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Sample records for continuous indentation test

  1. Effects of elastic indenter deformation on spherical instrumented indentation tests: the reduced elastic modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aida Rodríguez, Sara; Alcalá, Jorge; Martins Souza, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    of correction with the ratio E/Ei . The most affected parameter in the indentation curve, as a consequence of the indentation deformation, was the ratio between the residual indentation depth after complete unloading and the maximum indenter displacement, δr/δmax (up to 26%), but this variation did not significantly decrease the capability to estimate hardness and elastic modulus based on the ratio of the residual indentation depth to maximum indentation depth, hr/hmax . In general, the results confirm the convenience of the use of the reduced modulus in the spherical instrumented indentation tests.

  2. Directionality of residual stress evaluated by instrumented indentation testing using wedge indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hee-Jun; Kim, Jong-hyoung; Xu, Huiwen; Lee, Junsang; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Cheon; Kwon, Dongil

    2017-05-01

    In instrumented indentation testing (IIT), residual stress can be evaluated by shift in indentation load-depth curves for stress-free and stressed states. Although the average surface residual stress is able to be evaluated with Vickers indenter, in order to know stress directionality, another indentation tests with two-fold symmetric indenter, for example, Knoop indenter, are needed. As some necessities for evaluating nonequibiaxial residual stress within small indent area, we suggest a novel way to evaluate directionality of residual stress, p, using wedge indenter characterized by two parameters, edge length and inclined angle. We develop wedge-indentation-mechanics model based on predetermined conversion factors which are determined by IITs for various uniaxial stressed states combining with finite element analysis simulations. By utilizing the developed model, directionality of residual stress is evaluated through two serial wedge IITs with respect to principal directions. We find good agreements between applied residual stress and residual stress evaluated by the developed model for biaxial tensile stress states.

  3. Strength determination of rocks by using indentation tests with a spherical indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Manami; Hirose, Takehiro

    2017-05-01

    We conducted spherical indentation and uniaxial compression tests on four rock types of various porosities (<20%). For both methods, the compressive strength increased with decreasing porosity, but the strength obtained by the uniaxial compression test (Co) was lower than that obtained by the indentation test (Ci). We established a linear relationship between Co and Ci, expressed by Co = 0.513 × Ci. The difference in strength obtained by the two methods might reflect a considerable amount of inelastic deformation due to pore collapse under the indenter, and the lack during indentation testing of the lateral deformation characteristic of uniaxial compression. The empirical relationship between the two methods will allow conversion of the results of indentation tests to values equivalent to those obtained from uniaxial compression tests. We applied the method to drill-cuttings retrieved from the Nankai accretionary prism during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 348. The Co-porosity relationship of the cuttings determined by the indentation tests was consistent with the previously reported relationships obtained from cylindrical specimens by using conventional compression experiments. The method can be used to characterize the mechanical behavior of rocks by obtaining data from smaller specimens than those required for conventional rock deformation experiments.

  4. Estimation of capping incidence by indentation fracture tests.

    PubMed

    Kuppuswamy, R; Anderson, S R; Augsburger, L L; Hoag, S W

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict the capping tendencies of pharmaceutical powders by creating indentation fracture on compacts. Three sets of binary mixtures containing different concentrations of each ingredient were used in the study. The binary mixtures were chosen to represent plastic-plastic, plastic-brittle, and brittle-brittle combination of materials. The mixtures were tableted at different pressures and speeds on Prester, a tablet press simulator. These mixtures were also compacted on the Instron Universal Testing Machine 4502. Static indentation tests were done on these compacts at different depths until surface cracking and chipping were observed. The extent of surface cracking and chipping was observed from light microscope and scanning electron microscope images. A rank order correlation was observed between lamination susceptibility and the depth at which indentation failure occurred. It was concluded that indentation fracture tests could provide a useful estimate of lamination properties of pharmaceutical powders.

  5. Improved Indentation Test for Measuring Nonlinear Elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2004-01-01

    A cylindrical-punch indentation technique has been developed as a means of measuring the nonlinear elastic responses of materials -- more specifically, for measuring the moduli of elasticity of materials in cases in which these moduli vary with applied loads. This technique offers no advantage for characterizing materials that exhibit purely linear elastic responses (constant moduli of elasticity, independent of applied loads). However, the technique offers a significant advantage for characterizing such important materials as plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coatings, which, in cyclic loading, exhibit nonlinear elasticity with hysteresis related to compaction and sliding within their microstructures.

  6. Influence of Penetration Rate and Indenter Diameter in Strength Measurement by Indentation Testing on Small Rock Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftani, Mohammad; Bohloli, Bahman; Nouri, Alireza; Javan, Mohammad Reza Maleki; Moosavi, Mahdi; Moradi, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Indentation testing has been developed as an unconventional method to determine intact rock strength using small rock specimens within the size of drill cuttings. In previous investigations involving indentation testing, researchers have used different indenter stylus geometries, penetration rate (PR) and specimen sizes. These dissimilarities can restrict applications of this method for strength measurement and lead to non-comparable results. This paper investigates the influence of indenter diameter (ID) and PR on indentation indices for carbonate rocks to provide objective comparison and application of the existing correlations. As part of this research, several indentation tests were conducted using different IDs and PRs. The laboratory test results showed that indentation indices can be affected by ID while PR has only minor effect on the indentation indices. Thus, a normalizing function was presented to reduce the dependency of test results to ID. Verification of the findings with independent data confirms the suitability of the suggested normalizing function in determining the rock uniaxial compressive strength using testing data obtained from various IDs and PRs.

  7. Indentation Load Effect on Young's Modulus and Hardness of Porous Sialon Ceramic by Depth Sensing Indentation Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Sahin

    2007-11-01

    Depth sensing indentation (DSI) tests at the range of 200-1800 mN are performed on porous sialon ceramic to determine the indentation load on Young's modulus and hardness values. The Young modulus and hardness (Dynamic and Martens) values are deduced by analysing the unloading segments of the DSI test load-displacement curves using the Oliver-Pharr method. It is found that Young's modulus Er, the dynamic hardness HD and the Martens hardness HM exhibit significant indentation load dependences. The values of Young's modulus and hardness decrease with the increasing indentation load, as a result of indentation load effect. The experimental hf/hm ratios lower than the critical value 0.7, with hm being the maximum penetration depth during loading and hf the final unloading depth, indicate that our sample shows the work hardening behaviour.

  8. A simple measuring device for laboratory indentation tests on cartilage.

    PubMed

    Koeller, Wolfgang; Kunow, Julius; Ostermeyer, Oliver; Stomberg, Peter; Boos, Carsten; Russlies, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Mechanical testing of articular cartilage and repair tissue enables judgment of their capacity in withstanding mechanical loading. In the past, different methods have been developed requiring a complex technical setup and extensive data analysis. Therefore, the aim of the present project was to build up a simple measuring apparatus for laboratory indentation tests. The device consists of an incremental optical displacement transducer with a sleeve bearing guided plunger and a spherical tip made of polished steel (radius: 0.75 or 1.5 mm), a sensitive load cell and a stiff frame. The indentation force results from the plunger's gravity plus the force of the spring inside the displacement transducer and levels at 0.170 N or 0.765 N. The displacement transducer is fixed to the frame via the load cell that enables one to detect the initial contact of the tip with the tissue. The load cell has a standard uncertainty of 2 mN and the displacement transducer of 1 microm. From indentation-creep tests, a "0.25-s elastic modulus" is calculated. Measurements on thin rubber sheets were carried out to determine the quality of the measuring device. Compression tests on cylinders made of these rubber sheets yielded control data, and a good agreement with the "0.25-s elastic modulus" was found. Indentation tests on cartilage at different sites of sheep femoral condyles yielded a very good repeatability of the measurement results (+/-7.5%).

  9. Indentation testing and optimized property identification for viscoelastic materials using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resapu, Rajeswara Reddy

    The most common approaches to determining mechanical material properties of materials are tension and compression tests. However, tension and compression testing cannot be implemented under certain loading conditions (immovable object, not enough space to hold object for testing, etc). Similarly, tensile and compression testing cannot be performed on certain types of materials (delicate, bulk, non-machinable, those that cannot be separated from a larger structure, etc). For such cases, other material testing methods need to be implemented. Indentation testing is one such method; this approach is often non-destructive and can be used to characterize regions that are not compatible with other testing methods. However, indentation testing typically leads to force-displacement data as opposed to the direct stress-strain data normally used for the mechanical characterization of materials; this data needs to be analyzed using a suitable approach to determine the associated material properties. As such, methods to establish material properties from force-displacement indentation data need to be identified. In this work, a finite element approach using parameter optimization is developed to determine the mechanical properties from the experimental indentation data. Polymers and tissues tend to have time-dependent mechanical behavior; this means that their mechanical response under load changes with time. This dissertation seeks to characterize the properties of these materials using indentation testing under the assumption that they are linear viscoelastic. An example of a material of interest is the polymer poly vinyl chloride (PVC) that is used as the insulation of some aircraft wiring. Changes in the mechanical properties of this material over years of service can indicate degradation and a potential hazard to continued use. To investigate the validity of using indentation testing to monitor polymer insulation degradation, PVC film and PVC-insulated aircraft wiring are

  10. Towards a standardized reference point indentation testing procedure.

    PubMed

    Setters, Alexander; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2014-06-01

    We study the reference point indentation (RPI) technique which has a potential to directly measure mechanical properties of bone in patients. More specifically, we tested 6 month swine femoral cortical bone at mid-diaphysis region to investigate the effect of several testing variables on the RPI outputs. They include the force magnitude, preconditioning, variation within a sample and between samples, number of cycles, indentation surface (transverse versus longitudinal, polished versus unpolished), and micro-computed tomography radiation exposure. The force magnitude variation test shows that all RPI parameters increase linearly with the increasing force magnitude except the indentation distance increase which shows a cubic trend with a plateau for force magnitudes between 4N and 8N. Preconditioning does not affect the trends for a force magnitude variation test. The cycle variation test shows that most RPI parameters reach either a maximum or minimum at 15-20 cycles. Transverse surface measurements are more consistent than the longitudinal surface measurements, but a rough surface and periosteum on the longitudinal surface could account for this difference. Exposure to the micro-computed tomography radiation in general does not have effect on the RPI measurements. For the 6 month swine femoral cortical bone, testing using 6N force and 20 cycles with preconditioning on an unpolished longitudinal surface is recommended. This study advances our knowledge on how the RPI testing variables influence the RPI outputs and provides guidance on the RPI measurements. It may also serve as a framework for developing a standardized testing procedure for the RPI technique.

  11. Determining Tension-Compression Nonlinear Mechanical Properties of Articular Cartilage from Indentation Testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingyu; Zhou, Yilu; Wang, Liyun; Santare, Michael H; Wan, Leo Q; Lu, X Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The indentation test is widely used to determine the in situ biomechanical properties of articular cartilage. The mechanical parameters estimated from the test depend on the constitutive model adopted to analyze the data. Similar to most connective tissues, the solid matrix of cartilage displays different mechanical properties under tension and compression, termed tension-compression nonlinearity (TCN). In this study, cartilage was modeled as a porous elastic material with either a conewise linear elastic matrix with cubic symmetry or a solid matrix reinforced by a continuous fiber distribution. Both models are commonly used to describe the TCN of cartilage. The roles of each mechanical property in determining the indentation response of cartilage were identified by finite element simulation. Under constant loading, the equilibrium deformation of cartilage is mainly dependent on the compressive modulus, while the initial transient creep behavior is largely regulated by the tensile stiffness. More importantly, altering the permeability does not change the shape of the indentation creep curves, but introduces a parallel shift along the horizontal direction on a logarithmic time scale. Based on these findings, a highly efficient curve-fitting algorithm was designed, which can uniquely determine the three major mechanical properties of cartilage (compressive modulus, tensile modulus, and permeability) from a single indentation test. The new technique was tested on adult bovine knee cartilage and compared with results from the classic biphasic linear elastic curve-fitting program.

  12. Young's modulus of peritubular and intertubular human dentin by nano-indentation tests.

    PubMed

    Ziskind, Daniel; Hasday, Moran; Cohen, Sidney R; Wagner, H Daniel

    2011-04-01

    The local Young modulus of dry dentin viewed as a hierarchical composite was measured by nano-indentation using two types of experiments, both in a continuous stiffness measurement mode. First, tests were performed radially along straight lines running across highly mineralized peritubular dentin sections and through less mineralized intertubular dentin areas. These tests revealed a gradual decrease in Young's modulus from the bulk of the peritubular dentin region where modulus values of up to ∼40-42GPa were observed, down to approximately constant values of ∼17GPa in the intertubular dentin region. A second set of nano-indentation experiments was performed on the facets of an irregular polyhedron specimen cut from the intertubular dentin region, so as to probe the modulus of intertubular dentin specimens at different orientations relative to the tubular direction. The results demonstrated that the intertubular dentin region may be considered to be quasi-isotropic, with a slightly higher modulus value (∼22GPa) when the indenting tip axis is parallel to the tubular direction, compared to the values (∼18GPa) obtained when the indenting tip axis is perpendicular to the tubule direction.

  13. Review of Instrumented Indentation

    PubMed Central

    VanLandingham, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumented indentation, also known as depth-sensing indentation or nanoindentation, is increasingly being used to probe the mechanical response of materials from metals and ceramics to polymeric and biological materials. The additional levels of control, sensitivity, and data acquisition offered by instrumented indentation systems have resulted in numerous advances in materials science, particularly regarding fundamental mechanisms of mechanical behavior at micrometer and even sub-micrometer length scales. Continued improvements of instrumented indentation testing towards absolute quantification of a wide range of material properties and behavior will require advances in instrument calibration, measurement protocols, and analysis tools and techniques. In this paper, an overview of instrumented indentation is given with regard to current instrument technology and analysis methods. Research efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) aimed at improving the related measurement science are discussed. PMID:27413609

  14. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of conventionally-cast Al matrix composites reinforced by quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe particles using continuous ball indentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, E.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, W. T.; Kim, D. H.

    2000-10-01

    Room temperature mechanical properties of the Al/(AlCuFe)p and Al96Cu4/(AlCuFe)p cast composites were estimated from uniaxial compressive test and continuous ball indentation technique. Values of the Young's modulus and yield stress determined from continuous ball indentation tests were slightly overestimated, suggesting a surface effect on the mechanical properties. However, it was shown that the Al-Cu-Fe particles provided a significant increase of the elastic modulus, yield stress, and strain hardening, especially in the range up to 10% volume fraction of reinforcements. Also, determination of the hardness by continuous-ball-indentation tests revealed a strong influence of the matrix strength on the mechanical properties of the conventionally cast composites.

  15. Elastic response of thermal spray deposits under indentation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, S.H.; Lin, C.K.; Berndt, C.C.

    1997-08-01

    The elastic response behavior of thermal spray deposits at Knoop indentations has been investigated using indentation techniques. The ration of hardness to elastic modulus, which is an important prerequisite for the evaluation of indentation fracture toughness, is determined by measuring the elastic recovery of the in-surface dimensions of Knoop indentations. The elastic moduli of thermal spray deposits are in the range of 12%--78% of the comparable bulk materials and reveal the anisotropic behavior of thermal spray deposits. A variety of thermal spray deposits has been examined, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, yttria-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ), and NiAl. Statistical tools have been used to evaluate the error estimates of the data.

  16. Development of an ultra-low-load microhardness indentation test machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, D. T.; Bourcier, R. J.; Martinez, E.

    1986-04-01

    As part of a program to characterize the mechanical response of surface modified materials, a microhardness indentation test machine has been developed. An electromagnetic drive system controls a diamond indenter which is suspended on a low friction ball slide. The test specimen is mounted on a cantilevered arm in a vertical plane perpendicular to the indentation direction on an X-Y micrometer translation system. Tests are controlled with a 16-bit A/D closed loop digital controller/function generator designed for this system. Load is monitored with a strain gage load cell while displacement is measured with a set of capacitance probes. Load/depth/time data are stored on a digital oscilloscope which is linked to a DEC LSI 11/23 for subsequent processing. The system allows indentation loading up to 1 kg with load resolutions of 5 mg and a depth resolution of 10 nm.

  17. Mechanical property determination of bone through nano- and micro-indentation testing and finite element simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingzhou; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the mechanical properties of bone is important for estimating the stresses and strains exerted at the cellular level due to loading experienced on a macro-scale. Nano- and micro-mechanical properties of bone are also of interest to the pharmaceutical industry when drug therapies have intentional or non-intentional effects on bone mineral content and strength. The interactions that can occur between nano- and micro-indentation creep test condition parameters were considered in this study, and average hardness and elastic modulus were obtained as a function of indentation testing conditions (maximum load, load/unload rate, load-holding time, and indenter shape). The results suggest that bone reveals different mechanical properties when loading increases from the nano- to the micro-scale range (μN to N), which were measured using low- and high-load indentation testing systems. A four-parameter visco-elastic/plastic constitutive model was then applied to simulate the indentation load vs. depth response over both load ranges. Good agreement between the experimental data and finite element model was obtained when simulating the visco-elastic/plastic response of bone. The results highlight the complexity of bone as a biological tissue and the need to understand the impact of testing conditions on the measured results. PMID:17961578

  18. Deducing the stress-strain response of anisotropic Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubing by spherical indentation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviasuyi, R. O.; Klassen, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we developed a method of analysis by which the average stress-plastic strain flow curve of mechanically anisotropic materials can be deduced from spherical indentation test data. Our analysis is based upon spherical indentation tests performed on the extruded and cold-drawn Zr-2.5%Nb CANDU pressure tube material over the range of temperature from 25 °C to 300 °C. The indentation force and depth data were analyzed and σavg and ɛavg were calculated using previously reported equations developed for spherical indentation of isotropic material which were then modified, by incorporating the appropriate Hill's anisotropy coefficients, to characterize the anisotropic yield stress of the indented material. The resulting flow curves were dependent on indentation direction and correspond closely with flow curves obtained from previously reported conventional uniaxial stress tests performed on the Zr-2.5%Nb material. Indentation tests performed with large, 200 μm, and small, 40 μm, diameter spheres indicate that for small diameter indentations, when the indentation depth is less than several micrometers, the calculated σavg is heavily influenced by the depth dependence of the yield strength of the indented material.

  19. Hardness and yield strength of dentin from simulated nano-indentation tests.

    PubMed

    Toparli, M; Koksal, N S

    2005-03-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied for studying the hardness (H) and yield strength (Y) of dentin subjected to a nano-indentation process. The nano-indentation experiments were simulated with the ABAQUS finite element software package. This test, performed with a spherical indenter, was simulated by axisymmetric finite element analysis. The load versus displacement was calculated during loading-unloading sequence for different elastic modulus (E) and yield strength. Hardness and maximum principal compressive and tensile stresses were plotted for different elastic modulus depending on yield strength. The dentin was assumed to be isotropic, homogenous and elasto-plastic. The theoretical results outlined in this study were compared with the experimental works reported in the literature and then hardness and yield strength of dentin was estimated.

  20. Identification of the crushing behavior of brittle foam: From indentation to oedometric tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouterf, A.; Adrien, J.; Maire, E.; Brajer, X.; Hild, F.; Roux, S.

    2017-01-01

    Compaction of the core of plasterboard is one of the limiting phenomena for its mechanical performance. This mechanism is studied herein in an indentation test. A cylinder made of foamed gypsum is indented in situ in an X-ray lab tomograph with a sphere of millimeter radius. The reported experiments show that foamed plaster displays a sharp transition between an undamaged state (with linear elastic behavior) and a compacted state with collapsed porosity under the indenter. Tomographic acquisitions of the sample under load associated with a global version of Digital Volume Correlation allow displacement fields to be measured at different load levels. However, because of the heterogeneous nature of the indentation test, a fine spatial resolution of the displacement fields is required to measure the strains at the crushing limit. A dedicated procedure exploiting computed displacement fields within the digital volume correlation procedure is utilized. It allows for the quantification of stress fields that are post-processed to identify the crushing criterion. It is shown that this analysis is very consistent with more macroscopic oedometric tests. Last, predictions of a Mohr-Coulomb model are compared with macroscopic and microscopic data. It is shown that despite the fact that this model reproduces very well the load-displacement response of the indentation test, a poorer prediction of the experimental crushed zone is observed. In particular, the transition between compacted plaster and its pristine state is not captured by the model, which predicts a very progressive transition rather than an abrupt one. The same conclusions are drawn for a crushable foam model when compared with experimental evidence of an in situ oedometric test.

  1. On the Influence of Elastic Deformation for Residual Stress Determination by Sharp Indentation Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Per-Lennart

    2017-08-01

    The determination of residual stresses in engineering materials using sharp indentation testing is studied analytically and numerically. The numerical part of the investigation is based on the finite element method. In particular, the effect from elastic deformations on global indentation properties is discussed in detail. This effect is essential when residual stresses are to be determined based on the change of the contact area due to such stresses. However, standard relations for this purpose are founded on the fact that the material hardness is invariant as regards residual (applied) stresses. Presently, this assumption is scrutinized and it is shown that it is only valid at dominating plastic deformation around the contact region. The hardness dependence of residual stresses can, however, be correlated in the same way as in the case of stress-free materials, indicating that the wealth of characterization formulas pertinent to indentation hardness is available also for the purpose of residual field determination. Only cone indentation of elastic-perfectly plastic materials is considered, but the generality of the results is discussed in some detail.

  2. Investigation of inhomogeneous and anisotropic material behavior of porcine thoracic aorta using nano-indentation tests.

    PubMed

    Kermani, Golriz; Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Assari, Soroush; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of porcine descending thoracic aorta in three dimensions using a custom-made nano-indentation technique and a quasi-linear viscoelastic modeling approach. The indentation tests were conducted in axial, circumferential, and radial orientations with about 100 μm spatial resolution. The ratio of the elastic moduli obtained in different orientations was used to quantify the tissue local anisotropy. The distal sections were generally stiffer than the proximal ones in both axial and circumferential indentations. Four distinct layers were identified across the thickness with significantly different mechanical properties. The stiffness of the medial quadrant was significantly lower than all other quadrants in axial indentation. The anisotropic behavior of the tissue was more pronounced in the lateral quadrant of the distal sections. The results of this study can be used to better understand the mechanisms of aorta deformation and improve the spatial accuracy of computational models of aorta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Influence of Elastic Deformation for Residual Stress Determination by Sharp Indentation Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Per-Lennart

    2017-07-01

    The determination of residual stresses in engineering materials using sharp indentation testing is studied analytically and numerically. The numerical part of the investigation is based on the finite element method. In particular, the effect from elastic deformations on global indentation properties is discussed in detail. This effect is essential when residual stresses are to be determined based on the change of the contact area due to such stresses. However, standard relations for this purpose are founded on the fact that the material hardness is invariant as regards residual (applied) stresses. Presently, this assumption is scrutinized and it is shown that it is only valid at dominating plastic deformation around the contact region. The hardness dependence of residual stresses can, however, be correlated in the same way as in the case of stress-free materials, indicating that the wealth of characterization formulas pertinent to indentation hardness is available also for the purpose of residual field determination. Only cone indentation of elastic-perfectly plastic materials is considered, but the generality of the results is discussed in some detail.

  4. Limit case analysis of the "stable indenter velocity" method for obtaining creep stress exponents from constant load indentation creep tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; Dean, J.; Clyne, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    This study concerns a commonly-used procedure for evaluating the steady state creep stress exponent, n, from indentation data. The procedure involves monitoring the indenter displacement history under constant load and making the assumption that, once its velocity has stabilised, the system is in a quasi-steady state, with stage II creep dominating the behaviour. The stress and strain fields under the indenter are represented by "equivalent stress" and "equivalent strain rate" values. The estimate of n is then obtained as the gradient of a plot of the logarithm of the equivalent strain rate against the logarithm of the equivalent stress. Concerns have, however, been expressed about the reliability of this procedure, and indeed it has already been shown to be fundamentally flawed. In the present paper, it is demonstrated, using a very simple analysis, that, for a genuinely stable velocity, the procedure always leads to the same, constant value for n (either 1.0 or 0.5, depending on whether the tip shape is spherical or self-similar). This occurs irrespective of the value of the measured velocity, or indeed of any creep characteristic of the material. It is now clear that previously-measured values of n, obtained using this procedure, have varied in a more or less random fashion, depending on the functional form chosen to represent the displacement-time history and the experimental variables (tip shape and size, penetration depth, etc.), with little or no sensitivity to the true value of n.

  5. Effect of various testing conditions on results for a handheld reference point indentation instrument in horses.

    PubMed

    Lescun, Timothy B; Hoffseth, Kevin; Yang, Henry T; Hansma, Paul K; Kopeikin, Hal S; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    To compare results obtained with a handheld reference point indentation instrument for bone material strength index (BMSi) measurements in the equine third metacarpal bone for various testing conditions. 24 third metacarpal bones. Third metacarpal bones from both forelimbs of 12 horses were obtained. The dorsal surface of each bone was divided into 6 testing regions. In vivo and ex vivo measurements of BMSi were obtained through the skin and on exposed bone, respectively, to determine effects of each testing condition. Difference plots were used to assess agreement between BMSi obtained for various conditions. Linear regression analysis was used to assess effects of age, sex, and body weight on BMSi. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to assess effects of age, sex, limb, bone region, and testing condition on BMSi values. Indentation measurements were performed on standing sedated and recumbent anesthetized horses and on cadaveric bone. Regional differences in BMSi values were detected in adult horses. A significant linear relationship (r(2) = 0.71) was found between body weight and BMSi values. There was no difference between in vivo and ex vivo BMSi values. A small constant bias was detected between BMSi obtained through the skin, compared with values obtained directly on bone. Reference point indentation can be used for in vivo assessment of the resistance of bone tissue to microfracture in horses. Testing through the skin should account for a small constant bias, compared with results for testing directly on exposed bone.

  6. Crack initiation and growth characteristics in SiC/SiC under indentation test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Hinoki, T.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Noda, T.; Muroga, T.; Yu, J.

    1998-10-01

    The mechanical behavior of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) is known to be strongly influenced by fiber-matrix interfacial properties and there have been many efforts to clarify the interfacial characteristics. To understand the fracture mechanism of the materials it is necessary to clarify how the cracks initiate and propagate among fibers, interphase (coating) and matrix. The objective of this study is to investigate crack initiation and growth characteristics in SiC/SiC composites with variations in coating thickness and coating methods by means of micro-indentation technique. Micro-indentation tests and hardness tests were carried out on SiC/SiC composites produced by the chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) process. The intrinsic catastrophic mode of failure of the brittle composite was prevented by application of single carbon and multiple coatings on fibers. Thinner coatings are sensitive to make fibers debonded and may improve the toughness of the composites.

  7. Monitoring and control of electrode indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, M.L.; Hutchenreuther, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    Unregulated electrode indentation, the dent caused by electrodes pushing into the material surface during resistance welding, is undesirable. However, indentation correlates to high weld strength. Working with Atek, Eaton engineers added a point sensor to a resistance welder equipped with a modified Atek Truamp III controller. During a weld the sensor acquires displacement information. Processed displacement data provides feedback for monitoring the weld and for controlling the current and/or time required to reach the desired indentation. Welds characterized by dynamically measured indentations were tested for shear strength. This new approach to resistance weld monitoring and control uses an off-axis sensor to measure indentation and to provide feedback for adjusting current or time dynamically. A point sensor directed at an area nearby the welding electrode continually measures distance and supplies this data to the controller. The controller adjusts welding current or number of cycles to keep the real time identification tracking to the target amount of indentation. This approach represents a technical departure from previous work that relies on expansion data for feedback. An off-axis point sensor providing feedback for dynamically varying current or time offers a viable method to obtain specific amounts of electrode indentation. Electrode indentation, not expansion, correlates directly to weld strength. Controlling electrode indentation is a robust method to assure the quality and strength of production resistance welds.

  8. Contribution to the Determination of In Vivo Mechanical Characteristics of Human Skin by Indentation Test

    PubMed Central

    Zahouani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a triphasic model of intact skin in vivo based on a general phenomenological thermohydromechanical and physicochemical (THMPC) approach of heterogeneous media. The skin is seen here as a deforming stratified medium composed of four layers and made out of different fluid-saturated materials which contain also an ionic component. All the layers are treated as linear, isotropic materials described by their own behaviour law. The numerical simulations of in vivo indentation test performed on human skin are given. The numerical results correlate reasonably well with the typical observations of indented human skin. The discussion shows the versatility of this approach to obtain a better understanding on the mechanical behaviour of human skin layers separately. PMID:24324525

  9. Establishing isothermal contact at a known temperature under thermal equilibrium in elevated temperature instrumented indentation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X. D.; Alvarez, C. L. M.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-02-01

    Instrumented indentation testing (IIT) at elevated temperatures has proved to be a useful tool to study plastic and elastic deformation and understand the performance of material components at (or nearer to) the actual temperatures experienced in-service. The value of elevated temperature IIT data, however, depends on the ability not only to achieve a stable, isothermal indentation contact at thermal equilibrium when taking data, but to be able to assign a valid temperature to that contact (and so to the data). The most common method found in the current literature is to use the calculated thermal drift rate as an indicator, but this approach has never been properly validated. This study proves that using the thermal drift rate to determine isothermal contact may lead to large errors in the determination of the real contact temperature. Instead, a more sensitive and validated method is demonstrated, based upon using the indenter tip and the tip heater control thermocouple as a reproducible and calibrated contact temperature sensor. A simple calibration procedure is described, along with step by step guidance to establish an isothermal contact at a known temperature under thermal equilibrium when conducting elevated temperature IIT experiments.

  10. Characterization of Corneal Indentation Hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Match W L; Dongming Wei; Leung, Christopher K S

    2015-01-01

    Corneal indentation is adapted for the design and development of a characterization method for corneal hysteresis behavior - Corneal Indentation Hysteresis (CIH). Fourteen porcine eyes were tested using the corneal indentation method. The CIH measured in enucleated porcine eyes showed indentation rate and intraocular pressure (IOP) dependences. The CIH increased with indentation rate at lower IOP (<; 25 mmHg) and decreased with indentation rate at higher IOP (> 25 mmHg). The CIH was linear proportional to the IOP within an individual eye. The CIH was positively correlated with the IOP, corneal in-plane tensile stress and corneal tangent modulus (E). A new method based on corneal indentation for the measurement of Corneal Indentation Hysteresis in vivo is developed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to introduce the corneal indentation hysteresis and correlate the corneal indentation hysteresis and corneal tangent modulus.

  11. Nano-indentation testing of new and fractured nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    PubMed

    Jamleh, A; Sadr, A; Nomura, N; Yahata, Y; Ebihara, A; Hanawa, T; Tagami, J; Suda, H

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effect of cyclic fatigue on nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments using a nano-indentation test. Eight ProFile NiTi rotary instruments (size 30, taper 0.06; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were tested using a cyclic fatigue set-up until fracture. The fractured instruments and eight new NiTi instruments of the same size and taper were used for a nano-indentation test on the internal surfaces of a NiTi instruments in the region just adjacent to their fractured edge (group I) and in the same region of the new group (group II), and the cutting part beside the shaft for both instruments [group III (fractured) and group IV (new)]. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Games-Howell post hoc test. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05. Significant differences in terms of hardness and elastic modulus for each group (P < 0.05) were found, with group I having the lowest mean values followed by group III. Additionally, standard deviations increased remarkably after failure, as represented by groups I and III. The nano-indentation technique can be applied to determine the performance and the failure mechanism of NiTi instruments. The fatigue process revealed a significant decrease in the hardness and elastic modulus of the NiTi instrument. As indicated by the low hardness, the fatigue process did not result in work hardening but rather work softening. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  12. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, M.; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, E. G.; Carassiti, F.; Pharr, G. M.

    2015-06-01

    The fracture toughness of thin ceramic films is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of this important class of engineering materials. Unfortunately, measurement of thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these issues based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the upper portion of the pillar is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behaviour. Cohesive finite element simulations are used for analysis and development of a simple relationship between the critical load at failure, pillar radius and fracture toughness for a given material. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. In addition, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparison of the indentation results obtained on the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings created by physical vapour deposition, namely titanium nitride, chromium nitride and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  13. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    DOE PAGES

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; ...

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and whenmore » indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.« less

  14. A novel pillar indentation splitting test for measuring fracture toughness of thin ceramic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastiani, Marco; Johanns, K. E.; Herbert, Erik G.; Carassiti, Fabio; Pharr, George Mathews

    2014-05-16

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that plays a role in determining the in-service mechanical performance and adhesion of thin ceramic films. Unfortunately, measuring thin film fracture toughness is affected by influences from the substrate and the large residual stresses that can exist in the films. In this paper, we explore a promising new technique that potentially overcomes these problems based on nanoindentation testing of micro-pillars produced by focused ion beam milling of the films. By making the pillar diameter approximately equal to its length, the residual stress in the pillar’s upper portion is almost fully relaxed, and when indented with a sharp Berkovich indenter, the pillars fracture by splitting at reproducible loads that are readily quantified by a sudden displacement excursion in the load displacement behavior. Cohesive finite element simulations are used to analyze and develop, for a given material, a simple relation between the critical load at failure, pillar radius, and fracture toughness. The main novel aspect of this work is that neither crack geometries nor crack sizes need to be measured post test. Furthermore, the residual stress can be measured at the same time with toughness, by comparing the indentation results from the stress-free pillars and the as-deposited film. The method is tested on three different hard coatings formed by physical vapor deposition: titanium nitride, chromium nitride, and a CrAlN/Si3N4 nanocomposite. Results compare well to independently measured values of fracture toughness for the three brittle films. The technique offers several benefits over existing methods.

  15. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation and Drop-Weight Impact Testing on Carbon/Epoxy Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakaran, R.; Douglas, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This project was initiated to investigate the damage tolerance of polymer matrix composites (PMC). After a low velocity impact-such as the ones that can occur during manufacturing or service there is usually very little visual damage. There are two possible methods to simulate foreign object impact on PMC: static indentation and drop weight impact. A static method for modeling low velocity foreign object impact events for composites can prove to be very beneficial to researchers since much more data can be obtained from a static test than from an impact test. In order to examine if this is feasible, a series of static indentation and low velocity impact tests were performed and compared. Square specimens of different sizes and thicknesses were tested to cover a wide array of low velocity impact events. Laminates with a 45 degree stacking sequence were used since this is a common type of engineering laminate. Three distinct flexural rigidities under two different boundary conditions were tested in order to obtain damage due to large deflections. Comparisons between static indentation and low velocity impact tests were based on the maximum applied transverse load. The dependent parameters examined were dent depth, back surface crack length, delamination area, and load-deflection behavior. Results showed that no distinct differences could be seen between the static indentation tests and the low velocity impact tests, indicating that static indentation tests can be used to simulate low velocity impact events.

  16. Reference-point indentation correlates with bone toughness assessed using whole-bone traditional mechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Maxime A; Brown, Drew M; Organ, Jason M; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B

    2013-03-01

    Traditional bone mechanical testing techniques require excised bone and destructive sample preparation. Recently, a cyclic-microindentation technique, reference-point indentation (RPI), was described that allows bone to be tested in a clinical setting, permitting the analysis of changes to bone material properties over time. Because this is a new technique, it has not been clear how the measurements generated by RPI are related to the material properties of bone measured by standard techniques. In this paper, we describe our experience with the RPI technique, and correlate the results obtained by RPI with those of traditional mechanical testing, namely 3-point bending and axial compression. Using different animal models, we report that apparent bone material toughness obtained from 3-point bending and axial compression is inversely correlated with the indentation distance increase (IDI) obtained from RPI with r(2) values ranging from 0.50 to 0.57. We also show that conditions or treatments previously shown to cause differences in toughness, including diabetes and bisphosphonate treatment, had significantly different IDI values compared to controls. Collectively these results provide a starting point for understanding how RPI relates to traditional mechanical testing results.

  17. Discrete element modeling of indentation tests to investigate mechanisms of CO2-related chemomechanical rock alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuang; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Balhoff, Matthew T.

    2016-11-01

    During CO2 injection into geological formations, petrophysical and geomechanical properties of host formations can be altered due to mineral dissolution and precipitation. Field and laboratory results have shown that sandstone and siltstone can be altered by CO2-water mixtures, but few quantitative studies have been performed to fully investigate underlying mechanisms. Based on the hypothesis that CO2-water mixtures alter the integrity of rock structure by attacking cements rather than grains, we attempt to explain the degradation of cementation due to long-term contact with CO2 and water and mechanisms for changes in rock mechanical properties. Many sandstones, including calcite-cemented quartzitic sandstone, chlorite-cemented quartzitic sandstone, and hematite-cemented quartzitic sandstone, contain interparticle cements that are more readily affected by CO2-water mixtures than grains. A model that couples the discrete element method and the bonded-particle model is used to perform simulations of indentation tests on synthetic rocks with crystal and random packings. The model is verified against the analytical cavity expansion model and validated against laboratory indentation tests on Entrada sandstone with and without CO2 alteration. Sensitivity analysis is performed for cementation microscopic parameters including stiffness, size, axial, and shear strength. The simulation results indicate that the CO2-related degradation of mechanical properties in bleached Entrada sandstone can be attributed to the reduction of cement size rather than cement strength. Our study indicates that it is possible to describe the CO2-related rock alteration through particle-scale mechanisms.

  18. Change detection technique for muscle tone during static stretching by continuous muscle viscoelasticity monitoring using wearable indentation tester.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Naomi; Kobayashi, Yo; Sugano, Shigeki; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2017-07-01

    Static stretching is widely performed to decrease muscle tone as a part of rehabilitation protocols. Finding out the optimal duration of static stretching is important to minimize the time required for rehabilitation therapy and it would be helpful for maintaining the patient's motivation towards daily rehabilitation tasks. Several studies have been conducted for the evaluation of static stretching; however, the recommended duration of static stretching varies widely between 15-30 s in general, because the traditional methods for the assessment of muscle tone do not monitor the continuous change in the target muscle's state. We have developed a method to monitor the viscoelasticity of one muscle continuously during static stretching, using a wearable indentation tester. In this study, we investigated a suitable signal processing method to detect the time required to change the muscle tone, utilizing the data collected using a wearable indentation tester. By calculating a viscoelastic index with a certain time window, we confirmed that the stretching duration required to bring about a decrease in muscle tone could be obtained with an accuracy in the order of 1 s.

  19. Measurement of diabetic wounds with optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system and a material testing system.

    PubMed

    Choi, M-C; Cheung, K-K; Ng, G Y-F; Zheng, Y-P; Cheing, G L-Y

    2015-11-01

    Material testing system is a conventional but destructive method for measuring the biomechanical properties of wound tissues in basic research. The recently developed optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system is a non-destructive method for measuring these properties of soft tissues in a non-contact manner. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between the biomechanical properties of wound tissues measured by the two systems. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic were wounded by a 6 mm biopsy punch on their hind limbs. The biomechanical properties of wound tissues were assessed with the two systems on post-wounding days 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Wound sections were stained with picro-sirius red for analysis on the collagen fibres. Data obtained on the different days were charted to obtain the change in biomechanical properties across the time points, and then pooled to examine the correlation between measurements made by the two devices. Qualitative analysis to determine any correlation between indentation stiffness measured by the air-jet indentation system and the orientation of collagen fibres. The indentation stiffness is significantly negatively correlated to the maximum load, maximum tensile stress, and Young's modulus by the material testing system (all p<0.05). The orientation of collagen changes with the indentation stiffness over time. Our findings support the use of optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system to evaluate the biomechanical properties of wounds in a non-contact manner. It is a potential clinical device to examine the biomechanical properties of chronic wounds in vivo in a repeatable manner.

  20. Quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of fibrotic neck tissues obtained from ultrasound indentation tests in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Leung, Sing-Fai

    2005-02-01

    Hand palpation is a conventional way to assess and document soft tissue fibrosis. But it is semi-quantitative and subjective, so there is a need to develop quantitative and objective methods for this purpose. 105 patients with different degrees of radiation-induced fibrosis of soft tissue of the neck were assessed using an ultrasound indentation method. The force response was reconstructed from the indentation history using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model with four material parameters. The parameters which best curve-fitted the force response with respect to the experimentally measured one, were selected as the viscoelastic properties of the tested soft tissue. These parameters were compared among patient subgroups with different degrees of fibrosis as scored by hand palpation, and also compared with those of a control group of healthy, non-irradiated subjects. Their relation to the rotation range of the neck and the effective Young's modulus, were also assessed. Soft tissue with a more severe degree of fibrosis was associated with a larger initial stiffness and a more rapid increase in stiffness under loading. Viscoelasticity parameters could discriminate soft tissue with different degrees of clinical fibrosis and had significant correlation with clinical parameters of fibrosis. Change of viscoelastic properties is reflection of pathological modifications of components in fibrotic soft tissues. Measurement of viscoelasticity parameters of soft tissue provides a quantitative and objective approach for the researcher and clinician to quantify soft tissue fibrosis. Measurement of the change of viscoelastic properties of soft tissue provides a quantitative and objective approach for researchers and clinicians to quantify soft tissue fibrosis which is one of the most common late effects of radiotherapy.

  1. Continuous quantum hypothesis testing.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Mankei

    2012-04-27

    I propose a general quantum hypothesis testing theory that enables one to test hypotheses about any aspect of a physical system, including its dynamics, based on a series of observations. For example, the hypotheses can be about the presence of a weak classical signal continuously coupled to a quantum sensor, or about competing quantum or classical models of the dynamics of a system. This generalization makes the theory useful for quantum detection and experimental tests of quantum mechanics in general. In the case of continuous measurements, the theory is significantly simplified to produce compact formulas for the likelihood ratio, the central quantity in statistical hypothesis testing. The likelihood ratio can then be computed efficiently in many cases of interest. Two potential applications of the theory, namely, quantum detection of a classical stochastic waveform and test of harmonic-oscillator energy quantization, are discussed.

  2. Characterization of Eurofer-97 TIG-welded joints by FIMEC indentation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, R.; Filacchioni, G.; Riccardi, B.; Tata, M. E.; Costanza, G.

    2004-08-01

    Welded joints of 25-mm thick plates of Eurofer-97, produced by a multi-pass GTAW + filler material method, have been investigated before and after different heat treatments to identify the temperature-time combination that gives mechanical properties as close as possible to those of the base material. After NDE (non-destructive examinations), samples were annealed in the temperature range 730-750 °C for 1 and 2 h, microhardness was measured across the joints and FIMEC (flat-top cylinder indenter for mechanical characterization) tests were carried out in the molten zone (MZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and in the matrix. The FIMEC method allowed determination on a local scale of the yield stress as obtained in standard tensile tests. Mechanical tests were supplemented by optical microscopy observations. The best results were obtained by the treatment at 750 °C for 2 h: original characteristics are substantially recovered in the HAZ but not completely in the MZ.

  3. Analysis of the equivalent indenter concept used to extract Young’s modulus from a nano-indentation test: some new insights into the Oliver-Pharr method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a thorough analysis of the equivalent indenter concept applied to nano-indentation is carried out, motivated by the fact that previous works in the field have not considered the requirement of a consistent relation between contact depth and projected contact area. Dimensional analysis is initially used to prove that the shape of the axisymmetric equivalent indenter can be regarded as a material property, provided that size-effects are negligible. Subsequently, it is shown that such shape can effectively be employed to describe the nano-indentation unloading stage by means of Sneddon's elastic solution which is formally valid only for indentation into a flat surface. This allows for formulating the problem of extracting Young's modulus from the unloading curve as an optimization problem. However, it is proved that the latter does not have a unique solution, due to the particular mathematical structure of the underlying equations; hence, additional constraints are needed to set restrictions on the admissible equivalent indenter shapes. An example of such constraint is hidden in some apparent inconsistencies of the well-known Oliver-Pharr method, which is demonstrated to be based on an equivalent conical indenter whose semi-apical angle depends on the ratio between residual and total penetration. Specifically, this angle tends to 90° when the material exhibits extensive inelastic deformation, whereas it reduces to the one characteristic of the real indenter for a perfectly elastic material. This provides a new physical explanation for the relatively good accuracy of the method even in presence of a non-negligible residual contact impression on the sample.

  4. Indentation of Transversely Isotropic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Talapady Srivatsa

    Instrumented indentation, as a tool for characterization of mechanical properties, has well been established in the past decades. Studies have been conducted to understand the behavior of isotropic materials under indentation and techniques to accurately predict isotropic material properties have also been reported. Further, within the isotropic regime, work has been done to predict the indentation hardness without having to investigate the area of contact during indentation. Studies have also reported the prospect of utilizing indentation to predict the fatigue behavior of isotropic materials. This dissertation is made with the intent of extending the use of indentation, as a characterization tool, to the anisotropic regime. The effect of transverse isotropy on the indentation response of materials is systematically studied here. Extensive computational analysis is performed to elucidate the underlying deformation mechanics of indentation of transversely isotropic materials. Owing to the anisotropy, indentation may be performed parallel or perpendicular to the plane of isotropy of the specimen. It is observed that the indentation response varies significantly for each of these cases. The two cases are treated as unique and an identical systematic analysis is carried for both. The indentation orientations shall henceforth be referred to as transverse and longitudinal indentation for indentation parallel and perpendicular to the plane of isotropy respectively. A technique is developed capable of extracting the elastic-plastic properties of transversely isotropic materials from interpretation of indentation response in either direction. The technique is rigorously tested for its robustness, accuracy and uniqueness of results. A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine how sensitive the technique is to errors in experimental results. Rigorous studies are performed to understand the variation in pile-up or sink-in during indentation with varying anisotropy in the

  5. An indentation fatigue strength law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baoxing; Yonezu, Akio; Chen, Xi

    2010-05-01

    Indentation fatigue, where a cyclic load is applied on the sample via an indenter, emerges as an alternative approach for measuring the fatigue properties of materials. We have carried out indentation fatigue tests on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bulk material, as well as on TiN and NiP films/coatings deposited on SUS304 steel substrates, and demonstrate that a simple power-law relationship can be established between the indentation load amplitude and number of cycles to failure. Such a law is very similar to the conventional fatigue strength law obtained from uniaxial tests. The agreement between the fatigue stress exponents obtained by uniaxial and indentation fatigue tests suggests the potential applicability of the indentation fatigue technique for extracting the fatigue properties of materials.

  6. New Rock Abrasivity Test Method for Tool Life Assessments on Hard Rock Tunnel Boring: The Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, F. J.; Dahl, F.; Bruland, A.

    2016-05-01

    The tunnel boring machine (TBM) method has become widely used and is currently an important presence within the tunnelling industry. Large investments and high geological risk are involved using TBMs, and disc cutter consumption has a great influence on performance and cost, especially in hard rock conditions. Furthermore, reliable cutter life assessments facilitate the control of risk as well as avoiding delays and budget overruns. Since abrasive wear is the most common process affecting cutter consumption, good laboratory tests for rock abrasivity assessments are needed. A new abrasivity test method by rolling disc named Rolling Indentation Abrasion Test (RIAT) has been developed. The goal of the new test design and procedure is to reproduce wear behaviour on hard rock tunnel boring in a more realistic way than the traditionally used methods. Wear by rolling contact on intact rock samples is introduced and several rock types, covering a wide rock abrasiveness range, have been tested by RIAT. The RIAT procedure indicates a great ability of the testing method to assess abrasive wear on rolling discs. In addition and to evaluate the newly developed RIAT test method, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme including the most commonly used abrasivity test methods and the mineral composition were carried out. Relationships between the achieved results from conventional testing and RIAT results have been analysed.

  7. Relationship between thin-film bond strength as measured by a scratch test, and indentation hardness for bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Shusuke; Rawls, H Ralph; Hotta, Masato

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate thin-film bond strength between a bonding agent and human dentin, using a scratch test, and the characteristics and accuracy of measurement. One-step bonding agents (BeautiBond; Bond Force; Adper Easy Bond; Clearfil tri-S Bond) and two-step bonding agents (Cleafil SE Bond; FL-Bond II) were investigated in this study. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared for extracted human molars. The dentin surfaces were ground and bonding agents were applied and light cured. The thin-film bond strength test of the specimens was evaluated by the critical load at which the coated bonding agent failed and dentin appeared. The scratch mark sections were then observed under a scanning electron microscope. Indentation hardness was evaluated by the variation in depth under an applied load of 10gf. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA with the Scheffé's post hoc multiple comparison test (p<0.05). In addition, thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness were analyzed using analysis of correlation and covariance. The thin-film bond strength of two-step bonding agents were found to be significantly higher than that of one-step bonding agents with small standard deviations. Scratch marks consistently showed adhesive failure in the vicinity of the bonding agent/dentin interface. The indentation hardness showed a trend that two-step bonding agents have greater hardness than one-step bonding agents. A moderately significant correlation (r(2)=0.31) was found between thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness. Thin-film bond strength test is a valid and reliable means of evaluating bond strength in the vicinity of the adhesive interface and is more accurate than other methods currently in use. Further, the thin-film bond strength is influenced by the hardness of the cued bonding agent. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Micromechanics of shelf-aged and retrieved UHMWPE tibial inserts: indentation testing, oxidative profiling, and thickness effects.

    PubMed

    Wernlé, James D; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2005-10-01

    Understanding the surface micromechanical properties of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) may allow for improvement in its wear characteristics. Microtomed sections of two UHMWPE tibial bearings, one that had been irradiation sterilized and shelf-aged, and the other irradiation sterilized and used in a patient, were subjected to depth sensing indentation testing. The microtomed sections exhibited a white band in the subsurface region that is characteristic of oxidation, and the indentation testing, followed by FTIR analysis at the same testing locations, was performed across this region and into the bulk of the material. Indentation testing yielded data leading to hardness, modulus, and energy dissipation factor (EDF). FTIR profiling generated information about oxidation; oxidation indices were calculated by taking a ratio of peak heights at 1,716 cm(-1) (ketone) to 2,022 cm(-1) (methylene). The mechanical properties showed a strong linear correlation with oxidation index above a minimum thickness. Modulus, hardness, and EDF all increased with increasing oxidation. The appropriate thickness-to-indentation-depth ratio was determined by two methods and was found to be approximately 20:1. The mechanical properties through the oxidized region were seen to vary with depth into the sample in a profile similar to the oxidation profile. The differing aging environments of the tibial bearings are hypothesized to have had an effect on both the mechanical and oxidation profiles. The retrieved bearing exhibited a narrower oxidation profile with peaks closer to the surface, and oxidation indices of lower magnitude. The mechanical properties proved similar, with less intense and narrower readings for the retrieved sample. This research is consistent with much of the literature. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2005.

  9. Determining Individual Phase Properties in a Multi-phase Q&P Steel using Multi-scale Indentation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Guang; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-15

    A new inverse method was developed to predict the stress-strain behaviors of constituent phases in a multi-phase steel using the load-depth curves measured in nanoindentation tests combined with microhardness measurements. A power law hardening response was assumed for each phase, and an empirical relationship between hardness and yield strength was assumed. Adjustment was made to eliminate the indentation size effect and indenter bluntness effect. With the newly developed inverse method and statistical analysis of the hardness histogram for each phase, the average stress-strain curves of individual phases in a quench and partitioning (Q&P) steel, including austenite, tempered martensite and untempered martensite, were calculated and the results were compared with the phase properties obtained by in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) test. It is demonstrated that multi-scale instrumented indentation tests together with the new inverse method are capable of determining the individual phase flow properties in multi-phase alloys.

  10. Termite testing continues

    Treesearch

    Terence L. Wagner; Joe Mulrooney; Chris Petereson

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service's termiticide testing program provides unbiased efficacy data for product registration using standardized tests, sites and evaluation procedures. Virtually all termiticides undergo Forest Service tests prior to registration.

  11. Sequential Indentation Tests to Investigate the Influence of Confining Stress on Rock Breakage by Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter in a Biaxial State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Cao, Ping; Han, Dongya

    2016-04-01

    The influence of confining stress on rock breakage by a tunnel boring machine cutter was investigated by conducting sequential indentation tests in a biaxial state. Combined with morphology measurements of breaking grooves and an analysis of surface and internal crack propagation between nicks, the effects of maximum confining stress and minimum stress on indentation efficiency, crack propagation and chip formation were investigated. Indentation tests and morphology measurements show that increasing a maximum confining stress will result in increased consumed energy in indentations, enlarged groove volumes and promoted indentation efficiency when the corresponding minimum confining stress is fixed. The energy consumed in indentations will increase with increase in minimum confining stress, however, because of the decreased groove volumes as the minimum confining stress increases, the efficiency will decrease. Observations of surface crack propagation show that more intensive fractures will be induced as the maximum confining stress increases, whereas the opposite occurs for an increase of minimum confining stress. An observation of the middle section, cracks and chips shows that as the maximum confining stress increases, chips tend to form in deeper parts when the minimum confining stress is fixed, whereas they tend to formed in shallower parts as the minimum confining stress increases when the maximum confining stress is fixed.

  12. Comparison of irradiated 15Kh2MFA material mechanical properties using conventional testing methods and innovative approach of small punch testing (SPT) and automated ball indentation (ABIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, R.; Petelova, P.; Eliasova, I.; Kytka, M.; Culek, M.

    2017-02-01

    Article describes two innovative testing methods - Small Punch Testing (SPT) and Automated Ball Indentation Test (ABIT) - which are based on the determination and evaluation of material properties from miniaturized testing specimens. These methods are very promising due to minimum material needed for testing and also in case of testing highly irradiated materials of components that are not included in standard surveillance programs. The test results were obtained for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base material 15Ch2MFA in both states - initial unirradiated and irradiated. Subsequently results were compared with standard tensile tests to prove applicability of these testing methods for the evaluation of degradation of irradiated structural materials of nuclear power plants.

  13. Characterization and Evaluation of Micro-mechanical Properties of Ultra High Strength Concrete by using Micro-indentation Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, A. Ramachandra; Iyer, Nagesh R.; Raghu Prasad, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the details of characterization and micro-mechanical properties of ultra high strength concrete. Characterization was carried out for High Strength Concrete (HSC, HSC1) and Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC). Various mechanical properties, namely, compressive strength, split tensile strength and modulus of elasticity have been estimated for HSC, HSC1 and UHSC. It was observed from characterization studies that the split tensile strength is high in the case of UHSC compared to HSC and HSC1. X-ray diffraction analysis has been performed for cement, silica fume and quartz powder to know the chemical composition. The amount of quantified phases has been estimated. Micro indentation technique has been employed to evaluate the micromechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity and hardness. Oliver and Pharr method has been used to compute modulus of elasticity and hardness. It is observed that the value of modulus of elasticity obtained from the micro indentation test is in very good agreement with that of the value obtained from uniaxial compression test data of a cylindrical specimen. Finally micro-structure of the specimen has been obtained for various magnifications to examine the voids/pores in the UHSC matrix.

  14. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation and Drop-Weight Impact Testing on Carbon-Epoxy Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The project had two objectives: 1) The primary objective was to characterize damage tolerance of composite materials. To accomplish this, polymer matrix composites were to be subjected to static indentation as well as low-velocity impacts and the results analyzed. 2) A second objective was to investigate the effects of laser shock peening on the damage tolerance of aerospace materials, such as aluminum alloys, in terms of crack nucleation and crack propagation. The impact testing was proposed to be performed using a Dynatup drop tower. The specimens were to be placed over a square opening in a steel platen and impacted with a hemispherical tup. The damage was to be characterized in the laminate specimens. The damage tolerance of aerospace alloys was to be studied by conducting fatigue tests on aluminum alloy specimens with prior shock peening treatment. The crack length was to be monitored by a microscope and the crack propagation rate, da/dN, determined.

  15. Analysis of the biodynamic interaction between the fingertip and probe in the vibrotactile tests: the influences of the probe/fingertip contact orientation and static indentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Krajnak, Kristine; Welcome, Daniel E; Dong, Ren G

    2009-01-19

    Vibrotactile thresholds at the fingertips are affected by a number of individual, environmental, and testing factors. In the current study, we theoretically analyzed the effects of the contact orientation of the probe on the fingertip and the static pre-indentation on the dynamic deformation of the soft tissues of the fingertip in the vibrotactile tests using a nonlinear finite element model. The fingertip considered in the 3D finite element model is the distal phalanx, the portion from the distal end to the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint articulation. The fingertip is contacted by the probe at four different contact locations, which are regulated by contact angles (15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees), and three different pre-indentations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm). The model predictions indicated that the average spatial summation of the vibration displacement (SVD) at the fingertip depends on the static pre-indentation and the probe/indentor contact orientation; although the resonance characteristics of the fingertip are not affected by either the pre-indentation or the contact location. The location-dependence of the vibration exposure factors at the fingertip was found to increase with increasing static pre-indentation. At a static indentation of 1.5 mm, the test condition specified in the ISO-13091-1 standard, the values of the SVDs determined at different probe/fingertip contact orientations differ as much as 125%. Since the dynamic displacements of the soft tissues are believed to affect the vibrotactile threshold, the current results suggest that the contact orientation of the probe on the fingertip should be strictly defined and restricted to obtain reliable results in the vibrotactile perception threshold tests.

