Ti but POCl3 and HCl produced essentially identical results for Mo or Fe.

  4. Process analytical technology in the pharmaceutical industry: a toolkit for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bradley; Wilcock, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Process analytical technology (PAT) refers to a series of tools used to ensure that quality is built into products while at the same time improving the understanding of processes, increasing efficiency, and decreasing costs. It has not been widely adopted by the pharmaceutical industry. As the setting for this paper, the current pharmaceutical manufacturing paradigm and PAT guidance to date are discussed prior to the review of PAT principles and tools, benefits, and challenges. The PAT toolkit contains process analyzers, multivariate analysis tools, process control tools, and continuous improvement/knowledge management/information technology systems. The integration and implementation of these tools is complex, and has resulted in uncertainty with respect to both regulation and validation. The paucity of staff knowledgeable in this area may complicate adoption. Studies to quantitate the benefits resulting from the adoption of PAT within the pharmaceutical industry would be a valuable addition to the qualitative studies that are currently available.

  5. Development of rapid continuous dyeing process for heavy-weight nylon 6,6 carpet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An improved continuous dyeing process for coloration of heavy-weight (60-70 oz/yd2), residential nylon 6,6 carpet is reported. By inserting a slot steam applicator after the dye pad and before the box steamer to preheat the carpet to around 180°F (greater than the nylon wet glass transition temperat...

  6. 42 CFR 456.436 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Intermediate Care Facilities... mentally retarded, the recipient's qualified mental retardation professional, within 1 working day of its... final decision on the need for the continued stay; (g) If the attending physician or qualified mental...

  7. Integrating Interprofessional Education into Continuing Education: A Planning Process for Continuing Interprofessional Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John A.; Schmitt, Madeline H.

    2013-01-01

    Informal continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) can be traced back decades in the United States; however, interest in formal CIPE is recent. Interprofessional education (IPE) now is recognized as an important component of new approaches to continuing education (CE) that are needed to increase health professionals' ability to improve…

  8. Fractional Diffusion Processes: Probability Distributions and Continuous Time Random Walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenflo, R.; Mainardi, F.

    A physical-mathematical approach to anomalous diffusion may be based on generalized diffusion equations (containing derivatives of fractional order in space or/and time) and related random walk models. By the space-time fractional diffusion equation we mean an evolution equation obtained from the standard linear diffusion equation by replacing the second-order space derivative with a Riesz-Feller derivative of order alpha in (0,2] and skewness theta (\\verttheta\\vertlemin \\{alpha ,2-alpha \\}), and the first-order time derivative with a Caputo derivative of order beta in (0,1] . The fundamental solution (for the Cauchy problem) of the fractional diffusion equation can be interpreted as a probability density evolving in time of a peculiar self-similar stochastic process. We view it as a generalized diffusion process that we call fractional diffusion process, and present an integral representation of the fundamental solution. A more general approach to anomalous diffusion is however known to be provided by the master equation for a continuous time random walk (CTRW). We show how this equation reduces to our fractional diffusion equation by a properly scaled passage to the limit of compressed waiting times and jump widths. Finally, we describe a method of simulation and display (via graphics) results of a few numerical case studies.

  9. Sequential continuous flow processes for the oxidation of amines and azides by using HOF·MeCN.

    PubMed

    McPake, Christopher B; Murray, Christopher B; Sandford, Graham

    2012-02-13

    The generation and use of the highly potent oxidising agent HOF·MeCN in a controlled single continuous flow process is described. Oxidations of amines and azides to corresponding nitrated systems by using fluorine gas, water and acetonitrile by sequential gas-liquid/liquid-liquid continuous flow procedures are reported. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Transfer of a three step mAb chromatography process from batch to continuous: Optimizing productivity to minimize consumable requirements.

    PubMed

    Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2017-01-20

    The goal of this study was to adapt a batch mAb purification chromatography platform for continuous operation. The experiments and rationale used to convert from batch to continuous operation are described. Experimental data was used to design chromatography methods for continuous operation that would exceed the threshold for critical quality attributes and minimize the consumables required as compared to batch mode of operation. Four unit operations comprising of Protein A capture, viral inactivation, flow-through anion exchange (AEX), and mixed-mode cation exchange chromatography (MMCEX) were integrated across two Cadence BioSMB PD multi-column chromatography systems in order to process a 25L volume of harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) in less than 12h. Transfer from batch to continuous resulted in an increase in productivity of the Protein A step from 13 to 50g/L/h and of the MMCEX step from 10 to 60g/L/h with no impact on the purification process performance in term of contaminant removal (4.5 log reduction of host cell proteins, 50% reduction in soluble product aggregates) and overall chromatography process yield of recovery (75%). The increase in productivity, combined with continuous operation, reduced the resin volume required for Protein A and MMCEX chromatography by more than 95% compared to batch. The volume of AEX membrane required for flow through operation was reduced by 74%. Moreover, the continuous process required 44% less buffer than an equivalent batch process. This significant reduction in consumables enables cost-effective, disposable, single-use manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Process for making silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  12. Magnetic losses reduction in grain oriented silicon steel by pulse and continuous fiber laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryshynets, Ivan; Kováč, František; Puchý, Viktor; Šebek, Martin; Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The present paper shows the impact of different laser scribing conditions on possible reduction of magnetic losses in grain oriented electrical steel sheets. The experimental Fe-3%Si steel was taken from industrial line after final box annealing. The surface of investigated steel was subjected to fiber laser processing using both pulse and continuous scribing regimes in order to generate residual thermal stresses inducing the magnetic domains structure refinement. The magnetic losses of experimental samples before and after individual laser scribing regimes were tested in AC magnetic field with 50Hz frequency and induction of 1.5T. The most significant magnetic losses reduction of 38% was obtained at optimized conditions of continuous laser scribing regime. A semi quantitative relationship has been found between the domain patterns and the used fiber laser processing.

  13. Multilayered BN Coatings Processed by a Continuous LPCVD Treatment onto Hi-Nicalon Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, S.; Vincent, H.; Vincent, C.; Lopez-Marure, A.; Bouix, J.

    2001-12-01

    Boron nitride coatings were deposited onto SiC fibers by means of continuous low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) treatment from BF3/NH3 mixtures. This process lies in unrolling the fiber in the reactor axis. The relationships between the processing parameters and the structure of the BN deposits are presented. Thanks to a temperature gradient present in the reactor, multilayered BN films can be performed by stacking successive isotropic and anisotropic sublayers. Tensile tests show that when the temperature profile is well adapted, the SiC fibers are not damaged by the LPCVD treatment.

  14. Continuous Cavitation Designed for Enhancing Radiofrequency Ablation via a Special Radiofrequency Solidoid Vaporization Process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Pei; Chen, Hangrong; Bo, Xiaowan; Li, Xiaolong; Xu, Huixiong

    2016-02-23

    Lowering power output and radiation time during radiofrequency (RF) ablation is still a challenge. Although it is documented that metal-based magnetothermal conversion and microbubbles-based inertial cavitation have been tried to overcome above issues, disputed toxicity and poor magnetothermal conversion efficiency for metal-based nanoparticles and violent but transient cavitation for microbubbles are inappropriate for enhancing RF ablation. In this report, a strategy, i.e., continuous cavitation, has been proposed, and solid menthol-encapsulated poly lactide-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanocapsules have been constructed, as a proof of concept, to validate the role of such a continuous cavitation principle in continuously enhancing RF ablation. The synthesized PLGA-based nanocapsules can respond to RF to generate menthol bubbles via distinctive radiofrequency solidoid vaporization (RSV) process, meanwhile significantly enhance ultrasound imaging for HeLa solid tumor, and further facilitate RF ablation via the continuous cavitation, as systematically demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, this RSV strategy can overcome drawbacks and limitations of acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) and optical droplet vaporization (ODV), and will probably find broad applications in further cancer theranostics.

  15. A continuous process for the development of Kodak Aerochrome Infrared Film 2443 as a negative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimes, D.; Ross, D. I.

    1993-02-01

    A process for the continuous dry-to-dry development of Kodak Aerochrome Infrared Film 2443 as a negative (CIR-neg) is described. The process is well suited for production processing of long film lengths. Chemicals from three commercial film processes are used with modifications. Sensitometric procedures are recommended for the monitoring of processing quality control. Sensitometric data and operational aerial exposures indicate that films developed in this process have approximately the same effective aerial film speed as films processed in the reversal process recommended by the manufacturer (Kodak EA-5). The CIR-neg process is useful when aerial photography is acquired for resources management applications which require print reproductions. Originals can be readily reproduced using conventional production equipment (electronic dodging) in black and white or color (color compensation).

  16. [Continuity and non-continuity from child- to adulthood in psychiatric clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kano, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to conceive of the development of the brain as a single process, especially when we think about continuity and non-continuity from child- to adulthood. Non-continuity may be present when the brain is developing normally or consistently, or during aging, and development may vary across behavioral, structural, functional, and regional units. Clinical studies that consider the developmental process of change as natural and expected may better incorporate the potential variety and non-continuity than clinical studies that do not consider the process of change. It is likely that these complications are exacerbated because the timing of changes appears to vary across units. If we can identify the critical points of plasticity, temporally appropriate interventions can be developed. A focus on the developmental process of changes in the brain may lead to more rational and effective intervention strategies.

  17. Continuous melt granulation: Influence of process and formulation parameters upon granule and tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Tinne; Vancoillie, Jochem; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has a growing interest in alternative manufacturing models allowing automation and continuous production in order to improve process efficiency and reduce costs. Implementing a switch from batch to continuous processing requires fundamental process understanding and the implementation of quality-by-design (QbD) principles. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between formulation-parameters (type binder, binder concentration, drug-binder miscibility), process-parameters (screw speed, powder feed rate and granulation temperature), granule properties (size, size distribution, shape, friability, true density, flowability) and tablet properties (tensile strength, friability, dissolution rate) of four different drug-binder formulations using Design of experiments (DOE). Two binders (polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Soluplus®) with a different solid state, semi-crystalline vs amorphous respectively, were combined with two model-drugs, metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and caffeine anhydrous (CAF), both having a contrasting miscibility with the binders. This research revealed that the granule properties of miscible drug-binder systems depended on the powder feed rate and barrel filling degree of the granulator whereas the granule properties of immiscible systems were mainly influenced by binder concentration. Using an amorphous binder, the tablet tensile strength depended on the granule size. In contrast, granule friability was more important for tablet quality using a brittle binder. However, this was not the case for caffeine-containing blends, since these phenomena were dominated by the enhanced compression properties of caffeine Form I, which was formed during granulation. Hence, it is important to gain knowledge about formulation behavior during processing since this influences the effect of process parameters onto the granule and tablet properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the ion implantation process for production of solar cells from silicon sheet materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this program is the investigation and evaluation of the capabilities of the ion implantation process for the production of photovoltaic cells from a variety of present-day, state-of-the-art, low-cost silicon sheet materials. Task 1 of the program concerns application of ion implantation and furnace annealing to fabrication of cells made from dendritic web silicon. Task 2 comprises the application of ion implantation and pulsed electron beam annealing (PEBA) to cells made from SEMIX, SILSO, heat-exchanger-method (HEM), edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and Czochralski (CZ) silicon. The goals of Task 1 comprise an investigation of implantation and anneal processes applied to dendritic web. A further goal is the evaluation of surface passivation and back surface reflector formation. In this way, processes yielding the very highest efficiency can be evaluated. Task 2 seeks to evaluate the use of PEBA for various sheet materials. A comparison of PEBA to thermal annealing will be made for a variety of ion implantation processes.

  19. Compositions, Random Sums and Continued Random Fractions of Poisson and Fractional Poisson Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsingher, Enzo; Polito, Federico

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we consider the relation between random sums and compositions of different processes. In particular, for independent Poisson processes N α ( t), N β ( t), t>0, we have that N_{α}(N_{β}(t)) stackrel{d}{=} sum_{j=1}^{N_{β}(t)} Xj, where the X j s are Poisson random variables. We present a series of similar cases, where the outer process is Poisson with different inner processes. We highlight generalisations of these results where the external process is infinitely divisible. A section of the paper concerns compositions of the form N_{α}(tauk^{ν}), ν∈(0,1], where tauk^{ν} is the inverse of the fractional Poisson process, and we show how these compositions can be represented as random sums. Furthermore we study compositions of the form Θ( N( t)), t>0, which can be represented as random products. The last section is devoted to studying continued fractions of Cauchy random variables with a Poisson number of levels. We evaluate the exact distribution and derive the scale parameter in terms of ratios of Fibonacci numbers.

  20. Efficient Transition Probability Computation for Continuous-Time Branching Processes via Compressed Sensing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jason; Minin, Vladimir N

    2015-07-01

    Branching processes are a class of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with ubiquitous applications. A general difficulty in statistical inference under partially observed CTMC models arises in computing transition probabilities when the discrete state space is large or uncountable. Classical methods such as matrix exponentiation are infeasible for large or countably infinite state spaces, and sampling-based alternatives are computationally intensive, requiring integration over all possible hidden events. Recent work has successfully applied generating function techniques to computing transition probabilities for linear multi-type branching processes. While these techniques often require significantly fewer computations than matrix exponentiation, they also become prohibitive in applications with large populations. We propose a compressed sensing framework that significantly accelerates the generating function method, decreasing computational cost up to a logarithmic factor by only assuming the probability mass of transitions is sparse. We demonstrate accurate and efficient transition probability computations in branching process models for blood cell formation and evolution of self-replicating transposable elements in bacterial genomes.

  1. Efficient Transition Probability Computation for Continuous-Time Branching Processes via Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jason; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Branching processes are a class of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs) with ubiquitous applications. A general difficulty in statistical inference under partially observed CTMC models arises in computing transition probabilities when the discrete state space is large or uncountable. Classical methods such as matrix exponentiation are infeasible for large or countably infinite state spaces, and sampling-based alternatives are computationally intensive, requiring integration over all possible hidden events. Recent work has successfully applied generating function techniques to computing transition probabilities for linear multi-type branching processes. While these techniques often require significantly fewer computations than matrix exponentiation, they also become prohibitive in applications with large populations. We propose a compressed sensing framework that significantly accelerates the generating function method, decreasing computational cost up to a logarithmic factor by only assuming the probability mass of transitions is sparse. We demonstrate accurate and efficient transition probability computations in branching process models for blood cell formation and evolution of self-replicating transposable elements in bacterial genomes. PMID:26949377

  2. Quality comparison of continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing versus conventional canning of whole and sliced mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N M; Walker, P N

    2011-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate segmented-flow aseptic processing of particle foods. A pilot-scale continuous steam sterilization unit capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed whole and sliced mushrooms was developed. The system utilized pressurized steam as the heating medium to achieve high temperature-short time processing conditions with high and uniform heat transfer that will enable static temperature penetration studies for process development. Segmented-flow technology produced a narrower residence time distribution than pipe-flow aseptic processing; thus, whole and sliced mushrooms were processed only as long as needed to achieve the target F₀  = 7.0 min and were not overcooked. Continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing produced shelf stable aseptically processed mushrooms of superior quality to conventionally canned mushrooms. When compared to conventionally canned mushrooms, aseptically processed yield (weight basis) increased 6.1% (SD = 2.9%) and 6.6% (SD = 2.2%), whiteness (L) improved 3.1% (SD = 1.9%) and 4.7% (SD = 0.7%), color difference (ΔE) improved 6.0% (SD = 1.3%) and 8.5% (SD = 1.5%), and texture improved 3.9% (SD = 1.7%) and 4.6% (SD = 4.2%), for whole and sliced mushrooms, respectively. Segmented-flow aseptic processing eliminated a separate blanching step, eliminated the unnecessary packaging of water and promoted the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. Segmented-flow aseptic processing is capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed particle foods of superior quality to a conventionally canned product. This unique continuous steam sterilization process eliminates the need for a separate blanching step, reduces or eliminates the need for a liquid carrier, and promotes the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. A dynamic process of health risk assessment for business continuity management during the World Exposition Shanghai, China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Keim, Mark; Dong, Chen; Mahany, Mollie; Guo, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reports of health issues related to mass gatherings around the world have indicated a potential for public health and medical emergencies to occur on a scale that could place a significant impact on business continuity for national and international organisations. This paper describes a risk assessment process for business continuity management that was performed as part of the planning efforts related to the World Expo 2010 Shanghai China (Expo), the world's largest mass gathering to date. Altogether, 73 million visitors attended the Expo, generating over US$2bn of revenue. During 2008 to 2010, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention performed a dynamic series of four disaster risk assessments before and during the Expo. The purpose of this assessment process was to identify, analyse and evaluate risks for public health security during different stages of the Expo. This paper describes an overview of the novel approach for this multiple and dynamic process of assessment of health security risk for ensuring business continuity.

  4. Stochastic thermodynamics across scales: Emergent inter-attractoral discrete Markov jump process and its underlying continuous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Moisés; Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the internal consistency of a recently developed mathematical thermodynamic structure across scales, between a continuous stochastic nonlinear dynamical system, i.e., a diffusion process with Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, and its emergent discrete, inter-attractoral Markov jump process. We analyze how the system’s thermodynamic state functions, e.g. free energy F, entropy S, entropy production ep, free energy dissipation Ḟ, etc., are related when the continuous system is described with coarse-grained discrete variables. It is shown that the thermodynamics derived from the underlying, detailed continuous dynamics gives rise to exactly the free-energy representation of Gibbs and Helmholtz. That is, the system’s thermodynamic structure is the same as if one only takes a middle road and starts with the natural discrete description, with the corresponding transition rates empirically determined. By natural we mean in the thermodynamic limit of a large system, with an inherent separation of time scales between inter- and intra-attractoral dynamics. This result generalizes a fundamental idea from chemistry, and the theory of Kramers, by incorporating thermodynamics: while a mechanical description of a molecule is in terms of continuous bond lengths and angles, chemical reactions are phenomenologically described by a discrete representation, in terms of exponential rate laws and a stochastic thermodynamics.

  5. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: Integration of inclusion body solubilization and refolding using simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    PubMed

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-12-06

    An integrated process which combines continuous inclusion body dissolution with NaOH and continuous matrix-assisted refolding based on closed-loop simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography was designed and experimentally evaluated at laboratory scale. Inclusion bodies from N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP1 from high cell density fermentation were continuously dissolved with NaOH, filtered and mixed with concentrated refolding buffer prior to refolding by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This process enabled an isocratic operation of the simulated moving bed (SMB) system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling by concentrating the raffinate using tangential flow filtration. With this continuous refolding process, we increased the refolding and cleavage yield of both model proteins by 10% compared to batch dilution refolding. Furthermore, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate could be recycled which reduced the buffer consumption significantly. Based on the actual refolding data, we compared throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption between two batch dilution refolding processes - one using urea for IB dissolution, the other one using NaOH for IB dissolution - and our continuous refolding process. The higher complexity of the continuous refolding process was rewarded with higher throughput and productivity as well as significantly lower buffer consumption compared to the batch dilution refolding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Continuous process electrorefiner

    DOEpatents

    Herceg, Joseph E [Naperville, IL; Saiveau, James G [Hickory Hills, IL; Krajtl, Lubomir [Woodridge, IL

    2006-08-29

    A new device is provided for the electrorefining of uranium in spent metallic nuclear fuels by the separation of unreacted zirconium, noble metal fission products, transuranic elements, and uranium from spent fuel rods. The process comprises an electrorefiner cell. The cell includes a drum-shaped cathode horizontally immersed about half-way into an electrolyte salt bath. A conveyor belt comprising segmented perforated metal plates transports spent fuel into the salt bath. The anode comprises the conveyor belt, the containment vessel, and the spent fuel. Uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium (Pu) are oxidized at the anode, and, subsequently, the uranium is reduced to uranium metal at the cathode. A mechanical cutter above the surface of the salt bath removes the deposited uranium metal from the cathode.

  7. Low-level awareness accompanies "unconscious" high-level processing during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Gelbard-Sagiv, Hagar; Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a matter of ongoing debate. Lately, continuous flash suppression (CFS), a technique for suppressing visual stimuli, has been widely used to demonstrate surprisingly high-level processing of invisible stimuli. Yet, recent studies showed that CFS might actually allow low-level features of the stimulus to escape suppression and be consciously perceived. The influence of such low-level awareness on high-level processing might easily go unnoticed, as studies usually only probe the visibility of the feature of interest, and not that of lower-level features. For instance, face identity is held to be processed unconsciously since subjects who fail to judge the identity of suppressed faces still show identity priming effects. Here we challenge these results, showing that such high-level priming effects are indeed induced by faces whose identity is invisible, but critically, only when a lower-level feature, such as color or location, is visible. No evidence for identity processing was found when subjects had no conscious access to any feature of the suppressed face. These results suggest that high-level processing of an image might be enabled by-or co-occur with-conscious access to some of its low-level features, even when these features are not relevant to the processed dimension. Accordingly, they call for further investigation of lower-level awareness during CFS, and reevaluation of other unconscious high-level processing findings.

  8. Manufacture of bulk superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) by a continuous process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, R. L.; Kinalidis, C.; Sun, Y. Y.; Gao, L.; Tao, Y. K.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a continuous process for fabricating large bulk superconductors with a predetermined grain orientation is reported. A bar of the 123 compound with dimensions 5 x 0.5 x about 0.3 cm with excellent grain alignment has been fabricated continuously. The bulk 123 thus obtained has magnetically determined J(c)s of about 30,000 and 12,000 A/sq cm at 0 and 1 T, respectively, and transport J(c)s of 20,000, 11,000, and 7500 A-sq cm at 0, 0.54, and 0.83 T.

  9. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  10. One-step continuous extrusion process for the manufacturing of solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Maniruzzaman, M; Nair, A; Scoutaris, N; Bradley, Michael S A; Snowden, M J; Douroumis, D

    2015-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of synthetic magnesium aluminometasilicate (MAS) as a novel inorganic carrier in hot melt extrusion (HME) processing of indomethacin (IND) for the development of solid dispersions. A continuous extrusion process at various IND/excipient blend ratios (20%, 30% and 40%) was performed using a twin-screw extruder. Physicochemical characterization carried out by SEM, DSC, and XRPD demonstrated the presence of IND in amorphous nature within the porous network of the inorganic material for all extruded formulations. Further, AFM and FTIR studies revealed a single-phase amorphous system and intermolecular H-bonding formation. The IND/MAS extrudates showed enhanced INM dissolution rates within 100% been released within 1h. Stability studies under accelerated conditions (40°C, RH 75%) showed that MAS retained the physical stability of the amorphous solid dispersions even at high drug loadings for 12 months. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Case Studies in Continuous Process Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on improving the SMT assembly process in a low-volume, high-reliability environment with emphasis on fine pitch and BGA packages. Before a process improvement is carried out, it is important to evaluate where the process stands in terms of process capability.

  12. Investigating ice shelf mass loss processes from continuous satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet continually gains mass through snowfall over its large area and, to remain approximately in equilibrium, it sheds most of this excess mass through two processes, basal melting and iceberg calving, that both occur in the floating ice shelves surrounding the continent. Small amounts of mass are also lost by surface melting, which occurs on many ice shelves every summer to varying degrees, and has been linked to ice-shelf collapse via hydrofracture on ice shelves that have been pre-weakened. Ice shelves provide mechanical support to `buttress' seaward flow of grounded ice, so that ice-shelf thinning and retreat result in enhanced ice discharge to the ocean. Ice shelves are susceptible to changes in forcing from both the atmosphere and the ocean, which both change on a broad range of timescales to modify mass gains and losses at the surface and base, and from internal instabilities of the ice sheet itself. Mass loss from iceberg calving is episodic, with typical intervals between calving events on the order of decades. Since ice shelves are so vast, the only viable way to monitor them is with satellites. Here, we discuss results from satellite radar and laser altimeter data from one NASA satellite (ICESat), and four ESA satellites (ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat, CryoSat-2) to obtain estimates of ice-shelf surface height since the early 1990s. The continuous time series show accelerated losses in total Antarctic ice-shelf volume from 1994 to 2017, and allow us to investigate the processes causing ice-shelf mass change. For Larsen C, much of the variability comes from changing atmospheric conditions affecting firn state. In the Amundsen Sea, the rapid thinning is a combination of accelerated ocean-driven thinning and ice dynamics. This long-term thinning signal is, however, is strongly modulated by ENSO-driven interannual variability. However, observations of ocean variability around Antarctica are sparse, since these regions are often covered in sea ice

  13. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Basore, Paul A.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-08-11

    A process for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon.

  14. Impact of interstitial iron on the study of meta-stable B-O defects in Czochralski silicon: Further evidence of a single defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moonyong; Chen, Daniel; Abbott, Malcolm; Nampalli, Nitin; Wenham, Stuart; Stefani, Bruno; Hallam, Brett

    2018-04-01

    We explore the influence of interstitial iron (Fei) on lifetime spectroscopy of boron-oxygen (B-O) related degradation in p-type Czochralski silicon. Theoretical and experimental evidence presented in this study indicate that iron-boron pair (Fe-B) related reactions could have influenced several key experimental results used to derive theories on the fundamental properties of the B-O defect. Firstly, the presence of Fei can account for higher apparent capture cross-section ratios (k) of approximately 100 observed in previous studies during early stages of B-O related degradation. Secondly, the association of Fe-B pairs can explain the initial stage of a two-stage recovery of carrier lifetime with dark annealing after partial degradation. Thirdly, Fei can result in high apparent k values after the permanent deactivation of B-O defects. Subsequently, we show that a single k value can describe the recombination properties associated with B-O defects throughout degradation, that the recovery during dark annealing occurs with a single-stage, and both the fast- and slow-stage B-O related degradation can be permanently deactivated during illuminated annealing. Accounting for the recombination activity of Fei provides further evidence that the B-O defect is a single defect, rather than two separate defects normally attributed to fast-forming recombination centers and slow-forming recombination centers. Implications of this finding for the nature of the B-O defect are also discussed.

  15. A sensor network to iPhone interface separating continuous and sporadic processes in mobile telemedicine.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Lorenzo T; Schneider, Michael; Neugebauer, Paul; Lueth, Tim C

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, a new concept for interfacing sensor network nodes (motes) and smartphones is presented for the first time. In the last years, a variety of telemedicine applications on smartphones for data reception, display and transmission have been developed. However, it is not always practical or possible to have a smartphone application running continuously to accomplish these tasks. The presented system allows receiving and storing data continuously using a mote and visualizing or sending it on the go using the smartphone as user interface only when desired. Thus, the processes of data reception and storage run on a safe system consuming less energy and the smartphone's potential along with its battery are not demanded continuously. Both, system concept and realization with an Apple iPhone are presented.

  16. White paper on continuous bioprocessing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Konstantin B; Cooney, Charles L

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest in realizing the benefits of continuous processing in biologics manufacturing, which is reflected by the significant number of industrial and academic researchers who are actively involved in the development of continuous bioprocessing systems. These efforts are further encouraged by guidance expressed in recent US FDA conference presentations. The advantages of continuous manufacturing include sustained operation with consistent product quality, reduced equipment size, high-volumetric productivity, streamlined process flow, low-process cycle times, and reduced capital and operating cost. This technology, however, poses challenges, which need to be addressed before routine implementation is considered. This paper, which is based on the available literature and input from a large number of reviewers, is intended to provide a consensus of the opportunities, technical needs, and strategic directions for continuous bioprocessing. The discussion is supported by several examples illustrating various architectures of continuous bioprocessing systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. On-Line Ion Exchange Liquid Chromatography as a Process Analytical Technology for Monoclonal Antibody Characterization in Continuous Bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhumit A; Pinto, Nuno D S; Gospodarek, Adrian; Kilgore, Bruce; Goswami, Kudrat; Napoli, William N; Desai, Jayesh; Heo, Jun H; Panzera, Dominick; Pollard, David; Richardson, Daisy; Brower, Mark; Richardson, Douglas D

    2017-11-07

    Combining process analytical technology (PAT) with continuous production provides a powerful tool to observe and control monoclonal antibody (mAb) fermentation and purification processes. This work demonstrates on-line liquid chromatography (on-line LC) as a PAT tool for monitoring a continuous biologics process and forced degradation studies. Specifically, this work focused on ion exchange chromatography (IEX), which is a critical separation technique to detect charge variants. Product-related impurities, including charge variants, that impact function are classified as critical quality attributes (CQAs). First, we confirmed no significant differences were observed in the charge heterogeneity profile of a mAb through both at-line and on-line sampling and that the on-line method has the ability to rapidly detect changes in protein quality over time. The robustness and versatility of the PAT methods were tested by sampling from two purification locations in a continuous mAb process. The PAT IEX methods used with on-line LC were a weak cation exchange (WCX) separation and a newly developed shorter strong cation exchange (SCX) assay. Both methods provided similar results with the distribution of percent acidic, main, and basic species remaining unchanged over a 2 week period. Second, a forced degradation study showed an increase in acidic species and a decrease in basic species when sampled on-line over 7 days. These applications further strengthen the use of on-line LC to monitor CQAs of a mAb continuously with various PAT IEX analytical methods. Implementation of on-line IEX will enable faster decision making during process development and could potentially be applied to control in biomanufacturing.

