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Sample records for continuous inflammatory state

  1. Wright State Expands Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    By leasing the Eugene W. Kettering Engineering and Science Center in downtown Dayton, Ohio, Wright State University plans to enlarge significantly its activities in continuing education for engineers, scientists, and others. (JR)

  2. State Funds for Colleges Continue to Rebound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a new national survey showing that state spending on higher education is continuing to rise throughout most of the nation and growing faster in much of the South. Total state general-fund appropriations for higher education are up by 7 percent, to $72.18-billion, in the current 2006-2007 fiscal year, according to an annual…

  3. Continuous Improvement in State Funded Preschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    State funded preschool programs were constantly faced with the need to change in order to address internal and external demands. As programs engaged in efforts towards change, minimal research was available on how to support continuous improvement efforts within the context unique to state funded preschool programs. Guidance available had…

  4. Mast cell, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory: Jekyll and Hyde, the story continues.

    PubMed

    Conti, P; Caraffa, Al; Kritas, S K; Ronconi, G; Lessiani, G; Toniato, E; Theoharides, T C

    2017-01-01

    IL-1 family members include inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. They can be beneficial or detrimental, not only in cancer, but also in inflammatory conditions. Mast cells (MCs) originate from CD34+/CD117+/CD13+ pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, express c-Kit receptor (c-Kit-R), which regulates the proliferation and sustain the survival, differentiation and maturation of MCs. They are immune cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity, allergy, autoimmunity, cancer and inflammation. MCs along with T cells and macrophages release interleukin (IL)-10, which is a pleiotropic immunoregulatory cytokine with multiple biological effects. IL-10 inhibits Th1 inflammatory cells, in particular TNF mostly generated by macrophages and MCs, and down-regulates IFN-γ, IL-1 and IL-6. IL-37 is a family member cytokine which binds IL-18 receptor α chain and inhibits inflammatory mediators including TNF, IL-1, IL-6, IL-33 and nitric oxide (NO). IL-37 similar to IL-10 inhibits MC inflammatory cytokines in several disorders, including asthma, allergy, arthrtitis and cancer. Here we report a study comparing IL-10 with IL-37, two anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Finite-state compensators for continuous processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical representation of feedback systems composed of both continuous and finite-state processes is discussed. Such a representation provides a new viewpoint for the design of computer control systems for industrial processes, and clarifies areas in which further research is required. Some motivating examples are provided.

  6. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong…

  7. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong…

  8. Efficient State Tomography for Continuous Variable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Jiang, Luyao; Krastanov, Stefan; Albert, Victor V.; Heeres, Reinier; Vlastakis, Brian; Schoelkopf, Rob; Jiang, Liang

    2015-03-01

    We propose an efficient and error robust scheme for state tomography of a continuous variable system, which is dispersively coupled to a two-level system. Our adaptive tomography protocol offers a significant speed up compared to the conventional Wigner tomography for a practically interesting class of states, such as Schrodinger cat states. In the presence of typical experimental errors, the number of measurements required is still close to the information theoretic limit. Our proposals can be readily implemented in platforms such as superconducting transmon qubit inside a microwave cavity.

  9. Metabolism of Albumin after Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Qin, Xiaodong; Li, Guanwei; Zhou, Bo; Gu, Guosheng; Hong, Zhiwu; Aa, JiYe; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Background. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is characterized by a hypercatabolic state induced by inflammatory mediators. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) stabilizes the internal environment but also aggravates loss of amino acids. The effect of CVVH on protein dynamics is largely unknown. We adopted the stable isotopic tracer technology to investigate how CVVH changed serum albumin metabolism. Methods. Twenty SIRS patients were randomized into low- (2000 mL/h) and high- (4000 mL/h) volume CVVH groups according to the rate of replacement fluid. Eight patients with abdominal infection matched for age, sex, and laboratory index served as controls. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion of two stable isotopes to determine the albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and fractional breakdown rate (FBR). Results. Before treatment, there was no significant difference of FSR and FBR among 3 groups. After CVVH, the albumin FSR in high- and low-volume groups was 7.75 ± 1.08% and 7.30 ± 0.89%, respectively, both higher than in the control (5.83 ± 0.94%). There was no significant difference in albumin FBR after treatment. Conclusions. Protein dynamic indicators could reflect protein synthesis and breakdown state directly and effectively. CVVH increased albumin synthesis, while the breakdown rate remained at a high level independently of the CVVH rate. PMID:25650044

  10. 15 CFR 930.84 - Continuing State agency objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.84 Continuing State agency...

  11. Effects of sprint interval and continuous endurance training on serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hovanloo, Fariborz; Arefirad, Tahereh; Ahmadizad, Sajad

    2013-05-31

    Chronic and inflammatory diseases are major causes of mortality. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise have been confirmed, but the effect of different types of exercise on inflammatory markers is different. The aim of this study is comparing the effects of two types of sprint interval (SIT) and continuous endurance (CET) training on inflammatory markers. Sixteen students who had recreational activities participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of the two protocols. The SIT protocol consisted of four to six 30-s "all-out" Wingate tests separated by 4 minutes of recovery and The CET protocol included 90-120 minutes of cycling at 65% Vo2max. The two protocols were performed 3 days per week and for two weeks. In each group, two blood samples were collected before and 2 days (24 and 48 hrs) after the training. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two training protocols on all measured parameters (p>0.05). The results of present study showed that the SIT and CET have identical effects on inflammatory markers.

  12. Revealing interference by continuous variable discordant states.

    PubMed

    Meda, A; Olivares, S; Degiovanni, I P; Brida, G; Genovese, M; Paris, M G A

    2013-08-15

    In general, a pair of uncorrelated Gaussian states mixed in a beam splitter (BS) produces a correlated state at the output. However, when the inputs are identical Gaussian states the output state is equal to the input, and no correlations appear, as the interference had not taken place. On the other hand, since physical phenomena do have observable effects, and the BS is there, a question arises on how to reveal the interference between the two beams. We prove theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that this is possible if at least one of the two beams is prepared in a discordant, i.e., Gaussian correlated, state with a third beam. We also apply the same technique to reveal the erasure of polarization information. Our experiment involves thermal states and the results show that Gaussian discordant states, even when they show a positive Glauber P-function, may be useful to achieve specific tasks.

  13. The State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indabawa, Sabo A., Ed.; Oduaran, Akpovire, Ed.; Afrik, Tai, Ed.; Walters, Shirley, Ed.

    This document contains 21 papers examining the state of adult and continuing education in Africa. The following papers are included: "Introduction: An Overview of the State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Akpovire Oduaran); "Setting the Tone of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Michael A. Omolewa);…

  14. Quality of life utilities for pelvic inflammatory disease health states.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth J; Tsevat, Joel; Ness, Roberta B; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Roberts, Mark S

    2008-03-01

    Quality of life utilities for health states associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) have been estimated but not directly measured. Utilities for PID could have important implications on the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent and manage this disease. We obtained, in women with versus without a history of PID, visual analogue scale (VAS) and time-tradeoff (TTO) valuations for 5 PID-associated health states: ambulatory PID treatment, hospital PID treatment, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. Subjects read brief scenarios describing the medical, functional, and social activity effects typically associated with each state, then gave valuations in the order above. Health state valuations were obtained from 56 women with and 150 women without a PID history. Subjects with a PID history had significantly lower mean valuations (P <0.05) on the VAS for ectopic pregnancy (0.55 vs. 0.63), pelvic pain (0.45 vs. 0.53), and infertility (0.53 vs. 0.66) but not on the TTO; VAS differences remained significant when controlling for demographic and childbearing characteristics. VAS and TTO valuations were similar in women with versus without a history of PID for the ambulatory and hospital PID treatment health states. PID has substantial impact on utility. In addition, some PID-related health states are valued less by women who have experienced PID, which could affect cost-effectiveness analyses of PID treatments when examined from the societal versus patient perspective.

  15. Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.

    PubMed

    Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe

    2002-02-04

    We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.

  16. Cytokine profile in PFAPA syndrome suggests continuous inflammation and reduced anti-inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Silvia; Hoffmann, Florian; Kéry, Anja; Renner, Ellen D; Hartl, Dominik; Lohse, Peter; Huss, Kristina; Fraunberger, Peter; Malley, James D; Zellerer, Stephanie; Albert, Michael H; Belohradsky, Bernd H

    2006-06-01

    PFAPA syndrome is characterized by periodic episodes of high fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and/or cervical adenitis. It is of unknown etiology and manifests usually before 5 years of age. We determined serum and intracellular cytokine levels in six PFAPA patients (4 males, 2 females, mean age 8 years (+/- 1.2 SEM), range 4-13) during the symptom-free period as well as 6-12 hours and 18-24 hours after fever onset. Values were compared to age-matched, healthy controls. Febrile PFAPA attacks led to a significant increase in IL-6 and IFN-gamma serum concentrations compared to symptom-free periods and to controls, with IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-12p70 levels being significantly higher than in controls. Lymphocytic IFN-gamma and CD8+ IL-2 production was consistently significantly elevated compared to healthy children. During the asymptomatic period, serum concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IL-12p70 were significantly increased compared to controls. Intracellular TNF-alpha synthesis was not elevated at any time point. Soluble TNFRp55 levels were even lower in between febrile episodes, reaching values comparable to controls during attacks, whereas soluble TNFRp75 levels increased during attacks compared to healthy children. Anti-inflammatory IL-4 in serum was at all times lower in PFAPA patients compared to controls with no difference in levels of intracellular IL-4 and IL-10 or serum IL-10. The observed increase of pro-inflammatory mediators, even between febrile attacks, suggests a dysregulation of the immune response in PFAPA syndrome, with continuous pro-inflammatory cytokine activation and a reduced anti-inflammatory response.