  16. Local axial compressive mechanical properties of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques-characterisation by indentation test and inverse finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chen-Ket; Akyildiz, Ali C; Speelman, Lambert; Gijsen, Frank J H; Oomens, Cees W J; van Sambeek, Marc R H M; van der Lugt, Aad; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2013-06-21

    The fibrous cap of an atherosclerotic plaque may be prone to rupture if the occurring stresses exceed the strength of the cap. Rupture can cause acute thrombosis and subsequent ischaemic stroke or myocardial infarction. A reliable prediction of the rupture probability is essential for the appropriate treatment of atherosclerosis. Biomechanical models, which compute stresses and strain, are promising to provide a more reliable rupture risk prediction. However, these models require knowledge of the local biomechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaque tissue. For this purpose, we examined human carotid plaques using indentation experiments. The test set-up was mounted on an inverted confocal microscope to visualise the collagen fibre structure during the tests. By using an inverse finite element (FE) approach, and assuming isotropic neo-Hookean behaviour, the corresponding Young's moduli were found in the range from 6 to 891kPa (median 30kPa). The results correspond to the values obtained by other research groups who analysed the compressive Young's modulus of atherosclerotic plaques. Collagen rich locations showed to be stiffer than collagen poor locations. No significant differences were found between the Young's moduli of structured and unstructured collagen architectures as specified from confocal collagen data. Insignificant differences between the middle of the fibrous cap, the shoulder regions, and remaining plaque tissue locations indicate that axial, compressive mechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques are independent of location within the plaque. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Indentation and tribological behavior of nickel titanium alloys and study of instrumented spherical indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Wangyang

    In this work, microscopic shape memory (SME) and superelastic (SE) effects in martensitic and austenitic NiTi alloys were probed by instrumented indentation techniques. Both pyramidal and spherical indenters were used to study the mechanical response of the NiTi alloys. It was found that deformation due to indentation was recoverable by the shape memory or superelastic effect and that the magnitude of indent recovery can be rationalized using the concept of the representative strain and maximum strain. Instrumented indentation techniques, especially using spherical indenters, are shown to be useful in quantifying shape memory and superelastic effects at micron and nanometer length scales. Novel tribological applications of superelastic NiTi thin films suggested by these results were also studied. A novel composite coating, with a superelastic NiTi interlayer between soft aluminum substrate and hard CrN coating, was studied using instrumented indentation, scratch, and pin-on-disk wear tests. It was found that a superelastic NiTi interlayer can dramatically improve hard-coating adhesion and wear resistance. The improved coating performance is attributed to the large elastic recovery ratio and strain tolerance of the superelastic NiTi interlayer. It was demonstrated that spherical indentation is very useful in the characterization of the mechanical properties of NiTi shape memory alloys. To further understand the spherical indentation process, a general study of spherical indentation in elastic-plastic materials was carried out. Two previously unknown relationships between hardness, reduced modulus, indentation depth, indenter radius, and work of indentation were found. Based on these relationships a novel energy-based method for determining contact area, reduced modulus, and hardness of materials from instrumented spherical indentation measurements was proposed. This method also provides a new way of calibrating the effective radius of imperfectly shaped spherical

  18. Biomechanical Characterization of Human Soft Tissues Using Indentation and Tensile Testing

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle; Premakumar, Yaami; Seifalian, Alexander; Butler, Peter Edward; Szarko, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine aims to engineer materials to replace or restore damaged or diseased organs. The mechanical properties of such materials should mimic the human tissues they are aiming to replace; to provide the required anatomical shape, the materials must be able to sustain the mechanical forces they will experience when implanted at the defect site. Although the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered scaffolds are of great importance, many human tissues that undergo restoration with engineered materials have not been fully biomechanically characterized. Several compressive and tensile protocols are reported for evaluating materials, but with large variability it is difficult to compare results between studies. Further complicating the studies is the often destructive nature of mechanical testing. Whilst an understanding of tissue failure is important, it is also important to have knowledge of the elastic and viscoelastic properties under more physiological loading conditions. This report aims to provide a minimally destructive protocol to evaluate the compressive and tensile properties of human soft tissues. As examples of this technique, the tensile testing of skin and the compressive testing of cartilage are described. These protocols can also be directly applied to synthetic materials to ensure that the mechanical properties are similar to the native tissue. Protocols to assess the mechanical properties of human native tissue will allow a benchmark by which to create suitable tissue-engineered substitutes. PMID:28060331

  19. Biomechanical Characterization of Human Soft Tissues Using Indentation and Tensile Testing.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michelle; Premakumar, Yaami; Seifalian, Alexander; Butler, Peter Edward; Szarko, Matthew

    2016-12-13

    Regenerative medicine aims to engineer materials to replace or restore damaged or diseased organs. The mechanical properties of such materials should mimic the human tissues they are aiming to replace; to provide the required anatomical shape, the materials must be able to sustain the mechanical forces they will experience when implanted at the defect site. Although the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered scaffolds are of great importance, many human tissues that undergo restoration with engineered materials have not been fully biomechanically characterized. Several compressive and tensile protocols are reported for evaluating materials, but with large variability it is difficult to compare results between studies. Further complicating the studies is the often destructive nature of mechanical testing. Whilst an understanding of tissue failure is important, it is also important to have knowledge of the elastic and viscoelastic properties under more physiological loading conditions. This report aims to provide a minimally destructive protocol to evaluate the compressive and tensile properties of human soft tissues. As examples of this technique, the tensile testing of skin and the compressive testing of cartilage are described. These protocols can also be directly applied to synthetic materials to ensure that the mechanical properties are similar to the native tissue. Protocols to assess the mechanical properties of human native tissue will allow a benchmark by which to create suitable tissue-engineered substitutes.

  20. Nano-indentation and laser-induced damage testing in optical multilayer-dielectric gratings [Nanomechanics and laser-induced damage in optical multilayer dielectric gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Mehrotra, K.; Corning Research & Development Corp., Coming, NY; Taylor, B. N.; ...

    2017-03-16

    Here, we demonstrate how a nanomechanical test can be used to generate metrics to complement laser-induced–damage testing (LIDT) measurements and show that differences in optical performance of the gratings (arising from changes in cleaning process and/or fabrication methods) can be related to their mechanical reliability. Data are presented on LIDT measurements in diffractive gratings of silica deposited on optical multilayers. The nano-indentation response of the diffraction gratings is measured in a new mode that allows for the extraction of a measurable metric characterizing the brittleness of the gratings, as well as their ductility. We show that lower LIDT’s are positivelymore » correlated with an increased grating brittleness, and therefore identify a nanomechanical approach to describe LIDT’s. We present extensive numerical simulations of nano-indentation tests and identify different deformation modes including stretching, shear concentration, and bending as precursors to mechanical failure in the nano-indentation test. The effects of geometrical inhomogeneities on enhanced stress generation in these gratings are specifically examined and addressed.« less

  1. Indentation law for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Static indentation tests are described for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates with steel balls as the indentor. Beam specimens clamped at various spans were used for the tests. Loading, unloading, and reloading data were obtained and fitted into power laws. Results show that: (1) contact behavior is not appreciably affected by the span; (2) loading and reloading curves seem to follow the 1.5 power law; and (3) unloading curves are described quite well by a 2.5 power law. In addition, values were determined for the critical indentation, alpha sub cr which can be used to predict permanent indentations in unloading. Since alpha sub cr only depends on composite material properties, only the loading and an unloading curve are needed to establish the complete loading-unloading-reloading behavior.

  2. The Effect of Prism Orientation in the Indentation Testing of Human Molar Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Braly, A.; Darnell, L.A.; Mann, A.B.; Teaford, M.F.; Weihs, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent nanoindentation studies have demonstrated that the hardness and Young's modulus of human molar enamel decreases by more than 50% on moving from the occlusal surface to the dentin-enamel junction on cross-sectional samples. Possible sources of these variations are changes in local chemistry, microstructure, and prism orientation. This study investigates the latter source by performing nanoindentation tests at two different orientations relative to the hydroxyapatite prisms: parallel and perpendicular. A single sample volume was tested in order to maintain a constant chemistry and microstructure. The resulting data show very small differences between the two orientations for both hardness and Young's modulus. The 1.5 to 3.0% difference is significantly less than the standard deviations found within the data set. Thus, the variations in hardness and Young's modulus on cross-sectional samples of human molar are attributed to changes in local chemistry (varying levels of mineralization, organic matter, and water content) and changes in microstructure (varying volume fractions of inorganic crystals and organic matrix). The impact of prism orientation on mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation appears to be minimal. PMID:17449008

  3. Cable indenter aging monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements.

  4. Indentation Analysis of Biphasic Viscoelastic Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Toohey, K.S.; Kalyanam, S.; Palaniappan, J.; Insana, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of soft biological materials are dependent on the responses of the two phases of which they are comprised: the solid matrix and interstitial fluid. Indentation techniques are commonly used to measure properties of such materials, but comparisons between different experimental and analytical techniques can be difficult. Most models relating load and time during spherical indentation are based on Hertzian contact theory, but the exact limitation of this theory for soft materials are unclear. Here, we examine the response of gelatin hydrogels to shear and indentation loading to quantify combined effects of the solid and fluid phases. The instantaneous behavior of the hydrogels is different for each test geometry and loading rate, but the relaxed response, measured by the relaxed modulus, is the same for all tests, within 17%. Additionally, indentation depths from 15–25% of the radius of the spherical indenter are found to minimize error in the estimate of relaxed modulus. PMID:26568646

  5. Deformation field heterogeneity in punch indentation

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Tejas G.; Saldana, Christopher; Hudspeth, Matthew; M'Saoubi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Plastic heterogeneity in indentation is fundamental for understanding mechanics of hardness testing and impression-based deformation processing methods. The heterogeneous deformation underlying plane-strain indentation was investigated in plastic loading of copper by a flat punch. Deformation parameters were measured, in situ, by tracking the motion of asperities in high-speed optical imaging. These measurements were coupled with multi-scale analyses of strength, microstructure and crystallographic texture in the vicinity of the indentation. Self-consistency is demonstrated in description of the deformation field using the in situ mechanics-based measurements and post-mortem materials characterization. Salient features of the punch indentation process elucidated include, among others, the presence of a dead-metal zone underneath the indenter, regions of intense strain rate (e.g. slip lines) and extent of the plastic flow field. Perhaps more intriguing are the transitions between shear-type and compression-type deformation modes over the indentation region that were quantified by the high-resolution crystallographic texture measurements. The evolution of the field concomitant to the progress of indentation is discussed and primary differences between the mechanics of indentation for a rigid perfectly plastic material and a strain-hardening material are described. PMID:24910521

  6. The relationship between indentation and uniaxial creep in amorphous selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Poisl, W.H.; Oliver, W.C.; Fabes, B.D.

    1995-08-01

    Ultralow load indentation techniques can be used to obtain time-dependent mechanical properties, termed indentation creep, of materials. However, the comparison of indentation creep data to that obtained during conventional creep testing is difficult, mainly due to the determination of the strain rate experienced by the material during indentation. Using the power-law creep equation and the equation for Newtonian viscosity as a function of stress and strain rate, a relationship between indentation strain rate,{center_dot}{epsilon}{sub {ital l}}={ital @};Dh/{ital h}, and the effective strain rate occurring during the indentation creep process is obtained. Indentation creep measurements on amorphous selenium in the Newtonian viscous flow regime above the glass transition temperature were obtained. The data was then used to determine that the coefficient relating indentation strain rate to the effective strain rate is equal to 0.09, or{center_dot}{epsilon}=0.0{center_dot}{epsilon}{sub {ital l}}.

  7. A representative-sandwich model for simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal simulation of a lithium-ion cell under quasi-static indentation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-08-29

    The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical abuse induced short circuit. Here in this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneous coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describe the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cell under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Lastly, numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.

  8. A representative-sandwich model for simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal simulation of a lithium-ion cell under quasi-static indentation tests

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; ...

    2015-08-29

    The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical abuse induced short circuit. Here in this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneous coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describemore » the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cell under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Lastly, numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.« less

  9. A representative-sandwich model for simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal simulation of a lithium-ion cell under quasi-static indentation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sprague, Michael A.; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-12-01

    The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large-scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit. In this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describe the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cells under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.

  10. Study of indentation of a sample equine bone using finite element simulation and single cycle reference point indentation.

    PubMed

    Hoffseth, Kevin; Randall, Connor; Hansma, Paul; Yang, Henry T Y

    2015-02-01

    In an attempt to study the mechanical behavior of bone under indentation, methods of analyses and experimental validations have been developed, with a selected test material. The test material chosen is from an equine cortical bone. Stress-strain relationships are first obtained from conventional mechanical property tests. A finite element simulation procedure is developed for indentation analyses. The simulation results are experimentally validated by determining (1) the maximum depth of indentation with a single cycle type of reference point indentation, and (2) the profile and depth of the unloaded, permanent indentation with atomic force microscopy. The advantage of incorporating in the simulation a yield criterion calibrated by tested mechanical properties, with different values in tension and compression, is demonstrated. In addition, the benefit of including damage through a reduction in Young's modulus is shown in predicting the permanent indentation after unloading and recovery. The expected differences in response between two indenter tips with different sharpness are predicted and experimentally observed. Results show predicted indentation depths agree with experimental data. Thus, finite element simulation methods with experimental validation, and with damage approximation by a reduction of Young's modulus, may provide a good approach for analysis of indentation of cortical bone. These methods reveal that multiple factors affect measured indentation depth and that the shape of the permanent indentation contains useful information about bone material properties. Only further work can determine if these methods or extensions to these methods can give useful insights into bone pathology, for example the bone fragility of thoroughbred racehorses.

  11. A-3 Test Stand work continues

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-22

    Stennis Space Center employees continue work on the A-3 Test Stand test cell. The stand is being built to test next-generation rocket engines that could carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit into deep space.

  12. Forward Analysis of Transversely Isotropic Thin Film by Indentation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Zheng

    Instrument indentation based methods for determining elasto-plastic properties of bulk specimen or thin film have received considerable and continue growing attention for recent decades, due to its simplicity, operability, and potential applications. However, the researches of transversely isotropic thin film are still at the beginning stage. In order to obtain a deeper understand of the relationship between P -- h curve and thin film properties, both dimensional analysis method and finite element method were applied in the present work. Extensive computational analysis of 630 sets of materials properties was carried out here. Through systematical studies, a more reasonable and intrinsic relationship, between indenter displacement h and the force P on it, was revealed. Also, an effect of materials transverse isotropic properties was summarized. Moreover, accurate and powerful forward analysis functions were established at the end of this thesis. These functions were, then, tested and mismatches were studied.

  13. Measurement of Young's modulus of vocal folds by indentation.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Neubauer, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of the indentation method for stiffness measurements and to estimate the Young's modulus of the vocal fold using this technique. Basic science. Indentation tests were performed using a range of indenter diameters and indentation depths on single- and double-layer silicone rubber models with various cover-layer thicknesses with known geometry and Young's moduli. Measurements were repeated on intact vocal folds and isolated muscle and cover-layer samples from three cadaveric human larynges. Indentation on single-layer rubber models yielded Young's moduli with acceptable accuracy when the indentation depth was equal to or smaller than the indenter diameter, and both were smaller than the physical dimensions of the material sample. On two-layer models, the stiffness estimation was similarly influenced by indenter diameter and indentation depth, and acceptable accuracy was reached when indentation depth was much smaller than the height of the top cover layer. Measurements on midmembranous vocal fold tissue revealed location-dependent Young's moduli (in kPa) as follows: intact hemilarynx, 8.6 (range=5.3-13.1); isolated inferior medial surface cover, 7.5 (range=7-7.9); isolated medial surface cover, 4.8 (range=3.9-5.7); isolated superior surface cover, 2.9 (range=2.7-3.2); and isolated thyroarytenoid muscle, 2.0 (range=1.3-2.7). Indenter diameter, indentation depth, and material thickness are important parameters in the measurement of vocal fold stiffness using the indentation technique. Measurements on human larynges showed location-dependent differences in stiffness. The stiffness of the vocal folds was also found to be higher when the vocal fold structure was still attached to the laryngeal framework compared with that when the vocal fold was separated from the framework. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of indentation creep

    Treesearch

    Don S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes; Jonathan Puthoff; Abdelmageed A. Elmustafa

    2010-01-01

    Finite element analysis is used to simulate cone indentation creep in materials across a wide range of hardness, strain rate sensitivity, and work-hardening exponent. Modeling reveals that the commonly held assumption of the hardness strain rate sensitivity (mΗ) equaling the flow stress strain rate sensitivity (mσ...

  15. A Load-Based Multiple-Partial Unloading Micro-Indentation Technique for Mechanical Property Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    C. Feng; J.M. Tannenbaum; B.S. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2009-07-23

    A load-based multiple-partial unloading microindentation technique has been developed for evaluating mechanical properties of materials. Comparing to the current prevailing nano/micro-indentation methods, which require precise measurements of the indentation depth and load, the proposed technique only measures indentation load and the overall indentation displacement (i.e. including displacement of the loading apparatus). Coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure during the indentation process, this technique results in a load-depth sensing indentation system capable of determining Young’s modulus of metallic alloys with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. Test results show consistent and correct elastic modulus values when performing indentation tests on standard alloys such as steel, aluminum, bronze, and single crystal superalloys. The proposed micro-indentation technique has led to the development of a portable loaddepth sensing indentation system capable of on-site, in-situ material property measurement.

  16. Optimal interaction of indenter with inhomogeneous plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aptukov, Valery N.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to a new class of problems dealing with an optimal design of an inhomogeneous plate during dynamic penetration of the rigid indenter. The quality criterion of the process is defined by the specific mass of the target, which absorbs the given kinetic mass of the indenter. Parameters of control are expressed in terms of mechanical characteristics, i.e., distribution of density and the related hardness across the plate thickness. The maximum principle of Pontryagin is used to search for the piecewise continuous control function. With consideration of impact conditions and characteristics for a given class of material, an optimal target structure criterion was estimated for engineering applications.

  17. Enabling Agile Testing through Continuous Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Stolberg, Sean E.

    2009-08-24

    A Continuous Integration system is often considered one of the key elements involved in supporting an agile software development and testing environment. As a traditional software tester transitioning to an agile development environment it became clear to me that I would need to put this essential infrastructure in place and promote improved development practices in order to make the transition to agile testing possible. This experience report discusses a continuous integration implementation I lead last year. The initial motivations for implementing continuous integration are discussed and a pre and post-assessment using Martin Fowler's "Practices of Continuous Integration" is provided along with the technical specifics of the implementation. Finally, I’ll wrap up with a retrospective of my experiences implementing and promoting continuous integration within the context of agile testing.

  18. Estimation of local anisotropy of plexiform bone: Comparison between depth sensing micro-indentation and Reference Point Indentation.

    PubMed

    Dall'Ara, E; Grabowski, P; Zioupos, P; Viceconti, M

    2015-11-26

    The recently developed Reference Point Indentation (RPI) allows the measurements of bone properties at the tissue level in vivo. The goal of this study was to compare the local anisotropic behaviour of bovine plexiform bone measured with depth sensing micro-indentation tests and with RPI. Fifteen plexiform bone specimens were extracted from a bovine femur and polished down to 0.05µm alumina paste for indentations along the axial, radial and circumferential directions (N=5 per group). Twenty-four micro-indentations (2.5µm in depth, 10% of them were excluded for testing problems) and four RPI-indentations (~50µm in depth) were performed on each sample. The local indentation modulus Eind was found to be highest for the axial direction (24.3±2.5GPa) compared to the one for the circumferential indentations (19% less stiff) and for the radial direction (30% less stiff). RPI measurements were also found to be dependent on indentation direction (p<0.001) with the exception of the Indentation Distance Increase (IDI) (p=0.173). In particular, the unloading slope US1 followed similar trends compared to the Eind: 0.47±0.03N/µm for axial, 11% lower for circumferential and 17% lower for radial. Significant correlations were found between US1 and Eind (p=0.001; R(2)=0.58), while no significant relationship was found between IDI and any of the micro-indentation measurements (p>0.157). In conclusion some of the RPI measurements can provide information about local anisotropy but IDI cannot. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between most local mechanical properties measured with RPI and with micro-indentations, but IDI does not correlate with any micro-indentation measurements.

  19. Indentation hardness: A simple test that correlates with the dissipated-energy predictor for fatigue-life in bovine pericardium membranes for bioprosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Rojo, Francisco Javier; García Paez, José María; Bourges, Jean Yves; Herrero, Eduardo Jorge; Millán, Isabel; Alvarez, Lourdes; Cordon, Ángeles; Guinea, Gustavo V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of hardness with fatigue in calf pericardium, a biomaterial commonly used in bioprosthetic heart valves, and its relationship with the energy dissipated during the first fatigue cycle that has been shown to be a predictor of fatigue-life (García Páez et al., 2006, 2007; Rojo et al., 2010). Fatigue tests were performed in vitro on 24 pericardium specimens cut in a root-to-apex direction. The specimens were subjected to a maximum stress of 1MPa in blocks of 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 cycles. By means of a modified Shore A hardness test procedure, the hardness of the specimen was measured before and after fatigue tests. Results showed a significant correlation of such hardness with fatigue performance and with the energy dissipated in the first cycle of fatigue, a predictor of pericardium durability. The study showed indentation hardness as a simple and reliable indicator of mechanical performance, one which could be easily implemented in improving tissue selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Localization in thin shells under indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Adjari, Amin; Lazarus, Arnaud; Vaziri, Ashkan; Reis, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    We perform a hybrid experimental and numerical investigation of deformation in thin spherical elastic shells under indentation. Past the initial linear response, an inverted cap develops as a Pegorelov circular ridge. For further indentation, this ridge loses axis-symmetry and sharp points of localized curvature form, which we refer to as 's-cones' (for shell-cones), in contrast with their developable cousins in plates, 'd-cones'. We quantify how the formation and evolution of s-cones is affected by systematically varying the indenter's curvature. In our precision model experiments, rapid prototyping is used to fabricate elastomeric shells and rigid indenters of various shapes. The mechanical response is quantified through load-displacement comparison tests and the deformation process is further characterized through digital imaging. In parallel, the experimental results are contrasted against nonlinear Finite Element simulations, which enable us to explore the role of friction at the shell-indenter contacts and characterize the relative strain energy focusing properties at different loci of localization. Our combined experimental and computational approach allows us to gain invaluable physical insight towards rationalizing this geometrically nonlinear process.

  1. Indentability of conventional and negative Poisson's ratio foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakes, R. S.; Elms, K.

    1992-01-01

    The indentation resistance of foams, both of conventional structure and of reentrant structure giving rise to negative Poisson's ratio, is studied using holographic interferometry. In holographic indentation tests, reentrant foams had higher yield strength and lower stiffness than conventional foams of the same original relative density. Calculated energy absorption for dynamic impact is considerably higher for reentrant foam than conventional foam.

  2. Indentation of a stretched elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue; Crosby, Alfred J.; Cai, Shengqiang

    2017-10-01

    Indentation has been intensively used to characterize mechanical properties of soft materials such as elastomers, gels, and soft biological tissues. In most indentation measurements, residual stress or stretch which can be commonly found in soft materials is ignored. In this article, we aim to quantitatively understand the effects of prestretches of an elastomer on its indentation measurement. Based on surface Green's function, we analytically derive the relationship between indentation force and indentation depth for a prestretched Neo-Hookean solid with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter as well as a spherical indenter. In addition, for a non-equal biaxially stretched elastomer, we obtain the equation determining the eccentricity of the elliptical contacting area between a spherical indenter and the elastomer. Our results clearly demonstrate that the effects of prestretches of an elastomer on its indentation measurement can be significant. To validate our analytical results, we further conduct correspondent finite element simulations of indentation of prestretched elastomers. The numerical results agree well with our analytical predictions.

  3. Pyrolytic carbon indentation crack morphology.

    PubMed

    Ely, J L; Stupka, J; Haubold, A D

    1996-06-01

    In studying fatigue and fracture behavior of brittle materials, Vickers diamond indentation cracks are often used. Many of the studies of indentation cracks use crack system models such as the radial-median crack or Palmqvist crack. These systems are also used to study small crack growth in brittle materials, and have been studied for pyrolytic carbon. However, the true morphology of these cracks in pyrolytic carbon coatings on graphite substrates have not been described. This study examined Vickers diamond and spherical ball indentation cracks in pyrolytic carbon coatings using several techniques, including serial metallographic cross sections, indentation fracture in bending, acoustic emission, and residual surface indentation scanning. The crack systems developed using these techniques were not typical of either radial median or Palmqvist systems. The morphology is unique to this material, possibly because of the coating thickness limitations. Given the difference in crack system, the application of standard indentation crack equations in studying fracture mechanics, especially for small cracks, must be questioned.

  4. A-3 Test Stand continues with test cell installation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-20

    Employees at Stennis Space Center continue work on the A-3 Test Stand. As shown, a section of the test cell is lifted for installation on the stand's structural steel frame. Work on the A-3 Test Stand began in 2007. It is scheduled for activation in 2012.

  5. Continued research on computer-based testing.

    PubMed Central

    Clyman, S. G.; Julian, E. R.; Orr, N. A.; Dillon, G. F.; Cotton, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners has developed computer-based examination formats for use in evaluating physicians in training. This paper describes continued research on these formats including attitudes about computers and effects of factors not related to the trait being measured; differences between paper-administered and computer-administered multiple-choice questions; and the characteristics of simulation formats. The implications for computer-based testing and further research are discussed. PMID:1807703

  6. The Instrumented Indentation Study of HVOF-Sprayed Hardmetal Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdková, Šárka; Bláhová, Olga; Zahálka, František; Kašparová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic properties, namely, hardness and Young's modulus, of four HVOF-sprayed hardmetal coatings were measured by instrumented indentation using Oliver-Pharr method Nanoindenter XP MTS with a continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) module. The results show that with sufficient number of CSM measurements, one can distinguish between indents made in the hard particles and indents made in the binder material. This can be accomplished by analyzing the plots of hardness and Young's modulus versus load (or versus indentation depth). Further development of the dependence curves enables the load (or indentation depth) to be set to correspond to the point of transition from a single structure component to the composite material and to determine the properties of both. Comparison of results of CSM measurement with the results of single indentation measurement at a defined load reveals a new perspective on the origin of the indentation size effect in hardmetal coatings. The measurements show that the increase in both the hardness and Young's modulus with decreasing load is caused mainly by the predominant influence of hard particles in the coatings.

  7. Continuous waves probing in dynamic acoustoelastic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalerandi, M.; Gliozzi, A. S.; Ait Ouarabi, M.; Boubenider, F.

    2016-05-01

    Consolidated granular media display a peculiar nonlinear elastic behavior, which is normally analysed with dynamic ultrasonic testing exploiting the dependence on amplitude of different measurable quantities, such as the resonance frequency shift, the amount of harmonics generation, or the break of the superposition principle. However, dynamic testing allows measuring effects which are averaged over one (or more) cycles of the exciting perturbation. Dynamic acoustoelastic testing has been proposed to overcome this limitation and allow the determination of the real amplitude dependence of the modulus of the material. Here, we propose an implementation of the approach, in which the pulse probing waves are substituted by continuous waves. As a result, instead of measuring a time-of-flight as a function of the pump strain, we study the dependence of the resonance frequency on the strain amplitude, allowing to derive the same conclusions but with an easier to implement procedure.

  8. Chemical removal of necrotic periodontal ligament on delayed replanted teeth by sodium hypochlorite: morphological analysis and microhardness indentation test of cementum.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Qin, M; Zhao, Y-M; Huang, M-W; Ji, A-P

    2016-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used at different concentrations and working times for removing necrotic periodontal ligament (PDL) from delayed replanted teeth and to observe the effects of NaOCl on surface structure and microhardness of cementum. A total of 88 healthy premolars with a single root extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected and kept dry at room temperature for 1 h. The teeth were divided into 11 groups: group 1 (control): roots were untreated; group 2: necrotic PDL was removed with gauze; groups 3-11: teeth were immersed in NaOCl at different concentrations (1, 2.5 and 5.25%) and for different working times (5, 10 and 15 min). The specimens in each group were inspected separately for cementum integrity and the presence of PDL remnants by histomorphometric analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Another 14 healthy premolars with roots divided into two pieces were selected for Vickers microhardness indentation tests before and after NaOCl treatment. The data were analysed statistically using Wilcoxon signed-rank test of two-related samples (P = 0.05). In teeth treated with 1% NaOCl for 15 min or 5.25% NaOCl for 5 min, the cementum remained morphologically intact without cracks, and PDL remnants were absent. In the 1% NaOCl for 15 min group, the microstructure of cementum was arranged more regularly, as observed ×8000 magnification by SEM. Teeth in each of the other groups displayed cementum damage and/or the presence of PDL remnants. Microhardness tests revealed that treatment with 1% NaOCl for 15 min or 5.25% NaOCl for 5 min significantly decreased microhardness of root cementum (P < 0.05). Use of either 1% NaOCl for 15 min or 5.25% NaOCl for 5 min was effective at removing necrotic PDL from the delayed replanted teeth whilst having a minimal influence on cementum integrity. However, 1% NaOCl for 15 min was less damaging to cementum. © 2015 International Endodontic

  9. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of each stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 32 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested quasi-statically and in fatigue, and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  10. Fatigue Life of Postbuckled Structures with Indentation Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Bisagni, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life of composite stiffened panels with indentation damage was investigated experimentally using single stringer compression specimens. Indentation damage was induced on one of the two flanges of the stringer. The experiments were conducted using advanced instrumentation, including digital image correlation, passive thermography, and in-situ ultrasonic scanning. Specimens with initial indentation damage lengths of 37 millimeters to 56 millimeters were tested in fatigue and the effects of cyclic load amplitude and damage size were studied. A means of comparison of the damage propagation rates and collapse loads based on a stress intensity measure and the Paris law is proposed.

  11. Indentability of conventional and negative Poisson's ratio foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakes, R. S.; Elms, K.

    1992-01-01

    The indentation resistance of foams, both of conventional structure and of re-entrant structure giving rise to negative Poisson's ratio, is studied using holographic interferometry. In holographic indentation tests, re-entrant foams had higher yield strengths sigma(sub y) and lower stiffness E than conventional foams of the same original relative density. Calculated energy absorption for dynamic impact is considerably higher for re-entrant foam than conventional foam.

  12. Finite element simulation of Reference Point Indentation on bone.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Agarwal, Vineet; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Reference Point Indentation (RPI) is a novel technique aimed to assess bone quality. Measurements are recorded by the BioDent instrument that applies multiple indents to the same location of cortical bone. Ten RPI parameters are obtained from the resulting force-displacement curves. Using the commercial finite element analysis software Abaqus, we assess the significance of the RPI parameters. We create an axisymmetric model and employ an isotropic viscoelastic-plastic constitutive relation with damage to simulate indentations on a human cortical bone. Fracture of bone tissue is not simulated for simplicity. The RPI outputs are computed for different simulated test cases and then compared with experimental results, measured using the BioDent, found in literature. The number of cycles, maximum indentation load, indenter tip radius, and the mechanical properties of bone: Young׳s modulus, compressive yield stress, and viscosity and damage constants, are varied. The trends in the RPI parameters are then investigated. We find that the RPI parameters are sensitive to the mechanical properties of bone. An increase in Young׳s modulus of bone causes the force-displacement loading and unloading slopes to increase and the total indentation distance (TID) to decrease. The compressive yield stress is inversely proportional to a creep indentation distance (CID1) and the TID. The viscosity constant is proportional to the CID1 and an average of the energy dissipated (AvED). The maximum indentation load is proportional to the TID, CID1, loading and unloading slopes, and AvED. The damage parameter is proportional to the TID, but it is inversely proportional to both the loading and unloading slopes and the AvED. The value of an indenter tip radius is proportional to the CID1 and inversely proportional to the TID. The number of load cycles is inversely proportional to an average of a creep indentation depth (AvCID) and the AvED. The indentation distance increase (IDI) is strongly

  13. Residual stress in glass: indentation crack and fractography approaches.

    PubMed

    Anunmana, Chuchai; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Mecholsky, John J

    2009-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the indentation crack technique can determine surface residual stresses that are not statistically significantly different from those determined from the analytical procedure using surface cracks, the four-point flexure test, and fracture surface analysis. Soda-lime-silica glass bar specimens (4 mm x 2.3 mm x 28 mm) were prepared and annealed at 650 degrees C for 30 min before testing. The fracture toughness values of the glass bars were determined from 12 specimens based on induced surface cracks, four-point flexure, and fractographic analysis. To determine the residual stress from the indentation technique, 18 specimens were indented under 19.6N load using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Crack lengths were measured within 1 min and 24h after indentation, and the measured crack lengths were compared with the mean crack lengths of annealed specimens. Residual stress was calculated from an equation developed for the indentation technique. All specimens were fractured in a four-point flexure fixture and the residual stress was calculated from the strength and measured crack sizes on the fracture surfaces. The results show that there was no significant difference between the residual stresses calculated from the two techniques. However, the differences in mean residual stresses calculated within 1 min compared with those calculated after 24h were statistically significant (p=0.003). This study compared the indentation technique with the fractographic analysis method for determining the residual stress in the surface of soda-lime-silica glass. The indentation method may be useful for estimating residual stress in glass.

  14. Residual stress in glass: indentation crack and fractography approaches

    PubMed Central

    Anunmana, Chuchai; Anusavice, Kenneth J.; Mecholsky, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that the indentation crack technique can determine surface residual stresses that are not statistically significantly different from those determined from the analytical procedure using surface cracks, the four-point flexure test, and fracture surface analysis. Methods Soda-lime-silica glass bar specimens (4 mm × 2.3 mm × 28 mm) were prepared and annealed at 650 °C for 30 min before testing. The fracture toughness values of the glass bars were determined from 12 specimens based on induced surface cracks, four-point flexure, and fractographic analysis. To determine the residual stress from the indentation technique, 18 specimens were indented under 19.6 N load using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Crack lengths were measured within 1 min and 24 h after indentation, and the measured crack lengths were compared with the mean crack lengths of annealed specimens. Residual stress was calculated from an equation developed for the indentation technique. All specimens were fractured in a four-point flexure fixture and the residual stress was calculated from the strength and measured crack sizes on the fracture surfaces. Results The results show that there was no significant difference between the residual stresses calculated from the two techniques. However, the differences in mean residual stresses calculated within 1 min compared with those calculated after 24 h were statistically significant (p=0.003). Significance This study compared the indentation technique with the fractographic analysis method for determining the residual stress in the surface of soda-lime silica glass. The indentation method may be useful for estimating residual stress in glass. PMID:19671475

  15. Indentation plasticity and fracture in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.; Pirouz, P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of the ductile-brittle transition temperature of heavily doped silicon were carried out using indentation techniques. Diamond pyramid hardness tests were performed on the (100) face of heavily doped N-type and P-type and intrinsic silicon single crystals. Tests were performed over the range 200 C to 850 C and loads of 100 to 500 g were used. Samples were subsequently etched to reveal dislocation rosettes produced by indentation. Intrinsic silicon underwent a ductile-brittle transition at 660 C, P-type at 645 C and N-type at 625 C. Hardness values varied from 1.1 GPa at 700 C to 11.7 GPa at 200 C. Significant effects of hardness on doping were present only at the highest temperatures. Lower loads generally produced higher hardness but load did not affect the Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT). Fracture toughness values ranged from 0.9 MPa m(1/2) at 200 C to 2.75 MPa m(1/2) near the DBTT. Doping did not affect the fracture toughness of silicon. P-type doping increased the size of dislocation rosettes observed after indentation, but N-type did not, in contradiction of the expected results. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of doping on the dislocation mobility in silicon.

  16. Surface effects on nanoindentation of soft solids by different indenters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yue; Niu, Xin-Rui; Wang, Gang-Feng; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Yu, Shou-Wen

    2016-11-01

    For soft materials like biological tissues and gels, surface energy and hyperelasticity have significant influences on their mechanical response to external load. In this paper, we investigate the effects of surface energy on nanoindentation of hyperelastic solids by using conical, flat and spherical indenters. The hyperelastic behavior of soft solids is characterized by the neo-Hookean model, and the influence of surface energy is analyzed through finite element simulations. For the three typical indenters, the explicit relations between compressive load and indent depth are obtained considering both finite deformation and surface energy. When the contact radius is comparable with the ratio of surface energy density to elastic modulus, surface energy will evidently alter the contact pressure, surface profile, and overall response. Compared to the linear elastic predictions, the neo-Hookean hyperelasticity tends to increase the indent depth, while surface energy has a reverse effect. The obtained results are helpful to accurately characterize the mechanical response of soft solids via nanoindentation tests.

  17. Elastic response, buckling, and instability of microtubules under radial indentation.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Iwan A T; Carrasco, Carolina; de Pablo, Pedro J; MacKintosh, Frederick C; Schmidt, Christoph F

    2006-08-15

    We tested the mechanical properties of single microtubules by lateral indentation with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Indentations up to approximately 3.6 nm, i.e., 15% of the microtubule diameter, resulted in an approximately linear elastic response, and indentations were reversible without hysteresis. At an indentation force of around 0.3 nN we observed an instability corresponding to an approximately 1-nm indentation step in the taxol-stabilized microtubules, which could be due to partial or complete rupture of a relatively small number of lateral or axial tubulin-tubulin bonds. These indentations were reversible with hysteresis when the tip was retracted and no trace of damage was observed in subsequent high-resolution images. Higher forces caused substantial damage to the microtubules, which either led to depolymerization or, occasionally, to slowly reannealing holes in the microtubule wall. We modeled the experimental results using finite-element methods and find that the simple assumption of a homogeneous isotropic material, albeit structured with the characteristic protofilament corrugations, is sufficient to explain the linear elastic response of microtubules.

  18. Elastic Response, Buckling, and Instability of Microtubules under Radial Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, Iwan A. T.; Carrasco, Carolina; de Pablo, Pedro J.; MacKintosh, Frederick C.; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the mechanical properties of single microtubules by lateral indentation with the tip of an atomic force microscope. Indentations up to ∼3.6 nm, i.e., 15% of the microtubule diameter, resulted in an approximately linear elastic response, and indentations were reversible without hysteresis. At an indentation force of around 0.3 nN we observed an instability corresponding to an ∼1-nm indentation step in the taxol-stabilized microtubules, which could be due to partial or complete rupture of a relatively small number of lateral or axial tubulin-tubulin bonds. These indentations were reversible with hysteresis when the tip was retracted and no trace of damage was observed in subsequent high-resolution images. Higher forces caused substantial damage to the microtubules, which either led to depolymerization or, occasionally, to slowly reannealing holes in the microtubule wall. We modeled the experimental results using finite-element methods and find that the simple assumption of a homogeneous isotropic material, albeit structured with the characteristic protofilament corrugations, is sufficient to explain the linear elastic response of microtubules. PMID:16731557

  19. A Micro-Indentation Method for Assessment of TBC Bond Coat Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, C.; Alvin, M.A.; Kang, B.S.

    2007-09-01

    Under elevated temperatures, the presence of high thermal stresses along or within thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) can lead to the development of creep cavities and wedge cracks which can ultimately form microcracks and result in interfacial debonding in the TBC bond coat region. Defects detection on the subsurface TBC layers has shown some progress by using laser scattering and other non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. However, the difficulty of determining interfacial debonding and degradation assessment of the TBC remains a significant hurdle to overcome due to the TBC’s complex multi-layer structure, and frequently rough surface morphology. The TBC has high attenuation, high porosity, and many interfaces of different materials, which are the challenges that need to be overcome by the NDT techniques. Based on our recent research development of a Transparent Indenter Measurement (TIM) method, we have further developed a simplified micro-indentation technique for mechanical property degradation measurement and debonding/spallation detection of TBC bond coat in this research effort. NETL bond-coated coupons were subjected to cumulative rapid thermal cycling, and after every 100 high temperature thermal cycles, micro-indentation tests were conducted on bond-coat superalloy and single crystal coupons. Preliminary test results showed that the measured surface stiffness responses of the NETL bond coat decreased with exposure to continued thermal cycling. Currently these data are being correlated with microstructural analyses to address potential degradation and/or spalling of the applied NETL bond coat.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF YOUNG’S MODULUS OF VOCAL FOLDS BY INDENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Zhang, Zhaoyan; Neubauer, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess accuracy of the indentation method for stiffness measurements and to estimate the Young’s modulus of the vocal fold using this technique. Study Design Basic science. Methods Indentation tests were performed using a range of indenter diameters and indentation depths on single and double layer silicone rubber models with a range of cover layer thicknesses with known geometry and Young’s moduli. Measurements were repeated on intact vocal folds and isolated muscle and cover layer samples from three cadaveric human larynges. Results Indentation on single-layer rubber models yielded Young’s moduli with acceptable accuracy when the indentation depth was equal to or smaller than the indenter diameter, and both were smaller than the physical dimensions of the material sample. On two-layer models the stiffness estimation was similarly influenced by indenter diameter and indentation depth, and acceptable accuracy was reached when indentation depth was much smaller than the height of the top cover layer. Measurements on mid-membranous vocal fold tissue revealed location-dependent Young’s moduli (in kPa) as follows: intact hemilarynx 8.6 (range 5.3 – 13.1), isolated inferior medial surface cover 7.5 (range 7 – 7.9), isolated medial surface cover 4.8 (range 3.9–5.7), isolated superior surface cover 2.9 (range 2.7 – 3.2), and isolated thyroarytenoid muscle 2.0 (range 1.3 – 2.7). Conclusions Indenter diameter, indentation depth, and material thickness are important parameters in measurement of vocal fold stiffness using the indentation technique. Measurements on human larynges showed location-dependent differences in stiffness. The stiffness of the vocal folds was also found to be higher when the vocal fold structure was still attached to the laryngeal framework as compared to when the vocal fold was separated from the framework. PMID:20171829

  1. The bone diagnostic instrument II: indentation distance increase.

    PubMed

    Hansma, Paul; Turner, Patricia; Drake, Barney; Yurtsev, Eugene; Proctor, Alexander; Mathews, Phillip; Lulejian, Jason; Lelujian, Jason; Randall, Connor; Adams, Jonathan; Jungmann, Ralf; Garza-de-Leon, Federico; Fantner, Georg; Mkrtchyan, Haykaz; Pontin, Michael; Weaver, Aaron; Brown, Morton B; Sahar, Nadder; Rossello, Ricardo; Kohn, David

    2008-06-01

    The bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) is being developed with the long-term goal of providing a way for researchers and clinicians to measure bone material properties of human bone in vivo. Such measurements could contribute to the overall assessment of bone fragility in the future. Here, we describe an improved BDI, the Osteoprobe IItrade mark. In the Osteoprobe IItrade mark, the probe assembly, which is designed to penetrate soft tissue, consists of a reference probe (a 22 gauge hypodermic needle) and a test probe (a small diameter, sharpened rod) which slides through the inside of the reference probe. The probe assembly is inserted through the skin to rest on the bone. The distance that the test probe is indented into the bone can be measured relative to the position of the reference probe. At this stage of development, the indentation distance increase (IDI) with repeated cycling to a fixed force appears to best distinguish bone that is more easily fractured from bone that is less easily fractured. Specifically, in three model systems, in which previous mechanical testing and/or tests reported here found degraded mechanical properties such as toughness and postyield strain, the BDI found increased IDI. However, it must be emphasized that, at this time, neither the IDI nor any other mechanical measurement by any technique has been shown clinically to correlate with fracture risk. Further, we do not yet understand the mechanism responsible for determining IDI beyond noting that it is a measure of the continuing damage that results from repeated loading. As such, it is more a measure of plasticity than elasticity in the bone.

  2. Molecular dynamics of silicon indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J. S.; Hoover, W. G.; Hoover, C. G.; de Groot, A. J.; Lee, S. M.; Wooten, F.

    1993-04-01

    We use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics to simulate the elastic-plastic deformation of silicon under tetrahedral nanometer-sized indentors. The results are described in terms of a rate-dependent and temperature-dependent phenomenological yield strength. We follow the structural change during indentation with a computer technique that allows us to model the dynamic simulation of diffraction patterns.

  3. Fictive temperature-independent density and minimum indentation size effect in calcium aluminosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, T. M.; Tomozawa, M.

    2008-09-15

    Using the calcium aluminosilicate system a glass was developed that exhibits fictive temperature-independent density by creating an intermediate glass between normal and anomalous glasses. Normal glass, such as soda-lime silicate glass, exhibits decreasing density with increasing fictive temperature while anomalous glass, such as silica glass, exhibits increasing density with increasing fictive temperature. This intermediate glass composition was found to exhibit the minimum indentation size effect during indentation hardness testing. It appears that the indentation size effect is correlated with a deformation-induced fictive temperature increase, which is accompanied by a density change and hardness change in the vicinity of the indentation. It is suggested from these observations that indentation size effect originates from the energy required to create interfaces and defects such as shear bands, subsurface cracks, and point defects near the indenter-specimen boundary, which accompany the volume change.

  4. Review of fracture properties of nuclear materials determined by Hertzian indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.; Matzke, H.

    1985-01-01

    A brief description of the determination of the surface fracture energy and the fracture toughness from a Hertzian indentation test is given. A number of theoretical and experimental problems are discussed. Results obtained on a variety of nuclear fuels and nuclear-waste-containment materials are reviewed and compared with values measured by other techniques. The Hertzian indentation test yields reliable fracture parameters.

  5. NASA Continues J-2X Powerpack Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA conducted a long duration test of the J-2X powerpack, 340 seconds total, at the Stennis Space Center in southern Mississippi on May 10, marking another step in SLS development, the next-genera...

  6. Indentation across interfaces between stiff and compliant tissues.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Oliver E; Oyen, Michelle L

    2017-01-04

    Bone-tendon, bone-ligament and bone-cartilage junctions are multi-tissue interfaces that connect materials that differ by two orders of magnitude in mechanical properties, via gradual variations in mineral content and matrix composition. These sites mediate load transfer between highly dissimilar materials and are consequently a primary site of injury during orthopedic failure. Given the large incidence rate and the lack of suitable surgical solutions for their regeneration or repair, characterization of their natural structure and subsequent replication through tissue engineering is important. Here, we evaluate the ability and accuracy of instrumented indentation to characterize the mechanical properties of both biological tissues and engineered scaffolds with interfaces between materials that contain significant changes in mechanical properties. In this study, finite element simulations and reference samples are developed that characterize how accurately indentation measures the modulus of a material as it varies with distance across a continuous interface between dissimilar tissues with multiple orders of magnitude difference in properties. Finite element simulations accurately predicted discrepancies between the modulus function across an interface observed by indentation and the true modulus function of the material and hence allow us to understand the limits of instrumented indentation as a technique for quantifying gradual changes in material properties. It was found that in order to accurately investigate mechanical property variations in tissues with significant modulus heterogeneity the indenter size should be less than 10 percent of the expected length scale of the modulus variations.

  7. Reference point indentation is not indicative of whole mouse bone measures of stress intensity fracture toughness

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Alessandra; Bruse, Jan L.; Oldknow, Karla J.; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility is a concern for aged and diseased bone. Measuring bone toughness and understanding fracture properties of the bone are critical for predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease and for preclinical testing of therapies. A reference point indentation technique (BioDent) has recently been developed to determine bone's resistance to fracture in a minimally invasive way by measuring the indentation distance increase (IDI) between the first and last indentations over cyclic indentations in the same position. In this study, we investigate the relationship between fracture toughness KC and reference point indentation parameters (i.e. IDI, total indentation distance (TID) and creep indentation distance (CID)) in bones from 38 mice from six types (C57Bl/6, Balb, oim/oim, oim/+, Phospho1−/− and Phospho1 wild type counterpart). These mice bone are models of healthy and diseased bone spanning a range of fracture toughness from very brittle (oim/oim) to ductile (Phospho1−/−). Left femora were dissected, notched and tested in 3-point bending until complete failure. Contralateral femora were dissected and indented in 10 sites of their anterior and posterior shaft surface over 10 indentation cycles. IDI, TID and CID were measured. Results from this study suggest that reference point indentation parameters are not indicative of stress intensity fracture toughness in mouse bone. In particular, the IDI values at the anterior mid-diaphysis across mouse types overlapped, making it difficult to discern differences between mouse types, despite having extreme differences in stress intensity based toughness measures. When more locations of indentation were considered, the normalised IDIs could distinguish between mouse types. Future studies should investigate the relationship of the reference point indentation parameters for mouse bone in other material properties of the bone tissue in order to determine their use for measuring bone quality. PMID:25280470

  8. Reference point indentation is not indicative of whole mouse bone measures of stress intensity fracture toughness.

    PubMed

    Carriero, Alessandra; Bruse, Jan L; Oldknow, Karla J; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2014-12-01

    Bone fragility is a concern for aged and diseased bone. Measuring bone toughness and understanding fracture properties of the bone are critical for predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease and for preclinical testing of therapies. A reference point indentation technique (BioDent) has recently been developed to determine bone's resistance to fracture in a minimally invasive way by measuring the indentation distance increase (IDI) between the first and last indentations over cyclic indentations in the same position. In this study, we investigate the relationship between fracture toughness KC and reference point indentation parameters (i.e. IDI, total indentation distance (TID) and creep indentation distance (CID)) in bones from 38 mice from six types (C57Bl/6, Balb, oim/oim, oim/+, Phospho1(-/-) and Phospho1 wild type counterpart). These mice bone are models of healthy and diseased bone spanning a range of fracture toughness from very brittle (oim/oim) to ductile (Phospho1(-/-)). Left femora were dissected, notched and tested in 3-point bending until complete failure. Contralateral femora were dissected and indented in 10 sites of their anterior and posterior shaft surface over 10 indentation cycles. IDI, TID and CID were measured. Results from this study suggest that reference point indentation parameters are not indicative of stress intensity fracture toughness in mouse bone. In particular, the IDI values at the anterior mid-diaphysis across mouse types overlapped, making it difficult to discern differences between mouse types, despite having extreme differences in stress intensity based toughness measures. When more locations of indentation were considered, the normalised IDIs could distinguish between mouse types. Future studies should investigate the relationship of the reference point indentation parameters for mouse bone in other material properties of the bone tissue in order to determine their use for measuring bone quality.

  9. Boundary condition and pre-strain effects on the free standing indentation response of graphene monolayer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lixin; Wang, Yugang; Cao, Guoxin

    2013-11-27

    Using molecular mechanics simulations, we investigated the true pre-stress/pre-strain state of graphene in free standing indentation and the effect of the pre-strain (ε0) on the free standing indentation response of graphene is also considered. We found that there is essentially no effective pre-tension in graphene during free standing indentation and the reported pre-tensile stress determined from the indentation tests does not show the true pre-stress state of graphene, which is a 'fake stress' caused by the assumption (the indenter tip displacement is equal to the displacement of graphene) typically used in the classic indentation analysis. A negative ε0 will increase the van der Waals (VDW) interaction between the indenter tip and graphene to cause a larger overestimation of both values of the elastic modulus (E) and the nonlinear elastic constant (c) of graphene from the classic indentation analysis. However, applying a positive ε0 in graphene, the VDW effect will be significantly decreased, and a more accurate value of E can be obtained, but the value of c will decrease to zero, which may become an effective way to more accurately obtain the elastic stiffness of graphene from indentation tests.

  10. Dynamic indentation hardness of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeppel, Brian James

    Indentation hardness is one of the simplest and most commonly used measures for quickly characterizing material response under static loads. Hardness may mean resistance to cutting to a machinist, resistance to wear to a tribologist, or a measure of flow stress to a design engineer. In this simple technique, a predetermined force is applied to an indenter for 5-30 seconds causing it to penetrate a specimen. By measuring the load and the indentation size, a hardness value is determined. However, the rate of deformation during indenter penetration is of the order of 10sp{-4}\\ ssp{-1}. In most practical applications, such as high speed machining or impact, material deforms at strain rates in excess of 10sp3{-}10sp5\\ ssp{-1}. At such high rates, it is well established that the plastic behavior of materials is considerably different from their static counterpart. For example, materials exhibit an increase in their yield stress, flow stress, fracture stress, and fracture toughness at high strain rates. Hence, the use of static hardness as an indicator of material response under dynamic loads may not be appropriate. Accordingly, a simple dynamic indentation hardness tester is developed for characterizing materials at strain rates similar to those encountered in realistic situations. The experimental technique uses elastic stress wave propagation phenomena in a slender rod. The technique is designed to deliver a single indentation load of 100-200 mus duration. Similar to static measurements, the dynamic hardness is determined from the measured load and indentation size. Hardness measurements on a range of metals have revealed that the dynamic hardness is consistently greater than the static hardness. The increase in hardness is strongly dependent on the crystal structure of the material. The observed trends in hardness are also found to be consistent with the yield and flow stresses of these materials under uniaxial compression. Therefore, it is suggested that the

  11. Micro-indentation fracture behavior of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Sanosh Kunjalukkal; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Chu, Min-Cheol; Kim, Taik Nam; Cho, Seong Jai

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the crack resistance behavior (K(R)) of human enamel in relation to its microstructure. Human molar teeth were precision cut, polished and tested using Vickers micro-indentation at different loads ranging from 0.98 to 9.8 N. Five indentation load levels were considered, 20 indentation cracks for each load level were introduced on the surface of the test specimen (10 indentations per tooth) and their variability was evaluated using Weibull statistics and an empirical model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the crack morphology and propagation mechanisms involved. The results showed that enamel exhibited increasing cracking resistance (K(R)) with increasing load. It was found that the crack propagation mainly depended on the location and the microstructure it encountered. SEM showed the formation of crack bridges and crack deflection near the indentation crack tip. The crack mode was of Palmqvist type even at larger loads of 9.8 N. This was mainly attributed to the large process zone created by the interwoven lamellar rod like microstructure exhibited by the enamel surface. This study shows that there are still considerable prospects for improving dental ceramics and for mimicking the enamel structure developed by nature.

  12. 40 CFR 205.160-7 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continued testing. 205.160-7 Section 205.160-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-7 Continued testing. (a) If...

  13. 40 CFR 205.160-7 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Continued testing. 205.160-7 Section 205.160-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-7 Continued testing. (a) If...

  14. 40 CFR 205.160-7 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continued testing. 205.160-7 Section 205.160-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-7 Continued testing. (a) If...

  15. 40 CFR 205.160-7 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continued testing. 205.160-7 Section 205.160-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-7 Continued testing. (a) If...

  16. In search of validated measurements of the properties of viscoelastic materials by indentation with sharp indenters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monclus, M. A.; Jennett, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Industry requires validated high-resolution methods for the characterisation viscoelastic materials to obtain local (or small volume) polymer properties for input to part design (e.g. micro-mouldings, packaging, coatings, composite interfaces, etc.). This paper examines the capability of dynamic (oscillatory) indentation (DI) and simple force-controlled "force-increase ramp and hold" indentation creep methods to deliver equivalent results compatible with those obtained on the same materials by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and uniaxial tensile testing. We test three commercial polymers (two photo stress materials and polyoxymethylene (POM)). A creep analysis based on conical-pyramidal elastic-viscoelastic correspondence 1 and a three-element standard linear solid (SLS) model is used to give an output of two elastic moduli (E 1 and E 2) and a viscosity (η). Mathematically, E 1, E 2 and η can be used to calculate loss and storage modulus values at any frequency without further measurement. Indentation creep results obtained using various maximum forces (P max) and two indenter geometries (pyramidal (Berkovich) and conical (0.6 µm tip radius)) are compared with DI and DMA measurements at 40 Hz on the same materials and with tensile data from the POM sample fitted using the same SLS creep model. Between-method agreement of storage modulus values for all materials is sufficient to suggest that a route to validated measurement methods is available. However, simple models (as commonly used in DI and DMA) are inadequate to generate reproducible quantitative values for viscosity parameters. We show that more complex models are necessary to successfully produce loss/viscosity parameters that are equivalent.

  17. Analysis of Indentation Size Effect (ISE) Behavior in Low-Load Vickers Microhardness Testing of (Sm123)1-x(Nd123)x Superconductor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Sukru; Ozturk, Ozgur; Coşkun, Elvan; Asikuzu, Elif; Ozturk, Kemal; Terzioglu, Cabir

    2013-03-01

    Indentation size effect (ISE) for (Sm123)1-x(Nd123)x superconducting samples which were fabricated by the solid state reaction technique for values of x =0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 was investigated by analyzing the theoretical models. When the experimental data of a number of single crystals which have the different crystal structure and different chemical bonding inside the polycrystallined samples were analyzed with the ISE models, the sample encountering with resistance and elastic deformation was observed as well as plastic deformation. The microhardness values on different surfaces of materials were calculated by using Meyer Law, PSR model, MPSR model, EDP (Elastic / Plastic Deformation model) model and the Hays-Kendall (HK) approach. The results showed that the Hays- Kendall approach was determined as the most successful model. Furthermore, XRD and SEM measurements were analyzed for superconducting properties of (Sm123)1-x(Nd123)x superconductor system. The results showed that while Nd123 concentration is increasing, microhardness values at the minimum load and averaged plateau region of load.

  18. An evaluation of the advantages and limitations in simulating indentation cracking with cohesive zone finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanns, K. E.; Lee, J. H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    A cohesive zone model is applied to a finite element (FE) scheme to simulate indentation cracking in brittle materials. Limitations of using the cohesive zone model to study indentation cracking are determined from simulations of a standard fracture toughness specimen and a two-dimensional indentation cracking problem wherein the morphology of the crack and the geometry of the indenter are simplified. It is found that the principles of linear-elastic fracture mechanics can be applied when indentation cracks are long in comparison to the size of the cohesive zone. Vickers and Berkovich pyramidal indentation crack morphologies (3D) are also investigated and found to be controlled by the ratio of elastic modulus to yield strength (E/Y), with median type cracking dominating at low ratios (e.g. E/Y = 10) and Palmqvist type cracking at higher ratios (e.g. E/Y = 100). The results show that cohesive FE simulations of indentation cracking can indeed be used to critically examine the complex relationships between crack morphology, material properties, indenter geometry, and indentation test measurements, provided the crack length is long in comparison to the cohesive zone size.

  19. Indentation of an osteochondral repair: sensitivity to experimental variables and boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, C L; Mansour, J M

    2000-11-01

    The sensitivity of the affects of indenter radius, defect depth, cartilage permeability and flow boundary conditions, on the indentation testing of a repairing osteochondral defect was investigated. Since the boundary condition on the flow across the cartilage repair-subchondral bone interface is not known, the effects of two different conditions were investigated: free-flow and no-flow. A poroelastic finite element model of an osteochondral defect at different stages of the repair process was developed using dimensions typical of the rabbit knee. Results showed when the radius of the indenter was much less than the thickness of the cartilage the sensitivity of the indentation displacement to flow boundary conditions decreased. Simulated indentation displacement was insensitive to bone regeneration up to 50% of the initial defect depth, which suggests that only the properties of the material in the upper-half of the defect are being evaluated. Small variations in permeability had little affect on the simulated indentation. In a fully repaired defect, the simulated indentation is independent of the boundary condition. However, while the defect is in the process of repair and the regenerated cartilage is deeper than the host, indentation is sensitive to the flow boundary condition. Based on these results, and feasible experimental conditions, we conclude that the boundary condition on the repair-subchondral bone interface must be known in all cases except when the defect approaches full repair, if accurate estimates of material properties are to be obtained from indentation.

  20. Poroviscoelastic finite element model including continuous fiber distribution for the simulation of nanoindentation tests on articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Taffetani, M; Griebel, M; Gastaldi, D; Klisch, S M; Vena, P

    2014-04-01

    Articular cartilage is a soft hydrated tissue that facilitates proper load transfer in diarthroidal joints. The mechanical properties of articular cartilage derive from its structural and hierarchical organization that, at the micrometric length scale, encompasses three main components: a network of insoluble collagen fibrils, negatively charged macromolecules and a porous extracellular matrix. In this work, a constituent-based constitutive model for the simulation of nanoindentation tests on articular cartilage is presented: it accounts for the multi-constituent, non-linear, porous, and viscous aspects of articular cartilage mechanics. In order to reproduce the articular cartilage response under different loading conditions, the model considers a continuous distribution of collagen fibril orientation, swelling, and depth-dependent mechanical properties. The model's parameters are obtained by fitting published experimental data for the time-dependent response in a stress relaxation unconfined compression test on adult bovine articular cartilage. Then, model validation is obtained by simulating three independent experimental tests: (i) the time-dependent response in a stress relaxation confined compression test, (ii) the drained response of a flat punch indentation test and (iii) the depth-dependence of effective Poisson's ratio in a unconfined compression test. Finally, the validated constitutive model has been used to simulate multiload spherical nanoindentation creep tests. Upon accounting for strain-dependent tissue permeability and intrinsic viscoelastic properties of the collagen network, the model accurately fits the drained and undrained curves and time-dependent creep response. The results show that depth-dependent tissue properties and glycosaminoglycan-induced tissue swelling should be accounted for when simulating indentation experiments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deciphering indented impressions on plastic.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon; Klein, Asne; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2003-07-01

    The questioned document laboratory is often called upon to decipher writing that has been erased, obliterated, or that has faded. In cases like these, the original writing is no longer legible to the naked eye, but may be enhanced using various light sources. Certain remnants of the ink's components absorb into the substrate's fibers and can be visualized, usually as luminescence or absorbance. A case is described here that involved the theft of a credit card. An empty plastic credit card holder was found in the possession of a suspect, and as submitted for examination. Indented impressions could be discerned on its clear plastic window and presumably originated from the credit card that had been held in the envelope. These indented impressions were deciphered in the hope that they would reveal enough details from the credit card to establish a connection between the plastic envelope and the stolen credit card. With methods generally utilized in the toolmarks and materials laboratory and the photography laboratory of the Israel Police, most of the indented impressions on the plastic were deciphered and a connection between the plastic envelope and the stolen credit card was demonstrated.