  18. Detection and reconstruction of solidification cracks - Laser ultrasonic measurements during the continuous casting process of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Thomas; Grün, Hubert; Roither, Jürgen; Betz, Andreas; Bozorgi, Salar; Reitinger, Bernhard; Burgholzer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In the continuous casting process the avoidance and rapid detection of occurring solidification cracks in the slab is a crucial issue, in particular for the maintenance of a high quality level in further production processes. Due to the elevated temperatures of the slab surface a remote sensing non-destructive tool for quality inspection is required, which is also applicable for the harsh industrial environment. In this work the application of laser ultrasound (LUS) technique during the continuous casting process in industrial environment is shown. The proof of principle of the detection of the centered solidification cracks is shown by pulse-echo measurements with laser ultrasonic equipment for inline quality inspection. Preliminary examinations in the lab of different casted samples have shown the distinguishability of slabs with and without any solidification cracks. Furthermore the damping of the bulk wave has been used for the prediction of the dimension of the crack. With an adapted "synthetic aperture focusing technique" (SAFT) algorithm the image reconstruction of multiple measurements at different positions around the circumference has provided enough information for the estimation of the localization and extension of the centered solidification cracks. Subsequent first measurements using this laser ultrasonic setup during the continuous casting of aluminum were carried out and showed the proof of principle in an industrial environment with elevated temperatures, dust, cooling water and vibrations.

  19. Continuous and scalable polymer capsule processing for inertial fusion energy target shell fabrication using droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Lindley-Start, Jack; Porch, Adrian; Barrow, David

    2017-07-24

    High specification, polymer capsules, to produce inertial fusion energy targets, were continuously fabricated using surfactant-free, inertial centralisation, and ultrafast polymerisation, in a scalable flow reactor. Laser-driven, inertial confinement fusion depends upon the interaction of high-energy lasers and hydrogen isotopes, contained within small, spherical and concentric target shells, causing a nuclear fusion reaction at ~150 M°C. Potentially, targets will be consumed at ~1 M per day per reactor, demanding a 5000x unit cost reduction to ~$0.20, and is a critical, key challenge. Experimentally, double emulsions were used as templates for capsule-shells, and were formed at 20 Hz, on a fluidic chip. Droplets were centralised in a dynamic flow, and their shapes both evaluated, and mathematically modeled, before subsequent shell solidification. The shells were photo-cured individually, on-the-fly, with precisely-actuated, millisecond-length (70 ms), uniform-intensity UV pulses, delivered through eight, radially orchestrated light-pipes. The near 100% yield rate of uniform shells had a minimum 99.0% concentricity and sphericity, and the solidification processing period was significantly reduced, over conventional batch methods. The data suggest the new possibility of a continuous, on-the-fly, IFE target fabrication process, employing sequential processing operations within a continuous enclosed duct system, which may include cryogenic fuel-filling, and shell curing, to produce ready-to-use IFE targets.

  20. Development of a method for fabricating metallic matrix composite shapes by a continuous mechanical process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divecha, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts made to develop processes capable of producing metal composites in structural shapes and sizes suitable for space applications are described. The processes must be continuous and promise to lower fabrication costs. Special attention was given to the aluminum boride (Al/b) composite system. Results show that despite adequate temperature control, the consolidation characteristics did not improve as expected. Inadequate binder removal was identified as the cause responsible. An Al/c (aluminum-graphite) composite was also examined.

  1. Continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of a superplastic Al-10Mg-0.1Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, S. J.; Mcnelley, T. R.; Crooks, R.

    1990-01-01

    Microstructural evolution via static continuous recrystallization during thermomechanical processing of an Al-Mg-Zr alloy is addressed. Mechanical property data demonstrated that as-rolled material was capable of superplastic response without further treatment. Further, superplastic ductility at 300 C was enhanced by a factor of five by increasing the reheating time between rolling passes during processing also at 300 C. This enhanced ductility was associated with a Cu-texture and a microstructure consisting of predominantly high-angle boundaries. Processing to minimize recovery resulted in a strong Brass-texture component, a predominantly low-angle boundary microstructure and poorer ductility.

  2. Modelling of influential parameters on a continuous evaporation process by Doehlert shells

    PubMed Central

    Porte, Catherine; Havet, Jean-Louis; Daguet, David

    2003-01-01

    The modelling of the parameters that influence the continuous evaporation of an alcoholic extract was considered using Doehlert matrices. The work was performed with a wiped falling film evaporator that allowed us to study the influence of the pressure, temperature, feed flow and dry matter of the feed solution on the dry matter contents of the resulting concentrate, and the productivity of the process. The Doehlert shells were used to model the influential parameters. The pattern obtained from the experimental results was checked allowing for some dysfunction in the unit. The evaporator was modified and a new model applied; the experimental results were then in agreement with the equations. The model was finally determined and successfully checked in order to obtain an 8% dry matter concentrate with the best productivity; the results fit in with the industrial constraints of subsequent processes. PMID:18924887

  3. Synthetic olive mill wastewater treatment by Fenton's process in batch and continuous reactors operation.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Bruno M; Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M

    2017-11-04

    Degradation of total phenol (TPh) and organic matter, (expressed as total organic carbon TOC), of a simulated olive mill wastewater was evaluated by the Fenton oxidation process under batch and continuous mode conditions. A mixture of six phenolic acids usually found in these agro-industrial wastewaters was used for this purpose. The study focused on the optimization of key operational parameters of the Fenton process in a batch reactor, namely Fe 2+ dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH, and reaction temperature. On the assessment of the process efficiency, > 99% of TPh and > 56% of TOC removal were attained when [Fe 2+ ] = 100 ppm, [H 2 O 2 ] = 2.0 g/L, T = 30 °C, and initial pH = 5.0, after 300 min of reaction. Under those operational conditions, experiments on a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) were performed for different space-time values (τ). TOC and TPh removals of 47.5 and 96.9%, respectively, were reached at steady-state (for τ = 120 min). High removal of COD (> 75%) and BOD 5 (> 70%) was achieved for both batch and CSTR optimum conditions; analysis of the BOD 5 /COD ratio also revealed an increase in the effluent's biodegradability. Despite the high removal of lumped parameters, the treated effluent did not met the Portuguese legal limits for direct discharge of wastewaters into water bodies, which indicates that coupled chemical-biological process may be the best solution for real olive mill wastewater treatment.

  4. In-line Raman spectroscopic monitoring and feedback control of a continuous twin-screw pharmaceutical powder blending and tableting process.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Brigitta; Farkas, Attila; Gyürkés, Martin; Komaromy-Hiller, Szofia; Démuth, Balázs; Szabó, Bence; Nusser, Dávid; Borbás, Enikő; Marosi, György; Nagy, Zsombor Kristóf

    2017-09-15

    The integration of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative into the continuous production of pharmaceuticals is indispensable for reliable production. The present paper reports the implementation of in-line Raman spectroscopy in a continuous blending and tableting process of a three-component model pharmaceutical system, containing caffeine as model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), glucose as model excipient and magnesium stearate as lubricant. The real-time analysis of API content, blend homogeneity, and tablet content uniformity was performed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) quantitative method. The in-line Raman spectroscopic monitoring showed that the continuous blender was capable of producing blends with high homogeneity, and technological malfunctions can be detected by the proposed PAT method. The Raman spectroscopy-based feedback control of the API feeder was also established, creating a 'Process Analytically Controlled Technology' (PACT), which guarantees the required API content in the produced blend. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first ever application of Raman-spectroscopy in continuous blending and the first Raman-based feedback control in the formulation technology of solid pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    The growth of 100 kg of silicon single crystal material, ten cm in diameter or greater, and 150 kg of silicon single crystal material 15 cm or greater utilizing one common silicon container material (one crucible) is investigated. A crystal grower that is recharged with a new supply of polysilicon material while still under vacuum and at temperatures above the melting point of silicon is developed. It accepts large polysilicon charges up to 30 kg, grows large crystal ingots (to 15 cm diameter and 25 kg in weight), and holds polysilicon material for recharging (rod or lump) while, at the same time, growing crystal ingots. Special equipment is designed to recharge polysilicon rods, recharge polysilicon lumps, and handle and store large, hot silicon crystal ingots. Many continuous crystal growth runs were performed lasting as long as 109 hours and producing as many as ten crystal ingots, 15 cm with weights progressing to 27 kg.

  6. Simulation-Based Prediction of Equivalent Continuous Noises during Construction Processes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Pei, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of construction noise is crucial to evaluate construction plans to help make decisions to address noise levels. Considering limitations of existing methods for measuring or predicting the construction noise and particularly the equivalent continuous noise level over a period of time, this paper presents a discrete-event simulation method for predicting the construction noise in terms of equivalent continuous level. The noise-calculating models regarding synchronization, propagation and equivalent continuous level are presented. The simulation framework for modeling the noise-affected factors and calculating the equivalent continuous noise by incorporating the noise-calculating models into simulation strategy is proposed. An application study is presented to demonstrate and justify the proposed simulation method in predicting the equivalent continuous noise during construction. The study contributes to provision of a simulation methodology to quantitatively predict the equivalent continuous noise of construction by considering the relevant uncertainties, dynamics and interactions. PMID:27529266

  7. Simulation-Based Prediction of Equivalent Continuous Noises during Construction Processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Pei, Yun

    2016-08-12

    Quantitative prediction of construction noise is crucial to evaluate construction plans to help make decisions to address noise levels. Considering limitations of existing methods for measuring or predicting the construction noise and particularly the equivalent continuous noise level over a period of time, this paper presents a discrete-event simulation method for predicting the construction noise in terms of equivalent continuous level. The noise-calculating models regarding synchronization, propagation and equivalent continuous level are presented. The simulation framework for modeling the noise-affected factors and calculating the equivalent continuous noise by incorporating the noise-calculating models into simulation strategy is proposed. An application study is presented to demonstrate and justify the proposed simulation method in predicting the equivalent continuous noise during construction. The study contributes to provision of a simulation methodology to quantitatively predict the equivalent continuous noise of construction by considering the relevant uncertainties, dynamics and interactions.

  8. System-wide hybrid MPC-PID control of a continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravendra; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of QbD based pharmaceutical products will be manufactured through continuous processing. This will allow the integration of online/inline monitoring tools, coupled with an efficient advanced model-based feedback control systems, to achieve precise control of process variables, so that the predefined product quality can be achieved consistently. The direct compaction process considered in this study is highly interactive and involves time delays for a number of process variables due to sensor placements, process equipment dimensions, and the flow characteristics of the solid material. A simple feedback regulatory control system (e.g., PI(D)) by itself may not be sufficient to achieve the tight process control that is mandated by regulatory authorities. The process presented herein comprises of coupled dynamics involving slow and fast responses, indicating the requirement of a hybrid control scheme such as a combined MPC-PID control scheme. In this manuscript, an efficient system-wide hybrid control strategy for an integrated continuous pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via direct compaction has been designed. The designed control system is a hybrid scheme of MPC-PID control. An effective controller parameter tuning strategy involving an ITAE method coupled with an optimization strategy has been used for tuning of both MPC and PID parameters. The designed hybrid control system has been implemented in a first-principles model-based flowsheet that was simulated in gPROMS (Process System Enterprise). Results demonstrate enhanced performance of critical quality attributes (CQAs) under the hybrid control scheme compared to only PID or MPC control schemes, illustrating the potential of a hybrid control scheme in improving pharmaceutical manufacturing operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Speech processing using conditional observable maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, John; Nix, David

    A computer implemented method enables the recognition of speech and speech characteristics. Parameters are initialized of first probability density functions that map between the symbols in the vocabulary of one or more sequences of speech codes that represent speech sounds and a continuity map. Parameters are also initialized of second probability density functions that map between the elements in the vocabulary of one or more desired sequences of speech transcription symbols and the continuity map. The parameters of the probability density functions are then trained to maximize the probabilities of the desired sequences of speech-transcription symbols. A new sequence ofmore » speech codes is then input to the continuity map having the trained first and second probability function parameters. A smooth path is identified on the continuity map that has the maximum probability for the new sequence of speech codes. The probability of each speech transcription symbol for each input speech code can then be output.« less

  10. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-11

    A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

  11. Development of a continuous roll-to-roll processing system for mass production of plastic optical film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Tsai, Meng-Hsun

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a highly effective method for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern based on a continuous roll-to-roll film extrusion and roller embossing process. In this study, a thin steel mold with a micro-circular hole array pattern is fabricated by photolithography and a wet chemical etching process. The thin steel mold was then wrapped onto a metal cylinder to form an embossing roller mold. During the roll-to-roll process operation, a thermoplastic raw material (polycarbonate grains) was put into the barrel of the plastic extruder with a flat T-die. Then, the molten polymer film was extruded and immediately pressed against the surface of the embossing roller mold. Under the proper processing conditions, the molten polymer will just partially fill the micro-circular holes of the mold and due to surface tension form a convex lens surface. A continuous plastic optical film with a microlens array pattern was obtained. Experiments are carried out to investigate the effect of plastic microlens formation on the roll-to-roll process. Finally, the geometrical and optical properties of the fabricated plastic optical film were measured and proved satisfactory. This technique shows great potential for the mass production of large-area plastic optical films with a microlens array pattern.

  12. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report IV, Volume 2: Development of the Implementation and Cost Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allen G.; And Others

    This interim report describes the development of program implementation and cost studies for Year II of the process evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. Specific areas focused…

  13. Structure and thermal expansion of Ca9Gd(VO4)7: A combined powder-diffraction and dilatometric study of a Czochralski-grown crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Shekhovtsov, Alexei; Kosmyna, Miron; Loiko, Pavel; Vilejshikova, Elena; Minikayev, Roman; Romanowski, Przemysław; Wierzchowski, Wojciech; Wieteska, Krzysztof; Paulmann, Carsten; Bryleva, Ekaterina; Belikov, Konstantin; Fitch, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Materials of the Ca9RE(VO4)7 (CRVO) formula (RE = rare earth) and whitlockite-related structures are considered for applications in optoelectronics, e.g., in white-light emitting diodes and lasers. In the CRVO structure, the RE atoms are known to share the site occupation with Ca atoms at two or three among four Ca sites, with partial occupancy values depending on the choice of the RE atom. In this work, the structure and quality of a Czochralski-grown crystal of this family, Ca9Gd(VO4)7 (CGVO), are studied using X-ray diffraction methods. The room-temperature structure is refined using the powder diffraction data collected at a high-resolution synchrotron beamline ID22 (ESRF, Grenoble); for comparison purposes, a laboratory diffraction pattern was collected and analyzed, as well. The site occupancies are discussed on the basis of comparison with literature data of isostructural synthetic crystals of the CRVO series. The results confirm the previously reported site-occupation scheme and indicate a tendency of the CGVO compound to adopt a Gd-deficient composition. Moreover, the thermal expansion coefficient is determined for CGVO as a function of temperature in the 302-1023 K range using laboratory diffraction data. Additionally, for CGVO and six other single crystals of the same family, thermal expansion is studied in the 298-473 K range, using the dilatometric data. The magnitude and anisotropy of thermal expansion, being of importance for laser applications, are discussed for these materials.

  14. Continuous Severe Plastic Deformation Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan Srinivasan; Prabir K. Chaudhury; Balakrishna Cherukuri

    2006-06-30

    produced by SPD techniques. This combination of properties makes UFG metals produced by SPD very attractive as machining, forging or extrusion stock, both from the point of view of formability as well as energy and cost saving. However, prior to this work there had been no attempt to transfer these potential benefits observed in the laboratory scale to industrial shop floor. The primary reason for this was that the laboratory scale studies had been conducted to develop a scientific understanding of the processes that result in grain refinement during SPD. Samples that had been prepared in the laboratory scale were typically only about 10-mm diameter and 50-mm long (about 0.5-inch diameter and 2-inches long). The thrust of this project was three-fold: (i) to show that the ECAE/P process can be scaled up to produce long samples, i.e., a continuous severe plastic deformation (CSPD) process, (ii) show the process can be scaled up to produce large cross section samples that could be used as forging stock, and (iii) use the large cross-section samples to produce industrial size forgings and demonstrate the potential energy and cost savings that can be realized if SPD processed stock is adopted by the forging industry. Aluminum alloy AA-6061 was chosen to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach used. The CSPD process developed using the principles of chamber-less extrusion and drawing, and was demonstrated using rolling and wire drawing equipment that was available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In a parallel effort, ECAE/P dies were developed for producing 100-mm square cross section SPD billets for subsequent forging. This work was carried out at Intercontinental Manufacturing Co. (IMCO), Garland TX. Forging studies conducted with the ECAE/P billets showed that many of the potential benefits of using UFG material can be realized. In particular, the material yield can be increased, and the amount of material that is lost as scrap can be reduced by as much as 50%. Forging

  15. Applying lean principles to continuous renal replacement therapy processes.

    PubMed

    Benfield, C Brett; Brummond, Philip; Lucarotti, Andrew; Villarreal, Maria; Goodwin, Adam; Wonnacott, Rob; Talley, Cheryl; Heung, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The application of lean principles to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) processes in an academic medical center is described. A manual audit over six consecutive weeks revealed that 133 5-L bags of CRRT solution were discarded after being dispensed from pharmacy but before clinical use. Lean principles were used to examine the workflow for CRRT preparation and develop and implement an intervention. An educational program was developed to encourage and enhance direct communication between nursing and pharmacy about changes in a patient's condition or CRRT order. It was through this education program that the reordering workflow shifted from nurses to pharmacy technicians. The primary outcome was the number of CRRT solution bags delivered in the preintervention and postintervention periods. Nurses and pharmacy technicians were surveyed to determine their satisfaction with the workflow change. After implementation of lean principles, the mean number of CRRT solution bags dispensed per day of CRRT decreased substantially. Respondents' overall satisfaction with the CRRT solution preparation process increased during the postintervention period, and the satisfaction scores for each individual component of the workflow after implementation of lean principles. The decreased solution waste resulted in projected annual cost savings exceeding $70,000 in product alone. The use of lean principles to identify medication waste in the CRRT workflow and implementation of an intervention to shift the workload from intensive care unit nurses to pharmacy technicians led to reduced CRRT solution waste, improved efficiency of CRRT workflow, and increased satisfaction among staff. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Flow Asymmetric Propargylation: Development of Continuous Processes for the Preparation of a Chiral β-Amino Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Sheeran, Jillian W; Clausen, Andrew M; Fang, Yuan-Qing; Bio, Matthew M; Bader, Scott

    2017-08-01

    The development of a flow chemistry process for asymmetric propargylation using allene gas as a reagent is reported. The connected continuous process of allene dissolution, lithiation, Li-Zn transmetallation, and asymmetric propargylation provides homopropargyl β-amino alcohol 1 with high regio- and diastereoselectivity in high yield. This flow process enables practical use of an unstable allenyllithium intermediate. The process uses the commercially available and recyclable (1S,2R)-N-pyrrolidinyl norephedrine as a ligand to promote the highly diastereoselective (32:1) propargylation. Judicious selection of mixers based on the chemistry requirement and real-time monitoring of the process using process analytical technology (PAT) enabled stable and scalable flow chemistry runs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis of cold rolling continuous annealing processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hong; Qin, Si-Zhao Joe

    2011-12-01

    The continuous annealing process line (CAPL) of cold rolling is an important unit to improve the mechanical properties of steel strips in steel making. In continuous annealing processes, strip tension is an important factor, which indicates whether the line operates steadily. Abnormal tension profile distribution along the production line can lead to strip break and roll slippage. Therefore, it is essential to estimate the whole tension profile in order to prevent the occurrence of faults. However, in real annealing processes, only a limited number of strip tension sensors are installed along the machine direction. Since the effects of strip temperature, gas flow, bearing friction, strip inertia, and roll eccentricity can lead to nonlinear tension dynamics, it is difficult to apply the first-principles induced model to estimate the tension profile distribution. In this paper, a novel data-based hybrid tension estimation and fault diagnosis method is proposed to estimate the unmeasured tension between two neighboring rolls. The main model is established by an observer-based method using a limited number of measured tensions, speeds, and currents of each roll, where the tension error compensation model is designed by applying neural networks principal component regression. The corresponding tension fault diagnosis method is designed using the estimated tensions. Finally, the proposed tension estimation and fault diagnosis method was applied to a real CAPL in a steel-making company, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Defined polymer shells on nanoparticles via a continuous aerosol-based process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Stephanie; Akgün, Ertan; Meyer, Jörg; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Wörner, Michael; Kasper, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    A continuous aerosol-based process is described for the encapsulation of nanoparticles with a thin polymer shell. The process is essentially based on directed binary collisions between gas-borne core particles and liquid monomer droplets carrying opposite electrical charges, followed by photo-initiated polymerization. Once the two streams are mixed together, the process runs to completion on a time scale of about 2 min or less, required for coagulation and polymerization. Gold, silica, and sodium chloride nanoparticles were successfully coated by this technique with PHDDA [poly(hexanediol diacrylate)] and/or crosslinked PMMA [poly(methyl methacrylate)]. It was found that all core materials as well as agglomerates were wettable at room temperature and that the spreading kinetics of the monomer were fast enough to cover the core particles uniformly within the time scale provided for coagulation. The shell thickness depends on the volume ratio between core particles and monomer droplets. This was demonstrated for a combination of monodisperse silica spheres ( d = 241 nm) and polydisperse methyl methacrylate droplets, resulting in a theoretical shell thickness of 18 nm. There was very good agreement between measurements by TEM and electrical mobility spectroscopy. The results revealed that about 90 % or more of the core-shell structures were formed from 1:1 collisions between a core particle and a single monomer droplet.

  19. Achieving continuous manufacturing for final dosage formation: challenges and how to meet them. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Byrn, Stephen; Futran, Maricio; Thomas, Hayden; Jayjock, Eric; Maron, Nicola; Meyer, Robert F; Myerson, Allan S; Thien, Michael P; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2015-03-01

    We describe the key issues and possibilities for continuous final dosage formation, otherwise known as downstream processing or drug product manufacturing. A distinction is made between heterogeneous processing and homogeneous processing, the latter of which is expected to add more value to continuous manufacturing. We also give the key motivations for moving to continuous manufacturing, some of the exciting new technologies, and the barriers to implementation of continuous manufacturing. Continuous processing of heterogeneous blends is the natural first step in converting existing batch processes to continuous. In heterogeneous processing, there are discrete particles that can segregate, versus in homogeneous processing, components are blended and homogenized such that they do not segregate. Heterogeneous processing can incorporate technologies that are closer to existing technologies, where homogeneous processing necessitates the development and incorporation of new technologies. Homogeneous processing has the greatest potential for reaping the full rewards of continuous manufacturing, but it takes long-term vision and a more significant change in process development than heterogeneous processing. Heterogeneous processing has the detriment that, as the technologies are adopted rather than developed, there is a strong tendency to incorporate correction steps, what we call below "The Rube Goldberg Problem." Thus, although heterogeneous processing will likely play a major role in the near-term transformation of heterogeneous to continuous processing, it is expected that homogeneous processing is the next step that will follow. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Form precompetitive partnerships, including industry (pharmaceutical companies and equipment manufacturers), government, and universities. These precompetitive partnerships would develop case studies of continuous manufacturing and ideally perform joint-technology development, including

  20. Achieving Continuous Manufacturing for Final Dosage Formation: Challenges and How to Meet Them May 20-21 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Byrn, Stephen; Futran, Maricio; Thomas, Hayden; Jayjock, Eric; Maron, Nicola; Meyer, Robert F; Myerson, Allan S; Thien, Michael P; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2015-03-01

    We describe the key issues and possibilities for continuous final dosage formation, otherwise known as downstream processing or drug product manufacturing. A distinction is made between heterogeneous processing and homogeneous processing, the latter of which is expected to add more value to continuous manufacturing. We also give the key motivations for moving to continuous manufacturing, some of the exciting new technologies, and the barriers to implementation of continuous manufacturing. Continuous processing of heterogeneous blends is the natural first step in converting existing batch processes to continuous. In heterogeneous processing, there are discrete particles that can segregate, versus in homogeneous processing, components are blended and homogenized such that they do not segregate. Heterogeneous processing can incorporate technologies that are closer to existing technologies, where homogeneous processing necessitates the development and incorporation of new technologies. Homogeneous processing has the greatest potential for reaping the full rewards of continuous manufacturing, but it takes long-term vision and a more significant change in process development than heterogeneous processing. Heterogeneous processing has the detriment that, as the technologies are adopted rather than developed, there is a strong tendency to incorporate correction steps, what we call below "The Rube Goldberg Problem." Thus, although heterogeneous processing will likely play a major role in the near-term transformation of heterogeneous to continuous processing, it is expected that homogeneous processing is the next step that will follow. Specific action items for industry leaders are. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Continuous catchment-scale monitoring of geomorphic processes with a 2-D seismological array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Milodowski, D.; Chen, Y.-G.; Wu, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Chen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The monitoring of geomorphic processes during extreme climatic events is of a primary interest to estimate their impact on the landscape dynamics. However, available techniques to survey the surface activity do not provide a relevant time and/or space resolution. Furthermore, these methods hardly investigate the dynamics of the events since their detection are made a posteriori. To increase our knowledge of the landscape evolution and the influence of extreme climatic events on a catchment dynamics, we need to develop new tools and procedures. In many past works, it has been shown that seismic signals are relevant to detect and locate surface processes (landslides, debris flows). During the 2010 typhoon season, we deployed a network of 12 seismometers dedicated to monitor the surface processes of the Chenyoulan catchment in Taiwan. We test the ability of a two dimensional array and small inter-stations distances (~ 11 km) to map in continuous and at a catchment-scale the geomorphic activity. The spectral analysis of continuous records shows a high-frequency (> 1 Hz) seismic energy that is coherent with the occurrence of hillslope and river processes. Using a basic detection algorithm and a location approach running on the analysis of seismic amplitudes, we manage to locate the catchment activity. We mainly observe short-time events (> 300 occurrences) associated with debris falls and bank collapses during daily convective storms, where 69% of occurrences are coherent with the time distribution of precipitations. We also identify a couple of debris flows during a large tropical storm. In contrast, the FORMOSAT imagery does not detect any activity, which somehow reflects the lack of extreme climatic conditions during the experiment. However, high resolution pictures confirm the existence of links between most of geomorphic events and existing structures (landslide scars, gullies...). We thus conclude to an activity that is dominated by reactivation processes. It

  2. Consciousness across Sleep and Wake: Discontinuity and Continuity of Memory Experiences As a Reflection of Consolidation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Caroline L.

    2017-01-01

    The continuity hypothesis (1) posits that there is continuity, of some form, between waking and dreaming mentation. A recent body of work has provided convincing evidence for different aspects of continuity, for instance that some salient experiences from waking life seem to feature in dreams over others, with a particular role for emotional arousal as accompanying these experiences, both during waking and while asleep. However, discontinuities have been somewhat dismissed as being either a product of activation-synthesis, an error within the consciousness binding process during sleep, a methodological anomaly, or simply as yet unexplained. This paper presents an overview of discontinuity within dreaming and waking cognition, arguing that disruptions of consciousness are as common a feature of waking cognition as of dreaming cognition, and that processes of sleep-dependent memory consolidation of autobiographical experiences can in part account for some of the discontinuities of sleeping cognition in a functional way. By drawing upon evidence of the incorporation, fragmentation, and reorganization of memories within dreams, this paper proposes a model of discontinuity whereby the fragmentation of autobiographical and episodic memories during sleep, as part of the consolidation process, render salient aspects of those memories subsequently available for retrieval in isolation from their contextual features. As such discontinuity of consciousness in sleep is functional and normal. PMID:28936183

  3. Key variables analysis of a novel continuous biodrying process for drying mixed sludge.

    PubMed

    Navaee-Ardeh, Shahram; Bertrand, François; Stuart, Paul R

    2010-05-01

    A novel continuous biodrying process has been developed whose goal is to increase the dry solids content of the sludge to economic levels rendering it suitable for a safe and economic combustion operation in a biomass boiler. The sludge drying rates are enhanced by the metabolic bioheat produced in the matrix of mixed sludge. The goal of this study was to systematically analyze the continuous biodrying reactor. By performing a variable analysis, it was found that the outlet relative humidity profile was the key variable in the biodrying reactor. The influence of different outlet relative humidity profiles was then evaluated using biodrying efficiency index. It was found that by maintaining the air outlet relative humidity profile at 85/85/96/96% in the four compartments of the reactor, the highest biodrying efficiency index can be achieved, while economic dry solids level (>45%w/w) are guaranteed. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quasi- and pseudo-maximum likelihood estimators for discretely observed continuous-time Markov branching processes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Hyrien, Ollivier

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with quasi- and pseudo-likelihood estimation in a class of continuous-time multi-type Markov branching processes observed at discrete points in time. “Conventional” and conditional estimation are discussed for both approaches. We compare their properties and identify situations where they lead to asymptotically equivalent estimators. Both approaches possess robustness properties, and coincide with maximum likelihood estimation in some cases. Quasi-likelihood functions involving only linear combinations of the data may be unable to estimate all model parameters. Remedial measures exist, including the resort either to non-linear functions of the data or to conditioning the moments on appropriate sigma-algebras. The method of pseudo-likelihood may also resolve this issue. We investigate the properties of these approaches in three examples: the pure birth process, the linear birth-and-death process, and a two-type process that generalizes the previous two examples. Simulations studies are conducted to evaluate performance in finite samples. PMID:21552356

  5. Continuous bind-and-elute protein A capture chromatography: Optimization under process scale column constraints and comparison to batch operation.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; Diaz, Luis; Hu, Xiaochun; Shearer, Michael

    2016-07-08

    Recently, continuous downstream processing has become a topic of discussion and analysis at conferences while no industrial applications of continuous downstream processing for biopharmaceutical manufacturing have been reported. There is significant potential to increase the productivity of a Protein A capture step by converting the operation to simulated moving bed (SMB) mode. In this mode, shorter columns are operated at higher process flow and corresponding short residence times. The ability to significantly shorten the product residence time during loading without appreciable capacity loss can dramatically increase productivity of the capture step and consequently reduce the amount of Protein A resin required in the process. Previous studies have not considered the physical limitations of how short columns can be packed and the flow rate limitations due to pressure drop of stacked columns. In this study, we are evaluating the process behavior of a continuous Protein A capture column cycling operation under the known pressure drop constraints of a compressible media. The results are compared to the same resin operated under traditional batch operating conditions. We analyze the optimum system design point for a range of feed concentrations, bed heights, and load residence times and determine achievable productivity for any feed concentration and any column bed height. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:938-948, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Breaking Continuous Flash Suppression: A New Measure of Unconscious Processing during Interocular Suppression?