  17. Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Mohr, Joana Souza, Rafael Rigao

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N{yields}{infinity} of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games.

  18. Quantum-state engineering with continuous-variable postselection

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Andrew M.; Grosse, Nicolai B.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Jeong, Hyunseok; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2006-04-15

    We present a scheme to conditionally engineer an optical quantum system via continuous-variable measurements. This scheme yields high-fidelity squeezed single photons and a superposition of coherent states, from input single- and two-photon Fock states, respectively. The input Fock state is interacted with an ancilla squeezed vacuum state using a beam splitter. We transform the quantum system by postselecting on the continuous-observable measurement outcome of the ancilla state. We experimentally demonstrate the principles of this scheme using coherent states and experimentally measure fidelities that are only achievable using quantum resources.

  19. Testing quantum contextuality of continuous-variable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Gerard; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Paternostro, Mauro

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the violation of noncontextuality by a class of continuous-variable states, including variations of entangled coherent states and a two-mode continuous superposition of coherent states. We generalize the Kochen-Specker (KS) inequality discussed by Cabello [A. Cabello, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.101.210401 101, 210401 (2008)] by using effective bidimensional observables implemented through physical operations acting on continuous-variable states, in a way similar to an approach to the falsification of Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities put forward recently. We test for state-independent violation of KS inequalities under variable degrees of state entanglement and mixedness. We then demonstrate theoretically the violation of a KS inequality for any two-mode state by using pseudospin observables and a generalized quasiprobability function.

  20. Bell violation for unknown continuous-variable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, X.-F.; Broadbent, C. J.; Eberly, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new Bell test for two-particle entangled systems that engages an unbounded continuous variable. The continuous variable state is allowed to be arbitrary and inaccessible to direct measurements. A systematic method is introduced to perform the required measurements indirectly. Our results provide new perspectives on both the study of local realistic theory for continuous-variable systems and on the non-local control theory of quantum information.

  1. Similar Anti-Inflammatory Acute Responses from Moderate-Intensity Continuous and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela Sayuri; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Gobbo, Luís Alberto; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Lira, Fábio Santos

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) versus volume matched steady state exercise (SSE) on inflammatory and metabolic responses. Eight physically active male subjects completed two experimental sessions, a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (70% vVO2max) or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max). Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA), uric acid, lactate, cortisol, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) levels. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (HIIE 1.34 ± 0.24 to 7.11 ± 2.85, and SSE 1.35 ± 0.14 to 4.06±1.60 mmol·L-1, p < 0.05), but HIIE promoted higher values than SSE (p < 0.05); the NEFA levels were higher immediately post-exercise than at rest only in the SSE condition (0.71 ± 0.04 to 0.82±0.09 mEq/L, respectively, p < 0.05), yet, SSE promoted higher values than HIIE immediately after exercise (HIIE 0.72±0.03 vs SSE 0.82±0.09 mEq·L-1, p < 0.05). Glucose and uric acid levels did not show changes under the different conditions (p > 0.05). Cortisol, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels showed time-dependent changes under the different conditions (p < 0.05), however, the area under the curve of TNF-α in the SSE were higher than HIIE (p < 0.05), and the area under the curve of IL-6 in the HIIE showed higher values than SSE (p < 0.05). In addition, both exercise conditions promote increased IL-10 levels and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that both exercise protocols, when volume is matched, promote similar inflammatory responses, leading to an anti-inflammatory status; however, the metabolic responses are different. Key points Metabolic contribution of both exercise, HIIE and SSE, was different. Both protocols leading to an anti-inflammatory status. HIIE induce a higher energy expenditure take

  2. Relationships between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment, and Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Ünüvar Doğan, Filiz; Yosunkaya, Şebnem; Kuzu Okur, Hacer; Can, Ümmügülsüm

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular complications that frequently accompany obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are thought to develop as a result of inflammatory stress associated with cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. We conducted the current study to compare levels of these cytokines in OSAS patients (n = 33) and nonapneic controls (n = 24). Furthermore, we investigated the impact of a three-month regime of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α only in the OSAS patients. There were no significant differences in serum levels of either IL-6 (P = 0.782) or TNF- α (P = 0.722) or TNF-α (P = 0.722) between OSAS patients and nonapneic controls. Serum IL-6 levels correlated significantly with neck circumference in OSAS patients (P = 0.006). In OSAS patients, reduced levels of TNF-α and IL-6 correlated with increases in mean SaO2 after CPAP treatment (P = 0.020 and P = 0.051, resp.). However, neither of cytokine levels was significantly impacted by CPAP therapy (both P > 0.137). We have demonstrated that plasma cytokine levels are similar in both otherwise healthy subjects with OSAS and in nonapneic control, and we conclude that OSAS-related parameters and CPAP treatment do not play a significant role in altering cytokine levels. PMID:24895539

  3. Disformal invariance of continuous media with linear equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celoria, Marco; Matarrese, Sabino; Pilo, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    We show that the effective theory describing single component continuous media with a linear and constant equation of state of the form p=wρ is invariant under a 1-parameter family of continuous disformal transformations. In the special case of w=1/3 (ultrarelativistic gas), such a family reduces to conformal transformations. As examples, perfect fluids, irrotational dust (mimetic matter) and homogeneous and isotropic solids are discussed.

  4. Quantum secret sharing with continuous-variable cluster states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Weedbrook, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We extend the formalism of cluster-state quantum secret sharing, as presented by Markham and Sanders [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.78.042309 78, 042309 (2008)] and Keet [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.062315 82, 062315 (2010)], to the continuous-variable regime. We show that both classical and quantum information can be shared by distributing continuous-variable cluster states through either public or private channels. We find that the adversary structure is completely denied from the secret if the cluster state is infinitely squeezed, but some secret information would be leaked if a realistic finitely squeezed state is employed. We suggest benchmarks to evaluate the security in the finitely squeezed cases. For the sharing of classical secrets, we borrow techniques from the continuous-variable quantum key distribution to compute the secret-sharing rate. For the sharing of quantum states, we estimate the amount of entanglement distilled for teleportation from each cluster state.

  5. Cultural Continuity and Change in Mexico and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Marion J.; Barnes, Buckley R.

    Culture is the main subject of this student material for a quarter or one-semester course on a comparative study of Mexico and the United States. The ongoing processes of continuity and change in culture and their relationship are emphasized. The first chapter is devoted to the concept of culture, the total way of life of a people from language…

  6. Continuing Medical Education Improves Gastroenterologists' Compliance with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Quality Measures.

    PubMed

    Sapir, Tamar; Moreo, Kathleen; Carter, Jeffrey D; Greene, Laurence; Patel, Barry; Higgins, Peter D R

    2016-07-01

    Low rates of compliance with quality measures for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been reported for US gastroenterologists. We assessed the influence of quality improvement (QI) education on compliance with physician quality reporting system (PQRS) measures for IBD and measures related to National Quality Strategy (NQS) priorities. Forty community-based gastroenterologists participated in the QI study; 20 were assigned to educational intervention and control groups, respectively. At baseline, randomly selected charts of patients with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis were retrospectively reviewed for the gastroenterologists' performance of 8 PQRS IBD measures and 4 NQS-related measures. The intervention group participated in a series of accredited continuing medical education (CME) activities focusing on QI. Follow-up chart reviews were conducted 6 months after the CME activities. Independent t tests were conducted to compare between-group differences in baseline-to-follow-up rates of documented compliance with each measure. The analysis included 299 baseline charts and 300 follow-up charts. The intervention group had significantly greater magnitudes of improvement than the control group for the following measures: assessment of IBD type, location, and activity (+14 %, p = 0.009); influenza vaccination (+13 %, p = 0.025); pneumococcal vaccination (+20 %, p = 0.003); testing for latent tuberculosis before anti-TNF-α therapy (+10 %, p = 0.028); assessment of hepatitis B virus status before anti-TNF-α therapy (+9 %, p = 0.010); assessment of side effects (+17 %, p = 0.048), and counseling patients about cancer risks (+13 %, p = 0.013). QI-focused CME improves community-based gastroenterologists' compliance with IBD quality measures and measures aligned with NQS priorities.

  7. Continuing education requirements among State Occupational Therapy Regulatory Boards in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Hall, Savannah R; Crifasi, Kristen A; Marinelli, Christina M; Yuen, Hon K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the contents of each state's occupational therapy (OT) regulatory board requirements regarding licensees' acquisition of continuing education units in the United States of America. Data related to continuing education requirements from each OT regulatory board of all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States were reviewed and categorized by two reviewers. Analysis was conducted based on the categorization of the continuing education requirements and activities required, allowed, and not allowed/not mentioned for continuing education units. Findings revealed non-uniformity and inconsistency of continuing education requirements for licensure renewal between OT regulatory boards and was coupled with lack of specific criteria for various continuing education activities. Continuing education requirements were not tailored to meet the needs of individual licensee's current and anticipated professional role and job responsibilities, with a negative bias towards presentation and publication allowed for continuing education units. Few boards mandated continuing education topics on ethics related to OT practice within each renewal cycle. OT regulatory boards should move towards unifying the reporting format of continuing education requirements across all states to reduce ambiguity and to ensure licensees are equipped to provide ethical and competent practice. Efforts could be made to enact continuing education requirements specific to the primary role of a particular licensee. Finally, assigning the amount of continuing education credits to be awarded for different activities should be based on research evidence rather than arbitrary determination.