  2. Indenter geometry effects on the measurements of mechanical properties by nanoindentation with sharp indenters

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, T.Y.; Pharr, G.M.; Oliver, W.C.

    1996-05-01

    The measurement of mechanical properties by nanoindentation methods is most often conducted using indenters with the Berkovich geometry (a triangular pyramid) or with a sphere. These indenters provide a wealth of information, but there are certain circumstances in which it would be useful to make measurements with indenters of other geometries. We have recently explored how the measurement of hardness and elastic modulus can be achieved using sharp indenters other than the Berkovich. Systematic studies in several materials were conducted with a Vickers indenter, a conical indenter with a half-included tip angle of 70.3{degrees}, and the standard Berkovich indenter. All three indenters are geometrically similar and have nominally the same area-to-depth relationship, but there are distinct differences in the behavior of each. Here, we report on the application of these indenters in the measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by nanoindentation methods and some of the difficulties that occur.

  3. CIVET: Continuous Integration, Verification, Enhancement, and Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Alger, Brian; Gaston, Derek R.; Permann, Cody J; Peterson, John W.; Slaughter, Andrew E.; Andrs, David

    2016-11-29

    A Git server (GitHub, GitLab, BitBucket) sends event notifications to the Civet server. These are either a " Pull Request" or a "Push" notification. Civet then checks the database to determine what tests need to be run and marks them as ready to run. Civet clients, running on dedicated machines, query the server for available jobs that are ready to run. When a client gets a job it executes the scripts attached to the job and report back to the server the output and exit status. When the client updates the server, the server will also update the Git server with the result of the job, as well as updating the main web page.

  4. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  5. Stress measurement with non-indentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jakus, K.; Evans, N.D.; Hay, J.C.

    1998-11-01

    The feasibility of using nano-indentation to measure residual stress in glasses was studied. Indents were placed on the side of flexure specimens at four different distances from the neutral axis while the specimens were under load in four-point-bending. Three different glasses (soda-lime, boro-silicate, and fused silica) were indented with a cube-corner indenter using 2 to 30 mN indentation loads. A high resolution scanning electron microscope was used to measure the length of the cracks emanating from the corners of the indents while the specimen remained under load. The measured crack lengths were correlated to the local stress using indentation theory. For the correlation, elastic beam theory was used to calculate the magnitude of the local stress at the indentation sites. Results derived from crack lengths were in good agreement with local stress within experimental scatter. However, this scatter was found to be rather large as a result of the stochastic nature of crack formation. It can be concluded from this study that nano-indentation can be used to measure residual surface stresses with high spatial resolution provided that a sufficient number of indents are used to assure good statistical accuracy.

  6. Measurement of corneal tangent modulus using ultrasound indentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ke; Huang, Yan-Ping; Tian, Lei; Kee, Chea-Su; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Biomechanical properties are potential information for the diagnosis of corneal pathologies. An ultrasound indentation probe consisting of a load cell and a miniature ultrasound transducer as indenter was developed to detect the force-indentation relationship of the cornea. The key idea was to utilize the ultrasound transducer to compress the cornea and to ultrasonically measure the corneal deformation with the eyeball overall displacement compensated. Twelve corneal silicone phantoms were fabricated with different stiffness for the validation of measurement with reference to an extension test. In addition, fifteen fresh porcine eyes were measured by the developed system in vitro. The tangent moduli of the corneal phantoms calculated using the ultrasound indentation data agreed well with the results from the tensile test of the corresponding phantom strips (R(2)=0.96). The mean tangent moduli of the porcine corneas measured by the proposed method were 0.089±0.026MPa at intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15mmHg and 0.220±0.053MPa at IOP of 30mmHg, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of tangent modulus were 14.4% and 0.765 at 15mmHg, and 8.6% and 0.870 at 30mmHg, respectively. The preliminary study showed that ultrasound indentation could be applied to the measurement of corneal tangent modulus with good repeatability and improved measurement accuracy compared to conventional surface displacement-based measurement method. The ultrasound indentation can be a potential tool for the corneal biomechanical properties measurement in vivo.

  7. 40 CFR 204.57-8 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continued testing. 204.57-8 Section 204.57-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.57-8 Continued...

  8. 40 CFR 205.57-8 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continued testing. 205.57-8 Section 205.57-8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-8 Continued...

  9. 40 CFR 205.171-9 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continued testing. 205.171-9 Section 205.171-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-9 Continued...

  10. 40 CFR 205.171-9 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continued testing. 205.171-9 Section 205.171-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-9 Continued...

  11. 40 CFR 205.171-9 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Continued testing. 205.171-9 Section 205.171-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-9 Continued...

  12. 40 CFR 205.171-9 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continued testing. 205.171-9 Section 205.171-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-9 Continued...

  13. 40 CFR 211.212-7 - Continued compliance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continued compliance testing. 211.212-7 Section 211.212-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.212-7 Continued...

  14. Reference point indentation study of age-related changes in porcine femoral cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Rasoulian, Ramin; Raeisi Najafi, Ahmad; Chittenden, Michael; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2013-06-21

    The reference point indentation (RPI) method is a microindentation technique involving successive indentation cycles. We employed RPI to measure average stiffness (Ave US), indentation distance increase (IDI), total indentation distance (TID), average energy dissipated (Ave ED), and creep indentation distance (CID) of swine femoral cortical bone (mid-diaphysis) as a function of age (1, 3.5, 6, 14.5, 24, and 48 months) and loading directions (longitudinal and transverse). The Ave US increases with animal age, while the IDI, TID, Ave ED, and CID decrease with age, for both longitudinal (transverse surface) and transverse (periosteal surface) loading directions. Longitudinal measurements generally give higher Ave US and lower IDI and TID values compared to transverse measurements. The RPI measurements show similar trends to those obtained using nanoindentation test, and ash and water content tests.

  15. Indentation methods for adhesion measurement in thermal barrier coating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qin

    This thesis investigates the fundamentals of indentation-induced delamination of electron beam physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coatings (EB-PVD TBCs). Thermal barrier coatings are thin ceramic coatings used to insulate gas turbine components. In the as-processed state, TBCs are well-bonded to the metallic substrate they are deposited upon. However, as these coatings are exposed to high temperatures during turbine operation, they lose their adhesion. The goal of this thesis is to determine how to use indentation testing techniques, coupled with fracture mechanics principles, to track this loss of adhesion and to identify mechanisms causing it. This thesis addresses four primary topics. First, a detailed fracture mechanics analysis of indentation-induced delamination is made, including the quantification of energy release rates, interfacial toughnesses and mode mix. The second topic addressed is application of the indentation test to track toughness losses in TBC systems subjected to a variety of thermal exposures. Three subtopics are included: (1) mechanism-based tests for the isothermal dry air exposures; (2) mechanism-based tests for exposures with water vapor and (3) mechanism-based tests for cyclic thermal exposures. In the first subtopic, TGO thickening and TBC sintering are modeled. Various mechanisms that lead to toughness degradation are discussed and analyzed quantitatively. An Arrhenius analysis has been performed to understand accelerated testing methods. The second subtopic presents the results of toughness degradation and the evolution of microstructures due to isothermal exposure with water vapor. The third subtopic investigates the toughness degradation for cyclic thermal exposures in dry air. Piezospectroscopy method has been applied to track the evolution of residual stresses in the TGO layer with thermal cycles. Quantitative analysis has been provided to give insights into the effects of oxide damage during thermal cycling. The final two

  16. Evaluation of sinking-in and cracking behavior of soda-lime glass under varying angle of trigonal pyramid indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Wada, Ken; Fujimura, Takahiro; Yamada, Akihiro; Kato, Mitsuo; Matsuoka, Jun; Soga, Naohiro

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that glass undergoes elastic and inelastic deformation under a sharp diamond indenter. Although brittle or less-brittle behavior of glass must be connected with such mechanical responses of glass under the indenter, there has been limited research on in-situ deformation behavior of glass during the loading and unloading indentation cycle. This is because most indentation tests were conducted using a commercial hardness tester for which this information is not available. In this study, the in-situ sinking-in region of glass during indentation test is determined using a custom-designed indentation microscope with trigonal pyramid indenters having different tip angles. It is found that both the shape of contact region and the amount of sinking-in are affected by indenter geometries, and that the projected contact region of the glass sample under Berkovich indenter is not a regular triangle, but a concave triangle with bowed-in edges. This is due to the larger amount of sinking-in under the face than under the ridge of indenter. It is also found that these deformation behaviors of glass are inseparably linked with contact damage or cracking in glass.

  17. Rate-dependent indentation hardness of a power-law creep solder alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Yoshida, Fusahito

    2003-01-01

    Berkovich depth-sensing indentation tests with different loading rates have been performed on a creep material, Sn-3.5Ag-0.75Cu solder alloy. The resulting indentation load-depth curves are rate dependent and have varying creep penetration depths during the same hold time. Creep indentation hardness H, defined from the concept of "work of indentation," varies with the volume strain occurring during the creep hold time, which is a measure of creep strain rate ɛ˙cr. Thus, rate sensitivity m of the indented material can be determined from the ln H vs ln ɛ˙cr curve. The derived value of m is consistent with the results from conventional uniaxial tensile and compression experiments of bulk solder alloy.

  18. Exploiting interactions between structure size and indentation size effects to determine the characteristic dimension of nano-structured materials by indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaodong; Jennett, Nigel M.; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    It was shown that yield (or flow) stress is determined by a critical dimension and the reciprocal sum of component critical dimensions (such as indentation size, structure size and dislocation density) combine into a single critical dimension as predicted by slip distance theory (Hou et al 2012 Acta. Mater. 60 4128). This suggests that ‘length determines strength’ and all lengths contribute at all times to the critical value. We have already shown that Cu hardness increases when grain size falls below six times the indentation contact radius (Hou et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 074006). In this paper, we test the inverse case (indent size greater than grain size), by indenting two different metallic glasses (NiAl and ZrTiAlCuBe). We show that the indentation size effect (ISE) does indeed become observable even when the indent size is larger than the grain size by up to an order of magnitude. The indentation depth (size) at onset of the ISE is proportional to the characteristic structure size of these nano-structured materials and suggests a novel use of ISE as a determinant of structure size. These findings have implications for the design of hardness reference blocks and the use of hardness mapping to determine materials property variations.

  19. Full-surface deformation measurement of anisotropic tissues under indentation.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Katia; Montes, Areli; Martínez, Amalia; Evans, Sam L

    2015-05-01

    Inverse finite element-based analysis of soft biological tissues is an important tool to investigate their complex mechanical behavior and to develop physical models for medical simulations. Although there have recently been advances in dealing with the computational complexities of modeling biological materials, the collection of a sufficiently dense set of experimental data to properly capture their typically regionally varying properties still remains a critical issue. The aim of this work was to develop and test an optical system that combines 2D-Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a novel Fringe Projection method with radial sensitivity (RFP) to test soft biological tissues under in vitro indentation. This system has the distinctive capability of using a single camera to retrieve the shape and 3D deformation of the whole upper surface of the indented sample without any blind measurement areas (with exception of the area under the indenter), with nominal depth and in-plane resolution of 0.05 mm and 0.004 mm, respectively. To test and illustrate the capabilities of the developed DIC/RFP system, the in vitro response to indentation of a homogeneous and isotropic latex foam is presented against the response of a slab of porcine ventricular myocardium, a highly in-homogeneous and anisotropic tissue. Our results illustrate the enhanced capabilities of the developed method to capture asymmetry in deformation with respect to standard indentation tests. This feature, together with the possibility of miniaturizing the system into a hand-held probe, makes this method potentially extendable to in vivo settings, alone or in combination with ultrasound measurements.

  20. Low Temperature Plasticity of Olivine Determined by Nano-indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, P. A.; Kranjc, K.; Rouse, Z.; Flores, K.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's upper mantle is thought to deform mainly by dislocation creep, during which strain-rate and stress are related by a simple power law equation. However at much higher stresses there is a break-down in the power law relationship and strain-rate depends exponentially on stress. This phenomenon, known as low temperature plasticity, may be important in the shallow ductile or semi-brittle regions of the lithosphere, at the tips of cracks, or during high-stress laboratory experiments. Several studies have attempted to constrain the low-temperature rheology of olivine using micro-indentation or high pressure experiments. In this study we provide the first measurements of olivine rheology at low temperature using instrumented nano-indention. Although nano-indentation has been widely used in the materials sciences, its application in the Earth sciences has been very limited. Nano-indentation methods provide rheological measurements that are significantly more precise than other mechanical tests at high pressure and temperature. Moreover, experiments are rapid and largely non-destructive, so many tests can be conducted in a short amount of time. In this study, olivine single crystal and polycrystalline samples were tested using a Hysitron TI950 TriboIndenter. Temperature was varied using a cooling/heating stage from 0-175°C. Experiments were conducted under quasi-static and constant strain-rate conditions. Indentation hardness measurements were converted to uniaxial rheological properties to facilitate direct comparison with previous studies. Yield strengths for olivine range from 4.19 GPa at 175°C to 4.60 GPa at 0°C. Using various models for obstacles to dislocation motion, data are extrapolated to 0 Kelvin to extract a Peierls stress for olivine (5.32-6.45 GPa), which is at the lower end of the range of values determined in previous studies. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the nano-indentation method for the study of mineral rheology, and opens a

  1. Estimation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of soft tissue from indentation using two different-sized indentors: finite element analysis of the finite deformation effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, A P C; Zheng, Y P

    2005-03-01

    Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of a tissue can be simultaneously obtained using two indentation tests with two different sized indentors in two indentations. Owing to the assumption of infinitesimal deformation of the indentation, the finite deformation effect of indentation on the calculated material parameters was not fully understood in the double indentation approach. However, indentation tests with infinitesimal deformation are not practical for the measurement of real tissues. Accordingly, finite element models were developed to simulate the indentation with different indentor diameters and different deformation ratios to investigate the finite deformation effect of indentation. The results indicated that Young's modulus E increased with the increase in the indentation deformation w, if the finite deformation effect of indentation was not considered. This phenomenon became obvious when Poisson's ratio v approached 0.5 and/or the ratio of indentor radius and tissue thickness a/h increased. The calculated Young's modulus could be different by 23% at 10% deformation in comparison with its real value. The results also demonstrated that the finite deformation effect to indentation on the calculation of Poisson's ratio v was much smaller. After the finite deformation effect of indentation was considered, the error of the calculated Young's modulus could be controlled within 5% (a/h = 1) and 2% (a/h = 2) for deformation up to 10%.

  2. S-cones in thin shells under indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Ajdari, Amin; Lazarus, Arnaud; Vaziri, Ashkan; Reis, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    We perform a hybrid experimental and numerical investigation of the localization of deformation in indented thin spherical elastic shells. Past the initial linear response, an inverted cap develops as a Pogorelov circular ridge. For further indentation, this ridge looses axis-symmetry and sharp points of localized curvature form. We refer to these localized objects as s-cones (for shell-cones), in contrast with their developable cousins in plates (d-cones). We quantify the effect of systematically varying the indenter's radius of curvature (from point to plate load) on the formation and evolution of s-cones. In our precision desktop-scale experiments we use rapid prototyped elastomeric shells and rigid indenters of various shape. The mechanical response is measured through load-displacement compression tests and the deformation process is further characterized through digital imaging. In parallel, the experimental results are contrasted against nonlinear Finite Element simulations. Merging these two complementary approaches allows us to gain further physical insight towards rationalizing this geometrically nonlinear process.

  3. A biphasic model for micro-indentation of a hydrogel-based contact lens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Dunn, Alison C; Sawyer, W Gregory; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2007-04-01

    The stiffness and hydraulic permeability of soft contact lenses may influence its clinical performance, e.g., on-eye movement, fitting, and wettability, and may be related to the occurrence of complications; e.g., lesions. It is therefore important to determine these properties in the design of comfortable contact lenses. Micro-indentation provides a nondestructive means of measuring mechanical properties of soft, hydrated contact lenses. However, certain geometrical and material considerations must be taken into account when analyzing output force-displacement (F-D) data. Rather than solely having a solid response, mechanical behavior of hydrogel contact lenses can be described as the coupled interaction between fluid transport through pores and solid matrix deformation. In addition, indentation of thin membranes ( approximately 100 microm) requires special consideration of boundary conditions at lens surfaces and at the indenter contact region. In this study, a biphasic finite element model was developed to simulate the micro-indentation of a hydrogel contact lens. The model accounts for a curved, thin hydrogel membrane supported on an impermeable mold. A time-varying boundary condition was implemented to model the contact interface between the impermeable spherical indenter and the lens. Parametric studies varying the indentation velocities and hydraulic permeability show F-D curves have a sensitive region outside of which the force response reaches asymptotic limits governed by either the solid matrix (slow indentation velocity, large permeability) or the fluid transport (high indentation velocity, low permeability). Using these results, biphasic properties (Young's modulus and hydraulic permeability) were estimated by fitting model results to F-D curves obtained at multiple indentation velocities (1.2 and 20 microm/s). Fitting to micro-indentation tests of Etafilcon A resulted in an estimated permeability range of 1.0 x 10(-15) to 5.0 x 10(-15) m(4)N s and

  4. Indentation property and corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-phosphorus coatings deposited on austenitic high-Mn TWIP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, A. S.; Sahu, P.; Porter, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    A multilayer coating using electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) was applied on a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel containing nominally 25 wt.% Mn and 3 wt.% Al to improve the indentation hardness and corrosion properties. Microindentation tests with two different indenters, namely, a three-sided pyramidal Berkovich indenter and a ball indenter were performed to study the mechanical response, the indentation hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings in conditions: as-plated, and post treated (PT) at 350 °C and 700 °C for 1 h. The deformation morphology underneath the indenters was examined using a scanning laser microscope. The results showed that Ni-P coatings could significantly enhance the surface hardness of the TWIP steel. Significant improvement in the corrosion resistance could be observed in a sulfuric acid solution for the Ni-P coated steel compared to the uncoated substrate TWIP steel.

  5. Who Are the Invalids on Continuous Performance Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Cerny, Jerome A.; Kirby, Edward A.

    The percent and characteristics of children who produced invalid profiles on two different continuous performance tests (CPTs) tasks were examined. Sixty-one children referred for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment and 24 non-clinical control children (all children ages 5-16) were given the Test of Variables of Attention…

  6. Ceramic wear in indentation and sliding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The various wear mechanisms involved with single-crystal ceramic materials in indentation and in sliding contacts. Experiments simulating interfacial events have been conducted with hemispherical, conical and pyramidal indenters (riders). With spherical riders, under either abrasive or adhesive conditions, two types of fracture pits have been observed. First, spherical-shaped fracture pits and wear particles are found as a result of either indenting or sliding. These are shown to be due to a spherical-shaped fracture along the circular or spherical stress trajectories. Second, polyhedral fracture pits and debris, produced by anisotropic fracture, and also found both during indenting and sliding. These are primarily controlled by surface and subsurface cracking along cleavage planes. Several quantitative results have also been obtained from this work. For example, using a pyramidal diamond, crack length of Mn-Zn ferrite in the indentation process grows linearly with increasing normal load. Moreover, the critical load to fracture both in indentation and sliding is essentially isotropic and is found to be directly proportional to the indenter radius.

  7. Influence of surface stresses on indentation response.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, J; Mayr, S G

    2015-03-27

    Surface stresses lead to an effective change in the elastic constants of thin films and at surfaces. The development of modern scanning probe techniques like contact resonance atomic force microscopy empowers the experimenter to measure at scales where these effects become increasingly relevant. In this paper we employ a computational multiscale approach where we compare density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics simulations as tools to calculate the thin-film/surface elastic behavior for silicon and strontiumtitanate. From the surface elastic constants gained by DFT calculations we develop a continuum finite-element multilayer model to study the impact of surface stresses on indentation experiments. In general the stress field of an indenter and thus the impact of surface stresses on the indentation modulus depends on its contact radius and on its particular shape. We propose an analytical model that describes the behavior of the indentation modulus as a function of the contact radius. We show that this model fits well to simulation results gained for a spherical and a flat punch indenter. Our results demonstrate a surface-stress-induced reduction of the indentation modulus of about 5% for strontiumtitanate and 6% for silicon for a contact radius of [Formula: see text], irrespective of the indenter shape.

  8. Influence of surface stresses on indentation response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, J.; Mayr, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Surface stresses lead to an effective change in the elastic constants of thin films and at surfaces. The development of modern scanning probe techniques like contact resonance atomic force microscopy empowers the experimenter to measure at scales where these effects become increasingly relevant. In this paper we employ a computational multiscale approach where we compare density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics simulations as tools to calculate the thin-film/surface elastic behavior for silicon and strontiumtitanate. From the surface elastic constants gained by DFT calculations we develop a continuum finite-element multilayer model to study the impact of surface stresses on indentation experiments. In general the stress field of an indenter and thus the impact of surface stresses on the indentation modulus depends on its contact radius and on its particular shape. We propose an analytical model that describes the behavior of the indentation modulus as a function of the contact radius. We show that this model fits well to simulation results gained for a spherical and a flat punch indenter. Our results demonstrate a surface-stress-induced reduction of the indentation modulus of about 5% for strontiumtitanate and 6% for silicon for a contact radius of {{r}c}=5 \\text{nm}, irrespective of the indenter shape.

  9. Controlled crack shapes for indentation fracture of soda-lime glass

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Scattergood, R.O. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Radial cracks for indented soda-lime glass aged in distilled water were highly elliptical because of truncation by lateral cracks. Indentation in silicone oil minimized radial/lateral crack interaction but still produced cracks having nominally constant ellipticity during bend testing. Analysis of applied stress/indentation crack length data using stress intensity factors based on half-penny crack shape resulted in apparent R-curve behavior and/or overestimation of the fracture toughness. Incorporation of elliptical shape factors eliminated the R-curve behavior and reduced measured toughness to near the accepted value for soda-lime glass.

  10. Simultaneous estimation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus using a single indentation: a finite element study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y. P.; Choi, A. P. C.; Ling, H. Y.; Huang, Y. P.

    2009-04-01

    Indentation is commonly used to determine the mechanical properties of different kinds of biological tissues and engineering materials. With the force-deformation data obtained from an indentation test, Young's modulus of the tissue can be calculated using a linear elastic indentation model with a known Poisson's ratio. A novel method for simultaneous estimation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the tissue using a single indentation was proposed in this study. Finite element (FE) analysis using 3D models was first used to establish the relationship between Poisson's ratio and the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness for different aspect ratios (indentor radius/tissue original thickness) in the indentation test. From the FE results, it was found that the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness linearly increased with the deformation. Poisson's ratio could be extracted based on the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness obtained from the force-deformation data. Young's modulus was then further calculated with the estimated Poisson's ratio. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in virtue of using the indentation models with different material properties in the FE analysis. The numerical results showed that the percentage errors of the estimated Poisson's ratios and the corresponding Young's moduli ranged from -1.7% to -3.2% and 3.0% to 7.2%, respectively, with the aspect ratio (indentor radius/tissue thickness) larger than 1. It is expected that this novel method can be potentially used for quantitative assessment of various kinds of engineering materials and biological tissues, such as articular cartilage.

  11. Quantifying the deep tendon reflex using varying tendon indentation depths: applications to spasticity.

    PubMed

    Chardon, Matthieu K; Rymer, W Zev; Suresh, Nina L

    2014-03-01

    The deep tendon reflex (DTR) is often utilized to characterize the neuromuscular health of individuals because it is cheap, quick to implement, and requires limited equipment. However, DTR assessment is unreliable and assessor-dependent improve the reliability of the DTR assessment, we devised a novel standardization procedure. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that the neuromuscular state of a muscle changes systematically with respect to the indentation depth of its tendon. We tested the hypothesis by progressively indenting the biceps tendons on each side of nine hemiplegic stroke survivors to different depths, and then superimposing a series of brief controlled taps at each indentation depth to elicit a reflex response. Our results show that there exists a unique indentation depth at which reflex responses are consistently recorded (termed the Reflex Threshold) with increasing amplitude along increasing indentation depth. We further show that the reflex threshold depth is systematically smaller on the affected side of stroke survivors and that it is negatively correlated with the Modified Ashworth Score (VAF 70%). Our procedure also enables measurement of passive mechanical properties at the indentation location. In conclusion, our study shows that controlling for the indentation depth of the tendon of a muscle alters its reflex response predictably. Our novel device and method could be used to estimate neuromuscular changes in muscle (e.g., spasticity). Although some refinement is needed, this method opens the door to more reliable quantification of the DTR.

  12. Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Tantalum Carbide Ceramic Layer: A Vickers Indentation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ke; Xu, Yunhua; Zhao, Nana; Zhong, Lisheng; Shang, Zhao; Shen, Liuliu; Wang, Juan

    2016-07-01

    A tantalum carbide (TaC) ceramic layer was produced on gray cast iron matrix by in situ technique comprising a casting process and a subsequent heat treatment at 1135 °C for 45 min. Indentation fracture toughness in TaC ceramic layer was determined by the Vickers indentation test for various loads. A Niihara approach was chosen to assess the fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer under condition of the Palmqvist mode in the experiment. The results reveal that K IC evaluation of TaC ceramic layer by the Vickers indentation method strongly depends on the selection of crack system and K IC equations. The critical indentation load for Vickers crack initiation in TaC ceramic layer lies between 1 and 2 N and the cracks show typical intergranular fracture characteristics. Indentation fracture toughness calculated by the indentation method is independent of the indentation load on the specimen. The fracture toughness of TaC ceramic layer is 6.63 ± 0.34 MPa m1/2, and the toughening mechanism is mainly crack deflection.

  13. Role of indenter material and size in veneer failure of brittle layer structures.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Sanjit; Meléndez-Martínez, Juan José; Hermann, Ilja; Zhang, Yu; Lawn, Brian R

    2007-07-01

    The roles of indenter material and size in the failure of brittle veneer layers in all-ceramic crown-like structures are studied. Glass veneer layers 1 mm thick bonded to alumina layers 0.5 mm thick on polycarbonate bases (representative of porcelain/ceramic-core/dentin) are subject to cyclic contact loading with spherical indenters in water (representative of occlusal biting environment). Two indenter materials-glass and tungsten carbide-and three indenter radii-1.6, 5.0, and 12.5 mm-are investigated in the tests. A video camera is used to follow the near-contact initiation and subsequent downward propagation of cone cracks through the veneer layer to the core interface, at which point the specimen is considered to have failed. Both indenter material and indenter radius have some effect on the critical loads to initiate cracks within the local Hertzian contact field, but the influence of modulus is weaker. The critical loads to take the veneer to failure are relatively insensitive to either of these indenter variables, since the bulk of the cone crack propagation takes place in the contact far field. Clinical implications of the results are considered, including the issue of single-cycle overload versus low-load cyclic fatigue and changes in fracture mode with loading conditions.

  14. Elastic modulus and stress-strain response of human enamel by nano-indentation.

    PubMed

    He, Li Hong; Fujisawa, Naoki; Swain, Michael V

    2006-08-01

    Nano-indentation with a sharp (Berkovich) and two spherical indenters with nominal tip radii of 5 and 20 microm was used to determine the elastic modulus and stress-strain response of human enamel. Indentation tests were made over a wide range of peak loads from 1 to 450 mN in two orthogonal directions, i.e., parallel and perpendicular to enamel prisms. The elastic modulus and hardness (mean contact pressure) versus depth of penetration were determined for the three indenters. From the spherical indentation data, stress-strain curves (H-tantheta curve) of enamel were determined in the two orthogonal directions and were found to be different. The elastic modulus showed load dependence for both orientations of the enamel rod structure that depended on the indenter. However, these differences could be normalized upon considering the contact diameter. The indented sample was imaged with an SEM to investigate the near surface damage. In conclusion, prism-sheath structure played an important role in determining the mechanical properties as well as the localized fracture of enamel.

  15. Age and task parameters in continuous performance tests for preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Hagelthorn, Kathleen M; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Pillion, Joseph P; Mahone, E Mark

    2003-06-01

    66 children (M=56.2 mo., SD=10.9), recruited from preschool and daycare centers, were administered two continuous performance tests, one auditory and one visual. Both tests utilized a format with one target and one nontarget. Interstimulus interval was fixed at 1350 msec. for the visual test and 5000 msec. for the auditory test. The visual test produced greater rates of omission and commission errors than the auditory test. Age was significantly related to mean reaction time and response variability for both tests; however, the visual test produced an unexpected pattern of increasing response time across age groups. On both tests omission rates improved significantly with age, while commission rates were consistent across ages 3-6 years. When considering continuous performance test paradigms for preschoolers, 3-yr.-olds may need at least a 4000-msec. interstimulus interval to make a choice for the stimulus cue. Hits following an interstimulus interval shorter than 1400 msec. may reflect younger preschoolers' response to a previous stimulus.

  16. Measuring Several Aspects of Attention in One Test: The Factor Structure of Conners's Continuous Performance Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Kovalik-Gran, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Continuous performance tests are known to typically measure sustained attention but usually also yield parameters that potentially measure other subprocesses of attention. The aim of the present study was to test the factor structure of the Conners's Continuous Performance Test (CCPT) in a heterogeneous clinical sample consisting of…

  17. Indentation of pressurized viscoplastic polymer spherical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, V.; Needleman, A.

    2016-08-01

    The indentation response of polymer spherical shells is investigated. Finite deformation analyses are carried out with the polymer characterized as a viscoelastic/viscoplastic solid. Both pressurized and unpressurized shells are considered. Attention is restricted to axisymmetric deformations with a conical indenter. The response is analyzed for various values of the shell thickness to radius ratio and various values of the internal pressure. Two sets of material parameters are considered: one set having network stiffening at a moderate strain and the other having no network stiffening until very large strains are attained. The transition from an indentation type mode of deformation to a structural mode of deformation involving bending that occurs as the indentation depth increases is studied. The results show the effects of shell thickness, internal pressure and polymer constitutive characterization on this transition and on the deformation modes in each of these regimes.

  18. Investigation of Quasi-Static Indentation Response of Inkjet Printed Sandwich Structures under Various Indenter Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Nagalingam, Arun Prasanth; Yap, Yee Ling; Sing, Swee Leong; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the quasi-static indentation response and failure mode in three-dimensional (3D) printed trapezoidal core structures, and to characterize the energy absorbed by the structures. In this work, the trapezoidal sandwich structure was designed in the following two ways. Firstly, the trapezoidal core along with its facesheet was 3D printed as a single element comprising a single material for both core and facesheet (type A); Secondly, the trapezoidal core along with facesheet was 3D printed, but with variation in facesheet materials (type B). Quasi-static indentation was carried out using three different indenters, namely standard hemispherical, conical, and flat indenters. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to capture brittle cracking in the specimens during indentation. The major failure modes were found to be brittle failure and quasi-brittle fractures. The measured indentation energy was at a maximum when using a conical indenter at 9.40 J and 9.66 J and was at a minimum when using a hemispherical indenter at 6.87 J and 8.82 J for type A and type B series specimens respectively. The observed maximum indenter displacements at failure were the effect of material variations and composite configurations in the facesheet. PMID:28772649

  19. On the Measurement of Power Law Creep Parameters from Instrumented Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharshan Phani, P.; Oliver, W. C.; Pharr, G. M.

    2017-08-01

    Recently the measurement of the creep response of materials at small scales has received renewed interest largely because the equipment required to perform high-temperature nanomechanical testing has become available to an increasing number of researchers. Despite that increased access, there remain several significant experimental and modeling challenges in small-scale mechanical testing at elevated temperatures that are as yet unresolved. In this regard, relating the creep response observed with high-temperature instrumented indentation experiments to macroscopic uniaxial creep response is of great practical value. In this review, we present an overview of various methods currently being used to measure creep with instrumented indentation, with a focus on geometrically self-similar indenters, and their relative merits and demerits from an experimental perspective. A comparison of the various methods to use those instrumented indentation results to predict the uniaxial power law creep response of a wide range of materials will be presented to assess their validity.

  20. Impact strength and indentation hardness of high-strength ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Hugoniot elastic limit and indentation hardness data are provided for selected high-strength ceramics AlN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 4}C, SiC, TiB, Zr{sub 2}. Degree of correlation of the strength data by the two test methods is examined. Influence of reformation mechanism on strength measurement, including rate sensitivity, size scale and confining pressure, is discussed.

  1. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  2. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  3. Cyclic Fatigue of Brittle Materials with an Indentation-Induced Flaw System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1996-01-01

    The ratio of static to cyclic fatigue life, or 'h ratio', was obtained numerically for an indentation flaw system subjected to sinusoidal loading conditions. Emphasis was placed on developing a simple, quick lifetime prediction tool. The solution for the h ratio was compared with experimental static and cyclic fatigue data obtained from as-indented 96 wt.% alumina specimens tested in room-temperature distilled water.

  4. Full-Field Indentation Damage Measurement Using Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    López-Alba, Elías; Díaz-Garrido, Francisco A

    2017-07-10

    A novel approach based on full-field indentation measurements to characterize and quantify the effect of contact in thin plates is presented. The proposed method has been employed to evaluate the indentation damage generated in the presence of bending deformation, resulting from the contact between a thin plate and a rigid sphere. For this purpose, the 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC) technique has been adopted to quantify the out of plane displacements at the back face of the plate. Tests were conducted using aluminum thin plates and a rigid bearing sphere to evaluate the influence of the thickness and the material behavior during contact. Information provided by the 3D-DIC technique has been employed to perform an indirect measurement of the contact area during the loading and unloading path of the test. A symmetrical distribution in the contact damage region due to the symmetry of the indenter was always observed. In the case of aluminum plates, the presence of a high level of plasticity caused shearing deformation as the load increased. Results show the full-field contact damage area for different plates' thicknesses at different loads. The contact damage region was bigger when the thickness of the specimen increased, and therefore, bending deformation was reduced. With the proposed approach, the elastic recovery at the contact location was quantified during the unloading, as well as the remaining permanent indentation damage after releasing the load. Results show the information obtained by full-field measurements at the contact location during the test, which implies a substantial improvement compared with pointwise techniques.

  5. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    PubMed Central

    Carminatti, Lorival J.; Possamai, Carlos A. P.; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F.; de Lucas, Ricardo D.; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key points T-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests. T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness. In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol. PMID:24149741

  6. Experimental Validation of the New Modular Application of the Upper Bound Theorem in Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Bermudo, Carolina; Martín, Francisco; Martín, María Jesús; Sevilla, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process. PMID:25826738

  7. Dent Resistance and Effect of Indentation Loading Rate on Superelastic TiNi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Zoheir; Jarjoura, George; Shahirnia, Meisam

    2013-08-01

    The large recoverable deformation associated with reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation for superelastic TiNi alloys has been widely exploited in many applications. However, to employ superelastic TiNi in applications where high impact loading is expected, as in bearings, the effect of loading rate on superelasticity needs to be understood. In the current article, the effect of indentation loading rate on dent resistance and superelasticity of TiNi is studied. Indentation tests are performed, at different loading rates on superelastic TiNi alloy and correlated to tensile stress-strain data. It is found that the reversible deformation drops as loading rate is increased and superelasticity diminishes. Based on data collected and results analysis it is proposed that the loss in superelastic behavior under high indentation loading rate is related to retardation of the stress-induced martensitic transformation. Furthermore, a simple heat model was proposed and showed that the temperature rise during indentation is not significant.

  8. Testing quantum contextuality of continuous-variable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Gerard; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Paternostro, Mauro

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the violation of noncontextuality by a class of continuous-variable states, including variations of entangled coherent states and a two-mode continuous superposition of coherent states. We generalize the Kochen-Specker (KS) inequality discussed by Cabello [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.210401 101, 210401 (2008)] by using effective bidimensional observables implemented through physical operations acting on continuous-variable states, in a way similar to an approach to the falsification of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities put forward recently. We test for state-independent violation of KS inequalities under variable degrees of state entanglement and mixedness. We then demonstrate theoretically the violation of a KS inequality for any two-mode state by using pseudospin observables and a generalized quasiprobability function.

  9. An Investigation of the Influence of Body Size and Indentation Asymmetry of the Effectiveness of Body Indentation in Combination with a Cambered Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr.; Loving, Donald L.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made of a 450 sweptback cambered wing in combination with an unindented body and a body symmetrically indented with respect to its axes designed for a Mach number of 1.2. The ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area was 0.08 for these wing-body combinations. In order to determine the influence of body size on the effectiveness of indentation, the test data have been compared with previously obtained data for similar configurations having a ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area of 0.04. Also, in order to investigate the relative effectiveness of indentation asymmetry, a specially indented body designed to account for the wing camber and also designed for a Mach number of 1.2 has been included in these tests. The investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-Foot Tunnels Branch at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.43 and a Reynolds number of approximately 1.85 x 10(exp 6), based on a mean aerodynamic chord length of 5.955 inches. The data indicate that the configurations with larger ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area had smaller reductions in zero-lift wave drag associated with body indentation than the configurations with smaller ratio of body frontal area to wing planform area. The 0.08-area-ratio configurations also had correspondingly smaller increases in the values of maximum lift-drag ratio than the 0.04-area-ratio configurations. The consideration of wing camber in the body indentation design resulted in a 35.5-percent reduction in zero-lift wave drag, compared with a 21.5-percent reduction associated with the symmetrical indentation, but had a negligible effect on the values of maximum lift-drag ratio.

  10. Defect formation by pristine indenter at the initial stage of nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I-Hsien; Hsiao, Chun-I; Behera, Rakesh K.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2013-12-07

    Nano-indentation is a sophisticated method to characterize mechanical properties of materials. This method samples a very small amount of material during each indentation. Therefore, this method is extremely useful to measure mechanical properties of nano-materials. The measurements using nanoindentation is very sensitive to the surface topology of the indenter and the indenting surfaces. The mechanisms involved in the entire process of nanoindentation require an atomic level understanding of the interplay between the indenter and the substrate. In this paper, we have used atomistic simulation methods with empirical potentials to investigate the effect of various types of pristine indenter on the defect nucleation and growth. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have predicted the load-depth curve for conical, vickers, and sperical tip. The results are analyzed based on the coherency between the indenter tip and substrate surface for a fixed depth of 20 Å. The depth of defect nucleation and growth is observed to be dependent on the tip geometry. A tip with larger apex angle nucleates defects at a shallower depth. However, the type of defect generated is dependent on the crystalline orientation of the tip and substrate. For coherent systems, prismatic loops were generated, which released into the substrate along the close-packed directions with continued indentation. For incoherent systems, pyramidal shaped dislocation junctions formed in the FCC systems and disordered atomic clusters formed in the BCC systems. These defect nucleation and growth process provide the atomistic mechanisms responsible for the observed load-depth response during nanoindentation.

  11. Unified solution for poroelastic oscillation indentation on gels for spherical, conical and cylindrical indenters.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yang; Hu, Yuhang

    2017-01-25

    An oscillation indentation method is developed for characterizing the local poroelastic properties of soft and hydrated materials such as hydrogels and biological tissues. In the dynamic oscillation indentation measurement, an indenter is pressed into the material to a certain depth and held for a period of time. After a plateau of force is reached, an oscillation of small depth is superimposed sweeping through a range of frequencies. The shift between the force and displacement spectra is denoted as the phase lag that characterizes the energy dissipative behavior of the soft hydrated materials due to solvent migration. A unified solution is obtained for the three widely used shapes of indenters for soft materials: cylindrical punch, spherical indenter and conical indenter. The solutions are summarized in remarkably simple forms allowing for easy extraction of material parameters including shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and diffusivity from the oscillation indentation measurements. The oscillation indentation measurement was demonstrated on a polyacrylamide (PAAm) gel using an atomic force microscope. It is shown that the time-dependent behavior of the PAAm gel at the micron scale is dominated by poroelasticity and the properties can be accurately extracted from the explicit expressions derived in this work. This method has great potential to be applied on heterogeneous biological tissues where local properties are of interest.

  12. Design and Test of a Continuous Duty Pulsed AC Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    DESIGN AND TEST OF A CONTINUOUS DUTY PULSED AC GENERATOR* R. M. Calfo, D. J . Scott , and D. W. Scherbarth Westinghouse Electric Corporation...Proceedings of the 19th Power Modulator Symposium, June 26-28, 1990, San Diego, CA. Dennis J . Scott and Raymond M. Calfo, •Synchronous Machines for...Pulsed Power Applications,• Seventh IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, June 11-14, 1989, Monterey, CA. D. J . Scott , R. M. Calfo, H. R. Schwenk

  13. Laboratory testing of a continuous emissions monitor for hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Dene, Chuck; Pisano, John T; Durbin, Thomas D; Bumiller, Kurt; Crabbe, Keith; Muzio, Lawrence J

    2014-06-01

    Continuous monitoring of exhaust flue gas has become a common practice in power plants in response to Federal Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) standards. Under the current rules, hydrochloric acid (HCl) is not continuously measured at most plants; however, MATS standards have been proposed for HCl, and tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption spectroscopy is one method that can be used to measure HCl continuously. The focus of this work is on the evaluation and verification of the operation performance of an HCL TDL over a range of real-world operating environments. The testing was conducted at the University of California at Riverside (UCR) spectroscopy evaluation laboratory. Laboratory tests were conducted at three separate temperatures, 25 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C, and two distinct moisture levels for the enhanced temperatures, 0%, (2 tests) and 4%, over a concentration range from 0 ppmv to 25 ppmv-m at each of the elevated temperatures. The results showed good instrument accuracy as afunction of changing temperature and moisture. Data analysis showed that the average percentage difference between the ammonia concentration and the calibration source was 3.33% for varying moisture from 0% to 4% and 2.69%for varying temperature from 25 to 100/200 degrees C. An HCl absorption line of 1.742 microm was selected for by the manufacturer for this instrument. The Hi Tran database indicated that CO2 is probably the only major interferent, although the CO2 absorption is very weak at that wavelength. Interference tests for NO, CO, SO2, NH3, and CO2 for a range of concentrations typical of flue gasses in coal-fired power plants did not show any interference with TDL HCl measurements at 1.742 microm. For these interference tests, CO2 was tested at a concentration of 11.9% concentration in N2 for these tests. Average precision over the entire range for all 10 tests is 3.12%. The focus of this study was.an evaluation of the operation performance of a

  14. Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J.; French, N.B.; Brown, C.H.; Burns, D.B.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Priebe, S.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1997-11-17

    Three prototype multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in April 1996 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The CEM instruments were: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES); Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LIBS); and Laser Spark Spectrometry, another LIBS instrument. The three CEMs were tested simultaneously during test periods in which low, medium, and high concentration levels of seven toxic metals -- antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury -- were maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Two methods were used to introduce the test metals into the flue gas: (1) solution atomization, introducing metal-containing aerosol directly into the secondary combustion burner, and (2) injection of fly ash particulates. The testing addressed four measures of CEM performance: relative accuracy (RA), calibration drift, zero drift, and response time. These were accomplished by comparing the toxic metal analyte concentrations reported by the CEMs to the concentrations measured using the EPA reference method (RM) for the same analytes. Overall, the test results showed the prototype nature of the test CEMs and the clear need for further development. None of the CEMs tested consistently achieved RA values of 20% or less as required by the EPA draft performance specification. Instrument size reduction and automation will also likely need additional attention before multi-metal CEMs systems become commercially available for service as envisioned by regulators and citizens.

  15. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation to Low-Velocity Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Douglas, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    A static test method for modeling low-velocity foreign object impact events to composites would prove to be very beneficial to researchers since much more data can be obtained from a static test than from an impact test. In order to examine if this is feasible, a series of static indentation and low-velocity impact tests were carried out and compared. Square specimens of many sizes and thicknesses were utilized to cover the array of types of low velocity impact events. Laminates with a pi/4 stacking sequence were employed since this is by far the most common type of engineering laminate. Three distinct flexural rigidities -under two different boundary conditions were tested in order to obtain damage ranging from that due to large deflection to contact stresses and levels in-between to examine if the static indentation-impact comparisons are valid under the spectrum of damage modes that can be experienced. Comparisons between static indentation and low-velocity impact tests were based on the maximum applied transverse load. The dependent parameters examined included dent depth, back surface crack length, delamination area, and to a limited extent, load-deflection behavior. Results showed that no distinct differences could be seen between the static indentation tests and the low-velocity impact tests, indicating that static indentation can be used to represent a low-velocity impact event.

  16. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Yinggang; Liu, Shuangyan; Li, Yulong; Lu, Guoxing

    2015-09-01

    The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ˜ 30 m/s) was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ˜10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ˜10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  17. Indentation stress dependence of the temperature range of microscopic superelastic behavior of nickel-titanium thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yijun; Cheng, Y.-T.; Grummon, David S.

    2005-08-01

    The microscopic superelastic behavior of thin-film NiTi is investigated by instrumented indentation experiments conducted at different temperatures. The indentation-induced superelastic effect is found to be persistent to about 100 K above the austenite transformation finish temperature (A{sub f}). In contrast, the upper temperature where superelastic effect exists is only around A{sub f} plus 40 K in uniaxial tension and compression tests, beyond which the plasticity of the austenite phase overwhelms the transformation-induced superelasticity. By combining the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and spherical cavity model for indentation, we show that the high hydrostatic pressure under the indenter is capable of elevating the transformation temperatures and increase the upper temperature limit of indentation-induced superelastic behavior.

  18. Assessing mechanical properties from cone indentation hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicarlo, Anthony Albert

    This dissertation investigates methods for assessing the mechanical properties of materials using hardness values obtained from cone indentations. A broad range of isotropic metallic materials was simulated using finite element analysis. In particular, the elastic and plastic bulk properties, which define the stress-strain behavior of materials that exhibit power law hardening, are studied. Other investigators have found that the Young's modulus, E, can be determined from the unloading data of a cone indentation. Therefore, the remaining properties of interest, in this study, are the yield strength, Y, and the work hardening exponent, n. Atkins and Tabor have conducted pioneering work in the area of determining the stress-strain behavior of a metallic material from cone indentation experiments. This work has been re-visited in this study using computational models implementing an expanded range of mechanical properties. Consequently, discrepancies in this prediction method were uncovered when the mechanical properties were outside of the original range studied. As a result, two new prediction methods have been developed using the data collected from the finite element simulations in conjunction with a regression technique. The first method correlates the non-dimensional hardness values, H/E, collected from five cone indentations to the non-dimensional mechanical properties, Y/E and n. The second method is similar in principle, but uses two hardness values as opposed to five. The yield strength can be estimated with a priori knowledge of E. Both of these methods are compared to the method developed by Atkins and Tabor. Although the majority of the work mentioned is focused on the macro-scale, bulk mechanical properties, there is some investigation of meso-scale cone indentations. At the meso-scale, the number of geometric dislocations is significant enough to noticeably increase the strength of a material. This length scale effect is studied for various angled cone

  19. Continued Development and Testing of Tungsten Controlled Porosity Dispenser Cathodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    DYNAMICS DIV ,EB 85 UNCLSSIFIED EDD-I-69514 N18914-8i-C-2245 F/O 1/6 NL=uuaa=7Emmmhmhhhlo Eu.’.comom...1-0 II 28 2-5 liltimmn 2 4 161 *2 (4 I 6 LL It’ ELECTRON DYNAMICS DIVISION In FINAL REPORT CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF TUNGSTEN...AIRCRAFT COMPANY ELECTRON DYNAMICS DIVISION 3100 WEST LOMITA BOULEVARD P.O. BOX 2999 TORRANCE, CA 90509 -. . .~ .~ . . .~ . . .~- . -. 0 TABLE OF CONTENTS

  20. Validation of cartilage thickness calculations using indentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Koff, Matthew F; Chong, Le Roy; Virtue, Patrick; Chen, Dan; Wang, Xioanan; Wright, Timothy; Potter, Hollis G

    2010-04-01

    Different methods have been used to cross-validate cartilage thickness measurements from magnetic resonance images (MRIs); however, a majority of these methods rely on interpolated data points, regional mean and/or maximal thickness, or surface mean thickness for data analysis. Furthermore, the accuracy of MRI cartilage thickness measurements from commercially available software packages has not necessarily been validated and may lead to an under- or overestimation of cartilage thickness. The goal of this study was to perform a matching point-to-point validation of indirect cartilage thickness calculations using a magnetic resonance (MR) image data set with direct cartilage thickness measurements using biomechanical indentation testing at the same anatomical locations. Seven bovine distal femoral condyles were prepared and a novel phantom filled with dilute gadolinium solution was rigidly attached to each specimen. High resolution MR images were acquired, and thickness indentation analysis of the cartilage was performed immediately after scanning. Segmentation of the MR data and cartilage thickness calculation was performed using semi-automated software. Registration of MR and indentation data was performed using the fluid filled phantom. The inter- and intra-examiner differences of the measurements were also determined. A total of 105 paired MRI-indentation thickness data points were analyzed, and a significant correlation between them was found (r=0.88, p<0.0001). The mean difference (+/-std. dev.) between measurement techniques was 0.00+/-0.23 mm, with Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 0.45 mm and -0.46 mm. The intra- and inter-examiner measurement differences were 0.03+/-0.22 mm and 0.05+/-0.24 mm, respectively. This study validated cartilage thickness measurements from MR images with thickness measurements from indentation by using a novel phantom to register the image-based and laboratory-based data sets. The accuracy of the measurements was comparable to

  1. Characterization of Indentation Response and Stiffness Reduction of Bone using a Continuum Damage Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingzhou; Michalenko, Michelle M.; Kuhl, Ellen; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    Indentation tests can be used to characterize the mechanical properties of bone at small load/length scales offering the possibility of utilizing very small test specimens, which can be excised using minimally-invasive procedures. In addition, the need for mechanical property data from bone may be a requirement for fundamental multi-scale experiments, changes in nano- and micro-mechanical properties (e.g., as affected by changes in bone mineral density) due to drug therapies, and/or the development of computational models. Load vs. indentation depth data, however, is more complex than those obtained from typical macro-scale experiments, primarily due to the mixed state of stress, and thus interpretation of the data and extraction of mechanical properties is more challenging. Previous studies have shown that cortical bone exhibits a visco-elastic response combined with permanent deformation during indentation tests, and that the load vs. indentation depth response can be simulated using a visco-elastic/plastic material model. The model successfully captures the loading and creep displacement behavior, however, it does not adequately reproduce the unloading response near the end of the unloading cycle, where a pronounced decrease in contact stiffness is observed. It is proposed that the stiffness reduction observed in bone results from an increase in damage; therefore, a plastic-damage model was investigated and shown capable of simulating a typical bone indentation response through an axisymmetric finite element simulation. The plastic-damage model was able to reproduce the full indentation response, especially the reduced stiffness behavior exhibited during the latter stages of unloading. The results suggest that the plastic-damage model is suitable for describing the complex indentation response of bone and may provide further insight into the relationship between model parameters and mechanical/physical properties. PMID:20129418

  2. Continuous Operation Test at Engineering Scale Uranium Crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Tayama, Toshimitsu; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Yano, Kimihiko; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Chikazawa, Takahiro; Nagata, Masanobu; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    Uranium crystallization based on solubility difference is one of the remarkable technologies which can provide simple reprocessing process to separate uranium in nitric acid solution since the process is mainly controlled by temperature and concentration of solute ions. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation (MMC) are developing the crystallization process for elemental technology of FBR fuel reprocessing. [1-3] The uranium (U) crystallization process is a key technology for New Extraction System for TRU Recovery (NEXT) process that was evaluated as the most promising process for future FBR reprocessing. [4-6] We had developed an innovative crystallizer and carried out several fundamental investigations. On the basis of the results, we fabricated an engineering-scale crystallizer and have carried out continuous operation test to investigate the stability of the equipment at steady and non-steady state conditions by using depleted uranium. As for simulating typical failure events in the crystallizer, crystal accumulation and crystal blockage were induced intentionally, and monitoring method and resuming procedure were evaluated in this work. As the test results, no significant phenomenon was observed in the steady state test. And in the non-steady state test, process fluctuation could be detected by monitoring of screw torque and liquid level in the crystallizer, and all failure events are proven to be recovered by appropriate resumed procedures.

  3. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sky +, Inc.

    1998-09-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

  4. A novel approach to evaluate the effect of medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on root canal surface indentation.

    PubMed

    Yassen, Ghaeth H; Chu, Tien-Min G; Gallant, Maxime A; Allen, Matthew R; Vail, Mychel M; Murray, Peter E; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of a novel reference point indentation apparatus to test the indentation properties of root canal surface dentine treated with three intracanal medicaments used in endodontic regeneration. Immature human premolars were selected (n = 22). Four specimens were obtained from each root and randomly assigned to three treatment groups and a control group. Each specimen was exposed to one of the three treatment pastes (triple antibiotic (TAP), double antibiotic (DAP), or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)) or neutral deionized water (control) for 1 or 4 weeks. After each time interval, the indentation properties of the root canal dentine surfaces were measured using a BioDent reference point indenter. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's protected least significant differences were used for statistical analyses. Significant differences in indentation parameters and estimated hardness between all groups at both time points were found. TAP-treated dentine had the highest significant indentation parameters, followed by DAP-treated dentine, untreated control dentine, and Ca(OH)2-treated dentine, respectively. Furthermore, TAP-treated dentine had the lowest significant estimated hardness, followed by DAP-treated dentine, untreated control dentine, and Ca(OH)2-treated dentine, respectively. BioDent reference point indenter was able to detect significant differences in indentation properties of root canal dentine treated with various medicaments. The use of a reference point indenter is a promising approach to characterize the indentation properties of root canal surfaces without any surface modification. This might provide an in vitro mechanical measurement that is more representative of the actual clinical situation.

  5. An optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based air jet indentation system for measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Wang, Shu-Zhe; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Huang, Qing-Hua; He, Yong-Hong

    2009-01-01

    A novel noncontact indentation system with the combination of an air jet and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was presented in this paper for the quantitative measurement of the mechanical properties of soft tissues. The key idea of this method is to use a pressure-controlled air jet as an indenter to compress the soft tissue in a noncontact way and utilize the OCT signals to extract the deformation induced. This indentation system provides measurement and mapping of tissue elasticity for small specimens with high scanning speed. Experiments were performed on 27 silicone tissue-mimicking phantoms with different Young's moduli, which were also measured by uniaxial compression tests. The regression coefficient of the indentation force to the indentation depth (N mm-1) was used as an indicator of the stiffness of tissue under air jet indentation. Results showed that the stiffness coefficients measured by the current system correlated well with the corresponding Young's moduli obtained by conventional mechanical testing (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Preliminary in vivo tests also showed that the change of soft tissue stiffness with and without the contraction of the underlying muscles in the hand could be differentiated by the current measurement. This system may have broad applications in tissue assessment and characterization where alterations of mechanical properties are involved, in particular with the potential of noncontact micro-indentation for tissues.

  6. Axisymmetric indentation of curved elastic membranes by a convex rigid indenter

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, S.P.; King, J.R.; Holdsworth, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by applications to seed germination, we consider the transverse deflection that results from the axisymmetric indentation of an elastic membrane by a rigid body. The elastic membrane is fixed around its boundary, with or without an initial pre-stretch, and may be initially curved prior to indentation. General indenter shapes are considered, and the load–indentation curves that result for a range of spheroidal tips are obtained for both flat and curved membranes. Wrinkling may occur when the membrane is initially curved, and a relaxed strain-energy function is used to calculate the deformed profile in this case. Applications to experiments designed to measure the mechanical properties of seed endosperms are discussed. PMID:22298913

  7. Modeling and analysis of ductility of brittle materials using indentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guoyan; Lu, Zhe; Bai, Jianming; Yu, Fangsu

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, many optical elements are fabricated by means of glass molding using hard and brittle inserts such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Silicon Nitride (Si3N4). However, for those hard-to-machine materials, the most feasible solution is still with ultra-precision grinding and following polishing. Hence, it is necessary and meaningful to study their plastic properties for the development of optical fabrication and ultra-precision manufacturing process. However, the conventional methods including compression test and indentation fracture mechanics are not sufficient to obtain the accurate parameters and still lack of reliable supporting of the machining process. To solve this problem, this paper presents a novel way to correlate the plastic properties to the indentation data using dimensional analysis for the two sorts of hard and brittle materials of SiC and Si3N4. Through integrating the data obtained by the indentation tests and the modeling method presented in this paper, stress-strain behavior, yield stress σy, yield strain epsilony and strain hardening exponent n could be determined. The processing performance of these two materials reflected by the above parameters are consistent with the conclusions drawing from the indentation crack development under varying loads during the indentation test, which verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented modeling method.

  8. Twinning and martensitic transformations in nickel-enriched 304 austenitic steel during tensile and indentation deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N; Busby, Jeremy T; Byun, Thak Sang; Parish, Chad M

    2013-01-01

    Twinning and martensitic transformation have been investigated in nickel-enriched AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to tensile and indentation deformation. Using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the morphology of alpha- and epsilon-martensite and the effect of grain orientation to load axis on phase and structure transformations were analyzed in detail. It was found that the twinning occurred less frequently under indentation than under tension; also, twinning was not observed in [001] and [101] grains. In tensile tests, the martensite particles preferably formed at the deformation twins, intersections between twins, or at twin-grain boundary intersections. Conversely, martensite formation in the indentation tests was not closely associated with twinning; instead, the majority of martensite was concentrated in the dense colonies near grain boundaries. Martensitic transformation seemed to be obstructed in the [001] grains in both tensile and indentation test cases. Under a tensile stress of 800 MPa, both alpha- and epsilon-martensite were found in the microstructure, but at 1100 MPa only -martensite presented in the specimen. Under indentation, alpha- and epsilon-martensite were observed in the material regardless of stress level.

  9. Crack-shape effects for indentation fracture toughness measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Scattergood, R.O. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    Various methods to measure fracture toughness using indentation precracks were compared using soda-lime glass as a test material. In situ measurements of crack size as a function of applied stress allow both the toughness K[sub c] and the residual-stress factor [chi] to be independently determined. Analysis of the data showed that stress intensity factors based on classical half-penny crack shapes overestimate toughness values and produce an apparent R-curve effect. This is due to a constraint on crack shape imposed by primary lateral cracks in soda-lime glass. Models based on elliptical cracks were developed to account for the crack-shape effects.