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Timo; Hebart, Martin N.; Sterzer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, it has been thought that under interocular suppression high-level visual processing is strongly inhibited if not abolished. With the development of continuous flash suppression (CFS), a variant of binocular rivalry, this notion has now been challenged by a number of reports showing that even high-level aspects of visual stimuli, such as familiarity, affect the time stimuli need to overcome CFS and emerge into awareness. In this “breaking continuous flash suppression” (b-CFS) paradigm, differential unconscious processing during suppression is inferred when (a) speeded detection responses to initially invisible stimuli differ, and (b) no comparable differences are found in non-rivalrous control conditions supposed to measure non-specific threshold differences between stimuli. The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate these assumptions. In six experiments we compared the detection of upright and inverted faces. We found that not only under CFS, but also in control conditions upright faces were detected faster and more accurately than inverted faces, although the effect was larger during CFS. However, reaction time (RT) distributions indicated critical differences between the CFS and the control condition. When RT distributions were matched, similar effect sizes were obtained in both conditions. Moreover, subjective ratings revealed that CFS and control conditions are not perceptually comparable. These findings cast doubt on the usefulness of non-rivalrous control conditions to rule out non-specific threshold differences as a cause of shorter detection latencies during CFS. Thus, at least in its present form, the b-CFS paradigm cannot provide unequivocal evidence for unconscious processing under interocular suppression. Nevertheless, our findings also demonstrate that the b-CFS paradigm can be fruitfully applied as a highly sensitive device to probe differences between stimuli in their potency to gain access to awareness. PMID:22194718

  7. Multiphysics modeling of the steel continuous casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbeler, Lance C.

    This work develops a macroscale, multiphysics model of the continuous casting of steel. The complete model accounts for the turbulent flow and nonuniform distribution of superheat in the molten steel, the elastic-viscoplastic thermal shrinkage of the solidifying shell, the heat transfer through the shell-mold interface with variable gap size, and the thermal distortion of the mold. These models are coupled together with carefully constructed boundary conditions with the aid of reduced-order models into a single tool to investigate behavior in the mold region, for practical applications such as predicting ideal tapers for a beam-blank mold. The thermal and mechanical behaviors of the mold are explored as part of the overall modeling effort, for funnel molds and for beam-blank molds. These models include high geometric detail and reveal temperature variations on the mold-shell interface that may be responsible for cracks in the shell. Specifically, the funnel mold has a column of mold bolts in the middle of the inside-curve region of the funnel that disturbs the uniformity of the hot face temperatures, which combined with the bending effect of the mold on the shell, can lead to longitudinal facial cracks. The shoulder region of the beam-blank mold shows a local hot spot that can be reduced with additional cooling in this region. The distorted shape of the funnel mold narrow face is validated with recent inclinometer measurements from an operating caster. The calculated hot face temperatures and distorted shapes of the mold are transferred into the multiphysics model of the solidifying shell. The boundary conditions for the first iteration of the multiphysics model come from reduced-order models of the process; one such model is derived in this work for mold heat transfer. The reduced-order model relies on the physics of the solution to the one-dimensional heat-conduction equation to maintain the relationships between inputs and outputs of the model. The geometric

  8. Development of Maltodextrin-Based Immediate-Release Tablets Using an Integrated Twin-Screw Hot-Melt Extrusion and Injection-Molding Continuous Manufacturing Process.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, Dave; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-11-01

    The combination of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug-containing immediate-release tablets. Furthermore, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a noncontinuous 2-step approach. The present study develops maltodextrin (MDX)-based extrusion-molded immediate-release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process. At 10% w/w drug loading, MDX was selected as the tablet matrix former based on a preliminary screen. Furthermore, liquid and solid polyols were evaluated for melt processing of MDX and for impact on tablet performance. Smooth-surfaced tablets, comprising crystalline griseofulvin solid suspension in the amorphous MDX-xylitol matrix, were produced by a continuous process on a twin-screw extruder coupled to a horizontally opening IM machine. Real-time HME process profiles were used to develop automated HME-IM cycles. Formulation adjustments overcame process challenges and improved tablet strength. The developed MDX tablets exhibited adequate strength and a fast-dissolving matrix (85% drug release in 20 min), and maintained performance on accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cermet anode with continuously dispersed alloy phase and process for making

    DOEpatents

    Marschman, Steven C.; Davis, Norman C.

    1989-01-01

    Cermet electrode compositions and methods for making are disclosed which comprise NiO--NiFe.sub.2 O.sub.4 --Cu--Ni. Addition of an effective amount of a metallic catalyst/reactant to a composition of a nickel/iron/oxide, NiO, copper, and nickel produces a stable electrode having significantly increased electrical conductivity. The metallic catalyst functions to disperse the copper and nickel as an alloy continuously throughout the oxide phase of the cermet to render the electrode compositon more highly electrically conductive than were the third metal not present in the base composition. The third metal is preferably added to the base composition as elemental metal and includes aluminum, magnesium, sodium and gallium. The elemental metal is converted to a metal oxide during the sintering process.

  10. Multiphysics numerical modeling of the continuous flow microwave-assisted transesterification process.

    PubMed

    Muley, Pranjali D; Boldor, Dorin

    2012-01-01

    Use of advanced microwave technology for biodiesel production from vegetable oil is a relatively new technology. Microwave dielectric heating increases the process efficiency and reduces reaction time. Microwave heating depends on various factors such as material properties (dielectric and thermo-physical), frequency of operation and system design. Although lab scale results are promising, it is important to study these parameters and optimize the process before scaling up. Numerical modeling approach can be applied for predicting heating and temperature profiles including at larger scale. The process can be studied for optimization without actually performing the experiments, reducing the amount of experimental work required. A basic numerical model of continuous electromagnetic heating of biodiesel precursors was developed. A finite element model was built using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2 software by coupling the electromagnetic problem with the fluid flow and heat transfer problem. Chemical reaction was not taken into account. Material dielectric properties were obtained experimentally, while the thermal properties were obtained from the literature (all the properties were temperature dependent). The model was tested for the two different power levels 4000 W and 4700 W at a constant flow rate of 840ml/min. The electric field, electromagnetic power density flow and temperature profiles were studied. Resulting temperature profiles were validated by comparing to the temperatures obtained at specific locations from the experiment. The results obtained were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Continuous Process Vents

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic Chemical Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. FFFF, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart FFFF... continuous process vent a. Not applicable i. Reduce emissions of total organic HAP by ≥98 percent by weight or to an outlet process concentration ≤20 ppmv as organic HAP or TOC by venting emissions through a...

  12. Asynchronous discrete control of continuous processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliski, M. E.; Johnson, T. L.

    1984-07-01

    The research during this second contract year continued to deal with the development of sound theoretical models for asynchronous systems. Two criteria served to shape the research pursued: the first, that the developed models extend and generalize previously developed research for synchronous discrete control; the second, that the models explicitly address the question of how to incorporate system transition times into themselves. The following sections of this report concisely delineate this year's work. Our original proposal for this research identified four general tasks of investigation: (1.1) Analysis of Qualitative Properties of Asynchronous Hybrid Systems; (1.2) Acceptance and Control for Asynchronous Hybrid Systems.

  13. Thermal system design and modeling of meniscus controlled silicon growth process for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenlei

    The direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity by photovoltaics has a number of significant advantages as an electricity generator. That is, solar photovoltaic conversion systems tap an inexhaustible resource which is free of charge and available anywhere in the world. Roofing tile photovoltaic generation, for example, saves excess thermal heat and preserves the local heat balance. This means that a considerable reduction of thermal pollution in densely populated city areas can be attained. A semiconductor can only convert photons with the energy of the band gap with good efficiency. It is known that silicon is not at the maximum efficiency but relatively close to it. There are several main parts for the photovoltaic materials, which include, single- and poly-crystalline silicon, ribbon silicon, crystalline thin-film silicon, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide and related compounds, cadmium telluride, et al. In this dissertation, we focus on melt growth of the single- and poly-crystalline silicon manufactured by Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth process, and ribbon silicon produced by the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process. These two methods are the most commonly used techniques for growing photovoltaic semiconductors. For each crystal growth process, we introduce the growth mechanism, growth system design, general application, and progress in the numerical simulation. Simulation results are shown for both Czochralski and EFG systems including temperature distribution of the growth system, velocity field inside the silicon melt and electromagnetic field for the EFG growth system. Magnetic field is applied on Cz system to reduce the melt convection inside crucible and this has been simulated in our numerical model. Parametric studies are performed through numerical and analytical models to investigate the relationship between heater power levels and solidification interface movement and shape. An inverse problem control scheme is developed to

  14. Impact of osmotic stress and ethanol inhibition in yeast cells on process oscillation associated with continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background VHG fermentation is a promising process engineering strategy aiming at improving ethanol titer, and thus saving energy consumption for ethanol distillation and distillage treatment. However, sustained process oscillation was observed during continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, which significantly affected ethanol fermentation performance of the system. Results Sustained process oscillation was investigated in continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, and stresses exerted on yeast cells by osmotic pressure from unfermented sugars and ethanol inhibition developed within the fermentation system were postulated to be major factors triggering this phenomenon. In this article, steady state was established for continuous ethanol fermentation with LG medium containing 120 g/L glucose, and then 160 g/L non-fermentable xylose was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the osmotic stress on yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, but the fermentation process was still at steady state, indicating that the impact of osmotic stress on yeast cells was not the main reason for the process oscillation. However, when 30 g/L ethanol was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the ethanol inhibition in yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, process oscillation was triggered, which was augmented with extended oscillation period and exaggerated oscillation amplitude as ethanol supplementation was increased to 50 g/L, but the process oscillation was gradually attenuated when the ethanol supplementations were stopped, and the steady state was restored. Furthermore, gas stripping was incorporated into the continuous VHG fermentation system to in situ remove ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the process oscillation was also attenuated, but restored after the gas stripping was interrupted. Conclusions Experimental results indicated that ethanol inhibition rather than osmotic stress on yeast cells is one of the main factors triggering the

  15. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D [Rolla, MO; Peter, Jorg J [McMinnville, OR; Robertson, David G. C. [Rolla, MO; Thomas, Brian G [Champaign, IL; Zhang, Lifeng [Trondheim, NO

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  16. Real-time process monitoring in a semi-continuous fluid-bed dryer - microwave resonance technology versus near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Johanna; Teske, Andreas; Taute, Wolfgang; Döscher, Claas; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-02-15

    The trend towards continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry is associated with an increasing demand for advanced control strategies. It is a mandatory requirement to obtain reliable real-time information on critical quality attributes (CQA) during every process step as the decision on diversion of material needs to be performed fast and automatically. Where possible, production equipment should provide redundant systems for in-process control (IPC) measurements to ensure continuous process monitoring even if one of the systems is not available. In this paper, two methods for real-time monitoring of granule moisture in a semi-continuous fluid-bed drying unit are compared. While near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has already proven to be a suitable process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed applications, microwave resonance technology (MRT) showed difficulties to monitor moistures above 8% until recently. The results indicate, that the newly developed MRT sensor operating at four resonances is capable to compete with NIR spectroscopy. While NIR spectra were preprocessed by mean centering and first derivative before application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to build predictive models (RMSEP = 0.20%), microwave moisture values of two resonances sufficed to build a statistically close multiple linear regression (MLR) model (RMSEP = 0.07%) for moisture prediction. Thereby, it could be verified that moisture monitoring by MRT sensor systems could be a valuable alternative to NIR spectroscopy or could be used as a redundant system providing great ease of application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Opposite ERP effects for conscious and unconscious semantic processing under continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Hao; Zhou, Jifan; Li, Kuei-An; Hung, Tifan; Pegna, Alan J; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether semantic processing occurs without awareness using continuous flash suppression (CFS). In two priming tasks, participants were required to judge whether a target was a word or a non-word, and to report whether the masked prime was visible. Experiment 1 manipulated the lexical congruency between the prime-target pairs and Experiment 2 manipulated their semantic relatedness. Despite the absence of behavioral priming effects (Experiment 1), the ERP results revealed that an N4 component was sensitive to the prime-target lexical congruency (Experiment 1) and semantic relatedness (Experiment 2) when the prime was rendered invisible under CFS. However, these results were reversed with respect to those that emerged when the stimuli were perceived consciously. Our findings suggest that some form of lexical and semantic processing can occur during CFS-induced unawareness, but are associated with different electrophysiological outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of Backside Textures for Genesis Solar Wind Silicon Collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genesis solar wind collectors were comprised of a suite of 15 types of ultrapure materials. The single crystal, pure silicon collectors were fabricated by two methods: float zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ). Because of slight differences in bulk purity and surface cleanliness among the fabrication processes and the specific vendor, it is desirable to know which variety of silicon and identity of vendor, so that appropriate reference materials can be used. The Czochralski method results in a bulk composition with slightly higher oxygen, for example. The CZ silicon array wafers that were Genesis-flown were purchased from MEMC Electronics. Most of the Genesis-flown FZ silicon was purchased from Unisil and cleaned by MEMC, although a few FZ wafers were acquired from International Wafer Service (IWS).

  19. Factors Influencing Team Performance in a Continuous Quality Improvement Process in the Wisconsin Technical College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietz, Victoria Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) programs are growing in popularity in higher education settings and a key component is the use of work groups, which require active employee involvement. The problem addressed in this research was the lack of employee engagement in the Quality Review Process (QRP), which is a statewide CQI model developed by…

  20. Improving the quality of consent to randomised controlled trials by using continuous consent and clinician training in the consent process.

    PubMed

    Allmark, P; Mason, S

    2006-08-01

    To assess whether continuous consent, a process in which information is given to research participants at different stages in a trial, and clinician training in that process were effective when used by clinicians while gaining consent to the Total Body Hypothermia (TOBY) trial. The TOBY trial is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the use of whole-body cooling for neonates with evidence of perinatal asphyxia. Obtaining valid informed consent for the TOBY trial is difficult, but is a good test of the effectiveness of continuous consent. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 sets of parents who consented to the TOBY trial and with 10 clinicians who sought it by the continuous consent process. Analysis was focused on the validity of parental consent based on the consent components of competence, information, understanding and voluntariness. No marked problems with consent validity at the point of signature were observed in 19 of 27 (70%) couples. Problems were found mainly to lie with the competence and understanding of the parents: mothers, particularly, had problems with competence in the early stages of consent. Problems in understanding were primarily to do with side effects. Problems in both competence and understanding were observed to reduce markedly, particularly for mothers, in the post-signature phase, when further discussion took place. Randomisation was generally understood but unpopular. Information was not always given by clinicians in stages during the short period available before parents gave consent. Most clinicians, however, were able to give follow-up information. Consent validity was found to compare favourably with similar trials examined in the Euricon study. Adopting the elements of the continuous consent process and clinician training in RCTs should be considered by researchers, particularly when they have concerns about the quality of consent they are likely to obtain by using a conventional process.

  1. 42 CFR 456.236 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....236 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan... physician members of the committee, one of whom is knowledgeable in the treatment of mental diseases, review...

  2. 42 CFR 456.236 - Continued stay review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....236 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan... physician members of the committee, one of whom is knowledgeable in the treatment of mental diseases, review...

  3. Redesigning the continuous vacuum sealer packaging machine to improve the processing speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belo, J. B.; Widyanto, S. A.; Jamari, J.

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum sealer as a product packaging tool of food products to be able to vacuum air inside the plastic which is filled with food products and it causes the pressure lower. In this condition, the optimal heating temperature is reached in a shorter time, so that damage on plastic sealer of vacuumed food products could be prevented to be more effective and efficient. The purpose of this redesigning is to design a vacuum sealer packaging machine continuously through a conveyor mechanism on the packaging quality, time of processing speed of vacuuming food product in the plastic package. This designing process is conducted through several steps of designing and constructing tools until the products are ready to operate. Data analysis is done through quality test of vacuum and sealer to the plastic thickness of 75 µm, 80 µm, and 100 µm with temperature of 170°C, 180°C, 190°C and vacuum duration of 5 seconds, 8 seconds, and 60 seconds. Results of this designing process indicate that vacuum sealer works practically and more optimally with the time of vacuum processing speed of 0 to 1 minute/s; whereas, the pressure of vacuuming suction is until 1e-5 MPa. The results of tensile strength test are at a maximum of 32,796 (N/mm2) and a minimum of 20,155 (N/mm2) and the analysis of plastic composite with EDX. This result shows that the vacuum pressure and the quality of vacuum sealer are better and more efficient.

  4. ALGORITHM OF CARDIO COMPLEX DETECTION AND SORTING FOR PROCESSING THE DATA OF CONTINUOUS CARDIO SIGNAL MONITORING.

    PubMed

    Krasichkov, A S; Grigoriev, E B; Nifontov, E M; Shapovalov, V V

    The paper presents an algorithm of cardio complex classification as part of processing the data of continuous cardiac monitoring. R-wave detection concurrently with cardio complex sorting is discussed. The core of this approach is the use of prior information about. cardio complex forms, segmental structure, and degree of kindness. Results of the sorting algorithm testing are provided.

  5. Overview - Flat-plate technology. [review of Low Cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Progress and continuing plans for the joint NASA/DoE program at the JPL to develop the technologies and industrial processes necessary for mass production of low-cost solar arrays (LSA) which produce electricity from solar cells at a cost of less than $0.70/W are reviewed. Attention is given to plans for a demonstration Si refinement plant capable of yielding 1000 MT/yr, and to a CVD process with chlorosilane, which will yield material at a cost of $21/kg. Ingot and shaped-sheet technologies, using either Czochralski growth and film fed growth methods have yielded AM1 15% efficient cells in an automated process. Encapsulation procedures have been lowered to $14/sq m, and robotics have permitted assembled cell production at a rate of 10 sec/cell. Standards are being defined for module safety features. It is noted that construction of a pilot Si purification plant is essential to achieving the 1986 $0.70/W cost goals.

  6. Continuous hydrogen and methane production from Agave tequilana bagasse hydrolysate by sequential process to maximize energy recovery efficiency.

    PubMed

    Montiel Corona, Virginia; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2018-02-01

    Continuous H 2 and CH 4 production in a two-stage process to increase energy recovery from agave bagasse enzymatic-hydrolysate was studied. In the first stage, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and stirring speed on volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was evaluated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); by controlling the homoacetogenesis with the agitation speed and maintaining an OLR of 44 g COD/L-d, it was possible to reach a VHPR of 6 L H 2 /L-d, equivalent to 1.34 kJ/g bagasse. In the second stage, the effluent from CSTR was used as substrate to feed a UASB reactor for CH 4 production. Volumetric methane production rate (VMPR) of 6.4 L CH 4 /L-d was achieved with a high OLR (20 g COD/L-d) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT, 14 h), producing 225 mL CH 4 /g-bagasse equivalent to 7.88 kJ/g bagasse. The two-stage continuous process significantly increased energy conversion efficiency (56%) compared to one-stage hydrogen production (8.2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Process for making silicon from halosilanes and halosilicons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1405 - Continuous process vent provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission... affected source with a Total Resource Effectiveness (TRE) index value, as determined following the... there are conflicts between the due dates for reports presented in 40 CFR part 63, subpart SS and this...

  9. Simultaneous enhancement of phenolic compound degradations by Acinetobacter strain V2 via a step-wise continuous acclimation process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Sharma, Vikas; Milase, Ridwaan; Mbhense, Ntuthuko

    2016-06-01

    Phenol degradation enhancement of Acinetobacter strain V2 by a step-wise continuous acclimation process was investigated. At the end of 8 months, three stable adapted strains, designated as R, G, and Y, were developed with the sub-lethal concentration of phenol at 800, 1100, and 1400 mg/L, respectively, from 400 mg/L of V2 parent strain. All strains degraded phenol at their sub-lethal level within 24 h, their growth rate increased as the acclimation process continued and retained their degradation properties even after storing at -80 °C for more than 3 years. All adapted strains appeared coccoid with an ungranulated surface under electron microscope compared to typical rod-shaped parental strain V2 . The adapted Y strain also possessed superior degradation ability against aniline, benzoate, and toluene. This study demonstrated the use of long term acclimation process to develop efficient and better pollutant degrading bacterial strains with potentials in industrial and environmental bioremediation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    PubMed

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-04-11

    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Research & Development of Materials/Processing Methods for Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Phase 2 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Szweda, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Initiative that begun in 1992 has led the way for Industry, Academia, and Government to carry out a 10 year R&D plan to develop CFCCs for these industrial applications. In Phase II of this program, Dow Corning has led a team of OEM's, composite fabricators, and Government Laboratories to develop polymer derived CFCC materials and processes for selected industrial applications. During this phase, Dow Corning carried extensive process development and representative component demonstration activities on gas turbine components, chemical pump components and heat treatment furnace components.

  12. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness. [crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six growth runs used the Kayex-Hameo Automatic Games Logic (AGILE) computer based system for growth from larger melts in the Mod CG2000. The implementation of the melt pyrometer sensor allowed for dip temperature monitoring and usage by the operator/AGILE system. Use of AGILE during recharge operations was successfully evaluated. The tendency of crystals to lose cylindrical shape (spiraling) continued to be a problem. The hygrometer was added to the Furnace Gas Analysis System and used on several growth runs. The gas chromatograph, including the integrator, was also used for more accurate carbon monoxide concentration measurements. Efforts continued for completing the automation of the total Gas Analysis System. An economic analysis, based on revised achievable straight growth rate, is presented.

  13. Potential of Continuous Manufacturing for Liposomal Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Worsham, Robert D; Thomas, Vaughan; Farid, Suzanne S

    2018-05-21

    Over the last several years, continuous manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has evolved from bulk APIs and solid oral dosages into the more complex realm of biologics. The development of continuous downstream processing techniques has allowed biologics manufacturing to realize the benefits (e.g. improved economics, more consistent quality) that come with continuous processing. If relevant processing techniques and principles are selected, the opportunity arises to develop continuous manufacturing designs for additional pharmaceutical products including liposomal drug formulations. Liposome manufacturing has some inherent aspects that make it favorable for a continuous process. Other aspects such as formulation refinement, materials of construction, and aseptic processing need development, but present an achievable challenge. This paper reviews the current state of continuous manufacturing technology applicable to liposomal drug product manufacturing and an assessment of the challenges and potential of this application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. On the use of continuous flash suppression for the study of visual processing outside of awareness

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunice; Brascamp, Jan; Kang, Min-Suk; Blake, Randolph

    2014-01-01

    The interocular suppression technique termed continuous flash suppression (CFS) has become an immensely popular tool for investigating visual processing outside of awareness. The emerging picture from studies using CFS is that extensive processing of a visual stimulus, including its semantic and affective content, occurs despite suppression from awareness of that stimulus by CFS. However, the current implementation of CFS in many studies examining processing outside of awareness has several drawbacks that may be improved upon for future studies using CFS. In this paper, we address some of those shortcomings, particularly ones that affect the assessment of unawareness during CFS, and ones to do with the use of “visible” conditions that are often included as a comparison to a CFS condition. We also discuss potential biases in stimulus processing as a result of spatial attention and feature-selective suppression. We suggest practical guidelines that minimize the effects of those limitations in using CFS to study visual processing outside of awareness. PMID:25071685

  15. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report II, Part B: Recommendations for Measuring Program Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.; And Others

    This report presents recommendations for measures to be used in assessing the impact of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC). Chapter I reviews the purpose of the impact study and presents the basic considerations guiding the selection of measures. Chapter II describes the review process that led to the final recommendations. Chapter III…

  16. Subordinated continuous-time AR processes and their application to modeling behavior of mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Janusz; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Many real data exhibit behavior adequate to subdiffusion processes. Very often it is manifested by so-called ;trapping events;. The visible evidence of subdiffusion we observe not only in financial time series but also in technical data. In this paper we propose a model which can be used for description of such kind of data. The model is based on the continuous time autoregressive time series with stable noise delayed by the infinitely divisible inverse subordinator. The proposed system can be applied to real datasets with short-time dependence, visible jumps and mentioned periods of stagnation. In this paper we extend the theoretical considerations in analysis of subordinated processes and propose a new model that exhibits mentioned properties. We concentrate on the main characteristics of the examined subordinated process expressed mainly in the language of the measures of dependence which are main tools used in statistical investigation of real data. We present also the simulation procedure of the considered system and indicate how to estimate its parameters. The theoretical results we illustrate by the analysis of real technical data.

  17. Severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery: a statistical process control chart to report seven years of continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Corinne; Occelli, Pauline; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Touzet, Sandrine; Duclos, Antoine; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Huissoud, Cyril

    2014-07-01

    Severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery: a statistical process control chart to report seven years of continuous quality improvement To use statistical process control charts to describe trends in the prevalence of severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery. This assessment was performed 7 years after we initiated a continuous quality improvement programme that began with regular criteria-based audits Observational descriptive study, in a French maternity unit in the Rhône-Alpes region. Quarterly clinical audit meetings to analyse all cases of severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery and provide feedback on quality of care with statistical process control tools. The primary outcomes were the prevalence of severe PPH after vaginal delivery and its quarterly monitoring with a control chart. The secondary outcomes included the global quality of care for women with severe postpartum haemorrhage, including the performance rate of each recommended procedure. Differences in these variables between 2005 and 2012 were tested. From 2005 to 2012, the prevalence of severe postpartum haemorrhage declined significantly, from 1.2% to 0.6% of vaginal deliveries (p<0.001). Since 2010, the quarterly rate of severe PPH has not exceeded the upper control limits, that is, been out of statistical control. The proportion of cases that were managed consistently with the guidelines increased for all of their main components. Implementation of continuous quality improvement efforts began seven years ago and used, among other tools, statistical process control charts. During this period, the prevalence of severe postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal delivery has been reduced by 50%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Process Evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity. Interim Report VI: Executive Summary. Recommendations for Continuing the Impact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granville, Arthur C.; Love, John M.

    This brief report summarizes the analysis and conclusions presented in detail in Interim Report VI regarding the feasibility of conducting a longitudinal study of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC). This project is a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and…

  19. Creating a standardized process to offer the standard of care: continuous process improvement methodology is associated with increased rates of sperm cryopreservation among adolescent and young adult males with cancer.

    PubMed

    Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Kroon, Leah; Jeffries, Howard; Johnson, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    There is limited literature on strategies to overcome the barriers to sperm banking among adolescent and young adult (AYA) males with cancer. By standardizing our process for offering sperm banking to AYA males before cancer treatment, we aimed to improve rates of sperm banking at our institution. Continuous process improvement is a technique that has recently been applied to improve health care delivery. We used continuous process improvement methodologies to create a standard process for fertility preservation for AYA males with cancer at our institution. We compared rates of sperm banking before and after standardization. In the 12-month period after implementation of a standardized process, 90% of patients were offered sperm banking. We demonstrated an 8-fold increase in the proportion of AYA males' sperm banking, and a 5-fold increase in the rate of sperm banking at our institution. Implementation of a standardized process for sperm banking for AYA males with cancer was associated with increased rates of sperm banking at our institution. This study supports the role of standardized health care in decreasing barriers to sperm banking.

  20. Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous Bead Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Jawed, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD 600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD 600 nm ): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  1. Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous Bead Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A.; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K.; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y.; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Jawed, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties. PMID:27920762

  2. Kerfless epitaxial silicon wafers with 7 ms carrier lifetimes and a wide lift-off process window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmel, Catherin; Hensen, Jan; David, Lasse; Kajari-Schröder, Sarah; Brendel, Rolf

    2018-04-01

    Silicon wafers contribute significantly to the photovoltaic module cost. Kerfless silicon wafers that grow epitaxially on porous silicon (PSI) and are subsequently detached from the growth substrate are a promising lower cost drop-in replacement for standard Czochralski (Cz) wafers. However, a wide technological processing window appears to be a challenge for this process. This holds in particularly for the etching current density of the separation layer that leads to lift-off failures if it is too large or too low. Here we present kerfless PSI wafers of high electronic quality that we fabricate on weakly reorganized porous Si with etch current densities varying in a wide process window from 110 to 150 mA/cm2. We are able to detach all 17 out of 17 epitaxial wafers. All wafers exhibit charge carrier lifetimes in the range of 1.9 to 4.3 ms at an injection level of 1015 cm-3 without additional high-temperature treatment. We find even higher lifetimes in the range of 4.6 to 7.0 ms after applying phosphorous gettering. These results indicate that a weak reorganization of the porous layer can be beneficial for a large lift-off process window while still allowing for high carrier lifetimes.