  8. Multipartite Continuous-Variable Entanglement Distribution with Separable Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Daili; Wang, Yijun; Guo, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Entangling quantum systems at distant locations is a newly discovered counterintuitive phenomenon. However, the generation effect will be reduced by imperfections of practical devices. In this paper, we demonstrate a Gaussian process approach for the scheme design of multipartite continuous-variable (CV) entanglement generation and distribution by using separable Gaussian states, which are superimposed on the beam splitters with the single auxiliary state, rendering the desirable CV entangled states. The superimposing operation not only can avoid the complexity and imperfection of the practical state-superimposing operations, which defends the eavesdropper as the auxiliary mode which is separable, but also can be regulated flexibly by performing suitable displacements with the regulated parameter of the initial states before being sent to the beam splitters to optimize the performance.

  9. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua

    2008-11-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  10. Sepsis, systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ dysfunction: the mystery continues.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    Human sepsis is thought to be systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that is activated by invasive infection. The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is the identified failure of critical organ function in patients that have sustained SIRS. Because SIRS and MODS are consequences of the excessive activation of inflammation, extensive research and numerous clinical trials have pursued treatments that would modify the inflammatory response. This presentation reviews the normal local mechanisms of inflammation and provides a theoretical framework for the transition of the inflammatory process to a systemic level. Clinical trials with biomodulators to block or inhibit inflammation have generally failed to improve the outcomes in patients with severe sepsis, septic shock, and MODS. The role of counter-inflammatory signaling and the newer concept of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway are being investigated, and newer hypotheses are focusing upon the balancing of proinflammatory and counter-inflammatory mechanisms as important directions for newer therapies. It is concluded that failure to define novel and effective treatments reflects fundamental gaps in our understanding of inflammation and its regulation.

  11. Continuous-variable quantum network coding for coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Ke; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-04-01

    As far as the spectral characteristic of quantum information is concerned, the existing quantum network coding schemes can be looked on as the discrete-variable quantum network coding schemes. Considering the practical advantage of continuous variables, in this paper, we explore two feasible continuous-variable quantum network coding (CVQNC) schemes. Basic operations and CVQNC schemes are both provided. The first scheme is based on Gaussian cloning and ADD/SUB operators and can transmit two coherent states across with a fidelity of 1/2, while the second scheme utilizes continuous-variable quantum teleportation and can transmit two coherent states perfectly. By encoding classical information on quantum states, quantum network coding schemes can be utilized to transmit classical information. Scheme analysis shows that compared with the discrete-variable paradigms, the proposed CVQNC schemes provide better network throughput from the viewpoint of classical information transmission. By modulating the amplitude and phase quadratures of coherent states with classical characters, the first scheme and the second scheme can transmit 4{log _2}N and 2{log _2}N bits of information by a single network use, respectively.

  12. Continuous sampling of the squeezed-state nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Köhnke, S.; Mraz, M.; Hage, B.

    2015-09-01

    We report the direct continuous-in-phase sampling of a regularized P function, the so-called nonclassicality quasiprobability, for squeezed light. Through their negativities, the resulting phase-space representation uncovers the quantum character of the state. In contrast to discrete phase-locked measurements, our approach allows an unconditional verification of nonclassicality by getting rid of interpolation errors due to fixed phases. To realize the equal phase distribution of measured quadratures, a data selection is implemented with quantum random numbers created by measuring the vacuum noise. The continuously measured squeezed field was generated in an optical parametric amplifier. Suitable pattern functions for obtaining the regularized P function are investigated. The significance of detecting negativities in our application is determined. The sampling of nonclassicality quasiprobabilities is shown to be a powerful and universal method to visualize quantum effects within arbitrary quantum states.

  13. Quantum jumps, superpositions, and the continuous evolution of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    The apparent dichotomy between quantum jumps on the one hand, and continuous time evolution according to wave equations on the other hand, provided a challenge to Bohr's proposal of quantum jumps in atoms. Furthermore, Schrödinger's time-dependent equation also seemed to require a modification of the explanation for the origin of line spectra due to the apparent possibility of superpositions of energy eigenstates for different energy levels. Indeed, Schrödinger himself proposed a quantum beat mechanism for the generation of discrete line spectra from superpositions of eigenstates with different energies. However, these issues between old quantum theory and Schrödinger's wave mechanics were correctly resolved only after the development and full implementation of photon quantization. The second quantized scattering matrix formalism reconciles quantum jumps with continuous time evolution through the identification of quantum jumps with transitions between different sectors of Fock space. The continuous evolution of quantum states is then recognized as a sum over continually evolving jump amplitudes between different sectors in Fock space. In today's terminology, this suggests that linear combinations of scattering matrix elements are epistemic sums over ontic states. Insights from the resolution of the dichotomy between quantum jumps and continuous time evolution therefore hold important lessons for modern research both on interpretations of quantum mechanics and on the foundations of quantum computing. They demonstrate that discussions of interpretations of quantum theory necessarily need to take into account field quantization. They also demonstrate the limitations of the role of wave equations in quantum theory, and caution us that superpositions of quantum states for the formation of qubits may be more limited than usually expected.

  14. Continuous operation of four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Hirano, Takuya; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that are based on discrete quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We use a pulsed light source whose wavelength is 1550 nm and repetition rate is 10 MHz. The CV-QKD system can continuously generate secret key which is secure against entangling cloner attack. Key generation rate is 50 kbps when the quantum channel is a 10 km optical fiber. The CV-QKD system we have developed utilizes the four-state and post-selection protocol [T. Hirano, et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 042331 (2003).]; Alice randomly sends one of four states {|+/-α⟩,|+/-𝑖α⟩}, and Bob randomly performs x- or p- measurement by homodyne detection. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realize shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. GPU cards are used to accelerate the software-based post-processing. We use a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification.

  15. Continuous Measurement Quantum State Tomography of Atomic Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio Almeida, Carlos A.

    Quantum state tomography is a fundamental tool in quantum information processing tasks. It allows us to estimate the state of a quantum system by measuring different observables on many identically prepared copies of the system. Usually, one makes projective measurements of an "informationally complete" set of observables and repeats them enough times so that good estimates of their expectation values are obtained. This is, in general, a very time-consuming task that requires a large number of measurements. There are, however, systems in which the data acquisition can be done more efficiently. In fact, an ensemble of quantum systems can be prepared and manipulated by external fields while being continuously probed collectively, producing enough information to estimate its state. This provides a basis for continuous measurement quantum tomography, and is the main topic of this dissertation. This method, based on weak continuous measurement, has the advantage of being fast, accurate, and almost nonperturbative. In this work, we present a extensive discussion and a generalization of the protocol proposed in [1], which was experimentally achieved in [2] using cold cesium atoms. In this protocol, an ensemble of identically prepared systems is collectively probed and controlled in a time-dependent manner so as to create an informationally complete continuous measurement record. The measurement history is then inverted to determine the state at the initial time. To achieve this, we use two different estimation methods: the widely used maximum likelihood and the novel compressed sensing algorithms. The general formalism is applied to the case of reconstruction of the quantum state encoded in the magnetic sub-levels of a large-spin alkali atom, 133Cs. We extend the applicability of the protocol in [1] to the more ambitious case of reconstruction of states in the full 16-dimensional electronic-ground subspace ( F = 3, F = 4), controlled by microwaves and radio

  16. Gravastar solutions with continuous pressures and equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBenedictis, A.; Horvat, D.; Ilijić, S.; Kloster, S.; Viswanathan, K. S.

    2006-04-01

    We study the gravitational vacuum star (gravastar) configuration as proposed by Cattoen et al (2005 Class. Quantum Grav. 22 4189) in a model where the interior de Sitter spacetime segment is continuously extended to the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime. The multilayered structure of Mazur and Mottola (2001 Preprint gr-qc/0109035, 2003 Proc. 6th Workshop on Quantum Field Theory Under the Influence of External Conditions (Oklahoma) (Princeton, NJ: Rinton), Preprint gr-qc/0405111 (2004 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 111 9545) is replaced by a continuous stress-energy tensor at the price of introducing anisotropy in the (fluid) model of the gravastar. Either with an ansatz for the equation of state connecting the radial pr and tangential pt pressure or with a calculated equation of state with non-homogeneous energy/fluid density, solutions are obtained which in all aspects satisfy the conditions expected for an anisotropic gravastar (Cattoen et al 2005 Class. Quantum Grav. 22 4189). Certain energy conditions have been shown to be obeyed and a polytropic equation of state has been derived. Stability of the solution with respect to possible axial perturbation is shown to hold.