  10. Carpal tunnel and transverse carpal ligament stiffness with changes in wrist posture and indenter size.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael W R; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P; Keir, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of loading and posture on mechanical properties of the transverse carpal ligament (TCL). Ten fresh-frozen cadaver arms were dissected to expose the TCL and positioned in the load frame of a servo-hydraulic testing machine, equipped with a load cell and custom made indenters. Four cylindrical indenters (5, 10, 20, and 35 mm) loaded the TCL in three wrist postures (30° extension, neutral and 30° flexion). Three loading cycles with a peak force of 50 N were applied at 5 N/s for each condition. The flexed wrist posture had significantly greater TCL stiffness (40.0 ± 3.3 N/mm) than the neutral (35.9 ± 3.5 N/mm, p = 0.045) and extended postures (34.9 ± 2.8 N/mm, p = 0.025). TCL stiffness using the 10 and 20 mm indenters was larger than the 5 mm indenter. Stiffness was greatest with the 20 mm indenter, which had the greatest indenter contact area on the TCL. The 35 mm indenter covered the carpal bones, compressed the carpal tunnel and produced the lowest stiffness. The complexity of the TCL makes it an important part of the carpal tunnel and the mechanical properties found are essential to understanding mechanisms of carpal tunnel syndrome.  Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Spherical indentation method for determining the constitutive parameters of hyperelastic soft materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man-Gong; Cao, Yan-Ping; Li, Guo-Yang; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the spherical indentation of hyperelastic soft materials is carried out through combined theoretical, computational, and experimental efforts. Four widely used hyperelastic constitutive models are studied, including neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Fung, and Arruda-Boyce models. Through dimensional analysis and finite element simulations, we establish the explicit relations between the indentation loads at given indentation depths and the constitutive parameters of materials. Based on the obtained results, the applicability of Hertzian solution to the measurement of the initial shear modulus of hyperelastic materials is examined. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of inverse problems, the possibility to measure some other properties of a hyperelastic material using spherical indentation tests, e.g., locking stretch, is addressed by considering the existence, uniqueness, and stability of the solution. Experiments have been performed on polydimethylsiloxane to validate the conclusions drawn from our theoretical analysis. The results reported in this study should help identify the extent to which the mechanical properties of hyperelastic materials could be measured from spherical indentation tests.

  12. Spherical indentation of soft matter beyond the Hertzian regime: numerical and experimental validation of hyperelastic models

    PubMed Central

    Shreiber, David I.; Dimitriadis, Emilios K.; Horkay, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The lack of practicable nonlinear elastic contact models frequently compels the inappropriate use of Hertzian models in analyzing indentation data and likely contributes to inconsistencies associated with the results of biological atomic force microscopy measurements. We derived and validated with the aid of the finite element method force-indentation relations based on a number of hyperelastic strain energy functions. The models were applied to existing data from indentation, using microspheres as indenters, of synthetic rubber-like gels, native mouse cartilage tissue, and engineered cartilage. For the biological tissues, the Fung and single-term Ogden models achieved the best fits of the data while all tested hyperelastic models produced good fits for the synthetic gels. The Hertz model proved to be acceptable for the synthetic gels at small deformations (strain < 0.05 for the samples tested), but not for the biological tissues. Although this finding supports the generally accepted view that many soft materials can be assumed to be linear elastic at small deformations, the nonlinear models facilitate analysis of intrinsically nonlinear tissues and large-strain indentation behavior. PMID:18979205

  13. Applications of a New Handheld Reference Point Indentation Instrument Measuring Bone Material Strength.

    PubMed

    Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Guerri, Roberto; Nogues, Xavier; Puig, Lluis; Torres, Elisa; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Hoffseth, Kevin; Stalbaum, Tyler; Srikanth, Ananya; Weaver, James C; Rosen, Sasha; Barnard, Heather; Brimer, Davis; Proctor, Alex; Candy, James; Saldana, Christopher; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan; Lescun, Timothy; Nielson, Carrie M; Orwoll, Eric; Herthel, Doug; Kopeikin, Hal; Yang, Henry T Y; Farr, Joshua N; McCready, Louise; Khosla, Sundeep; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Hansma, Paul K

    2013-12-01

    A novel, hand-held Reference Point Indentation (RPI) instrument, measures how well the bone of living patients and large animals resists indentation. The results presented here are reported in terms of Bone Material Strength, which is a normalized measure of how well the bone resists indentation, and is inversely related to the indentation distance into the bone. We present examples of the instrument's use in: (1) laboratory experiments on bone, including experiments through a layer of soft tissue, (2) three human clinical trials, two ongoing in Barcelona and at the Mayo Clinic, and one completed in Portland, OR, and (3) two ongoing horse clinical trials, one at Purdue University and another at Alamo Pintado Stables in California. The instrument is capable of measuring consistent values when testing through soft tissue such as skin and periosteum, and does so handheld, an improvement over previous Reference Point Indentation instruments. Measurements conducted on horses showed reproducible results when testing the horse through tissue or on bare bone. In the human clinical trials, reasonable and consistent values were obtained, suggesting the Osteoprobe(®) is capable of measuring Bone Material Strength in vivo, but larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of the instrument's use in medical diagnosis.

  14. Extraction of mechanical properties of foot plantar tissues using ultrasound indentation associated with genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hang-Yin; Choi, Pong-Chi; Zheng, Yong-ping; Lau, Kin-Tak

    2007-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of ultrasound indentation technique for estimating the mechanical properties of foot plantar tissues in virtue of the reconstruction of the force response using genetic algorithm (GA) from an indentation test based on a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model. The indentation test on the plantar tissues covering the right first metatarsal head of a normal subject was carried out to verify the feasibility of the GA for the extraction of the tissue properties. The QLV properties of the plantar tissues were determined by the GA with a fixed Poisson's ratio. Such results were then compared with those obtained using a classical optimization method. Moreover, the GA was further employed to simultaneously determine the QLV properties as well as the Poisson's ratio of the plantar tissues. The correlations between the QLV properties and the Poisson's ratio are discussed.

  15. Construct validity of the auditory continuous performance test for preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Mahone, E Mark; Pillion, Joseph P; Hoffman, Jennifer; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Denckla, Martha B

    2005-01-01

    Development of diagnostic instruments directed toward neuropsychological assessment of preschoolers lags significantly behind those available for school-age children (DeWolfe, Byrne, & Bawden, 2000). This is particularly true for measures of executive function (EF). The Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers (ACPT-P; Mahone, Pillion, & Hiemenz, 2001) is a computerized, Go-No-go test developed to measure selected EF skills in preschoolers. First, to determine whether performance on the ACPT-P is associated with hearing impairment, we compared performance of children with mild hearing loss (MHL) to controls on the ACPT-P, and measures of spatial working memory (SWM) and motor persistence (MP). There were no differences between performance of the MHL group and controls on any of these measures. Second, to examine the construct validity of the ACPT-P, we compared performance of 40 preschoolers with ADHD to 40 age- and sex-matched controls, using the ACPT-P to measure response preparation, sustained attention, and inhibitory control. We also compared these groups on measures of SWM and MP. The group with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) performed significantly worse than controls on the ACPT-P (omissions, mean response time, variability) and MP. The ACPT-P was correlated with the MP, but not with the SWM measure. Both the ACPT-P and the MP measures showed low to moderate correlations with parent ratings of behavior associated with ADHD. These findings support the use of performance-based assessment of executive control skills in preschoolers suspected of having ADHD. In this age group, the ACPT-P may be particularly useful in assessing sustained attention and response preparation and may complement behavior rating scales.

  16. Indentation of Foam-Based Polymer Composite Sandwich Beams and Panels Under Static Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizov, V.

    2009-06-01

    Foam core composite sandwich structures are highly susceptible to damage when subjected to localized loading. Therefore, thorough study of the role of factors such as face sheet thickness, indentor diameter value, and crosshead displacement rate in indentation events is important. The objective of the present work is to investigate experimentally and numerically the influence of these factors on the nonlinear static indentation behavior of sandwich beams and panels consisting of glass fiber/resin face sheets and PVC (polyvinylchloride) foam core. Static indentation tests are carried out on sandwich composite beam and panel specimens using steel cylindrical and spherical indentors, respectively. Numerical models are developed for simulating the mechanical response of sandwich structures subjected to localized indentation beyond the limit of elastic deformation in the foam core. In this relation, the *CRUSHABLE FOAM and the *CRUSHABLE FOAM HARDENING options in the ABAQUS finite element program system are used. The numerical analysis results demonstrate good agreement with experimental data. It is found that increasing the face sheet thickness and indentor diameter value leads to increase in the load (for a given displacement). It is shown also that the indentation behavior does not exhibit sensitivity to crosshead displacement rate over the conditions considered in the present work.

  17. Electron channeling contrast imaging of plastic deformation induced by indentation in polycrystalline nickel.

    PubMed

    Kaboli, Shirin; Goldbaum, Dina; Chromik, Richard R; Gauvin, Raynald

    2013-12-01

    Vickers microindentation and Berkovich nanoindentation tests were carried out on a polycrystalline nickel (Ni) bulk specimen. Electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) in conjunction with electron backscattered diffraction was used to image and characterize plastic deformation inside and around the indents using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The ECCI was performed with a 5 keV beam energy and 0° tilt specimen position. The strain field distribution, slip lines, and Taylor lattices were imaged on an indented surface. Orientation mapping was used to investigate the local crystallographic misorientation and identify specific ⟨110⟩ slip systems. An ion milling surface preparation technique was used to remove materials from the surface which permitted the study of deformed microstructure below the indent. A dislocation density of 1011 cm-2 was calculated based on the curvature of bend contours observed in the ECCI micrographs obtained from the Vickers indents. A yield strength of 500 MPa was calculated based on the size of the strain field measured from the ECCI micrographs of the nanoindents. The combination of ion milling, ECCI, and electron backscattered diffraction was shown to be beneficial to investigate the indentation-induced plastic deformation in a polycrystalline Ni bulk specimen.

  18. Atomistic simulation on indented defects in silicon.

    PubMed

    Trandinh, Long; Cheon, Seong Sik; Kang, Woojong

    2013-12-01

    Silicon is known as one of the widely used materials in electronic fields for its excellent semiconductive characteristics. However, these characteristics are vulnerable to internal defects, which randomly exist in any materials. In the present study, defects in single crystalline silicon thin film were investigated by atomistic simulation of nano-indentation at zero temperature. The Tersoff potential and the spherical indenter were applied to the model of silicon. The symmetric axis parameter method is novelly proposed to identify defects in the diamond cubic structure. Under the nanoindentation condition, the ring slip appears close to the indentation region on the free surface and propagates along with [110]/(111). The dislocation is initiated closely to the ring slip and emitted on the (111) plane by the dissociation into two partial dislocations. It was found that the symmetric axis parameter method successfully separated the perfect dislocations, the partial dislocations and the stacking fault from perfect structure, i.e., diamond cubic structure, even though it was not able to distinguish between glide set and shuffle set dislocations.

  19. Modeling of indentation into inhomogeneous soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubicheva, A. N.; Goryacheva, I. G.; Dosaev, M. Z.; Su, F.-Ch.

    2017-01-01

    A simulation of a contact interaction of the indenter and inhomogeneous soft biological tissues is carried out. The soft tissue is modeled by the incompressible elastic body which contains structural inhomogeneities (spherical or longitudinal inclusions). The elastic moduli of inclusions are higher than the bulk soft tissue modulus. These inclusions may be considered, in particular, as the models of the pathological growths. The indenter has the form of a hollow hemisphere (shell). It is the model of the mechanoreceptor developed in [1] to study the mechanical properties of soft tissues. The hydrostatic pressure can be applied inside the shell. Based on the numerical analysis, the dependences of the contact area size, and contact pressure on penetration of the indenter into the sample for several values of the inclusion size, depth, its location, the ratio of the elastic moduli of inclusion and the surrounding material, but also for various values of hydrostatic pressure inside the shell were obtained. The possibility of an inverse problem solution for determining the mechanical properties of the inclusion, and its size by measuring the contact characteristics is discussed.

  20. Quasi-Static Indentation Analysis of Carbon-Fiber Laminates.

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Timothy; English, Shawn Allen; Nelson, Stacy Michelle

    2015-12-01

    A series of quasi - static indentation experiments are conducted on carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates with a systematic variation of thicknesses and fixture boundary conditions. Different deformation mechanisms and their resulting damage mechanisms are activated b y changing the thickn ess and boundary conditions. The quasi - static indentation experiments have been shown to achieve damage mechanisms similar to impact and penetration, however without strain rate effects. The low rate allows for the detailed analysis on the load response. Moreover, interrupted tests allow for the incremental analysis of various damage mechanisms and pr ogressions. The experimentally tested specimens are non - destructively evaluated (NDE) with optical imaging, ultrasonics and computed tomography. The load displacement responses and the NDE are then utilized in numerical simulations for the purpose of model validation and vetting. The accompanying numerical simulation work serves two purposes. First, the results further reveal the time sequence of events and the meaning behind load dro ps not clear from NDE . Second, the simulations demonstrate insufficiencies in the code and can then direct future efforts for development.

  1. On the determination of elastic coefficients from indentation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardieu, N.; Constantinescu, A.

    2000-06-01

    The main result of this paper is the extension of the adjoint state method to variational inequalities. This is done for the Signorini contact problem (Kikuchi N and Oden J T 1988 Contact Problems in Elasticity: a Study of Variational Inequalities and Finite Element Methods (Philadelphia: SIAM)) and used for the identification of elastic coefficients from an indentation test. The result is obtained by two independent approaches based on the penalized and respectively, mixed formulations of the direct problem, a Signorini contact problem. An important and astonishing result is that the obtained adjoint problem is a linear problem with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is expected for problems described with variational equalities (Bui H D 1993 Introduction Aux Problèmes Inverses en Mécanique des Matériaux (Paris: Eyrolles) (Engl. Transl. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press)), Lions J L 1968 Contrôle Optimal des Systèmes Gouvernés par des Équations aux Dérivées Partielles (Dunod)), but is a new result for problems described with variational inequalities. As an application, the elastic coefficients of an isotropic body have been identified from the knowledge of a displacement-force curve measured during an indentation test. The efficiency of the method is illustrated on numerical examples for the identification of a bimaterial and a functional gradient material.

  2. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  3. Mechanical evaluation of five flowable resin composites by the dynamic micro-indentation method

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Iwai, Hirotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the strength of brittle materials, such as resin composites, is extremely difficult. Micro-indentation hardness testing is a convenient way of investigating the mechanical properties of a small volume of material. In this study, the mechanical properties of five commercially available flowable resin composites were investigated by the dynamic micro-indentation method. Additionally, the effects of inorganic-filler content on the dynamic hardness and elastic modulus of flowable composites obtained by this method were investigated. The weight percentages of the inorganic fillers in the resin composites were determined by the ashing technique. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of flowable composites are affected by not only the filler content but also the properties of the resin matrix. In conclusion, the dynamic micro-indentation method is a useful technique for determining the mechanical behavior of dental resin composites as brittle material. PMID:25342983

  4. The nano-epsilon dot method for strain rate viscoelastic characterisation of soft biomaterials by spherical nano-indentation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, G; Gruca, G; Rijnveld, N; Ahluwalia, A

    2015-10-01

    Nano-indentation is widely used for probing the micromechanical properties of materials. Based on the indentation of surfaces using probes with a well-defined geometry, the elastic and viscoelastic constants of materials can be determined by relating indenter geometry and measured load and displacement to parameters which represent stress and deformation. Here we describe a method to derive the viscoelastic properties of soft hydrated materials at the micro-scale using constant strain rates and stress-free initial conditions. Using a new self-consistent definition of indentation stress and strain and corresponding unique depth-independent expression for indentation strain rate, the epsilon dot method, which is suitable for bulk compression testing, is transformed to nano-indentation. We demonstrate how two materials can be tested with a displacement controlled commercial nano-indentor using the nano-espilon dot method (nano-ε̇M) to give values of instantaneous and equilibrium elastic moduli and time constants with high precision. As samples are tested in stress-free initial conditions, the nano-ε̇M could be useful for characterising the micro-mechanical behaviour of soft materials such as hydrogels and biological tissues at cell length scales.

  5. The Continuized Log-Linear Method: An Alternative to the Kernel Method of Continuization in Test Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2008-01-01

    Von Davier, Holland, and Thayer (2004) laid out a five-step framework of test equating that can be applied to various data collection designs and equating methods. In the continuization step, they presented an adjusted Gaussian kernel method that preserves the first two moments. This article proposes an alternative continuization method that…

  6. Confocal microscopy indentation system for studying in situ chondrocyte mechanics.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Kuy; Colarusso, Pina; Herzog, Walter

    2009-10-01

    Chondrocytes synthesize extracellular matrix molecules, thus they are essential for the development, adaptation and maintenance of articular cartilage. Furthermore, it is well accepted that the biosynthetic activity of chondrocytes is influenced by the mechanical environment. Therefore, their response to mechanical stimuli has been studied extensively. Much of the knowledge in this area of research has been derived from testing of isolated cells, cartilage explants, and fixed cartilage specimens: systems that differ in important aspects from chondrocytes embedded in articular cartilage and observed during loading conditions. In this study, current model systems have been improved by working with the intact cartilage in real time. An indentation system was designed on a confocal microscope that allows for simultaneous loading and observation of chondrocytes in their native environment. Cell mechanics were then measured under precisely controlled loading conditions. The indentation system is based on a light transmissible cylindrical glass indentor of 0.17 mm thickness and 1.64 mm diameter that is aligned along the focal axis of the microscope and allows for real time observation of live cells in their native environment. The system can be used to study cell deformation and biological responses, such as calcium sparks, while applying prescribed loads on the cartilage surface. It can also provide novel information on the relationship between cell loading and cartilage adaptive/degenerative processes in the intact tissue.

  7. Nature of slip during Knoop indentation on {l_brace}100{r_brace} surface of NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Gomez, A.; Hicks, T.G.

    1996-01-15

    The intermetallic NiAl, because of its excellent thermal conductivity, high temperature oxidation resistance, and low density, is a candidate material for high temperature application in jet engines. Stoichiometric NiAl single crystal is a semibrittle material, in which plasticity always precedes fracture. Contrary to tensile testing, during hardness indentation on a {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001> slip systems may not be zero everywhere. For a given indentation plane, the variation in hardness with indentation direction has been shown to reflect the anisotropy in slip and the nature of dislocation interactions. One method to study slip is by analysis of slip lines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of slip and the anisotropy of plastic deformation during Knoop microhardness indentation of a {l_brace}100{r_brace} face in NiAl single crystals using slip trace analysis.

  8. Photoacoustic Microscopy of Vickers Indentations in Metals with Piezoelectric Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, A. L.; Morozov, N. F.; Muratikov, K. L.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of mechanical stress influence on the thermoelastic photoacoustic signals inside Vickers indents in steel and nanonickel has been experimentally demonstrated. It has been shown that photoacoustic signal changes due to external stresses can be reversible or irreversible, depending on the indent orientation and the stress applied to the sample. Reversible changes in the photoacoustic signal can reach significant values at the level of tens percent of the average signal amplitude from the sample. Relative changes in the photoacoustic signal amplitudes have been theoretically evaluated for Vickers-indented and non-indented areas, taking into account the dependence of the elastic modulus of metals on temperature. It has been shown that this theoretical consideration provides qualitative explanation of differences in the behavior of photoacoustic signals under stress in indented and non-indented areas in metals.

  9. AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: convergent validity with Conners' Continuous Performance Test.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Orueta, Unai; Garcia-López, Cristina; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío; Climent, Gema; Narbona, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neuropsychological tests used to evaluate attention processes in children lack ecological validity. The AULA Nesplora (AULA) is a continuous performance test, developed in a virtual setting, very similar to a school classroom. The aim of the present study is to analyze the convergent validity between the AULA and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of Conners. The AULA and CPT were administered correlatively to 57 children, aged 6-16 years (26.3% female) with average cognitive ability (IQ mean = 100.56, SD = 10.38) who had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Spearman correlations analyses were conducted among the different variables. Significant correlations were observed between both tests in all the analyzed variables (omissions, commissions, reaction time, and variability of reaction time), including for those measures of the AULA based on different sensorial modalities, presentation of distractors, and task paradigms. Hence, convergent validity between both tests was confirmed. Moreover, the AULA showed differences by gender and correlation to Perceptual Reasoning and Working Memory indexes of the WISC-IV, supporting the relevance of IQ measures in the understanding of cognitive performance in ADHD. In addition, the AULA (but not Conners' CPT) was able to differentiate between ADHD children with and without pharmacological treatment for a wide range of measures related to inattention, impulsivity, processing speed, motor activity, and quality of attention focus. Additional measures and advantages of the AULA versus Conners' CPT are discussed.

  10. Quantitative Imaging of Young's Modulus of Soft Tissues from Ultrasound Water Jet Indentation: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min-Hua; Mao, Rui; Lu, Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Tian-Fu; Chen, Si-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indentation testing is a widely used approach to evaluate mechanical characteristics of soft tissues quantitatively. Young's modulus of soft tissue can be calculated from the force-deformation data with known tissue thickness and Poisson's ratio using Hayes' equation. Our group previously developed a noncontact indentation system using a water jet as a soft indenter as well as the coupling medium for the propagation of high-frequency ultrasound. The novel system has shown its ability to detect the early degeneration of articular cartilage. However, there is still lack of a quantitative method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissue from water jet indentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the loading-unloading curves and the mechanical properties of soft tissues to provide an imaging technique of tissue mechanical properties. A 3D finite element model of water jet indentation was developed with consideration of finite deformation effect. An improved Hayes' equation has been derived by introducing a new scaling factor which is dependent on Poisson's ratios v, aspect ratio a/h (the radius of the indenter/the thickness of the test tissue), and deformation ratio d/h. With this model, the Young's modulus of soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated and imaged with the error no more than 2%. PMID:22927890

  11. Quantitative imaging of young's modulus of soft tissues from ultrasound water jet indentation: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min-Hua; Mao, Rui; Lu, Yin; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Tian-Fu; Chen, Si-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Indentation testing is a widely used approach to evaluate mechanical characteristics of soft tissues quantitatively. Young's modulus of soft tissue can be calculated from the force-deformation data with known tissue thickness and Poisson's ratio using Hayes' equation. Our group previously developed a noncontact indentation system using a water jet as a soft indenter as well as the coupling medium for the propagation of high-frequency ultrasound. The novel system has shown its ability to detect the early degeneration of articular cartilage. However, there is still lack of a quantitative method to extract the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissue from water jet indentation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the loading-unloading curves and the mechanical properties of soft tissues to provide an imaging technique of tissue mechanical properties. A 3D finite element model of water jet indentation was developed with consideration of finite deformation effect. An improved Hayes' equation has been derived by introducing a new scaling factor which is dependent on Poisson's ratios v, aspect ratio a/h (the radius of the indenter/the thickness of the test tissue), and deformation ratio d/h. With this model, the Young's modulus of soft tissue can be quantitatively evaluated and imaged with the error no more than 2%.

  12. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of the wedge indentation of films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, D. S.; Deshpande, V. S.; Needleman, A.; Van der Giessen, E.

    2006-11-01

    The plane strain indentation of single crystal films on a rigid substrate by a rigid wedge indenter is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. The crystals have three slip systems at ±35.3∘ and 90∘ with respect to the indentation direction. The analyses are carried out for three values of the film thickness, 2, 10 and 50 μm, and with the dislocations all of edge character modeled as line singularities in a linear elastic material. The lattice resistance to dislocation motion, dislocation nucleation, dislocation interaction with obstacles and dislocation annihilation are incorporated through a set of constitutive rules. Over the range of indentation depths considered, the indentation pressure for the 10 and 50 μm thick films decreases with increasing contact size and attains a contact size-independent value for contact lengths A>4 μm. On the other hand, for the 2 μm films, the indentation pressure first decreases with increasing contact size and subsequently increases as the plastic zone reaches the rigid substrate. For the 10 and 50 μm thick films sink-in occurs around the indenter, while pile-up occurs in the 2 μm film when the plastic zone reaches the substrate. Comparisons are made with predictions obtained from other formulations: (i) the contact size-independent indentation pressure is compared with that given by continuum crystal plasticity; (ii) the scaling of the indentation pressure with indentation depth is compared with the relation proposed by Nix and Gao [1998. Indentation size effects in crystalline materials: a law for strain gradient plasticity. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 43, 411-423]; and (iii) the computed contact area is compared with that obtained from the estimation procedure of Oliver and Pharr [1992. An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic-modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments, J. Mater. Res. 7, 1564-1583].

  13. 2009 Continued Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy B.; Swerterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In three previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of this technology in a sea-level pressure environment, with simulated and real human metabolic loads, in both open and closed-loop configurations. The test article design was iterated a third time before the latest series of such tests, which was performed in the first half of 2009. The new design incorporates a canister configuration modification for overall unit compactness and reduced pressure drop, as well as a new process flow control valve that incorporates both compressed gas purge and dual-end vacuum desorption capabilities. This newest test article is very similar to the flight article designs. Baseline tests of the new unit were performed to compare its performance to that of the previous test articles. Testing of compressed gas purge operations helped refine launchpad operating condition recommendations developed in earlier testing. Operating conditions used in flight program computer models were tested to validate the model projections. Specific operating conditions that were recommended by the JSC test team based on past test results were also tested for validation. The effects of vacuum regeneration line pressure on resulting cabin conditions was studied for high metabolic load periods, and a maximum pressure is recommended

  14. 2009 Continued Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy Lin; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In three previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of this technology in a sea-level pressure environment with simulated and real human metabolic loads in both open and closed-loop configurations. The test article design was iterated a third time before the latest series of such tests, which was performed in the first half of 2009. The new design incorporates a canister configuration modification for overall unit compactness and reduced pressure drop, as well as a new process flow control valve that incorporates both compressed gas purge and dual-end vacuum desorption capabilities. This newest test article is very similar to the flight article designs. Baseline tests of the new unit were performed to compare its performance to that of the previous test articles. Testing of compressed gas purge operations helped refine launchpad operating condition recommendations developed in earlier testing. Operating conditions used in flight program computer models were tested to validate the model projections. Specific operating conditions that were recommended by the JSC test team based on past test results were also tested for validation. The effects of vacuum regeneration line pressure on resulting cabin conditions was studied for high metabolic load periods, and a maximum pressure is recommended.

  15. Scleral indentation height after laser scleral buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Se W.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Manns, Fabrice; Lee, Jawheung; Smiddy, William E.

    1998-06-01

    Laser scleral buckling (LSB) and scleral buckling are methods of inducing scleral indentation, a necessary objective in standard retinal reattachment surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the height of scleral indentation produced by both modalities. Twenty (4 columns, 5 rows) overlapping spots of pulsed Holmium:YAG or Thulium:YAG laser were applied at the equatorial sclera in 20 human cadaver eyes (LSB group). The diameter of each laser spot was set to 2.5 mm using a custom-made laser probe. Total energy of Holmium:YAG and Thulium:YAG applied to each laser spot were 1285 mJ and 815 mJ, respectively. Scleral shrinkage and change in scleral thickness were measured. A radially oriented 5 mm silicone band was placed at the equator in 10 human cadaver eyes (explant group). The intraocular pressure (IOP) was adjusted to 4 mm Hg preoperatively, and to 16 mm Hg postoperatively in all eyes and monitored during the procedure. Scleral indentation height, assessed in frozen sections made along the eyeball equator, produced by Holmium:YAG (1.07 mm) and Thulium:YAG (1.30 mm) was less than that of explant group (3.12 mm) (p less than 0.05). Each application of a laser spot elevated the IOP by 4.9 mm Hg and the IOP decreased into a quarter of its elevation after 3.64 seconds. LSB with Thulium:YAG laser is potentially useful in retinal detachments when combined with vitrectomy for creating a shallow and broad buckling effect (i.e. in proliferative vitreoretinopathy cases).

  16. 30 CFR 74.11 - Tests of the continuous personal dust monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of the continuous personal dust monitor... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH COAL MINE DUST SAMPLING DEVICES Requirements for Continuous Personal Dust Monitors § 74.11 Tests of the continuous personal dust monitor. (a) Applicant testing. The applicant shall...

  17. Shear band evolution in zirconium/hafnium-based bulk metallic glasses under static and dynamic indentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongwen

    indentation test has been rationalized. The temperature rise within a shear band can be in excess of 2000K at high strain rate and high confinement pressure conditions. The associated drop in viscosity and flow stress may explain the observed decrease in fracture strength and indentation hardness. The above investigations provide valuable insight into the deformation behavior of BMGs under static and dynamic loading conditions. The shear band patterns observed in the above indentation studies can be helpful to understand and model the deformation features under complex loading scenarios such as the interaction of a penetrator with armor. Future work encompasses (1) extending and modifying the coupled thermo-mechanical model to account for the temperature rise in quasistatic deformation; and (2) expanding this model to account for the microstructural variation-crystallization and free volume migration associated with the deformation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced composites: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, M. D.; Spiegel, F. X.; West, Harvey A.

    1994-01-01

    The study of the anisotropic mechanical properties of an inexpensively fabricated composite with continuous unidirectional fibers and a clear matrix was investigated. A method has been developed to fabricate these composites with aluminum fibers and a polymer matrix. These composites clearly demonstrate the properties of unidirectional composites and cost less than five dollars each to fabricate.

  19. Effect of ion irradiation and indentation depth on the kinetics of deformation during micro-indentation of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube material at 25 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, B.; Klassen, R. J.

    2010-04-01

    Micro-indentation creep tests were performed at 25 °C on radial-normal samples cut from Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube material in both the as-fabricated condition and after irradiation with 8.5 MeV Zr + ions. The average indentation stress, and hence the yield stress, was found to increase with decreasing indentation depth and with increasing levels of ion irradiation. The activation energy of the indentation creep rate and hence the, activation energy of the obstacles that limit the rate of dislocation glide, was independent of indentation depth but increased from Δ G0 = 0.185 to 0.215 μb 3 with increasing ion irradiation damage. The magnitude of the activation energy indicates that ion irradiation introduces a new type of obstacle into the microstructure which reduces the low temperature indentation creep rate of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes. This is supported by TEM images showing that Zr + ion irradiation produces small, nanometer size, dislocation loops which act as obstacles to dislocation glide and thus influence both the yield stress and the activation energy of the low-temperature thermal creep of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material. These findings suggest that neutron irradiation will have similar effect upon yield stress and low-temperature thermal creep as the Zr + ion irradiation since both create similar crystallographic defects in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes.

  20. Traceable Micro-Force Sensor for Instrumented Indentation Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D T; Shaw, G A; Seugling, R M; Xiang, D; Pratt, J R

    2007-04-02

    Instrumented indentation testing (IIT), commonly referred to as nanoindentation when small forces are used, is a popular technique for determining the mechanical properties of small volumes of material. Sample preparation is relatively easy, usually requiring only that a smooth surface of the material to be tested be accessible to a contact probe, and instruments that combine sophisticated automation with straightforward user interfaces are available commercially from several manufacturers. In addition, documentary standards are now becoming available from both the International Standards Organization (ISO 14577) and ASTM International (E28 WK382) that define test methods and standard practices for IIT, and will allow the technique to be used to produce material property data that can be used in product specifications. These standards also define the required level of accuracy of the force data produced by IIT instruments, as well as methods to verify that accuracy. For forces below 10 mN, these requirements can be difficult to meet, particularly for instrument owners who need to verify the performance of their instrument as it is installed at their site. In this paper, we describe the development, performance and application of an SI-traceable force sensor system for potential use in the field calibration of commercial IIT instruments. The force sensor itself, based on an elastically deforming capacitance gauge, is small enough to mount in a commercial instrument as if it were a test specimen, and is used in conjunction with an ultra-high accuracy capacitance bridge. The sensor system is calibrated with NIST-traceable masses over the range 5.0 {micro}N through 5.0 mN. We will present data on its accuracy and precision, as well its potential application to the verification of force in commercial instrumented indentation instruments.

  1. Continuous Assessment in the Oral Communication Class: Teacher Constructed Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair-Venugopal, Shanta

    The oral communication course for English majors at the National University of Malaysia includes testing designed by faculty and coordinated with the curriculum. This practice is based on the ideas that a teacher who has been actively involved in curriculum design is in a good position to design a test for that curriculum, and that teacher-made…

  2. Mechanical characterization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy at multiple length scales using spherical indentation stress-strain measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Jordan S.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in spherical indentation stress-strain protocols and analyses have demonstrated the capability for measuring reliably the local mechanical responses in polycrystalline metal samples at different length scales, ranging from sub-micron (regions within individual grains) to several hundreds of microns (regions covering several grains). These recent advances have now made it possible to study systematically the mechanical behavior of a single material system at different length scales, with tremendous potential to obtain new insights into the role of individual phases, interfaces, and other microscale constituents on the macroscale mechanical response of the material. In this paper, we report spherical indentation stress-strain measurements with different indenter sizes (microns to millimeters) on Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) which capture the mechanical response of single phase alpha-Ti-64, single colony (alpha-beta), few colonies, and many colonies of Ti-64. The results show that the average mechanical response (indentation modulus and yield strength) from multiple indentations remains relatively unchanged from single phase alpha to many colonies of Ti-64, while the variance in the response decreases with indenter size. In conclusion, the work-hardening response in indentation tests follows a similar behavior up to indentation zones of many colonies, which shows significantly higher work hardening rates.

  3. Computational and experimental methodology for site-matched investigations of the influence of mineral mass fraction and collagen orientation on the axial indentation modulus of lamellar bone☆

    PubMed Central

    Spiesz, Ewa M.; Reisinger, Andreas G.; Kaminsky, Werner; Roschger, Paul; Pahr, Dieter H.; Zysset, Philippe K.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between mineralization, collagen orientation and indentation modulus were investigated in bone structural units from the mid-shaft of human femora using a site-matched design. Mineral mass fraction, collagen fibril angle and indentation moduli were measured in registered anatomical sites using backscattered electron imaging, polarized light microscopy and nano-indentation, respectively. Theoretical indentation moduli were calculated with a homogenization model from the quantified mineral densities and mean collagen fibril orientations. The average indentation moduli predicted based on local mineralization and collagen fibers arrangement were not significantly different from the average measured experimentally with nanoindentation (p=0.9). Surprisingly, no substantial correlation of the measured indentation moduli with tissue mineralization and/or collagen fiber arrangement was found. Nano-porosity, micro-damage, collagen cross-links, non-collagenous proteins or other parameters affect the indentation measurements. Additional testing/simulation methods need to be considered to properly understand the variability of indentation moduli, beyond the mineralization and collagen arrangement in bone structural units. PMID:23994944

  4. Hardening Effect Analysis by Modular Upper Bound and Finite Element Methods in Indentation of Aluminum, Steel, Titanium and Superalloys.

    PubMed

    Bermudo, Carolina; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Martín, Francisco; Trujillo, Francisco Javier

    2017-05-19

    The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied, not only as a hardening test but also as a forming process. Thus, in this work, an analysis of the indentation process under the new Modular Upper Bound perspective has been performed. The modular implementation has several advantages, including the possibility of the introduction of different parameters to extend the study, such as the friction effect, the temperature or the hardening effect studied in this paper. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the three hardening models developed depending on the material characteristics. In order to support the validation of the hardening models, finite element analyses of diverse materials under an indentation are carried out. Results obtained from the Modular Upper Bound are in concordance with the results obtained from the numerical analyses. In addition, the numerical and analytical methods are in concordance with the results previously obtained in the experimental indentation of annealed aluminum A92030. Due to the introduction of the hardening factor, the new modular distribution is a suitable option for the analysis of indentation process.

  5. Hardening Effect Analysis by Modular Upper Bound and Finite Element Methods in Indentation of Aluminum, Steel, Titanium and Superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Bermudo, Carolina; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Martín, Francisco; Trujillo, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied, not only as a hardening test but also as a forming process. Thus, in this work, an analysis of the indentation process under the new Modular Upper Bound perspective has been performed. The modular implementation has several advantages, including the possibility of the introduction of different parameters to extend the study, such as the friction effect, the temperature or the hardening effect studied in this paper. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the three hardening models developed depending on the material characteristics. In order to support the validation of the hardening models, finite element analyses of diverse materials under an indentation are carried out. Results obtained from the Modular Upper Bound are in concordance with the results obtained from the numerical analyses. In addition, the numerical and analytical methods are in concordance with the results previously obtained in the experimental indentation of annealed aluminum A92030. Due to the introduction of the hardening factor, the new modular distribution is a suitable option for the analysis of indentation process. PMID:28772914

  6. 40 CFR 211.212-7 - Continued compliance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control failure and that the failure has been remedied, he may, with the Administrator's approval, conduct... testing was conducted properly and whether the criteria for non-compliance in § 211.212-6 have been...

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Deformation Due to Ball Indentation and Evaluation of Tensile Properties of Tempered P92 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbadikar, Dipika R.; Ballal, A. R.; Peshwe, D. R.; Mathew, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Ball indentation (BI) technique has been effectively used to evaluate the tensile properties with minimal volume of material. In the present investigation, BI test carried out on P92 steel (9Cr-0.5Mo-1.8W), using 0.76 mm diameter silicon nitride ball indenter was modeled using finite element (FE) method and analyzed. The effect of test temperature [300 K and 923 K (27 °C and 650 °C)], tempering temperature [1013 K, 1033 K, and 1053 K (740 °C, 760 °C, and 780 °C)], and coefficient of friction of steel (0.0 to 0.5) on the tensile strength and material pile-up was investigated. The stress and strain distributions underneath the indenter and along the top elements of the model have been studied to understand the deformation behavior. The tensile strength was found to decrease with increase in tempering and test temperatures. The increased pile-up around the indentation was attributed to the decrease in strain hardening exponent ( n) with increase in the test temperature. The pile-up height determined from profilometry studies and FE analysis as well as the load depth curve from BI and FE analysis was in agreement. The maximum strain location below the indentation changes with the test temperature. Stress-strain curves obtained by conventional tensile, BI test, and representative stress-strain concepts of FE model were found exactly matching.

  8. Progressive mechanical indentation of large-format Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsin; Kumar, Abhishek; Simunovic, Srdjan; Allu, Srikanth; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Turner, John A.; Helmers, Jacob C.; Rules, Evan T.; Winchester, Clinton S.; Gorney, Philip

    2017-02-01

    Large format Li-ion cells were used to study the mechanical responses of single cells of thickness 6.5 mm and stacks of three cells under compressive loading. Various sequences of increasing depth indentations were carried out using a 1.0 inch (25.4 mm) diameter steel ball with steel plate as a rigid support surface. The indentation depths were between 0.025″ and 0.250″ with main indentation increments tests of 0.025″ steps. Increment steps of 0.100″ and 0.005″ were used to pinpoint the onset of internal-short that occurred between 0.245″ and 0.250″. The indented cells were disassembled and inspected for internal damage. Load vs. time curves were compared with the developed computer models. Separator thinning leading to the short circuit was simulated using both isotropic and anisotropic mechanical properties. Our study show that separators behave differently when tested as a single layer vs. a stack in a typical pouch cell. The collective responses of the multiple layers must be taken into account in failure analysis. A model that resolves the details of the individual internal cell components was able to simulate the internal deformation of the large format cells and the onset of failure assumed to coincide with the onset of internal short circuit.

  9. Progressive mechanical indentation of large-format Li-ion cells

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hsin; Kumar, Abhishek; Simunovic, Srdjan; ...

    2016-12-07

    We used large format Li-ion cells to study the mechanical responses of single cells of thickness 6.5 mm and stacks of three cells under compressive loading. We carried out various sequences of increasing depth indentations using a 1.0 inch (25.4 mm) diameter steel ball with steel plate as a rigid support surface. The indentation depths were between 0.025 and 0.250 with main indentation increments tests of 0.025 steps. Increment steps of 0.100 and 0.005 were used to pinpoint the onset of internal-short that occurred between 0.245 and 0.250 . The indented cells were disassembled and inspected for internal damage. Loadmore » vs. time curves were compared with the developed computer models. Separator thinning leading to the short circuit was simulated using both isotropic and anisotropic mechanical properties. This study show that separators behave differently when tested as a single layer vs. a stack in a typical pouch cell. The collective responses of the multiple layers must be taken into account in failure analysis. A model that resolves the details of the individual internal cell components was able to simulate the internal deformation of the large format cells and the onset of failure assumed to coincide with the onset of internal short circuit.« less

  10. Progressive mechanical indentation of large-format Li-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hsin; Kumar, Abhishek; Simunovic, Srdjan; Allu, Srikanth; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Turner, John A.; Helmers, Jacob C.; Rules, Evan T.; Winchester, Clinton S.; Gorney, Philip

    2016-12-07

    We used large format Li-ion cells to study the mechanical responses of single cells of thickness 6.5 mm and stacks of three cells under compressive loading. We carried out various sequences of increasing depth indentations using a 1.0 inch (25.4 mm) diameter steel ball with steel plate as a rigid support surface. The indentation depths were between 0.025 and 0.250 with main indentation increments tests of 0.025 steps. Increment steps of 0.100 and 0.005 were used to pinpoint the onset of internal-short that occurred between 0.245 and 0.250 . The indented cells were disassembled and inspected for internal damage. Load vs. time curves were compared with the developed computer models. Separator thinning leading to the short circuit was simulated using both isotropic and anisotropic mechanical properties. This study show that separators behave differently when tested as a single layer vs. a stack in a typical pouch cell. The collective responses of the multiple layers must be taken into account in failure analysis. A model that resolves the details of the individual internal cell components was able to simulate the internal deformation of the large format cells and the onset of failure assumed to coincide with the onset of internal short circuit.

  11. Compression of nanowires using a flat indenter: diametrical elasticity measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Mook, William M; Niederberger, Christoph; Ghisleni, Rudy; Philippe, Laetitia; Michler, Johann

    2012-05-09

    A new experimental approach for the characterization of the diametrical elastic modulus of individual nanowires is proposed by implementing a micro/nanoscale diametrical compression test geometry, using a flat punch indenter. A 250 nm diameter single crystal silicon nanowire is compressed inside of a scanning electron microscope. Since silicon is highly anisotropic, the wire crystal orientation in the compression axis is determined by electron backscatter diffraction. In order to analyze the load-displacement compression data, a two-dimensional analytical closed-form solution based on a classical contact model is proposed. The results of the analytical model are compared with those of finite element simulations and to the experimental diametrical compression results and show good agreement.

  12. TNT Equivalency Testing of Chemical Mixtures in Continuous TNT Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    hemisphere 122 Figure Page 63 CAL-7 C-4 verification test, 18.75 kg (41.3 lb) hemisphere 124 64 CAL-8 Solid TNT cylinder calibration test, L/D...chemicals from an active TNT line, such as at Joliet AAP or Volunteer AAP. 2. Use cold nitrating acid and solid TNT flakes dispersed in the acid. 3... solid TNT flakes in the acid. The flakes would get caught in the mock cooling coils and block flow. The flakes would disperse differently than

  13. 40 CFR 205.160-7 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicle which demonstrates conformance with the applicable standard may be distributed into commerce. (e) Any distribution into commerce of a vehicle which does not comply with the applicable standard is a... be tested before distribution in commerce. (b) The Administrator will notify the manufacturer...

  14. 40 CFR 204.57-8 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conformance with the applicable standards may be distributed into commerce. (e) Any knowing distribution into commerce of a compressor which does not comply with the applicable standards is a prohibited act. (Sec. 6... produced at that plant be tested before distribution in commerce. (b) The Administrator will notify...

  15. 40 CFR 205.57-8 - Continued testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the applicable standards may be distributed into commerce. (e) Any knowing distribution into commerce of a vehicle which does not comply with the applicable standards is a prohibited act. ... at that plant be tested before distribution in commerce. (b) The Administrator will notify...

  16. On the mechanical properties of tooth enamel under spherical indentation.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical properties of tooth enamel generally exhibit large variations, which reflect its structural and material complexity. Some key properties were evaluated under localized contact, simulating actual functioning conditions. Prominent cusps of extracted human molar teeth were polished down ~0.7 mm below the cusp tip and indented by tungsten carbide balls. The internal damage was assessed after unloading from longitudinal or transverse sections. The ultimate tensile stress (UTS) was determined using a novel bilayer specimen. The damage is characterized by penny-like radial cracks driven by hoop stresses and cylindrical cracks driven along protein-rich interrod materials by shear stresses. Shallow cone cracks typical of homogeneous materials which may cause rapid tooth wear under repeat contact are thus avoided. The mean stress vs. indentation strain curve is highly nonlinear, attributable to plastic shearing of protein between and within enamel rods. This curve is also affected by damage, especially radial cracks, the onset of which depends on ball radius. Several material properties were extracted from the tests, including shear strain at the onset of ring cracks γ(F) (=0.14), UTS (=119 MPa), toughness K(C) (=0.94 MPa m(1/2)), a crack propagation law and a constitutive response determined by trial and error with the aid of a finite-element analysis. These quantities, which are only slightly sensitive to anatomical location within the enamel region tested, facilitate a quantitative assessment of crown failure. Causes for variations in published UTS and K(C) values are discussed.

  17. Johnson-Kendall-Roberts adhesive contact for a toroidal indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argatov, Ivan; Li, Qiang; Pohrt, Roman; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-07-01

    The unilateral axisymmetric frictionless adhesive contact problem for a toroidal indenter and an elastic half-space is considered in the framework of the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory. In the case of a semi-fixed annular contact area, when one of the contact radii is fixed, while the other varies during indentation, we obtain the asymptotic solution of the adhesive contact problem based on the solution of the corresponding unilateral non-adhesive contact problem. In particular, the adhesive contact problem for Barber's concave indenter is considered in detail. In the case when both contact radii are variable, we construct the leading-order asymptotic solution for a narrow annular contact area. It is found that for a v-shaped generalized toroidal indenter, the pull-off force is independent of the elastic properties of the indented solid.

  18. Invited Article: Indenter materials for high temperature nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. M.; Michler, J.

    2013-10-01

    As nanoindentation at high temperatures becomes increasingly popular, a review of indenter materials for usage at high temperatures is instructive for identifying appropriate indenter-sample materials combinations to prevent indenter loss or failure due to chemical reactions or wear during indentation. This is an important consideration for nanoindentation as extremely small volumes of reacted indenter material will have a significant effect on measurements. The high temperature hardness, elastic modulus, thermal properties, and chemical reactivities of diamond, boron carbide, silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, cubic boron nitride, and sapphire are discussed. Diamond and boron carbide show the best elevated temperature hardness, while tungsten carbide demonstrates the lowest chemical reactivity with the widest array of elements.

  19. Alternate item types: continuing the quest for authentic testing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine E

    2009-03-01

    Many test developers suggest that multiple-choice items can be used to evaluate critical thinking if the items are focused on measuring higher order thinking ability. The literature supports the use of alternate item types to assess additional competencies, such as higher level cognitive processing and critical thinking, as well as ways to allow examinees to demonstrate their competencies differently. This research study surveyed nurses after taking a test composed of alternate item types paired with multiple-choice items. The participants were asked to provide opinions regarding the items and the item formats. Demographic information was asked. In addition, information was collected as the participants responded to the items. The results of this study reveal that the participants thought that, in general, the items were more authentic and allowed them to demonstrate their competence better than multiple-choice items did. Further investigation into the optimal blend of alternate items and multiple-choice items is needed.

  20. Simulated impact damage in a thick graphite/epoxy laminate using spherical indenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A study was made to determine the extent of fiber damage caused by low-velocity impact of spherical impactors to a very thick graphite/epoxy laminate. The laminate was cut from a filament wound case being developed for the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors. The case was wound using a wet process with AS4W graphite fiber and HBRF-55A epoxy. Impacts were simulated under quasi-static conditions by pressing hemispherically shaped indenters against the laminate at different locations. The contact force and indenter diameter were varied from location to location. The forces were chosen for each indenter diameter to produce contact pressures below and above that required to initiate damage. After the forces were applied, the laminate was cut into smaller pieces so that each piece contained a test site. The pieces were then deplied and the individual plies examined to determine the extent of fiber damage. Broken fibers were found in the outer layers directly beneath the contact site. The locus of broken fibers in each layer resembled a crack normal to the direction of the fibers. The maximum length and depth of the cracks increased with increasing contact pressure and indenter diameter. The internal stresses in the laminate were calculated using Hertz's law and Love's solution for pressure applied on part of the boundary of a semi-infinite body. The maximum length and depth of the cracks were predicted using a maximum shear stress criterion. Predictions and measurements were in good agreement.

  1. A Progressive Damage Model for Predicting Permanent Indentation and Impact Damage in Composite Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhaojie; Guan, Zhidong; Li, Zengshan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a progressive damage model was established on the basis of ABAQUS software for predicting permanent indentation and impact damage in composite laminates. Intralaminar and interlaminar damage was modelled based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) in the finite element model. For the verification of the model, low-velocity impact tests of quasi-isotropic laminates with material system of T300/5228A were conducted. Permanent indentation and impact damage of the laminates were simulated and the numerical results agree well with the experiments. It can be concluded that an obvious knee point can be identified on the curve of the indentation depth versus impact energy. Matrix cracking and delamination develops rapidly with the increasing impact energy, while considerable amount of fiber breakage only occurs when the impact energy exceeds the energy corresponding to the knee point. Predicted indentation depth after the knee point is very sensitive to the parameter μ which is proposed in this paper, and the acceptable value of this parameter is in range from 0.9 to 1.0.

  2. Bone Tissue Properties Measurement by Reference Point Indentation in Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Fernando; Güerri-Fernández, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Randall, Connor; Hansma, Paul K; Díez-Perez, Adolfo

    2015-09-01

    Glucocorticoids, widely used in inflammatory disorders, rapidly increase bone fragility and, therefore, fracture risk. However, common bone densitometry measurements are not sensitive enough to detect these changes. Moreover, densitometry only partially recognizes treatment-induced fracture reductions in osteoporosis. Here, we tested whether the reference point indentation technique could detect bone tissue property changes early after glucocorticoid treatment initiation. After initial laboratory and bone density measurements, patients were allocated into groups receiving calcium + vitamin D (Ca+D) supplements or anti-osteoporotic drugs (risedronate, denosumab, teriparatide). Reference point indentation was performed on the cortical bone layer of the tibia by a handheld device measuring bone material strength index (BMSi). Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Although Ca+D-treated patients exhibited substantial and significant deterioration, risedronate-treated patients exhibited no significant change, and both denosumab- and teriparatide-treated participants exhibited significantly improved BMSi 7 weeks after initial treatment compared with baseline; these trends remained stable for 20 weeks. In contrast, no densitometry changes were observed during this study period. In conclusion, our study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that reference point indentation is sensitive enough to reflect changes in cortical bone indentation after treatment with osteoporosis therapies in patients newly exposed to glucocorticoids.

  3. Dislocation formation in seed crystals induced by feedstock indentation during growth of quasimono crystalline silicon ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trempa, M.; Beier, M.; Reimann, C.; Roßhirth, K.; Friedrich, J.; Löbel, C.; Sylla, L.; Richter, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this work the dislocation formation in the seed crystal induced by feedstock indentation during the growth of quasimono (QM) silicon ingots for photovoltaic application was investigated. It could be shown by special laboratory indentation experiments that the formed dislocations propagate up to several millimeters deep into the volume of the seed crystal in dependence on the applied pressure of the feedstock particles on the surface of the seed crystal. Further, it was demonstrated that these dislocations if they were not back-melted during the seeding process grow further into the silicon ingot and drastically reduce its material quality. An estimation of the apparent pressure values in a G5 industrial crucible/feedstock setup reveals that the indentation phenomenon is a critical issue for the industrial production of QM silicon ingots. Therefore, some approaches to avoid/reduce the indentation events were tested with the result, that the most promising solution should be the usage of suitable feedstock particles as coverage of the seed.

  4. Grid indentation analysis of mechanical properties of composite electrodes in Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcelos, Luize Scalco de; Xu, Rong; Li, Jianlin; Zhao, Kejie

    2016-03-09

    We report that electrodes in commercial rechargeable batteries are microscopically heterogeneous materials. The constituent components, including active materials, polymeric binders, and porous conductive matrix, often have large variation in their mechanical properties, making the mechanical characterization of composite electrodes a challenging task. In a model system of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathode, we employ the instrumented grid indentation to determine the elastic modulus and hardness of the constituent phases. The approach relies on a large array of nanoindentation experiments and statistical analysis of the resulting data provided that the maximum indentation depth is carefully chosen. The statistically extracted properties of the active particles and the surrounding medium are in good agreement with the tests of targeted indentation at selected sites. Lastly, the combinatory technique of grid indentation and statistical deconvolution represents a fast and reliable route to quantify the mechanical properties of composite electrodes that feed the parametric input for the mechanics models.

  5. Grid indentation analysis of mechanical properties of composite electrodes in Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Vasconcelos, Luize Scalco de; Xu, Rong; Li, Jianlin; ...

    2016-03-09

    We report that electrodes in commercial rechargeable batteries are microscopically heterogeneous materials. The constituent components, including active materials, polymeric binders, and porous conductive matrix, often have large variation in their mechanical properties, making the mechanical characterization of composite electrodes a challenging task. In a model system of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathode, we employ the instrumented grid indentation to determine the elastic modulus and hardness of the constituent phases. The approach relies on a large array of nanoindentation experiments and statistical analysis of the resulting data provided that the maximum indentation depth is carefully chosen. The statistically extracted properties of the active particlesmore » and the surrounding medium are in good agreement with the tests of targeted indentation at selected sites. Lastly, the combinatory technique of grid indentation and statistical deconvolution represents a fast and reliable route to quantify the mechanical properties of composite electrodes that feed the parametric input for the mechanics models.« less

  6. The compelling case for indentation as a functional exploratory and characterization tool

    DOE PAGES

    Tandon, Rajan; Marshall, David B.; Cook, Robert F.; ...

    2015-07-30

    The utility of indentation testing for characterizing a wide range of mechanical properties of brittle materials is highlighted in light of recent articles questioning its validity, specifically in relation to the measurement of toughness. Contrary to assertion by some critics, indentation fracture theory is fundamentally founded in Griffith–Irwin fracture mechanics, based on model crack systems evolving within inhomogeneous but well-documented elastic and elastic–plastic contact stress fields. Notwithstanding some numerical uncertainty in associated stress intensity factor relations, the technique remains an unrivalled quick, convenient and economical means for comparative, site-specific toughness evaluation. Most importantly, indentation patterns are unique fingerprints of mechanicalmore » behavior and thereby afford a powerful functional tool for exploring the richness of material diversity. At the same time, it is cautioned that unconditional usage without due attention to the conformation of the indentation patterns can lead to overstated toughness values. Limitations of an alternative, more engineering approach to fracture evaluation, that of propagating a precrack through a “standard” machined specimen, are also outlined. Thus misconceptions in the critical literature concerning the fundamental nature of crack equilibrium and stability within contact and other inhomogeneous stress fields are discussed.« less

  7. The compelling case for indentation as a functional exploratory and characterization tool

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, Rajan; Marshall, David B.; Cook, Robert F.; Padture, Nitin P.; Oyen, Michelle L.; Pajares, Antonia; Bradby, Jodie E.; Reimanis, Ivar E.; Page, Trevor F.; Pharr, George M.; Lawn, Brian R.

    2015-07-30

    The utility of indentation testing for characterizing a wide range of mechanical properties of brittle materials is highlighted in light of recent articles questioning its validity, specifically in relation to the measurement of toughness. Contrary to assertion by some critics, indentation fracture theory is fundamentally founded in Griffith–Irwin fracture mechanics, based on model crack systems evolving within inhomogeneous but well-documented elastic and elastic–plastic contact stress fields. Notwithstanding some numerical uncertainty in associated stress intensity factor relations, the technique remains an unrivalled quick, convenient and economical means for comparative, site-specific toughness evaluation. Most importantly, indentation patterns are unique fingerprints of mechanical behavior and thereby afford a powerful functional tool for exploring the richness of material diversity. At the same time, it is cautioned that unconditional usage without due attention to the conformation of the indentation patterns can lead to overstated toughness values. Limitations of an alternative, more engineering approach to fracture evaluation, that of propagating a precrack through a “standard” machined specimen, are also outlined. Thus misconceptions in the critical literature concerning the fundamental nature of crack equilibrium and stability within contact and other inhomogeneous stress fields are discussed.

  8. Extraction of quasi-linear viscoelastic parameters for lower limb soft tissues from manual indentation experiment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y P; Mak, A F

    1999-06-01

    A manual indentation protocol was established to assess the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) properties of lower limb soft tissues. The QLV parameters were extracted using a curve-fitting procedure on the experimental indentation data. The load-indentation responses were obtained using an ultrasound indentation apparatus with a hand-held pen-sized probe. Limb soft tissues at four sites of eight normal young subjects were tested in three body postures. Four QLV model parameters were extracted from the experimental data. The initial modulus E0 ranged from 0.22 kPa to 58.4 kPa. The nonlinear factor E1 ranged from 21.7 kPa to 547 kPa. The time constant tau ranged from 0.05 s to 8.93 s. The time-dependent materials parameter alpha ranged from 0.029 to 0.277. Large variations of the parameters were noted among subjects, sites, and postures.

  9. Experimental and computational analysis of soft tissue stiffness in forearm using a manual indentation device.

    PubMed

    Iivarinen, Jarkko T; Korhonen, Rami K; Julkunen, Petro; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2011-12-01

    A hand held stiffness meter can be used to measure indentation stiffness of human soft tissues, sensitively altered, e.g., by pathological tissue swelling. Under indentation load, the relative contribution of each soft tissue component (i.e., skin, adipose tissue and muscle) to the biomechanical response is not known. In the present study, we evaluated the biomechanical role of different soft tissues in relaxed, physically stressed and oedemic human forearm. Soft tissue stiffness of the forearms of nine healthy human subjects was measured under four different test protocols: (1) forearm at rest, (2) forearm under isometric flexor loading, (3) forearm under isometric extensor loading, and (4) forearm under venous occlusion. In (2) and (3) the loading forces were monitored using a dynamometer, and in (4) the soft tissue swelling was induced by venous occlusion using a pressure cuff. At the site of indentation, thickness of different tissue layers (skin, adipose tissue and muscle) was measured using B-mode ultrasound imaging. Layered, hyperelastic finite element (FE) model of the indentation measurement was created and the model response was matched with that of the stiffness meter to determine the elastic modulus for each tissue in the model. Optimized values of the elastic modulus for skin and adipose tissue at rest were 210 kPa and 1.9 kPa, respectively. Further, significance of the variations in stiffness of different tissues on the indentation response was tested. Experimentally, indentation stiffness of the forearm increased during isometric extensor and flexor loads as well as under venous occlusion by 53, 91 and 15%, respectively. The FE model could reproduce the experimental responses primarily by the increased modulus of skin; 112% (446 kPa), 210% (651 kPa) and 21% (254 kPa) under flexor and extensor loading as well as during venous occlusion, respectively. The indentation response was 9-16 times more sensitive to changes in the mechanical properties of skin

  10. Elastic characterization of transversely isotropic soft materials by dynamic shear and asymmetric indentation.

    PubMed

    Namani, R; Feng, Y; Okamoto, R J; Jesuraj, N; Sakiyama-Elbert, S E; Genin, G M; Bayly, P V

    2012-06-01

    The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isotropic soft material. A soft gel with controlled anisotropy was obtained by polymerizing a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin solutions in a high field magnet (B = 11.7 T); fibrils in the resulting gel were predominantly aligned parallel to the magnetic field. Aligned fibrin gels were subject to dynamic (20-40 Hz) shear deformation in two orthogonal directions. The shear storage modulus was 1.08 ± 0. 42 kPa (mean ± std. dev.) for shear in a plane parallel to the dominant fiber direction, and 0.58 ± 0.21 kPa for shear in the plane of isotropy. Gels were indented by a rectangular tip of a large aspect ratio, aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the normal to the plane of transverse isotropy. Aligned fibrin gels appeared stiffer when indented with the long axis of a rectangular tip perpendicular to the dominant fiber direction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of asymmetric indentation were used to determine the relationship between direction-dependent differences in indentation stiffness and material parameters. This approach enables the estimation of a complete set of parameters for an incompressible, transversely isotropic, linear elastic material.