  3. Treatment of Fungal Bioaerosols by a High-Temperature, Short-Time Process in a Continuous-Flow System▿

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Byung Uk

    2009-01-01

    Airborne fungi, termed fungal bioaerosols, have received attention due to the association with public health problems and the effects on living organisms in nature. There are growing concerns that fungal bioaerosols are relevant to the occurrence of allergies, opportunistic diseases in hospitals, and outbreaks of plant diseases. The search for ways of preventing and curing the harmful effects of fungal bioaerosols has created a high demand for the study and development of an efficient method of controlling bioaerosols. However, almost all modern microbiological studies and theories have focused on microorganisms in liquid and solid phases. We investigated the thermal heating effects on fungal bioaerosols in a continuous-flow environment. Although the thermal heating process has long been a traditional method of controlling microorganisms, the effect of a continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process on airborne microorganisms has not been quantitatively investigated in terms of various aerosol properties. Our experimental results show that the geometric mean diameter of the tested fungal bioaerosols decreased when they were exposed to increases in the surrounding temperature. The HTST process produced a significant decline in the (1→3)-β-d-glucan concentration of fungal bioaerosols. More than 99% of the Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides bioaerosols lost their culturability in about 0.2 s when the surrounding temperature exceeded 350°C and 400°C, respectively. The instantaneous exposure to high temperature significantly changed the surface morphology of the fungal bioaerosols. PMID:19201954

  4. Treatment of fungal bioaerosols by a high-temperature, short-time process in a continuous-flow system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Byung Uk

    2009-05-01

    Airborne fungi, termed fungal bioaerosols, have received attention due to the association with public health problems and the effects on living organisms in nature. There are growing concerns that fungal bioaerosols are relevant to the occurrence of allergies, opportunistic diseases in hospitals, and outbreaks of plant diseases. The search for ways of preventing and curing the harmful effects of fungal bioaerosols has created a high demand for the study and development of an efficient method of controlling bioaerosols. However, almost all modern microbiological studies and theories have focused on microorganisms in liquid and solid phases. We investigated the thermal heating effects on fungal bioaerosols in a continuous-flow environment. Although the thermal heating process has long been a traditional method of controlling microorganisms, the effect of a continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process on airborne microorganisms has not been quantitatively investigated in terms of various aerosol properties. Our experimental results show that the geometric mean diameter of the tested fungal bioaerosols decreased when they were exposed to increases in the surrounding temperature. The HTST process produced a significant decline in the (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan concentration of fungal bioaerosols. More than 99% of the Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides bioaerosols lost their culturability in about 0.2 s when the surrounding temperature exceeded 350 degrees C and 400 degrees C, respectively. The instantaneous exposure to high temperature significantly changed the surface morphology of the fungal bioaerosols.

  5. A continuous silicon-coating facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butter, C.; Heaps, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Automatic continuous silicon-coating facility is used to process 100 by 10 cm graphite-coated ceramic substrates for silicon solar cells. Process reduces contamination associated with conventional dip-coating processes, improving material service life.

  6. Stochastic Games for Continuous-Time Jump Processes Under Finite-Horizon Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Qingda, E-mail: weiqd@hqu.edu.cn; Chen, Xian, E-mail: chenxian@amss.ac.cn

    In this paper we study two-person nonzero-sum games for continuous-time jump processes with the randomized history-dependent strategies under the finite-horizon payoff criterion. The state space is countable, and the transition rates and payoff functions are allowed to be unbounded from above and from below. Under the suitable conditions, we introduce a new topology for the set of all randomized Markov multi-strategies and establish its compactness and metrizability. Then by constructing the approximating sequences of the transition rates and payoff functions, we show that the optimal value function for each player is a unique solution to the corresponding optimality equation andmore » obtain the existence of a randomized Markov Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we illustrate the applications of our main results with a controlled birth and death system.« less

  7. Generalized Software Architecture Applied to the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process and the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusich, Stephen; Moos, Thomas; Muscatello, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This innovation provides the user with autonomous on-screen monitoring, embedded computations, and tabulated output for two new processes. The software was originally written for the Continuous Lunar Water Separation Process (CLWSP), but was found to be general enough to be applicable to the Lunar Greenhouse Amplifier (LGA) as well, with minor alterations. The resultant program should have general applicability to many laboratory processes (see figure). The objective for these programs was to create a software application that would provide both autonomous monitoring and data storage, along with manual manipulation. The software also allows operators the ability to input experimental changes and comments in real time without modifying the code itself. Common process elements, such as thermocouples, pressure transducers, and relative humidity sensors, are easily incorporated into the program in various configurations, along with specialized devices such as photodiode sensors. The goal of the CLWSP research project is to design, build, and test a new method to continuously separate, capture, and quantify water from a gas stream. The application is any In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) process that desires to extract or produce water from lunar or planetary regolith. The present work is aimed at circumventing current problems and ultimately producing a system capable of continuous operation at moderate temperatures that can be scaled over a large capacity range depending on the ISRU process. The goal of the LGA research project is to design, build, and test a new type of greenhouse that could be used on the moon or Mars. The LGA uses super greenhouse gases (SGGs) to absorb long-wavelength radiation, thus creating a highly efficient greenhouse at a future lunar or Mars outpost. Silica-based glass, although highly efficient at trapping heat, is heavy, fragile, and not suitable for space greenhouse applications. Plastics are much lighter and resilient, but are not

  8. An alternative cost-effective image processing based sensor for continuous turbidity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Matthew Min Enn; Ng, Sing Muk; Chua, Hong Siang

    2017-03-01

    Turbidity is the degree to which the optical clarity of water is reduced by impurities in the water. High turbidity values in rivers and lakes promote the growth of pathogen, reduce dissolved oxygen levels and reduce light penetration. The conventional ways of on-site turbidity measurements involve the use of optical sensors similar to those used in commercial turbidimeters. However, these instruments require frequent maintenance due to biological fouling on the sensors. Thus, image processing was proposed as an alternative technique for continuous turbidity measurement to reduce frequency of maintenance. The camera was kept out of water to avoid biofouling while other parts of the system submerged in water can be coated with anti-fouling surface. The setup developed consisting of a webcam, a light source, a microprocessor and a motor used to control the depth of a reference object. The image processing algorithm quantifies the relationship between the number of circles detected on the reference object and the depth of the reference object. By relating the quantified data to turbidity, the setup was able to detect turbidity levels from 20 NTU to 380 NTU with measurement error of 15.7 percent. The repeatability and sensitivity of the turbidity measurement was found to be satisfactory.

  9. Theoretical study of the impact of stress and interstitial oxygen on the behavior of intrinsic point defects in growing Czochralski Si crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueoka, K.; Nakamura, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    For the development of crystal pulling processes for 450 mm-diameter defect-free Si crystals, it is important to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on intrinsic point defect behavior during crystal growth. In a crystal growing from a melt, the melt/solid interface can be considered as being stress-free. Due to that the thermal stress in the growing substrate near the interface is internal plane stress. Previously, we evaluated the impact of (001) planar-isotropic stress on the formation enthalpy (Hf) of the vacancy (V) and the self-interstitial (I) using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and explained quantitatively the published experimental values of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion;. The thermal stress in a growing crystal is indeed planar but is not isotropic in the plane except for the central region of the crystal. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of planar-anisotropic stress on the formation enthalpy Hf of V and I. It is found that the three stress dependencies of σx: σy=1: 1 (planar-isotropic), 2: 1, 5: 1 (planar-anisotropic) are close to each other, independent of the assumption of isotropic or anisotropic planar stress. This is the reason why the experimental results obtained over the whole radial direction of the crystal are well reproduced by the calculated results assuming planar-isotropic stress. A uniaxial stress dependence which is a good assumption for the crystal peripheral region, leads also to results that are close to those for the planar stress dependence. Also the mechanisms behind the experimentally observed impact of interstitial oxygen (Oi), introduced during Czochralski Si growth, on V and I concentrations are clarified. DFT calculations are performed to obtain the formation energies (Ef) of V and I at all sites within a sphere with 5 Å radius around the Oi atom. Formation (vibration) entropy (Sf) calculations for V and I are also performed. It is found that both EfV and SfV of V in the zigzag

  10. Nitinol laser cutting: microstructure and functional properties of femtosecond and continuous wave laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal processing can affect the properties of smart materials, and the correct selection of the best manufacturing technology is fundamental for producing high tech smart devices, containing embedded functional properties. In this work cutting of thin superelastic Nitinol plates using a femtosecond (fs) and continuous wave (CW) laser was studied. Diamond shaped elements were cut to characterize the kerf qualitative features; microstructural analysis of the cross sections allowed identification of thermal damage characteristics introduced into the material during the laser processes. A thermally undamaged microstructure was observed for fs laser cutting, while CW was seen to be characterized by a large heat-affected zone. Functional properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and tensile testing of laser cut microelements and of the reference material. It was seen that the martensitic transformation behavior of Nitinol is not affected by fs regime, while cw cutting provokes an effect equivalent to a high temperature thermal treatment in the material surrounding the cutting kerf, degradating the material properties. Finally, tensile testing indicated that superelastic performances were guaranteed by fs regime, while strong reduction of the recoverable strain was detected in the CW processed sample.

  11. Regulatory and quality considerations for continuous manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Allison, Gretchen; Cain, Yanxi Tan; Cooney, Charles; Garcia, Tom; Bizjak, Tara Gooen; Holte, Oyvind; Jagota, Nirdosh; Komas, Bekki; Korakianiti, Evdokia; Kourti, Dora; Madurawe, Rapti; Morefield, Elaine; Montgomery, Frank; Nasr, Moheb; Randolph, William; Robert, Jean-Louis; Rudd, Dave; Zezza, Diane

    2015-03-01

    This paper assesses the current regulatory environment, relevant regulations and guidelines, and their impact on continuous manufacturing. It summarizes current regulatory experience and learning from both review and inspection perspectives. It outlines key regulatory aspects, including continuous manufacturing process description and control strategy in regulatory files, process validation, and key Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) requirements. In addition, the paper identifies regulatory gaps and challenges and proposes a way forward to facilitate implementation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Excursions in fluvial (dis)continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Gordon E.; O'Connor, Jim; Safran, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Lurking below the twin concepts of connectivity and disconnectivity are their first, and in some ways, richer cousins: continuity and discontinuity. In this paper we explore how continuity and discontinuity represent fundamental and complementary perspectives in fluvial geomorphology, and how these perspectives inform and underlie our conceptions of connectivity in landscapes and rivers. We examine the historical roots of continuum and discontinuum thinking, and how much of our understanding of geomorphology rests on contrasting views of continuity and discontinuity. By continuum thinking we refer to a conception of geomorphic processes as well as geomorphic features that are expressed along continuous gradients without abrupt changes, transitions, or thresholds. Balance of forces, graded streams, and hydraulic geometry are all examples of this perspective. The continuum view has played a prominent role in diverse disciplinary fields, including ecology, paleontology, and evolutionary biology, in large part because it allows us to treat complex phenomena as orderly progressions and invoke or assume equilibrium processes that introduce order and prediction into our sciences. In contrast the discontinuous view is a distinct though complementary conceptual framework that incorporates non-uniform, non-progressive, and non-equilibrium thinking into understanding geomorphic processes and landscapes. We distinguish and discuss examples of three different ways in which discontinuous thinking can be expressed: 1) discontinuous spatial arrangements or singular events; 2) specific process domains generally associated with thresholds, either intrinsic or extrinsic; and 3) physical dynamics or changes in state, again often threshold-linked. In moving beyond the continuous perspective, a fertile set of ideas comes into focus: thresholds, non-equilibrium states, heterogeneity, catastrophe. The range of phenomena that is thereby opened up to scientific exploration similarly expands

  13. Excursions in fluvial (dis)continuity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Gordon E.; O'Connor, James E.; Safran, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Lurking below the twin concepts of connectivity and disconnectivity are their first, and in some ways, richer cousins: continuity and discontinuity. In this paper we explore how continuity and discontinuity represent fundamental and complementary perspectives in fluvial geomorphology, and how these perspectives inform and underlie our conceptions of connectivity in landscapes and rivers. We examine the historical roots of continuum and discontinuum thinking, and how much of our understanding of geomorphology rests on contrasting views of continuity and discontinuity. By continuum thinking we refer to a conception of geomorphic processes as well as geomorphic features that are expressed along continuous gradients without abrupt changes, transitions, or thresholds. Balance of forces, graded streams, and hydraulic geometry are all examples of this perspective. The continuum view has played a prominent role in diverse disciplinary fields, including ecology, paleontology, and evolutionary biology, in large part because it allows us to treat complex phenomena as orderly progressions and invoke or assume equilibrium processes that introduce order and prediction into our sciences.In contrast the discontinuous view is a distinct though complementary conceptual framework that incorporates non-uniform, non-progressive, and non-equilibrium thinking into understanding geomorphic processes and landscapes. We distinguish and discuss examples of three different ways in which discontinuous thinking can be expressed: 1) discontinuous spatial arrangements or singular events; 2) specific process domains generally associated with thresholds, either intrinsic or extrinsic; and 3) physical dynamics or changes in state, again often threshold-linked. In moving beyond the continuous perspective, a fertile set of ideas comes into focus: thresholds, non-equilibrium states, heterogeneity, catastrophe. The range of phenomena that is thereby opened up to scientific exploration similarly expands

  14. Potential of Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging as Process Analytical Technology Tool for Continuous Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Brouckaert, Davinia; De Meyer, Laurens; Vanbillemont, Brecht; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Lammens, Joris; Mortier, Séverine; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-04-03

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring because it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, we aim to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses based on spin freezing. The chemical images of freeze-dried mannitol samples were resolved via multivariate curve resolution, allowing us to visualize the distribution of mannitol solid forms throughout the entire cake. Second, a mannitol-sucrose formulation was lyophilized with variable drying times for inducing changes in water content. Analyzing the corresponding chemical images via principal component analysis, vial-to-vial variations as well as within-vial inhomogeneity in water content could be detected. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed for quantifying the water content in each pixel of the chemical images. It was hence concluded that NIR-CI is inherently a most promising PAT tool for continuously monitoring freeze-dried samples. Although some practicalities are still to be solved, this analytical technique could be applied in-line for CQA evaluation and for detecting the drying end point.

  15. Adolescents with Developmental Dyscalculia Do Not Have a Generalized Magnitude Deficit - Processing of Discrete and Continuous Magnitudes.

    PubMed

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; O'Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes. By means of neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we aimed to examine the relationship between number and space in typical and atypical development. Participants were 16 adolescents with DD (14.1 years) and 14 typically developing (TD) peers (13.8 years). In the fMRI paradigm participants had to perform discrete (arrays of dots) and continuous magnitude (angles) comparisons as well as a mental rotation task. In the neuropsychological tests, adolescents with dyscalculia performed significantly worse in numerical and complex visuo-spatial tasks. However, they showed similar results to TD peers when making discrete and continuous magnitude decisions during the neuropsychological tests and the fMRI paradigm. A conjunction analysis of the fMRI data revealed commonly activated higher order visual (inferior and middle occipital gyrus) and parietal (inferior and superior parietal lobe) magnitude areas for the discrete and continuous magnitude tasks. Moreover, no differences were found when contrasting both magnitude processing conditions, favoring the possibility of a generalized magnitude system. Group comparisons further revealed that dyscalculic subjects showed increased activation in domain general regions, whilst TD peers activate domain specific areas to a greater extent. In conclusion, our results point to the existence of a

  16. Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McNulty, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities and risk factors across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to cultures, (b) identifies multifinal and equifinal pathways to psychopathology, and (c) transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, as noted by Rutter and Sroufe (2000), specific mechanisms of continuity, discontinuity, and comorbidity of psychopathology must be identified if we wish to understand etiology fully. In this article, we present a model of early-onset externalizing behavior in which comorbidities and continuities are viewed as ontogenic processes: products of complex longitudinal transactions between interdependent individual-level vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic, epigenetic, allostatic) and equally interdependent contextual risk factors (e.g., coercive parenting, deviant peer group affiliations, neighborhood criminality). Through interactions across levels of analysis, some individuals traverse along the externalizing spectrum, beginning with heritable trait impulsivity in preschool and ending in antisociality in adulthood. In describing our model, we note that (a) the approach outlined in the DSM to subtyping externalizing disorders continues to obscure developmental pathways to antisociality, (b) molecular genetics studies will likely not identify meaningful subtypes of externalizing disorder, and (c) ontogenic trait approaches to psychopathology are much more likely to advance the discipline in upcoming years. PMID:24342853

  17. CTPPL: A Continuous Time Probabilistic Programming Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    recent years there has been a flurry of interest in continuous time models, mostly focused on continuous time Bayesian networks ( CTBNs ) [Nodelman, 2007... CTBNs are built on homogenous Markov processes. A homogenous Markov pro- cess is a finite state, continuous time process, consisting of an initial...q1 : xn()] ... Some state transitions can produce emissions. In a CTBN , each variable has a conditional inten- sity matrix Qu for every combination of

  18. Control systems engineering in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Allan S; Krumme, Markus; Nasr, Moheb; Thomas, Hayden; Braatz, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    This white paper provides a perspective of the challenges, research needs, and future directions for control systems engineering in continuous pharmaceutical processing. The main motivation for writing this paper is to facilitate the development and deployment of control systems technologies so as to ensure quality of the drug product. Although the main focus is on small-molecule pharmaceutical products, most of the same statements apply to biological drug products. An introduction to continuous manufacturing and control systems is followed by a discussion of the current status and technical needs in process monitoring and control, systems integration, and risk analysis. Some key points are that: (1) the desired objective in continuous manufacturing should be the satisfaction of all critical quality attributes (CQAs), not for all variables to operate at steady-state values; (2) the design of start-up and shutdown procedures can significantly affect the economic operation of a continuous manufacturing process; (3) the traceability of material as it moves through the manufacturing facility is an important consideration that can at least in part be addressed using residence time distributions; and (4) the control systems technologies must assure quality in the presence of disturbances, dynamics, uncertainties, nonlinearities, and constraints. Direct measurement, first-principles and empirical model-based predictions, and design space approaches are described for ensuring that CQA specifications are met. Ways are discussed for universities, regulatory bodies, and industry to facilitate working around or through barriers to the development of control systems engineering technologies for continuous drug manufacturing. Industry and regulatory bodies should work with federal agencies to create federal funding mechanisms to attract faculty to this area. Universities should hire faculty interested in developing first-principles models and control systems technologies for

  19. Mathematical Modelling of Continuous Biotechnological Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pencheva, T.; Hristozov, I.; Shannon, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnological processes (BTP) are characterized by a complicated structure of organization and interdependent characteristics. Partial differential equations or systems of partial differential equations are used for their behavioural description as objects with distributed parameters. Modelling of substrate without regard to dispersion…

  20. High-yielding continuous-flow synthesis of antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Nakul S; Kong, Caleb J; Verghese, Jenson; Gilliland III, Stanley E; Ahmad, Saeed; Dominey, Raymond N

    2018-01-01

    Numerous synthetic methods for the continuous preparation of fine chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s) have been reported in recent years resulting in a dramatic improvement in process efficiencies. Herein we report a highly efficient continuous synthesis of the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Key improvements in the new process include the elimination of protecting groups with an overall yield improvement of 52% over the current commercial process. The continuous process employs a combination of packed bed reactors with continuous stirred tank reactors for the direct conversion of the starting materials to the product. This high-yielding, multigram-scale continuous synthesis provides an opportunity to achieve increase global access to hydroxychloroquine for treatment of malaria. PMID:29623120

  1. Work continues on Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), work continues on the U.S. Lab module, Destiny, which is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the International Space Station. Destiny shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The SRTM is targeted for launch on mission STS-99 in September 1999. Leonardo is scheduled to launch on mission STS- 102 in June 2000.

  2. Continuous Odour Measurement with Chemosensor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeker, Peter; Haas, T.; Diekmann, B.; Lammer, P. Schulze

    2009-05-01

    The continuous odour measurement is a challenging task for chemosensor systems. Firstly, a long term and stable measurement mode must be guaranteed in order to preserve the validity of the time consuming and expensive olfactometric calibration data. Secondly, a method is needed to deal with the incoming sensor data. The continuous online detection of signal patterns, the correlated gas emission and the assigned odour data is essential for the continuous odour measurement. Thirdly, a severe danger of over-fitting in the process of the odour calibration is present, because of the high measurement uncertainty of the olfactometry. In this contribution we present a technical solution for continuous measurements comprising of a hybrid QMB-sensor array and electrochemical cells. A set of software tools enables the efficient data processing and calibration and computes the calibration parameters. The internal software of the measurement systems microcontroller processes the calibration parameters online for the output of the desired odour information.

  3. Design of a continuous process setup for precipitated calcium carbonate production from steel converter slag.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Hannu-Petteri; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2014-03-01

    A mineral carbonation process "slag2PCC" for carbon capture, utilization, and storage is discussed. Ca is extracted from steel slag by an ammonium salt solvent and carbonated with gaseous CO2 after the separation of the residual slag. The solvent is reused after regeneration. The effects of slag properties such as the content of free lime, fractions of Ca, Si, Fe, and V, particle size, and slag storage on the Ca extraction efficiency are studied. Small particles with a high free-lime content and minor fractions of Si and V are the most suitable. To limit the amount of impurities in the process, the slag-to-liquid ratio should remain below a certain value, which depends on the slag composition. Also, the design of a continuous test setup (total volume ∼75 L) is described, which enables quick process variations needed to adapt the system to the varying slag quality. Different precipitated calcium carbonate crystals (calcite and vaterite) are generated in different parts of the setup. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Perceptual integration of motion and form information: evidence of parallel-continuous processing.

    PubMed

    von Mühlenen, A; Müller, H J

    2000-04-01

    In three visual search experiments, the processes involved in the efficient detection of motion-form conjunction targets were investigated. Experiment 1 was designed to estimate the relative contributions of stationary and moving nontargets to the search rate. Search rates were primarily determined by the number of moving nontargets; stationary nontargets sharing the target form also exerted a significant effect, but this was only about half as strong as that of moving nontargets; stationary nontargets not sharing the target form had little influence. In Experiments 2 and 3, the effects of display factors influencing the visual (form) quality of moving items (movement speed and item size) were examined. Increasing the speed of the moving items (> 1.5 degrees/sec) facilitated target detection when the task required segregation of the moving from the stationary items. When no segregation was necessary, increasing the movement speed impaired performance: With large display items, motion speed had little effect on target detection, but with small items, search efficiency declined when items moved faster than 1.5 degrees/sec. This pattern indicates that moving nontargets exert a strong effect on the search rate (Experiment 1) because of the loss of visual quality for moving items above a certain movement speed. A parallel-continuous processing account of motion-form conjunction search is proposed, which combines aspects of Guided Search (Wolfe, 1994) and attentional engagement theory (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989).

  5. Structural and photoluminescence studies on europium-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) single crystal grown by microtube Czochralski (μT-Cz) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Kumaresh; R, Arun Kumar; N, Ravikumar; U, Madhusoodanan; B, S. Panigrahi; K, Marimuthu; M, Anuradha

    2016-05-01

    Rare earth europium (Eu3+)-doped lithium tetraborate (Eu:Li2B4O7) crystal is grown from its stoichiometric melt by microtube Czochralski pulling technique (μT-Cz) for the first time. The grown crystals are subjected to powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis which reveals the tetragonal crystal structure of the crystals. UV-vis-NIR spectral analysis is carried out to study the optical characteristics of the grown crystals. The crystal is transparent in the entire visible region, and the lower cutoff is observed to be at 304 nm. The existence of BO3 and BO4 bonding structure and the molecular associations are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of excitation and emission-photoluminescence spectra of europium ion incorporated in lithium tetraborate (LTB) single crystal reveal that the observations of peaks at 258, 297, and 318 nm in the excitation spectra and peaks at 579, 591, 597, 613, and 651 nm are observed in the emission spectra. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated from the emission spectra, and the emission intensity of the grown crystal is characterized through a CIE 1931 (Commission International d’Eclairage) color chromaticity diagram. Project supported by the Department of Science and Technology-Science and Engineering Research Board (Grant No. SR/S2/LOP-0012/2011), the Government of India for Awarding Major Research Project, the University Grants Commission-Department of Atomic Research-Consortium for Scientific Research (Grant No. CSR-KN/CSR-63/2014-2015/503), and the Kalpakkam and Indore, India.

  6. Continuous bioprocessing: the real thing this time? 10(th) Annual bioProcessUK Conference, December 3-4, 2013, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Farid, Suzanne S; Thompson, Bill; Davidson, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The Annual bioProcessUK Conference has acted as the key networking event for bioprocess scientists and engineers in the UK for the past 10 years. The following article is a report from the sessions that focused on continuous bioprocessing during the 10(th) Annual bioProcessUK Conference (London, December 2013). These sessions were organized by the 'EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Emergent Macromolecular Therapies' hosted at University College London. A plenary lecture and workshop provided a forum for participants to debate topical issues in roundtable discussions with industry and academic experts from institutions such as Genzyme, Janssen, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Merck, GE Healthcare and University College London. The aim of these particular sessions was to understand better the challenges and opportunities for continuous bioprocessing in the bioprocessing sector.

  7. Regulatory and Quality Considerations for Continuous Manufacturing May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Allison, Gretchen; Cain, Yanxi Tan; Cooney, Charles; Garcia, Tom; Bizjak, Tara Gooen; Holte, Oyvind; Jagota, Nirdosh; Komas, Bekki; Korakianiti, Evdokia; Kourti, Dora; Madurawe, Rapti; Morefield, Elaine; Montgomery, Frank; Nasr, Moheb; Randolph, William; Robert, Jean-Louis; Rudd, Dave; Zezza, Diane

    2015-03-01

    This paper assesses the current regulatory environment, relevant regulations and guidelines, and their impact on continuous manufacturing. It summarizes current regulatory experience and learning from both review and inspection perspectives. It outlines key regulatory aspects, including continuous manufacturing process description and control strategy in regulatory files, process validation, and key Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) requirements. In addition, the paper identifies regulatory gaps and challenges and proposes a way forward to facilitate implementation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. [Improving the continuous care process in primary care during weekends and holidays: redesigning and FMEA].

    PubMed

    Cañada Dorado, A; Cárdenas Valladolid, J; Espejo Matorrales, F; García Ferradal, I; Sastre Páez, S; Vicente Martín, I

    2010-01-01

    To describe a project carried out in order to improve the process of Continuous Health Care (CHC) on Saturdays and bank holidays in Primary Care, area number 4, Madrid. The aim of this project was to guarantee a safe and error-free service to patients receiving home health care on weekends. The urgent need for improving CHC process was identified by the Risk Management Functional Unit (RMFU) of the area. In addition, some complaints had been received from the nurses involved in the process as well as from their patients. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis performed in 2009 highlighted a number of problems with the process. As a result, a project for improvement was drawn up, to be implemented in the following stages: 1. Redesigning and improving the existing process. 2. Application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) to the new process. 3. Follow up, managing and leading the project. 4. Nurse training. 5. Implementing the process in the whole area. 6. CHC nurse satisfaction surveys. After carrying out this project, the efficiency and level of automation improved considerably. Since implementation of the process enhancement measures, no complaints have been received from patients and surveys show that CHC nurse satisfaction has improved. By using FMEA, errors were given priority and enhancement steps were taken in order to: Inform professionals, back-up personnel and patients about the process. Improve the specialist follow-up report. Provide training in ulcer patient care. The process enhancement, and especially its automation, has resulted in a significant step forward toward achieving greater patient safety. FMEA was a useful tool, which helped in taking some important actions. Finally, CHC nurse satisfaction has clearly improved. Copyright © 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous and scalable fabrication of bioinspired dry adhesives via a roll-to-roll process with modulated ultraviolet-curable resin.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hoon; Hwang, Insol; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Dael; Lim, Haneol; Tahk, Dongha; Sung, Minho; Bae, Won-Gyu; Choi, Se-Jin; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Hoon Eui

    2014-08-27

    A simple yet scalable strategy for fabricating dry adhesives with mushroom-shaped micropillars is achieved by a combination of the roll-to-roll process and modulated UV-curable elastic poly(urethane acrylate) (e-PUA) resin. The e-PUA combines the major benefits of commercial PUA and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). It not only can be cured within a few seconds like commercial PUA but also possesses good mechanical properties comparable to those of PDMS. A roll-type fabrication system equipped with a rollable mold and a UV exposure unit is also developed for the continuous process. By integrating the roll-to-roll process with the e-PUA, dry adhesives with spatulate tips in the form of a thin flexible film can be generated in a highly continuous and scalable manner. The fabricated dry adhesives with mushroom-shaped microstructures exhibit a strong pull-off strength of up to ∼38.7 N cm(-2) on the glass surface as well as high durability without any noticeable degradation. Furthermore, an automated substrate transportation system equipped with the dry adhesives can transport a 300 mm Si wafer over 10,000 repeating cycles with high accuracy.