  17. A Nonlinear Stochastic Filter for Continuous-Time State Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreyshi, Atiyeh; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear filters produce a nonparametric estimate of the probability density of state at each point in time. Currently-known nonlinear filters include Particle Filters and the Kushner equation (and its un-normalized version: the Zakai equation). However, these filters have limited measurement models: Particle Filters require measurement at discrete times, and the Kushner and Zakai equations only apply when the measurement can be represented as a function of the state. We present a new nonlinear filter for continuous-time measurements with a much more general stochastic measurement model. It integrates to Bayes’ rule over short time intervals and provides Bayes-optimal estimates from quantized, intermittent, or ambiguous sensor measurements. The filter has a close link to Information Theory, and we show that the rate of change of entropy of the density estimate is equal to the mutual information between the measurement and the state and thus the maximum achievable. This is a fundamentally new class of filter that is widely applicable to nonlinear estimation for continuous-time control. PMID:26412871

  18. Steady states of continuous-time open quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaobin; Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2017-07-01

    Continuous-time open quantum walks (CTOQW) are introduced as the formulation of quantum dynamical semigroups of trace-preserving and completely positive linear maps (or quantum Markov semigroups) on graphs. We show that a CTOQW always converges to a steady state regardless of the initial state when a graph is connected. When the graph is both connected and regular, it is shown that the steady state is the maximally mixed state. As shown by the examples in this article, the steady states of CTOQW can be very unusual and complicated even though the underlying graphs are simple. The examples demonstrate that the structure of a graph can affect quantum coherence in CTOQW through a long-time run. Precisely, the quantum coherence persists throughout the evolution of the CTOQW when the underlying topology is certain irregular graphs (such as a path or a star as shown in the examples). In contrast, the quantum coherence will eventually vanish from the open quantum system when the underlying topology is a regular graph (such as a cycle).

  19. Quantitative Diagnosis of Continuous-Valued, Stead-State Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative diagnosis involves numerically estimating the values of unobservable parameters that best explain the observed parameter values. We consider quantitative diagnosis for continuous, lumped- parameter, steady-state physical systems because such models are easy to construct and the diagnosis problem is considerably simpler than that for corresponding dynamic models. To further tackle the difficulties of numerically inverting a simulation model to compute a diagnosis, we propose to decompose a physical system model in terms of feedback loops. This decomposition reduces the dimension of the problem and consequently decreases the diagnosis search space. We illustrate this approach on a model of thermal control system studied in earlier research.

  20. Quantitative Diagnosis of Continuous-Valued, Stead-State Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, N.

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative diagnosis involves numerically estimating the values of unobservable parameters that best explain the observed parameter values. We consider quantitative diagnosis for continuous, lumped- parameter, steady-state physical systems because such models are easy to construct and the diagnosis problem is considerably simpler than that for corresponding dynamic models. To further tackle the difficulties of numerically inverting a simulation model to compute a diagnosis, we propose to decompose a physical system model in terms of feedback loops. This decomposition reduces the dimension of the problem and consequently decreases the diagnosis search space. We illustrate this approach on a model of thermal control system studied in earlier research.

  1. Continuous teleportation of the photon statistics of squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Mundarain, D.

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we study the oscillations that appear in the photon statistics of a squeezed state in a process that allows teleportation of continuous spectrum variables. In some cases, comparisons are made with the theory of photodetection. The most remarkable result is observed when the fidelity of teleportation is optimized, in that case the teleported statistics is equal to the counting statistics of photoelectrons in non-ideal photocount measurements. We also determine the effect of one-photon subtraction from each arm of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen source to enhance the quality of the teleportation process.

  2. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  3. Squeezed State Effects on Continuous Variable Quantum Erasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Peter; Kasisomayajula, Vijay; Russo, Onofrio

    2008-03-01

    Experimental verification of complementarity using quantum erasing for the continuous variable (CV) infinite dimensional Hilbert space has been considered. [1] The complemetary pair is that of the canonically conjugate amplitude and phase quadratures of light. The amplitude quadrature is labeled to a squeezed meter signal by quantum nondemolition (QND) [2] entanglement coupling. [3] Knowledge of which eigenstate (WE) can be obtained by measuring this amplitude in the meter state, and can thereafter be `lost' by measuring the quadrature phase of the meter, thus restoring the quadrature phase of the signal beam in a process known as quantum erasure. [4] The coupling, i.e. the labeling of the signal state to the meter state, is implemented with a beam splitter coupled to the squeezed light meter beam. [4] We investigate the effects of using the unitary squeeze operator S(z)=exp.5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 (z*a^2 - za^+2) where z = re^i(squeezing angle) on selected coherent states under certain conditions. [5,6] [1] U. L. Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 100403 (2004). [2] V. B. Braginsky et al., Science 209, 547 (1980). [3] R. Bruckmeimer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 43 (1997). [4] P. Grangier et al., Nature 396, 537 (1998). [5] C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981). [6] D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 1, 3217 (1970), D. Stoler, Phys. Rev. D. 4, 1925 (1971). .

  4. Quantum memory for entangled continuous-variable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K.; Wasilewski, W.; Krauter, H.; Fernholz, T.; Nielsen, B. M.; Owari, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Serafini, A.; Wolf, M. M.; Polzik, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum memory for light is a key element for the realization of future quantum information networks. Requirements for a good quantum memory are versatility (allowing a wide range of inputs) and preservation of quantum information in a way unattainable with any classical memory device. Here we demonstrate such a quantum memory for continuous-variable entangled states, which play a fundamental role in quantum information processing. We store an extensive alphabet of two-mode 6.0dB squeezed states obtained by varying the orientation of squeezing and the displacement of the states. The two components of the entangled state are stored in two room-temperature cells separated by 0.5m, one for each mode, with a memory time of 1ms. The true quantum character of the memory is rigorously proved by showing that the experimental memory fidelity 0.52+/-0.02 significantly exceeds the benchmark of 0.45 for the best possible classical memory for a range of displacements.

  5. Continuous Vibrational Cooling of Ground State Rb2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallant, Jonathan; Marcassa, Luis

    2014-05-01

    The process of photoassociation generally results in a distribution of vibrational levels in the electronic ground state that is energetically close to the dissociation limit. Several schemes have appeared that aim to transfer the population from the higher vibrational levels to lower ones, especially the ground vibrational state. We demonstrate continuous production of vibrationally cooled Rb2 using optical pumping. The vibrationally cooled molecules are produced in three steps. First, we use a dedicated photoassociation laser to produce molecules in high vibrational levels of the X1Σg+ state. Second, a broadband fiber laser at 1071 nm is used to transfer the molecules to lower vibrational levels via optical pumping through the A1Σu+ state. This process transfers the molecules from vibrational levels around ν ~= 113 to a distribution of levels where ν < 35. The molecules may then be further cooled using a broadband superluminescent diode near 685 nm that has its frequency spectrum shaped. The resulting vibrational distributions are probed using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with a pulsed dye laser near 670 nm. The results are presented and compared with theoretical simulations. This work was supported by Fapesp and INCT-IQ.

  6. Continued Declines in Teen Births in the United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

    2016-09-01

    •The teen birth rate declined to another historic low for the United States in 2015, down 8% from 2014 to 22.3 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19. •The birth rates for teenagers aged 15-17 and 18-19 declined in 2015 to 9.9 and 40.7, respectively, which are record lows for both groups. •In 2015, birth rates declined to 6.9 for Asian or Pacific Islander, 16.0 for non-Hispanic white, 25.7 for American Indian or Alaska Native, 31.8 for non-Hispanic black, and 34.9 for Hispanic female teenagers aged 15-19. •Birth rates fell to record lows for nearly all race and Hispanic-origin groups of females aged 15-19, 15-17, and 18-19 in 2015. The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 has fallen almost continuously since 1991, reaching historic lows for the nation every year since 2009 (1-4). Despite declines in all racial and ethnic groups, teen birth rates continue to vary considerably by race and ethnicity. Moreover, the U.S. teen birth rate remains higher than in other industrialized countries (5). Childbearing by teenagers continues to be a matter of public concern. This report presents the recent and long-term trends and disparity in teen childbearing by race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  7. Multiple Myeloma Associated Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: The Importance of Continued Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Loncharich, Michael F; Gandhi, Viral; Rana, Sandeep; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune disease presenting with weakness and numbness in a remitting or chronic progressive course. It is known to have several clinical presentations and several associated diseases. CIDP has been associated with multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and other paraproteinemias. We present a case of refractory CIDP in which the initial workup for multiple myeloma was negative, and multiple myeloma was then diagnosed two and half years later. Treatment of the multiple myeloma led to clinical improvement. This case is instructive in that perhaps more frequent surveillance for paraproteinemia in patients with CIPD, even after a negative initial workup, could lead to a better clinical outcome. PMID:28070468

  8. Teleportation of aTripartite Squeezed Entangled State Via EPR Entangled State with Continuous Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cunjin; Jia, Fang; Gong, Lihua; Guo, Qin

    2017-09-01

    A scheme for teleporting an arbitrary tripartite entangled state is proposed when three bipartite entangled states (| η〉) with continuous variables are used as quantum channels. Quantum teleportation can be carried out successfully if the receiver adopts an appropriate unitary transformation. The calculation is greatly simplified by virtue of the Schmidt decompositions of both tripartite entangled state | p t , χ 2, χ 3〉 and | η〉. Any tripartite state which can be expanded in terms of | p t , χ 2, χ 3〉 may be teleported in this way due to the completeness of | p t , χ 2, χ 3〉.