  11. Test/QA Plan (TQAP) for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technology (or MARGA) test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technologies. The purpose of the verification test is ...

  12. Indentation-flexure and low-velocity impact damage in graphite/epoxy laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Young S.; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1992-01-01

    Static indentation and low velocity impact tests were performed on quasi-isotropic and cross ply graphite/epoxy composite laminates. The load deflection relations in static tests and impact force history in the impact tests were recorded. The damage was assessed by using ultrasonic C-scanning and photomicrographic techniques. The static behavior of the laminates and damage progression during loading, unloading, and reloading were explained by a simple plate delamination model. A good correlation existed between the static and impact responses. It was found that results from a few static indentation-flexture tests can be used to predict the response and damage in composite laminates due to a class of low velocity impact events.

  13. Thermal Shock Behavior of Silicon Nitride Flexure Beam Specimens with Indentation Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental results of thermal shock testing of silicon nitride flexure beam specimens containing indentation cracks are presented. The thermal stress induced by water quenching is much greater in the transverse direction than in the longitudinal direction, resulting in an insensitivity of residual bend strength to temperature differences up to 580 C. This result indicates that a flexure beam configuration is not an appropriate geometry for thermal shock testing when thermal shock behavior is to be evaluated from residual bend strength data.

  14. Adhesion between dental ceramic and bonding resin: quantitative evaluation by Vickers indenter methodology.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Sylvie; Tavernier, Bruno; Colon, Pierre; Picard, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adhesion to dental ceramic by Vickers indenter methodology. This technique allows the creation of adhesive fractures and determines the influence of the surface treatment on adhesive capacities. A single bond adhesive system (One Step Bisco) was applied to ceramic Vitapan 3D Master CE 0124 samples. Ceramic samples were polished with 500 or 4000-grit paper, sandblasted or not (Sa/NSa), treated with fluorhydric acid or not (A/NA) and silane or not (Si/NSi). The experimental groups (Gr) were: (Gr 1) 4000; (Gr 2) 4000+Si; (Gr 3) 4000+Sa+A; (Gr 4) 4000+Sa+A+Si; (Gr 5) 500+Sa+A+Si. Each sample was indented with the diamond Vickers indenter Leitz Durimet 2 (Wetzlar, Germany) using a load of 20N for 30s. The surfaces of the debonded areas were observed in an optical microscope providing a digital image of the debonded surface. The adhesion bond strength was calculated according to the formula of Engel and Roshon [Engel PA, Roshon DD. Indentation-debonding of an adhered surface layer. J Adhesion 1979;10(33): 237-53]. The statistical analysis was conducted using Student's t test (p<0.05). The values obtained for each group were: (Gr 1) 32MPa; (Gr 2) 52MPa; (Gr 3) 112MPa; (Gr 4) 131MPa; (Gr 5) 265MPa. There is a significant improvement in bond strength with the silane application on the 4000 polished surface (Gr 2). However, there is no significant difference when silane is applied or not on a sanded and etched ceramic (Gr 4). Bond strengths were higher with 500 grit polished, sanded, etched with silane application on the surface (Gr 5). The Vickers indenter methodology is able to discriminate between the influences of different surface treatments on the adhesion of an adhesive layer on a feldspathic ceramic.

  15. Indentation creep behavior of a direct-filling silver alternative to amalgam.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Liao, H; Eichmiller, F C

    1998-12-01

    Amalgam creep has been identified as a key parameter associated with marginal breakdown and corrosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent deformation (creep) of a novel silver filling material as an alternative to amalgam. We made the silver specimens by pressing a precipitated powder at room temperature to a density that can be achieved in clinical hand consolidation. The surface of the silver was either polished or burnished. To examine local contact creep and the effect of surface finishing, we used an indentation creep method in which a Vickers indenter was loaded on the specimen surface at a load of 10 N with dwell times of 5 sec to 6x10(4) sec. We used a bonded-interface technique to examine subsurface creep mechanisms. The flexural strength (mean+/-SD; n = 10) was 86+/-20 MPa for amalgam, 180+/-21 MPa for polished silver, and 209+/-19 MPa for burnished silver-values which are significantly different from each other (family confidence coefficient = 0.95; Tukey's multiple-comparison test). Indentation creep manifested as hardness number decreasing with increased dwell time. With dwell time increasing from 5 sec to 6x10(4) sec, the hardness number of amalgam was reduced by approximately 80%; that of the polished silver and the burnished silver was reduced by only 40%. Subsurface creep in amalgam consisted of the shape change of the alloy particles from spherical to elongated shapes, and the separation of matrix grains from each other, possibly due to grain-boundary sliding. Creep of the polished silver occurred by densification reducing porosity and increasing hardness; that of the burnished silver occurred by the displacement of the burnished layer. These results suggest that, due to creep-induced subsurface work-hardening and densification, the consolidated silver exhibits a higher resistance to indentation creep than does amalgam. The hardness number of silver approaches that of amalgam after prolonged indentation loading.

  16. Estimation of Musculotendon Kinematics under Controlled Tendon Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Chardon, Matthieu K.; Dhaher, Yasin Y.; Suresh, Nina I.; Jaramillo, Giselle; Rymer, W. Zev

    2015-01-01

    The effects of tendon indentation on musculotendon unit mechanics have been left largely unexplored. Tendon indentation is however routinely used in the tendon reflex exam to diagnose the state of reflex pathways. Because muscle mechanoreceptors are sensitive to mechanical changes of the musculotendon unit, this gap in knowledge could potentially impact our understanding of these neurological exams. Accordingly, we have used ultrasound (US) imaging to compare the effects of tendon indentation with the effects angular rotation of the elbow in six neurologically intact individuals. We used sagittal ultrasound movies of the biceps brachii to compare length changes induced by each of these perturbations. Length changes were quantified using a pixel-tracking protocol. Our results show that a 20 mm indentation of the distal tendon is broadly equivalent to a 15° elbow rotation. We also show that within the imaging window the strain differences between the two stretching protocols are statistically insignificant. Finally, we show that there exists a significant linear relationship between the two stretching techniques and that this relationship spans a large rotational angle to indentation depth. We have used a novel tendon probe to administer controlled tendon indentations as a way to characterize musculotendon kinematics. Using this probe, we confirm that tendon indentation can be physiologically equated with joint rotation, and can thus be used as an input for muscle stretching protocols. Furthermore, this is potentially a simpler and more practical alternative to externally imposed angular joint motion. PMID:26321363

  17. On the indentation failure of carbon-epoxy cross-ply laminates, and its suppression by elasto-plastic interleaves

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, O.; Horsewell, A.

    1997-08-01

    Elastic and elasto-plastic modelling of indentation in CFRP cross-ply laminates has been performed. Detailed knowledge of the field solutions in the volume below the indentor forms the basis for the reported micromechanical interpretation of the observed damage in test specimens. The analysis shows that matrix cracks originate at sites of maximum tensile stress perpendicular to fibers. The predicted stress fields due to indentation show that stress concentrations occur in the interface between alternating plies. It is found that microcracking in this zone is a precursor to the observed failure. This analysis is supported by in-situ scanning electron microscopy during loading by a cylindrical indentor onto the laminate supported on a rigid substrate. The microscopy reveals microdamage in the region of interfacial tensile stress concentrations. The onset of indentation failure in these layered composites suggests that plastic interleaves would delay failure. It is shown numerically that plastic deformation of the interleaves redistributes stresses and thereby weakens the tensile stress concentrations which arise during indentation. Experimentally it is shown that aluminium interleaves affect the formation of indentation failure. In a cross-ply laminate, where alternating ply groups are separated by aluminium sheets, matrix cracking and delamination failures are suppressed by the occurrence of plastic deformation. Since the aluminium is likely to be weakly bonded to the plies, it is seen that weak interlaminar fracture toughness does not necessarily cause delaminations, nor lead to a lower indentation strength. High indentation strength and delamination resistance are complex qualities which, among others, seem to be achieved in laminate geometries which have a minimum of stress concentration at interfaces between ply groups of different orientation.

  18. Simulation and Experiment on Surface Morphology and Mechanical Properties Response in Nano-Indentation of 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Zhang, Feihu; Meng, Binbin; Ma, Zhaokai

    2017-03-01

    The nano-indentation test for 6H-SiC is carried out with a Berkovich indenter. The indentation surface morphology is analyzed by SEM, which show that when the maximum load P max is 8 mN, there is only plastic deformation and no cracks on the surface of workpiece after unloading process, and when P max is 10 mN, there is the initiation of crack occurring on the surface of workpiece after unloading process. Based on the strain hardening model, the three-dimensional finite element method of nano-indentation for 6H-SiC is carried out. Simulation results show that in the unloading process the maximum stress and the maximum strain occur in the contact area between the workpiece with the indenter edges, which is consistent with the experimental results. When propagate to the surface from the subsurface, the cracks are subjected to the type I stress and the type II stress due to elastic recovery. After propagating to surface of workpiece, the cracks propagate along a fixed direction because the proportion of type I stress is much larger than that of type II stress. The influence of the cleavage plane on the propagation direction of cracks is obvious. The cracks propagate more easily when the indenter edges are along cleavage plane. The indentation depth and residual depth increase with the increase of P max. While, the elastic recovery rate gradually decreases and tends to be stable with the increase of P max. When P max is <10 mN, the micro-hardness and the elastic modulus increase linearly with the increase of P max. When P max exceeds 10 mN, the micro-hardness decreases with the increase of P max and then gradually tends to be stable, and the elastic modulus increases by power function with the increase of P max and then gradually tends to be stable.

  19. Simulation and Experiment on Surface Morphology and Mechanical Properties Response in Nano-Indentation of 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Zhang, Feihu; Meng, Binbin; Ma, Zhaokai

    2017-02-01

    The nano-indentation test for 6H-SiC is carried out with a Berkovich indenter. The indentation surface morphology is analyzed by SEM, which show that when the maximum load P max is 8 mN, there is only plastic deformation and no cracks on the surface of workpiece after unloading process, and when P max is 10 mN, there is the initiation of crack occurring on the surface of workpiece after unloading process. Based on the strain hardening model, the three-dimensional finite element method of nano-indentation for 6H-SiC is carried out. Simulation results show that in the unloading process the maximum stress and the maximum strain occur in the contact area between the workpiece with the indenter edges, which is consistent with the experimental results. When propagate to the surface from the subsurface, the cracks are subjected to the type I stress and the type II stress due to elastic recovery. After propagating to surface of workpiece, the cracks propagate along a fixed direction because the proportion of type I stress is much larger than that of type II stress. The influence of the cleavage plane on the propagation direction of cracks is obvious. The cracks propagate more easily when the indenter edges are along cleavage plane. The indentation depth and residual depth increase with the increase of P max. While, the elastic recovery rate gradually decreases and tends to be stable with the increase of P max. When P max is <10 mN, the micro-hardness and the elastic modulus increase linearly with the increase of P max. When P max exceeds 10 mN, the micro-hardness decreases with the increase of P max and then gradually tends to be stable, and the elastic modulus increases by power function with the increase of P max and then gradually tends to be stable.

  20. Improving lithographic masks with the assistance of indentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying-Nan; Li, Xu-Feng; Pan, Shi; Wang, Qiao; Wang, Shuo; Wu, Yong-Kuan

    2012-05-01

    Indentations etched on the output surface of a metallic mask are proposed to produce fine lithographic patterns with a resolution of 500 nm using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. Such a designed mask is capable of enhancing near field lithography (NFL) resolution more than three times compared with the structure without indentations. The simulation results show that the interference disturbance between the adjacent lithographic channels can be eliminated efficiently by employing the indentations. As a straightforward consequence, the channel-to-channel interspaces can be shortened significantly, maintaining a uniform field distribution and high contrast.

  1. Occurrence of spherical ceramic debris in indentation and sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Indenting experiments were conducted with the silicon carbide (0001) surface in contact with a spherical diamond indenter in air. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted with silicon carbide in contact with iron and iron-based binary alloys at room temperature and 800 C. Fracture pits with a spherical particle and spherical wear debris were observed as a result of indenting and sliding. Spherical debris may be produced by a mechanism that involves a spherical-shaped fracture along the circular or spherical stress trajectories under the inelastic deformation zone.

  2. Effect of Grain Curvature on Nano-Indentation Measurements of Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Kuang-Yue; Chin, Tsung-Shune; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2004-09-01

    Grain curvature effect on the measurement of nano-indentation has been observed for the first time, taking VO2 thin film as an example. As the grain size of thin film is comparable to the diameter of indenter tip, the maximum penetration depths under the same maximum load (Pmax) vary and lead to deviations in estimated hardness and Young’s modulus. Under the same Pmax, larger penetration depth leads to a larger projected area, and a decrease in hardness. The large deviation of stiffness, affected by surface roughness under low Pmax, produces fluctuation of Young’s modulus. Increase in penetration depth diminishes the roughness effect so that deviations in penetration depths dominate the variations in Young’s modulus. The hardness and Young’s modulus curves measured at lowest penetration depth, being thought to be free from effect of grain curvature, coincide very well to the curves measured by continuous stiffness measurements mode.

  3. Mechanical characterization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy at multiple length scales using spherical indentation stress-strain measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Weaver, Jordan S.; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in spherical indentation stress-strain protocols and analyses have demonstrated the capability for measuring reliably the local mechanical responses in polycrystalline metal samples at different length scales, ranging from sub-micron (regions within individual grains) to several hundreds of microns (regions covering several grains). These recent advances have now made it possible to study systematically the mechanical behavior of a single material system at different length scales, with tremendous potential to obtain new insights into the role of individual phases, interfaces, and other microscale constituents on the macroscale mechanical response of the material. In this paper, we report spherical indentationmore » stress-strain measurements with different indenter sizes (microns to millimeters) on Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) which capture the mechanical response of single phase alpha-Ti-64, single colony (alpha-beta), few colonies, and many colonies of Ti-64. The results show that the average mechanical response (indentation modulus and yield strength) from multiple indentations remains relatively unchanged from single phase alpha to many colonies of Ti-64, while the variance in the response decreases with indenter size. In conclusion, the work-hardening response in indentation tests follows a similar behavior up to indentation zones of many colonies, which shows significantly higher work hardening rates.« less

  4. Finite element analysis of depth effect on measuring elastic modulus of a core-shell structure for application of instrumented indentation in tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-04-01

    Tooth enamel is a complex structure, consisting of numerous enamel rods surrounded by a protein-rich sheath. Considering the possible effect of the protein-rich sheath on the indentation deformation of an enamel rod and the limitation of the Oliver-Pharr method in measuring the elastic modulus of the enamel rod, we used a finite element method to analyze the indentation deformation of an elastic-perfectly plastic cylinder surrounded by an elastic-perfectly plastic film. A concept of the threshold indentation depth was proposed, at which the percentage error of the measured modulus of the cylinder is ±10%. For the indentation depth less than the threshold indentation depth, the elastic modulus measured from the indentation test can be approximated as the intrinsic elastic modulus of the cylinder. The normalized threshold indentation depth strongly depends on the modulus ratio of the film to the cylinder and the ratio of the film thickness to the cylinder radius. The results can be used to guide the use of the Oliver-Pharr method in characterizing the mechanical properties of tooth enamel and bio-composites with core-shell structures.

  5. Variable temperature thin film indentation with a flat punch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Graham L. W.; O; ²Connell, Barry S.; Pethica, John B.; Rowland, Harry; King, William P.

    2008-01-01

    We present modifications to conventional nanoindentation that realize variable temperature, flat punch indentation of ultrathin films. The technique provides generation of large strain, thin film extrusion of precise geometries that idealize the essential flows of nanoimprint lithography, and approximate constant area squeeze flow rheometry performed on thin, macroscopic soft matter samples. Punch radii as small as 185nm have been realized in ten-to-one confinement ratio testing of 36nm thick polymer films controllably squeezed in the melt state to a gap width of a few nanometers. Self-consistent, compressive stress versus strain measurements of a wide variety of mechanical testing conditions are provided by using a single die-sample system with temperatures ranging from 20to125°C and loading rates spanning two decades. Low roughness, well aligned flat punch dies with large contact areas provide precise detection of soft surfaces with standard nanoindenter stiffness sensitivity. Independent heating and thermometry with heaters and thermocouples attached to the die and sample allow introduction of a novel directional heat flux measurement method to ensure isothermal contact conditions. This is a crucial requirement for interpreting the mechanical response in temperature sensitive soft matter systems. Instrumented imprint is a new nanomechanics material testing platform that enables measurements of polymer and soft matter properties during large strains in confined, thin film geometries and extends materials testing capabilities of nanoindentation into low modulus, low strength glassy, and viscoelastic materials.

  6. Variable temperature thin film indentation with a flat punch.

    PubMed

    Cross, Graham L W; O'Connell, Barry S; Pethica, John B; Rowland, Harry; King, William P

    2008-01-01

    We present modifications to conventional nanoindentation that realize variable temperature, flat punch indentation of ultrathin films. The technique provides generation of large strain, thin film extrusion of precise geometries that idealize the essential flows of nanoimprint lithography, and approximate constant area squeeze flow rheometry performed on thin, macroscopic soft matter samples. Punch radii as small as 185 nm have been realized in ten-to-one confinement ratio testing of 36 nm thick polymer films controllably squeezed in the melt state to a gap width of a few nanometers. Self-consistent, compressive stress versus strain measurements of a wide variety of mechanical testing conditions are provided by using a single die-sample system with temperatures ranging from 20 to 125 degrees C and loading rates spanning two decades. Low roughness, well aligned flat punch dies with large contact areas provide precise detection of soft surfaces with standard nanoindenter stiffness sensitivity. Independent heating and thermometry with heaters and thermocouples attached to the die and sample allow introduction of a novel directional heat flux measurement method to ensure isothermal contact conditions. This is a crucial requirement for interpreting the mechanical response in temperature sensitive soft matter systems. Instrumented imprint is a new nanomechanics material testing platform that enables measurements of polymer and soft matter properties during large strains in confined, thin film geometries and extends materials testing capabilities of nanoindentation into low modulus, low strength glassy, and viscoelastic materials.

  7. An alternative to traditional goodness-of-fit tests for discretely measured continuous data

    Treesearch

    KaDonna C. Randolph; Bill Seaver

    2007-01-01

    Traditional goodness-of-fit tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and x2 tests are easily applied to data of the continuous or discrete type, respectively. Occasionally, however, the case arises when continuous data are recorded into discrete categories due to an imprecise measurement system. In this instance, the traditional goodness-of-fit...

  8. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  9. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  10. Indentation of zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernan, Brian Daniel

    Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) are widely used in gas turbine engines to protect metal parts from both heat and oxidation. However, TBCs fail after some time due to build up of stresses caused by microstructural changes, or by damage due to particle ingestion and impact commonly referred to as Foreign Object Damage (FOD). TBC mechanical properties are needed to be able to model stress development and the predication of cracking, particularly at high temperature. A TBC made by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) was found to be very strain rate sensitive in its hardness response in both the as-deposited and aged conditions from room temperature to 1200°C. The through-thickness hardness of the as-deposited TBC was measured from room temperature to 500°C. A high temperature vacuum displacement sensitive indenter was developed to measure both elastic modulus and hardness, as well as provide simulation of FOD under fast loading conditions. Some solutions to current performance problems of the machine are given.

  11. PMMA microlens array fabricated by indentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirino, Giuseppe A.; Jasinevicius, Renato G.

    2017-02-01

    This work reports the fabrication of a PMMA-based spherical microlens array (MLA), targeting application of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for lens characterization. The array present 10 by 10 elements, with f-number f/# = f/10 (1 mm diameter, 10 mm focal length). The fabrication method employs a computer-controlled mechanical indentation for the fabrication of an insert mold, and subsequent replication by injection molding on PMMA. After replication and de-molding, the PMMA surface containing the negative of the phase profile of the lens array was evaluated by optical profilometry technique, in terms of the surface quality as well as the replication fidelity. The RMS surface roughness level of approximately (λ/10) was found, considering operation in the visible range of spectrum. Optical characterization was based on the evaluation of the sharpness, FWHM, and maximum intensity, IMAX, values associated to the profiles of each of the 100 generated light spots, obtained in the back focal plane of the MLA. An average sharpness of FWHMAVG = 13.9 +/- 8% μm, and average maximum intensity of IMAX AVG = 0.72 +/- 7% a.u. was obtained.

  12. Compressive Microfracture and Indentation Damage in Al2O3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-30

    lateral cracks produced during indentation loading is characterized in terms of microplasticity , and the particle velocity range over which the mechanism is expected to be operative is computed. (Author)

  13. A 200 W Hall thruster with hollow indented anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Peng; Su, Hongbo; Peng, Wuji; Yu, Daren

    2017-10-01

    A hollow indented anode is proposed for increasing the neutral gas density in a discharge channel, in order to improve the performance of the thruster. The experimental results show that a hollow indented anode structure can effectively improve the performance, compared to a hollow straight anode under similar operating conditions, in terms of thrust, propellant utilization, ionization rate, and anode efficiency. Furthermore, simulations show that the indented anode can effectively increase the neutral gas density in a discharge channel and on the centerline of the channel, compared to a hollow straight anode. In addition, it can increase the ionization rate in the channel and the pre-ionization in the anode. Therefore, the hollow indented anode could be considered as an important design idea for improving thruster performance.

  14. 5. Top surface of dock showing indented section (bay) on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Top surface of dock showing indented section (bay) on SW side; looking NW. Ferry in background is at Winslow ferry dock. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, West Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. Modelling and simulation of porcine liver tissue indentation using finite element method and uniaxial stress-strain data.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y B; Chui, C K

    2014-07-18

    We hypothesize that both compression and elongation stress-strain data should be considered for modeling and simulation of soft tissue indentation. Uniaxial stress-strain data were obtained from in vitro loading experiments of porcine liver tissue. An axisymmetric finite element model was used to simulate liver tissue indentation with tissue material represented by hyperelastic models. The material parameters were derived from uniaxial stress-strain data of compressions, elongations, and combined compression and elongation of porcine liver samples. in vitro indentation tests were used to validate the finite element simulation. Stress-strain data from the simulation with material parameters derived from the combined compression and elongation data match the experimental data best. This is due to its better ability in modeling 3D deformation since the behavior of biological soft tissue under indentation is affected by both its compressive and tensile characteristics. The combined logarithmic and polynomial model is somewhat better than the 5-constant Mooney-Rivlin model as the constitutive model for this indentation simulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Instrumented Indentation of M855 Cartridge, Core, and Jacket Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Instrumented indentation was used to estimate the mechanical properties of as-processed materials used in 5.56-mm M855 projectiles . Three indentation tip...determined experimentally from the as- processed materials. For 5.56-mm M855 projectiles , thin-walled copper and brass are used for the bullet...nylon and a tungsten- tin metal blend. Measuring mechanical performance of M855 projectile components, however, is difficult using traditional

  17. Indentation creep in nanocrystalline Fe-TiN and Ni-TiN alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yoshikiyo; Yamasaki, Tohru; Shen, B.L.

    1997-04-01

    Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Fe-TiN and Ni-TiN alloys with various TiN contents between 17 and 64 vol pct, which are prepared by dynamically consolidating mechanically alloyed powders, have been investigated by means of hardness measurements and indentation creep tests at intermediate temperatures. The hardness increases with decreasing grain size to about 10 nm. The indentation creep curves conform well to an equation derived from a transient creep rate equation. The analysis of creep curves indicates that the deformation occurs by a dislocation mechanism controlled by grain boundary diffusion.

  18. Robust strategies for automated AFM force curve analysis--I. Non-adhesive indentation of soft, inhomogeneous materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, David C; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Horkay, Ferenc

    2007-06-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has found wide applicability as a nanoindentation tool to measure local elastic properties of soft materials. An automated approach to the processing of AFM indentation data, namely, the extraction of Young's modulus, is essential to realizing the high-throughput potential of the instrument as an elasticity probe for typical soft materials that exhibit inhomogeneity at microscopic scales. This paper focuses on Hertzian analysis techniques, which are applicable to linear elastic indentation. We compiled a series of synergistic strategies into an algorithm that overcomes many of the complications that have previously impeded efforts to automate the fitting of contact mechanics models to indentation data. AFM raster data sets containing up to 1024 individual force-displacement curves and macroscopic compression data were obtained from testing polyvinyl alcohol gels of known composition. Local elastic properties of tissue-engineered cartilage were also measured by the AFM. All AFM data sets were processed using customized software based on the algorithm, and the extracted values of Young's modulus were compared to those obtained by macroscopic testing. Accuracy of the technique was verified by the good agreement between values of Young's modulus obtained by AFM and by direct compression of the synthetic gels. Validation of robustness was achieved by successfully fitting the vastly different types of force curves generated from the indentation of tissue-engineered cartilage. For AFM indentation data that are amenable to Hertzian analysis, the method presented here minimizes subjectivity in preprocessing and allows for improved consistency and minimized user intervention. Automated, large-scale analysis of indentation data holds tremendous potential in bioengineering applications, such as high-resolution elasticity mapping of natural and artificial tissues.

  19. Results of continuous synchronous orbit testing of sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Test results from continuous synchronous orbit testing of sealed nickel cadmium cells are presented. The synchronous orbit regime simulates a space satellite maintaining a position over a fixed point on earth as the earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the sun. Characteristics of each lot of cells, test conditions, and charge control methods are described.

  20. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round. Changes reflect performance of second round of testing at new location and with various changes to personnel. Additional changes reflect general improvements to the Version 1 test/QA...

  1. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round. Changes reflect performance of second round of testing at new location and with various changes to personnel. Additional changes reflect general improvements to the Version 1 test/QA...

  2. Adhesive and cohesive properties by indentation method of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Z.; Ziaei-Moayyed, A. A.; Mesgar, A. Sheikh-Mehdi

    2007-03-01

    Adhesive and cohesive properties of the plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates by varying the plasma power level and spray distance (SD), were evaluated by an indentation method. The crystallinity and the porosity decreased with increasing both of these two parameters. The microhardness value, Young's modulus ( E) and coating fracture toughness ( KC) were found to increase with a combinational increase in spray power and SD. The Knoop and Vickers indentation methods were used to estimate E and KC, respectively. The critical point at which no crack appears at the interface was determined by the interface indentation test. This was used to define the apparent interfacial toughness ( KCa) which is representative of the crack initiation resistance of the interface. It was found that KCa reaches to a maximum at a medium increase in both spray power and SD, while other mechanical properties of the coatings reaches to the highest value with further increase in these two plasma parameters. The tensile adhesion strength of the coatings, measure by the standard adhesion test, ISO 13779-4, was shown to alter in the same manner with KCa results. It was deduced that a combinational increase in spray power and SD which leads to a higher mechanical properties in the coatings, does not necessarily tends to a better mechanical properties at the interface.

  3. Mechanical properties of gray and white matter brain tissue by indentation.

    PubMed

    Budday, Silvia; Nay, Richard; de Rooij, Rijk; Steinmann, Paul; Wyrobek, Thomas; Ovaert, Timothy C; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian brain is composed of an outer layer of gray matter, consisting of cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons, and an inner core of white matter, consisting primarily of myelinated axons. Recent evidence suggests that microstructural differences between gray and white matter play an important role during neurodevelopment. While brain tissue as a whole is rheologically well characterized, the individual features of gray and white matter remain poorly understood. Here we quantify the mechanical properties of gray and white matter using a robust, reliable, and repeatable method, flat-punch indentation. To systematically characterize gray and white matter moduli for varying indenter diameters, loading rates, holding times, post-mortem times, and locations we performed a series of n=192 indentation tests. We found that indenting thick, intact coronal slices eliminates the common challenges associated with small specimens: it naturally minimizes boundary effects, dehydration, swelling, and structural degradation. When kept intact and hydrated, brain slices maintained their mechanical characteristics with standard deviations as low as 5% throughout the entire testing period of five days post mortem. White matter, with an average modulus of 1.89 5kPa ± 0.592 kPa, was on average 39% stiffer than gray matter, p<0.01, with an average modulus of 1.389 kPa ± 0.289 kPa, and displayed larger regional variations. It was also more viscous than gray matter and responded less rapidly to mechanical loading. Understanding the rheological differences between gray and white matter may have direct implications on diagnosing and understanding the mechanical environment in neurodevelopment and neurological disorders.

  4. Experimental and numerical validation for the novel configuration of an arthroscopic indentation instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Rami K.; Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Laasanen, Mikko S.; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Jurvelin, Jukka S.

    2003-06-01

    Softening of articular cartilage, mainly attributable to deterioration of superficial collagen network and depletion of proteoglycans, is a sign of incipient osteoarthrosis. Early diagnosis of osteoarthrosis is essential to prevent the further destruction of the tissue. During the past decade, a few arthroscopic instruments have been introduced for the measurement of cartilage stiffness; these can be used to provide a sensitive measure of cartilage status. Ease of use, accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements as well as a low risk of damaging cartilage are the main qualities needed in any clinically applicable instrument. In this study, we have modified a commercially available arthroscopic indentation instrument to better fulfil these requirements when measuring cartilage stiffness in joints with thin cartilage. Our novel configuration was validated by experimental testing as well as by finite element (FE) modelling. Experimental and numerical tests indicated that it would be better to use a smaller reference plate and a lower pressing force (3 N) than those used in the original instrument (7-10 N). The reproducibility (CV = 5.0%) of the in situ indentation measurements was improved over that of the original instrument (CV = 7.6%), and the effect of material thickness on the indentation response was smaller than that obtained with the original instrument. The novel configuration showed a significant linear correlation between the indenter force and the reference dynamic modulus of cartilage in unconfined compression, especially in soft tissue (r = 0.893, p < 0.001, n = 16). FE analyses with a transversely isotropic poroelastic model indicated that the instrument was suitable for detecting the degeneration of superficial cartilage. In summary, the instrument presented in this study allows easy and reproducible measurement of cartilage stiffness, also in thin cartilage, and therefore represents a technical improvement for the early diagnosis of

  5. Mechanical properties of gray and white matter brain tissue by indentation

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Nay, Richard; de Rooij, Rijk; Steinmann, Paul; Wyrobek, Thomas; Ovaert, Timothy C.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian brain is composed of an outer layer of gray matter, consisting of cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons, and an inner core of white matter, consisting primarily of myelinated axons. Recent evidence suggests that microstructural differences between gray and white matter play an important role during neurodevelopment. While brain tissue as a whole is rheologically well characterized, the individual features of gray and white matter remain poorly understood. Here we quantify the mechanical properties of gray and white matter using a robust, reliable, and repeatable method, flat-punch indentation. To systematically characterize gray and white matter moduli for varying indenter diameters, loading rates, holding times, post-mortem times, and locations we performed a series of n=192 indentation tests. We found that indenting thick, intact coronal slices eliminates the common challenges associated with small specimens: it naturally minimizes boundary effects, dehydration, swelling, and structural degradation. When kept intact and hydrated, brain slices maintained their mechanical characteristics with standard deviations as low as 5% throughout the entire testing period of five days post mortem. White matter, with an average modulus of 1.895kPa±0.592kPa, was on average 39% stiffer than gray matter, p<0.01, with an average modulus of 1.389kPa±0.289kPa, and displayed larger regional variations. It was also more viscous than gray matter and responded less rapidly to mechanical loading. Understanding the rheological differences between gray and white matter may have direct implications on diagnosing and understanding the mechanical environment in neurodevelopment and neurological disorders. PMID:25819199

  6. A Nano-indentation Identification Technique for Viscoelastic Constitutive Characteristics of Periodontal Ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, H.; Shariyat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nano-indentation has recently been employed as a powerful tool for determining the mechanical properties of biological tissues on nano and micro scales. A majority of soft biological tissues such as ligaments and tendons exhibit viscoelastic or time-dependent behaviors. The constitutive characterization of soft tissues is among very important subjects in clinical medicine and especially, biomechanics fields. Periodontal ligament plays an important role in initiating tooth movement when loads are applied to teeth with orthodontic appliances. It is also the most accessible ligament in human body as it can be directly manipulated without any surgical intervention. From a mechanical point of view, this ligament can be considered as a thin interface made by a solid phase, consisting mainly of collagen fibers, which is immersed into a so-called ground substance. However, the viscoelastic constitutive effects of biological tissues are seldom considered rigorous during Nano-indentation tests. Methods In the present paper, a mathematical contact approach is developed to enable determining creep compliance and relaxation modulus of distinct periodontal ligaments, using constant–rate indentation and loading time histories, respectively. An adequate curve-fitting method is presented to determine these characteristics based on the Nano-indentation of rigid Berkovich tips. Generalized Voigt-Kelvin and Wiechert models are used to model constitutive equations of periodontal ligaments, in which the relaxation and creep functions are represented by series of decaying exponential functions of time. Results Time-dependent creep compliance and relaxation function have been obtained for tissue specimens of periodontal ligaments. Conclusion To improve accuracy, relaxation and creep moduli are measured from two tests separately. Stress relaxation effects appear more rapidly than creep in the periodontal ligaments. PMID:27672630

  7. An Improved Approach to Fracture Toughness Assessment of Brittle Coating on Ductile Substrate Systems under Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidova, Natalia V.

    Fracture toughness is an important material property that determines the structural integrity of a component with pre-existing or service-generated flaws. In the present research, an indentation-based method and the associated fracture mechanics model are proposed for fracture toughness assessment of brittle coating/ductile substrate systems. The proposed models consider well-developed radial/median cracks generated under sharp indentation, despite that the crack formation process may have gone through crack initiation and propagation phases. For generality, the geometry of a well-developed crack is assumed to be semi-elliptical in shape. The driving force of the crack is considered to stem from the residual plastic zone expansion under the indenter, as well as the far-field Boussinesq (elastic) stress. Three well-defined configurations are studied. For the first configuration, a crack with a depth of less than 7% of the coating thickness is considered. In this case, the problem is treated as the one for the monolithic material with the coating material properties. For the second configuration, a crack that runs deeper than 7% of the coating thickness but is still within the coating layer is analyzed. In this case, the composite hardness is introduced into the analysis to account for the influence of the substrate material properties; and furthermore, an interface correction factor is proposed to take into account the presence of the coating/substrate interface and its influence on the stress intensity factor of the well-developed elliptical cracks. For the third configuration, a crack penetrating into the substrate is considered. In this case, based on the condition of deformation compatibility across the coating/substrate interface, the bulk modulus for the coating/substrate system is introduced into the analysis. A series of indentation tests are conducted on a WC/10Co/4Cr coating/1080 low carbon steel substrate specimen, which is a brittle coating on a ductile

  8. Continual Non-Condensable Gas Removal Testing -- Performance and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mohr; Greg Mines

    2005-09-01

    The operating experience and plant benefit analysis of a membrane-based continuous non-condensable gas (NCG) removal system is discussed. Results from testing at the Mammoth Pacific (Ormat) geothermal plant provide the basis for the benefit analysis.

  9. Intraoperative electrophysiological evaluations of macular function during peripheral scleral indentation

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Goichi; Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Terauchi, Gaku; Matsumoto, Harue; Watanabe, Emiko; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi; Miyake, Yozo

    2016-01-01

    Scleral indentation is widely used to examine the peripheral fundus, however it can increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) to high levels which can then affect retinal function. We evaluated the effects of scleral indentation on the macular function electrophysiologically. Intraoperative focal macular electroretinograms (iFMERGs) were recorded with and without controlling the IOP in 7 eyes. Without IOP control, the IOP increased from 21.7 ± 4.9 to 92.7 ± 20.2 mmHg significantly (P = 0.020) and the amplitudes of the b-wave (from 6.29 ± 1.160 to 3.71 ± 1.98 uV, P = 0.007), on-photopic negative response (from 2.29 ± 0.99 to 0.72 ± 0.47 uV, on-PhNR, P = 0.005), and d-wave (from 2.57 ± 0.41 to 1.64 ± 0.69 uV, P = 0.007) decreased significantly soon after beginning the indentation. All values returned to the baseline levels after releasing the indentation. In the eyes with IOP controlled, the IOP and the amplitude of all components did not change significantly during and after the indentation except the on-PhNR amplitude which was significantly reduced during the indentation. The changes in the iFMERGs and macular function caused by scleral indentation were transient and reversible. The changes can be minimized by controlling the IOP. PMID:27762313

  10. Bone indentation recovery time correlates with bond reforming time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, James B.; Kindt, Johannes H.; Drake, Barney; Hansma, Helen G.; Morse, Daniel E.; Hansma, Paul K.

    2001-12-01

    Despite centuries of work, dating back to Galileo, the molecular basis of bone's toughness and strength remains largely a mystery. A great deal is known about bone microsctructure and the microcracks that are precursors to its fracture, but little is known about the basic mechanism for dissipating the energy of an impact to keep the bone from fracturing. Bone is a nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite crystals and an organic matrix. Because rigid crystals such as the hydroxyapatite crystals cannot dissipate much energy, the organic matrix, which is mainly collagen, must be involved. A reduction in the number of collagen cross links has been associated with reduced bone strength and collagen is molecularly elongated (`pulled') when bovine tendon is strained. Using an atomic force microscope, a molecular mechanistic origin for the remarkable toughness of another biocomposite material, abalone nacre, has been found. Here we report that bone, like abalone nacre, contains polymers with `sacrificial bonds' that both protect the polymer backbone and dissipate energy. The time needed for these sacrificial bonds to reform after pulling correlates with the time needed for bone to recover its toughness as measured by atomic force microscope indentation testing. We suggest that the sacrificial bonds found within or between collagen molecules may be partially responsible for the toughness of bone.

  11. Characterization of damage mechanisms associated with reference point indentation in human bone.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Bryan G; Kennedy, Oran D

    2015-06-01

    Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) is the clinical gold standard in cases of compromised skeletal integrity, such as with osteoporosis. While BMD is a useful measurement to index skeletal health, it is also limited since it cannot directly assess any mechanical properties. The ability to directly assess mechanical properties of bone tissue would be clinically important. Reference point indentation (RPI) is a technology that has been designed to try and achieve this goal. While RPI has been shown to detect altered bone tissue properties, the underlying physical mechanism of these measurements has not been characterized. Thus, we designed a study whereby the contribution of (1) test cycle number and (2) test load level to RPI test-induced sub-surface damage was characterized and quantified. Standardized specimens were prepared from cadaveric human tibiae (n=6), such that 12 replicates of each testing condition could be carried out. A custom rig was fabricated to accurately position and map indentation sites. One set of tests was carried out with 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cycles (Max Load: 8 N, Freq: 2 Hz), and a second set of tests was carried out with Load levels of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 N (Cycle number: 20, Freq: 2 Hz). The RPI parameter Loading Slope (LS) was cycle dependent at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cycles (p<0.05). First Cycle Indentation Distance (ID 1st), Total Indentation Distance (TID), Mean Energy Dissipation (ED), First Cycle Unloading Slope (US 1st), Mean Unloading Slope (US) and LS were significantly different at 6, 8 and 10 N compared to 2 N (p<0.05). From the histomorphometric measurements, damage zone span was significantly different after 5, 10, 15 and 20 cycles compared with 1 cycle while indent profile width and indent profile depth were significantly different at 10, 15 and 20 cycles (p<0.05). With the load varying protocol, each of these parameters differed significantly at each increased load level (4, 6, 8, 10 N) compared with the basal level of 2 N (p<0

  12. Inducing phase transformations using depth-sensing indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, Thomas Frank

    Phase transformations in solids occur during a number of common contact loading situations including polishing, cutting, and grinding. To understand and optimize material response to such processes or to engineer a surface with specific properties (i.e. electrical, optical, mechanical) at a micro-scale, depth-sensing indentation is used to study point loading situations and simulate dynamic processes. Sometimes, evidence of phase transformation can be found from load-displacement curves. Raman spectroscopy or other techniques (i.e. transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, or x-ray diffraction) on residual impressions often provides useful information to characterize transformations which take place during indentation. In this work, depth-sensing indentation and Raman spectroscopy are used as the primary techniques to identify phase transformations under different maximum applied loads, loading rates and unloading rates. Single-crystal silicon and lead zirconate titanate modified by niobium (PNZT) are used as exemplary materials for study because of their widespread industrial importance. A general technique for studying phase transformations induced by indentation is developed. Silicon undergoes a transformation from the cubic-diamond (Si-I) to beta-tin phase (Si-II) on loading around 12 GPa, and from Si-II to the r8 (Si-XII), bc8 (Si-III) or amorphous silicon on unloading. Using a number of different loading conditions, the stability of Si-II was found to range between 4 and 12 GPa, depending on maximum applied load, unloading rate and indenter tool geometry. 95/5 PNZT undergoes a ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase change around 300 MPa of contact pressure. Both sharp (Berkovich) and spherical indentation are used to study different stress states for each material, and its influence on phase changes. On silicon, over 4500 indentations are made to determine the statistical nature of phase changes. Differentiation of load-displacement curves

  13. Hardness variation with indenter sharpness in an Au thin-film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Il; Hahn, Jun-Hee

    2012-07-01

    The effects of the indenter shape on hardness were studied from thin-film nanoindentations. Two Berkovich indenters with different operating histories were prepared and their morphologies were measured with an atomic force microscope. The curvature radii of both indenters that were measured through an image analysis were 58.8 nm and 732.2 nm, respectively. The nanoindentations were carried out on a 1.2 microm-thick Au thin-film with a Nanoindenter XP system with both indenters. Various nanoindentation data with indenter exchanges were surveyed, and they showed that the peak indentation loads under the blunter indenter were higher than those of the sharper indenter at the same indentation depths. The indenter sharpness parameter was used to correct the raw nanoindentation curves. The corrected curves overlapped well and the resulting hardness values were consistent regardless of the indenter sharpness. The intrinsic hardness values of the Au thin-film from both indenters agreed with each other, with only a 0.6% difference. This means the indenter sharpness was properly corrected and that the sharpness must be considered when the contact properties are measured at shallow indentations.

  14. Shear elastic modulus estimation from indentation and SDUV on gelatin phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W.; Chen, Shigao; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Greenleaf, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties such as elasticity are linked to tissue pathology state. Several groups have proposed shear wave propagation speed to quantify tissue mechanical properties. It is well known that biological tissues are viscoelastic materials; therefore velocity dispersion resulting from material viscoelasticity is expected. A method called Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) can be used to quantify tissue viscoelasticity by measuring dispersion of shear wave propagation speed. However, there is not a gold standard method for validation. In this study we present an independent validation method of shear elastic modulus estimation by SDUV in 3 gelatin phantoms of differing stiffness. In addition, the indentation measurements are compared to estimates of elasticity derived from shear wave group velocities. The shear elastic moduli from indentation were 1.16, 3.40 and 5.6 kPa for a 7, 10 and 15% gelatin phantom respectively. SDUV measurements were 1.61, 3.57 and 5.37 kPa for the gelatin phantoms respectively. Shear elastic moduli derived from shear wave group velocities were 1.78, 5.2 and 7.18 kPa for the gelatin phantoms respectively. The shear elastic modulus estimated from the SDUV, matched the elastic modulus measured by indentation. On the other hand, shear elastic modulus estimated by group velocity did not agree with indentation test estimations. These results suggest that shear elastic modulus estimation by group velocity will be bias when the medium being investigated is dispersive. Therefore a rheological model should be used in order to estimate mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials. PMID:21317078

  15. Comparison of cyclic and impact-based reference point indentation measurements in human cadaveric tibia.

    PubMed

    Karim, Lamya; Van Vliet, Miranda; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2015-04-07

    Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is strongly associated with increased fracture risk, up to 50% of those who suffer fractures are not detected as high-risk patients by BMD testing. Thus, new approaches may improve identification of those at increased risk for fracture by in vivo assessment of altered bone tissue properties, which may contribute to skeletal fragility. Recently developed reference point indentation (RPI) allows for the assessment of cortical bone indentation properties in vivo using devices that apply cyclic loading or impact loading, but there is little information available to assist with the interpretation of RPI measurements. Our goals were to use human cadaveric tibia to determine: 1) the associations between RPI variables, cortical bone density, and morphology; 2) the association between variables obtained from RPI systems using cyclic, slow loading versus a single impact load; and 3) the age-related differences in RPI variables. We obtained 20 human tibia and femur pairs from female donors (53-97years), measured total hip BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, assessed tibial cortical microarchitecture using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and assessed cortical bone indentation properties at the mid-tibial diaphysis using both the cyclic and impact-based RPI systems (Biodent and Osteoprobe, respectively, Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA). We found a few weak associations between RPI variables, BMD, and cortical geometry; a few weak associations between measurements obtained by the two RPI systems; and no age-related differences in RPI variables. Our findings indicate that in cadaveric tibia from older women RPI measurements are largely independent of age, femoral BMD, and cortical geometry. Furthermore, measurements from the cyclic and impact loading RPI devices are weakly related to each other, indicating that each device reflects different aspects of cortical bone indentation

  16. Variability of in vivo reference point indentation in skeletally mature inbred rats.

    PubMed

    Allen, Matthew R; Newman, Christopher L; Smith, Eric; Brown, Drew M; Organ, Jason M

    2014-07-18

    Reference point indentation (RPI) has emerged as a novel tool to measure material-level biomechanical properties in vivo. Human studies have been able to differentiate fracture versus non-fracture patients while a dog study has shown the technique can differentiate drug treatment effects. The goal of this study was to extend this technology to the in vivo measurement of rats, one of the most common animal models used to study bone, with assessment of intra- and inter-animal variability. Seventy-two skeletally mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to in vivo RPI on the region between the tibial diaphysis and proximal metaphysis. RPI data were assessed using a custom MATLAB program to determine several outcome parameters, including first cycle indentation distance (ID-1st), indentation distance increase (IDI), total indentation distance (TID), first cycle unloading slope (US-1st), and first cycle energy dissipation (ED-1st). Intra-animal variability ranged from 13% to 21% with US-1st and Tot Ed 1st-L being the least variable properties and IDI the most highly variable. Inter-animal variability ranged from 16% (US-1st) to 25% (ED-1st and IDI). Based on these data, group size estimates would need to range from 9 to 18/group to achieve sufficient power for detecting a 25% difference in a two-group experiment. Repeat tests on the contralateral limb of a small cohort of animals (n=17) showed non-significant differences over 28 days ranging from -6% to -18%. These results provide important data on RPI variability (intra- and inter-animal) in rats that can be used to properly power future experiments using this technique.

  17. Assessing Strain Mapping by Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Confocal Raman Microscopy Using Wedge-indented Si

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA-AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2 × 10−4 in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. PMID:26939030

  18. Highly nonlinear stress-relaxation response of articular cartilage in indentation: Importance of collagen nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, J T A; Korhonen, R K

    2016-06-14

    Modern fibril-reinforced computational models of articular cartilage can include inhomogeneous tissue composition and structure, and nonlinear mechanical behavior of collagen, proteoglycans and fluid. These models can capture well experimental single step creep and stress-relaxation tests or measurements under small strains in unconfined and confined compression. Yet, it is known that in indentation, especially at high strain velocities, cartilage can express highly nonlinear response. Different fibril reinforced poroelastic and poroviscoelastic models were used to assess measured highly nonlinear stress-relaxation response of rabbit articular cartilage in indentation. Experimentally measured depth-dependent volume fractions of different tissue constituents and their mechanical nonlinearities were taken into account in the models. In particular, the collagen fibril network was modeled using eight separate models that implemented five different constitutive equations to describe the nonlinearity. These consisted of linear elastic, nonlinear viscoelastic and multiple nonlinear elastic representations. The model incorporating the most nonlinearly increasing Young׳s modulus of collagen fibrils as a function of strain captured best the experimental data. Relative difference between the model and experiment was ~3%. Surprisingly, the difference in the peak forces between the experiment and the model with viscoelastic collagen fibrils was almost 20%. Implementation of the measured volume fractions did not improve the ability of the model to capture the measured mechanical data. These results suggest that a highly nonlinear formulation for collagen fibrils is needed to replicate multi-step stress-relaxation response of rabbit articular cartilage in indentation with high strain rates.

  19. AFM nanoscale indentation in air of polymeric and hybrid materials with highly different stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, Raffaella; Credi, Caterina; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    In this study, nanomechanical properties of a variety of polymeric materials was investigated by means of AFM. In particular, selecting different AFM probes, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bulk samples, sol-gel hybrid thin films and hydrated hyaluronic acid hydrogels were indented in air to determine the elastic modulus. The force-distance curves and the indentation data were found to be greatly affected by the cantilever stiffness and by tip geometry. AFM indentation tests show that the choice of the cantilever spring constant and of tip shape is crucially influenced by elastic properties of samples. When adhesion-dominated interactions occur between the tip and the surface of samples, force-displacement curves reveal that a suitable functionalization of AFM probes allows the control of such interactions and the extraction of Young' modulus from AFM curves that would be otherwise unfeasible. By applying different mathematical models depending on AFM probes and materials under investigation, the values of Young's modulus were obtained and compared to those measured by rheological and dynamic mechanical analysis or to literature data. Our results show that a wide range of elastic moduli (10 kPa-10 GPa) can be determined by AFM in good agreement with those measured by conventional macroscopic measurements.

  20. Residual stress and plastic anisotropy in indented 2024-T351 aluminum disks

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Bjorn; Prime, Michael B; Saurabh, Kabra; Brown, Donald W; Pagliaro, Pierluigi; Backlund, Peter; Shaw, Sanjiv; Criss, Everett

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have proven that generating a well defined residual stress state using the indented disk approach is an excellent way to validate experimental and modeling techniques for measuring and predicting residual stresses. The previous studies dealt with indented stainless steel disks, and included experimental determination of residual stresses using the Contour Method and neutron diffraction measurements. The measured residual stress states showed good agreement between the techniques, and a Finite Element Model predicted residual stress state based upon material properties determined form standard tension and compression/tension tests was also in good agreement with the measurements. In the present work, disks of 2024-T351 Aluminum were investigated. As before, the residual stress profile was measured using neutron diffraction and the Contour Method and Finite Element Modeling was employed to predict the residual stress profile. Analysis and comparison of the three techniques were complicated by the fact that the experimental data shows evidence of plastic anisotropy and strong Bauschinger effect within the indented disks.

  1. Noncontact evaluation of articular cartilage degeneration using a novel ultrasound water jet indentation system.

    PubMed

    Lu, M-H; Zheng, Y P; Huang, Q-H; Ling, C; Wang, Q; Bridal, L; Qin, L; Mak, A

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported a noncontact ultrasound water jet indentation system for measuring and mapping tissue mechanical properties. The key idea was to utilize a water jet as an indenter as well as the coupling medium for high-frequency ultrasound. In this paper, the system was employed to assess articular cartilage degeneration, using stiffness ratio as an indicator of the mechanical properties of samples. Both the mechanical and acoustical properties of intact and degenerated bovine patellar articular cartilage (n = 8) were obtained in situ. It was found that the stiffness ratio was reduced by 44 +/- 17% after the articular cartilage was treated by 0.25% trypsin at 37 degrees C for 4 h while no significant difference in thickness was observed between the intact and degenerated samples. A significant decrease of 36 +/- 20% in the peak-to-peak amplitude of ultrasound echoes reflected from the cartilage surface was also found for the cartilage samples treated by trypsin. The results also showed that the stiffness obtained with the new method highly correlated with that measured using a standard mechanical testing protocol. A good reproducibility of the measurements was demonstrated. The present results showed that the ultrasound water jet indentation system may provide a potential tool for the non-destructive evaluation of articular cartilage degeneration by simultaneously obtaining mechanical properties, acoustical properties, and thickness data.

  2. Effect of storage methods on indentation-based material properties of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the possible changes in material properties of cadaveric abdominal organs due to the preservation methods, the indentation data obtained from porcine abdominal organs (kidney, liver, and spleen) preserved by cooling and freezing are analyzed statistically in this study. Indentation tests were first conducted on fresh specimens. One half of the specimens of each organ were then frozen (preserved at - 12 degrees C), and the other half of the specimens were cooled (preserved at 4 degrees C). All preserved specimens were retested after 20 days. Force and displacement data recorded during indentation were analyzed using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. The results show that both cooling and freezing storage increased the kidney stiffness. In contrast, both storage methods decreased the stiffness of the spleen specimens. While cooling increased the liver stiffness, no significant changes of the instantaneous elastic response were observed in the liver specimens preserved by freezing. The liver and spleen's reduced relaxation responses and the liver's instantaneous elastic response were significantly different when comparing between cooling and freezing effects after 20 days of preservation. This study showed that both cooling and freezing storage methods significantly changed the material properties of abdominal organs, especially the instantaneous elastic response. More research is needed in investigating the effect of preservation on failure properties and mechanical properties under large deformation.

  3. SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.

  4. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  5. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  6. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  7. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  8. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cars of which have remained continuously and consecutively coupled together with the trainline... train that has previously received a Class I brake test and that has not been off air for more than four... have previously received a Class I brake test, have not been off air more than four hours, and the...

  9. Script Concordance Testing in Continuing Professional Development: Local or International Reference Panels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleguezuelos, E. M.; Hornos, E.; Dory, V.; Gagnon, R.; Malagrino, P.; Brailovsky, C. A.; Charlin, B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The PRACTICUM Institute has developed large-scale international programs of on-line continuing professional development (CPD) based on self-testing and feedback using the Practicum Script Concordance Test© (PSCT). Aims: To examine the psychometric consequences of pooling the responses of panelists from different countries (composite…

  10. Script Concordance Testing in Continuing Professional Development: Local or International Reference Panels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleguezuelos, E. M.; Hornos, E.; Dory, V.; Gagnon, R.; Malagrino, P.; Brailovsky, C. A.; Charlin, B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The PRACTICUM Institute has developed large-scale international programs of on-line continuing professional development (CPD) based on self-testing and feedback using the Practicum Script Concordance Test© (PSCT). Aims: To examine the psychometric consequences of pooling the responses of panelists from different countries (composite…

  11. The response of solids to elastic/plastic indentation. I. Stresses and residual stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, S. S.; Marshall, D. B.; Evans, A. G.

    1982-01-01

    We present a new approach for analyzing indentation plasticity and for determining indentation stress fields. The analysis permits relations to be established between material properties (notably hardness, yield strength, and elastic modulus) and the dimensions of the indentation and plastic zone. The predictions are demonstrated to correlate with observations performed on a wide range of materials. The indentation stress fields are computed along trajectories pertinent to three dominant indentation crack systems: radial, median, and lateral cracks. Lastly, the peak load and residual tensile stresses are shown to be consistent with observed trends in indentation fracture.

  12. Optical coherence tomography-based contact indentation for diaphragm mechanics in a mouse model of transforming growth factor alpha induced lung disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Astell, Chrissie J; Wijesinghe, Philip; Larcombe, Alexander N; Pinniger, Gavin J; Zosky, Graeme R; Kennedy, Brendan F; Berry, Luke J; Sampson, David D; James, Alan L; Le Cras, Timothy D; Noble, Peter B

    2017-05-04

    This study tested the utility of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based indentation to assess mechanical properties of respiratory tissues in disease. Using OCT-based indentation, the elastic modulus of mouse diaphragm was measured from changes in diaphragm thickness in response to an applied force provided by an indenter. We used a transgenic mouse model of chronic lung disease induced by the overexpression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α), established by the presence of pleural and peribronchial fibrosis and impaired lung mechanics determined by the forced oscillation technique and plethysmography. Diaphragm elastic modulus assessed by OCT-based indentation was reduced by TGF-α at both left and right lateral locations (p < 0.05). Diaphragm elastic modulus at left and right lateral locations were correlated within mice (r = 0.67, p < 0.01) suggesting that measurements were representative of tissue beyond the indenter field. Co-localised images of diaphragm after TGF-α overexpression revealed a layered fibrotic appearance. Maximum diaphragm force in conventional organ bath studies was also reduced by TGF-α overexpression (p < 0.01). Results show that OCT-based indentation provided clear delineation of diseased diaphragm, and together with organ bath assessment, provides new evidence suggesting that TGF-α overexpression produces impairment in diaphragm function and, therefore, an increase in the work of breathing in chronic lung disease.

  13. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-06-23

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  14. Master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaehyun; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-09-22

    Bilateral control of a master-slave robotic system is a challenging issue in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. It requires the knowledge on contact interaction between a surgical (slave) robot and soft tissues. This paper presents a master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion. This master-slave robotic system is able to characterize the contact interaction between the robotic needle and soft tissues. A bilateral controller is implemented using a linear motor for robotic needle indentation and insertion. A new nonlinear state observer is developed to online monitor the contact interaction with soft tissues. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed master-slave robotic system for robotic needle indentation and needle insertion.

  15. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-06-01

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO3 units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  16. Influence of Indenter Tip Geometry on Elastic Deformation during Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bei, H.; George, E. P.; Hay, J. L.; Pharr, G. M.

    2005-07-01

    Nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter is commonly used to investigate the mechanical behavior of small volumes of materials. To date, most investigators have made the simplifying assumption that the tip is spherical. In reality, indenter tips are much more complex. Here, we develop a new method to describe the tip shape using the experimentally determined area function of the indenter at small depths (0 100 nm). Our analysis accurately predicts the elastic load-displacement curve and allows the theoretical strength of a material to be determined from pop-in data. Application of our new method to single crystal Cr3Si shows that the predicted theoretical strengths are within 12% of the ideal strength G/2π, where G is the shear modulus.

  17. Using residual indent morphology to measure the tilt between the triangular pyramid indenter and the sample surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Shi, Chengli; Zhang, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The tilt between the indenter and the sample surface will affect the measuring results and the accuracy of nanoindentation and scratches. In this paper, the potential factors leading to the tilt are firstly discussed. Then, based on the Cartesian coordinate system at the tip of the triangular pyramid indenter established by Kashani and Madhavan, a theoretical approach is proposed to measure the tilt angle η and the rotation angle ξ of the surface normal \\hat n using the residual indent morphology. In order to reduce the input parameters for solving the equations and also make the equations dimensionless, two coefficients m and n are defined. One practical application is given to verify the feasibility of the theoretical approach. The theoretical approach is simplified and unified by analyzing the calculation results. The presented theoretical approach can be used to measure the tilt between the indenter and the sample surface indirectly, which is the premise for the adjustment of indentation instruments or the practical correction of the tilt.

  18. Elastic anisotropy of uniaxial mineralized collagen fibers measured using two-directional indentation. Effects of hydration state and indentation depth

    PubMed Central

    Spiesz, Ewa M.; Roschger, Paul; Zysset, Philippe K.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralized turkey leg tendon (MTLT) is an attractive model of mineralized collagen fibers, which are also present in bone. Its longitudinal structure is advantageous for the relative simplicity in modeling, yet its anisotropic elastic properties remain unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify the extent of elastic anisotropy of mineralized collagen fibers by using nano- and microindentation to probe a number on MTLT samples in two orthogonal directions. The large dataset allowed the quantification of the extent of anisotropy, depending on the final indentation depth and on the hydration state of the sample. Anisotropy was observed to increase with the sample re-hydration process. Artifacts of indentation in a transverse direction to the main axis of the mineralized tendons in re-hydrated condition were observed. The indentation size effect, that is, the increase of the measured elastic properties with decreasing sampling volume, reported previously on variety of materials, was also observed in MTLT. Indentation work was quantified for both directions of indentation in dried and re-hydrated conditions. As hypothesized, MTLT showed a higher extent of anisotropy compared to cortical and trabecular bone, presumably due to the alignment of mineralized collagen fibers in this tissue. PMID:22664658

  19. No-observed-effect concentrations in batch and continuous algal toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, M.R.; Chen, C.Y.