  10. Optimization of process parameters for a quasi-continuous tablet coating system using design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Cahyadi, Christine; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and optimize the critical process parameters of the newly developed Supercell quasi-continuous coater for optimal tablet coat quality. Design of experiments, aided by multivariate analysis techniques, was used to quantify the effects of various coating process conditions and their interactions on the quality of film-coated tablets. The process parameters varied included batch size, inlet temperature, atomizing pressure, plenum pressure, spray rate and coating level. An initial screening stage was carried out using a 2(6-1(IV)) fractional factorial design. Following these preliminary experiments, optimization study was carried out using the Box-Behnken design. Main response variables measured included drug-loading efficiency, coat thickness variation, and the extent of tablet damage. Apparent optimum conditions were determined by using response surface plots. The process parameters exerted various effects on the different response variables. Hence, trade-offs between individual optima were necessary to obtain the best compromised set of conditions. The adequacy of the optimized process conditions in meeting the combined goals for all responses was indicated by the composite desirability value. By using response surface methodology and optimization, coating conditions which produced coated tablets of high drug-loading efficiency, low incidences of tablet damage and low coat thickness variation were defined. Optimal conditions were found to vary over a large spectrum when different responses were considered. Changes in processing parameters across the design space did not result in drastic changes to coat quality, thereby demonstrating robustness in the Supercell coating process. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  11. Paths of Adoption: Routes to Continuous Process Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    To obtain a process the team will use: The Team Lead has worked on teams with good processes and wants their new team to start out on the right foot ...eventually going to have to eat the entire process-improvement elephant . So, how do you get the “Never- Adopters” to undertake the effort? The key is to...Air Warfare Center Abstract. This paper covers the different types of teams the authors have en- countered as NAVAIR Internal Process Coaches and how

  12. Processing of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites for ultra high temperature applications using organosilicon polymer precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, James Robert

    The current work is on the development of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic materials (CFCCs) for use in ultra high temperature applications. These applications subject materials to extremely high temperatures(> 2000°C). Monolithic ceramics are currently being used for these applications, but the tendency to fail catastrophically has driven the need for the next generation of material. Reinforcing with continuous fibers significantly improves the toughness of the monolithic materials; however, this is a manufacturing challenge. The development of commercial, low-viscosity preceramic polymers provides new opportunities to fabricate CFCCs. Preceramic polymers behave as polymers at low temperatures and are transformed into ceramics upon heating to high temperatures. The polymer precursors enable the adaptation of well-established polymer processing techniques to produce high quality materials at relatively low cost. In the present work, SMP-10 from Starfire Systems, and PURS from KiON Corp. were used to manufacture ZrB2-SiC/SiC CFCCs using low cost vacuum bagging process in conjunction with the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and it was determined that the initial greenbody cure produced porosity of both closed and open pores. The open pores were found to be more successfully re-infiltrated using neat resin compared to slurry reinfiltrate; however, the closed pores were found to be impenetrable during subsequent reinfiltrations. The mechanical performance of the manufactured samples was evaluated using flexure tests and found the fiber reinforcement prevented catastrophic failure behavior by increasing fracture toughness. Wedge sample were fabricated and evaluated to demonstrate the ability to produce CFCC of complex geometry.

  13. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of extruded OFMSW: Process performance and energetics evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mu, Lan; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Kongyun; Ma, Jiao; Li, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    Recently, extrusion press treatment shows some promising advantages for effectively separating of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) from the mixed MSW, which is critical for their following high-efficiency treatment. In this study, an extruded OFMSW obtained from a demonstrated MSW treatment plant was characterized, and submitted to a series of semi-continuous anaerobic experiments to examine its biodegradability and process stability. The results indicated that the extruded OFMSW was a desirable substrate with a high biochemical methane potential (BMP), balanced nutrients and reliable stability. For increasing organic loading rates (OLRs), feeding higher volatile solid (VS) contents in feedstock was much better than shortening the hydraulic retention times (HRTs), while excessively high contents caused a low biodegradability due to the mass transfer limitation. For energetics evaluation, a high electricity output of 129.19-156.37kWh/ton raw MSW was obtained, which was further improved by co-digestion with food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement: impact on process quality and patient safety.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Kathleen L; Stock, Gregory N; Gowen, Charles R

    2014-10-01

    Successful amelioration of medical errors represents a significant problem in the health care industry. There is a need for greater understanding of the factors that lead to improved process quality and patient safety outcomes in hospitals. We present a research model that shows how transformational leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiatives are related to objective quality and patient safety outcome measures. The proposed framework is tested using structural equation modeling, based on data collected for 204 hospitals, and supplemented with objective outcome data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The results provide empirical evidence that a safety climate, which is connected to the chief executive officer's transformational leadership style, is related to CQI initiatives, which are linked to improved process quality. A unique finding of this study is that, although CQI initiatives are positively associated with improved process quality, they are also associated with higher hospital-acquired condition rates, a measure of patient safety. Likewise, safety climate is directly related to improved patient safety outcomes. The notion that patient safety climate and CQI initiatives are not interchangeable or universally beneficial is an important contribution to the literature. The results confirm the importance of using CQI to effectively enhance process quality in hospitals, and patient safety climate to improve patient safety outcomes. The overall pattern of findings suggests that simultaneous implementation of CQI initiatives and patient safety climate produces greater combined benefits.

  15. Leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement: impact on process quality and patient safety.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Kathleen L; Stock, Gregory N; Gowen, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Successful amelioration of medical errors represents a significant problem in the health care industry. There is a need for greater understanding of the factors that lead to improved process quality and patient safety outcomes in hospitals. We present a research model that shows how transformational leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiatives are related to objective quality and patient safety outcome measures. The proposed framework is tested using structural equation modeling, based on data collected for 204 hospitals, and supplemented with objective outcome data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The results provide empirical evidence that a safety climate, which is connected to the chief executive officer's transformational leadership style, is related to CQI initiatives, which are linked to improved process quality. A unique finding of this study is that, although CQI initiatives are positively associated with improved process quality, they are also associated with higher hospital-acquired condition rates, a measure of patient safety. Likewise, safety climate is directly related to improved patient safety outcomes. The notion that patient safety climate and CQI initiatives are not interchangeable or universally beneficial is an important contribution to the literature. The results confirm the importance of using CQI to effectively enhance process quality in hospitals, and patient safety climate to improve patient safety outcomes. The overall pattern of findings suggests that simultaneous implementation of CQI initiatives and patient safety climate produces greater combined benefits.

  16. Development of advanced methods for continuous Czochralski growth. Silicon sheet growth development for the large area silicon sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, R. G.; Sibley, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    The three components required to modify the furnace for batch and continuous recharging with granular silicon were designed. The feasibility of extended growth cycles up to 40 hours long was demonstrated by a recharge simulation experiment; a 6 inch diameter crystal was pulled from a 20 kg charge, remelted, and pulled again for a total of four growth cycles, 59-1/8 inch of body length, and approximately 65 kg of calculated mass.

  17. Optical and scintillation properties of ce-doped (Gd2Y1)Ga2.7Al2.3O12 single crystal grown by Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Yuntao; Ding, Dongzhou; Li, Huanying; Chen, Xiaofeng; Shi, Jian; Ren, Guohao

    2016-06-01

    Multicomponent garnets, due to their excellent light yield and energy resolution, become one of the most promising scintillators used for homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation applications. This work focuses on the optimization of Ce-doped (Gd,Y)3(Ga,Al)5O12 scintillators using a combination strategy of pre-screening and scale-up. Ce-doped GdxY1-xGayAl5-yO12 (x=1, 2 and y=2, 2.2, 2.5, 2.7, 3) polycrystalline powders were prepared by high-temperature solid state reaction method. The desired garnet phase in all the samples was confirmed using X-ray diffraction measurement. By comparing the radioluminescence intensity, the highest scintillation efficiency was achieved at a component of Gd2Y1Ga2.7Al2.3O12:Ce powders. A (Gd2Y1)Ga2.7Al2.3O12 doped with 1% Ce single crystal with dimensions of Ø35×40 mm was grown by Czochralski method using a <111> oriented seed. Luminescence and scintillation properties were measured. An optical transmittance of 84% was achieved in the concerned wavelength from 500 to 800 nm. Its 5d-4f emission of Ce3+ is at 530 nm. The light yield of a Ce1%: Gd2Y1Ga2.7Al2.3O12 single crystal slab at a size of 5×5×1 mm3 can reach about 65,000±3000 Ph/MeV along with two decay components of 94 and 615 ns under 137Cs source irradiation.

  18. Gas-liquid countercurrent integration process for continuous biodiesel production using a microporous solid base KF/CaO as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shengyang; Wen, Libai; Wang, Yun; Zheng, Xinsheng; Han, Heyou

    2012-11-01

    A continuous-flow integration process was developed for biodiesel production using rapeseed oil as feedstock, based on the countercurrent contact reaction between gas and liquid, separation of glycerol on-line and cyclic utilization of methanol. Orthogonal experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to optimize technological parameters. A second-order polynomial model for the biodiesel yield was established and validated experimentally. The high determination coefficient (R(2)=98.98%) and the low probability value (Pr<0.0001) proved that the model matched the experimental data, and had a high predictive ability. The optimal technological parameters were: 81.5°C reaction temperature, 51.7cm fill height of catalyst KF/CaO and 105.98kPa system pressure. Under these conditions, the average yield of triplicate experiments was 93.7%, indicating the continuous-flow process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast maximum likelihood estimation using continuous-time neural point process models.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Kyle Q; MacDonald, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    A recent report estimates that the number of simultaneously recorded neurons is growing exponentially. A commonly employed statistical paradigm using discrete-time point process models of neural activity involves the computation of a maximum-likelihood estimate. The time to computate this estimate, per neuron, is proportional to the number of bins in a finely spaced discretization of time. By using continuous-time models of neural activity and the optimally efficient Gaussian quadrature, memory requirements and computation times are dramatically decreased in the commonly encountered situation where the number of parameters p is much less than the number of time-bins n. In this regime, with q equal to the quadrature order, memory requirements are decreased from O(np) to O(qp), and the number of floating-point operations are decreased from O(np(2)) to O(qp(2)). Accuracy of the proposed estimates is assessed based upon physiological consideration, error bounds, and mathematical results describing the relation between numerical integration error and numerical error affecting both parameter estimates and the observed Fisher information. A check is provided which is used to adapt the order of numerical integration. The procedure is verified in simulation and for hippocampal recordings. It is found that in 95 % of hippocampal recordings a q of 60 yields numerical error negligible with respect to parameter estimate standard error. Statistical inference using the proposed methodology is a fast and convenient alternative to statistical inference performed using a discrete-time point process model of neural activity. It enables the employment of the statistical methodology available with discrete-time inference, but is faster, uses less memory, and avoids any error due to discretization.

  20. Control Systems Engineering in Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Allan S; Krumme, Markus; Nasr, Moheb; Thomas, Hayden; Braatz, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    This white paper provides a perspective of the challenges, research needs, and future directions for control systems engineering in continuous pharmaceutical processing. The main motivation for writing this paper is to facilitate the development and deployment of control systems technologies so as to ensure quality of the drug product. Although the main focus is on small-molecule pharmaceutical products, most of the same statements apply to biological drug products. An introduction to continuous manufacturing and control systems is followed by a discussion of the current status and technical needs in process monitoring and control, systems integration, and risk analysis. Some key points are that: (1) the desired objective in continuous manufacturing should be the satisfaction of all critical quality attributes (CQAs), not for all variables to operate at steady-state values; (2) the design of start-up and shutdown procedures can significantly affect the economic operation of a continuous manufacturing process; (3) the traceability of material as it moves through the manufacturing facility is an important consideration that can at least in part be addressed using residence time distributions; and (4) the control systems technologies must assure quality in the presence of disturbances, dynamics, uncertainties, nonlinearities, and constraints. Direct measurement, first-principles and empirical model-based predictions, and design space approaches are described for ensuring that CQA specifications are met. Ways are discussed for universities, regulatory bodies, and industry to facilitate working around or through barriers to the development of control systems engineering technologies for continuous drug manufacturing. Industry and regulatory bodies should work with federal agencies to create federal funding mechanisms to attract faculty to this area. Universities should hire faculty interested in developing first-principles models and control systems technologies for

  1. Kinetic model of continuous ethanol fermentation in closed-circulating process with pervaporation membrane bioreactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fan, Senqing; Chen, Shiping; Tang, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina; Sun, Zhaopeng; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Chunyan

    2015-02-01

    Unstructured kinetic models were proposed to describe the principal kinetics involved in ethanol fermentation in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) process with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor. After ethanol was removed in situ from the broth by the membrane pervaporation, the secondary metabolites accumulated in the broth became the inhibitors to cell growth. The cell death rate related to the deterioration of the culture environment was described as a function of the cell concentration and fermentation time. In CCCF process, 609.8 g L(-1) and 750.1 g L(-1) of ethanol production were obtained in the first run and second run, respectively. The modified Gompertz model, correlating the ethanol production with the fermentation period, could be used to describe the ethanol production during CCCF process. The fitting results by the models showed good agreement with the experimental data. These models could be employed for the CCCF process technology development for ethanol fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhijin; Sha, Feng; Liu, Yangang

    2016-02-02

    This five-year award supports the project “Continuous Evaluation of Fast Processes in Climate Models Using ARM Measurements (FASTER)”. The goal of this project is to produce accurate, consistent and comprehensive data sets for initializing both single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs) using data assimilation. A multi-scale three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme (MS-3DVAR) has been implemented. This MS-3DVAR system is built on top of WRF/GSI. The Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system is an operational data assimilation system at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model.more » This MS-3DVAR is further enhanced by the incorporation of a land surface 3DVAR scheme and a comprehensive aerosol 3DVAR scheme. The data assimilation implementation focuses in the ARM SGP region. ARM measurements are assimilated along with other available satellite and radar data. Reanalyses are then generated for a few selected period of time. This comprehensive data assimilation system has also been employed for other ARM-related applications.« less

  3. Stress reaction process-based hierarchical recognition algorithm for continuous intrusion events in optical fiber prewarning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hongquan; Yuan, Shijiao; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Dan

    2018-04-01

    To improve the recognition performance of optical fiber prewarning system (OFPS), this study proposed a hierarchical recognition algorithm (HRA). Compared with traditional methods, which employ only a complex algorithm that includes multiple extracted features and complex classifiers to increase the recognition rate with a considerable decrease in recognition speed, HRA takes advantage of the continuity of intrusion events, thereby creating a staged recognition flow inspired by stress reaction. HRA is expected to achieve high-level recognition accuracy with less time consumption. First, this work analyzed the continuity of intrusion events and then presented the algorithm based on the mechanism of stress reaction. Finally, it verified the time consumption through theoretical analysis and experiments, and the recognition accuracy was obtained through experiments. Experiment results show that the processing speed of HRA is 3.3 times faster than that of a traditional complicated algorithm and has a similar recognition rate of 98%. The study is of great significance to fast intrusion event recognition in OFPS.

  4. Continuous counter-current chromatography for capture and polishing steps in biopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Steinebach, Fabian; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The economic advantages of continuous processing of biopharmaceuticals, which include smaller equipment and faster, efficient processes, have increased interest in this technology over the past decade. Continuous processes can also improve quality assurance and enable greater controllability, consistent with the quality initiatives of the FDA. Here, we discuss different continuous multi-column chromatography processes. Differences in the capture and polishing steps result in two different types of continuous processes that employ counter-current column movement. Continuous-capture processes are associated with increased productivity per cycle and decreased buffer consumption, whereas the typical purity-yield trade-off of classical batch chromatography can be surmounted by continuous processes for polishing applications. In the context of continuous manufacturing, different but complementary chromatographic columns or devices are typically combined to improve overall process performance and avoid unnecessary product storage. In the following, these various processes, their performances compared with batch processing and resulting product quality are discussed based on a review of the literature. Based on various examples of applications, primarily monoclonal antibody production processes, conclusions are drawn about the future of these continuous-manufacturing technologies. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Jenkins-CI, an Open-Source Continuous Integration System, as a Scientific Data and Image-Processing Platform.

    PubMed

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K; Hossain, Imtiaz; Agarinis, Claudia; Harbinski, Fred; Abraham, Yann; Dobler, Luc; Zhang, Xian; Wilson, Christopher J; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Holway, Nicholas; Tallarico, John; Parker, Christian N

    2017-03-01

    High-throughput screening generates large volumes of heterogeneous data that require a diverse set of computational tools for management, processing, and analysis. Building integrated, scalable, and robust computational workflows for such applications is challenging but highly valuable. Scientific data integration and pipelining facilitate standardized data processing, collaboration, and reuse of best practices. We describe how Jenkins-CI, an "off-the-shelf," open-source, continuous integration system, is used to build pipelines for processing images and associated data from high-content screening (HCS). Jenkins-CI provides numerous plugins for standard compute tasks, and its design allows the quick integration of external scientific applications. Using Jenkins-CI, we integrated CellProfiler, an open-source image-processing platform, with various HCS utilities and a high-performance Linux cluster. The platform is web-accessible, facilitates access and sharing of high-performance compute resources, and automates previously cumbersome data and image-processing tasks. Imaging pipelines developed using the desktop CellProfiler client can be managed and shared through a centralized Jenkins-CI repository. Pipelines and managed data are annotated to facilitate collaboration and reuse. Limitations with Jenkins-CI (primarily around the user interface) were addressed through the selection of helper plugins from the Jenkins-CI community.

  6. Jenkins-CI, an Open-Source Continuous Integration System, as a Scientific Data and Image-Processing Platform

    PubMed Central

    Moutsatsos, Ioannis K.; Hossain, Imtiaz; Agarinis, Claudia; Harbinski, Fred; Abraham, Yann; Dobler, Luc; Zhang, Xian; Wilson, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jeremy L.; Holway, Nicholas; Tallarico, John; Parker, Christian N.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening generates large volumes of heterogeneous data that require a diverse set of computational tools for management, processing, and analysis. Building integrated, scalable, and robust computational workflows for such applications is challenging but highly valuable. Scientific data integration and pipelining facilitate standardized data processing, collaboration, and reuse of best practices. We describe how Jenkins-CI, an “off-the-shelf,” open-source, continuous integration system, is used to build pipelines for processing images and associated data from high-content screening (HCS). Jenkins-CI provides numerous plugins for standard compute tasks, and its design allows the quick integration of external scientific applications. Using Jenkins-CI, we integrated CellProfiler, an open-source image-processing platform, with various HCS utilities and a high-performance Linux cluster. The platform is web-accessible, facilitates access and sharing of high-performance compute resources, and automates previously cumbersome data and image-processing tasks. Imaging pipelines developed using the desktop CellProfiler client can be managed and shared through a centralized Jenkins-CI repository. Pipelines and managed data are annotated to facilitate collaboration and reuse. Limitations with Jenkins-CI (primarily around the user interface) were addressed through the selection of helper plugins from the Jenkins-CI community. PMID:27899692

  7. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  8. Adolescents with Developmental Dyscalculia Do Not Have a Generalized Magnitude Deficit – Processing of Discrete and Continuous Magnitudes

    PubMed Central

    McCaskey, Ursina; von Aster, Michael; O’Gorman Tuura, Ruth; Kucian, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes. By means of neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we aimed to examine the relationship between number and space in typical and atypical development. Participants were 16 adolescents with DD (14.1 years) and 14 typically developing (TD) peers (13.8 years). In the fMRI paradigm participants had to perform discrete (arrays of dots) and continuous magnitude (angles) comparisons as well as a mental rotation task. In the neuropsychological tests, adolescents with dyscalculia performed significantly worse in numerical and complex visuo-spatial tasks. However, they showed similar results to TD peers when making discrete and continuous magnitude decisions during the neuropsychological tests and the fMRI paradigm. A conjunction analysis of the fMRI data revealed commonly activated higher order visual (inferior and middle occipital gyrus) and parietal (inferior and superior parietal lobe) magnitude areas for the discrete and continuous magnitude tasks. Moreover, no differences were found when contrasting both magnitude processing conditions, favoring the possibility of a generalized magnitude system. Group comparisons further revealed that dyscalculic subjects showed increased activation in domain general regions, whilst TD peers activate domain specific areas to a greater extent. In conclusion, our results point to the existence of a

  9. Continuous Manufacturing of Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins: Upstream and Downstream Technologies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rohan; Walther, Jason

    2017-03-07

    Continuous biomanufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins offers several potential advantages over conventional batch processing, including reduced cost of goods, more flexible and responsive manufacturing facilities, and improved and consistent product quality. Although continuous approaches to various upstream and downstream unit operations have been considered and studied for decades, in recent years interest and application have accelerated. Researchers have achieved increasingly higher levels of process intensification, and have also begun to integrate different continuous unit operations into larger, holistically continuous processes. This review first discusses approaches for continuous cell culture, with a focus on perfusion-enabling cell separation technologies including gravitational, centrifugal, and acoustic settling, as well as filtration-based techniques. We follow with a review of various continuous downstream unit operations, covering categories such as clarification, chromatography, formulation, and viral inactivation and filtration. The review ends by summarizing case studies of integrated and continuous processing as reported in the literature.

  10. Kilogram-scale prexasertib monolactate monohydrate synthesis under continuous-flow CGMP conditions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kevin P; Groh, Jennifer McClary; Johnson, Martin D; Burcham, Christopher L; Campbell, Bradley M; Diseroad, William D; Heller, Michael R; Howell, John R; Kallman, Neil J; Koenig, Thomas M; May, Scott A; Miller, Richard D; Mitchell, David; Myers, David P; Myers, Steven S; Phillips, Joseph L; Polster, Christopher S; White, Timothy D; Cashman, Jim; Hurley, Declan; Moylan, Robert; Sheehan, Paul; Spencer, Richard D; Desmond, Kenneth; Desmond, Paul; Gowran, Olivia

    2017-06-16

    Advances in drug potency and tailored therapeutics are promoting pharmaceutical manufacturing to transition from a traditional batch paradigm to more flexible continuous processing. Here we report the development of a multistep continuous-flow CGMP (current good manufacturing practices) process that produced 24 kilograms of prexasertib monolactate monohydrate suitable for use in human clinical trials. Eight continuous unit operations were conducted to produce the target at roughly 3 kilograms per day using small continuous reactors, extractors, evaporators, crystallizers, and filters in laboratory fume hoods. Success was enabled by advances in chemistry, engineering, analytical science, process modeling, and equipment design. Substantial technical and business drivers were identified, which merited the continuous process. The continuous process afforded improved performance and safety relative to batch processes and also improved containment of a highly potent compound. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Definition and dynamic control of a continuous chromatography process independent of cell culture titer and impurities.

    PubMed

    Chmielowski, Rebecca A; Mathiasson, Linda; Blom, Hans; Go, Daniel; Ehring, Hanno; Khan, Heera; Li, Hong; Cutler, Collette; Lacki, Karol; Tugcu, Nihal; Roush, David

    2017-12-01

    Advances in cell culture technology have enabled the production of antibody titers upwards of 30g/L. These highly productive cell culture systems can potentially lead to productivity bottlenecks in downstream purification due to lower column loadings, especially in the primary capture chromatography step. Alternative chromatography solutions to help remedy this bottleneck include the utilization of continuous processing systems such as periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC). Recent studies have provided methods to optimize and improve the design of PCC for cell culture titers up to about 3g/L. This paper defines a continuous loading strategy for PCC that is independent of cell culture background and encompasses cell culture titers up to about 31g/L. Initial experimentation showed a challenge with determining a difference in change in UV280nm signal (ie. ΔUV) between cell culture feed and monoclonal antibody (mAb) concentration. Further investigation revealed UV280nm absorbance of the cell culture feedstock without antibody was outside of the linear range of detection for a given cell pathlength. Additional experimentation showed the difference in ΔUV for various cell culture feeds can be either theoretically predicted by Beer's Law given a known absorbance of the media background and impurities or experimentally determined using various UV280nm cell pathlengths. Based on these results, a 0.35mm pathlength at UV280nm was chosen for dynamic control to overcome the background signal. The pore diffusion model showed good agreement with the experimental frontal analysis data, which resulted in definition of a ΔUV setpoint range between 20 and 70% for 3C-PCC experiments. Product quality of the elution pools was acceptable between various cell culture feeds and titers up to about 41g/L. Results indicated the following ΔUV setpoints to achieve robust dynamic control and maintain 3C-PCC yield: ∼20-45% for titers greater than 10g/L depending on UV absorbance of

  12. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    DOEpatents

    Hogden, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  13. Speech processing using maximum likelihood continuity mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.E.

    Speech processing is obtained that, given a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator positions, allows sequences of speech sounds to be mapped to smooth sequences of pseudo-articulator positions. In addition, a method for learning a probabilistic mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position is described. The method for learning the mapping between static speech sounds and pseudo-articulator position uses a set of training data composed only of speech sounds. The said speech processing can be applied to various speech analysis tasks, including speech recognition, speaker recognition, speech coding, speech synthesis, and voice mimicry.

  14. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fareed, Ali; Craig, Phillip A.

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  15. Optical characteristics of novel bulk and nanoengineered laser host materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sova, Stacey; Kelly, Lisa; Bevan, Talon; Arnold, Bradley; Cooper, Christopher; Choa, Fow-Sen; Singh, N. B.

    2018-02-01

    The hexagonal apatite single crystals have been investigated for their applications as laser host materials. Czochralksi and flux growth methods have been utilized to obtain single crystals. For low temperature processing (<100 0C), several techniques for crystal growth have been developed. The hexagonal apatite structure (space group P63/m) is characteristic of several compounds, some of which have extremely interesting and useful properties as laser hosts and bone materials. Calcium lanthanum silicate (Nd-doped) and lanthanum aluminate material systems were studied in detail. Nanoengineered calcium and lanthanum based silicates were synthesized by a solution method and their optical and morphological characteristics were compared with Czochralski grown bulk hydroxyapatite single crystals. Materials were evaluated by absorbance, fluorescence and Raman characteristics. Neodymium, iron and chromium doped crystals grown by a solution method showed weak but similar optical properties to that of Czochralski grown single crystals.

  16. Online Continuous Trace Process Analytics Using Multiplexing Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Marco R; Lehnig, Rudolf; Trapp, Oliver

    2017-04-04

    The analysis of impurities at a trace level in chemical products, nutrition additives, and drugs is highly important to guarantee safe products suitable for consumption. However, trace analysis in the presence of a dominating component can be a challenging task because of noncompatible linear detection ranges or strong signal overlap that suppresses the signal of interest. Here, we developed a technique for quantitative analysis using multiplexing gas chromatography (mpGC) for continuous and completely automated process trace analytics exemplified for the analysis of a CO 2 stream in a production plant for detection of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the three structural isomers of xylene (BTEX) in the concentration range of 0-10 ppb. Additional minor components are methane and methanol with concentrations up to 100 ppm. The sample is injected up to 512 times according to a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) with a mean frequency of 0.1 Hz into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). A superimposed chromatogram is recorded which is deconvoluted into an averaged chromatogram with Hadamard transformation. Novel algorithms to maintain the data acquisition rate of the detector by application of Hadamard transformation and to suppress correlation noise induced by components with much higher concentrations than the target substances are shown. Compared to conventional GC-FID, the signal-to-noise ratio has been increased by a factor of 10 with mpGC-FID. Correspondingly, the detection limits for BTEX in CO 2 have been lowered from 10 to 1 ppb each. This has been achieved despite the presence of detectable components (methane and methanol) with a concentration about 1000 times higher than the target substances. The robustness and reliability of mpGC has been proven in a two-month field test in a chemical production plant.

  17. Structure and Randomness of Continuous-Time, Discrete-Event Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzen, Sarah E.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Loosely speaking, the Shannon entropy rate is used to gauge a stochastic process' intrinsic randomness; the statistical complexity gives the cost of predicting the process. We calculate, for the first time, the entropy rate and statistical complexity of stochastic processes generated by finite unifilar hidden semi-Markov models—memoryful, state-dependent versions of renewal processes. Calculating these quantities requires introducing novel mathematical objects (ɛ -machines of hidden semi-Markov processes) and new information-theoretic methods to stochastic processes.

  18. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  19. Rough case-based reasoning system for continues casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wenbin; Lei, Zhufeng

    2018-04-01

    The continuous casting occupies a pivotal position in the iron and steel industry. The rough set theory and the CBR (case based reasoning, CBR) were combined in the research and implementation for the quality assurance of continuous casting billet to improve the efficiency and accuracy in determining the processing parameters. According to the continuous casting case, the object-oriented method was applied to express the continuous casting cases. The weights of the attributes were calculated by the algorithm which was based on the rough set theory and the retrieval mechanism for the continuous casting cases was designed. Some cases were adopted to test the retrieval mechanism, by analyzing the results, the law of the influence of the retrieval attributes on determining the processing parameters was revealed. A comprehensive evaluation model was established by using the attribute recognition theory. According to the features of the defects, different methods were adopted to describe the quality condition of the continuous casting billet. By using the system, the knowledge was not only inherited but also applied to adjust the processing parameters through the case based reasoning method as to assure the quality of the continuous casting and improve the intelligent level of the continuous casting.

  20. Continuously graded extruded polymer composites for energetic applications fabricated using twin-screw extrusion processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Frederick M.

    A novel method of fabricating functionally graded extruded composite materials is proposed for propellant applications using the technology of continuous processing with a Twin-Screw Extruder. The method is applied to the manufacturing of grains for solid rocket motors in an end-burning configuration with an axial gradient in ammonium perchlorate volume fraction and relative coarse/fine particle size distributions. The fabrication of functionally graded extruded polymer composites with either inert or energetic ingredients has yet to be investigated. The lack of knowledge concerning the processing of these novel materials has necessitated that a number of research issues be addressed. Of primary concern is characterizing and modeling the relationship between the extruder screw geometry, transient processing conditions, and the gradient architecture that evolves in the extruder. Recent interpretations of the Residence Time Distributions (RTDs) and Residence Volume Distributions (RVDs) for polymer composites in the TSE are used to develop new process models for predicting gradient architectures in the direction of extrusion. An approach is developed for characterizing the sections of the extrudate using optical, mechanical, and compositional analysis to determine the gradient architectures. The effects of processing on the burning rate properties of extruded energetic polymer composites are characterized for homogeneous formulations over a range of compositions to determine realistic gradient architectures for solid rocket motor applications. The new process models and burning rate properties that have been characterized in this research effort will be the basis for an inverse design procedure that is capable of determining gradient architectures for grains in solid rocket motors that possess tailored burning rate distributions that conform to user-defined performance specifications.