  9. State of Adult Trainee Inflammatory Bowel Disease Education in the United States: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Benjamin L.; Ha, Christina; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Rieder, Florian; Bewtra, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fundamentals of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) education begin during gastroenterology (GI) fellowship training. We performed a survey of GI fellowship program directors (PD) and trainees with the aim to further examine the current state of IBD training in the United States. Materials and Methods A 15-question PD survey and 19-question trainee survey was performed using an online platform. Results Surveys were completed by 43/161 (27%) PDs and 160 trainees. All trainee years were equally represented. A significant proportion of trainees was unsure or felt their inpatient (32%) or outpatient (43%) training was inadequate. Only 28% of trainees were satisfied with their current level of IBD exposure during training. Fewer than half the trainees reported comfort in the management of pouch or stoma issues, the pregnant IBD patient, or post-operative management. The proportion of PDs viewing a competency as essential for trainee education strongly correlated with trainee comfort in that area (Pearson’s rho = 0.793, p<0.01). In multivariate logistic regression, monthly IBD didactics was the only variable independently associated with satisfaction with current level of training (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9–9.0). Conclusions Over one-third of participating GI trainees did not feel “confident” or “mostly comfortable” with their level of IBD training, with varying comfort regarding different competencies in IBD management. These findings suggest that specific areas of IBD training may require additional focus during training and can provide the basis for the development of an IBD core competency curriculum. PMID:27306068

  10. Exploring ground states and excited states of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates by continuation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Chern, I-Liang; Wang Weichung

    2011-03-20

    A pseudo-arclength continuation method (PACM) is employed to compute the ground state and excited state solutions of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). The BEC is governed by the time-independent coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPE) under the conservations of the mass and magnetization. The coupling constants that characterize the spin-independent and spin-exchange interactions are chosen as the continuation parameters. The continuation curve starts from a ground state or an excited state with very small coupling parameters. The proposed numerical schemes allow us to investigate the effect of the coupling constants and study the bifurcation diagrams of the time-independent coupled GPE. Numerical results on the wave functions and their corresponding energies of spin-1 BEC with repulsive/attractive and ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interactions are presented. Furthermore, we reveal that the component separation and population transfer between the different hyperfine states can only occur in excited states due to the spin-exchange interactions.

  11. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  12. Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Continuous-Variable Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the revealing features of the continuous-variable (CV) quantum cryptography, we suggest an arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) protocol with CV coherent states. It involves three participants, i.e., the signer Alice, the verifier Bob and the arbitrator Charlie who is trustworthy by Alice and Bob. Three phases initializing phase, signing phase and verifying phase are included in our protocol. The security of the signature scheme is guaranteed by the generation of the shared keys via the CV-based quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) and the implementation process of the CV-based quantum teleportation as well. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged by anyone nor disavowed by the receiver and signer. Moreover, the authenticity and integrality of the transmitted messages can be ensured. The paper shows that a potential high-speed quantum signature scheme with high detection efficiency and repetition rate can be realized when compared to the discrete-variable (DV) quantum signature scheme attributing to the well characteristics of CV-QKD.

  13. Continuous-variable quantum-state sharing via quantum disentanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tyc, Tomas; Ralph, T.C.

    2005-03-01

    Quantum-state sharing is a protocol where perfect reconstruction of quantum states is achieved with incomplete or partial information in a multipartite quantum network. Quantum-state sharing allows for secure communication in a quantum network where partial information is lost or acquired by malicious parties. This protocol utilizes entanglement for the secret-state distribution and a class of 'quantum disentangling' protocols for the state reconstruction. We demonstrate a quantum-state sharing protocol in which a tripartite entangled state is used to encode and distribute a secret state to three players. Any two of these players can collaborate to reconstruct the secret state, while individual players obtain no information. We investigate a number of quantum disentangling processes and experimentally demonstrate quantum-state reconstruction using two of these protocols. We experimentally measure a fidelity, averaged over all reconstruction permutations, of F=0.73{+-}0.02. A result achievable only by using quantum resources.

  14. Direct state tomography using continuous variable measuring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuanmin; Wei, Qun

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the conventional quantum state tomography (QST), the efficiency of the direct state tomography (DST) using weak value is very low. However, DST is easily manipulated in experiments. We modify the direct state tomography by using coupling-deformed observables. The modified direct state measurement is valid for arbitrarily large measurement strength. The optimal measurement strengths are obtained to attain the highest efficiency. The efficiency of DST is significantly improved in the modified strategy, and the reconstructed state has no inherent bias. The state reconstruction strategy investigated in this paper might be useful in actual experiments.

  15. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  16. History of Continuing Nursing Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Alice M.

    1998-01-01

    Nursing history since 1853 is presented to identify issues in continuing nursing education, such as the influence of feminism and professionalism, changing constituencies, and philosophies in health care. (SK)

  17. Genetically modified bone marrow continuously supplies anti-inflammatory cells and suppresses renal injury in mouse Goodpasture syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yokoo, T; Ohashi, T; Utsunomiya, Y; Shen, J S; Hisada, Y; Eto, Y; Kawamura, T; Hosoya, T

    2001-07-01

    In chronic inflammation, macrophages and neutrophils, which are derived from bone marrow, play a pivotal role. Therefore, reconstitution of bone marrow with anti-inflammatory stem cells may modify inflammation. In this study, transplantation-based gene therapy was applied to glomerular inflammation for a long-lasting suppression of the glomerular damage seen in chronic nephritis. Bone marrow cells were harvested from male donor mice, which had received 5-fluorouracil 3 days previously, and transduced with an interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or a mock gene using a retrovirus vector. After confirmation that transduced cells possessed the transgene at approximately 0.7 copies per cell and secreted recombinant IL-1Ra, these cells were infused into sublethally irradiated (6 Gy) female recipients once daily for 4 consecutive days. These female recipient mice had the male Y antigen in bone marrow, liver, and spleen, and 10% to 20% of their spleen cells possessed the transgene even 8 weeks after transplantation. Glomerulonephritis was then induced in these mice. Renal function and histology were retarded in the mice whose bone marrow was reconstituted with IL-1Ra-producing cells compared with mock transduced cells. In situ hybridization using a Y painting probe revealed that transplanted donor cells were recruited into the glomerulus upon induction of nephritis, suggesting therapeutic effects were channeled through the secretion of IL-1Ra from these cells. Furthermore, the survival rate after a second challenge with nephrotoxic antibody was significantly improved in the IL-1Ra chimera. These results suggest that reconstitution of bone marrow for continuous supply of anti-inflammatory cells may be a useful strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammation.

  18. Online Haemodiafiltration Improves Inflammatory State in Dialysis Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Rama, Ines; Llaudó, Ines; Fontova, Pere; Cerezo, Gema; Soto, Carlos; Javierre, Casimiro; Hueso, Miguel; Montero, Nuria; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Torras, Juan; Grinyó, Josep M.; Cruzado, Josep M.; Lloberas, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (C-HD) present a greater immuno-inflammatory state probably related to uremia, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and /or membrane bioincompatibility, which could improve with a technique-switching to online hemodiafiltration (OL-HD). The antigen-independent pathway activation of this modified immunologic state turns dendritic cells (DC) into an accurate cell model to study these patients. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the immune-inflammatory state of patients in C-HD assessed by DC maturation. Methods 31 patients were submitted to C-HD and after 4 months switched to the OL-HD technique. Monocytes-derived DCs from HD patients were cultured in the presence of IL-4/GM-CSF. DC-maturation was evaluated by assessing the maturation phenotype by flow cytometry (FACs). DCs-functional capacity to elicit T-cell alloresponse was studied by mixed leucocyte reaction. Cytokine release was assessed by FACs and SNS was evaluated measuring renalase levels by ELISA. Results An up-regulation of maturation markers was observed in C-HD DCs which induced two fold more T cells proliferation than OL-HD DCs. Also, C-HD-mDCs presented with over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α) compared with OL-HD-mDC (P<0·05). Results were correlated with clinical data. When SNS was evaluated, hypotension events and blood pressure were significantly lower and renalase levels were significantly higher after conversion to OL-HD. Diabetes mellitus type 2 patients also found beneficial reduction of mDC when converted to OL-HD compared to non-diabetics. Conclusions OL-HD could interfere with immuno-inflammatory state in HD patients with an improvement of renalase levels as potential key mediators in the mechanistic pathway of down-regulation of DC maturation. PMID:27783636

  19. Behaviour State Analysis in Rett Syndrome: Continuous Data Reliability Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyatt, Gail; Marinac, Julie; Darnell, Ross; Sigafoos, Jeff; Halle, James

    2004-01-01

    Awareness of optimal behaviour states of children with profound intellectual disability has been reported in the literature as a potentially useful tool for planning intervention within this population. Some arguments have been raised, however, which question the reliability and validity of previously published work on behaviour state analysis.…

  20. Instantaneous brain dynamics mapped to a continuous state space.

    PubMed

    Billings, Jacob; Medda, Alessio; Shakil, Sadia; Shen, Xiaohong; Kashyap, Amrit; Chen, Shiyang; Abbas, Anzar; Zhang, Xiaodi; Nezafati, Maysam; Pan, Wen-Ju; Berman, Gordon; Keilholz, Shella

    2017-08-17

    Measures of whole-brain activity, from techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, provide a means to observe the brain's dynamical operations. However, interpretation of whole-brain dynamics has been stymied by the inherently high-dimensional structure of brain activity. The present research addresses this challenge through a series of scale transformations in the spectral, spatial, and relational domains. Instantaneous multispectral dynamics are first developed from input data via a wavelet filter bank. Voxel-level signals are then projected onto a representative set of spatially independent components. The correlation distance over the instantaneous wavelet-ICA state vectors is a graph that may be embedded onto a lower-dimensional space to assist the interpretation of state-space dynamics. Applying this procedure to a large sample of resting and task data (acquired through the Human Connectome Project), we segment the empirical state space into a continuum of stimulus-dependent brain states. We also demonstrate that resting brain activity includes brain states that are very similar to those adopted during some tasks, as well as brain states that are distinct from experimentally-defined tasks. Back-projection of segmented brain states onto the brain's surface reveals the patterns of brain activity that support each experimental state. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Adaptive importance sampling of random walks on continuous state spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Baggerly, K.; Cox, D.; Picard, R.