    2000-06-01

    In this study, the authors compare the no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) of Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, and Pb based on different response parameters, using batch and continuous algal toxicity tests. For both batch and continuous tests, parameters based on total cell volume (TCV) were found to be less sensitive than those related to cell densities. The above observation mainly occurred because, under the stresses from metal toxicants evaluated in this and a previous study, the mean cell volume (MCV) of algae increased considerably. The increase of MCV compensates for the effects brought about by the reduction in cell density and eventually results in less variation in TCVs. This study shows that parameters based on cell density are quite sensitive and ideal for the estimation of NOECs. In addition, comparison of the NOEC values derived from different culture techniques shows that the continuous methods generally yields lower NOEC values than that obtained by the batch tests. The results of this study also indicate that the NOEC provides more protection to the test organism than the effective concentration at 10% growth reduction (EC10). For toxicity test methods that produce small variations among replicates, the NOEC is still a good indicator of low toxic effect. Furthermore, for the continuous algal toxicity test, a relatively simple approach is proposed to determine the NOEC values based on the algal culture's control charts. The proposed method produced identical results as those based on conventional hypothesis-testing methods.

  20. Micro-indentation relaxation measurements in polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, D. M.; Lu, Y.

    1997-07-01

    A micro-indenter consisting of a piezo-electric driven flat cylindrical punch has been used to measure the dynamic mechanical properties of polystyrene films as thin as 50 μm. The measured viscoelastic response was sensitive to the bonding of the polystyrene to an underlying silicon substrate for films which were thinner than one indenter diameter. The instrument therefore was shown to have practical use in measuring the dynamic mechanical response of polymer films, and the strength of bonding between disparate materials.

  1. A New Tissue Resonator Indenter Device and Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ming; Zu, Jean W.; Hariri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of tissue mechanical properties is widely required by medical applications, such as disease diagnostics, surgery operation, simulation, planning, and training. A new portable device, called Tissue Resonator Indenter Device (TRID), has been developed for measurement of regional viscoelastic properties of soft tissues at the Bio-instrument and Biomechanics Lab of the University of Toronto. As a device for soft tissue properties in-vivo measurements, the reliability of TRID is crucial. This paper presents TRID’s working principle and the experimental study of TRID’s reliability with respect to inter-reliability, intra-reliability, and the indenter misalignment effect as well. PMID:22346623

  2. Simulation of a memory deficit on the Continuous Recognition Memory Test.

    PubMed

    Hannay, H J; James, C M

    1981-08-01

    Simulation of a memory deficit on the Continuous Recognition Memory Test was studied, with 20 male and 20 female normal undergraduates assigned to each of two conditions. Simulation with prior test experience was studied by comparing performance following standard and then simulation instructions. A significant increase in false alarms was associated with a significant decrease in correct responses, d', c, and a slight decrease in hits. For studying simulation without prior test experience, the test was administered once with instructions to simulate. Performance was similar to simulation with test experience. Comparisons with the performance of closed head-injured patients were made.

  3. Initial experience of EVAHEART explantation after continuous-flow LVAD off test with percutaneous occlusion balloon.

    PubMed

    Kashiyama, Noriyuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Nishi, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Saito, Tetsuya; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2014-12-01

    In contrast to a pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD), an LVAD off test for evaluation of cardiac recovery with a continuous-flow device is difficult because of intra-circuit backflow from the outflow graft when a device is stopped. We report a case of reliable evaluation of cardiac recovery using balloon occlusion of the outflow graft, followed by successful removal of a continuous-flow EVAHEART LVAD using a minimally invasive approach.

  4. Development of a diagnostic test based on multiple continuous biomarkers with an imperfect reference test.

    PubMed

    García Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-20

    Ignoring the fact that the reference test used to establish the discriminative properties of a combination of diagnostic biomarkers is imperfect can lead to a biased estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the combination. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent-class mixture model to select a combination of biomarkers that maximizes the area under the ROC curve (AUC), while taking into account the imperfect nature of the reference test. In particular, a method for specification of the prior for the mixture component parameters is developed that allows controlling the amount of prior information provided for the AUC. The properties of the model are evaluated by using a simulation study and an application to real data from Alzheimer's disease research. In the simulation study, 100 data sets are simulated for sample sizes ranging from 100 to 600 observations, with a varying correlation between biomarkers. The inclusion of an informative as well as a flat prior for the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test is investigated. In the real-data application, the proposed model was compared with the generally used logistic-regression model that ignores the imperfectness of the reference test. Conditional on the selected sample size and prior distributions, the simulation study results indicate satisfactory performance of the model-based estimates. In particular, the obtained average estimates for all parameters are close to the true values. For the real-data application, AUC estimates for the proposed model are substantially higher than those from the 'traditional' logistic-regression model.

  5. Inverse finite element methods for extracting elastic-poroviscoelastic properties of cartilage and other soft tissues from indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namani, Ravi

    Mechanical properties are essential for understanding diseases that afflict various soft tissues, such as osteoarthritic cartilage and hypertension which alters cardiovascular arteries. Although the linear elastic modulus is routinely measured for hard materials, standard methods are not available for extracting the nonlinear elastic, linear elastic and time-dependent properties of soft tissues. Consequently, the focus of this work is to develop indentation methods for soft biological tissues; since analytical solutions are not available for the general context, finite element simulations are used. First, parametric studies of finite indentation of hyperelastic layers are performed to examine if indentation has the potential to identify nonlinear elastic behavior. To answer this, spherical, flat-ended conical and cylindrical tips are examined and the influence of thickness is exploited. Also the influence of the specimen/substrate boundary condition (slip or non-slip) is clarified. Second, a new inverse method---the hyperelastic extraction algorithm (HPE)---was developed to extract two nonlinear elastic parameters from the indentation force-depth data, which is the basic measurement in an indentation test. The accuracy of the extracted parameters and the influence of noise in measurements on this accuracy were obtained. This showed that the standard Berkovitch tip could only extract one parameter with sufficient accuracy, since the indentation force-depth curve has limited sensitivity to both nonlinear elastic parameters. Third, indentation methods for testing tissues from small animals were explored. New methods for flat-ended conical tips are derived. These account for practical test issues like the difficulty in locating the surface or soft specimens. Also, finite element simulations are explored to elucidate the influence of specimen curvature on the indentation force-depth curve. Fourth, the influence of inhomogeneity and material anisotropy on the extracted

  6. Optimization of transonic wind tunnel data acquisition and control systems for providing continuous mode tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronevich, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper observes the issues related to the increase of efficiency and information content of experimental research in transonic wind tunnels (WT). In particular, questions of optimizing the WT Data Acquisition and Control Systems (DACS) to provide the continuous mode test method are discussed. The problem of Mach number (M number) stabilization in the test section of the large transonic compressor-type wind tunnels at subsonic flow conditions with continuous change of the aircraft model angle of attack is observed on the example of T-128 wind tunnel. To minimize the signals distortion in T-128 DACS measurement channels the optimal MGCplus filter settings of the data acquisition system used in T-128 wind tunnel to measure loads were experimentally determined. As a result of the tests performed a good agreement of the results of balance measurements for pitch/pause and continuous test modes was obtained. Carrying out balance tests for pitch/pause and continuous test methods was provided by the regular data acquisition and control system of T-128 wind tunnel with unified software package POTOK. The architecture and functional abilities of POTOK software package are observed.

  7. Benchmark tests on symmetry and continuity characteristics between BSIM4 and ULTRA-BULK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xudong, Niu; Bo, Li; Yan, Song; Lining, Zhang; Jin, He

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the benchmark test results on the symmetry and continuity characteristics between BSIM4 from Berkeley and ULTRA-BULK from Peking University. It is shown that the industry standard model BSIM4 has a series of the shortcomings of the continuity and symmetry, such as the charge, high-order current derivatives, and the trans-capacitances while the latest advanced surface-potential based MOSFET compact model, ULTRA-BULK, demonstrates all necessary continuity and symmetry characteristics, which are very important for analog and RF circuit design.

  8. Assessing a Critical Aspect of Construct Continuity when Test Specifications Change or Test Forms Deviate from Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    We make a distinction between two types of test changes: inevitable deviations from specifications versus planned modifications of specifications. We describe how score equity assessment (SEA) can be used as a tool to assess a critical aspect of construct continuity, the equivalence of scores, whenever planned changes are introduced to testing…

  9. Assessing a Critical Aspect of Construct Continuity when Test Specifications Change or Test Forms Deviate from Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    We make a distinction between two types of test changes: inevitable deviations from specifications versus planned modifications of specifications. We describe how score equity assessment (SEA) can be used as a tool to assess a critical aspect of construct continuity, the equivalence of scores, whenever planned changes are introduced to testing…

  10. Assessment of mechanical rock alteration caused by CO 2 -water mixtures using indentation and scratch experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yuhao; Aman, Michael; Espinoza, D. Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    CO2 injection into geological formations disturbs the geochemical equilibrium between water and minerals. Thus, some mineral phases are prone to dissolution and precipitation with ensuing changes of petrophysical and geomechanical properties of the host formations. Chemically-assisted degradation of mechanical properties can endanger the structural integrity of the storage formation and must be carefully studied and considered to guarantee safe long-term trapping. Few experimental data sets involving CO2 alteration and mechanical testing of rock samples are available since these experiments are length, expensive, and require specialized equipment and personnel. Autoclave experiments are easier to perform and control but result in a limited 'skin depth' of chemically-altered zone near the surface of the sample. This article presents the validation of micro-indentation and micro-scratch tests as efficient tools to assess the alteration of mechanical properties of rocks geochemically altered by CO2-water mixtures. Results from tests on sandstone and siltstone from Crystal Geyser, Utah naturally altered by CO2-acidified water show that mechanical parameters measured with indentation (indentation hardness, Young's modulus and contact creep compliance rate) and scratching (scratch hardness and fracture toughness) consistently indicated weakening of the rock after CO2-induced alteration. Decreases of measured parameters vary from 14% to 87%. Experimental results and analyses show that micromechanical tests are potentially quick and reliable tools to determine the change of mechanical properties of rocks subject to exposure to CO2-acidified water, particularly in well-controlled autoclave experiments. Measured parameters are not intended to provide inputs for coupled reservoir simulation with geomechanics but rather to inform the execution of larger scale tests investigating the susceptibility of rock facies to chemical alteration by CO2-water mixtures. Recognizing this

  11. The Ufa indenter: stratigraphic and geophysic evidences for an actual indentation of the Southern Urals by the East European craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefort, Jean-Pierre; Danukalova, Guzel

    2014-07-01

    Study of the altitudes of the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene and Aktschagylian-Quaternary stratigraphic ensembles known on the western slope of the Southern Urals evidences the existence of an East-West elongated dome which follows the N53° latitude. This ridge is superimposed at depth with the remnants of the Sernovodsk-Abdulino Aulacogen and with the Belaya tear fault, which support the existence of a recent rejuvenation of these old structures. North of these disruptions the Southern Urals display a clear bent towards the East. Detailed microstructural studies show that this curvature is associated with a typical stress pattern which suggests the existence of an indentation of the fold belt by the East European craton. The hypothesis of an Ufa indenter is not supported by an equivalent East-West deep fault north of the bend. However, a long N100° magnetic anomaly, interpreted as a shear zone, suggests that the indenter is a reality. Quaternary uplift and crustal thickening at its front as well as seismological data support our interpretation. It is not stressed that the curvature of the Urals observed at 56° latitude results solely from this recent indentation. It is only assumed that the actual indentation is rejuvenating a former unevenness which existed before in the East European craton. Study of the inner part of the indenter shows that this type of structure is not necessarily rigid and undeformed. Some of the structures described on the URSEIS deep seismic line could be much younger than previously expected.

  12. Protection of cortex by overlying meninges tissue during dynamic indentation of the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    MacManus, David B; Pierrat, Baptiste; Murphy, Jeremiah G; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2017-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a recent focus of biomedical research with a growing international effort targeting material characterization of brain tissue and simulations of trauma using computer models of the head and brain to try to elucidate the mechanisms and pathogenesis of TBI. The meninges, a collagenous protective tri-layer, which encloses the entire brain and spinal cord has been largely overlooked in these material characterization studies. This has resulted in a lack of accurate constitutive data for the cranial meninges, particularly under dynamic conditions such as those experienced during head impacts. The work presented here addresses this lack of data by providing for the first time, in situ large deformation material properties of the porcine dura-arachnoid mater composite under dynamic indentation. It is demonstrated that this tissue is substantially stiffer (shear modulus, μ=19.10±8.55kPa) and relaxes at a slower rate (τ1=0.034±0.008s, τ2=0.336±0.077s) than the underlying brain tissue (μ=6.97±2.26kPa, τ1=0.021±0.007s, τ2=0.199±0.036s), reducing the magnitudes of stress by 250% and 65% for strains that arise during indentation-type deformations in adolescent brains. We present the first mechanical analysis of the protective capacity of the cranial meninges using in situ micro-indentation techniques. Force-relaxation tests are performed on in situ meninges and cortex tissue, under large strain dynamic micro-indentation. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model is used subsequently, providing time-dependent mechanical properties of these neural tissues under loading conditions comparable to what is experienced in TBI. The reported data highlights the large differences in mechanical properties between these two tissues. Finite element simulations of the indentation experiments are also performed to investigate the protective capacity of the meninges. These simulations show that the meninges protect the underlying brain tissue by

  13. Semi-parametric estimation of the binormal ROC curve for a continuous diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tianxi; Moskowitz, Chaya S

    2004-10-01

    Not until recently has much attention been given to deriving maximum likelihood methods for estimating the intercept and slope parameters from a binormal ROC curve that assesses the accuracy of a continuous diagnostic test. We propose two new methods for estimating these parameters. The first method uses the profile likelihood and a simple algorithm to produce fully efficient estimates. The second method is based on a pseudo-maximum likelihood that can easily accommodate adjusting for covariates that could affect the accuracy of the continuous test.

  14. Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator test bed for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.V. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator, located on the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, continues to be the only operational incinerator in the country that can process hazardous and radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. During 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems established a continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) test bed and began conducting evaluations of CEMS under development to measure contaminants from waste combustion and thermal treatment stacks. The program was envisioned to promote CEMS technologies meeting requirements of the recently issued Proposed Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors as well as monitoring technologies that will allay public concerns about mixed waste thermal treatment and accelerate the development of innovative treatment technologies. Fully developed CEMS, as well as innovative continuous or semi-continuous sampling systems not yet interfaced with a pollutant analyzer, were considered as candidates for testing and evaluation. Complementary to other Environmental Protection Agency and DOE sponsored CEMS testing and within compliant operating conditions of the TSCA Incinerator, prioritization was given to multiple metals monitors also having potential to measure radionuclides associated with particulate emissions. In August 1996, developers of two multiple metals monitors participated in field activities at the incinerator and a commercially available radionuclide particulate monitor was acquired for modification and testing planned in 1997. This paper describes the CEMS test bed infrastructure and summarizes completed and planned activities.

  15. Competing indentation deformation mechanisms in glass using different strengthening methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jian; Lezzi, Peter; Vargheese, K. Deenamma; Tandia, Adama; Harris, Jason; Mauro, John

    2016-11-01

    Chemical strengthening via ion exchange, thermal tempering, and lamination are proven techniques for strengthening of oxide glasses. For each of these techniques, the strengthening mechanism is conventionally ascribed to the linear superposition of the compressive stress profile on the glass surface. However, in this work we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the underlying indentation deformation mechanism beyond the simple linear superposition of compressive and indentation stresses. In particular, the plastic zone can be dramatically different from the commonly assumed hemispherical shape, which leads to a completely different stress field and resulting crack system. We show that the indentation-induced fracture is controlled by two competing mechanisms: the compressive stress itself and a potential reduction in free volume that can increase the driving force for crack formation. Chemical strengthening via ion exchange tends to escalate the competition between these two effects, while thermal tempering tends to reduce it. Lamination of glasses with differential thermal expansion falls in between. The crack system also depends on the indenter geometry and the loading stage, i.e., loading vs. after unloading. It is observed that combining thermal tempering or high free volume content with ion exchange or lamination can impart a relatively high compressive stress and reduce the driving force for crack formation. Therefore, such a combined approach might offer the best overall crack resistance for oxide glasses.

  16. Indentation and needle insertion properties of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, A; Hutnik, C; Hill, K; Newson, T; Chan, T; Campbell, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Characterization of the biomechanical properties of the human eye has a number of potential utilities. One novel purpose is to provide the basis for development of suitable tissue-mimicking material. The purpose of this study was to determine the indentation and needle insertion characteristics on human eye globes and tissue strips. Methods An indenter assessed the elastic response of human eye globes and tissue strips under increasing compressive loads. Needle insertion determined the force (N) needed to penetrate various areas of the eye wall. Results The results demonstrated that globes underwent slightly greater indentation at the midline than at the central cornea, and corneal strips indented twofold more than scleral strips, although neither difference was significant (P=0.400 and P=0.100, respectively). Significant differences were observed among various areas of needle insertion (P<0.001). Needle insertion through the anterior sclera (adjacent to the limbus) and posterior sclera (adjacent to the optic nerve) required the greatest amount of force (0.954 and 1.005 N, respectively). The force required to penetrate the central cornea (0.518 N) was significantly lower than all other areas except the midline sclera (0.700 N) Conclusion These data form the basis for further research into the development of a tissue-mimicking human eye construct with potential utility as a model for use in ophthalmology research and surgical teaching. PMID:24810571

  17. Prediction of Indentation Behavior of Superelastic TiNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Rabin; Farhat, Zoheir

    2014-09-01

    Superelastic TiNi shape memory alloys have been extensively used in various applications. The great interest in TiNi alloys is due to its unique shape memory and superelastic effects, along with its superior wear and dent resistance. Assessment of mechanical properties and dent resistance of superelastic TiNi is commonly performed using indentation techniques. However, the coupling of deformation and reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi under indentation conditions makes the interpretation of results challenging. An attempt is made to enhance current interpretation of indentation data. A load-depth curve is predicted that takes into consideration the reversible martensitic transformation. The predicted curve is in good agreement with experimental results. It is found in this study that the elastic modulus is a function of indentation depth. At shallow depths, the elastic modulus is high due to austenite dominance, while at high depths, the elastic modulus drops as the depth increases due to austenite to martensite transition, i.e., martensite dominance. It is also found that TiNi exhibits superior dent resistance compared to AISI 304 steel. There is two orders of magnitude improvement in dent resistance of TiNi in comparison to AISI 304 steel.

  18. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for X-ray tube

    DOEpatents

    Hudgens, Claude R.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight bular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, and insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  19. Membrane indentation triggers clathrin lattice reorganization and fluidization.

    PubMed

    Cordella, Nicholas; Lampo, Thomas J; Melosh, Nicholas; Spakowitz, Andrew J

    2015-01-21

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves the coordinated assembly of clathrin cages around membrane indentations, necessitating fluid-like reorganization followed by solid-like stabilization. This apparent duality in clathrin's in vivo behavior provides some indication that the physical interactions between clathrin triskelia and the membrane effect a local response that triggers fluid-solid transformations within the clathrin lattice. We develop a computational model to study the response of clathrin protein lattices to spherical deformations of the underlying flexible membrane. These deformations are similar to the shapes assumed during intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles. Through Monte Carlo simulations of clathrin-on-membrane systems, we observe that these membrane indentations give rise to a greater than normal defect density within the overlaid clathrin lattice. In many cases, the bulk surrounding lattice remains in a crystalline phase, and the extra defects are localized to the regions of large curvature. This can be explained by the fact that the in-plane elastic stress in the clathrin lattice are reduced by coupling defects to highly curved regions. The presence of defects brought about by indentation can result in the fluidization of a lattice that would otherwise be crystalline, resulting in an indentation-driven, defect-mediated phase transition. Altering subunit elasticity or membrane properties is shown to drive a similar transition, and we present phase diagrams that map out the combined effects of these parameters on clathrin lattice properties.

  20. Multi-Indenter Device for in Vivo Biomechanical Tissue Measurement.

    PubMed

    Petron, Arthur; Duval, Jean-Francois; Herr, Hugh

    2017-05-01

    Biomechanical tissue properties have been hypothesized to play a critical role in the quantification of prosthetic socket production for individuals with limb amputation. In this investigation, a novel indenter platform is presented and its performance evaluated for the purposes of residual-limb tissue characterization. The indenter comprised 14 position- and force-controllable actuators that circumferentially surround a biological residuum to form an actuator ring. Each indenter actuator was individually controllable in position ( [Formula: see text] accuracy) and force (330 mN accuracy) at a PC controller feedback rate of 500 Hz, allowing for a range of measurement across a residual stump. Data were collected from 162 sensors over an EtherCAT fieldbus to characterize the mechanical hyperviscoelastic tissue response of two transtibial residual-limbs from a study participant with bilateral amputations. At five distinct anatomical locations across the residual-limb, force versus deflection data-including hyperviscoelastic tissue properties-are presented, demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the multi-indenter platform for residual-limb tissue characterization.

  1. Microhardness and fracture toughness of dental materials by indentation method.

    PubMed

    Sakar-Deliormanli, Aylin; Güden, Mustafa

    2006-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to measure the fracture toughness of the human teeth enamel using the microindentation technique and to compare the results calculated from the equations developed for Palmqvist and radial-median cracks. Vickers microhardness measurements of dental ceramic (alumina) and human teeth were performed using indentation fracture method. The fracture toughness of enamel was calculated using different equations reported in the literature. Vickers microhardness of the sintered alumina specimen (98.8% theoretical density) was measured to be 14.92 GPa under 9.8 N indentation load. Three equations based on the radial-median cracks were found to be applicable for the fracture toughness determination of the enamel. Results show that indentation fracture method is adequate to measure microhardness and fracture toughness of dental materials. However the calculation of fracture toughness depended on the nature of the cracks and also on the location of the indentation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the crack profile and to select the appropriate equation for accurate fracture toughness values. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Water jet indentation for local elasticity measurements of soft materials.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N R; Dantan, Ph; Gazquez, E; Cornelissen, A J M; Fleury, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel elastography method for soft materials (100Pa-100kPa) based on indentation by a μm-sized water jet. We show that the jet creates a localized deformation ("cavity") of the material that can be easily visualized. We study experimentally how cavity width and depth depend on jet speed, height, incidence angle and sample elasticity. We describe how to calibrate the indenter using gels of known stiffness. We then demonstrate that the indenter yields quantitative elasticity values within 10% of those measured by shear rheometry. We corroborate our experimental findings with fluid-solid finite-element simulations that quantitatively predict the cavity profile and fluid flow lines. The water jet indenter permits in situ local stiffness measurements of 2D or 3D gels used for cell culture in physiological buffer, is able to assess stiffness heterogeneities with a lateral resolution in the range 50-500μm (at the tissue scale) and can be assembled at low cost with standard material from a biology laboratory. We therefore believe it will become a valuable method to measure the stiffness of a wide range of soft, synthetic or biological materials.

  3. Implementation of a computer-based test generator to evaluate health professions continuing education.

    PubMed

    Evans, S

    1984-04-01

    A variety of artificial-intelligence-based expert medical systems have been adapted to evaluate a learner's performance in the information areas in which the systems are expert. This paper describes a similar adaptation of a computer-based health sciences tutor (called the COMMES system). The Evaluation Consultant system to be described adapts the COMMES system to become a test generator. This computer-based consultant generates tests entirely on its own, covering programs of study that the COMMES system previously constructed to satisfy a user's identified needs. A health professional is awarded continuing education credits after (1) finishing a study unit constructed by COMMES and (2) completing successfully a test created by the Evaluation Consultant. This system is being implemented in several test sites and has significant advantages for the support of continuing education, especially in rural or isolated areas.

  4. Morphometric Analysis of Major Catchments Draining the Adriatic Indenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Neubauer, Franz; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Topography and relief in collisional orogens such as the European Alps result from the interplay of uplift driven by plate convergence and crustal shortening, and erosional surface processes that act along evolving topographic gradients and counteract topography formation. Due to ongoing indentation of the Adriatic indenter into the Eastern Alps, the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter is one of the tectonically most active zones of the Central Mediterranean region. The region is characterized by numerous earthquakes, distinct spatial gradients in recent uplift rates and exhumation level, and active faulting. However, the predominance of carbonaceous lithology hindered low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide dating, so that timing, rates and drivers of south-alpine topography development are still not well constrained. Further on, a systematic morphometric analysis of rivers draining the south-alpine indenter is still missing. In this study we fill this gap and investigate the interplay of tectonics and climate by a morphometric analysis of drainage systems of the eastern segment of the Adriatic indenter. We systematically extract a variety of characteristic channel metrics of four major drainage systems (Adige, Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento) of this domain and interpret the morphometric results in terms of (a) lithological effects such as erodibility contrasts and karstification, (b) spatially variable uplift rates, (c) base level lowering caused by glacial erosion and possible Messinian preconditioning, and (d) the migration of drainage divides. We find a clear correlation between the normalized steepness index (ksn) and bedrock type. ksn - values are systematically increased whenever rivers incise into the basement of the south-alpine indenter. However, the outcrop of the basement indicates a high level of exhumation and thus the highest overall uplift of the domain such that both increased uplift rates and low rock erodibility may be

  5. CATS, continuous automated testing of seismological, hydroacoustic, and infrasound (SHI) processing software.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Albert; Brown, David; Tomuta, Elena

    2017-04-01

    To detect nuclear explosions, waveform data from over 240 SHI stations world-wide flows into the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), located in Vienna, Austria. A complex pipeline of software applications processes this data in numerous ways to form event hypotheses. The software codebase comprises over 2 million lines of code, reflects decades of development, and is subject to frequent enhancement and revision. Since processing must run continuously and reliably, software changes are subjected to thorough testing before being put into production. To overcome the limitations and cost of manual testing, the Continuous Automated Testing System (CATS) has been created. CATS provides an isolated replica of the IDC processing environment, and is able to build and test different versions of the pipeline software directly from code repositories that are placed under strict configuration control. Test jobs are scheduled automatically when code repository commits are made. Regressions are reported. We present the CATS design choices and test methods. Particular attention is paid to how the system accommodates the individual testing of strongly interacting software components that lack test instrumentation.

  6. Calculations of Flowfield About Indented Nosetips,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-23

    Q(JKp3)*Y10U *30 EVC (K3)U(JK3)Y1V HVEC(K,4)=(G(JK,4) .POJ)*V*YI RE TURN SUBROUTINE FICGEN CUMMON/COMI/JMAX,KMAXJMIKM.XMArHCAM9r,AMMI*(cNolTSmUt...J) 105 FORMAT(19X,1296X9F6e2.99XFbe3) 45 TH(J)=TH(J)*DTR 104 CONTINUE G0 TO 41 43 CONTINUE C READ AND WRITE CONTROL POINTS FnP NOSETII’ S4APF 50 CALL

  7. Gender Differences among Children with ADHD on Continuous Performance Tests: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…

  8. Modes of Continuing Professional Education: A Test of Houle's Typology with Business Education Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powlette, Nina M.; Young, Darius R.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of Houle's typology in providing an accurate conceptual description of systematic structural forms of continuing professional education and business education instructors was tested via a survey of 98 (of 129) business educators. Results of rotation factor analysis added inquiry/reinforcement to Houle's 3 learning modes of…

  9. Modeling of Weak Fused Optical Fibers Using Vickers Indentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bochien

    This thesis addresses issues of modeling mechanical behavior of flaw containing weak silica fibers. Vickers indentation is used to model "nature" flaws present on fiber surface, especially for the contact damages. Novel and reliable experimental techniques have been developed that permit the inert (liquid nitrogen) strength of air -indented fiber to be determined across a broad range of values which encompasses the threshold region for radial crack formation. Inert strength of subthreshold indents can be simply modeled by a Griffith flaw of a size equal the indent size and the residual stresses have negligible influence, except for the long term behavior under low applied stress in a fatiguing environment where the strength is comparable to the magnitude of the residual stresses. A low n-value of ~11 is observed in the pH 7 buffer, extended from the subthreshold to the threshold regions. Neglecting this fact will introduce substantial error for lifetime predictions. The behavior of fatigue strength in alkali-hydroxides solutions suggests that subthreshold flaws degrade by surface mechanisms, rather than mechanisms occurring around the crack tip and further implies that subthreshold indents, at least in this regime, act simply as surface shape discontinuities. Fatigue strength exhibits an asymptotic curve-down behavior at the threshold in the alkali-hydroxides that implies the existence of propagation controlled subthreshold behavior. Long term aging improves mechanical properties, i.e., increase in strength and n, except for near threshold right in the region of interest. Residual stress release and crack tip blunting take place concurrently during zero -stress aging and crack tip blunting is dominant for the increase of strength and n-value. Several fracture models have been fit with experimental data for their validity for both sub- and postthreshold flaws.

  10. Spherical Indentation Testing of Poroelastic Relaxations in Thin Hydrogel Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Bioprocess Eng., 2007, 12, 323– 332. 7 S. Kim, J.-H. Kim, O. Jeon, I. C . Kwon and K. Park, Eur. J. Pharm...Administration The Trustees of Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544 -0036 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE b. ABSTRACT UU c . THIS PAGE UU 2. REPORT TYPE New Reprint...ug us t 2 01 2 Pu bl is he d on 0 6 D ec em be r 20 11 o n ht tp :// pu bs .r sc .o rg | do i:1 0. 10 39 / C 1S M 06 51 4A View Online /

  11. An examination of the indentation size effect in FCC metals and alloys from a kinetics based perspective using nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegall, David Earl

    The indentation size effect (ISE) in metals is described as the rise in hardness with decreasing depth of indentation and contradicts conventional plasticity behavior. The goal of this dissertation is to further examine the fundamental dislocation mechanisms that may be contributing to the so-called indentation size effect. In this work, we examined several metals and alloys including 99.999% Aluminum, 99.95% Nickel, 99.95% Silver, and three alloys, alpha brass 70/30, 70/30 nickel copper, and 7075 AlZn to study the effect of stacking fault energy on the ISE. The current work sought to address several objectives including; 1) Verify the existence of an ISE and the bilinear behavior of various FCC metals using single indentation test platform and the same tip for various stress decades: 2) Examine the thermally activated mechanisms that could contribute to the ISE via the kinetics of plastic deformation based on indentation experiments for constant load creep and load relaxation as well as classical uniaxial testing to study the coupled relationship between strain rate, dislocation density, and dislocation velocity: 3) Examine the possible contribution of stacking fault energy (SFE) on the ISE by comparing pure metals over a wide SFE range as well as the effect of alloying. We demonstrate that all the metals tested exhibit a clear ISE using a new approach that included the use of a single machine and using a single tip capable of reaching depths of 30 microm. This eliminated any uncertainty in measurements when comparing data for any metal across the nano to micro-range (from 0.07 mN to 10 N). It was found that the pure metals should be examine separately from the alloys when examining any dependency on SFE. Activation volume analysis, based on indentation creep experiments, was used to examine the stress dependency of the activation volume for each metal. We verified through various experiments across a wide stress range that the ISE has a kinetic signature similar

  12. Indentation recovery in GdPO4 and observation of deformation twinning

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkinson, Taylor M.; Musselman, Matthew A.; Boatner, Lynn A.; ...

    2016-09-30

    A series of nanoindentation tests on both single and polycrystalline specimens of a monazite rare-earth orthophosphate, GdPO4, revealed frequent observation of anomalous unloading behavior with a large degree of recovery, where previously this behavior had only been observed in xenotime-structure rare-earth orthophosphates. An indentation site in the polycrystalline sample was examined using TEM to identify the deformation mechanism responsible for recovery. Finally, the presence of a twin along the (100) orientation, along with a series of stacking faults contained within the deformation site, provide evidence that the mechanism of recovery in GdPO4 is the collapse of deformation twins during unloading.

  13. Temperature dependence of the anisotropic deformation of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube material during micro-indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, B.; Klassen, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of temperature on the anisotropic plastic deformation of textured Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube material was studied using micro-indentation tests performed in the axial, radial, and transverse directions of the tube over the temperature range from 25 to 400 °C. The ratio of the indentation stress in the transverse direction relative to that in the radial and axial directions was 1.29:1 and 1.26:1 at 25 °C but decreased to 1.22:1 and 1.05:1 at 400 °C. The average activation energy of the obstacles that limit the rate of indentation creep increases, from 0.72 to 1.33 eV, with increasing temperature from 25 to 300 °C and is independent of indentation direction. At temperature between 300 °C and 400 °C the measured activation energy is considerably reduced for indentation creep in the transverse direction relative to that of either the axial or radial directions. We conclude that, over this temperature range, the strength of the obstacles that limit the time-dependent dislocation glide on the pyramidal slip system changes relative to that on the prismatic slip system. These findings provide new data on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and creep rate, particularly in the radial direction, of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tubes and shed new light on the effect of temperature on the operation of dislocation glide on the prismatic and pyramidal slip systems which ultimately determines the degree of mechanical anisotropy in the highly textured Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material used in CANDU nuclear reactors.

  14. Parameter identification of hyperelastic material properties of the heel pad based on an analytical contact mechanics model of a spherical indentation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Ito, Kohta; Lee, Taeyong; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate identification of the material properties of the plantar soft tissue is important for computer-aided analysis of foot pathologies and design of therapeutic footwear interventions based on subject-specific models of the foot. However, parameter identification of the hyperelastic material properties of plantar soft tissues usually requires an inverse finite element analysis due to the lack of a practical contact model of the indentation test. In the present study, we derive an analytical contact model of a spherical indentation test in order to directly estimate the material properties of the plantar soft tissue. Force-displacement curves of the heel pads are obtained through an indentation experiment. The experimental data are fit to the analytical stress-strain solution of the spherical indentation in order to obtain the parameters. A spherical indentation approach successfully predicted the non-linear material properties of the heel pad without iterative finite element calculation. The force-displacement curve obtained in the present study was found to be situated lower than those identified in previous studies. The proposed framework for identifying the hyperelastic material parameters may facilitate the development of subject-specific FE modeling of the foot for possible clinical and ergonomic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-02-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  16. Indentation-induced plasticity of thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilleodden, Erica Thea

    In this dissertation, the results from an experimental and computational study of the nanoindentation response of various metal systems is presented, relating microstructural length-scale to anomalous behavior associated with the initiation and evolution of plasticity. In the cases of coarse-grained structures and epitaxial films, a discrete transition from Hertzian elastic load-displacement behavior is observed at near-theoretical shear stresses, implying that plasticity is initiated by dislocation nucleation. Discrete load-displacement response is also observed during quasi-constant stress experiments and is discussed in terms of "jerky" dislocation motion. At larger displacements the hardness is observed to decrease with increasing displacement. This widely observed indentation size effect is explained, in part, by a strain gradient plasticity law developed by Nix and Gao; at shallow depths an increased dislocation density can lead to an increase in the flow resistance of a material, as described by the Taylor relation. However, such a strain-gradient model maintains a continuum framework and cannot be expected to explain discrete load-displacement behavior observed at the nanometer scale. Furthermore, when the indentation is confined to very small displacements the dependence on dislocation density can be the opposite; an elevated density of dislocation sources can provide an easy mechanism for plasticity at relatively small loads. In contrast to the behavior observed in coarse-grained structures and epitaxial films, indentation into fine-grained films result in initially soft behavior followed by immediate hardening. Rationale for such behavior has been based on the availability of dislocation sources at the grain boundary for initiating plasticity, followed by a Hall-Petch type strengthening mechanism that overwhelms the strain gradient effects. It is also shown that the competition between dislocation nucleation and activation of pre-existing dislocations is

  17. Finite-element modeling of soft tissue rolling indentation.

    PubMed

    Sangpradit, Kiattisak; Liu, Hongbin; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Seneviratne, Lakmal D

    2011-12-01

    We describe a finite-element (FE) model for simulating wheel-rolling tissue deformations using a rolling FE model (RFEM). A wheeled probe performing rolling tissue indentation has proven to be a promising approach for compensating for the loss of haptic and tactile feedback experienced during robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery (H. Liu, D. P. Noonan, B. J. Challacombe, P. Dasgupta, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Rolling mechanical imaging for tissue abnormality localization during minimally invasive surgery, " IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 404-414, Feb. 2010; K. Sangpradit, H. Liu, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Tissue identification using inverse finite element analysis of rolling indentation," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , Kobe, Japan, 2009, pp. 1250-1255; H. Liu, D. Noonan, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "The rolling approach for soft tissue modeling and mechanical imaging during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2008, pp. 845-850; H. Liu, P. Puangmali, D. Zbyszewski, O. Elhage, P. Dasgupta, J. S. Dai, L. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "An indentation depth-force sensing wheeled probe for abnormality identification during minimally invasive surgery," Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., H, vol. 224, no. 6, pp. 751-63, 2010; D. Noonan, H. Liu, Y. Zweiri, K. Althoefer, and L. Seneviratne, "A dual-function wheeled probe for tissue viscoelastic property identification during minimally invasive surgery," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom. , 2008, pp. 2629-2634; H. Liu, J. Li, Q. I. Poon, L. D. Seneviratne, and K. Althoefer, "Miniaturized force indentation-depth sensor for tissue abnormality identification," IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., May 2010, pp. 3654-3659). A sound understanding of wheel-tissue rolling interaction dynamics will facilitate the evaluation of signals from rolling indentation. In this paper, we model the dynamic interactions between a wheeled probe and a

  18. Reproductive toxicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether tested by continuous breeding of CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, J.C. IV; Gulati, D.K.; Russell, V.S.; Hommel, L.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1984-08-01

    The reproductive toxicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) was evaluated in the Fertility Assessment by Continuous Breeding protocol. Both male and female CD-1 mice were given 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2% EGEE in the drinking water and were housed as breeding pairs continuously for 14 weeks. Significant adverse effects on fertility were seen at 1 and 2% but not at 0.5%. After the continuous breeding phase of this test was completed, treated males were housed with control females and treated females with control males and fertility and reproduction were compared to the corresponding pairs of control male and control female mice. Both males and females from the 1 and 2% groups were affected. Testicular atrophy decreased sperm motility and increased abnormal sperm were noted in the treated males, but no specific anomalies were detected in the females. 7 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  19. Two-way indent depth recovery in a NiTi shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Grummon, David S.

    2006-03-01

    Controlled reversible changes in surface texture and topography are of interest to many applications, including information storage, optical communication devices, micro-fluidic instruments for drug delivery, and smart tribological surfaces for friction and wear control. Here, we demonstrate a method of inducing two-way reversible changes in an indentation made on the surface of a shape memory NiTi alloy. The two-way indent shape change is accomplished by thermomechanical training of spherical indents in NiTi shape memory alloy. After training, spherical indents exhibit two-way depth recovery: Shallow indent depth at high temperature and deep indent depth at low temperature. The reversible depth change is about 45% of the total indent depth and is stable over many cycles. The reversible depth change can have a wide range of engineering applications.

  20. Preliminary in vitro assessment of erosive potential using the ultra-micro-indentation system.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Erin; Beattie, James; Swain, Michael; Kilpatrick, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the change in hardness and modulus of elasticity of enamel and dentine in primary teeth using the ultra-micro-indentation system (UMIS) after exposure to potentially erosive beverages and to relate the changes to the chemical composition of the test beverages. Primary molar teeth were sectioned and polished. Indentations were made in enamel and dentine prior to and then after exposure to one of four beverages: distilled water (control), orange juice, Orange Cordial, Fanta((R)) and a 'toothfriendly' Tropical Orange Cordial (Ribena((R))). Each beverage was then analysed. Fanta and Orange Cordial were the only test beverages to show a statistically significant reduction in the enamel hardness in comparison to the control and only Fanta showed a significant reduction in dentine hardness. None of the test beverages significantly reduced the modulus of elasticity of either enamel or dentine. Statistically the pH, phosphate and fluoride concentrations of the beverages were correlated with softening of enamel. Calcium concentration and titratable acidity were correlated with softening of dentine. The UMIS offers another method of measuring the basic mechanical properties of enamel and dentine. This is useful in predicting the erosive potential of substrates. It is likely that the pH, titratable acidity, fluoride, phosphate and calcium content of beverages are all important in determining the potential erosiveness of beverages. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Acoustic emission analysis of Vickers indentation fracture of cermet and ceramic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, N. H.; Ahmed, R.

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an instrumented experimental methodology of quantitative material evaluation based on the acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of a dead-weight Vickers indentation. This was to assess the degree of cracking and hence the toughness of thermally sprayed coatings. AE data were acquired during indentation tests on samples of coatings of nominal thickness 250-325 µm at a variety of indentation loads ranging from 49 to 490 N. Measurements were carried out on five different carbide and ceramic coatings (HVOF as-sprayed WC-12%Co (JP5000 and JetKote), HIPed WC-12%Co (JetKote) and as-sprayed Al2O3 (APS/Metco and HVOF/theta-gun)). The raw AE signals recorded during indentation were analysed and the total surface crack length around the indent determined. The results showed that the total surface crack length measured gave fracture toughness (K1c) values which were consistent with the published literature for similar coatings but evaluated using the classical approach (Palmqvist/half-penny model). Hence, the total surface crack length criteria can be applied to ceramic and cermet coatings which may or may not exhibit fracture via radial cracks. The values of K1c measured were 3.4 ± 0.1 MPa m1/2 for high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) (theta-gun) Al2O3, 4.6 ± 0.3 MPa m1/2 for as-sprayed HVOF (JetKote) WC-12%Co, 7.1±0.1 MPa m1/2 for as-sprayed HVOF (JP5000) WC-12%Co and 7.4 ± 0.2 MPa m1/2 for HIPed HVOF (JetKote) WC-12%Co coatings. The crack lengths were then calibrated against the AE response and correlation coefficients evaluated. The values of K1c measured using AE correlations were 3.3 MPa m1/2 for HVOF (theta-gun) Al2O3, 2.6 MPa m1/2 for APS (Metco) Al2O3, 2.5 MPa m1/2 for as-sprayed HVOF (JetKote) WC-12%Co, 6.3 MPa m1/2 for as-sprayed HVOF (JP5000) WC-12%Co and 8.6 MPa m1/2 for HIPed HVOF (JetKote) WC-12%Co coatings. It is concluded that within each category of coating type, AE can be used as a suitable surrogate for crack length

  2. Fabrication and wear test of a continuous fiber/particulate composite total surface hip replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. C.; Ling, F. F.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous fiber woven E-glass composite femoral shells having the ame elastic properties as bone were fabricated. The shells were then encrusted with filled epoxy wear resistant coatings and run dry against ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups in 42,000 and 250,000 cycle were tests on a total hip simulator. The tribological characteristics of these shells atriculating with the acetabular cups are comparable to a vitallium bal articulating with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene cup.

  3. Test of the isotropy of the speed of light using a continuously rotating optical resonator.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Sven; Senger, Alexander; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Müller, Holger; Peters, Achim

    2005-10-07

    We report on a test of Lorentz invariance performed by comparing the resonance frequencies of one stationary optical resonator and one continuously rotating on a precision air bearing turntable. Special attention is paid to the control of rotation induced systematic effects. Within the photon sector of the standard model extension, we obtain improved limits on combinations of 8 parameters at a level of a few parts in 10(-16). For the previously least well known parameter we find [EQUATION: SEE TEXT]. Within the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl test theory, our measurement restricts the isotropy violation parameter [EQUATION: SEE TEXT]. corresponding to an eightfold improvement with respect to previous nonrotating measurements.

  4. Design, fabrication and test of prototype furnace for continuous growth of wide silicon ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    A program having the overall objective of growing wide, thin silicon dendritic web crystals quasi-continuously from a semi-automated facility is discussed. The design considerations and fabrication of the facility as well as the test and operation phase are covered; detailed engineering drawings are included as an appendix. During the test and operation phase of the program, more than eighty growth runs and numerous thermal test runs were performed. At the conclusion of the program, 2.4 cm wide web was being grown at thicknesses of 100 to 300 micrometers. As expected, the thickness and growth rate are closely related. Solar cells made from this material were tested at NASA-Lewis and found to have conversion efficiencies comparable to devices fabricated from Czochralski material.

  5. LTBT Amendment Conference to continue, but no test ban in sight

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, T.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The only nations party to the LTBT that stand firmly against the immediate negotiation of a comprehensive test ban (CTB) are the US and Britain. And since Britain tests it nuclear weapons on US soil, the US holds the key vote. If the US wants to avoid undermining the possibility of a long-term extension of the NPT in 1995, it should reconsider its opposition to a CTB. As the Soviet military threat recedes, the US has no excuse not to place a higher priority on nuclear nonproliferation than on continued nuclear testing. If President Bush is truly committed to creating a new world order based on mutual respect and the rule of law, he should begin by honoring the US international obligation to end nuclear testing for all time. The administration's continued insistence on developing, testing, and deploying ever more sophisticated nuclear weapons sends the wrong signal to an increasingly multipolar, nuclear-armed world. As the Gulf War has so vividly demonstrated, a well-armed, aggressive leader can wreak havoc on international peace and security. US unwillingness to take the needed steps to slow further proliferation of nuclear weapons is a dangerous foundation on which to build a safer world.

  6. Hertzian indentation of colloidally processed titanium carbide-nickel aluminide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, R. Bradley

    Advanced cermets based on titanium carbide (TiC), with a ductile nickel aluminide (Ni3Al) binder, have shown significant promise for use in a variety of demanding wear environments, due to a combination of high strength and good corrosion behaviour. A unique feature of TiC-Ni3Al cermets is that they show increasing strength from room temperature up to ˜1,000°C, while current materials such as tungsten carbide/cobalt (WC/Co) show significant strength degradation above ˜500°C. In this thesis, aqueous colloidal forming methods have been applied to process TiC preforms. The mechanisms and effectiveness of suspension stabilization were examined using methods such as zeta potential analysis, rheological measurements, and sedimentation trials for two common dispersants; an ammonium salt of polymethacrylate (PMA-NH 4) and two molecular weights (l,800 and 10,000) of polyethylenimine (PEI). TiC preforms were prepared by slip casting suspensions of up to 50 vol. % solids content. After drying, the TiC-based cermets were processed by melt infiltration with the Ni3Al alloy (IC-50) at 1475°C.Ni 3Al content was varied between 20 and 50 vol. % using this approach, resulting in final densities that exceeded 98% of theoretical. These samples were subjected to Hertzian indentation testing with loads ranging from 250 -- 2000 N, using WC-Co spheres with sizes ranging from 1.191 to 2.38 mm. Indentation stress-strain curves were produced from the indentation data and compared to the calculated elastic Hertzian response. The bonded interface method was used to examine the subsurface deformation of the material under load. Significant deformation of the binder and the eventual fracture of the TiC grains were observed. The nature of the quasi-plasticity of TiC-Ni 3Al and the effects of binder content on surface and subsurface deformation is examined.

  7. Effect of elastic modulus mismatch on failure behaviour of glass ionomer cement under Hertzian indentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Darvell, B W

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effect of the substrate: coating elastic modulus ratio on the failure behaviour of glass ionomer cement (GIC) under Hertzian indentation. GIC (Amalgomer CR, Advanced Healthcare, Tonbridge, Kent, UK) discs, 2 mm thick and 10 mm diameter, were randomly divided into 11 groups, 10-22 specimens for each group, and stored at 37 °C in artificial saliva for 7 days. Discs were tested resting freely on 11 substrate materials at 23 °C in air by loading centrally through a 20 mm diameter hard steel ball at a crosshead speed of 0.2 mm/min. The elastic moduli of the substrates (E(s)) and the coating GIC (E(c)) were first measured with a method similar to that of the Hertzian indentation, except for the three harder materials: amalgam, Al6061 and stainless steel 304. The failure load at the first crack was recorded with the aid of acoustic emission detection. Fracture surfaces were observed by SEM. E(s) values ranged from 0.09 to 210 GPa; E(c) was 7.7 GPa. Failure load generally increased with E(s) at first and then became relatively stable; the turning point occurred for E(s)/E(c)=1. Bottom surface-initiated radial cracking was the principal failure mode on softer substrates (E(s)/E(c)<1), while top surface conical cracking usually occurred on harder substrates (E(s)/E(c)≥1). The elastic modulus ratio, substrate: coating, is a controlling factor for both the failure mode and load for the coating material under Hertzian indentation. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. From elasticity to capillarity in soft materials indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Jonathan T.; Schellenberger, Frank; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    For soft materials with Young's moduli below 100 kPa, quantifying mechanical and interfacial properties by small scale indentation is challenging because in addition to adhesion and elasticity, surface tension plays a critical role. Until now, microscale contact of very soft materials has only been studied by static experiments under zero external loading. Here we introduce a combination of the colloidal probe technique and confocal microscopy to characterize the force-indentation and force-contact radius relationships during microindentation of soft silicones. We confirm that the widespread Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory must be extended to predict the mechanical contact for soft materials. Typically a liquid component is found within very soft materials. With a simple analytical model, we illustrate that accounting for this liquid surface tension can capture the contact behavior. Our results highlight the importance of considering liquid that is often associated with soft materials during small scale contact.

  9. A skin indentation system using a pneumatic bellows.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Pell, M; Hagisawa, S; Masiello, R D

    1994-01-01

    A pneumatic indentation system using a copper bellows has been developed for physiological studies where a controlled uniaxial compressive force is required to be applied to the surface of the skin. Such a system is useful for studies where the physiological response of the tissues is to be monitored following a known loading history. The indentation system is driven by a vacuum/compression pneumatic pump through solenoid valves under closed-loop computer control. A load cell placed between the indentor and bellows monitors the applied force providing a feedback signal to the computer. The signal from the computer activates the valves supplying air pressure to the bellows, and the applied force is controlled using a digital closed-loop protocol. This system can be used to provide a controlled loading sequence to the skin without utilizing gravitational forces, which allows the subject to keep a more natural position during the experiment.

  10. Shear-banding Induced Indentation Size Effect in Metallic Glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. M.; Sun, B. A.; Zhao, L. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Pan, M. X.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Shear-banding is commonly regarded as the “plasticity carrier” of metallic glasses (MGs), which usually causes severe strain localization and catastrophic failure if unhindered. However, through the use of the high-throughput dynamic nanoindentation technique, here we reveal that nano-scale shear-banding in different MGs evolves from a “distributed” fashion to a “localized” mode when the resultant plastic flow extends over a critical length scale. Consequently, a pronounced indentation size effect arises from the distributed shear-banding but vanishes when shear-banding becomes localized. Based on the critical length scales obtained for a variety of MGs, we unveil an intrinsic interplay between elasticity and fragility that governs the nanoscale plasticity transition in MGs. Our current findings provide a quantitative insight into the indentation size effect and transition mechanisms of nano-scale plasticity in MGs. PMID:27324835

  11. Testing of a Continuous Sampling Mercury CEM at the EPA-Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow

    2002-04-12

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling mercury monitoring system developed by Ames Laboratory for use as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field-monitoring applications. During FY01 this included continued development and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption. Due to the relatively poor limits of detection for Hg by optical emission techniques, the CEM has been designed for the detection of elemental Hg by optical absorption. The sampling system allows continuous introduction of stack gas into the CEM for analysis of elemental and total Hg in the gas stream. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in this system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg prior to analysis for total Hg. The pyrolysis tube is bypassed to measure elemental Hg. The CEM is designed to measure the elemental Hg concentration of the gas sample, measure the total Hg concentration, perform a zero check (analysis of room air), and then re-zero the system (to correct for any instrumental drift that occurs over time). This is done in an automated, sequential measurement cycle to provide continuous monitoring of Hg concentrations in the stack gas. The continuous sampling Hg CEM was tested at the EPA-Rotary Kiln in Durham, NC at the beginning of FY02. This report describes the characteristics and performance of the system and the results of the field tests performed at EPA. The Hg CEM system was developed in response to the need of DOE and other organizations to monitor Hg that may be released during the processing or combustion of hazardous or mixed-waste materials. The promulgation of regulations limiting the release of Hg and requiring continuous

  12. Evaluation of tensile stress-strain curve of electroplated copper film by characterizing indentation size effect with a single nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si-Hoon; Kim, Young-Cheon; Lee, Sukbin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2017-01-01

    Nanoindentation has been widely used to measure mechanical properties for instance elastic modulus and hardness due to relatively simple sample preparation and experimental procedure. Primary limitation of nanoindentation is that it does not measure quantitative mechanical properties such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and fracture strain unlike uni-axial tensile testing. We investigate the tensile stress-strain curve of electroplated copper using a single nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter. Micro-tensile testing and nanoindentation were performed for three electroplated copper samples with different microstructures by post heat treatments. We find a linear relationship between the strain-hardening exponent as measured by micro-tensile testing and the log value of the characteristic length for the indentation size effect as measured by nanoindentation. By defining a representative flow stress-strain point corresponding to the Berkovich indenter along with the elastic modulus measured by nanoindentation, we obtain complete tensile stress-strain curves for electroplated copper that are in good agreement with those measured by micro-tensile testing.

  13. Yo-Yo IR1 vs. incremental continuous running test for prediction of 3000-m performance.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Boris; Klose, Andreas; Schelleckes, Katrin; Jekat, Charlotte M; Krüger, Michael; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare physiological responses during the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) Test and an incremental continuous running field Test (ICRT) and to analyze their predictive value on 3000-m running performance. Forty moderately trained individuals (18 females) performed the ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 Test to exhaustion. The ICRT was performed as graded running test with an increase of 2.0 km·h-1 after each 3 min interval for lactate diagnostic. In both tests, blood lactate levels were determined after the test and at 2 and 5 min of recovery. Heart rate (HR) was recorded to monitor differences in HR slopes and HR recovery. Comparison revealed a correlation between ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 Test performance (R2=0.83, P<0.001), while significant differences in HRmax existed (Yo-Yo IR1, 189±10 bpm; ICRT, 195±16 bpm; P<0.005; ES=0.5). Maximum lactate levels were also different between test (Yo-Yo IR1, 10.1±2.1 mmol∙L-1; ICRT, 11.7±2.4 mmol∙L-1; P<0.01; ES=0.7). Significant inverse correlations were found between the Yo-Yo IR1 Test performance and 3000 m running time (R2=0.77, P<0.0001) as well as the ICRT and 3000 m time (R2=0.90, P<0.0001). Our data suggest that ICRT and Yo-Yo IR1 test are useful field test methods for the prediction of competitive running performances such as 3000-m runs but maximum HR and blood lactate values differ significantly. The ICRT may have higher predictive power for middle- to long- distance running performance such as 3000-m runs offering a reliable test for coaches in the recruitment of athletes or supervision of training concepts.

  14. Plastically deformed region around indentations on Si angle crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, M.

    1994-12-01

    Expansion of a hemispherical shell by inner pressure has been widely applied for the model of the deformation by an indentation on a flat surface; however, the deformed region is not necessarily spherically symmetric, especially in anisotropic materials such as single crystals. Therefore, whether the spherical model is applicable in an indentation process for objective materials must always be kept in mind. Indentations have been made on the (111) surface of silicon crystal at various temperatures. The three-dimensional shape of the plastically deformed region was experimentally measured by means of an etching technique and its difference from the hemisphere was observed. It was never spherical but much more complicated, similar to a bottle gourd. The slip mechanism, which resulted in the observed shape of the plastic region, is discussed further. The plastic region was analytically obtained also on the assumption that the stress distribution was spherically symmetrical. The result is approximately in accordance with the observed shape. It is therefore concluded that the stress distribution is nearly spherical although the plastic region is far from it. The yield strength of silicon crystals and their temperature dependence were obtained based on the spherical model.

  15. Extraordinary Indentation Strain Stiffening Produces Superhard Tungsten Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming; Chen, Changfeng

    2017-09-01

    Transition-metal light-element compounds are a class of designer materials tailored to be a new generation of superhard solids, but indentation strain softening has hitherto limited their intrinsic load-invariant hardness to well below the 40 GPa threshold commonly set for superhard materials. Here we report findings from first-principles calculations that two tungsten nitrides, hP4-WN and hP 6 -WN2 , exhibit extraordinary strain stiffening that produces remarkably enhanced indentation strengths exceeding 40 GPa, raising exciting prospects of realizing the long-sought nontraditional superhard solids. Calculations show that hP4-WN is metallic both at equilibrium and under indentation, marking it as the first known intrinsic superhard metal. An x-ray diffraction pattern analysis indicates the presence of hP4-WN in a recently synthesized specimen. We elucidate the intricate bonding and stress response mechanisms for the identified structural strengthening, and the insights may help advance rational design and discovery of additional novel superhard materials.

  16. Dynamic, regional mechanical properties of the porcine brain: indentation in the coronal plane.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Benjamin S; Ilankova, Ashok; Morrison, Barclay

    2011-07-01

    Stress relaxation tests using a custom designed microindentation device were performed on ten anatomic regions of fresh porcine brain (postmortem time <3 h). Using linear viscoelastic theory, a Prony series representation was used to describe the shear relaxation modulus for each anatomic region tested. Prony series parameters fit to load data from indentations performed to ∼10% strain differed significantly by anatomic region. The gray and white matter of the cerebellum along with corpus callosum and brainstem were the softest regions measured. The cortex and hippocampal CA1/CA3 were found to be the stiffest. To examine the large strain behavior of the tissue, multistep indentations were performed in the corona radiata to strains of 10%, 20%, and 30%. Reduced relaxation functions were not significantly different for each step, suggesting that quasi-linear viscoelastic theory may be appropriate for representing the nonlinear behavior of this anatomic region of porcine brain tissue. These data, for the first time, describe the dynamic and short time scale behavior of multiple anatomic regions of the porcine brain which will be useful for understanding porcine brain injury biomechanics at a finer spatial resolution than previously possible.