  1. Development of a new continuous process for mixing of complex non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Simona; Mazzei, Luca; Sochon, Bob; Angeli, Panagiota; Thames Multiphase Team; Coral Project Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Design of new continuous mixing operations poses many challenges, especially when dealing with highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids. Knowledge of complex rheological behaviour of the working mixture is crucial for development of an efficient process. In this work, we investigate the mixing performance of two different static mixers and the effects of the mixture rheology on the manufacturing of novel non-aqueous-based oral care products using experimental and computational fluid dynamic methods. The two liquid phases employed, i.e. a carbomer suspension in polyethylene glycol and glycerol, start to form a gel when they mix. We studied the structure evolution of the liquid mixture using time-resolved rheometry and we obtained viscosity rheograms at different phase ratios from pressure drop measurements in a customized mini-channel. The numerical results and rheological model were validated with experimental measurements carried out in a specifically designed setup. EPSRS-CORAL.

  2. Continuous-flow ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process: An efficient diesel treatment by injection of the aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Masoud; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh; Movahedirad, Salman

    2017-11-01

    A new continuous-flow ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process was developed in order to decrease energy and aqueous phase consumption. In this process the aqueous phase is injected below the horn tip leading to enhanced mixing of the phases. Diesel fuel as the oil phase with sulfur content of 1550ppmw and an appropriate mixture of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid as the aqueous phase were used. At the first step, the optimized condition for the sulfur removal has been obtained in the batch mode operation. Hence, the effect of more important oxidation parameters; oxidant-to-sulfur molar ratio, acid-to-sulfur molar ratio and sonication time were investigated. Then the optimized conditions were obtained using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique. Afterwards, some experiments corresponding to the best batch condition and also with objective of minimizing the residence time and aqueous phase to fuel volume ratio have been conducted in a newly designed double-compartment reactor with injection of the aqueous phase to evaluate the process in a continuous flow operation. In addition, the effect of nozzle diameter has been examined. Significant improvement on the sulfur removal was observed specially in lower sonication time in the case of dispersion method in comparison with the conventional contact between two phases. Ultimately, the flow pattern induced by ultrasonic device, and also injection of the aqueous phase were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by capturing the sequential images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential and Prospects of Continuous Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Martin; Braunegg, Gerhart

    2015-01-01

    Together with other so-called “bio-plastics”, Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are expected to soon replace established polymers on the plastic market. As a prerequisite, optimized process design is needed to make PHAs attractive in terms of costs and quality. Nowadays, large-scale PHA production relies on discontinuous fed-batch cultivation in huge bioreactors. Such processes presuppose numerous shortcomings such as nonproductive time for reactor revamping, irregular product quality, limited possibility for supply of certain carbon substrates, and, most of all, insufficient productivity. Therefore, single- and multistage continuous PHA biosynthesis is increasingly investigated for production of different types of microbial PHAs; this goes for rather crystalline, thermoplastic PHA homopolyesters as well as for highly flexible PHA copolyesters, and even blocky-structured PHAs consisting of alternating soft and hard segments. Apart from enhanced productivity and constant product quality, chemostat processes can be used to elucidate kinetics of cell growth and PHA formation under constant process conditions. Furthermore, continuous enrichment processes constitute a tool to isolate novel powerful PHA-producing microbial strains adapted to special environmental conditions. The article discusses challenges, potential and case studies for continuous PHA production, and shows up new strategies to further enhance such processes economically by developing unsterile open continuous processes combined with the application of inexpensive carbon feedstocks. PMID:28955015

  4. Chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing for exploring chemical mechanisms in traditional processing of herbal medicines, a continuous study on Rehmanniae Radix.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Kong, Ming; Zou, Ye-Ting; Xu, Ya-Yun; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-12-29

    Exploring processing chemistry, in particular the chemical transformation mechanisms involved, is a key step to elucidate the scientific basis in traditional processing of herbal medicines. Previously, taking Rehmanniae Radix (RR) as a case study, the holistic chemome (secondary metabolome and glycome) difference between raw and processed RR was revealed by integrating hyphenated chromatographic techniques-based targeted glycomics and untargeted metabolomics. Nevertheless, the complex chemical transformation mechanisms underpinning the holistic chemome variation in RR processing remain to be extensively clarified. As a continuous study, here a novel strategy by combining chemomics-based marker compounds mining and mimetic processing is proposed for further exploring the chemical mechanisms involved in herbal processing. First, the differential marker compounds between raw and processed herbs were rapidly discovered by untargeted chemomics-based mining approach through multivariate statistical analysis of the chemome data obtained by integrated metabolomics and glycomics analysis. Second, the marker compounds were mimetically processed under the simulated physicochemical conditions as in the herb processing, and the final reaction products were chemically characterized by targeted chemomics-based mining approach. Third, the main chemical transformation mechanisms involved were clarified by linking up the original marker compounds and their mimetic processing products. Using this strategy, a set of differential marker compounds including saccharides, glycosides and furfurals in raw and processed RR was rapidly found, and the major chemical mechanisms involved in RR processing were elucidated as stepwise transformations of saccharides (polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides) and glycosides (iridoid glycosides and phenethylalcohol glycosides) into furfurals (glycosylated/non-glycosylated hydroxymethylfurfurals) by deglycosylation and/or dehydration. The

  5. Laser vision seam tracking system based on image processing and continuous convolution operator tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yanbiao; Chen, Tao

    2018-06-01

    To address the problem of low welding precision caused by the poor real-time tracking performance of common welding robots, a novel seam tracking system with excellent real-time tracking performance and high accuracy is designed based on the morphological image processing method and continuous convolution operator tracker (CCOT) object tracking algorithm. The system consists of a six-axis welding robot, a line laser sensor, and an industrial computer. This work also studies the measurement principle involved in the designed system. Through the CCOT algorithm, the weld feature points are determined in real time from the noise image during the welding process, and the 3D coordinate values of these points are obtained according to the measurement principle to control the movement of the robot and the torch in real time. Experimental results show that the sensor has a frequency of 50 Hz. The welding torch runs smoothly with a strong arc light and splash interference. Tracking error can reach ±0.2 mm, and the minimal distance between the laser stripe and the welding molten pool can reach 15 mm, which can significantly fulfill actual welding requirements.

  6. Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

  7. Delamination detection by Multi-Level Wavelet Processing of Continuous Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiariotti, P.; Martarelli, M.; Revel, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    A novel non-destructive testing procedure for delamination detection based on the exploitation of the simultaneous time and spatial sampling provided by Continuous Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (CSLDV) and the feature extraction capability of Multi-Level wavelet-based processing is presented in this paper. The processing procedure consists in a multi-step approach. Once the optimal mother-wavelet is selected as the one maximizing the Energy to Shannon Entropy Ratio criterion among the mother-wavelet space, a pruning operation aiming at identifying the best combination of nodes inside the full-binary tree given by Wavelet Packet Decomposition (WPD) is performed. The pruning algorithm exploits, in double step way, a measure of the randomness of the point pattern distribution on the damage map space with an analysis of the energy concentration of the wavelet coefficients on those nodes provided by the first pruning operation. A combination of the point pattern distributions provided by each node of the ensemble node set from the pruning algorithm allows for setting a Damage Reliability Index associated to the final damage map. The effectiveness of the whole approach is proven on both simulated and real test cases. A sensitivity analysis related to the influence of noise on the CSLDV signal provided to the algorithm is also discussed, showing that the processing developed is robust enough to measurement noise. The method is promising: damages are well identified on different materials and for different damage-structure varieties.

  8. Phosphates (V) recovery from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry wastewater by continuous struvite reaction crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Hutnik, Nina; Kozik, Anna; Mazienczuk, Agata; Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Wierzbowska, Boguslawa; Matynia, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    Continuous DT MSMPR (Draft Tube Mixed Suspension Mixed Product Removal) crystallizer was provided with typical wastewater from phosphorus mineral fertilizers industry (pH < 4, 0.445 mass % of PO4(3-), inorganic impurities presence), dissolved substrates (magnesium and ammonium chlorides) and solution alkalising the environment of struvite MgNH4PO4·6H2O reaction crystallization process. Research ran in constant temperature 298 K assuming stoichiometric proportions of substrates or 20% excess of magnesium ions. Influence of pH (8.5-10) and mean residence time (900-3600 s) on product size distribution, its chemical composition, crystals shape, size-homogeneity and process kinetics was identified. Crystals of mean size ca. 25-37 μm and homogeneity CV 70-83% were produced. The largest crystals, of acceptable homogeneity, were produced using 20% excess of magnesium ions, pH 9 and mean residence time 3600 s. Under these conditions nucleation rate did not exceed 9 × 10(7) 1/(s m(3)) according to SIG (Size Independent Growth) MSMPR kinetic model. Linear crystal growth rate was 4.27 × 10(-9) m/s. Excess of magnesium ions influenced struvite reaction crystallization process yield advantageously. Concentration of phosphate(V) ions decreased from 0.445 to 9.2 × 10(-4) mass %. This can be regarded as a very good process result. In product crystals, besides main component - struvite, all impurities from wastewater were detected analytically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing performance in discrete and continuous comparison tasks.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Tali; Henik, Avishai

    2014-05-01

    The approximate number system (ANS) theory suggests that all magnitudes, discrete (i.e., number of items) or continuous (i.e., size, density, etc.), are processed by a shared system and comply with Weber's law. The current study reexamined this notion by comparing performance in discrete (comparing numerosities of dot arrays) and continuous (comparisons of area of squares) tasks. We found that: (a) threshold of discrimination was higher for continuous than for discrete comparisons; (b) while performance in the discrete task complied with Weber's law, performance in the continuous task violated it; and (c) performance in the discrete task was influenced by continuous properties (e.g., dot density, dot cumulative area) of the dot array that were not predictive of numerosities or task relevant. Therefore, we propose that the magnitude processing system (MPS) is actually divided into separate (yet interactive) systems for discrete and continuous magnitude processing. Further subdivisions are discussed. We argue that cooperation between these systems results in a holistic comparison of magnitudes, one that takes into account continuous properties in addition to numerosities. Considering the MPS as two systems opens the door to new and important questions that shed light on both normal and impaired development of the numerical system.

  10. Equipment and Analytical Companies Meeting Continuous Challenges May 20-21 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Page, Trevor; Dubina, Henry; Fillipi, Gabriele; Guidat, Roland; Patnaik, Saroj; Poechlauer, Peter; Shering, Phil; Guinn, Martin; Mcdonnell, Peter; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This white paper focuses on equipment, and analytical manufacturers' perspectives, regarding the challenges of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing across five prompt questions. In addition to valued input from several vendors, commentary was provided from experienced pharmaceutical representatives, who have installed various continuous platforms. Additionally, a small medium enterprise (SME) perspective was obtained through interviews. A range of technical challenges is outlined, including: the presence of particles, equipment scalability, fouling (and cleaning), technology derisking, specific analytical challenges, and the general requirement of improved technical training. Equipment and analytical companies can make a significant contribution to help the introduction of continuous technology. A key point is that many of these challenges exist in batch processing and are not specific to continuous processing. Backward compatibility of software is not a continuous issue per se. In many cases, there is available learning from other industries. Business models and opportunities through outsourced development partners are also highlighted. Agile smaller companies and academic groups have a key role to play in developing skills, working collaboratively in partnerships, and focusing on solving relevant industry challenges. The precompetitive space differs for vendor companies compared with large pharmaceuticals. Currently, there is no strong consensus around a dominant continuous design, partly because of business dynamics and commercial interests. A more structured common approach to process design and hardware and software standardization would be beneficial, with initial practical steps in modeling. Conclusions include a digestible systems approach, accessible and published business cases, and increased user, academic, and supplier collaboration. This mirrors US FDA direction. The concept of silos in pharmaceutical companies is a common theme throughout the white

  11. Equipment and analytical companies meeting continuous challenges. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    PubMed

    Page, Trevor; Dubina, Henry; Fillipi, Gabriele; Guidat, Roland; Patnaik, Saroj; Poechlauer, Peter; Shering, Phil; Guinn, Martin; Mcdonnell, Peter; Johnston, Craig

    2015-03-01

    This white paper focuses on equipment, and analytical manufacturers' perspectives, regarding the challenges of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing across five prompt questions. In addition to valued input from several vendors, commentary was provided from experienced pharmaceutical representatives, who have installed various continuous platforms. Additionally, a small medium enterprise (SME) perspective was obtained through interviews. A range of technical challenges is outlined, including: the presence of particles, equipment scalability, fouling (and cleaning), technology derisking, specific analytical challenges, and the general requirement of improved technical training. Equipment and analytical companies can make a significant contribution to help the introduction of continuous technology. A key point is that many of these challenges exist in batch processing and are not specific to continuous processing. Backward compatibility of software is not a continuous issue per se. In many cases, there is available learning from other industries. Business models and opportunities through outsourced development partners are also highlighted. Agile smaller companies and academic groups have a key role to play in developing skills, working collaboratively in partnerships, and focusing on solving relevant industry challenges. The precompetitive space differs for vendor companies compared with large pharmaceuticals. Currently, there is no strong consensus around a dominant continuous design, partly because of business dynamics and commercial interests. A more structured common approach to process design and hardware and software standardization would be beneficial, with initial practical steps in modeling. Conclusions include a digestible systems approach, accessible and published business cases, and increased user, academic, and supplier collaboration. This mirrors US FDA direction. The concept of silos in pharmaceutical companies is a common theme throughout the white

  12. A Spatially Continuous Model of Carbohydrate Digestion and Transport Processes in the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Arun S.; Brooks, Stephen P. J.; Kalmokoff, Martin; Eberl, Hermann J.

    2015-01-01

    A spatially continuous mathematical model of transport processes, anaerobic digestion and microbial complexity as would be expected in the human colon is presented. The model is a system of first-order partial differential equations with context determined number of dependent variables, and stiff, non-linear source terms. Numerical simulation of the model is used to elucidate information about the colon-microbiota complex. It is found that the composition of materials on outflow of the model does not well-describe the composition of material in other model locations, and inferences using outflow data varies according to model reactor representation. Additionally, increased microbial complexity allows the total microbial community to withstand major system perturbations in diet and community structure. However, distribution of strains and functional groups within the microbial community can be modified depending on perturbation length and microbial kinetic parameters. Preliminary model extensions and potential investigative opportunities using the computational model are discussed. PMID:26680208

  13. A scheme for recording a fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang

    2015-04-01

    A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.

  14. Group Feedback for Continuous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel; Sessa, Valerie I.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores relationships between feedback, group learning, and performance. It considers how feedback to individuals and the group as a whole supports continuous group learning. Feedback source, purpose, clarity, and valence may affect perceptions, processing, and outcomes of feedback. How feedback is processed and used may be…

  15. Dependence of the critical temperature of laser-ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on LaAlO3 substrate growth technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Joseph D.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Miranda, Felix A.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of LaAlO3 made by flame fusion and Czochralski method were subjected to the same temperature conditions that they have to undergo during the laser ablation deposition of YBa2Cu3O(7 - delta) thin films. After oxygen annealing at 750 C, the LaAlO3 substrate made by two methods experienced surface roughening. The degree of roughening on the substrate made by Czochralski method was three times greater than that on the substrate made by flame fusion. This excessive surface roughening may be the origin of the experimentally observed lowering of the critical temperature of a film deposited by laser ablation on a LaAlO3 substrate made by Czochralski method with respect to its counterpart deposited on LaAlO3 substrates made by flame fusion.

  16. High-precision terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave imaging method using continuous wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.

  17. Prediction and Optimization of Phase Transformation Region After Spot Continual Induction Hardening Process Using Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xunpeng; Gao, Kai; Zhu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xuliang; Wang, Zhou

    2017-09-01

    The spot continual induction hardening (SCIH) process, which is a modified induction hardening, can be assembled to a five-axis cooperating computer numerical control machine tool to strengthen more than one small area or relatively large area on complicated component surface. In this study, a response surface method was presented to optimize phase transformation region after the SCIH process. The effects of five process parameters including feed velocity, input power, gap, curvature and flow rate on temperature, microstructure, microhardness and phase transformation geometry were investigated. Central composition design, a second-order response surface design, was employed to systematically estimate the empirical models of temperature and phase transformation geometry. The analysis results indicated that feed velocity has a dominant effect on the uniformity of microstructure and microhardness, domain size, oxidized track width, phase transformation width and height in the SCIH process while curvature has the largest effect on center temperature in the design space. The optimum operating conditions with 0.817, 0.845 and 0.773 of desirability values are expected to be able to minimize ratio (tempering region) and maximize phase transformation width for concave, flat and convex surface workpieces, respectively. The verification result indicated that the process parameters obtained by the model were reliable.

  18. Investigation on hemolytic effect of poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles synthesized using continuous flow and batch processes

    SciTech Connect

    Libi, Sumit; Calenic, Bogdan; Astete, Carlos E.

    Abstract With the increasing interest in polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications, there is a need for continuous flow methodologies that allow for the precise control of nanoparticle synthesis. Poly(lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with diameters of 220–250 nm were synthesized using a lab-on-a-chip, exploiting the precise flow control offered by a millifluidic platform. The association and the effect of PLGA nanoparticles on red blood cells (RBCs) were compared for fluorescent PLGA nanoparticles made by this novel continuous flow process using a millifluidic chip and smaller PLGA nanoparticles made by a batch method. Results indicated that all PLGA nanoparticles studied, independent ofmore » the synthesis method and size, adhered to the surface of RBCs but had no significant hemolytic effect at concentrations lower than 10 mg/ml.« less

  19. Prompting children to reason proportionally: Processing discrete units as continuous amounts.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ty W; Levine, Susan C

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies reveal that children can solve proportional reasoning problems presented with continuous amounts that enable intuitive strategies by around 6 years of age but have difficulties with problems presented with discrete units that tend to elicit explicit count-and-match strategies until at least 10 years of age. The current study tests whether performance on discrete unit problems might be improved by prompting intuitive reasoning with continuous-format problems. Participants were kindergarten, second-grade, and fourth-grade students (N = 194) assigned to either an experimental condition, where they were given continuous amount proportion problems before discrete unit proportion problems, or a control condition, where they were given all discrete unit problems. Results of a three-way mixed-model analysis of variance examining school grade, experimental condition, and block of trials indicated that fourth-grade students in the experimental condition outperformed those in the control condition on discrete unit problems in the second half of the experiment, but kindergarten and second-grade students did not differ by condition. This suggests that older children can be prompted to use intuitive strategies to reason proportionally. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neal, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    During this quarter the work on Task 3, char upgrading, was in two areas; upgrading Penelec char made from Penelec filter cake to blast furnace formed coke, and evaluating various bituminous pitch binders. The formed coke from Penelec filter cake was of good quality with a high crush strength of 3000 pounds. The reactivity was not equal to that of conventional coke but it is felt that it could be made to equal conventional coke with further study, specifically by adding binder coal to the raw material recipe. The work evaluating bituminous pitch binders confirmed earlier thinking that will bemore » valuable to a commercial scale-up. Asphalt binders are compatible with coal tar binders and produce a coke of equal quality. Hence asphalt binders can be used to supply deficiencies of tar production in units employing coals with insufficient volatile matter to supply enough tar for the coking process. Asphalt binders have about a 50% savings from coal tar pitch. During the 4th Quarter of 1991, a total of 15 Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) test runs were made. Efforts continued to determine the optimum forward/reverse ratio to maximize coal feed rate. The success of these efforts has been limited with a maximum coal feed rate of 400 lbs/hr obtainable with a caking coal. The handicap of not having screw shaft heaters cannot be overcome by adjustment of the forward/reverse ratio.« less

  1. Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Francisca F; Rahbek, Jesper P; Mortensen, Asmus R; Pedersen, Mette T; Felizardo, Pedro M; Bro, Rasmus; Mealy, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Significant improvements can be realized by converting conventional batch processes into continuous ones. The main drivers include reduction of cost and waste, increased safety, and simpler scale-up and tech transfer activities. Re-designing the process layout offers the opportunity to incorporate a set of process analytical technologies (PAT) embraced in the Quality-by-Design (QbD) framework. These tools are used for process state estimation, providing enhanced understanding of the underlying variability in the process impacting quality and yield. This work describes a road map for identifying the best technology to speed-up the development of continuous processes while providing the basis for developing analytical methods for monitoring and controlling the continuous full-scale reaction. The suitability of in-line Raman, FT-infrared (FT-IR), and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for real-time process monitoring was investigated in the production of 1-bromo-2-iodobenzene. The synthesis consists of three consecutive reaction steps including the formation of an unstable diazonium salt intermediate, which is critical to secure high yield and avoid formation of by-products. All spectroscopic methods were able to capture critical information related to the accumulation of the intermediate with very similar accuracy. NIR spectroscopy proved to be satisfactory in terms of performance, ease of installation, full-scale transferability, and stability to very adverse process conditions. As such, in-line NIR was selected to monitor the continuous full-scale production. The quantitative method was developed against theoretical concentration values of the intermediate since representative sampling for off-line reference analysis cannot be achieved. The rapid and reliable analytical system allowed the following: speeding up the design of the continuous process and a better understanding of the manufacturing requirements to ensure optimal yield and avoid unreacted raw materials

  2. Biosorption of lead, copper, and cadmium with continuous hollow-fiber microfiltration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.S.; Chen, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    A hollow-fiber crossflow microfiltration membrane was utilized to retain a biomass of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 for continuous biosorption of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) ions in single or ternary metal systems. The results obtained from the microfiltration systems showed that in both single and ternary biosorption, the metal removal efficiency based on a molar basis was clearly Pb > Cu > Cd. For a single-membrane process with an influent metal concentration of 200 {micro}M and a flow rate of 350 mL/h, the effluent concentration of Pb and Cu satisfied the national regulations for an influent volume of 6.3more » L. With a three-metal influent, the adsorption capacity of the biomass for Pb, Cu, and Cd was reduced 4, 50, and 74% compared to that for single-metal adsorption. Selective biosorption with a three-column sequential microfiltration operation exhibited an enhancement of 40 and 57% of total metal removal for Cu and Cd, respectively, over the results from single-membrane operation. The multimembrane operation also enabled locally optimal accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Cd at the first, second, and third stage, respectively. The regeneration efficiency of the biomass was 70% after three repetitive adsorption desorption cycles, whereas the Pb recovery efficiency was maintained at nearly 90%. A rapid-equilibrium model (Model A) and a mass-transfer model (Model B) were used to describe the results of single- and multimetal biosorption with the microfiltration processes. Model A exhibited excellent prediction for the results of single-metal biosorption, while Model B was more applicable to interpret the multimetal biosorption data.« less

  3. Insights into shallow magmatic processes at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, from a multiyear continuous gravity time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Carbone, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Continuous gravity data collected near the summit eruptive vent at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi, during 2011–2015 show a strong correlation with summit-area surface deformation and the level of the lava lake within the vent over periods of days to weeks, suggesting that changes in gravity reflect variations in volcanic activity. Joint analysis of gravity and lava level time series data indicates that over the entire time period studied, the average density of the lava within the upper tens to hundreds of meters of the summit eruptive vent remained low—approximately 1000–1500 kg/m3. The ratio of gravity change (adjusted for Earth tides and instrumental drift) to lava level change measured over 15 day windows rose gradually over the course of 2011–2015, probably reflecting either (1) a small increase in the density of lava within the eruptive vent or (2) an increase in the volume of lava within the vent due to gradual vent enlargement. Superimposed on the overall time series were transient spikes of mass change associated with inflation and deflation of Kīlauea's summit and coincident changes in lava level. The unexpectedly strong mass variations during these episodes suggest magma flux to and from the shallow magmatic system without commensurate deformation, perhaps indicating magma accumulation within, and withdrawal from, void space—a process that might not otherwise be apparent from lava level and deformation data alone. Continuous gravity data thus provide unique insights into magmatic processes, arguing for continued application of the method at other frequently active volcanoes.

  4. Insights into shallow magmatic processes at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaíi, from a multiyear continuous gravity time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael P.; Carbone, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Continuous gravity data collected near the summit eruptive vent at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaíi, during 2011-2015 show a strong correlation with summit-area surface deformation and the level of the lava lake within the vent over periods of days to weeks, suggesting that changes in gravity reflect variations in volcanic activity. Joint analysis of gravity and lava level time series data indicates that over the entire time period studied, the average density of the lava within the upper tens to hundreds of meters of the summit eruptive vent remained low—approximately 1000-1500 kg/m3. The ratio of gravity change (adjusted for Earth tides and instrumental drift) to lava level change measured over 15 day windows rose gradually over the course of 2011-2015, probably reflecting either (1) a small increase in the density of lava within the eruptive vent or (2) an increase in the volume of lava within the vent due to gradual vent enlargement. Superimposed on the overall time series were transient spikes of mass change associated with inflation and deflation of Kīlauea's summit and coincident changes in lava level. The unexpectedly strong mass variations during these episodes suggest magma flux to and from the shallow magmatic system without commensurate deformation, perhaps indicating magma accumulation within, and withdrawal from, void space—a process that might not otherwise be apparent from lava level and deformation data alone. Continuous gravity data thus provide unique insights into magmatic processes, arguing for continued application of the method at other frequently active volcanoes.

  5. Strategy Planning in Continuing Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Eula

    Corporate strategies that can be used in continuing nursing education programs are discussed, based on the Regional Action for Continuing Education in Nursing Education project. Attention is focused on strategies employed at Southern State University (SSU). A practical planning method was used to guide the process of corporate strategy formulation…

  6. [Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].

    PubMed

    Zi, Lihan; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-02-01

    Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition.

  7. Optimal Multi-scale Demand-side Management for Continuous Power-Intensive Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumit

    With the advent of deregulation in electricity markets and an increasing share of intermittent power generation sources, the profitability of industrial consumers that operate power-intensive processes has become directly linked to the variability in energy prices. Thus, for industrial consumers that are able to adjust to the fluctuations, time-sensitive electricity prices (as part of so-called Demand-Side Management (DSM) in the smart grid) offer potential economical incentives. In this thesis, we introduce optimization models and decomposition strategies for the multi-scale Demand-Side Management of continuous power-intensive processes. On an operational level, we derive a mode formulation for scheduling under time-sensitive electricity prices. The formulation is applied to air separation plants and cement plants to minimize the operating cost. We also describe how a mode formulation can be used for industrial combined heat and power plants that are co-located at integrated chemical sites to increase operating profit by adjusting their steam and electricity production according to their inherent flexibility. Furthermore, a robust optimization formulation is developed to address the uncertainty in electricity prices by accounting for correlations and multiple ranges in the realization of the random variables. On a strategic level, we introduce a multi-scale model that provides an understanding of the value of flexibility of the current plant configuration and the value of additional flexibility in terms of retrofits for Demand-Side Management under product demand uncertainty. The integration of multiple time scales leads to large-scale two-stage stochastic programming problems, for which we need to apply decomposition strategies in order to obtain a good solution within a reasonable amount of time. Hence, we describe two decomposition schemes that can be applied to solve two-stage stochastic programming problems: First, a hybrid bi-level decomposition scheme with

  8. Continuous, Large-Scale Processing of Seismic Archives for High-Resolution Monitoring of Seismic Activity and Seismogenic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Archives of digital seismic data recorded by seismometer networks around the world have grown tremendously over the last several decades helped by the deployment of seismic stations and their continued operation within the framework of monitoring earthquake activity and verification of the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. We show results from our continuing effort in developing efficient waveform cross-correlation and double-difference analysis methods for the large-scale processing of regional and global seismic archives to improve existing earthquake parameter estimates, detect seismic events with magnitudes below current detection thresholds, and improve real-time monitoring procedures. We demonstrate the performance of these algorithms as applied to the 28-year long seismic archive of the Northern California Seismic Network. The tools enable the computation of periodic updates of a high-resolution earthquake catalog of currently over 500,000 earthquakes using simultaneous double-difference inversions, achieving up to three orders of magnitude resolution improvement over existing hypocenter locations. This catalog, together with associated metadata, form the underlying relational database for a real-time double-difference scheme, DDRT, which rapidly computes high-precision correlation times and hypocenter locations of new events with respect to the background archive (http://ddrt.ldeo.columbia.edu). The DDRT system facilitates near-real-time seismicity analysis, including the ability to search at an unprecedented resolution for spatio-temporal changes in seismogenic properties. In areas with continuously recording stations, we show that a detector built around a scaled cross-correlation function can lower the detection threshold by one magnitude unit compared to the STA/LTA based detector employed at the network. This leads to increased event density, which in turn pushes the resolution capability of our location algorithms. On a global scale, we are currently building

  9. Continuous flow microfluidic separation and processing of rare cells and bioparticles found in blood - A review.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Maria; Laurell, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Rare cells in blood, such as circulating tumor cells or fetal cells in the maternal circulation, posses a great prognostic or diagnostic value, or for the development of personalized medicine, where the study of rare cells could provide information to more specifically targeted treatments. When conventional cell separation methods, such as flow cytometry or magnetic activated cell sorting, have fallen short other methods are desperately sought for. Microfluidics have been extensively used towards isolating and processing rare cells as it offers possibilities not present in the conventional systems. Furthermore, microfluidic methods offer new possibilities for cell separation as they often rely on non-traditional biomarkers and intrinsic cell properties. This offers the possibility to isolate cell populations that would otherwise not be targeted using conventional methods. Here, we provide an extensive review of the latest advances in continuous flow microfluidic rare cell separation and processing with each cell's specific characteristics and separation challenges as a point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Orodispersible films: Product transfer from lab-scale to continuous manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Yasmin; Breitkreutz, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Orodispersible films have been described as new beneficial dosage forms for special patient populations. Due to various production settings, different requirements on film formulations are required for non- continuous and continuous manufacturing. In this study, a continuous coating machine was qualified in regards of the process conditions for film compositions and their effects on the formed films. To investigate differences between both manufacturing processes, various film formulations of hydrochlorothiazide and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or hydroxypropylmethycellulose (HPMC) as film formers were produced and the resulting films were characterized. The qualification of the continuously operating coating machine reveals no uniform heat distribution during drying. Coating solutions for continuous manufacturing should provide at least a dynamic viscosity of 1 Pa*s (wet film thickness of 500 μm, velocity of 15.9 cm/min). HPC films contain higher residuals of ethanol or acetone in bench-scale than in continuous production mode. Continuous production lead to lower drug content of the films. All continuously produced films disintegrate within less than 30 s. There are observed significant effects of the production process on the film characteristics. When transferring film manufacturing from lab-scale to continuous mode, film compositions, processing conditions and suitable characterization methods have to be carefully selected and adopted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuing Education in Architecture: The Process, the Issues, the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frandson, Phillip E.