    1998-11-01

    The authors consider adaptive importance sampling for a random walk with scoring in a general state space. Conditions under which exponential convergence occurs to the zero-variance solution are reviewed. These results generalize previous work for finite, discrete state spaces in Kollman (1993) and in Kollman, Baggerly, Cox, and Picard (1996). This paper is intended for nonstatisticians and includes considerable explanatory material.

  2. Persistent inflammatory state after photoreceptor loss in an animal model of retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Noailles, Agustina; Maneu, Victoria; Campello, Laura; Gómez-Vicente, Violeta; Lax, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2016-09-14

    Microglia act as the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, including the retina. In response to damaging stimuli microglia adopt an activated state, which can progress into a phagocytic phenotype and play a potentially harmful role by eliciting the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to assess longitudinal changes in microglia during retinal degeneration in the homozygous P23H rat, a model of dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Microglial phenotypes, morphology and density were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and cytokine antibody array. In addition, we performed electroretinograms to evaluate the retinal response. In the P23H retina, sclera, choroid and ciliary body, inflammatory cells increased in number compared with the control at all ages analyzed. As the rats became older, a higher number of amoeboid MHC-II(+) cells were observed in the P23H retina, which correlated with an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that, in the P23H model, retinal neuroinflammation persists throughout the rat's life span even after photoreceptor depletion. Therefore, the inclusion of anti-inflammatory drugs at advanced stages of the neurodegenerative process may provide better retinal fitness so the remaining cells could still be used as targets of cellular or gene therapies.

  3. Persistent inflammatory state after photoreceptor loss in an animal model of retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Noailles, Agustina; Maneu, Victoria; Campello, Laura; Gómez-Vicente, Violeta; Lax, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Microglia act as the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, including the retina. In response to damaging stimuli microglia adopt an activated state, which can progress into a phagocytic phenotype and play a potentially harmful role by eliciting the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to assess longitudinal changes in microglia during retinal degeneration in the homozygous P23H rat, a model of dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Microglial phenotypes, morphology and density were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and cytokine antibody array. In addition, we performed electroretinograms to evaluate the retinal response. In the P23H retina, sclera, choroid and ciliary body, inflammatory cells increased in number compared with the control at all ages analyzed. As the rats became older, a higher number of amoeboid MHC-II+ cells were observed in the P23H retina, which correlated with an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that, in the P23H model, retinal neuroinflammation persists throughout the rat’s life span even after photoreceptor depletion. Therefore, the inclusion of anti-inflammatory drugs at advanced stages of the neurodegenerative process may provide better retinal fitness so the remaining cells could still be used as targets of cellular or gene therapies. PMID:27624537

  4. A Study of Continuing Education for Selected Occupations Licensed by the State of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Office of the Statewide Dean.

    This paper provides, for the state of California: (1) a review of state licensing and continuing education requirements; (2) a brief discussion of trends in legislation along with arguments over the effectiveness of mandatory continuing education; (3) a listing of occupations and their continuing education requirements; (4) a listing of state…

  5. A Study of Continuing Education for Selected Occupations Licensed by the State of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Office of the Statewide Dean.

    This paper provides, for the state of California: (1) a review of state licensing and continuing education requirements; (2) a brief discussion of trends in legislation along with arguments over the effectiveness of mandatory continuing education; (3) a listing of occupations and their continuing education requirements; (4) a listing of state…

  6. Lycopene modulates THP1 and Caco2 cells inflammatory state through transcriptional and nontranscriptional processes.

    PubMed

    Makon-Sébastien, Njock; Francis, Fouchier; Eric, Seree; Henri, Villard Pierre; François, Landrier Jean; Laurent, Pechere; Yves, Barra; Serge, Champion

    2014-01-01

    We revisited the action of a carotenoid, the lycopene, on the expression of proinflammatory genes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and metalloprotease (MMP9) activity. THP1 and Caco2 cell lines were used as in vitro models for the two main cell types found in intestine tissue, that is, monocytes and epithelial cells. Proinflammatory condition was induced using either phorbol ester acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In THP1 cells, short term pretreatment (2 h) with a low concentration (2 μM) of lycopene reinforce proinflammatory gene expression. The extent of the effect of lycopene is dependent on the proinflammtory stimulus (PMA, LPS or TNF) used. Lycopene enhanced MMP9 secretion via a c-AMP-dependent process, and reduced ROS production at higher concentrations than 2 μM. Cell culture media, conditioned by PMA-treated monocytes and then transferred on CaCo-2 epithelial cells, induced a proinflammatory state in these cells. The extent of this inflammatory effect was reduced when cells has been pretreated (12 h) with lycopene. At low concentration (2 μM or less), lycopene appeared to promote an inflammatory state not correlated with ROS modulation. At higher concentration (5 μM-20 μM), an anti-inflammatory effect takes place as a decrease of ROS production was detected. So, both concentration and time have to be considered in order to define the exact issue of the effect of carotenoids present in meals.

  7. Continuous infusion of macrophage inflammatory protein MIP-1alpha enhances leucocyte recovery and haemopoietic progenitor cell mobilization after cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, E.; Woolford, L. B.; Lord, B. I.

    1997-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha) inhibits haemopoietic stem cell proliferation. This property has been exploited in a murine chemotherapy model and has been shown to ameliorate cytotoxic-induced myelosuppression after S-phase-specific cytotoxic therapy. We have now shown that BB-10010, a stable mutant of MIP-1alpha, (a) is more effective when administered as a continuous infusion than when bolus injected and (b), when administered via a 7-day infusion during and after cyclophosphamide treatment, results in an earlier recovery of leucocyte numbers. This effect was accompanied by progenitor cell mobilization into the peripheral blood and included primitive cells with marrow-repopulating ability (MRA). Maximal mobilization and recovery of leucocytes occurred when MIP-1alpha was combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy. The findings suggest that MIP1-alpha used alone or in combination with G-CSF may allow delivery of a greater chemotherapy dose intensity as a consequence of both accelerated leucocyte recovery and maintenance of high-quality mobilized progenitor cells for harvesting and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:9192972

  8. State legislatures demonstrate continuing interest in fertility-related issues.

    PubMed

    1978-02-01

    51 (15%) were enacted into law. More abortion laws were enacted than in any year since 1973 (when the Supreme Court declared women have a right to first trimester abortions); none of them had the effect of increasing access to abortion, and 5 laws restricted its availability to minors. 2 states (California and Michigan) passed bills broadening the scope of sex education. Although 2 states (Missouri and North Carolina) passed laws permitting minors to consent to pregnancy-related medical care, both excluded abortion, 1 (North Carolina) excluded sterilization, and neither gave minors authority to consent to contraceptive services. 3 laws were enacted relating to sterilization: 2 in North Carolina (repeal of requirement for a 2nd physician to be consulted before performing a sterilization, and abolishment of the eugenics commission which oversaw the sterilization of certain mentally ill or retarded persons) and 1 in Massachusetts (requiring informed consent for sterilization). 4 of the 9 new family planning laws related to financing state family planning programs, 3 of which are appropriations bills, and the other 5 laws related to sale of prophylactics and the distribution of family planning information in maternity hospitals and prisons. New insurance laws ensure coverage of family planning services or equal treatment of pregnancy-related disabilities. 10 resolutions were adopted in 6 states (Arkansas, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Utah) asking Congress to call a constitutional convention for proposing an amendment on abortion, i.e., prohibiting abortion.

  9. Continuing Development of California State Packet Radio Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownrigg, Edwin

    1992-01-01

    Provides background on the California State Library Packet Radio project, which will use packet radios to deploy a wireless, high-speed, wide-area network of 600 nodes, including 100 libraries, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Project goals and objectives, plan of operation, equipment, and evaluation plans are summarized. (MES)

  10. Kinematic Cosmology & a new ``Steady State'' Model of Continued Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Mogens

    2006-03-01

    Only a new "steady state" model justifies the observations of fully mature galaxies at ever increasing distances. The basic idea behind the world model presented here, which is a synthesis of the cosmologies of Parmenides and Herakleitos, is that the invariant structure of the infinite contents of a universe in flux may be depicted as a finite hyperbolic pseudo-sphere.

  11. "War on drugs" continues in United States under new leadership.

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, D M

    1993-01-01

    Criticism of the "war on drugs" pursued under Republican administrations has grown in the United States. With the election of Bill Clinton many experts expected a shift from law enforcement policies to an approach favouring treatment and prevention. The budget announced in April, however, revealed no such shift in allocation of resources. Although the war on drugs has apparently failed to reduce the supply of cheap heroin and cocaine to the United States, the prevention strategy favoured by its opponents--school based prevention programmes--has not yet been shown to be effective in dealing with the concentration of drug misuse among the socially disadvantaged. In looking for new strategies Clinton must satisfy both liberals and conservatives in Congress, and community policing might therefore prove to be a politically expedient option. Images p369-a p370-a PMID:8374422

  12. Continuing the Search for Natural Solar Wind States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Sipes, T.; Karimabadi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The need to classify solar wind states is partially the practical one of knowing what winds will strongly affect the Earth, but it is also to help in understanding the origin of the winds. In terms of the latter classification, of interest here, there is general agreement that "ejecta" represent a separate class from ordinary winds, although the details of which parcels qualify as ejecta are still subject to considerable disagreement. It has become clear that the distinction between "slow" and "fast" wind is at best misleading, and slow wind sometimes displays temperature anisotropies, fluctuation spectra, and the like that are characteristic of the typical fast wind. Recent work has focused on distinguishing "coronal hole wind" from "streamer belt" and "strahl confusion zone" (heliospheric current sheet) winds. The hope is to discern which wind comes from coronal holes versus the boundaries of holes versus near active regions or other sources. The present work extends a simple method of clustering in the parameter space of a selected set of variables to see if "natural" states of wind arise. This method (primarily "K-means" but we are also trying others) has proven capable of distinguishing states very similar to those in recent categorizations, especially when the variables of cross-helicity and residual energy are added to the parameter list, but we also find new, persistent, categories. The present work will look in more detail at the derived states and at different times in the solar cycle. One suggestion in the research so far is that shock-like structures are fundamental in the mix; these have largely been ignored in recent work in solar wind heating.