  17. Microstructural and compositional contributions towards the mechanical behavior of aging human bone measured by cyclic and impact reference point indentation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Adam C; Agarwalla, Avinesh; Yadavalli, Aditya; Liu, Jenny Y; Tang, Simon Y

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of fracture risk often relies primarily on measuring bone mineral density, thereby accounting for only a single pathology: the loss of bone mass. However, bone's ability to resist fracture is a result of its biphasic composition and hierarchical structure that imbue it with high strength and toughness. Reference point indentation (RPI) testing is designed to directly probe bone mechanical behavior at the microscale in situ, although it remains unclear which aspects of bone composition and structure influence the results at this scale. Therefore, our goal in this study was to investigate factors that contribute to bone mechanical behavior measured by cyclic reference point indentation, impact reference point indentation, and three-point bending. Twenty-eight female cadavers (ages 57-97) were subjected to cyclic and impact RPI in parallel at the unmodified tibia mid-diaphysis. After RPI, the middiaphyseal tibiae were removed, scanned using micro-CT to obtain cortical porosity (Ct.Po.) and tissue mineral density (TMD), then tested using three-point bending, and lastly assayed for the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Both the indentation distance increase from cyclic RPI (IDI) and bone material strength index from impact RPI (BMSi) were significantly correlated with TMD (r=-0.390, p=0.006; r=0.430, p=0.002; respectively). Accumulation of AGEs was significantly correlated with IDI (r=0.281, p=0.046), creep indentation distance (CID, r=0.396, p=0.004), and BMSi (r=-0.613, p<0.001). There were no significant relationships between tissue TMD or AGEs accumulation with the quasi-static material properties. Toughness decreased with increasing tissue Ct.Po. (r=-0.621, p<0.001). Other three-point bending measures also correlated with tissue Ct.Po. including the bending modulus (r=-0.50, p<0.001) and ultimate stress (r=-0.56, p<0.001). The effects of Ct.Po. on indentation were less pronounced with IDI (r=0.290, p=0.043) and BMSi (r=-0.299, p

  18. On determining the most appropriate test cut-off value: the case of tests with continuous results

    PubMed Central

    Habibzadeh, Parham; Yadollahie, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    There are several criteria for determination of the most appropriate cut-off value in a diagnostic test with continuous results. Mostly based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, there are various methods to determine the test cut-off value. The most common criteria are the point on ROC curve where the sensitivity and specificity of the test are equal; the point on the curve with minimum distance from the left-upper corner of the unit square; and the point where the Youden’s index is maximum. There are also methods mainly based on Bayesian decision analysis. Herein, we show that a proposed method that maximizes the weighted number needed to misdiagnose, an index of diagnostic test effectiveness we previously proposed, is the most appropriate technique compared to the aforementioned ones. For determination of the cut-off value, we need to know the pretest probability of the disease of interest as well as the costs incurred by misdiagnosis. This means that even for a certain diagnostic test, the cut-off value is not universal and should be determined for each region and for each disease condition. PMID:27812299

  19. Stiffness, intralimb coordination, and joint modulation during a continuous vertical jump test.

    PubMed

    Dal Pupo, Juliano; Dias, Jonathan Ache; Gheller, Rodrigo Ghedini; Detanico, Daniele; dos Santos, Saray Giovana

    2013-09-01

    This study analysed the modulation of jump performance, vertical stiffness as well as joint and intralimb coordination throughout a 30-s vertical jump test. Twenty male athletes performed the test on a force plate while undergoing kinematic analysis. Jump height, power output, ground contact time, vertical stiffness, maximum knee and hip flexion angles, and coordination by continuous relative phase (CRP) were analysed. Analysis of variance was used to compare variables within deciles, and t-tests were used to compare CRP data between the initial and final jumps. Results showed reduction in jump height, power output, and vertical stiffness, with an increase in contact time found during the test. Maximum knee and hip flexion angles declined, but hip angle decreased earlier (10-20% of the test) than knee angle (90-100%). No changes were observed in CRP for thigh-leg coupling when comparing initial and final jumps, but the trunk-thigh coupling was more in-phase near the end of the test. We conclude that fatigue causes reduction in jump performance, as well as changes in stiffness and joint angles. Furthermore, changes in intralimb coordination appear at the last 10% of the test, suggesting a neuromotor mechanism to counterbalance the loss of muscle strength.

  20. Continuous Scan, a method for performing modal testing using meaningful measurement parameters; Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, D.; Ewins, D. J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents the first part of a work about modal testing using meaningful measurement parameters. Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) systems are becoming largely used both in industry and university for performing vibration measurements. A reason for the success of SLDV systems can be found in their capability of measuring vibration remotely and under different environmental conditions which, when hostile, can inhibit other transducers to work correctly. Hence, SLDV system can be very practical and useful in many engineering applications. SLDV systems are being used as a contactless transducer measuring vibrations from a discrete number of measurement positions marked on the specimen whenever an optical access to it is available. Hence, the advantage of a modal test carried out using accelerometers and one carried out using a SLDV system can be: (i) the automation of the measurements and (ii) the increase of the spatial resolution of the measured modes. This suggests that SLDV systems can be used as a practical replacement of accelerometers operating the same measurement method. Continuous Scanning method is a novel approach of using contactless transducers for measuring vibrations. The most important difference between a discrete and a continuous approach is the method of measuring a vibration pattern. A discrete method measures the level of vibrations at discrete positions on a structure whereas a continuous method captures the modulation of the vibrations produced by the excited modes. This is possible when a transducer can travel across a vibrating surface. This first part of the work presents a new approach of continuous scanning measurement method using a multi-tonal excitation waveform. The paper starts from a comparison between a step and continuous scan mode to introduce a novel approach of continuous scan and multi-tonal excitation waveform. The objective of this first part of work is to present and understand that measurement parameters

  1. The characterization of Vicker`s microhardness indentations and pile-up profiles as a strain-hardening microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C. Jr.; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Schroeter, B.; Klinginsmith, D.; Yamamoto, T.

    1998-04-01

    Microhardness measurements have long been used to examine strength properties and changes in strength properties in metals, for example, as induced by irradiation. Microhardness affords a relatively simple test that can be applied to very small volumes of material. Microhardness is nominally related to the flow stress of the material at a fixed level of plastic strain. Further, the geometry of the pile-up of material around the indentation is related to the strain-hardening behavior of a material; steeper pile-ups correspond to smaller strain-hardening rates. In this study the relationship between pile-up profiles and strain hardening is examined using both experimental and analytical methods. Vickers microhardness tests have been performed on a variety of metal alloys including low alloy, high Cr and austenitic stainless steels. The pile-up topology around the indentations has been quantified using confocal microscopy techniques. In addition, the indentation and pile-up geometry has been simulated using finite element method techniques. These results have been used to develop an improved quantification of the relationship between the pile-up geometry and the strain-hardening constitutive behavior of the test material.

  2. Evaluation of a Fourier transform infrared continuous emission monitor field test at a TSCA incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Z.; Demirgian, J.C.; Reedy, G.

    1994-06-01

    A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was field tested as a continuous emission monitor (CEM) at the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator at K-25 in Oak Ridge, Tenn., from August 23 to September 3, 1993. This paper reports results obtained from this field test. The FTIR spectrometer and the long-path cell used for the field test were specially designed and constructed, so that optical alignment of the system can be easily performed in the field. The system was tested in the laboratory and then in the field for instrument stability and signal-to-noise ratio. Time interval required for taking a new background spectrum was determined. It appears that the system performs well both in the laboratory and in the field. The field test followed a standard operation procedure (SOP), developed for the test, based on a proposed EPA protocol for applying FTIR in emission testing. Sixteen compounds were selected as target analytes. Ethylene was used as a calibration transfer standard to ensure that spectral performance of the FTIR spectrometer in the field is consistent with that in the laboratory. Spike tests were regularly conducted with a known concentration of a mixture of six compounds and also with SF{sub 6} to check the accuracy of the monitoring system. Data sampling, processing, and reporting were automated to collect data every 10 min, and data were collected throughout the test as long as liquid nitrogen was available in the detector. The instrumentation and software performed flawlessly. Although the field test was a success, further improvement is necessary. Suggestions for revising the SOP and the proposed EPA protocol are discussed.

  3. Test of cure for gonorrhea in teenagers. Who complies and does continuity of care help?

    PubMed

    Chacko, M R; Wells, R D; Phillips, S A

    1987-05-01

    This study evaluates factors influencing test of cure (TOC) compliance for gonorrhea in teenagers attending a public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. The efficacy of providing continuity of care to improve the TOC rate is also evaluated. Overall, females complied better (54%) than males (33%), and younger males better than older males (greater than 16 years of age). Of patients with a prior history of gonorrhea, the TOC rates were significantly higher for those who had previously kept their TOC appointment. Continuity of care did not improve the TOC rate, but initial contact with a clinician appeared to influence the return rate of female adolescents. Male adolescents will apparently require a different intervention strategy to improve their appointment keeping.

  4. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  5. Nano-mechanical characterization of plasma surface tungstenized layer by depth-sensing nano-indentation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongyan; Li, Yin; Tang, Xiao; Hussain, G.; Zhao, Haofeng; Li, Qingfang; Adedotun, Adetunla

    2015-01-01

    Plasma surface tungstenizing was performed on Ti-Al-Nb substrate using the double-glow plasma surface alloying technique. The microstructure and composition of the tungstenized layer were determined by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the substrate and the tungstenized layer were characterized by the dynamic micro-hardness and the elastic modulus. The results showed that the tungstenized layer was comprised of three distinct sub-layers namely sediment layer, transition layer and diffusion layer, with a total layer thickness of over 25 μm. The concentration of the tungsten decreased gradually as the layer depth increased and the continuous change in the tungsten content affects the mechanical properties of the alloyed layer. The dynamic micro-hardness and elastic modulus of the tungstenized layer and substrate were investigated by the depth-sensing nano-indentation measurement under different conditions. According to the findings, the values of dynamic micro-hardness exhibited no significant dependence on the indentation load. However, the elastic modulus of the tungstenized layer tended to decrease as the indentation load was increased. Furthermore, the dynamic micro-hardness and elastic modulus curves of the tungstenized layer revealed a pattern similar to the concentration distribution of the tungsten. Both surface micro-hardness and elastic modulus of plasma alloyed surface gradually decreased with the increase of indentation depth, most probably because of the three different regions in the alloyed layer. As for the mechanical properties, the tungstenized layer exhibited significantly higher dynamic micro-hardness and elastic modulus than the substrate. As the cyclic loading-unloading curves of the substrate and the tungstenized layer showed, the elastic recovery and uniform plastic deformation decrease and the fatigue damage of the tungstenized layer is lower than that of the

  6. Indentation of the Pamirs with respect to the northern margin of Tibet: Constraints from the Tarim basin sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blayney, Tamsin; Najman, Yani; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Carter, Andy; Millar, Ian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Sobel, Ed; Rittner, Martin; Ando, Sergio; Gao, Zhaojie; Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The Pamirs represent the indented westward continuation of the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, dividing the Tarim and Tajik basins. Their evolution may be a key factor influencing aridification of the Asian interior, yet the tectonics of the Pamir Salient are poorly understood. We present a provenance study of the Aertashi section, a Paleogene to late Neogene clastic succession deposited in the Tarim basin to the north of the NW margin of Tibet (the West Kunlun) and to the east of the Pamirs. Our detrital zircon U-Pb ages coupled with zircon fission track, bulk rock Sm-Nd, and petrography data document changes in contributing source terranes during the Oligocene to Miocene, which can be correlated to regional tectonics. We propose a model for the evolution of the Pamir and West Kunlun (WKL), in which the WKL formed topography since at least 200 Ma. By 25 Ma, movement along the Pamir-bounding faults such as the Kashgar-Yecheng Transfer System had commenced, marking the onset of Pamir indentation into the Tarim-Tajik basin. This is coincident with basinward expansion of the northern WKL margin, which changed the palaeodrainage pattern within the Kunlun, progressively cutting off the more southerly WKL sources from the Tarim basin. An abrupt change in the provenance and facies of sediments at Aertashi has a maximum age of 14 Ma; this change records when the Pamir indenter had propagated sufficiently far north that the North Pamir was now located proximal to the Aertashi region. Reference: Blayney, T., et al. (2016), Indentation of the Pamirs with respect to the northern margin of Tibet: Constraints from the Tarim basin sedimentary record, Tectonics, 35, doi:10.1002/ 2016TC004222.

  7. Nano-indentation of single-layer optical oxide thin films grown by electron-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, K.; Oliver, J. B.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical characterization of optical oxide thin films is performed using nano-indentation, and the results are explained based on the deposition conditions used. These oxide films are generally deposited to have a porous microstructure that optimizes laser induced damage thresholds, but changes in deposition conditions lead to varying degrees of porosity, density, and possibly the microstructure of the thin film. This can directly explain the differences in the mechanical properties of the film studied here and those reported in literature. Of the four single-layer thin films tested, alumina was observed to demonstrate the highest values of nano-indentation hardness and elastic modulus. This is likely a result of the dense microstructure of the thin film arising from the particular deposition conditions used.

  8. Field test of classical symmetric encryption with continuous variables quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Jouguet, Paul; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Debuisschert, Thierry; Fossier, Simon; Diamanti, Eleni; Alléaume, Romain; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe; Leverrier, Anthony; Pache, Philippe; Painchault, Philippe

    2012-06-18

    We report on the design and performance of a point-to-point classical symmetric encryption link with fast key renewal provided by a Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) system. Our system was operational and able to encrypt point-to-point communications during more than six months, from the end of July 2010 until the beginning of February 2011. This field test was the first demonstration of the reliability of a CVQKD system over a long period of time in a server room environment. This strengthens the potential of CVQKD for information technology security infrastructure deployments.

  9. Experimental test of the no-go theorem for continuous ψ-epistemic models

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kai-Yu; Zhang, Xin-Ding; Guo, Guang-Zhou; Ai, Bao-Quan; Yan, Hui; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Quantum states are the key mathematical objects in quantum theory; however, there is still much debate concerning what a quantum state truly represents. One such century-old debate is whether a quantum state is ontic or epistemic. Recently, a no-go theorem was proposed, stating that the continuous ψ-epistemic models cannot reproduce the measurement statistic of quantum states. Here we experimentally test this theorem with high-dimensional single photon quantum states without additional assumptions except for the fair-sampling assumption. Our experimental results reproduce the prediction of quantum theory and support the no-go theorem. PMID:27241283

  10. Mechanical properties of cancer cells depend on number of passages: Atomic force microscopy indentation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, Maxim E.; Guz, Natalia V.; Sokolov, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Here we investigate one of the key questions in cell biology, if the properties of cell lines depend on the number of passages in-vitro. It is generally assumed that the change of cell properties (phenotypic drift) is insignificant when the number of passages is low (<10) the changes were reported for passages higher than 30-40. We used quantitative indentation models to extract information on the elastic modulus of the cell body and parameters of the pericellular brush layer from indentation force curves, which are recorded by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using this method, we tested the change of the cell properties of human cancer breast epithelial cell line, MCF-7 (ATCC® HTB-22™), within the passages between 2 and 10. In contrast to the previous expectations, we observed a substantial transient change of the elastic modulus of the cell body during the first four passages (up to 4 times). The changes in the parameters of the pericellular coat were less dramatic (up to 2 times) but still statistically significant.

  11. Use of Continuous Exponential Families to Link Forms via Anchor Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-11-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Yan, Duanli

    2011-01-01

    Continuous exponential families are applied to linking test forms via an internal anchor. This application combines work on continuous exponential families for single-group designs and work on continuous exponential families for equivalent-group designs. Results are compared to those for kernel and equipercentile equating in the case of chained…

  12. On the relationship between indentation hardness and modulus, and the damage resistance of biological materials.

    PubMed

    Labonte, David; Lenz, Anne-Kristin; Oyen, Michelle L

    2017-07-15

    The remarkable mechanical performance of biological materials is based on intricate structure-function relationships. Nanoindentation has become the primary tool for characterising biological materials, as it allows to relate structural changes to variations in mechanical properties on small scales. However, the respective theoretical background and associated interpretation of the parameters measured via indentation derives largely from research on 'traditional' engineering materials such as metals or ceramics. Here, we discuss the functional relevance of indentation hardness in biological materials by presenting a meta-analysis of its relationship with indentation modulus. Across seven orders of magnitude, indentation hardness was directly proportional to indentation modulus. Using a lumped parameter model to deconvolute indentation hardness into components arising from reversible and irreversible deformation, we establish criteria which allow to interpret differences in indentation hardness across or within biological materials. The ratio between hardness and modulus arises as a key parameter, which is related to the ratio between irreversible and reversible deformation during indentation, the material's yield strength, and the resistance to irreversible deformation, a material property which represents the energy required to create a unit volume of purely irreversible deformation. Indentation hardness generally increases upon material dehydration, however to a larger extent than expected from accompanying changes in indentation modulus, indicating that water acts as a 'plasticiser'. A detailed discussion of the role of indentation hardness, modulus and toughness in damage control during sharp or blunt indentation yields comprehensive guidelines for a performance-based ranking of biological materials, and suggests that quasi-plastic deformation is a frequent yet poorly understood damage mode, highlighting an important area of future research. Instrumented

  13. Bias in trials comparing paired continuous tests can cause researchers to choose the wrong screening modality.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Deborah H; Lamb, Molly M; O'Donnell, Colin I; Ringham, Brandy M; Brinton, John T; Muller, Keith E; Lewin, John M; Alonzo, Todd A; Pisano, Etta D

    2009-01-20

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of two continuous screening tests, a common approach is to test the difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. After study participants are screened with both screening tests, the disease status is determined as accurately as possible, either by an invasive, sensitive and specific secondary test, or by a less invasive, but less sensitive approach. For most participants, disease status is approximated through the less sensitive approach. The invasive test must be limited to the fraction of the participants whose results on either or both screening tests exceed a threshold of suspicion, or who develop signs and symptoms of the disease after the initial screening tests. The limitations of this study design lead to a bias in the ROC curves we call paired screening trial bias. This bias reflects the synergistic effects of inappropriate reference standard bias, differential verification bias, and partial verification bias. The absence of a gold reference standard leads to inappropriate reference standard bias. When different reference standards are used to ascertain disease status, it creates differential verification bias. When only suspicious screening test scores trigger a sensitive and specific secondary test, the result is a form of partial verification bias. For paired screening tests with bivariate normally distributed scores, we give formulae and programs to quantify the effect of paired screening trial bias on a paired comparison of area under the curves. We fix the prevalence of disease, and the chance a diseased subject manifests signs and symptoms. We derive the formulas for true sensitivity and specificity, and those for the sensitivity and specificity observed by the study investigator. The observed area under the ROC curves is quite different from the true area under the ROC curves. The typical direction of the bias is a strong inflation in sensitivity, paired with a concomitant

  14. Contraceptive social marketing: a continuous cycle of planning, testing and evaluating.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    This article outlines the contraceptive marketing process used by the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project. The 1st stage of the process involves analysis of the market, the consumer, and the social marketing organization's capabilities. In the 2nd stage, planning, data collected in the analysis stage are used to define objectives, segment target markets, and devise strategies for each element in the marketing mix. In the 3rd stage, all the elements in the marketing mix are developed and tested (e.g. product concepts, pricing, packaging, communication messages) and refined on the basis of test results. In stage 4, the action plan is implemented and marketing progress and institutional performance are monitored. Stage 5 includes an assessment of in-market effectiveness in terms of responses from consumers, retailers, and health professionals. The last stage feeds back to the 1st. All the reviewed data are recycled into analysis to begin again the continuous process of refinement and improvement.

  15. Test of the Isotropy of the Speed of Light Using a Continuously Rotating Optical Resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Sven; Senger, Alexander; Peters, Achim; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Mueller, Holger

    2005-10-07

    We report on a test of Lorentz invariance performed by comparing the resonance frequencies of one stationary optical resonator and one continuously rotating on a precision air bearing turntable. Special attention is paid to the control of rotation induced systematic effects. Within the photon sector of the standard model extension, we obtain improved limits on combinations of 8 parameters at a level of a few parts in 10{sup -16}. For the previously least well known parameter we find {kappa}-tilde{sub e-}{sup ZZ}=(-1.9{+-}5.2)x10{sup -15}. Within the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl test theory, our measurement restricts the isotropy violation parameter {beta}-{delta}-(1/2) to (-2.1{+-}1.9)x10{sup -10}, corresponding to an eightfold improvement with respect to previous nonrotating measurements.

  16. Performance test of Ti/Au bilayer TES microcalorimeter in combination with continuous ADR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishisaki, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Hoshino, A.; Numazawa, T.; Kamiya, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Kojima, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; Mitsuda, K.; Shirron, P.

    2009-12-16

    Performance test of a Ti/Au bilayer TES microcalorimeter has been made in combination with a continuous adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (CADR). The CADR has four stages of ADR to produce continuous cooling by recycling them in dedicated order, and is cryogen-free utilizing a 4K-GM refrigerator. We installed a Ti/Au bilayer TES microcalorimeter and 420-series SQUID array to readout the X-ray signal on the 1st (coldest) stage of the CADR. We successfully operated the CADR at temperature of 120 mK in continuous mode more than 27 hr, however, FWHM energy resolution of the TES microcalorimeter was degraded to 45 eV at 6 keV, as compared to 10 eV when measured in a dilution refrigerator. This is mainly because the temperature stability was not good enough (about 0.6 mK) and the operation temperature was not sufficiently lower than the transition temperature T{sub c} = 135mK of the TES. We operated the TES microcalorimeter at the operation temperature of 105 mK in one-shot mode and the resolution was improved to 30 eV. We also found that the operating point of the TES was affected by the magnetic field of the 3rd and 4th ADR recycle. More complete shielding of the magnetic field is essential for further improvement of the performance of the TES microcalorimeter.

  17. Effect of Heparin on Coagulation Tests: A Comparison of Continuous and Bolus Infusion in Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ahmadidarrehsima, Sudabeh; Balouchi, Abbas; Moghadam, Mahdiye Poodine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Haemodialysis is one of the most conventional treatments of chronic renal failure. The risk of clot formation is high during haemodialysis due to regular contact of blood with the surfaces of foreign objects such as catheters, dialyzers’ membrane, and other materials used for dialysis. Therefore, to prevent clot formation during haemodialysis, the dialysis system requires anticoagulation; this is usually done by heparin. Aim The present study aimed to compare two heparinization methods and determine the proper impacts of these methods. Materials and Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 haemodialysis patients covered by the dialysis center of Amir-al-momenin Hospital of Zabol were studied in two 40-member groups of heparin therapy methods of bolus injection and continuous infusion. PT and PTT were measured in blood samples collected from all patients before starting haemodialysis. The first group received 3000 units of heparin once the haemodialysis machine started to work and 2000 units of heparin two hours later as bolus injection. In the second group, 1500 units of heparin was injected at the start of dialysis after then, 5000 units of heparin (one mL) were mixed with 11 mL of distilled water and infused using a heparin injection pump up to half an hour before the end of dialysis. At 30 minutes after starting dialysis and at the end of 4 hours of haemodialysis, PT and PTT were measured and compared between the two groups. Results According to the results, the mean partial thromboplastin time in the bolus and continuous heparin-receiving group was 41.75±6.29 and 37.90±4.77, respectively, which was statistically significant (p=0.036). But PT was 14.45±1.82 in the bolus heparin group and 13.95±1.39 in the continuous heparin group, which was not significant according to the results of independent t-test (p=0.336). Conclusion The results indicated a statistically significant difference between the bolus heparin injection and the continuous

  18. A combination of concave/convex surfaces for field-enhancement optimization: the indented nanocone.

    PubMed

    García-Etxarri, Aitzol; Apell, Peter; Käll, Mikael; Aizpurua, Javier

    2012-11-05

    We introduce a design strategy to maximize the Near Field (NF) enhancement near plasmonic antennas. We start by identifying and studying the basic electromagnetic effects that contribute to the electric near field enhancement. Next, we show how the concatenation of a convex and a concave surface allows merging all the effects on a single, continuous nanoantenna. As an example of this NF maximization strategy, we engineer a nanostructure, the indented nanocone. This structure, combines all the studied NF maximization effects with a synergistic boost provided by a Fano-like interference effect activated by the presence of the concave surface. As a result, the antenna exhibits a NF amplitude enhancement of ~ 800, which transforms into ~1600 when coupled to a perfect metallic surface. This strong enhancement makes the proposed structure a robust candidate to be used in field enhancement based technologies. Further elaborations of the concept may produce even larger and more effective enhancements.

  19. Testing plasmid stability of Escherichia coli using the Continuously Operated Shaken BIOreactor System.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Michaela; Steinhorn, Gregor; Müller, Carsten; Fuchs, Simone; Ann Chin, Laura; Regestein, Lars; Büchs, Jochen

    2016-11-01

    Plasmids are common vectors to genetically manipulate Escherichia coli or other microorganisms. They are easy to use and considerable experience has accumulated on their application in heterologous protein production. However, plasmids can be lost during cell growth, if no selection pressure like, e.g., antibiotics is used, hampering the production of the desired protein and endangering the economic success of a biotechnological production process. Thus, in this study the Continuously Operated Shaken BIOreactor System (COSBIOS) is applied as a tool for fast parallel testing of strain stability and operation conditions and to evaluate measures to counter such plasmid loss. In specific, by applying various ampicillin concentrations, the lowest effective ampicillin dosage is investigated to secure plasmid stability while lowering adverse ecological effects. A significant difference was found in the growth rates of plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free cells. The undesired plasmid-free cells grew 30% faster than the desired plasmid-bearing cells. During the testing of plasmid stability without antibiotics, the population fraction of plasmid-bearing cells rapidly decreased in continuous culture to zero within the first 48 h. An initial single dosage of ampicillin did not prevent plasmid loss. By contrast, a continuous application of a low dosage of 10 µg/mL ampicillin in the feed medium maintained plasmid stability in the culture. Consequently, the COSBIOS is an apt reactor system for measuring plasmid stability and evaluating methods to enhance this stability. Hence, decreased production of heterologous protein can be prevented. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1418-1425, 2016.

  20. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-03-03

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p < .01, deficits in fine motor regulation (Welch´s t-test = 44.768; p < .001) and sensory/motor activity (Welch'st-test = 95.683, p < .001; Welch's t-test = 79.537, p < .001). Both groups exhibited a similar performance in response control, F(3, 170) = .93, p = .43.Children with ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli.

  1. Validity of the German Version of the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test

    PubMed Central

    Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Kressig, Reto W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test (CS-PFP 10) quantitatively assesses physical functional performance in older adults who have a broad range of physical functional ability. This study assessed the validity and reliability of the CS-PFP 10 German version. Methods Forward-translations and backtranslations as well as cultural adaptions of the test were conducted. Participants were German-speaking Swiss community-dwelling adults aged 64 and older. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients between CS-PFP 10 and gait velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, hand grip strength, SF-36 physical function domain, and Freiburger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha. Results Backtranslation and cultural adaptions were accepted by the CS-PFP 10 developer. CS-PFP 10 total score and subscores (upper body strength, upper body flexibility, lower body strength, balance and coordination, and endurance) correlated significantly with all measures of physical function tested. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.95–0.98). Conclusion The CS-PFP 10 German version is valid and reliable for measuring physical functional performance in German-speaking Swiss community-dwelling older adults. Quantifying physical function is essential for clinical practice and research and provides meaningful insight into physical functional performance of older adults. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01539200. PMID:28775900

  2. The Effect of Indenter Ball Radius on the Static Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E.; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    Static load capacity is a critical design parameter for rolling element bearings used in space mechanisms because of the potential for Brinell (surface dent) damage due to shock and vibration loading events during rocket launch. Brinell damage to bearing raceways can lead to torque variations (noise) and reduced bearing life. The growing use of ceramic rolling elements with high stiffness in hybrid bearings exacerbates the situation. A new family of hard yet resilient materials based upon nickel-titanium is emerging to address such bearing challenges. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (100GPa) and has been shown to endure higher indentation loads than conventional and high performance steel. Indentation load capacity has been reported for relatively large (12.7mm diameter) ceramic (Si3N4) indenter balls pressed against flat plates of 60NiTi. In order to develop damage load threshold criteria applicable to a wide range of bearing designs and sizes, the effects of indenter ball radius and the accuracy of interpolation of the Hertz contact stress relations for 60NiTi must be ascertained. In this paper, results of indentation tests involving ceramic balls ranging from 6.4 to 12.7mm in diameter and highly polished 60NiTi flat plates are presented. When the resulting dent depth data for all the indenter ball sizes are normalized using the Hertz equations, the data (dent depth vs. stress) are comparable. Thus when designing bearings made from 60NiTi, the Hertz stress relations can be applied with relative confidence over a range of rolling element sizes and internal geometries.

  3. The Effect of Indenter Ball Radius on the Static Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Static load capacity is a critical design parameter for rolling element bearings used in space mechanisms because of the potential for Brinell (surface dent) damage due to shock and vibration loading events during rocket launch. Brinell damage to bearing raceways can lead to torque variations (noise) and reduced bearing life. The growing use of ceramic rolling elements with high stiffness in hybrid bearings exacerbates the situation. A new family of hard yet resilient materials based upon nickel-titanium is emerging to address such bearing challenges. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (approx. 100 GPa) and has been shown to endure higher indentation loads than conventional and high performance steel. Indentation load capacity has been reported for relatively large (12.7 mm diameter) ceramic (Si3N4) indenter balls pressed against flat plates of 60NiTi. In order to develop damage load threshold criteria applicable to a wide range of bearing designs and sizes, the effects of indenter ball radius and the accuracy of interpolation of the Hertz contact stress relations for 60NiTi must be ascertained. In this paper, results of indentation tests involving ceramic balls ranging from 6.4 to 12.7 mm in diameter and highly polished 60NiTi flat plates are presented. When the resulting dent depth data for all the indenter ball sizes are normalized using the Hertz equations, the data (dent depth versus stress) are comparable. Thus when designing bearings made from 60NiTi, the Hertz stress relations can be applied with relative confidence over a range of rolling element sizes and internal geometries.

  4. The Effect of Indenter Ball Radius on the Static Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    Static load capacity is a critical design parameter for rolling element bearings used in space mechanisms because of the potential for Brinell (surface dent) damage due to shock and vibration loading events during rocket launch. Brinell damage to bearing raceways can lead to torque variations (noise) and reduced bearing life. The growing use of ceramic rolling elements with high stiffness in hybrid bearings exacerbates the situation. A new family of hard yet resilient materials based upon nickel-titanium is emerging to address such bearing challenges. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (approx. 100 GigaPascals) and has been shown to endure higher indentation loads than conventional and high performance steel. Indentation load capacity has been reported for relatively large (12.7 millimeters diameter) ceramic (Si3N4) indenter balls pressed against flat plates of 60NiTi. In order to develop damage load threshold criteria applicable to a wide range of bearing designs and sizes, the effects of indenter ball radius and the accuracy of interpolation of the Hertz contact stress relations for 60NiTi must be ascertained. In this paper, results of indentation tests involving ceramic balls ranging from 6.4 to 12.7 mm in diameter and highly polished 60NiTi flat plates are presented. When the resulting dent depth data for all the indenter ball sizes are normalized using the Hertz equations, the data (dent depth versus stress) are comparable. Thus when designing bearings made from 60NiTi, the Hertz stress relations can be applied with relative confidence over a range of rolling element sizes and internal geometries.

  5. Adoption of Test Driven Development and Continuous Integration for the Development of the Trick Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, John M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the adoption of a Test Driven Development approach and a Continuous Integration System in the development of the Trick Simulation Toolkit, a generic simulation development environment for creating high fidelity training and engineering simulations at the NASA/Johnson Space Center and many other NASA facilities. It describes what was learned and the significant benefits seen, such as fast, thorough, and clear test feedback every time code is checked-in to the code repository. It also describes a system that encourages development of code that is much more flexible, maintainable, and reliable. The Trick Simulation Toolkit development environment provides a common architecture for user-defined simulations. Trick builds executable simulations using user-supplied simulation-definition files (S_define) and user supplied "model code". For each Trick-based simulation, Trick automatically provides job scheduling, checkpoint / restore, data-recording, interactive variable manipulation (variable server), and an input-processor. Also included are tools for plotting recorded data and various other supporting tools and libraries. Trick is written in C/C++ and Java and supports both Linux and MacOSX. Prior to adopting this new development approach, Trick testing consisted primarily of running a few large simulations, with the hope that their complexity and scale would exercise most of Trick's code and expose any recently introduced bugs. Unsurprising, this approach yielded inconsistent results. It was obvious that a more systematic, thorough approach was required. After seeing examples of some Java-based projects that used the JUnit test framework, similar test frameworks for C and C++ were sought. Several were found, all clearly inspired by JUnit. Googletest, a freely available Open source testing framework, was selected as the most appropriate and capable. The new approach was implemented while rewriting the Trick memory management component, to eliminate a

  6. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  7. Substrate-dependent cell elasticity measured by optical tweezers indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousafzai, Muhammad S.; Ndoye, Fatou; Coceano, Giovanna; Niemela, Joseph; Bonin, Serena; Scoles, Giacinto; Cojoc, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, cell elasticity has been widely investigated as a potential label free indicator for cellular alteration in different diseases, cancer included. Cell elasticity can be locally measured by pulling membrane tethers, stretching or indenting the cell using optical tweezers. In this paper, we propose a simple approach to perform cell indentation at pN forces by axially moving the cell against a trapped microbead. The elastic modulus is calculated using the Hertz-model. Besides the axial component, the setup also allows us to examine the lateral cell-bead interaction. This technique has been applied to measure the local elasticity of HBL-100 cells, an immortalized human cell line, originally derived from the milk of a woman with no evidence of breast cancer lesions. In addition, we have studied the influence of substrate stiffness on cell elasticity by performing experiments on cells cultured on two substrates, bare and collagen-coated, having different stiffness. The mean value of the cell elastic modulus measured during indentation was 26±9 Pa for the bare substrate, while for the collagen-coated substrate it diminished to 19±7 Pa. The same trend was obtained for the elastic modulus measured during the retraction of the cell: 23±10 Pa and 13±7 Pa, respectively. These results show the cells adapt their stiffness to that of the substrate and demonstrate the potential of this setup for low-force probing of modifications to cell mechanics induced by the surrounding environment (e.g. extracellular matrix or other cells).

  8. All optical indentation probe for endoscopic diagnosis of ostheoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, G.; Jost, M.; Steinkopff, A.; Prein, C.; Aszodi, A.; Clausen-Schaumann, H.; Roths, J.

    2015-05-01

    A novel kind of miniaturized, all optical probe concept to measure the elasticity of biological tissues is here presented. The probe is based on fibre Bragg grating sensors (FBG) inscribed in optical fibres. The measurement procedure exploits the high strain sensitivity of Bragg gratings. A study on the reproducibility, reliability, and resolution of the sensor is presented and a first measurement on bovine cartilage tissue is reported. A linear elastic model of the cartilage has been used to analyse the data. The results indicate a good agreement with previous values given in the literature for micro-indentation.

  9. Slab pull and indentation tectonics: insights from 3D laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regard, Vincent; Faccenna, Claudio; Martinod, Joseph; Bellier, Olivier

    2005-03-01

    We investigate, using 3D laboratory experiments, how the dynamics of indentation process are affected by the evolution at depth of the oceanic and continental subductions. Lithospheric plates are modelled by sand-silicone plates floating on glucose syrup, and the density contrast between oceanic and continental lithospheric plates and asthenosphere is reproduced. Analogue experiments model the convergence between two lithospheric plates, a small continent indenting a large continental plate. We show that the surface deformation in front of the indenter and above the oceanic subduction zone depends on the behaviour of the slab below the collision zone. Slab break-off following the subduction of the small continent favours the indentation process, because it results in an increasing compression in front of the indenter, and extension above the neighbouring oceanic subduction, both of them being responsible for the appearance of the indenter-like geometry of the plate boundary. When the slab does not deform significantly at depth, in contrast, the closure of the oceanic domain in front of the indenter is followed by a longer period of continental subduction, during which the tectonic regime within the wide continent remains quite homogeneous. Comparing the presented analogue experiments with the subductions both part of the Arabian indenter within Eurasia, our results suggest that the different tectonic regime on both sides of the Arabia indenter may partly result from the probable occurrence of a detachment at depth under eastern Anatolia.

  10. Measuring Depth-dependent Dislocation Densities and Elastic Strains in an Indented Ni-based Superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, O.M.; Santella, M.; Barabash, R.I.; Ice, G.E.; Tischler, J.

    2011-12-14

    The indentation-induced elastic-plastic zone in an IN 740 Ni-based superalloy was studied by three-dimensional (3-D) x-ray microdiffraction and electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). Large lattice reorientations and the formation of geometrically necessary dislocations are observed in the area with a radius of {approx}75 {mu}m. A residual compression zone is found close to the indent edge. An elastic-plastic transition is observed at {approx}20 {mu}m from the indent edge. Depth dependent dislocation densities are determined at different distances from the indent edge.

  11. Detection of indentation induced Fe-to-Afe phase transformation in lead zirconate titanate.

    SciTech Connect

    Baddorf, Arthur P.; Shin, Junsoo; Gogotsi, Yury G.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Watson, Chad Samuel; Kalinin, Sergei; Juliano, Thomas F.

    2005-08-01

    Instrumented indentation was combined with microscopy and spectroscopy analysis to investigate the local mechanically induced ferroelectric to anti-ferroelectric phase transformation of niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate 95/5. Indentation experiments to a depth of 2 {micro}m were performed using a Berkovich pyramidal three-sided diamond tip. Subsequent Raman spectroscopy and piezoelectric force microscopy revealed that indentation locally induced the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation. Piezoelectric force microscopy demonstrated the ability to map the individual phases within and near indented regions on the niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

  12. Micro- and nanopatterning of inorganic and polymeric substrates by indentation lithography.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jinlong; Lipomi, Darren J; Deng, Jiangdong; Nie, Zhihong; Chen, Xin; Randall, Nicholas X; Nair, Rahul; Whitesides, George M

    2010-07-14

    This paper describes the use of a nanoindenter, equipped with a diamond tip, to form patterns of indentations on planar substrates (epoxy, silicon, and SiO(2)). The process is called "Indentation Lithography" (IndL). The indentations have the form of pits and furrows, whose cross-sectional profiles are determined by the shapes of the diamond indenters, and whose dimensions are determined by the applied load and hardness of the substrate. IndL makes it possible to indent hard materials, to produce patterns with multiple levels of relief by changing the loading force, and to control the profiles of the indentations by using indenters with different shapes. This paper also demonstrates the transfer of indented patterns to elastomeric PDMS stamps for soft lithography, and to thin films of evaporated gold or silver. Stripping an evaporated film from an indented template produces patterns of gold or silver pyramids, whose tips concentrate electric fields. Patterns produced by IndL can thus be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and for other plasmonic applications.

  13. A novel noncontact ultrasound indentation system for measurement of tissue material properties using water jet compression.

    PubMed

    Lu, M H; Zheng, Y P; Huang, Q H

    2005-06-01

    This study is aimed to develop a novel noncontact ultrasonic indentation system for measuring quantitative mechanical properties of soft tissues, which are increasingly important for tissue assessment and characterization. The key idea of this method is to use a water jet as an indenter to compress the soft tissue while at the same time as a medium for an ultrasound beam to propagate through. The use of water jet indentation does not require a rigid compressor in front of the focused high frequency ultrasound transducer to compress the tissue, so that the additional attenuation caused by the rigid compressor and the strong echoes reflected from its surfaces can be avoided. The indentation deformation was estimated from the ultrasound echoes using a cross-correlation algorithm and the indentation force was calculated from the water pressure measured inside the water pipe. Experiments were performed on uniform tissue-mimicking phantoms with different stiffness. The Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of these phantoms were measured using a uniaxial ultrasound compression system. The ratio of the indentation pressure to the tissue relative deformation was obtained from the water indentation. This ratio was well correlated with the Young's modulus (r = 0.87). The results also demonstrated that the water indentation approach could differentiate materials with different stiffness in a combined phantom (288 kPa and 433 kPa). This novel noncontact water indentation approach could be potentially used for the measurement of the elasticity of small samples and with a fast scanning speed.

  14. Effects of water molecules on tribological behavior and property measurements in nano-indentation processes - a numerical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nano/micro-manufacturing under wet condition is an important consideration for various tool-based processes such as indentation, scratching, and machining. The existence of liquids adds complexity to the system, changes the tool/work interfacial condition, and affects material behaviors. For indentation, it may also affect material property measurements. However, little effort has been made to study this challenging issue at nano- or atomistic scale. In this study, we tackle this challenge by investigating nano-indentation processes submerged in water using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach. Compared with dry indentation in which no water molecules are present, the existence of water molecules causes the increase of indentation force in initial penetration, but the decrease of indentation force in full penetration. It also reduces the sticking phenomenon between the work and tool atoms during indenter retraction, such that the indentation geometry can be better retained. Meanwhile, nano-indentation under wet condition exhibits the indentation size effect, while dry nano-indentation exhibits the reverse indentation size effect. The existence of water leads to higher computed hardness values at low indentation loads and a smaller value of Young's modulus. In addition, the friction along the tool/work interface is significantly reduced under wet indentation. PMID:24044504

  15. Effects of water molecules on tribological behavior and property measurements in nano-indentation processes - a numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yachao; Shi, Jing

    2013-09-17

    Nano/micro-manufacturing under wet condition is an important consideration for various tool-based processes such as indentation, scratching, and machining. The existence of liquids adds complexity to the system, changes the tool/work interfacial condition, and affects material behaviors. For indentation, it may also affect material property measurements. However, little effort has been made to study this challenging issue at nano- or atomistic scale. In this study, we tackle this challenge by investigating nano-indentation processes submerged in water using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach. Compared with dry indentation in which no water molecules are present, the existence of water molecules causes the increase of indentation force in initial penetration, but the decrease of indentation force in full penetration. It also reduces the sticking phenomenon between the work and tool atoms during indenter retraction, such that the indentation geometry can be better retained. Meanwhile, nano-indentation under wet condition exhibits the indentation size effect, while dry nano-indentation exhibits the reverse indentation size effect. The existence of water leads to higher computed hardness values at low indentation loads and a smaller value of Young's modulus. In addition, the friction along the tool/work interface is significantly reduced under wet indentation.

  16. If Cell Mechanics Can Be Described by Elastic Modulus: Study of Different Models and Probes Used in Indentation Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Guz, Nataliia; Dokukin, Maxim; Kalaparthi, Vivekanand; Sokolov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Here we investigated the question whether cells, being highly heterogeneous objects, could be described with the elastic modulus (effective Young’s modulus) in a self-consistent way. We performed a comparative analysis of the elastic modulus derived from the indentation data obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) on human cervical epithelial cells (both normal and cancerous). Both sharp (cone) and dull (2500-nm radius sphere) AFM probes were used. The indentation data were processed through different elastic models. The cell was approximated as a homogeneous elastic medium that had either 1), smooth hemispherical boundary (Hertz/Sneddon models) or 2), the boundary covered with a layer of glycocalyx and membrane protrusions (“brush” models). Consistency of these approximations was investigated. Specifically, we tested the independence of the elastic modulus of the indentation depth, which is assumed in these models. We demonstrated that only one model showed consistency in treating cells as a homogeneous elastic medium, namely, the brush model, when processing the indentation data collected with the dull AFM probe. The elastic modulus demonstrated strong depth dependence in all models: Hertz/Sneddon models (no brush taken into account), and when the brush model was applied to the data collected with sharp conical probes. We conclude that it is possible to describe the elastic properties of the cell body by means of an effective elastic modulus, used in a self-consistent way, when using the brush model to analyze data collected with a dull AFM probe. The nature of these results is discussed. PMID:25099796

  17. Preliminary tests on a new near-infrared continuous-wave tissue oximeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casavola, Claudia; Cicco, Giuseppe; Pirrelli, Anna; Lugara, Pietro M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a preliminary study, in vitro and in vivo, with a novel device for near-infrared tissue oximetry. The light sources used are two quasi-continuous-wave LEDs, emitting at 656 and 851 nm, and the detector is a photodiode. The data are acquired in back-scattering configuration, thus allowing the non-invasive characterization of thick tissues. Stability tests were performed by placing the optical probe on a tissue- like phantom and acquiring data for periods of time ranging from 5 to 40 minutes. No significant drifts in the DC signal were observed after a warm-up period of no more than 10 minutes. We performed reproducibility tests by repositioning the optical probe on the phantom for a number of times. We found a reproducibility better than 5% in the DC signal. We also present the results of a preliminary study conducted in vivo, on the calf muscle of human subjects. We report a comparison of the results obtained with the near-infrared oximeter with the values of blood oxygenation ctO2 measured with conventional chemical tests.

  18. Lower nanometer-scale size limit for the deformation of a metallic glass by shear transformations revealed by quantitative AFM indentation

    PubMed Central

    Bennewitz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Summary We combine non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and AFM indentation in ultra-high vacuum to quantitatively and reproducibly determine the hardness and deformation mechanisms of Pt(111) and a Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 metallic glass with unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results on plastic deformation mechanisms of crystalline Pt(111) are consistent with the discrete mechanisms established for larger scales: Plasticity is mediated by dislocation gliding and no rate dependence is observed. For the metallic glass we have discovered that plastic deformation at the nanometer scale is not discrete but continuous and localized around the indenter, and does not exhibit rate dependence. This contrasts with the observation of serrated, rate-dependent flow of metallic glasses at larger scales. Our results reveal a lower size limit for metallic glasses below which shear transformation mechanisms are not activated by indentation. In the case of metallic glass, we conclude that the energy stored in the stressed volume during nanometer-scale indentation is insufficient to account for the interfacial energy of a shear band in the glassy matrix. PMID:26425424

  19. Lower nanometer-scale size limit for the deformation of a metallic glass by shear transformations revealed by quantitative AFM indentation.

    PubMed

    Caron, Arnaud; Bennewitz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    We combine non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and AFM indentation in ultra-high vacuum to quantitatively and reproducibly determine the hardness and deformation mechanisms of Pt(111) and a Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 metallic glass with unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results on plastic deformation mechanisms of crystalline Pt(111) are consistent with the discrete mechanisms established for larger scales: Plasticity is mediated by dislocation gliding and no rate dependence is observed. For the metallic glass we have discovered that plastic deformation at the nanometer scale is not discrete but continuous and localized around the indenter, and does not exhibit rate dependence. This contrasts with the observation of serrated, rate-dependent flow of metallic glasses at larger scales. Our results reveal a lower size limit for metallic glasses below which shear transformation mechanisms are not activated by indentation. In the case of metallic glass, we conclude that the energy stored in the stressed volume during nanometer-scale indentation is insufficient to account for the interfacial energy of a shear band in the glassy matrix.

  20. Performance testing of Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors (CAMs) were tested against the performance criteria of the International Electrotechnical Commission standard 761-6, ``Equipment for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Gaseous Effluents, Part 6: Specific Requirements for Transuranic Aerosol Effluent Monitors``, and against ANSI N42.17B, ``Performance Specification Health Physics Instrumentation--Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation``. The performance criteria require the CAM`s response to a radioactive source to remain within a tolerance while the CAM is exposed to an external influence such as temperature, electromagnetic fields, or ionizing radiations. The CAMs complied within specified tolerances with a majority of the performance specifications. The most significant problems with CAM performance were noted during exposures to external nonionizing radiation fields (radio frequency fields). At numerous frequencies, the CAMs did not respond to radioactive material in the filter holder. At other frequencies and in some orientations, the CAMs overresponded by orders of magnitude. In addition to sensitivity to external nonionizing radiation fields, the CAMs exhibited sensitivity to electrostatic discharges.

  1. Optimization and testing of a continuous rotary motor based on shape memory wires and overrunning clutches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scirè Mammano, Giovanni; Dragoni, Eugenio

    2015-04-01

    A relatively unexplored but extremely attractive field for the application of the shape memory technology is the area of rotary actuators, especially for generating continuous rotations. This paper deals with a novel design of a rotary motor based on SMA wires and overrunning clutches which features high output torque and boundless angular stroke in a compact package. The concept uses a long SMA wire wound round a low-friction cylindrical drum upon which the wire can contract and extend with minimum effort and limited space demand. Fitted to the output shaft by means of an overrunning clutch the output shaft rotates unidirectionally despite the sequence of contractions-elongation cycles of the wire. Following a design procedure developed in a former paper, a six-stage miniature prototype is built and tested showing excellent performance in terms of torque, speed and power density. Characteristic performances of the motor are as follows: size envelope = 48×22×30 mm3; maximum torque = 20 Nmm; specific torque = 6.31×10-4 Nmm/mm3; rotation per module = 15 deg; continuous speed (unloaded) = 4 rpm.

  2. Confidence intervals for the symmetry point: an optimal cutpoint in continuous diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    López-Ratón, Mónica; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Molanes-López, Elisa M; Letón, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Continuous diagnostic tests are often used for discriminating between healthy and diseased populations. For this reason, it is useful to select an appropriate discrimination threshold. There are several optimality criteria: the North-West corner, the Youden index, the concordance probability and the symmetry point, among others. In this paper, we focus on the symmetry point that maximizes simultaneously the two types of correct classifications. We construct confidence intervals for this optimal cutpoint and its associated specificity and sensitivity indexes using two approaches: one based on the generalized pivotal quantity and the other on empirical likelihood. We perform a simulation study to check the practical behaviour of both methods and illustrate their use by means of three real biomedical datasets on melanoma, prostate cancer and coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Prototype tests and description of a 60 tesla quasi-continuous magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Dominguez, T.; Northington, T.E.; Pacheco, M.D.; Rickel, D.G.; Robinson, E.L.; Rogers, J.D.; Schillig, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has designed and will build a large ore, 60 tesla, 100ms (quasi continuous) flat-top magnet for installation and use at Los Alamos. The magnet consists of eight concentric, resistive, solenoid coils fabricated from high strength, high conductivity copper supported by external stainless steel shells. Before each pulse the magnet is cooled to 77 K with liquid nitrogen. The energy for the magnet is provided through converter power supplies from a 1430 MVA, 24kV alternating current energy storage generator. Plans for prototype tests of full scale portions of the magnet are discussed. A detailed description of the magnet is presented along with available information on fabrication methods to be employed in its manufacture.

  4. Nano-indentation of Polycarbonate and Diamine Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2012-02-01

    Nanoindentation of complex surfaces is of great interest from academic and industrial point of view. There are unique properties such as indentation effects resulting in strain softening and strain hardening. There is a differentiation in structure with the depth exhibited with variation of Tg. Hertzian and non-linear deformation models including usage of FEM offer opportunity in analyzing nano-indentation. In polycarbonate, the effective elastic modulus and the hardness decreases as the applied load is increased. As the hold time was increased, the effective elastic modulus and the hardness also decreased. The contact stress increases as the contact strain rate is increased. Presence of diamine(MTBD) in polycarbonate results in making the surface and bulk brittle and acts as an anti-plasticizer by increasing it modulus and reducing yield stress (hardness) and strain to break. Data on modulus and hardness of polycarbonate and blends of diamine as function of depth (strain) and strain rate are presented and compared with those of composites with silica.

  5. Quantitative Hardness Measurement by Instrumented AFM-indentation.

    PubMed

    Caron, Arnaud

    2016-11-22

    In this work, a combination of amplitude-modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy is applied for instrumented hardness measurements on an Au(111) surface with atomistic resolution of single plasticity events. A careful experimental procedure is described that includes the force sensor selection, its calibration, the calibration of the cantilever deflection detection system, and the minimization of instrumental drift for accurate and reproducible force-distance measurements. Also, a method for the data analysis is presented that allows the extraction of force-penetration curves from recorded force-distance curves. A typical curve displays a clear elastic deformation regime up to the first plasticity event, or pop-in, with a length in the range of one to two Burger's vectors. Later plasticity events exhibit the same magnitude. The work of plasticity is further extracted from the measurements. Finally, the hardness is determined in combination with the indentation curve using non-contact atomic force microscopy images of the remaining indents.

  6. Single cell metastatic phenotyping using pulsed nanomechanical indentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babahosseini, Hesam; Strobl, Jeannine S.; Agah, Masoud

    2015-09-01

    The existing approach to characterize cell biomechanical properties typically utilizes switch-like models of mechanotransduction in which cell responses are analyzed in response to a single nanomechanical indentation or a transient pulsed stress. Although this approach provides effective descriptors at population-level, at a single-cell-level, there are significant overlaps in the biomechanical descriptors of non-metastatic and metastatic cells which precludes the use of biomechanical markers for single cell metastatic phenotyping. This study presents a new promising marker for biosensing metastatic and non-metastatic cells at a single-cell-level using the effects of a dynamic microenvironment on the biomechanical properties of cells. Two non-metastatic and two metastatic epithelial breast cell lines are subjected to a pulsed stresses regimen exerted by atomic force microscopy. The force-time data obtained for the cells revealed that the non-metastatic cells increase their resistance against deformation and become more stiffened when subjected to a series of nanomechanical indentations. On the other hand, metastatic cells become slightly softened when their mechanical microenvironment is subjected to a similar dynamical changes. This distinct behavior of the non-metastatic and metastatic cells to the pulsed stresses paradigm provided a signature for single-cell-level metastatic phenotyping with a high confidence level of ∼95%.

  7. Stress Imaging in Indented Si Wafers by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, Jeroen; Cook, Robert F.; Novotny, Lukas; Stranick, Stephan J.

    2007-03-01

    Controlling stress and strain, and consequently, carrier mobility in semiconductor devices is one of the main goals of recent electronic industry. On the other hand, fracture propagation is commonly related to performance degradation in microelectronic and microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices. As miniaturization reaches submicron scales, characterization tools with improved resolution and capable to detect buried surfaces is required. In this work we present confocal Raman imaging in Si wafers to analyze stress and fracture by means of hyperspectral measurements (typically 128x128 spectra). We analyzed indented Si wafers presenting wide range of plastic deformation and fractures. Wide scans (up to 150x150 μm^2) as well as high-resolution scans depict the stress distribution around indented regions and side fractures. Some of the samples were covered with 8 nm of Ti deposited in LN2 temperature. In these samples we acquired hyperspectral images in subsurface conditions and detected possible influences of thermal budged in the stress distribution. We also demonstrate depth sensitivity in a vertical scan. Images suggest 0.3 μm resolution.

  8. Surface form memory by indentation-planarization training of nickel titanium shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xueling

    Shape memory alloys respond to deformation by indentation with strong two-way cyclic displacements on heating and cooling. Shallow indents can vanish on heating, and deeper indents will change depth when thermally cycled. In the present work, following indentation by an added step of surface planarization can furthermore produce what has been termed "Surface Form Memory" or SFM. The term SFM describes an effect that causes one surface form to reversibly transform to another, under thermal excitation. The term surface form is meant to distinguish between say, flat and "bumpy" surfaces, on a scale much larger than the intrinsic surface roughness. Surface protrusions, or 'exdents' may reach an amplitude near 20% of the initial indent depth, and may be created on nano to macroscopic size scales. The surface form memory effect may have special applications into novel optical, microelectromechanical, and tribological systems. Surface deformation of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) was accomplished using spherical, cylindrical, pyramidal, and flat punch indenters. Single indents and indent arrays have been made. The amplitude of SFM after planarization was found to be related to the size of the subsurface deformation zone and can be maximized by thermal cycling, multiple indentations, by changing indent depth and spacing, and by varying indentation temperature parameters. The spatial extent of the subsurface deformation zone was studied by both experimental methods and finite element modeling. Methods such as successive front and back thinning probed the size of the deformation zone directly, while finite element modeling provided stress-strain information supporting the conclusion that the deformation zone responsible for the two-way effect was a slip zone that had plastic strains larger than 7%. NiTi SFM, when studied in constrained recovery experiments, showed an energy density up to 10 MJ/m3, which is about the same as that of a conventional NiTi actuator. This proves

  9. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test: similarities between humans and mice.

    PubMed

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Acheson, Dean; Risbrough, Victoria; Drummond, Sean; Geyer, Mark A; Young, Jared W

    2014-03-15

    Several groups undergo extended periods without sleep due to working conditions or mental illness. Such sleep deprivation (SD) can deleteriously affect attentional processes and disrupt work and family functioning. Understanding the biological underpinnings of SD effects may assist in developing sleep therapies and cognitive enhancers. Utilizing cross-species tests of attentional processing in humans and rodents would aid in mechanistic studies examining SD-induced inattention. We assessed the effects of 36h of: (1) Total SD (TSD) in healthy male and female humans (n=50); and (2) REM SD (RSD) in male C57BL/6 mice (n=26) on performance in the cross-species 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT). The 5C-CPT includes target trials on which subjects were required to respond and non-target trials on which subjects were required to inhibit from responding. TSD-induced effects on human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) were also examined. Effects of SD were also examined on mice split into good and poor performance groups based on pre-deprivation scores. In the human 5C-CPT, TSD decreased hit rate and vigilance with trend-level effects on accuracy. In the PVT, TSD slowed response times and increased lapses. In the mouse 5C-CPT, RSD reduced accuracy and hit rate with trend-level effects on vigilance, primarily in good performers. In conclusion, SD induced impaired 5C-CPT performance in both humans and mice and validates the 5C-CPT as a cross-species translational task. The 5C-CPT can be used to examine mechanisms underlying SD-induced deficits in vigilance and assist in testing putative cognitive enhancers.

  10. Sleep deprivation impairs performance in the 5-choice continuous performance test; Similarities between humans and mice

    PubMed Central

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Acheson, Dean; Risbrough, Victoria; Drummond, Sean; Geyer, Mark A.; Young, Jared W.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups undergo extended periods without sleep due to working conditions or mental illness. Such sleep deprivation (SD) can deleteriously affect attentional processes and disrupt work and family functioning. Understanding the biological underpinnings of SD effects may assist in developing sleep therapies and cognitive enhancers. Utilizing cross-species tests of attentional processing in humans and rodents would aid in mechanistic studies examining SD-induced inattention. We assessed the effects of 36 hours of: 1) Total SD (TSD) in healthy male and female humans (n=50); and 2) REM SD (RSD) in male C57BL/6 mice (n=26) on performance in the cross-species 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test (5C-CPT). The 5C-CPT includes target trials on which subjects were required to respond and non-target trials on which subjects were required to inhibit from responding. TSD-induced effects on human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) were also examined. Effects of SD were also examined on mice split into good and poor performance groups based on pre-deprivation scores. In the human 5C-CPT, TSD decreased hit rate and vigilance with trend-level effects on accuracy. In the PVT, TSD slowed response times and increased lapses. In the mouse 5C-CPT, RSD reduced accuracy and hit rate with trend-level effects on vigilance, primarily in good performers. In conclusion, SD induced impaired 5C-CPT performance in both humans and mice and validates the 5C-CPT as a cross-species translational task. The 5C-CPT can be used to examine mechanisms underlying SD-induced deficits in vigilance and assist in testing putative cognitive enhancers. PMID:24333377

  11. In vivo reference point indentation measurement variability in skeletally mature inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Srisuwananukorn, Andrew; Allen, Matthew R; Brown, Drew M; Wallace, Joseph M; Organ, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Reference point indentation (RPI) was developed to measure material-level mechanical properties of bone in vivo. Studies using RPI in vivo have discriminated between human subjects with previous skeletal fractures and those without and among dogs given different anti-remodeling drugs. Recently, this technology was extended to rats, providing the first in vivo data for rodents. The goal of the present study was to perform in vivo RPI measurements in mice, the most common animal model used to study bone. Twelve 16-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to RPI (three tests) on the anterior tibia, followed by a repeat test session on the contralateral limb 28 days later. A custom MATLAB program was used to derive several outcome parameters from RPI force-displacement curves: first cycle indentation distance (ID-1st), ID increase (IDI), total ID (TID), first cycle unloading slope (US-1st) and first cycle energy dissipation (ED-1st). Data within an individual were averaged across the three tests for each time point. Within-animal variation of all RPI parameters on day 1 ranged from 12.8 to 33.4% and from 14.1 to 22.4% on day 28. Between-animal variation on day 1 ranged from 11.4% to 22.8% and from 7.5% to 24.7% on day 28. At both time points, within- and between-animals, US-1st was the least variable parameter and IDI was most variable. All parameters were nonsignificantly lower at day 28 compared with day 1. These data are important to demonstrate the feasibility of collecting bone material property data longitudinally in mice and will inform the design of future studies in terms of statistical power and appropriate sample size considerations.