    1980-01-01

    The author sees three critical issues facing the architecture field: (1) the communications gap between client and practitioner; (2) humanization of the environment; and (3) financial, spatial, material, and societal constraints. He examines the role of continuing education and professional associations in responding to those challenges, which are…

  12. Ensuring IT service continuity in the face of increasing threats.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    How is IT service continuity related to business continuity management? Is it just a glorified disaster recovery procedure? Will IT service continuity help increase the assurance of IT services from the business owner to the customer? This paper is an attempt at answering these and many such questions. It is presented as a case study of IT service continuity management implementation at Emirates Group IT, Dubai. It takes the reader through the need for the process as felt by the business, through the learning acquired during implementation, to the practices deployed for managing the process on an ongoing basis. It provides a detailed view of the kind of pitfalls that could be encountered during implementation of the IT service continuity management process in a large-scale enterprise.

  13. A Continuous Dual-Process Model of Remember/Know Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixted, John T.; Mickes, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The dual-process theory of recognition memory holds that recognition decisions can be based on recollection or familiarity, and the remember/know procedure is widely used to investigate those 2 processes. Dual-process theory in general and the remember/know procedure in particular have been challenged by an alternative strength-based…

  14. The development of the super-biodiesel production continuously from Sunan pecan oil through the process of reactive distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Yulianto, Moh. Endy; Ikhsan, Diyono; Nanta, Aditya Marga; Puspitasari, Ristiyanti

    2016-06-01

    In general, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel production commercially operates a batch process with high investments and operational costs. Thus, it is necessary to develop super-biodiesel production from sunan pecan oil continuously through the process of reactive distillation. There are four advantages of the reactive distillation process for the biodiesel production, as follows: (i) it incorporates the process of transesterification reaction, and product separation of residual reactants become one stage of the process, so it saves the investment and operation costs, (ii) it reduces the need for raw materials because the methanol needed corresponds to the stoichiometry, so it also reduces the operation costs, (iii) the holdup time in the column is relatively short (5±0,5 minutes) compared to the batch process (1-2 hours), so it will reduce the operational production costs, and (iv) it is able to shift the reaction equilibrium, because the products and reactants that do not react are instantly separated (based on Le Chatelier's principles) so the conversion will be increased. However, the very crucial problem is determining the design tools and process conditions in order to maximize the conversion of the transesterification reaction in both phases. Thus, the purpose of this research was to design a continuous reactive distillation process by using a recycled condensate to increase the productivity of the super-biodiesel from sunan pecan oil. The research was carried out in three stages including (i) designing and fabricating the reactive distillation equipment, (ii) testing the tool performance and the optimization of the biodiesel production, and (iii) biodiesel testing on the diesel engine. These three stages were needed in designing and scaling-up the process tools and the process operation commercially. The reactive distillation process tools were designed and manufactured with reference to the design system tower by Kitzer, et.al. (2008). The manufactured

  15. Mathematical modeling of a continuous alcoholic fermentation process in a two-stage tower reactor cascade with flocculating yeast recycle.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Samuel Conceição; de Castro, Heizir Ferreira; Visconti, Alexandre Eliseu Stourdze; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) around 150 g/L. The data obtained in these experimental conditions were used to adjust the parameters of a mathematical model previously developed for the single-stage process. This model considers each of the tower bioreactors as a perfectly mixed continuous reactor and the kinetics of cell growth and product formation takes into account the limitation by substrate and the inhibition by ethanol and biomass, as well as the substrate consumption for cellular maintenance. The model predictions agreed satisfactorily with the measurements taken in both stages of the cascade. The major differences with respect to the kinetic parameters previously estimated for a single-stage system were observed for the maximum specific growth rate, for the inhibition constants of cell growth and for the specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance. Mathematical models were validated and used to simulate alternative operating conditions as well as to analyze the performance of the two-stage process against that of the single-stage process.

  16. Workflow continuity--moving beyond business continuity in a multisite 24-7 healthcare organization.

    PubMed

    Kolowitz, Brian J; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Barkey, Charles; Black, Harry; Light, Karen; Deible, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    As hospitals move towards providing in-house 24 × 7 services, there is an increasing need for information systems to be available around the clock. This study investigates one organization's need for a workflow continuity solution that provides around the clock availability for information systems that do not provide highly available services. The organization investigated is a large multifacility healthcare organization that consists of 20 hospitals and more than 30 imaging centers. A case analysis approach was used to investigate the organization's efforts. The results show an overall reduction in downtimes where radiologists could not continue their normal workflow on the integrated Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) solution by 94 % from 2008 to 2011. The impact of unplanned downtimes was reduced by 72 % while the impact of planned downtimes was reduced by 99.66 % over the same period. Additionally more than 98 h of radiologist impact due to a PACS upgrade in 2008 was entirely eliminated in 2011 utilizing the system created by the workflow continuity approach. Workflow continuity differs from high availability and business continuity in its design process and available services. Workflow continuity only ensures that critical workflows are available when the production system is unavailable due to scheduled or unscheduled downtimes. Workflow continuity works in conjunction with business continuity and highly available system designs. The results of this investigation revealed that this approach can add significant value to organizations because impact on users is minimized if not eliminated entirely.

  17. Continuous separation of copper ions from a mixture of heavy metal ions using a three-zone carousel process packed with metal ion-imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Jo, Se-Hee; Lee, See-Young; Park, Kyeong-Mok; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Dukjoon; Mun, Sungyong

    2010-11-05

    In this study, a three-zone carousel process based on a proper molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) resin was developed for continuous separation of Cu(2+) from Mn(2+) and Co(2+). For this task, the Cu (II)-imprinted polymer (Cu-MIP) resin was synthesized first and used to pack the chromatographic columns of a three-zone carousel process. Prior to the experiment of the carousel process based on the Cu-MIP resin (MIP-carousel process), a series of single-column experiments were performed to estimate the intrinsic parameters of the three heavy metal ions and to find out the appropriate conditions of regeneration and re-equilibration. The results from these single-column experiments and the additional computer simulations were then used for determination of the operating parameters of the MIP-carousel process under consideration. Based on the determined operating parameters, the MIP-carousel experiments were carried out. It was confirmed from the experimental results that the proposed MIP-carousel process was markedly effective in separating Cu(2+) from Mn(2+) and Co(2+) in a continuous mode with high purity and a relatively small loss. Thus, the MIP-carousel process developed in this study deserves sufficient attention in materials processing industries or metal-related industries, where the selective separation of heavy metal ions with the same charge has been a major concern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface quality of unsaturated polyester resin processed via continuous multi-shot rotational molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogila, K. O.; Yang, W.; Shao, M.; Tan, J.

    2017-05-01

    Unsaturated Polyester Resin is a versatile and cost efficient thermosetting plastic whose application in rotational molding is currently limited by its relatively high initial viscosity and heat of reaction. These material characteristics result in uneven material distribution, poor surface finish and imperfections in the moldings especially when large wall thicknesses are required. The current work attempts to remedy these shortcomings through the development of a continuous multi-shot system which adds predetermined loads of unsaturated polyester resin into a rotating mold at various intervals. As part of this system, a laboratory-scale uniaxial rotational molding machine was used to produce Unsaturated Polyester Resin moldings in single and double shots. Optimal processing conditions were determined through visual studies, three dimensional microscopic studies, thickness distribution analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Volume filling fractions of 0.049-0.065, second shot volumes of 0.5-0.75 from the first shot, rotational speeds of 15-20 rpm and temperatures of 30-50 °C resulted in moldings of suitable quality on both the inner and outer surfaces.

  19. Method for the continuous processing of hermetic fiber optic components and the resultant fiber optic-to-metal components

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, D.P.

    1994-08-09

    Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components and method for making hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components by assembling and fixturing elements comprising a metal shell, a glass preform, and a metal-coated fiber optic into desired relative positions and then sealing said fixtured elements preferably using a continuous heating process is disclosed. The resultant hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components exhibit high hermeticity and durability despite the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion among the various elements. 3 figs.

  20. Continuous high PRF waveforms for challenging environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszewski, Steven; Corbeil, Allan; Ryland, Robert; Sobota, David

    2017-05-01

    Current airborne radar systems segment the available time-on-target during each beam dwell into multiple Coherent Processing Intervals (CPIs) in order to eliminate range eclipsing, solve for unambiguous range, and increase the detection performance against larger Radar Cross Section (RCS) targets. As a consequence, these radars do not realize the full Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increase and detection performance improvement that is possible. Continuous High Pulse Repetition Frequency (HPRF) waveforms and processing enables the coherent integration of all available radar data over the full time-on-target. This can greatly increase the SNR for air targets at long range and/or with weak radar returns and significantly improve the detection performance against such targets. TSC worked with its partner KeyW to implement a Continuous HPRF waveform in their Sahara radar testbed and obtained measured radar data on both a ground vehicle target and an airborne target of opportunity. This experimental data was processed by TSC to validate the expected benefits of Continuous HPRF waveforms.

  1. Continuous flow technology vs. the batch-by-batch approach to produce pharmaceutical compounds.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kevin P; Johnson, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    For the manufacture of small molecule drugs, many pharmaceutical innovator companies have recently invested in continuous processing, which can offer significant technical and economic advantages over traditional batch methodology. This Expert Review will describe the reasons for this interest as well as many considerations and challenges that exist today concerning continuous manufacturing. Areas covered: Continuous processing is defined and many reasons for its adoption are described. The current state of continuous drug substance manufacturing within the pharmaceutical industry is summarized. Current key challenges to implementation of continuous manufacturing are highlighted, and an outlook provided regarding the prospects for continuous within the industry. Expert commentary: Continuous processing at Lilly has been a journey that started with the need for increased safety and capability. Over twelve years the original small, dedicated group has grown to more than 100 Lilly employees in discovery, development, quality, manufacturing, and regulatory designing in continuous drug substance processing. Recently we have focused on linked continuous unit operations for the purpose of all-at-once pharmaceutical manufacturing, but the technical and business drivers that existed in the very beginning for stand-alone continuous unit operations in hybrid processes have persisted, which merits investment in both approaches.

  2. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance limiting mechanisms in large grain (greater than 1-2 mm in diameter) polycrystalline silicon was investigated by measuring the illuminated current voltage (I-V) characteristics of the minicell wafer set. The average short circuit current on different wafers is 3 to 14 percent lower than that of single crystal Czochralski silicon. The scatter was typically less than 3 percent. The average open circuit voltage is 20 to 60 mV less than that of single crystal silicon. The scatter in the open circuit voltage of most of the polycrystalline silicon wafers was 15 to 20 mV, although two wafers had significantly greater scatter than this value. The fill factor of both polycrystalline and single crystal silicon cells was typically in the range of 60 to 70 percent; however several polycrystalline silicon wafers have fill factor averages which are somewhat lower and have a significantly larger degree of scatter.

  3. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2002-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  4. Apparatus for fabricating continuous lengths of superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2001-01-01

    A process and apparatus for manufacturing a superconductor. The process is accomplished by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon, overlaying a continuous length of a second substrate ribbon on said first substrate ribbon, and applying sufficient pressure to form a bound layered superconductor comprising a layer of said superconducting precursor powder between said first substrate ribbon and said second substrates ribbon. The layered superconductor is then heat treated to establish the superconducting phase of said superconductor precursor powder.

  5. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 6: Photovoltaic technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, C. E.

    1981-04-01

    Industrial production of photovoltaic systems and volume of sales are reviewed. Low cost silicon production techniques are reviewed, including the Czochralski process, heat exchange method, edge defined film fed growth, dentritic web growth, and silicon on ceramic process. Semicrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and low cost poly-silicon are discussed as well as advanced materials and concentrator systems. Balance of system components beyond those needed to manufacture the solar panels are included. Nontechnical factors are assessed. The 1986 system cost goals are briefly reviewed.

  6. The Process by Which Double Base Propellants with Embedded Continuous Wires are Fabricated by Use of the Screw Extruder,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-08

    Engineering Research Center in Xian Xian City, People’s Republic of China received June 9, 1981 Abstract This paper describes a process by which the screw... research , it is not only possible to satisfy a full range of design requirements, but also to produce double base propellant grains with continuous...arranged in a radial configuration by the application of an electrical charge. In recent years3 researches on the embedding of wires in propellant

  7. Accreditation of Continuing Education: The Critical Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSilets, Lynore D.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of accreditation in nursing continuing education, describes the system and process, and identifies institutional characteristics needed before beginning the process. Uses the American Nurses Center Commission on Accreditation model. (Author/SK)

  8. Atomic clocks and the continuous-time random-walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formichella, Valerio; Camparo, James; Tavella, Patrizia

    2017-11-01

    Atomic clocks play a fundamental role in many fields, most notably they generate Universal Coordinated Time and are at the heart of all global navigation satellite systems. Notwithstanding their excellent timekeeping performance, their output frequency does vary: it can display deterministic frequency drift; diverse continuous noise processes result in nonstationary clock noise (e.g., random-walk frequency noise, modelled as a Wiener process), and the clock frequency may display sudden changes (i.e., "jumps"). Typically, the clock's frequency instability is evaluated by the Allan or Hadamard variances, whose functional forms can identify the different operative noise processes. Here, we show that the Allan and Hadamard variances of a particular continuous-time random-walk, the compound Poisson process, have the same functional form as for a Wiener process with drift. The compound Poisson process, introduced as a model for observed frequency jumps, is an alternative to the Wiener process for modelling random walk frequency noise. This alternate model fits well the behavior of the rubidium clocks flying on GPS Block-IIR satellites. Further, starting from jump statistics, the model can be improved by considering a more general form of continuous-time random-walk, and this could bring new insights into the physics of atomic clocks.

  9. Utilization of Tabula Rasa to Stabilize Bulk Lifetimes in n-Cz Silicon for High-Performance Solar Cell Processing

    SciTech Connect

    LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Jensen, Mallory Ann; Youssef, Amanda

    2016-11-21

    We investigate a high temperature, high cooling-rate anneal Tabula Rasa (TR) and report its implications on n-type Czochralski-grown silicon (n-Cz Si) for photovoltaic fabrication. Tabula Rasa aims at dissolving and homogenizing oxygen precipitate nuclei that can grow during the cell process steps and degrade the cell performance due to their high internal gettering and recombination activity. The Tabula Rasa thermal treatment is performed in a clean tube furnace with cooling rates >100 degrees C/s. We characterize the bulk lifetime by Sinton lifetime and photoluminescence mapping just after Tabula Rasa, and after the subsequent cell processing. After TR, the bulk lifetimemore » surprisingly degrades to <; 0.1ms, only to recover to values equal or higher than the initial non-treated wafer (several ms), after typical high temperature cell process steps. Those include boron diffusion and oxidation; phosphorus diffusion/oxidation; ambient annealing at 850 degrees C; and crystallization annealing of tunneling-passivating contacts (doped polycrystalline silicon on 1.5 nm thermal oxide). The drastic lifetime improvement during high temperature cell processing is attributed to improved external gettering of metal impurities and annealing of intrinsic point defects. Time and injection dependent lifetime spectroscopy further reveals the mechanisms of lifetime improvement after Tabula Rasa treatment. Additionally, we report the efficacy of Tabula Rasa on n-type Cz-Si wafers and its dependence on oxygen concentration, correlated to position within the ingot.« less

  10. Creating meaningful business continuity management programme metrics.

    PubMed

    Strong, Brian

    2010-11-01

    The popular axiom, 'what gets measured gets done', is often applied in the quality management and continuous improvement disciplines. This truism is also useful to business continuity practitioners as they continually strive to prove the value of their organisation's investment in a business continuity management (BCM) programme. BCM practitioners must also remain relevant to their organisations as executives focus on the bottom line and maintaining stakeholder confidence. It seems that executives always find a way, whether in a hallway or elevator, to ask BCM professionals about the company's level of readiness. When asked, they must be ready with an informed response. The establishment of a process to measure business continuity programme performance and organisational readiness has emerged as a key component of US Department of Homeland Security 'Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness (PS-Prep) Program' standards where the overarching goal is to improve private sector preparedness for disasters and emergencies. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to introduce continuity professionals to best practices that should be considered when developing a BCM metrics programme as well as providing a case study of how a large health insurance company researched, developed and implemented a process to measure BCM programme performance and company readiness.

  11. Project Developmental Continuity Evaluation: Site Visitors' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary; Smith, Allen

    This site visitors' manual is part of a series of documents on the evaluation of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration program aimed at providing educational and developmental continuity between children's Head Start and primary school experiences. The PDC evaluation documents and analyzes the process of program…

  12. Synthesis of Geraniol Esters in a Continuous-Flow Packed-Bed Reactor of Immobilized Lipase: Optimization of Process Parameters and Kinetic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Harshada M; Kamble, Manoj P; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2018-02-01

    With increasing demand for perfumes, flavors, beverages, and pharmaceuticals, the various associated industries are resorting to different approaches to enhance yields of desired compounds. The use of fixed-bed biocatalytic reactors in some of the processes for making fine chemicals will be of great value because the reaction times could be reduced substantially as well as high conversion and yields obtained. In the current study, a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was employed for synthesis of various geraniol esters. Optimization of process parameters such as biocatalyst screening, effect of solvent, mole ratio, temperature and acyl donors was studied in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor. Maximum conversion of ~ 87% of geranyl propionate was achieved in 15 min residence time at 70 °C using geraniol and propionic acid with a 1:1 mol ratio. Novozym 435 was found to be the most active and stable biocatalyst among all tested. Ternary complex mechanism with propionic acid inhibition was found to fit the data.

  13. Mechanistic modelling of infrared mediated energy transfer during the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; De Meyer, Laurens; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Conventional pharmaceutical freeze-drying is an inefficient and expensive batch-wise process, associated with several disadvantages leading to an uncontrolled end product variability. The proposed continuous alternative, based on spinning the vials during freezing and on optimal energy supply during drying, strongly increases process efficiency and improves product quality (uniformity). The heat transfer during continuous drying of the spin frozen vials is provided via non-contact infrared (IR) radiation. The energy transfer to the spin frozen vials should be optimised to maximise the drying efficiency while avoiding cake collapse. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed which allows computing the optimal, dynamic IR heater temperature in function of the primary drying progress and which, hence, also allows predicting the primary drying endpoint based on the applied dynamic IR heater temperature. The model was validated by drying spin frozen vials containing the model formulation (3.9mL in 10R vials) according to the computed IR heater temperature profile. In total, 6 validation experiments were conducted. The primary drying endpoint was experimentally determined via in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and compared with the endpoint predicted by the model (50min). The mean ratio of the experimental drying time to the predicted value was 0.91, indicating a good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data. The end product had an elegant product appearance (visual inspection) and an acceptable residual moisture content (Karl Fischer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Optimization of a Wet Granulation Process at Elevated Temperature for a Poorly Compactible Drug Using Twin Screw Extruder for Continuous Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Meena, Anuprabha K; Desai, Divyakant; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance tabletability of a poorly compactible drug, acetaminophen, by wet granulation using twin screw extruder at high temperature. It was desired that there would be minimum amounts of excipients used and the granules obtained after extrusion would be dry and fall within a size range suitable for tableting without any further processing. Mixtures of acetaminophen (95%) with binders (5% povidone or partially pregelatinized starch) were wet granulated through twin screw extruder at 70°C by adding 7% w/w water. The process had a short granulation time (<1 min), and, on account of the elevated processing temperature used, no drying after extrusion was needed. By optimizing formulation and processing parameters, >90% granules in the size range of 125 to 1000 μm (<3% above 1000 μm and <7% below 125 μm) were obtained without any milling. When the granules were compressed by adding 1% disintegrant and 0.5% lubricant extragranularly, tablets produced (93.6% drug load) had good mechanical strength having hardness >1.7 MPa, which was superior to that of tablets prepared by conventional high shear wet granulation. As the granules could be extruded continuously and did not require drying and milling, the method was amenable to continuous processing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Observing continuous change in heart rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters during the process of pain production/relief with thermal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing-Jhao; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Lin, Jing-Siang; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Continuously monitoring and efficiently managing pain has become an important issue. However, no study has investigated a change in physiological parameters during the process of pain production/relief. This study modeled the process of pain production/relief using ramped thermal stimulation (no pain: 37°C water, process of pain production: a heating rate of 1°C/min, and subject feels pain: water kept at the painful temperature for each subject, with each segment lasting 10 min). In this duration, the variation of the heat rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters was observed. A total of 40 healthy individuals participated: 30 in the trial group (14 males and 16 females with a mean age of 22.5±1.9 years) and 10 in the control group (7 males and 3 females with a mean age of 22.5±1.3 years). The results showed that the numeric rating scale value was 5.03±1.99 when the subjects felt pain, with a temperature of 43.54±1.70°C. Heart rate, R-R interval, low frequency, high frequency, photoplethysmography amplitude, baseline, and autonomic nervous system state showed significant changes during the pain production process, but these changes differed during the period Segment D (painful temperature 10: min). In summary, the study observed that physiological parameters changed qualitatively during the process of pain production and relief and found that the high frequency, low frequency, and photoplethysmography parameters seemed to have different responses in four situations (no pain, pain production, pain experienced, and pain relief). The trends of these variations may be used as references in the clinical setting for continuously observing pain intensity.

  16. The dynamic process of adherence to a renal therapeutic regimen: perspectives of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lai Wah; Lee, Diana T F; Shiu, Ann T Y

    2014-06-01

    The nature of end-stage renal disease and the need for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis require patients to manage various aspects of the disease, its symptoms and treatment. After attending a training programme, patients are expected to adhere to the renal therapeutic regimen and manage their disease with the knowledge and skills learned. While patients are the stakeholders of their health and related behaviour, their perceptions of adherence and how they adhere to their renal therapeutic regimen remains unexplored. To understand adherence from patients' perspectives and to describe changes in adherence to a therapeutic regimen among patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. This study used a mixed methods design with two phases - a survey in phase I and semi-structured interviews in phase II. This paper presents phase II of the study. The study was conducted at a renal unit of an acute hospital in Hong Kong. Based on the phase I survey results, maximum variation sampling was employed to purposively recruit 36 participants of different genders (18 males, 18 females), ages (35-76 years), and lengths of dialysis experience (11-103 months) for the phase II interviews. Data were collected by tape-recorded semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was employed to analyse the transcribed data. Data collection and analysis were conducted simultaneously. Adherence was a dynamic process with three stages. At the stage of initial adherence, participants attempted to follow instructions but found that strict persistent adherence was impossible. After the first 2-6 months of dialysis, participants entered the stage of subsequent adherence, when they adopted selective adherence through experimenting, monitoring and making continuous adjustments. The stage of long-term adherence commenced after 3-5 years of dialysis, when participants were able to assimilate the modified therapeutic regimen into everyday life. The process of adherence was

  17. Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a membrane-reactor system: Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a membrane-reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Stickel, Jonathan J.; Adhikari, Birendra; Sievers, David A.

    Converting abundant lignocellulosic biomass to sugars as fungible precursors to fuels and chemicals has the potential to diversify the supply chain for those products, but further process improvements are needed to achieve economic viability. In the current work, process intensification of the key enzymatic hydrolysis unit operation is demonstrated by means of a membrane reactor system that was operated continuously. Lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated corn stover) and buffered enzyme solution were fed to a continuously stirred-tank reactor, and clarified sugar solution was withdrawn via a commercial tubular ultrafiltration membrane. The membrane permeance decline and membrane cleaning efficacy were studied and didmore » not vary significantly when increasing fraction insoluble solids (FIS) from 2.5% to 5%. Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis was successfully operated for more than 80 h. A model for the reactor system was able to predict dynamic behavior that was in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The modeled technical performance of anticipated commercial batch and continuous enzymatic hydrolysis processes were compared and showed that continuous operation would provide at least twice the volumetric productivity for the conditions studied. Further improvements are anticipated by better membrane selection and by increasing FIS.« less

  18. Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a membrane-reactor system: Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a membrane-reactor system

    DOE PAGES

    Stickel, Jonathan J.; Adhikari, Birendra; Sievers, David A.; ...

    2018-02-21

    Converting abundant lignocellulosic biomass to sugars as fungible precursors to fuels and chemicals has the potential to diversify the supply chain for those products, but further process improvements are needed to achieve economic viability. In the current work, process intensification of the key enzymatic hydrolysis unit operation is demonstrated by means of a membrane reactor system that was operated continuously. Lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated corn stover) and buffered enzyme solution were fed to a continuously stirred-tank reactor, and clarified sugar solution was withdrawn via a commercial tubular ultrafiltration membrane. The membrane permeance decline and membrane cleaning efficacy were studied and didmore » not vary significantly when increasing fraction insoluble solids (FIS) from 2.5% to 5%. Continuous enzymatic hydrolysis was successfully operated for more than 80 h. A model for the reactor system was able to predict dynamic behavior that was in reasonable agreement with experimental results. The modeled technical performance of anticipated commercial batch and continuous enzymatic hydrolysis processes were compared and showed that continuous operation would provide at least twice the volumetric productivity for the conditions studied. Further improvements are anticipated by better membrane selection and by increasing FIS.« less

  19. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates.

    PubMed

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH 4 /gVS added /d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hot-melt extrusion as a continuous manufacturing process to form ternary cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Justine; Krier, Fabrice; Ratwatte, Shenelka; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Jerome, Christine; Evrard, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hot-melt extrusion (HME) as a continuous process to form cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes in order to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of itraconazole (ITZ), a class II model drug molecule of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Different CD derivatives were tested in a 1:1 (CD:ITZ) molar ratio to obtain CD ternary inclusion complexes in the presence of a polymer, namely Soluplus ® (SOL). The CD used in this series of experiments were β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) with degrees of substitution of 0.63 and 0.87, randomly methylated β-cyclodextrin (Rameb ® ), sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (Captisol ® ) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Crysmeb ® ). Rheology testing and mini extrusion using a conical twin screw mini extruder were performed to test the processability of the different CD mixtures since CD are not thermoplastic. This allowed Captisol ® and Crysmeb ® to be discarded from the study due to their high impact on the viscosity of the SOL/ITZ mixture. The remaining CD were processed by HME in an 18mm twin screw extruder. Saturation concentration measurements confirmed the enhancement of solubility of ITZ for the four CD formulations. Biphasic dissolution tests indicated that all four formulations had faster release profiles compared to the SOL/ITZ solid dispersion. Formulations of HPβCD 0.63 and Rameb ® even reached 95% of ITZ released in both phases after 1h. The formulations were characterized using thermal differential scanning calorimetry and attenuated total reflectance infra-red analysis. These analyses confirmed that the increased release profile was due to the formation of ternary inclusion complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-11

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  2. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, James E.; Ross, Harley H.

    1981-01-01

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  3. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  4. IR studies of the impact of Ge doping on the successive conversion of VOn defects in Czochralski-Si containing carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londos, C. A.; Andrianakis, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Emtsev, V. V.; Ohyama, H.

    2011-02-01

    We report infrared absorption studies of oxygen-related defects in electron-irradiated Ge-doped Czochralski-Si. Our investigation was mainly focused on the reaction channel leading to the formation of VOn (1≤n≤6) defects. The VOn defects form mainly upon annealing, as a result of the successive aggregation of oxygen atoms in the initial VO defect produced by the irradiation: (VO+Oi→VO2+Oi→VO3+Oi→VO4,…). It was found that the ratio of the conversion of VOn to VOn+1 defects is sensitive to the Ge content of the material. In particular, the ratio of the conversion of the VO to the VO2 defects was found to decrease with the increase in Ge concentration of the samples, although the opposite trend was observed for the VO3 to VO4 conversion. However, the VO2 to VO3 conversion changes only slightly with Ge content, being practically unaffected for Ge concentrations up to 2×1020 cm-3. In the case of VO2 formation, the phenomenon was attributed to the elastic strains induced in the lattice due to the Ge presence which affects the balance between the reactions VO+Oi→VO2, VO+SiI→Oi, mainly involved in the decay of the VO and the growth of the VO2 defects. In the case of VO4 formation, the phenomenon was discussed by taking into account the enhancement of the diffusivity of the Oi atoms in the Ge-doped Si, which could lead to an enhancement of the rate of the reaction VO3+Oi→VO4. For the VO3 formation this effect is practically negligible due to the fact that at the temperatures of VO2 to VO3 conversion oxygen diffusivity is quite small. The exhibited behavior in the conversion of the VOn to VOn+1 defects (n=1,2,3) was similar in Ge-doped samples with low carbon content ([Cs]<2×1016 cm-3) and in Ge-doped samples with high carbon content ([Cs]≥1×1017 cm-3). The impact of C as well as its role in the conversion efficiency of VO to VO2 was studied by comparing the spectra in low carbon and high carbon Ge free Si material. Furthermore, a pair of bands at

  5. Project Developmental Continuity Evaluation: Final Report. Volume II: The Process of Program Implementation in PDC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, Sally; And Others

    The second of two volumes, this document continues the final evaluation report of Project Developmental Continuity (PDC), a Head Start demonstration project initiated in 1974 to develop program models which enhance children's social competence by fostering developmental continuity from preschool through the early elementary grades. In particular,…

  6. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Continuous process for conversion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Willson, Warrack G.; Baker, Gene G.; Sondreal, Everett A.; Farnum, Sylvia A.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for converting coal to liquid and gaseous products wherein the liquid products predominate and wherein reactor, tubing, and valve plugging due to carbonate salt formation is reduced by reacting crushed low-rank coal containing about 12 to 30% by weight of water in a solvent at a temperature in the range of about 455.degree. to 500.degree. C., under about 2000 to 5000 psi pressure of a H.sub.2 /CO mixture for a liquid residence time of about 20 to 60 minutes. The solvent is a fraction of liquid product defined on a weight basis as being made up of about 55% of which distills at less than 250.degree. C./lmm, about 20% of which is soluble in THF, and about 25% of which is carbon polymer and indigenous inorganic matter. The solvent is further defined as containing at least about 5 weight % of partially hydrogenated aromatics and/or fully hydrogenated aromatics and little or no alkylated aromatics or higher alkanes.