  13. Multipartite Continuous-Variable Entanglement Distribution with Separable Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chuan; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a quantum proxy blind signature scheme based on controlled quantum teleportation is proposed. This scheme uses a genuine five-qubit entangled state as quantum channel and adopts the classical Vernam algorithm to blind message. We use the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement delegation, signature and verification. Security analysis shows that our scheme is valid and satisfy the properties of a proxy blind signature, such as blindness, verifiability, unforgeability, undeniability.

  14. Analytic continuation of the rotating black hole state counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, Jibril Ben; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    In loop quantum gravity, a spherical black hole can be described in terms of a Chern-Simons theory on a punctured 2-sphere. The sphere represents the horizon. The punctures are the edges of spin-networks in the bulk which cross the horizon and carry quanta of area. One can generalize this construction and model a rotating black hole by adding an extra puncture colored with the angular momentum J in the 2-sphere. We compute the entropy of rotating black holes in this model and study its semi-classical limit. After performing an analytic continuation which sends the Barbero-Immirzi parameter to γ = ± i,weshowthattheleadingorderterminthesemi-classicalexpansionoftheentropy reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking law independently of the value of J.

  15. Education of State Library Personnel: A Report With Recommendations Relating to the Continuing Education of State Library Agency Professional Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Peter; And Others

    The committee reviewed the continuing education needs of state library professional personnel, although the report has applicability for all levels of personnel in all libraries. The greatest immediate need was for the continuing education for consultants and consultant techniques. The state library administration must understand the consultant…

  16. Mandatory Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Requirements in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale A.; Klingborg, Donald J.; Wright, Teressa

    2003-01-01

    Lists by state and province the current continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) requirements in the United States and Canada and provides additional analysis and comment on CVME requirements. (EV)

  17. Mandatory Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Requirements in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale A.; Klingborg, Donald J.; Wright, Teressa

    2003-01-01

    Lists by state and province the current continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) requirements in the United States and Canada and provides additional analysis and comment on CVME requirements. (EV)

  18. Immuno-Modulator Metallo-Peptide Reduces Inflammatory State in Obese Zucker Fa/Fa Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Solís, Antonieta; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; García-Vázquez, Francisco; Álvarez-Ayala, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a prothrombotic and proinflammatory chronic state. In obesity, the adipose tissue secretes various adipokines that take part in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Previous studies using a liver damage model treated with the immune-modulator metallo-peptide (IMMP) showed lessening in the degree of inflammation. Therefore, this study was set up to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of IMMP in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. We used Zucker-Lepr fa/fa and Zucker-Lean in this protocol. The groups received IMMP 50 ng/kg by i.p., three times per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and the serum was preserved at -80°C until analysis; the liver was excised and preserved in formaldehyde 4%. Analyses were performed to determine cytokine, insulin, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels in serum, and histological analysis was also performed. IMMP treatment of obese rats resulted in decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (leptin, lL-6, IL-1betha, INF-gamma) and a chemokine (MCP-1), and increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokine (adiponectin). In addition, treatment decreased the damage and hepatic steatosis generated in the tissue of obese rats. The IMMP exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in obese rats and therefore may be an effective and safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25324698

  19. Steady state, continuity, and the curious behavior of steep channels in layered rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, M. D.; Perne, M.; Thaler, E.; Myre, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Considerations of landscape steady state have substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. Topographic steady state, where topography is fixed in time, is a particularly important tool in the interpretation of landscape features, such as bedrock channel profiles, within a context of uplift patterns and rock strength. However, topographic steady state cannot strictly be attained in a landscape with layered rocks with non-vertical contacts. We show that an assumption of channel continuity, where channel retreat rates in the direction parallel to a contact are equal above and below the contact, provides a more general description of steady state landscapes in layered rocks, and that topographic steady state is a special case of the steady state derived from continuity. We demonstrate that modeled landscapes approach continuity steady state using 1D simulations and full landscape evolution models. Contrary to common conceptions, continuity predicts that channels will be steeper in weaker rocks in the case of subhorizontal rock layers when the stream power erosion exponent n<1. For subhorizontal layered rocks with different erodibilities, continuity also predicts larger slope contrasts than would be predicted by topographic steady state. Continuity steady state is a type of flux steady state, where uplift is balanced on average by erosion. The differences between topographic steady state and continuity steady state are most pronuced for steep channels in subhorizontal layered rocks. Consequently, cratonic and plateau settings are most likely to produce the effects predicted by continuity steady state. These settings remain relatively underexplored within the bedrock channel literature. Though examples illustrated here utilze the stream power erosion law, continuity steady state provides a general mathematical tool that can be used to explore the development of landscapes in layered rocks using any

  20. Continuous Stockwell transform: Coherent states and localization operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutníková, Mária; Mišková, Anna

    2015-07-01

    There are several methods of interest in signal analysis and image processing. The most widely used are the wavelet transform, the short-time Fourier transform, the shearlet transform, and the Stockwell transform. Putting a filter in the corresponding reproducing formula, one gets the well-known Calderón-Toeplitz and Gabor-Toeplitz localization operators widely studied in the context of time scale, time-frequency as well as shearlet analysis. Using Vasilevski's technique of Hilbert-space decomposition (applied for the space of continuous Stockwell transforms of L2(ℝ)-functions), we get the structural results of the transform space and we study Toeplitz operators in this context with many desirable properties of localization operators. We find their unitary equivalent images for the case of separable generating symbols and show that the Wick symbols for these operators are associated with a well-defined calculus. Also, certain algebras generated by these operators are described in detail. Thus, the results complete the full picture about properties and behavior of Toeplitz localization operators related to four most commonly used signal transforms.

  1. Role of state survey technical publications in continuing education

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical publications of the Florida Geological Survey are traditionally prepared for earth science professionals. As public awareness of environmental issues has increased, individuals not trained in the earth sciences have come to comprise an expanded audience for these documents. It is suggested that technical publications may function as an effective vehicle for continuing education if adequate supplementary information is provided. The relationship of geologic parameters to waste disposal in the shallow ground is considered to be of interest to laypersons as well as professionals. Parameters selected for attention include 1) karst, 2) geology, 3) drainage basins, 4) principal aquifers, 5) physiography, 6) structural features, 7) seismicity, 8) landslides, 9) swelling soils, and 10) areas of recharge to the Floridan aquifer. The information is presented as a series of maps with accompanying discussions augmented for users lacking a technical background. The initial priority in preparation of individual discussions is development of a working vocabulary of technical terms. The terms are then related to each other in brief explanations of pertinent geologic processes. This information provides the foundation for a presentation of regional information with reference to appropriate maps. Ultimately all of this material is used as the basis for a discussion of each geologic parameter and its relation to waste disposal.

  2. A continuous switching model for piezoelectric state switching methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopp, Garrett K.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2017-04-01

    Piezoelectric-based, semi-active vibration reduction approaches have been studied for over a decade due to their potential in controlling vibration over a large frequency range. Previous studies have relied on a discrete model when switching between the stiffness states of the system. In such a modeling approach, the energy dissipation of the stored potential energy and the transient dynamics, in general, are not well understood. In this paper, a switching model is presented using a variable capacitance in the attached shunt circuit. When the switch duration is small in comparison to the period of vibration, the vibration reduction performance approaches that of the discrete model with an instantaneous switch, whereas longer switch durations lead to less vibration reduction. An energy analysis is then performed that results in the appearance of an energy dissipation term due to the varying capacitance in the shunt circuit.

  3. On Volterra quadratic stochastic operators with continual state space

    SciTech Connect

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Hamzah, Nur Zatul Akmar

    2015-05-15

    Let (X,F) be a measurable space, and S(X,F) be the set of all probability measures on (X,F) where X is a state space and F is σ - algebraon X. We consider a nonlinear transformation (quadratic stochastic operator) defined by (Vλ)(A) = ∫{sub X}∫{sub X}P(x,y,A)dλ(x)dλ(y), where P(x, y, A) is regarded as a function of two variables x and y with fixed A ∈ F . A quadratic stochastic operator V is called a regular, if for any initial measure the strong limit lim{sub n→∞} V{sup n }(λ) is exists. In this paper, we construct a family of quadratic stochastic operators defined on the segment X = [0,1] with Borel σ - algebra F on X , prove their regularity and show that the limit measure is a Dirac measure.