  12. Deformation mechanisms in advanced structural ceramics due to indentation and scratch processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipankar

    Plasma pressure compaction technique was used to develop boron carbide (B4C) and zirconium diboride-silicon carbide (ZrB2-SiC) composite. B4C ceramics are extensively used as body armor in military and civilian applications, and ZrB2-SiC composite has been recognized as a potential candidate for high-temperature aerospace applications. In this dissertation, processing parameters, quasistatic and high-strain rate mechanical response, and fundamental deformation mechanisms of these materials have been investigated. In the case of B4C, the rate sensitivity of indentation hardness was determined using a dynamic indentation hardness tester that can deliver loads in 100 micros. By comparing dynamic hardness with the static hardness, it was found that B4C exhibits a lower hardness at high-strain rate, contrary to known behavior in many structural ceramics. However, these results are consistent with the ballistic testing of B4C armors as reported in recent literature. This behavior was further investigated using a series of spectroscopic techniques such as visible and UV micro-Raman, photoluminescence and infrared. These studies not only confirmed that structural transformation occurred during indentation experiments similar to that in ballistic testing of B4C but also suggested a greater degree of structural changes under dynamic loading compared to static loading. Due to the potential application as external heat shields in supersonic vehicles, scratch studies were conducted on the ZrB2-SiC composite. These studies revealed metal-like slip-line patterns which are indeed an unusual in brittle solids at room-temperature. Utilizing classical stress field solutions under combined normal and tangential loads, a rationale was developed for understanding the formation of scratch-induced deformation features. Also, an analytical framework was developed, combining the concept of 'blister field' and the 'secular equation' relating Raman peaks to strain, to measure scratch

  13. Simulation of Watts Bar Unit 1 Initial Startup Tests with Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, Andrew T; Gehin, Jess C; Bekar, Kursat B; Celik, Cihangir

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors* is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications. One component of the testing and validation plan for VERA is comparison of neutronics results to a set of continuous energy Monte Carlo solutions for a range of pressurized water reactor geometries using the SCALE component KENO-VI developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent improvements in data, methods, and parallelism have enabled KENO, previously utilized predominately as a criticality safety code, to demonstrate excellent capability and performance for reactor physics applications. The highly detailed and rigorous KENO solutions provide a reliable nu-meric reference for VERAneutronics and also demonstrate the most accurate predictions achievable by modeling and simulations tools for comparison to operating plant data. This paper demonstrates the performance of KENO-VI for the Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle 1 zero power physics tests, including reactor criticality, control rod worths, and isothermal temperature coefficients.

  14. Determining the Elastic Modulus of Compliant Thin Films Supported on Substrates from Flat Punch Indentation Measurements

    Treesearch

    M.J. Wald; J.M. Considine; K.T. Turner

    2013-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a technique that can be used to measure the elastic properties of soft thin films supported on stiffer substrates, including polymer films, cellulosic sheets, and thin layers of biological materials. When measuring thin film properties using indentation, the effect of the substrate must be considered. Most existing models for determining the...

  15. Indentation analysis of biphasic articular cartilage: nonlinear phenomena under finite deformation.

    PubMed

    Suh, J K; Spilker, R L

    1994-02-01

    The nonlinear indentation response of hydrated articular cartilage at physiologically relevant rates of mechanical loading is studied using a two-phase continuum model of the tissue based on the theory of mixtures under finite deformation. The matrix equations corresponding to the governing mixture equations for this nonlinear problem are derived using a total Lagrangian penalty finite element method, and solved using a predictor-corrector iteration within a modified Newton-Raphson scheme. The stress relaxation indentation problem is examined using either a porous (free draining) indenter or solid (impermeable) indenter under fast and slow compression rates. The creep indentation problem is studied using a porous indenter. We examine the finite deformation response and compare with the response obtained using the linear infinitesimal response. Differences between the finite deformation response and the linear response are shown to be significant when the compression rate is fast or when the indenter is impermeable. The finite deformation model has a larger ratio of peak-to-equilibrium reaction force, and higher relaxation rate than the linear model during the early relaxation period, but a similar relaxation time. The finite deformation model predicts a slower creep rate than the linear model, as well as a smaller equilibrium creep displacement. The pressure distribution below the indenter, particularly near the loaded surface is also larger with the finite deformation model.

  16. Investigation on hardening behavior of metallic glass under cyclic indentation loading via molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Shunbo

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical behavior of a Cu-Zr metallic glass (MG) under cyclic indentation loading is investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. A large-depth indentation after cycling is conducted, and the indentation curves show that hardening behavior occurs with cyclic indentation amplitudes exceeding elastic range. The atomic Von Mises shear strain distributions during the large-depth indentation are investigated, and the pre-existing plastic deformation induced by cyclic indentation is found to be the main contributor to the hardening behavior. By monitoring the atom trajectories and Voronoi atom volume, structure densification and free volume reduction phenomenon are found in the area beneath indenter after cycles. The accumulations of irreversible shear strain during cycling induce the area beneath indenter experience atom structure transition and become densified, thus the sample becomes more resistant to further deformation. In addition, the effects of temperatures and loading rates on the hardening behavior are studied. With higher temperature, more homogenous deformation and plasticity are produced, and then inducing more severe hardening in the MG. While with lower loading rate, the hardening phenomenon is found to be less severe because of the localization of shear strain during cycling.

  17. Temperature-dependent indentation behavior of transformation-toughened zirconia-based ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1991-01-01

    Indentation behavior of Ce-TZP, Y-TZP, and Mg-PSZ between room temperature and 1300 C was investigated. Hardness decreased with increasing temperature for all three materials, but indentation cracking increased with increasing temperature. The opposing temperature dependences are discussed in terms of dislocation and transformation plasticity.

  18. Indentation-induced solid-state dewetting of thin Au(Fe) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosinova, Anna; Schwaiger, Ruth; Klinger, Leonid; Rabkin, Eugen

    2017-07-01

    We studied the effect of local plastic deformation on the thermal stability and solid-state dewetting of thin homogeneous Au(Fe) films deposited on sapphire substrates. The films with ordered square arrays of indents produced by nanoindentation were annealed at the temperature of 700 °C in a forming gas atmosphere. The behavior of the film in the region of shallow indents (reaching a depth up to one half of the film thickness) was very different from the one in the region of deep indents (with depths greater than one half of the film thickness). In the first case, the grain growth in indented and unperturbed regions of the film proceeded quite similarly, and nearly complete healing of the indents was observed. In the latter case, a recrystallization process in the vicinity of the indents resulted in the formation of small new grains with misorientation angles that were not present in the as-deposited film. The thermal grooving along the corresponding new high-energy grain boundaries caused an increase of the depth of the indents and the formation of the dewetting holes. The morphology of these holes and their size were different compared to the holes formed randomly in the unperturbed regions of the same films. In particular, the interaction between the individual indents of an array led to the preferential formation of holes at the periphery of the arrays. These findings shed a new light on the process of nucleation of the solid-state dewetting in thin films.

  19. A novel sample preparation method to avoid influence of embedding medium during nano-indentation

    Treesearch

    Yujie Meng; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Timothy M. Young; Guanben Du; Yanjun Li

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the embedding medium on the nano-indentation measurements of lignocellulosic materials was investigated experimentally using nano-indentation. Both the reduced elastic modulus and the hardness of nonembedded cell walls were found to be lower than those of the embedded samples, proving that the embedding medium used for specimen preparation on cellulosic...

  20. Temperature-dependent indentation behavior of transformation-toughened zirconia-based ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1991-01-01

    Indentation behavior of Ce-TZP, Y-TZP, and Mg-PSZ between room temperature and 1300 C was investigated. Hardness decreased with increasing temperature for all three materials, but indentation cracking increased with increasing temperature. The opposing temperature dependences are discussed in terms of dislocation and transformation plasticity.

  1. Indentations and Starting Points in Traveling Sales Tour Problems: Implications for Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, James N.

    2012-01-01

    A complete, non-trivial, traveling sales tour problem contains at least one "indentation", where nodes in the interior of the point set are connected between two adjacent nodes on the boundary. Early research reported that human tours exhibited fewer such indentations than expected. A subsequent explanation proposed that this was because…

  2. Test-retest reliability of a continuous glucose monitoring system in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tasuku; Loehr, Sarah; Guigard, Emmanuel; McCargar, Linda J; Bell, Gordon J; Senior, Peter; Boulé, Normand G

    2014-08-01

    This study determined the test-retest reliability of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) (iPro™2; Medtronic, Northridge, CA) under standardized conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fourteen individuals with T2D spent two nonconsecutive days in a calorimetry unit. On both days, meals, medication, and exercise were standardized. Glucose concentrations were measured continuously by CGMS, from which daily mean glucose concentration (GLU(mean)), time spent in hyperglycemia (t(>10.0 mmol/L)), and meal, exercise, and nocturnal mean glucose concentrations, as well as glycemic variability (SD(w), percentage coefficient of variation [%cv(w)], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEc, MAGE(ave), and MAGE(abs.gos)], and continuous overlapping net glycemic action [CONGA(n)]) were estimated. Absolute and relative reliabilities were investigated using coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation, respectively. Relative reliability ranged from 0.77 to 0.95 (P<0.05) for GLU(mean) and meal, exercise, and nocturnal glycemia with CV ranging from 3.9% to 11.7%. Despite significant relative reliability (R=0.93; P<0.01), t(>10.0 mmol/L) showed larger CV (54.7%). Among the different glycemic variability measures, a significant between-day difference was observed in MAGEc, MAGE(ave), CONGA6, and CONGA12. The remaining measures (i.e., SD(w), %cv(w), MAGE(abs.gos), and CONGA1-4) indicated no between-day differences and significant relative reliability. In individuals with T2D, CGMS-estimated glycemic profiles were characterized by high relative and absolute reliability for both daily and shorter-term measurements as represented by GLUmean and meal, exercise, and nocturnal glycemia. Among the different methods to calculate glycemic variability, our results showed SD(w), %cv(w), MAGE(abs.gos), and CONGAn with n ≤ 4 were reliable measures. These results suggest the usefulness of CGMS in clinical trials utilizing repeated measured.

  3. Determination of the shape of indenters for nanohardness testers via interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazieva, T. V.; Kuznetsov, A. P.; Gubskii, K. L.; Ponarina, M. V.; Reshetov, V. N.

    2017-02-01

    A method for determination of the contact-area functions for diamond indenters of nanohardness testers using a metrological atomic-force microscope with three-coordinate laser interferometer is proposed. Face shapes of a number of indenters of Berkovich pyramid type are measured. The precision of the indenter surface coordinates measurement is 1 nm. It is demonstrated that the indenter tip shape changes in the course of its use; in particular, for the first 100 nm the deviation from the ideal pyramid can exceed 30 nm. Thus, one of the methods for verification of the contact-area function for an indenter is its periodic calibration using a metrological atomic-force microscope.

  4. Indentation of Ultrathin Elastic Films and the Emergence of Asymptotic Isometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Dominic; Huang, Jiangshui; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas P.; Davidovitch, Benny

    2015-01-01

    We study the indentation of a thin elastic film floating at the surface of a liquid. We focus on the onset of radial wrinkles at a threshold indentation depth and the evolution of the wrinkle pattern as indentation progresses far beyond this threshold. Comparison between experiments on thin polymer films and theoretical calculations shows that the system very quickly reaches the far from threshold regime, in which wrinkles lead to the relaxation of azimuthal compression. Furthermore, when the indentation depth is sufficiently large that the wrinkles cover most of the film, we recognize a novel mechanical response in which the work of indentation is transmitted almost solely to the liquid, rather than to the floating film. We attribute this unique response to a nontrivial isometry attained by the deformed film, and we discuss the scaling laws and the relevance of similar isometries to other systems in which a confined sheet is subjected to weak tensile loads.

  5. Hybrid method for determining material properties from instrumented micro-indentation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-M.; Ruff, A. W.; Dally, J. W.

    1994-05-01

    The impact code EPIC was employed to study the relationship between the applied force and the penetration depth in a micrometer-scale indentation experiment with oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper. EPIC is an elastic-plastic finite element code that uses a Lagrangian formulation and triangular mesh, which can accommodate large deformation without the need to remesh during the computation process. By fitting the force-penetration curves for a triangular indenter with second degree polynomials, it was demonstrated that the fit changed with two material constants in the constitutive equation. A systematic procedure for determining the material constants is described that is based on matching either the slope or the curvature of the force penetration depth curves from numerical simulation and experiments. It is concluded that material constants can be determined from indentation data obtained using pyramidal or spherical indenters as well as a flat-ended indenter.

  6. Topographic evolution of a continental indenter: The eastern Southern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Heberer, Bianca; Prasicek, Günther; Neubauer, Franz; Hergarten, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The topographic evolution of the eastern Southern Alps (ESA) is controlled by the Late Oligocene - Early Miocene indentation of the Adriatic microplate into an overthickened orogenic wedge emplaced on top of the European plate. Rivers follow topographic gradients that evolve during continental collision and in turn incise into bedrock counteracting the formation of topography. In principle, erosional surface processes tend to establish a topographic steady state so that an interpretation of topographic metrics in terms of the latest tectonic history should be straightforward. However, a series of complications impede deciphering the topographic record of the ESA. The Pleistocene glaciations locally excavated alpine valleys and perturbed fluvial drainages. The Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea and the uplift of the northern Molasse Basin led to significant base level changes in the far field of the ESA and the Eastern Alps (EA), respectively. Among this multitude of mechanisms, the processes that dominate the current topographic evolution of the ESA and the ESA-EA drainage divide have not been identified and a number of questions regarding the interaction of crustal deformation, erosion and climate in shaping the present-day topography remain. We demonstrate the expected topographic effects of each mechanism in a 1-dimensional model and compare them with observed channel metrics. Modern uplift rates are largely consistent with long-term exhumation in the ESA and with variations in the normalized steepness index (ksn) indicating a stable uplift and erosion pattern since Miocene times. We find that ksn increases with uplift rate and declines from the indenter tip in the northwest to the foreland basin in the southeast. The number and magnitude of knickpoints and the distortion in longitudinal channel profiles similarly decrease towards the east. Most knickpoints probably evolved during Pleistocene glaciation cycles, but may represent the incrementally

  7. Mechanical Characterization of Mesoscale Interfaces Using Indentation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidindi, Surya R.; Mohan, Soumya; Rossi, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Mesoscale interfaces and interphases play a central role in controlling the many macroscale mechanical properties and performance characteristics of structural materials. Modern instrumented indenters present an unprecedented opportunity to measure, reliably and consistently, the local mechanical responses at a multitude of length scales ranging from tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns. When these high-fidelity measurements are combined with rigorous data analyses protocols, it is possible to systematically study the mechanical role of individual mesoscale interfaces and quantify their contributions to the overall mechanical response of the material system . The advantages of these new measurement and analyses protocols as well as the potential for development and implementation of novel high-throughput assays is discussed.

  8. Performance of a continuous flow ventricular assist device: magnetic bearing design, construction, and testing.

    PubMed

    Allaire, P; Hilton, E; Baloh, M; Maslen, E; Bearnson, G; Noh, D; Khanwilkar, P; Olsen, D

    1998-06-01

    A new centrifugal continuous flow ventricular assist device, the CFVAD III, which is fully magnetic bearing suspended, has been developed. It has only one moving part (the impeller), has no contact (magnetic suspension), is compact, and has minimal heating. A centrifugal impeller of 2 inch outer diameter is driven by a permanent magnet brushless DC motor. This paper discusses the design, construction, testing, and performance of the magnetic bearings in the unit. The magnetic suspension consists of an inlet side magnetic bearing and an outlet side magnetic bearing, each divided into 8 pole segments to control axial and radial displacements as well as angular displacements. The magnetic actuators are composed of several different materials to minimize size and weight while having sufficient load capacity to support the forces on the impeller. Flux levels in the range of 0.1 T are employed in the magnetic bearings. Self sensing electronic circuits (without physical sensors) are employed to determine the impellar position and provide the feedback control signal needed for the magnetic bearing control loops. The sensors provide position sensitivity of approximately 0.025 mm. A decentralized 5 axis controller has been developed using modal control techniques. Proportional integral derivative controls are used for each axis to levitate the magnetically supported impeller.

  9. Impact of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Attention and Response Inhibition as Assessed by Continuous Performance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Accornero, Veronica H.; Amado, Alfred J.; Morrow, Connie E.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the influence of prenatal cocaine exposure on attention and response inhibition measured by continuous performance tests (CPTs) at ages 5 and 7 years. Methods The baseline sample consisted of 253 cocaine-exposed and 223 non–cocaine-exposed children enrolled prospectively at birth and assessed comprehensively through age 7 years in the longitudinal Miami Prenatal Cocaine Study. This report includes a subsample of 415 children (219 cocaine-exposed, 196 non–cocaine-exposed) who completed at least one CPT assessment at ages 5 and/or 7 years. Prenatal cocaine exposure was measured by maternal self-report and maternal and infant bioassays. Deficits in attention and response inhibition are estimated in relation to prenatal cocaine exposure using generalized estimating equations within the general linear model. Results Results indicate cocaine-associated increases in omission errors at ages 5 and 7 as well as increases in response times for target tasks (i.e., slower reaction times) and decreased consistency in performance at age 7. There were no demonstrable cocaine-associated deficits in commission errors. Estimates did not change markedly with statistical adjustment for selected prenatal and postnatal covariates. Conclusion Evidence supports cocaine-associated deficits in attention processing through age 7 years. PMID:17565286

  10. Continuing education course #3: current practices and future trends in neuropathology assessment for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Brad; Garman, Robert H; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen G; Allan Johnson, G; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Krinke, Georg; Little, Peter B; Makris, Susan L; Mellon, R Daniel; Sulik, Kathleen K; Jensen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The continuing education course on Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing (DNT) was designed to communicate current practices for DNT neuropathology, describe promising innovations in quantitative analysis and noninvasive imaging, and facilitate a discussion among experienced neuropathologists and regulatory scientists regarding suitable DNT practices. Conventional DNT neuropathology endpoints are qualitative histopathology and morphometric endpoints of particularly vulnerable sites (e.g., cerebral, cerebellar, or hippocampal thickness). Novel imaging and stereology measurements hold promise for automated analysis of factors that cannot be effectively examined in routinely processed specimens (e.g., cell numbers, fiber tract integrity). The panel recommended that dedicated DNT neuropathology data sets be acquired on a minimum of 8 sections (for qualitative assessment) or 3 sections (for quantitative linear and stereological analyses) using a small battery of stains to examine neurons and myelin. Where guidelines permit discretion, immersion fixation is acceptable for younger animals (postnatal day 22 or earlier), and peripheral nerves may be embedded in paraffin. Frequent concerns regarding DNT data sets include false-negative outcomes due to processing difficulties (e.g., lack of concordance among sections from different animals) and insensitive analytical endpoints (e.g., qualitative evaluation) as well as false-positive results arising from overinterpretation or misreading by inexperienced pathologists.

  11. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  12. Comparison of Numerical Analyses with a Static Load Test of a Continuous Flight Auger Pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoľko, Michal; Stacho, Jakub

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length. The numerical analyses were executed using two types of software, i.e., Ansys and Plaxis, which are based on FEM calculations. Both types of software are different from each other in the way they create numerical models, model the interface between the pile and soil, and use constitutive material models. The analyses have been prepared in the form of a parametric study, where the method of modelling the interface and the material models of the soil are compared and analysed. Our analyses show that both types of software permit the modelling of pile foundations. The Plaxis software uses advanced material models as well as the modelling of the impact of groundwater or overconsolidation. The load-settlement curve calculated using Plaxis is equal to the results of a static load test with a more than 95 % degree of accuracy. In comparison, the load-settlement curve calculated using Ansys allows for the obtaining of only an approximate estimate, but the software allows for the common modelling of large structure systems together with a foundation system.

  13. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  14. Quantifying Local Stiffness Variations in Radiofrequency Ablations with Dynamic Indentation

    PubMed Central

    DeWall, Ryan J.; Varghese, Tomy; Brace, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Elastographic imaging can be used to monitor ablation procedures, however confident and clear determination of the ablation boundary is essential to ensure complete treatment of the pathological target. To investigate the potential for ablation boundary representation on elastographic images, local variations in the viscoelastic properties in radiofrequency ablated regions that were formed in vivo in porcine liver tissue were quantified using dynamic indentation. Spatial stiffness maps were then correlated to stained histology, the gold standard for determination of the ablation periphery or boundary. Regions of interest in eleven radiofrequency ablation samples were indented at 18–24 locations each, including the central zone of complete necrosis and more peripheral transition zones including normal tissue. Storage modulus and rate of stiffening were both greatest in the central ablation zone and decreased with radial distance away from the center. The storage modulus and modulus contrast at the ablation outer transition zone boundary were 3.1 ± 1.0 kPa and 1.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and 36.2 ± 9.1 kPa and 18.3 ± 5.5 at the condensation boundary within the ablation zone. Elastographic imaging modalities were then compared to gross pathology in ex vivo bovine liver tissue. Area estimated from strain, shear wave velocity, and gross pathology images were 470 mm2, 560 mm2, and 574 mm2, respectively, and ablation widths were 19.4 mm, 20.7 mm, and 23.0 mm. This study has provided insights into spatial stiffness distributions within radiofrequency ablations and suggests that low stiffness contrast on the ablation periphery leads to the observed underestimation of ablation extent on elastographic images. PMID:22167553

  15. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon Surfaces with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of nanolithography of silicon and germanium surfaces with bare carbon nanotube tips of scanning probe microscopy devices is considered with large scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Tersoff's reactive many-body potential for heteroatomic C/Si/Ge system. Lithography plays a key role in semiconductor manufacturing, and it is expected that future molecular and quantum electronic devices will be fabricated with nanolithographic and nanodeposition techniques. Carbon nanotubes, rolled up sheets of graphene made of carbon, are excellent candidates for use in nanolithography because they are extremely strong along axial direction and yet extremely elastic along radial direction. In the simulations, the interaction of a carbon nanotube tip with silicon surfaces is explored in two regimes. In the first scenario, the nanotubes barely touch the surface, while in the second they are pushed into the surface to make "nano holes". The first - gentle scenario mimics the nanotube-surface chemical reaction induced by the vertical mechanical manipulation of the nanotube. The second -digging - scenario intends to study the indentation profiles. The following results are reported in the two cases. In the first regime, depending on the surface impact site, two major outcomes outcomes are the selective removal of either a single surface atom or a surface dimer off the silicon surface. In the second regime, the indentation of a silicon substrate by the nanotube is observed. Upon the nanotube withdrawal, several surface silicon atoms are adsorbed at the tip of the nanotube causing significant rearrangements of atoms comprising the surface layer of the silicon substrate. The results are explained in terms of relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds. The proposed method is very robust and does not require applied voltage between the nanotube tips and the surface. The implications of the reported controllable etching and hole-creating for

  16. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon Surfaces with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of nanolithography of silicon and germanium surfaces with bare carbon nanotube tips of scanning probe microscopy devices is considered with large scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Tersoff's reactive many-body potential for heteroatomic C/Si/Ge system. Lithography plays a key role in semiconductor manufacturing, and it is expected that future molecular and quantum electronic devices will be fabricated with nanolithographic and nanodeposition techniques. Carbon nanotubes, rolled up sheets of graphene made of carbon, are excellent candidates for use in nanolithography because they are extremely strong along axial direction and yet extremely elastic along radial direction. In the simulations, the interaction of a carbon nanotube tip with silicon surfaces is explored in two regimes. In the first scenario, the nanotubes barely touch the surface, while in the second they are pushed into the surface to make "nano holes". The first - gentle scenario mimics the nanotube-surface chemical reaction induced by the vertical mechanical manipulation of the nanotube. The second -digging - scenario intends to study the indentation profiles. The following results are reported in the two cases. In the first regime, depending on the surface impact site, two major outcomes outcomes are the selective removal of either a single surface atom or a surface dimer off the silicon surface. In the second regime, the indentation of a silicon substrate by the nanotube is observed. Upon the nanotube withdrawal, several surface silicon atoms are adsorbed at the tip of the nanotube causing significant rearrangements of atoms comprising the surface layer of the silicon substrate. The results are explained in terms of relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds. The proposed method is very robust and does not require applied voltage between the nanotube tips and the surface. The implications of the reported controllable etching and hole-creating for

  17. An evaluation of indentation and finishing properties of bearing grade silicon nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, J.F.; Gardos, M.N.; Hardisty, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the results of studies of the machining performance and the indentation hardness and fracture toughness of different silicon nitride materials as part of an effort to better define the optimum machining conditions for bearing components. This work builds on prior efforts by two of the authors, Gardos and Hardisty (1993) who formulated a simple relationship between diamond grinding performance of silicon nitride bearing balls and a wear equation first detailed by Evans and Wilshaw (1976). The goal of this present work was to determine the general applicability of such a relationship, i.e., could simple indentation studies be used to define finishing conditions for different silicon nitride materials? The availability of such a simple test would reduce the time required for developing an acceptable process when a supplier changes his formulation, or when a new material becomes available. Quicker development of optimum finishing conditions would eventually result in a lower-cost product for users. The initial study by Gardos and Hardisty (1993) was based on limited data taken at a fixed set of conditions. This study expanded the range of conditions evaluated and the number of ceramic materials studied in an effort to define the universality of the relationship between grinding wear, hardness, and toughness. This study has shown that no simple relationship like that first envisioned by the authors exists. The results showed that the grinding wear of the individual silicon nitride materials increased at different rates as a function of load. Because of the differences found in the load dependence of grinding rates, no simple relationship between hardness, fracture toughness, and grinding rate could be found that fit the data over the range of conditions studied.

  18. Design and testing of a unique randomized gravity, continuous flow bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, Carroll B.

    1993-01-01

    A rotating, null gravity simulator, or Couette bioreactor was successfully used for the culture of mammalian cells in a simulated microgravity environment. Two limited studies using Lipomyces starkeyi and Streptomyces clavuligerus were also conducted under conditions of simulated weightlessness. Although these studies with microorganisms showed promising preliminary results, oxygen limitations presented significant limitations in studying the biochemical and cultural characteristics of these cell types. Microbial cell systems such as bacteria and yeast promise significant potential as investigative models to study the effects of microgravity on membrane transport, as well as substrate induction of inactive enzyme systems. Additionally, the smaller size of the microorganisms should further reduce the gravity induced oscillatory particle motion and thereby improve the microgravity simulation on earth. Focus is on the unique conceptual design, and subsequent development of a rotating bioreactor that is compatible with the culture and investigation of microgravity effects on microbial systems. The new reactor design will allow testing of highly aerobic cell types under simulated microgravity conditions. The described reactor affords a mechanism for investigating the long term effects of reduced gravity on cellular respiration, membrane transfer, ion exchange, and substrate conversions. It offers the capability of dynamically altering nutrients, oxygenation, pH, carbon dioxide, and substrate concentration without disturbing the microgravity simulation, or Couette flow, of the reactor. All progeny of the original cell inoculum may be acclimated to the simulated microgravity in the absence of a substrate or nutrient. The reactor has the promise of allowing scientists to probe the long term effects of weightlessness on cell interactions in plants, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. The reactor is designed to have a flow field growth chamber with uniform shear stress, yet transfer

  19. Fault mechanism analysis and simulation for continuity resistance test of electrical components in aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xudong; Yin, Yaping; Wang, Jialin; Sun, Zhaorong

    2017-01-01

    A large number of electrical components are used in civil aircraft engines, whose electrical circuits are usually intricate and complicated. Continuity resistance is an important parameter for the operating state of electrical components. Electrical continuity fault has serious impact on the reliability of the aircraft engine. In this paper, mathematical models of electrical components are established, and simulation is made by Simulink to analyze the electrical continuity fault.

  20. Stop Signal and Conners' Continuous Performance Tasks: Test-Retest Reliability of Two Inhibition Measures in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soreni, Noam; Crosbie, Jennifer; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure test-retest reliability of the Stop-Signal Task (SST) and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in children with ADHD. Methods: 12 children with ADHD (age 11.46 plus or minus 1.66) participated in the study. Primary outcome measures were stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) for the SST and CPT's commission errors (%FP).…

  1. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  2. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  3. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  4. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. The resistance to air flowing from the...

  6. Stop Signal and Conners' Continuous Performance Tasks: Test-Retest Reliability of Two Inhibition Measures in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soreni, Noam; Crosbie, Jennifer; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To measure test-retest reliability of the Stop-Signal Task (SST) and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) in children with ADHD. Methods: 12 children with ADHD (age 11.46 plus or minus 1.66) participated in the study. Primary outcome measures were stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) for the SST and CPT's commission errors (%FP).…

  7. Microsoft Kinect-based Continuous Performance Test: An Objective Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Masó-Besga, Antonio Eduardo; Vallejo-Oñate, Silvia; Baltasar Tello, Itziar; Arrua Duarte, Elsa; Vera Varela, María Constanza; Carballo, Juan; Baca-García, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Background One of the major challenges in mental medical care is finding out new instruments for an accurate and objective evaluation of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early ADHD identification, severity assessment, and prompt treatment are essential to avoid the negative effects associated with this mental condition. Objective The aim of our study was to develop a novel ADHD assessment instrument based on Microsoft Kinect, which identifies ADHD cardinal symptoms in order to provide a more accurate evaluation. Methods A group of 30 children, aged 8-12 years (10.3 [SD 1.4]; male 70% [21/30]), who were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of the Department of Psychiatry at Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital (Madrid, Spain), were included in this study. Children were required to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria of ADHD diagnosis. One of the parents or guardians of the children filled the Spanish version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) rating scale used in clinical practice. Each child conducted a Kinect-based continuous performance test (CPT) in which the reaction time (RT), the commission errors, and the time required to complete the reaction (CT) were calculated. The correlations of the 3 predictors, obtained using Kinect methodology, with respect to the scores of the SWAN scale were calculated. Results The RT achieved a correlation of -.11, -.29, and -.37 with respect to the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity factors of the SWAN scale. The correlations of the commission error with respect to these 3 factors were -.03, .01, and .24, respectively. Conclusions Our findings show a relation between the Microsoft Kinect-based version of the CPT and ADHD symptomatology assessed through parental report. Results point out the importance of future research on the development of objective measures for the diagnosis of ADHD among children

  8. Microsoft Kinect-based Continuous Performance Test: An Objective Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Assessment.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gomez, David; Peñuelas-Calvo, Inmaculada; Masó-Besga, Antonio Eduardo; Vallejo-Oñate, Silvia; Baltasar Tello, Itziar; Arrua Duarte, Elsa; Vera Varela, María Constanza; Carballo, Juan; Baca-García, Enrique

    2017-03-20

    One of the major challenges in mental medical care is finding out new instruments for an accurate and objective evaluation of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early ADHD identification, severity assessment, and prompt treatment are essential to avoid the negative effects associated with this mental condition. The aim of our study was to develop a novel ADHD assessment instrument based on Microsoft Kinect, which identifies ADHD cardinal symptoms in order to provide a more accurate evaluation. A group of 30 children, aged 8-12 years (10.3 [SD 1.4]; male 70% [21/30]), who were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of the Department of Psychiatry at Fundación Jiménez Díaz Hospital (Madrid, Spain), were included in this study. Children were required to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria of ADHD diagnosis. One of the parents or guardians of the children filled the Spanish version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior (SWAN) rating scale used in clinical practice. Each child conducted a Kinect-based continuous performance test (CPT) in which the reaction time (RT), the commission errors, and the time required to complete the reaction (CT) were calculated. The correlations of the 3 predictors, obtained using Kinect methodology, with respect to the scores of the SWAN scale were calculated. The RT achieved a correlation of -.11, -.29, and -.37 with respect to the inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity factors of the SWAN scale. The correlations of the commission error with respect to these 3 factors were -.03, .01, and .24, respectively. Our findings show a relation between the Microsoft Kinect-based version of the CPT and ADHD symptomatology assessed through parental report. Results point out the importance of future research on the development of objective measures for the diagnosis of ADHD among children and adolescents.

  9. Development and beam test of a continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Mustapha, B.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Luo, Y.; Paskvan, D.; Perry, A.; Schrage, D.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Sommer, R.; Toter, W.; Zinkann, G.

    2012-11-01

    The front end of any modern ion accelerator includes a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). While many pulsed ion linacs successfully operate RFQs, several ion accelerators worldwide have significant difficulties operating continuous wave (CW) RFQs to design specifications. In this paper we describe the development and results of the beam commissioning of a CW RFQ designed and built for the National User Facility: Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). Several innovative ideas were implemented in this CW RFQ. By selecting a multisegment split-coaxial structure, we reached moderate transverse dimensions for a 60.625-MHz resonator and provided a highly stabilized electromagnetic field distribution. The accelerating section of the RFQ occupies approximately 50% of the total length and is based on a trapezoidal vane tip modulation that increased the resonator shunt impedance by 60% in this section as compared to conventional sinusoidal modulation. To form an axially symmetric beam exiting the RFQ, a very short output radial matcher with a length of 0.75βλ was developed. The RFQ is designed as a 100% oxygen-free electronic (OFE) copper structure and fabricated with a two-step furnace brazing process. The radio frequency (rf) measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured intrinsic Q equal to 94% of the simulated value for OFE copper. An O5+ ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was used for the RFQ commissioning. In off-line beam testing, we found excellent coincidence of the measured beam parameters with the results of beam dynamics simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK, which was developed at Argonne. These results demonstrate the great success of the RFQ design and fabrication technology developed here, which can be applied to future CW RFQs.

  10. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: continuous flow anaerobic pump test results.

    PubMed

    Schimel, Keith A; Boone, David R

    2010-03-01

    In this investigation, the Anaerobic Pump (TAP) and a conventional continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) were tested side by side to compare performance. TAP integrates anaerobic digestion (AD) with biogas plasticization-disruption cycle to improve mass conversion to methane. Both prototypes were fed a "real world" 50:50 mixture of waste-activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge and operated at room temperature (20 degrees Celsius). The quantitative results from three steady states show TAP peaked at 97% conversion of the particulate COD in a system hydraulic residence time (HRT) of only 6 days. It achieved a methane production of 0.32 STP cubic meter CH(4) per kilogram COD fed and specific methane yield of 0.78 m(3) CH(4) per cubic meter per day. This was more than three times the CFSTR specific methane yield (0.22 m(3) CH(4) per cubic meter per day) and more than double the CFSTR methane production (0.15 m(3) CH(4) per kilogram COD fed). A comparative kinetics analysis showed the TAP peak substrate COD removal rate (R (o)) was 2.24 kg COD per cubic meter per day, more than three times the CFSTR substrate removal rate of 0.67 kg COD per cubic meter per day. The three important factors contributing to the superior TAP performance were (1) effective solids capture (96%) with (2) mass recycle and (3) stage II plasticization-disruption during active AD. The Anaerobic Pump (TAP) is a high rate, high efficiency-low temperature microbial energy engine that could be used to improve renewable energy yields from classic AD waste substrates like refuse-derived fuels, treatment plant sludges, food wastes, livestock residues, green wastes and crop residuals.

  11. Measurement of cervical sensorimotor control: the reliability of a continuous linear movement test.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Sarah; Hallemans, Ann; Van de Heyning, Paul; Truijen, Steven; Stassijns, Gaetane; Wuyts, Floris; De Hertogh, Willem

    2014-10-01

    Cervical sensorimotorcontrol (cSMC) is traditionally assessed by head repositioning accuracy (HRA) measurements. A disadvantage of the HRA measurements is their static character and lack of visual feedback. In 2008, Sjölander et al. developed a continuous linear movement test (CLMT). This CLMT uses several kinematic parameters, such as reduced range of motion (ROM), velocity and movement smoothness, to quantify altered sensorimotor functions. Investigate the inter and intra rater reliability of a CLMT. Reliability study. Fifty asymptomatic adults were recruited. Five outcome measures were obtained: the time (t) needed to perform one movement, variation in time (var-t), ROM, peak velocity (peak-v) and Jerk index (Cj). A 3D analysis of cervical movements during the CLMT was made using ZEBRIS™. MATLAB™ was used to process data provided by the ZEBRIS™ device. These data were used to calculate ICC or κw-values, depending on the normality of the distribution, using SPSS. The intra rater reliability shows slight to moderate agreement for t (ICC: 0.19-0.42 and κw: 0.42) and peak-v (κw: 0.27-0.47), moderate to substantial agreement for var-t (ICC: 0.54-0.73) and ROM (ICC: 0.43-0.65) and fair to substantial agreement for Cj (κw: 0.27-0.69). The inter rater reliability shows moderate to almost perfect agreement for t (ICC: 0.54-0.93), almost perfect agreement for var-t (κw: 0.81-0.96) and ROM (ICC: 0.86-0.95), slight to moderate agreement for peak-v (κw: -0.03-0.44) and slight to fair agreement for Cj (κw: 0.00-0.31). Time and ROM are presently the most reliable outcome measures. However, it must be noted that the discriminant validity of the time parameters needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality Control for Scoring Tests Administered in Continuous Mode: An NCME Instructional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi; Gutentag, Tony; Baumer, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Quality control (QC) in testing is paramount. QC procedures for tests can be divided into two types. The first type, one that has been well researched, is QC for tests administered to large population groups on few administration dates using a small set of test forms (e.g., large-scale assessment). The second type is QC for tests, usually…

  13. The Effect of Continuing Education on the Test Scores of a State Licensing Board Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergener, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the scores optometrists obtained on a pharmacology examination with years since licensure and type of continuing education participation preceding the examination. Recent licensees scored better than those licensed before 1953. Continuing education activity also promoted better scores. (CT)

  14. On the determination of elastic moduli of cells by AFM based indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yue; Xu, Guang-Kui; Wang, Gang-Feng

    2017-04-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to measure the mechanical properties of biological cells through indentations. In most of existing studies, the cell is supposed to be linear elastic within the small strain regime when analyzing the AFM indentation data. However, in experimental situations, the roles of large deformation and surface tension of cells should be taken into consideration. Here, we use the neo-Hookean model to describe the hyperelastic behavior of cells and investigate the influence of surface tension through finite element simulations. At large deformation, a correction factor, depending on the geometric ratio of indenter radius to cell radius, is introduced to modify the force-indent depth relation of classical Hertzian model. Moreover, when the indent depth is comparable with an intrinsic length defined as the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus, the surface tension evidently affects the indentation response, indicating an overestimation of elastic modulus by the Hertzian model. The dimensionless-analysis-based theoretical predictions, which include both large deformation and surface tension, are in good agreement with our finite element simulation data. This study provides a novel method to more accurately measure the mechanical properties of biological cells and soft materials in AFM indentation experiments.

  15. On the determination of elastic moduli of cells by AFM based indentation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yue; Xu, Guang-Kui; Wang, Gang-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to measure the mechanical properties of biological cells through indentations. In most of existing studies, the cell is supposed to be linear elastic within the small strain regime when analyzing the AFM indentation data. However, in experimental situations, the roles of large deformation and surface tension of cells should be taken into consideration. Here, we use the neo-Hookean model to describe the hyperelastic behavior of cells and investigate the influence of surface tension through finite element simulations. At large deformation, a correction factor, depending on the geometric ratio of indenter radius to cell radius, is introduced to modify the force-indent depth relation of classical Hertzian model. Moreover, when the indent depth is comparable with an intrinsic length defined as the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus, the surface tension evidently affects the indentation response, indicating an overestimation of elastic modulus by the Hertzian model. The dimensionless-analysis-based theoretical predictions, which include both large deformation and surface tension, are in good agreement with our finite element simulation data. This study provides a novel method to more accurately measure the mechanical properties of biological cells and soft materials in AFM indentation experiments. PMID:28368053

  16. Measuring the mechanical properties of plant cells by combining micro-indentation with osmotic treatments.

    PubMed

    Weber, Alain; Braybrook, Siobhan; Huflejt, Michal; Mosca, Gabriella; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Smith, Richard S

    2015-06-01

    Growth in plants results from the interaction between genetic and signalling networks and the mechanical properties of cells and tissues. There has been a recent resurgence in research directed at understanding the mechanical aspects of growth, and their feedback on genetic regulation. This has been driven in part by the development of new micro-indentation techniques to measure the mechanical properties of plant cells in vivo. However, the interpretation of indentation experiments remains a challenge, since the force measures results from a combination of turgor pressure, cell wall stiffness, and cell and indenter geometry. In order to interpret the measurements, an accurate mechanical model of the experiment is required. Here, we used a plant cell system with a simple geometry, Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells, to examine the sensitivity of micro-indentation to a variety of mechanical and experimental parameters. Using a finite-element mechanical model, we found that, for indentations of a few microns on turgid cells, the measurements were mostly sensitive to turgor pressure and the radius of the cell, and not to the exact indenter shape or elastic properties of the cell wall. By complementing indentation experiments with osmotic experiments to measure the elastic strain in turgid cells, we could fit the model to both turgor pressure and cell wall elasticity. This allowed us to interpret apparent stiffness values in terms of meaningful physical parameters that are relevant for morphogenesis.

  17. Indentation-induced structural phase transformations of semiconductor materials and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyat, Maha; Sosa, Norma; Chaudhri, M. Munawar; Cavendish laboratory, University of Cambridge Team; T. J. Watson Research Center, IBM Collaboration

    During hardness indentation materials are subjected to highly localized pressures. These pressures may cause a complete change of the crystal structure of the material within the indented zone. Such structural phase transformations were observed within Vickers indentations made at room temperature in single crystals and amorphous films of Si and Ge. However, when indentations were made at 77 K in Si and Ge, no phase transitions were observed in either. Measurements were also taken from indentations made in silicon single crystals at different temperatures namely 263, 243, 235 and 206 K, and they showed a strong correlation of phase transformation with temperature. It was suggested that during room temperature indentations there is a significant temperature rise approximately to 760 K, which may assist phase transformation. Raman spectroscopy was used as an ex-situ tool monitoring phase transformations in semiconductor materials. In-situ electrical characterizations of indentation-induced metallization in single crystals of silicon were performed using two- and four-contact measurements. The previous work has led to a technique relates to semiconductor device manufacturing, including solar cells, which is a method for controlling the removal of a surface layer from a base substrate utilizing low-temperature. KACST is acknowledged for support.

  18. Size effects in the conical indentation of an elasto-plastic solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danas, K.; Deshpande, V. S.; Fleck, N. A.

    2012-09-01

    The size effect in conical indentation of an elasto-plastic solid is predicted via the Fleck and Willis formulation of strain gradient plasticity (Fleck, N.A. and Willis, J.R., 2009, A mathematical basis for strain gradient plasticity theory. Part II: tensorial plastic multiplier, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 57, 1045-1057). The rate-dependent formulation is implemented numerically and the full-field indentation problem is analyzed via finite element calculations, for both ideally plastic behavior and dissipative hardening. The isotropic strain-gradient theory involves three material length scales, and the relative significance of these length scales upon the degree of size effect is assessed. Indentation maps are generated to summarize the sensitivity of indentation hardness to indent size, indenter geometry and material properties (such as yield strain and strain hardening index). The finite element model is also used to evaluate the pertinence of the Johnson cavity expansion model and of the Nix-Gao model, which have been extensively used to predict size effects in indentation hardness.

  19. Further damage induced by water in micro-indentations in phosphate laser glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Jian, Qingyun; Yuan, Weifeng; Gu, Bin; Ji, Fang; Huang, Wen

    2014-02-01

    Using a microhardness tester, artificial flaws were made by micro-indentation in N31 Nd-doped phosphate laser glass. Indentation fracture toughness, KIC, was estimated as 0.45-0.53 MPa m1/2 from these indentations. The glasses with indentations were then immersed in ultrapure water to investigate further water-induced damage of these indentations. Stress-enhanced hydrolysis leads to the propagations of radial crack, lateral cracks and microcracks in the subsurface. These crack propagations therefore cause deformation in subsurface to form annular reflections regions around the indentations and further material collapse within imprints. After the residual stresses are exhausted, the leaching plays a more dominated role in glass corrosion in the further immersion. After immersion, the material structure slackens around micro-indentation, which decreases the contact stiffness and results in a lower nano-hardness. For the surface far away from flaws, water immersion presents a weak effect on the near-surface mechanical since the matrix leaching in phosphate glass restricts the formation of hydration layer. During first 20 min immersion, due to higher chemical activity and lower fracture toughness, the radial cracks show a faster propagation in phosphate glass compared with that in K9 silicate glass. For further immersion, crack healing occurs in silicate glass but not in phosphate glass. Analysis shows that the formation of hydration layer on crack walls plays an important role in crack healing in glasses.

  20. On the determination of elastic moduli of cells by AFM based indentation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yue; Xu, Guang-Kui; Wang, Gang-Feng

    2017-04-03

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to measure the mechanical properties of biological cells through indentations. In most of existing studies, the cell is supposed to be linear elastic within the small strain regime when analyzing the AFM indentation data. However, in experimental situations, the roles of large deformation and surface tension of cells should be taken into consideration. Here, we use the neo-Hookean model to describe the hyperelastic behavior of cells and investigate the influence of surface tension through finite element simulations. At large deformation, a correction factor, depending on the geometric ratio of indenter radius to cell radius, is introduced to modify the force-indent depth relation of classical Hertzian model. Moreover, when the indent depth is comparable with an intrinsic length defined as the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus, the surface tension evidently affects the indentation response, indicating an overestimation of elastic modulus by the Hertzian model. The dimensionless-analysis-based theoretical predictions, which include both large deformation and surface tension, are in good agreement with our finite element simulation data. This study provides a novel method to more accurately measure the mechanical properties of biological cells and soft materials in AFM indentation experiments.

  1. Acceptance Test Report for AMS-4 Continuous Air Monitors (CAM) at 241AN Exhausters

    SciTech Connect

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-11-11

    This report provides the completed copy and test results of the Acceptance Test Procedure (TWR-4713). Test results were actually hand written in the ATP including redline changes. All acceptance criteria steps were completed satisfactorily without exceptions.

  2. Analytical Methodology Used To Assess/Refine Observatory Thermal Vacuum Test Conditions For the Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantano, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15 The Landsat 8 Data Continuity Mission, which is part of the United States Geologic Survey (USGS), launched February 11, 2013. A Landsat environmental test requirement mandated that test conditions bound worst-case flight thermal environments. This paper describes a rigorous analytical methodology applied to assess refine proposed thermal vacuum test conditions and the issues encountered attempting to satisfy this requirement.

  3. In situ spectroscopic study of the plastic deformation of amorphous silicon under nonhydrostatic conditions induced by indentation

    DOE PAGES

    Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Michaels, C. A.; Bradby, Jodie E.; ...

    2015-12-17

    Indentation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films was studied by in situ Raman imaging of the deformed contact region of an indented sample, employing a Raman spectroscopy-enhanced instrumented indentation technique (IIT). The occurrence and evolving spatial distribution of changes in the a-Si structure caused by processes, such as polyamorphization and crystallization, induced by indentation loading were observed. Furthermore, the obtained experimental results are linked with previously published work on the plastic deformation of a-Si under hydrostatic compression and shear deformation to establish a model for the deformation behavior of a-Si under indentation loading.

  4. A new index for the prediction of the indentation of composites under low velocity impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, V.; Caprino, G.; Leone, C.

    2012-07-01

    The effectiveness of a new empirical model for the prediction of the indentation depth resulting in a glass fibre laminates subjected to a low velocity impact, was verified. CFRP indentation data, drawn from a database, were considered to validate the new model. The advantage of the new model is that the effect of the tup diameter is explicitly accounted for. Furthermore, a single material constant has to be experimentally determined and it can be assumed as an index for the indentation sensitivity. The constant was found similar for GFRP and CFRP laminates denoting independence of constraint conditions, laminate type or laminae orientation and stacking sequence.

  5. Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AION and MgAl2O4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AlON and MgAl2O4 by Parimal J. Patel, Jeffrey J. Swab, Mark Staley, and George D. Quinn ARL...3852 July 2006 Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AlON and MgAl2O4 Parimal J. Patel and Jeffrey J. Swab Weapons and Materials...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Indentation Size Effect (ISE) of Transparent AlON and MgAl2O4 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d

  6. One year continuous soil gas monitoring above an EGR test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furche, Markus; Schlömer, Stefan; Faber, Eckhard; Dumke, Ingolf

    2010-05-01

    Setup and first results of an ongoing research activity are presented, which is funded by the German Geotechnologien program within in the joint project CLEAN (CO2 Large Scale Enhanced Gas Recovery in the Altmark Natural Gas Field). The task is to establish several soil gas monitoring stations above a partly exhausted gas field in the Altmark which will be used for an enhanced gas recovery (EGR) test by injecting CO2 into the reservoir. The aim is to optimize the monitoring technique including automatic data transfer and data exploitation and to understand mechanisms of natural variations of soil gas concentrations in the specific area. Furthermore the suitability of these measurements as a contribution to leakage detection shall be evaluated. A network of 13 gauging stations for the measurement of CO2 is working continuously for about one year. They are spread over an area of 8 x 3 km and are situated in direct vicinity of existing deep boreholes as the most likely locations for possible leakage. In addition one station is placed far outside the gasfield as a reference point. The technique applied to measure soil gas concentrations uses a gas stream circulating in a tube going down a shallow borehole where the circulating gas is in contact with the soil gas phase via a gas permeable membrane. Above surface, moisture is removed from the gas stream before it reaches several gas sensors for CO2. Besides these, several other parameters are determined as well, e.g. soil moisture and soil temperature, water level, gas flow and gas moisture. In addition a meteorological station gives information about precipitation, air humidity, temperature and pressure, global radiation, wind direction and velocity in the area. Data are continuously collected by dataloggers at each station (5 minutes interval), transferred via GSM routers to the BGR server in Hannover and are stored in a specially designed database. The database does not only contain the measurements but also

  7. Survival and growth of newly transformed Lampsilis cardium and Lampsilis siliquoidea in a flow-through, continuous feeding test system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Hess, Karina R.; Bartsch, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A test system was evaluated for assessing chronic toxicity of waterborne chemicals with early life stage mussels. To determine if the test system could result in ≥80% survival in a control (unexposed) group, fat mucket mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea Barnes, 1823) and plain pocketbook mussels (L. cardium Rafinesque, 1820) 1 day post transformation were stocked into test chambers (250 mL beakers, water volume, 200 mL, 21 °C, 40 mussels of 1 species per chamber) within a test system constructed for conducting chronic, continuous exposure, flow-through toxicity tests. The test system contained 60 chambers containing silica sand, 30 chambers with L. siliquoidea, and 30 with L. cardium. Each chamber in the continuous feeding system received 1 of 6 food types prepared with concentrated algal products. After 28 days, mussels were harvested from chambers to assess survival and growth. For L. siliquoidea, mean survival ranged from 34 to 80% and mean shell length ranged from 464 to 643 µm. For L. cardium, mean survival ranged from 12 to 66% and mean shell length ranged from 437 to 612 µm. The maximum mean growth rate for L. siliquoidea was 12.7 µm/d and for L. cardium was 11.8 µm/d. When offered a continuous diet of Nannochloropsis, Tetraselmis, and Chlorella for 28 days in the test system, the survival of 1 day post transformation L. siliquoidea was 80%. The test system can be easily enhanced with a pumping system continuously delivering test chemical to the test system's flow stream allowing for chronic toxicity tests with 1 day post transformation mussels.

  8. Functional characterization of normal and degraded bovine meniscus: rate-dependent indentation and friction studies.

    PubMed

    Baro, Vincent J; Bonnevie, Edward D; Lai, Xiaohan; Price, Christopher; Burris, David L; Wang, Liyun

    2012-08-01

    The menisci are known to play important roles in normal joint function and the development of diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, our understanding of meniscus' load bearing and lubrication properties at the tissue level remains limited. The objective of this investigation was to characterize the site- and rate-dependency of the compressive and frictional responses of the meniscus under a spherical contact load. Using a custom testing device, indentation tests with rates of 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100μm/s were performed on bovine medial meniscus explants, which were harvested from five locations including the femoral apposing surface at the anterior, central, and posterior locations and the central portion at the deep layer and at the tibial apposing surface (n=5 per location). Sliding tests with rates of 0.05, 0.25, 1, and 5mm/s were performed on the central femoral aspect and central tibial aspect superficial samples (n=6 per location). A separate set of superficial samples were subjected to papain digestion and tested prior to and post treatment. Our findings are: i) the Hertz contact model can be used to fit the force responses of meniscus under the conditions tested; ii) the anterior region is significantly stiffer than the posterior region and tissue modulus does not vary with tissue depth at the central region; iii) the friction coefficient of the meniscus is on the order of 0.02 under migratory contacts and the femoral apposing surface tends to show lower friction than the tibial apposing surface; iv) the meniscus exhibits increased modulus and lubrication with increased indentation and sliding rates; v) matrix degradation impedes the functional load support and lubrication properties of the tissue. The site- and rate-dependent properties of the meniscus may be attributed to spatial variations of the tissue's biphasic structure. These properties substantiate the role of the meniscus as one of the important bearing surfaces of the knee. These data

  9. Testing the Ability of TOPMODEL to Assess the Spatial Continuity and Connectivity of Soil Moisture Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, G.; Roy, A.

    2006-05-01

    Examining hydrologic connectivity as a major control on stormflow generation has emerged as an important field of research in forest hydrology. Knowledge on this new concept, however, has yet to be incorporated in most hydrological models and to be proven useful to simulate the "on-off" behaviour of small humid temperate catchments. In this study, we examine the hydrologic behaviour of a small headwater forested catchment, the Hermine, located in the Laurentians near Montreal, Quebec. This watershed is a textbook case for the application of the popular TOPMODEL. Still, the model does not perform well, especially following extended dry periods. Several explanations have been proposed regarding this issue, chiefly the existence of two or more preferential states and threshold-like processes associated with the spatio-temporal variations of antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). As these dominantly govern the initiation of stormflow, we test here the ability of the model to differentiate random patterns of soil moisture from organized ones. Using the topographic index distribution and the local storage deficit maps produced at each daily time step, the spatial correlation structure of potentially saturated areas and moisture conditions is studied through the use of geostatistical techniques. We also examine the methods of Western et al. (2001) in reference to the use of connectivity statistics to relate different soil moisture patterns with simulated hydrologic responses. From the spatial patterns of soil moisture simulated, TOPMODEL is capable of isolating several hydrologic preferential states, more or less wet with respect to a threshold value based on the mean catchment deficit. The changes in the disruption of spatial continuity of soil moisture are easier to identify when the correlation length among the patterns exhibits a high degree of seasonality. On the other hand, TOPMODEL falls short of representing some complex spatial patterns of disconnected saturated

  10. Experimental pressure solution creep of quartz by indenter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, J.; Guiguet, R.; Renard, F.; Jenatton, L.

    2006-12-01

    The principle of the experiment is to measure the displacement-rate of indenter that dissolve mineral under stress in order to establish creep laws. A stainless steel cylindrical indenter (200 microns diameter) mounted under a free-moving piston is put in contact with a crystal of quartz in presence of its saturated solution. A dead weigh put on the piston sets the stress. The device is maintained within pressure vessel during several weeks or months at constant temperature and fluid pressure. The depths of the dissolution holes are measured at the end of the experiments. Various types of experimental protocols have been used with difference (i) about quartz (synthetic or natural), (ii) about the nature of the solution (Na0H N, H20, dry), (iii) about the way the contact solid/solution/solid is filled (iv) about the relation between stress and optical quartz axis. Results are shown as displacement-rate versus stress relations for the 4 configurations, with always the same temperature (350°C), solution (NaOH N) and fluid pressure (200 MPa) and with several weeks or months of duration. When using dry contact or water no significant hole may be seen. Short durations (days) never allowed measurable hole to develop. The results show a large scattering of displacement-rates for same stress values, even for the same protocol. From observations under microscope two explanations are possible either a strong effect of the roughening of the dissolution interface that evolve with time and that seems to play a crucial role in the displacement-rate versus stress relation or some effects of temporary undersaturating during the experiment due to experimental perturbations. The results also show a large overlapping between the displacement-rates obtained with the 4 protocols. Plotting all the results on the same log-log diagram shows a displacement-rate versus stress relation that fit a power law with a stress exponent of 1.75. Due to the relatively high stress values this is not

  11. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  12. Indentation size effects in the nano- and micro-hardness of a Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, F.; Ding, Y. H.; Deng, X. H.; Zhang, P.; Long, Z. L.

    2014-10-01

    Hardness of a Fe-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) was evaluated by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation (nano-hardness) and instrumented indentation with a traditional indenter setup (micro-hardness) under different maximum loads at room temperature. The nano-hardness and the micro-hardness were found to be comparable. For both of the indentation methods, indentation size effect (ISE) is detected as increase in hardness with decrease in indentation peak load. It is proposed that strain rate dependent softening, loading history and the lag between free volume creation and mechanical softening should be responsible for the ISE in this BMG. Furthermore, ISE is found to be more significant in AFM nanoindentation than in instrumented indentation. This can be explained by taking into account the effect of exerted peak load and the face angle of the indenter in a qualitative manner.

  13. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  14. The Effect of Pre-Stressing on the Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Superelastic nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt.%), are under development for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. Compared to traditional bearing steels, these intermetallic alloys, when properly heat-treated, are hard but exhibit much lower elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa) and a much broader elastic deformation range (approx.3 percent or more). These material characteristics lead to high indentation static load capacity, which is important for certain applications especially space mechanisms. To ensure the maximum degree of elastic behavior, superelastic materials must be pre-stressed, a process referred to as "training" in shape memory effect (SME) terminology, at loads and stresses beyond expected use conditions. In this paper, static indentation load capacity tests are employed to assess the effects of pre-stressing on elastic response behavior of 60NiTi. The static load capacity is measured by pressing 12.7 mm diameter ceramic Si3N4 balls into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates that have previously been exposed to varying levels of pre-stress (up to 2.7 GPa) to determine the load that results in shallow but measurable (0.6 m, 25 in. deep) permanent dents. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. Without exposure to pre-stress, the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.4 m deep) occurs. When pre-stressed to 2.7 GPa, a static load of 4900 kN is required to achieve a comparable dent, a 30 percent increase. These results suggest that stressing contact surfaces prior to use enhances the static indentation load capacity of the superelastic 60NiTi. This approach may be adaptable to the engineering and manufacture of highly resilient mechanical components such as rolling element bearings.

  15. Indentation metrology of clamped, ultra-thin elastic sheets.

    PubMed

    Vella, Dominic; Davidovitch, Benny

    2017-03-06

    We study the indentation of ultrathin elastic sheets clamped to the edge of a circular hole. This classical setup has received considerable attention lately, being used by various experimental groups as a probe to measure the surface properties and stretching modulus of thin solid films. Despite the apparent simplicity of this method, the geometric nonlinearity inherent in the mechanical response of thin solid objects renders the analysis of the resulting data a nontrivial task. Importantly, the essence of this difficulty is in the geometric coupling between in-plane stress and out-of-plane deformations, and hence is present in the behaviour of Hookean solids even when the slope of the