  8. Regulatory Perspectives on Continuous Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Moving From Theory to Practice: September 26-27, 2016, International Symposium on the Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Moheb M; Krumme, Markus; Matsuda, Yoshihiro; Trout, Bernhardt L; Badman, Clive; Mascia, Salvatore; Cooney, Charles L; Jensen, Keith D; Florence, Alastair; Johnston, Craig; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Lee, Sau L

    2017-11-01

    Continuous manufacturing plays a key role in enabling the modernization of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The fate of this emerging technology will rely, in large part, on the regulatory implementation of this novel technology. This paper, which is based on the 2nd International Symposium on the Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals, describes not only the advances that have taken place since the first International Symposium on Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals in 2014, but the regulatory landscape that exists today. Key regulatory concepts including quality risk management, batch definition, control strategy, process monitoring and control, real-time release testing, data processing and management, and process validation/verification are outlined. Support from regulatory agencies, particularly in the form of the harmonization of regulatory expectations, will be crucial to the successful implementation of continuous manufacturing. Collaborative efforts, among academia, industry, and regulatory agencies, are the optimal solution for ensuring a solid future for this promising manufacturing technology. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  9. ASTER Images Merapi Continuing Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-18

    This thermal infrared image from NASA Terra spacecraft of Merapi continuing eruption has been processed to reveal the dominant presence of volcanic ash in the eruption plume and clouds, displayed in dark red. The warm volcanic flow appears bright.

  10. A Developmental Process Analysis of Cross-Generational Continuity in Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Yu, Tianyi; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study (N = 585) we examined intergenerational links in level of educational attainment. Of particular interest was whether family background characteristics, parenting in early childhood and early adolescence, and school adjustment and performance in middle childhood accounted for (i.e., mediated) continuity and…

  11. Efficient and stable production of Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus in two-stage semi-continuous and in continuous stirred tank cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Felipe; Jordan, Ingo; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    One important aim in cell culture-based viral vaccine and vector production is the implementation of continuous processes. Such a development has the potential to reduce costs of vaccine manufacturing as volumetric productivity is increased and the manufacturing footprint is reduced. In this work, continuous production of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus was investigated. First, a semi-continuous two-stage cultivation system consisting of two shaker flasks in series was established as a small-scale approach. Cultures of the avian AGE1.CR.pIX cell line were expanded in the first shaker, and MVA virus was propagated and harvested in the second shaker over a period of 8-15 days. A total of nine small-scale cultivations were performed to investigate the impact of process parameters on virus yields. Harvest volumes of 0.7-1 L with maximum TCID50 titers of up to 1.0×109 virions/mL were obtained. Genetic analysis of control experiments using a recombinant MVA virus containing green-fluorescent-protein suggested that the virus was stable over at least 16 d of cultivation. In addition, a decrease or fluctuation of infectious units that may indicate an excessive accumulation of defective interfering particles was not observed. The process was automated in a two-stage continuous system comprising two connected 1 L stirred tank bioreactors. Stable MVA virus titers, and a total production volume of 7.1 L with an average TCID50 titer of 9×107 virions/mL was achieved. Because titers were at the lower range of the shake flask cultivations potential for further process optimization at large scale will be discussed. Overall, MVA virus was efficiently produced in continuous and semi-continuous cultivations making two-stage stirred tank bioreactor systems a promising platform for industrial production of MVA-derived recombinant vaccines and viral vectors.

  12. A continuous dual-process model of remember/know judgments.

    PubMed

    Wixted, John T; Mickes, Laura

    2010-10-01

    The dual-process theory of recognition memory holds that recognition decisions can be based on recollection or familiarity, and the remember/know procedure is widely used to investigate those 2 processes. Dual-process theory in general and the remember/know procedure in particular have been challenged by an alternative strength-based interpretation based on signal-detection theory, which holds that remember judgments simply reflect stronger memories than do know judgments. Although supported by a considerable body of research, the signal-detection account is difficult to reconcile with G. Mandler's (1980) classic "butcher-on-the-bus" phenomenon (i.e., strong, familiarity-based recognition). In this article, a new signal-detection model is proposed that does not deny either the validity of dual-process theory or the possibility that remember/know judgments can-when used in the right way-help to distinguish between memories that are largely recollection based from those that are largely familiarity based. It does, however, agree with all prior signal-detection-based critiques of the remember/know procedure, which hold that, as it is ordinarily used, the procedure mainly distinguishes strong memories from weak memories (not recollection from familiarity).

  13. Team table: a framework and tool for continuous factory planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihn, Wilfried; Bischoff, Juergen; von Briel, Ralf; Josten, Marcus

    2000-10-01

    Growing market turbulences and shorter product life cycles require a continuous adaptation of factory structures resulting in a continuous factory planning process. Therefore a new framework is developed which focuses on configuration and data management process integration. This enable an online system performance evaluation based on continuous availability of current data. The use of this framework is especially helpful and will guarantee high cost and time savings, when used in the early stages of the planning, called the concept or rough planning phase. The new framework is supported by a planning round table as a tool for team-based configuration processes integrating the knowledge of all persons involved in planning processes. A case study conducted at a German company shows the advantages which can be achieved by implementing the new framework and methods.

  14. Method and apparatus for continuous electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Jack S.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting continuous separation of substances by electrophoresis are disclosed. The process involves electrophoretic separation combined with couette flow in a thin volume defined by opposing surfaces. By alternating the polarity of the applied potential and producing reciprocating short rotations of at least one of the surfaces relative to the other, small increments of separation accumulate to cause substantial, useful segregation of electrophoretically separable components in a continuous flow system.

  15. Continuous tone printing in silicone from CNC milled matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, S.; McCallion, P.

    2014-02-01

    Current research at the Centre for Fine Print Research (CFPR) at the University of the West of England, Bristol, is exploring the potential of creating coloured pictorial imagery from a continuous tone relief surface. To create the printing matrices the research team have been using CNC milled images where the height of the relief image is dictated by creating a tone curve and then milling this curve into a series of relief blocks from which the image is cast in a silicone ink. A translucent image is cast from each of the colour matrices and each colour is assembled - one on top of another - resulting is a colour continuous tone print, where colour tone is created by physical depth of colour. This process is a contemporary method of continuous tone colour printing based upon the Nineteenth Century black and white printing process of Woodburytype as developed by Walter Bentley Woodbury in 1865. Woodburytype is the only true continuous tone printing process invented, and although its delicate and subtle surfaces surpassed all other printing methods at the time. The process died out in the late nineteenth century as more expedient and cost effective methods of printing prevailed. New research at CFPR builds upon previous research that combines 19th Century Photomechanical techniques with digital technology to reappraise the potential of these processes.

  16. Attention to change: A multilevel theory on the process of emergent continuous organizational change.

    PubMed

    Wee, Elijah X M; Taylor, M Susan

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, continuous organizational change is viewed as the new reality for organizations and their members. However, this model of organizational change, which is usually characterized by ongoing, cumulative, and substantive change from the bottom up, remains underexplored in the literature. Taking a multilevel approach, the authors develop a theoretical model to explain the mechanisms behind the amplification and accumulation of valuable, ongoing work-unit level changes over time, which then become substantial changes at the organizational level. Drawing on the concept of emergence, they first focus on the cognitive search mechanisms of work-unit members and managers to illustrate how work-unit level routine changes may be amplified to the organization through 2 unique processes: composition and compilation emergence. The authors then discuss the managers' role in creating a sense of coherence and meaning for the accumulation of these emergent changes over time. They conclude this research by discussing the theoretical implications of their model for the existing literature of organizational change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGES

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  18. The use of designed experiments in the process development of continuous propellant mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. A.; Clemons, K. T.; Wong, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous mix pilot plant was constructed at Aerojet Propulsion Division in Sacramento, California to develop a robust propellant mixing process for the full scale plant that was to be built at the NASA Advanced Solid Rocket Motor facility Yellow Creek, Mississippi. The plant was used to conduct dozens of subsystem and full system mixing tests for evaluation of equipment, processing methods, and control schemes for later use at the production plant. As a culmination to this work, a series of designed experiments were conducted using an eight run Taguchi analysis with four factors at two levels each to determine the primary effect of processing parameters on propellant ballistic and mechanical properties. The factors examined in these runs included the propellant production rate (454 (1000) and 622 kg/hr (1371 Ib/hr)), the product temperature out of the mixer (49 (120) and 63 deg C (145 deg F)), mixer screw speed (75 and 90 rpm), and the deaerator excess capacity (20 and 80 percent). Measured response variables included the uncured and cured density, Crawford Bomb liquid strand burning rates, and selected mechanical properties. The experiment revealed that several of the response variables displayed significant changes from run-to-run with the product temperature being the single most important factor. After concluding this experiment, a twenty-six hour confirmation run was conducted to verify the conclusions reached in the designed experiment. The extended run produced over 12,250 kgs (27,000 lbs) of propellant meeting all of the pre-run targeted properties including density (1.803 g/cc (0.065 lb/in(exp 3)) with a 0.12 percent coefficient of variation (CV) at 25 deg C (77 deg F)), liquid strand burn rate (0.889 cm/s (0.350 in/s) with a 0.69 percent CV at 4210 KPa (610 psig), 15.6 deg C (60 deg F)), nominal maximum stress (828 KPa (120 psig) with a 2.84 percent CV, S&E at 25 deg C (77 deg F), 5.08 cm/min (2 in/min)), strain at nominal maximum (47.4 percent with a

  19. Synchrotron X-ray topography of electronic materials.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, T

    2002-05-01

    Large-area transmission, transmission section, large-area back-reflection, back-reflection section and grazing-incidence topography are the geometries used when recording high-resolution X-ray diffraction images with synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet, a wiggler or an undulator of an electron or a positron storage ring. Defect contrast can be kinematical, dynamical or orientational even in the topographs recorded on the same film at the same time. In this review article limited to static topography experiments, examples of defect studies on electronic materials cover the range from voids and precipitates in almost perfect float-zone and Czochralski silicon, dislocations in gallium arsenide grown by the liquid-encapsulated Czochralski technique, the vapour-pressure controlled Czochralski technique and the vertical-gradient freeze technique, stacking faults and micropipes in silicon carbide to misfit dislocations in epitaxic heterostructures. It is shown how synchrotron X-ray topographs of epitaxic laterally overgrown gallium arsenide layer structures are successfully explained by orientational contrast.

  20. Prompting Children to Reason Proportionally: Processing Discrete Units as Continuous Amounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.; Levine, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that children can solve proportional reasoning problems presented with continuous amounts that enable intuitive strategies by around 6 years of age but have difficulties with problems presented with discrete units that tend to elicit explicit count-and-match strategies until at least 10 years of age. The current study tests…

  1. 1.083 μm laser operation in Nd,Mg:LiTaO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P. C.; Hang, Y.; Li, R.; Gong, J.; Yin, J. G.; Zhao, C. C.; He, X. M.; Yu, T.; Zhang, L. H.; Chen, W. B.; Zhu, Y. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Nd,Mg:LiTaO3 single crystal with high optical quality was grown by Czochralski technique. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated. The peak absorption cross section at 806.5 nm and peak emission cross section at 1091 nm are 6.81×10-20 and 3.28×10-20 cm2, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime was measured to be 129 μs. With a laser-diode as the pump source, a maximum 375 mW continuous-wave laser output at 1083 nm has been obtained with a slope efficiency of 7.2% with respect to the pump power.

  2. Natural soil mediated photo Fenton-like processes in treatment of pharmaceuticals: Batch and continuous approach.

    PubMed

    Changotra, Rahil; Rajput, Himadri; Dhir, Amit

    2017-12-01

    This paper manifests the potential viability of soil as a cost-free catalyst in photo-Fenton-like processes for treating pharmaceuticals at large scale. Naturally available soil without any cost intensive modification was utilized as a catalyst to degrade pharmaceuticals, specifically ornidazole (ORZ) and ofloxacin (OFX). Soil was characterized and found enriched with various iron oxides like hematite, magnetite, goethite, pyrite and wustite, which contributes toward enhanced dissolution of Fe 3+ than Fe 2+ in the aqueous solution resulting in augmented rate of photo-Fenton reaction. The leached iron concentration in solution was detected during the course of experiments. The degradation of ORZ and OFX was assessed in solar induced batch experiments using H 2 O 2 as oxidant and 95% ORZ and 92% OFX removal was achieved. Elevated efficiencies were achieved due to Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ cycling, producing more hydroxyl radical leading to the existence of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions simultaneously. The removal efficiency of solar photo-Fenton like process was also compared to photo-Fenton process with different irradiation sources (UV-A and UV-B) and were statistically analysed. Continuous-scale studies were conducted employing soil either in the form of soil beads or as a thin layer spread on the surface of baffled reactor. Soil beads were found to have satisfactory reusability and stability. 84 and 79% degradation of ORZ and OFX was achieved using soil as thin layer while with soil beads 71 and 68% degradation, respectively. HPLC and TOC study confirmed the efficient removal of both the compounds. Toxicity assessment demonstrates the inexistence of toxic intermediates during the reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of Transient Flow, Solidification, and Particle Transport Processes in Continuous-Casting Mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Jiang, Maofa

    2014-07-01

    The current study developed a coupled computational model to simulate the transient fluid flow, solidification, and particle transport processes in a slab continuous-casting mold. Transient flow of molten steel in the mold is calculated using the large eddy simulation. An enthalpy-porosity approach is used for the analysis of solidification processes. The transport of bubble and non-metallic inclusion inside the liquid pool is calculated using the Lagrangian approach based on the transient flow field. A criterion of particle entrapment in the solidified shell is developed using the user-defined functions of FLUENT software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA). The predicted results of this model are compared with the measurements of the ultrasonic testing of the rolled steel plates and the water model experiments. The transient asymmetrical flow pattern inside the liquid pool exhibits quite satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements. The predicted complex instantaneous velocity field is composed of various small recirculation zones and multiple vortices. The transport of particles inside the liquid pool and the entrapment of particles in the solidified shell are not symmetric. The Magnus force can reduce the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell, especially for smaller particles, but the effect is not obvious. The Marangoni force can play an important role in controlling the motion of particles, which increases the entrapment ratio of particles in the solidified shell obviously.

  4. Microwave and continuous flow technologies in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Sara; Moeller, Alexander R; Jones, Graham B

    2012-12-01

    Microwave and continuous flow microreactors have become mainstream heating sources in contemporary pharmaceutical company laboratories. Such technologies will continue to benefit from design and engineering improvements, and now play a key role in the drug discovery process. The authors review the applications of flow- and microwave-mediated heating in library, combinatorial, solid-phase, metal-assisted, and protein chemistries. Additionally, the authors provide a description of the combination of microwave and continuous flow platforms, with applications in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and in drug candidate development. Literature reviewed is chiefly 2000 - 2012, plus key citations from earlier reports. With the advent of microwave irradiation, reactions that normally took days to complete can now be performed in a matter of minutes. Coupled with the introduction of continuous flow microreactors, pharmaceutical companies have an easy way to improve the greenness and efficiency of many synthetic operations. The combined force of these technologies offers the potential to revolutionize discovery and manufacturing processes.

  5. Raw material variability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and its relevance for processability in secondary continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, F; Vanhoorne, V; Pilcer, G; Chavez, P-F; Rome, S; Schubert, M A; Aerts, L; De Beer, T

    2018-06-01

    Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality. The study described in this article aims at explaining the raw material variability of an API using extensive material characterization on a restricted number of representative batches using multivariate data analysis. It is part of a larger investigation trying to link the API drug substance manufacturing process, the resulting physical API raw material attributes and the drug product continuous manufacturing process. Eight API batches produced using different synthetic routes, crystallization, drying, delumping processes and processing equipment were characterized, extensively. Seventeen properties from seven characterization techniques were retained for further analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three principal components (PCs) were sufficient to explain 92.9% of the API raw material variability. The first PC was related to crystal length, agglomerate size and fraction, flowability and electrostatic charging. The second PC was driven by the span of the particle size distribution and the agglomerates strength. The third PC was related to surface energy. Additionally, the PCA allowed to summarize the API batch-to-batch variability in only three PCs which can be used in future drug product development studies to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the API raw material variability upon the drug product process. The approach described in this article could be applied to any

  6. Process design and control of a twin screw hot melt extrusion for continuous pharmaceutical tamper-resistant tablet production.

    PubMed

    Baronsky-Probst, J; Möltgen, C-V; Kessler, W; Kessler, R W

    2016-05-25

    Hot melt extrusion (HME) is a well-known process within the plastic and food industries that has been utilized for the past several decades and is increasingly accepted by the pharmaceutical industry for continuous manufacturing. For tamper-resistant formulations of e.g. opioids, HME is the most efficient production technique. The focus of this study is thus to evaluate the manufacturability of the HME process for tamper-resistant formulations. Parameters such as the specific mechanical energy (SME), as well as the melt pressure and its standard deviation, are important and will be discussed in this study. In the first step, the existing process data are analyzed by means of multivariate data analysis. Key critical process parameters such as feed rate, screw speed, and the concentration of the API in the polymers are identified, and critical quality parameters of the tablet are defined. In the second step, a relationship between the critical material, product and process quality attributes are established by means of Design of Experiments (DoEs). The resulting SME and the temperature at the die are essential data points needed to indirectly qualify the degradation of the API, which should be minimal. NIR-spectroscopy is used to monitor the material during the extrusion process. In contrast to most applications in which the probe is directly integrated into the die, the optical sensor is integrated into the cooling line of the strands. This saves costs in the probe design and maintenance and increases the robustness of the chemometric models. Finally, a process measurement system is installed to monitor and control all of the critical attributes in real-time by means of first principles, DoE models, soft sensor models, and spectroscopic information. Overall, the process is very robust as long as the screw speed is kept low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. RTD-based Material Tracking in a Fully-Continuous Dry Granulation Tableting Line.

    PubMed

    Martinetz, M C; Karttunen, A-P; Sacher, S; Wahl, P; Ketolainen, J; Khinast, J G; Korhonen, O

    2018-06-06

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) offers quality and cost-effectiveness benefits over currently dominating batch processing. One challenge that needs to be addressed when implementing CM is traceability of materials through the process, which is needed for the batch/lot definition and control strategy. In this work the residence time distributions (RTD) of single unit operations (blender, roller compactor and tablet press) of a continuous dry granulation tableting line were captured with NIR based methods at selected mass flow rates to create training data. RTD models for continuous operated unit operations and the entire line were developed based on transfer functions. For semi-continuously operated bucket conveyor and pneumatic transport an assumption based the operation frequency was used. For validation of the parametrized process model, a pre-defined API step change and its propagation through the manufacturing line was computed and compared to multi-scale experimental runs conducted with the fully assembled continuous operated manufacturing line. This novel approach showed a very good prediction power at the selected mass flow rates for a complete continuous dry granulation line. Furthermore, it shows and proves the capabilities of process simulation as a tool to support development and control of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of a continuous bio-dissimilation process of glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gongxian; Liu, Ying; Gao, Qunwang

    2016-02-10

    This paper deals with multi-objective optimization of continuous bio-dissimilation process of glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol. In order to maximize the production rate of 1, 3-propanediol, maximize the conversion rate of glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol, maximize the conversion rate of glycerol, and minimize the concentration of by-product ethanol, we first propose six new multi-objective optimization models that can simultaneously optimize any two of the four objectives above. Then these multi-objective optimization problems are solved by using the weighted-sum and normal-boundary intersection methods respectively. Both the Pareto filter algorithm and removal criteria are used to remove those non-Pareto optimal points obtained by the normal-boundary intersection method. The results show that the normal-boundary intersection method can successfully obtain the approximate Pareto optimal sets of all the proposed multi-objective optimization problems, while the weighted-sum approach cannot achieve the overall Pareto optimal solutions of some multi-objective problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous Digital Light Processing (cDLP): Highly Accurate Additive Manufacturing of Tissue Engineered Bone Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Dean, David; Jonathan, Wallace; Siblani, Ali; Wang, Martha O; Kim, Kyobum; Mikos, Antonios G; Fisher, John P

    2012-03-01

    Highly accurate rendering of the external and internal geometry of bone tissue engineering scaffolds effects fit at the defect site, loading of internal pore spaces with cells, bioreactor-delivered nutrient and growth factor circulation, and scaffold resorption. It may be necessary to render resorbable polymer scaffolds with 50 μm or less accuracy to achieve these goals. This level of accuracy is available using Continuous Digital Light processing (cDLP) which utilizes a DLP(®) (Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX) chip. One such additive manufacturing device is the envisionTEC (Ferndale, MI) Perfactory(®). To use cDLP we integrate a photo-crosslinkable polymer, a photo-initiator, and a biocompatible dye. The dye attenuates light, thereby limiting the depth of polymerization. In this study we fabricated scaffolds using the well-studied resorbable polymer, poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) as a dye, Irgacure(®) 819 (BASF [Ciba], Florham Park, NJ) as an initiator, and diethyl fumarate as a solvent to control viscosity.

  10. Continuous Steelmaking Directly from Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Noel A.

    2014-12-01

    In-line continuous processing of high-grade hematite ore (crushed ore or fines) with a pure hydrogen reductant is assessed. An appraisal is made of the rate controlling mechanisms involved in the reduction of a pure layer of molten wustite being transported by floating on a molten carrier iron carbon-free medium at temperatures just in excess of the iron melting point. Published research clearly indicates that under these conditions the kinetics are principally controlled by molecular gaseous diffusion. Thus, the rate is essentially not influenced by total gas pressure above 1 atmosphere. Accordingly, on safety grounds it is recommended that high pressure should not be used for hydrogen steelmaking in the future, but the operation should be conducted close to atmospheric pressure with low pressure steam encapsulation of the plant items involved. Using hydrogen as the reductant means that sub-surface nucleation of CO bubbles cannot disrupt continuous processing. The operation is then no different to processing a normal liquid phase. The off-gases from the reduction zone of a melt circulation loop are super-clean and only contaminated with iron vapor. Accordingly, the best available technology becomes available for energy conservation without risk of non-fusible solids deposition. The net result is that the energy requirements are expected to be superior to other potential processes.

  11. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achievedmore » without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.« less

  12. 9 CFR 590.40 - Continuous inspection not provided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.40 Continuous inspection not provided. Continuous inspection shall not be provided under this part at any plant for the processing of any egg products which...

  13. 9 CFR 590.40 - Continuous inspection not provided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.40 Continuous inspection not provided. Continuous inspection shall not be provided under this part at any plant for the processing of any egg products which...

  14. Economy of Force: Continuous Process Improvement And The Air Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    a household goods move, viewed from the perspective of a customer when interacting with a service organization, assists in demonstrating this...improvement (CPI) as well. The components of a process that deliver a value-added effect to a consumer of the goods or services generated by the process...CPI is largely about the “voice of the customer ” and all organizations, service or production based, have customers and processes. There are value

  15. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Sow, Daby; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Continuous high-volume and high-frequency brain signals such as intracranial pressure (ICP) and electroencephalographic (EEG) waveforms are commonly collected by bedside monitors in neurocritical care. While such signals often carry early signs of neurological deterioration, detecting these signs in real time with conventional data processing methods mainly designed for retrospective analysis has been extremely challenging. Such methods are not designed to handle the large volumes of waveform data produced by bedside monitors. In this pilot study, we address this challenge by building a prototype system using the IBM InfoSphere Streams platform, a scalable stream computing platform, to detect unstable ICP dynamics in real time. The system continuously receives electrocardiographic and ICP signals and analyzes ICP pulse morphology looking for deviations from a steady state. We also designed a Web interface to display in real time the result of this analysis in a Web browser. With this interface, physicians are able to ubiquitously check on the status of their patients and gain direct insight into and interpretation of the patient's state in real time. The prototype system has been successfully tested prospectively on live hospitalized patients.

  16. Continuous-flow hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to pure formic acid using an integrated scCO2 process with immobilized catalyst and base.

    PubMed

    Wesselbaum, Sebastian; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2012-08-20

    Dual role for CO(2): Pure formic acid can be obtained continuously by hydrogenation of CO(2) in a single processing unit. An immobilized ruthenium organometallic catalyst and a nonvolatile base in an ionic liquid (IL) are combined with supercritical CO(2) as both reactant and extractive phase. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Matched Template Signal Processing for Continuous Wave Laser Tracking of Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, S.; Ward, R.; Roberts, L.; Fleddermann, R.; Francis, S.; McClellend, D.; Shaddock, D.; Smith, C.

    2016-09-01

    The build up of space junk in Earth's orbit space is a growing concern as it shares the same orbit as many currently active satellites. As the number of objects increase in these orbits, the likelihood of collisions between satellites and debris will increase [1]. The eventual goal is to be able to maneuver space debris to avoid such collisions. We at SERC aim to accomplish this by using ground based laser facilities that are already being used to track space debris orbit. One potential method to maneuver space debris is using continuous wave lasers and applying photon pressure on the debris and attempt to change the orbit. However most current laser ranging facilities operates using pulsed lasers where a pulse of light is sent out and the time taken for the pulse to return back to the telescope is measured after being reflected by the target. If space debris maneuvering is carried out with a continuous wave laser then two laser sources need to be used for ranging and maneuvering. The aim of this research is to develop a laser ranging system that is compatible with the continuous wave laser; using the same laser source to simultaneously track and maneuver space debris. We aim to accomplish this by modulating the outgoing laser light with pseudo random noise (PRN) codes, time tagging the outgoing light, and utilising a matched filter at the receiver end to extract the various orbital information of the debris.

  18. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  19. [Continuous quality improvement in anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Gaitini, L; Vaida, S; Madgar, S

    1998-01-01

    Slow continuous quality improvement (SCQI) in anesthesia is a process that allows identification of problems and their causes. Implementing measures to correct them and continuous monitoring to ensure that the problems have been eliminated are necessary. The basic assumption of CQI is that the employees of an organization are competent and working to the best of their abilities. If problems occur they are the consequences of inadequacies in the process rather that in the individual. The CQI program is a dynamic but gradual system that invokes a slower rate of response in comparison with other quality methods, like quality assurance. Spectacular results following a system change are not to be expected an the ideal is slow and continuous improvement. A SCQI program was adapted by our department in May 1994, according to the recommendations of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Problem identification was based on 65 clinical indicators, reflecting negative events related to anesthesia. Data were collected using a specially designed computer database. 4 events were identified as crossing previously established thresholds (hypertension, hypotension, hypoxia and inadequate nerve block). Statistical process control was used to establish stability of the system and whether negative events were influenced only by the common causes. The causes responsible for these negative events were identified using specific SCQI tools, such as control-charts, cause-effect diagrams and Pareto diagrams. Hypertension and inadequate nerve block were successfully managed. The implementation of corrective measures for the other events that cross the threshold is still in evolution. This program requires considerable dedication on the part of the staff, and it is hoped that it will improve our clinical performance.

  20. Reference-material system for estimating health and environmental risks of selected material cycles and energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crowther, M.A.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1981-07-01

    Sample analyses and detailed documentation are presented for a Reference Material System (RMS) to estimate health and environmental risks of different material cycles and energy systems. Data inputs described include: end-use material demands, efficiency coefficients, environmental emission coefficients, fuel demand coefficients, labor productivity estimates, and occupational health and safety coefficients. Application of this model permits analysts to estimate fuel use (e.g., Btu), occupational risk (e.g., fatalities), and environmental emissions (e.g., sulfur oxide) for specific material trajectories or complete energy systems. Model uncertainty is quantitatively defined by presenting a range of estimates for each data input. Systematic uncertainty not quantified relatesmore » to the boundaries chosen for analysis and reference system specification. Although the RMS can be used to analyze material system impacts for many different energy technologies, it was specifically used to examine the health and environmental risks of producing the following four types of photovoltaic devices: silicon n/p single-crystal cells produced by a Czochralski process; silicon metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) cells produced by a ribbon-growing process; cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide backwall cells produced by a spray deposition process; and gallium arsenide cells with 500X concentrator produced by a modified Czochralski process. Emission coefficients for particulates, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide; solid waste; total suspended solids in water; and, where applicable, air and solid waste residuals for arsenic, cadmium, gallium, and silicon are examined and presented. Where data are available the coefficients for particulates, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides include both process and on-site fuel-burning emissions.« less