  4. Lycopene Modulates THP1 and Caco2 Cells Inflammatory State through Transcriptional and Nontranscriptional Processes

    PubMed Central

    Makon-Sébastien, Njock; Francis, Fouchier; Eric, Seree; Henri, Villard Pierre; François, Landrier Jean; Laurent, Pechere; Yves, Barra; Serge, Champion

    2014-01-01

    We revisited the action of a carotenoid, the lycopene, on the expression of proinflammatory genes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and metalloprotease (MMP9) activity. THP1 and Caco2 cell lines were used as in vitro models for the two main cell types found in intestine tissue, that is, monocytes and epithelial cells. Proinflammatory condition was induced using either phorbol ester acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In THP1 cells, short term pretreatment (2 h) with a low concentration (2 μM) of lycopene reinforce proinflammatory gene expression. The extent of the effect of lycopene is dependent on the proinflammtory stimulus (PMA, LPS or TNF) used. Lycopene enhanced MMP9 secretion via a c-AMP-dependent process, and reduced ROS production at higher concentrations than 2 μM. Cell culture media, conditioned by PMA-treated monocytes and then transferred on CaCo-2 epithelial cells, induced a proinflammatory state in these cells. The extent of this inflammatory effect was reduced when cells has been pretreated (12 h) with lycopene. At low concentration (2 μM or less), lycopene appeared to promote an inflammatory state not correlated with ROS modulation. At higher concentration (5 μM–20 μM), an anti-inflammatory effect takes place as a decrease of ROS production was detected. So, both concentration and time have to be considered in order to define the exact issue of the effect of carotenoids present in meals. PMID:24891766

  5. Efficient Three-Party Quantum Dialogue Protocol Based on the Continuous Variable GHZ States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qi-Biao; Cheng, Shan; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Based on the continuous variable GHZ entangled states, an efficient three-party quantum dialogue protocol is devised, where each legitimate communication party could simultaneously deduce the secret information of the other two parties with perfect efficiency. The security is guaranteed by the correlation of the continuous variable GHZ entangled states and the randomly selected decoy states. Furthermore, the three-party quantum dialogue protocol is directly generalized to an N-party quantum dialogue protocol by using the n-tuple continuous variable GHZ entangled states.

  6. Food Restriction Affects Inflammatory Response and Nutritional State in Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum).

    PubMed

    Merlo, Julieta Leticia; Cutrera, Ana Paula; Zenuto, Roxana Rita

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient or unbalanced food intake typically has a negative impact on immune responses. The understanding of this effect is, however, hampered by the effect that food has on general condition, which, in turn, affects immunity, and the interaction among general condition, immunocompetence, and concurrent infections. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of food restriction and methionine supplementation on immunity in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum). Effects of diet manipulations on nutritional state, inflammatory response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and other immune parameters (bacterial killing capacity, natural antibodies, and leukocyte profile) were evaluated. Health and stress parameters and endoparasite loads were assessed to understand more deeply potential effects of treatments on immune status. Individuals under food restriction presented an altered nutritional state as well as increased stress levels (higher N: L ratios) compared with individuals fed ad libitum, and a marked reduction in the inflammatory response to PHA. Supplementation with methionine did not affect any of the parameters analyzed. Endoparasite loads were not affected by treatments. Our results support the idea that food insufficiency can modulate the individual's immune responsiveness through the lack of adequate essential nutrients, metabolic fuel and energetic reserves, or by a detrimental effect of the stress caused by nutrient limitation. We show that the response to PHA previously reported as nonenergetically costly for C. talarum, implies a nutritional cost; an opposite pattern to that previously found for the adaptive antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the same species.

  7. The relationship between coagulation state and inflammatory bowel disease: current understanding and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Koutroubakis, Ioannis E

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a hypercoagulable state and subsequently with an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE in IBD is characterized by a high recurrence rate and is associated with the disease activity. Acquired endothelial dysfunction, abnormalities of platelets, activation of coagulation system and impaired fibrinolysis are the main changes in the coagulation state in IBD. The development of VTE in IBD has been considered to be the result of multiple interactions between acquired and inherited risk factors. The treatment of VTE in IBD patients is recommended to be similar and to follow the same protocols as for non-IBD patients. In the clinical practice, the management of IBD patients and especially the hospitalized patients should include thromboprophylaxis.

  8. Localized electron states in the continuous spectrum of the Cu(001) monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, G. V.; Chuburin, Yu. P.

    2010-11-01

    The results of the calculation of electron bands of bound states that cross the edge of the continuous spectrum for the (001) fcc copper monolayer are presented for the first time. The calculations are performed in the local approximation for the exchange and correlations using the film variant of the Green's function technique. Symmetry of electron states near the edge of the continuous spectrum is explored. It is found that there are bound states along the bar sum direction of the two-dimensional Brillouin zone of the Cu(001) monolayer that are embedded in the continuum of delocalized states of the continuous spectrum. Along the bar Δ and bar Y directions, bands of bound states turn into resonance states after crossing the edge of the continuous spectrum.

  9. Single-photon-state generation from a continuous-wave nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Moelmer, Klaus

    2007-02-15

    We present a theoretical treatment of conditional preparation of one-photon states from a continuous-wave nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator. We obtain an analytical expression for the output state Wigner function, and we maximize the one-photon state fidelity by varying the temporal mode function of the output state. We show that a higher production rate of high fidelity Fock states is obtained if we condition the outcome on dark intervals around trigger photo detection events.

  10. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-02

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources.

  11. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Knockout of toll-like receptor-4 attenuates the pro-inflammatory state of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Tobias, Peter; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2011-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with increased vascular complications and is a pro-inflammatory state. Recent findings have shown increased TLR2 and 4 expression, signaling, ligands, and functional activation in T1DM subjects compared to controls and further accentuated in T1DM with microvascular complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if genetic deficiency of TLR4 attenuates the increased inflammation associated with T1DM using the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. C57BL/6 and TLR4(-/-) mice were obtained and studied in the native state and following induction of diabetes using streptozotocin. Diabetic (WT+STZ) mice had increased expression of both TLR2 and TLR4, while TLR4(-/-) STZ mice had increased expression only of TLR2, but not TLR4 compared to the non-diabetic mice TLR2 expression was significantly increased with STZ-induced diabetes and was unaffected by knockout of TLR4. Also, levels of MyD88, IRAK-1 protein phosphorylation, Trif, IRF3, and NF-κB activity were significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) +STZ mice compared to the WT+STZ mice. WT+STZ mice exhibited significantly increased levels of serum and macrophage IL-1β, IL-6, KC/IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, IFN beta and TNF-α compared to WT mice and this was significantly attenuated in TLR4(-/-) +STZ mice (P<0.01). Thus, TLR4 contributes to the pro-inflammatory state and TLR4KO attenuates inflammation in diabetes.

  13. Red blood cell alloimmunization is influenced by recipient inflammatory state at time of transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Ross M; Booth, Garrett S; Miles, Megan; Du, Liping; Koyama, Tatsuki; Meier, Emily Riehm; Luban, Naomi L C

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are at increased risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Recipient inflammatory state at time of transfusion has been shown to regulate alloimmunization in murine models, but evidence is lacking in SCD patients. We retrospectively studied a cohort of alloimmunized SCD patients to determine the influence of pro-inflammatory SCD-related complications at time of transfusion on alloimmunization. For each transfusion, the presence of pro-inflammatory state, degree of RBC antigen matching, unit age, storage solution and alloantibody detection date were ascertained. Transfusion-associated pro-inflammatory events were compared between transfusions resulting and not resulting in new alloantibodies. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Fifty-two patients received 3166 pre-storage leuco-reduced transfusions of which 128 resulted in alloantibodies. Transfusions during inflammatory events were associated with increased alloantibody risk on univariate and multivariate analysis; acute chest syndrome and vaso-occlusive crisis showed strongest associations with alloimmunization. Increased antigen matching demonstrated a protective effect on alloimmunization (univariate and multivariate analysis). Although an association was seen between citrate-phosphate-dextrose (adenine) stored units and alloimmunization on univariate analysis, no effect was found on multivariate analysis. Identifying recipient pro-inflammatory states at time of transfusion that promote alloimmunization can impact RBC unit selection decisions for SCD patients at risk for alloimmunization.

  14. Chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia patients is associated with HBB(*)S haplotype.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Izabel C J; Rocha, Lillianne B S; Barbosa, Maritza C; Elias, Darcielle B D; Querioz, José A N; Freitas, Max Vitor Carioca; Gonçalves, Romélia P

    2014-02-01

    The chronic inflammatory state in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with several factors such as the following: endothelial damage; increased production of reactive oxygen species; hemolysis; increased expression of adhesion molecules by leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets; and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Genetic characteristics affecting the clinical severity of SCA include variations in the hemoglobin F (HbF) level, coexistence of alpha-thalassemia, and the haplotype associated with the HbS gene. The different haplotypes of SCA are Bantu, Benin, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian. These haplotypes are associated with ethnic groups and also based on the geographical origin. Studies have shown that the Bantu haplotype is associated with higher incidence of clinical complications than the other haplotypes and is therefore considered to have the worst prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the profile of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-17 in patients with SCA and also to assess the haplotypes associated with beta globin cluster S (HBB(*)S). We analyzed a total of 62 patients who had SCA and had been treated with hydroxyurea; they had received a dose ranging between 15 and 25 (20.0±0.6)mg/kg/day for 6-60 (18±3.4)months; their data were compared with those for 30 normal individuals. The presence of HbS was detected and the haplotypes of the beta S gene cluster were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Our study demonstrated that SCA patients have increased inflammatory profile when compared to the healthy individuals. Further, analysis of the association between the haplotypes and inflammatory profile showed that the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were greater in subjects with the Bantu/Bantu haplotype than in subjects with the Benin/Benin haplotype. The Bantu/Benin haplotype individuals had lower levels of cytokines than those with

  15. Challenges in Designing a National Surveillance Program for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Long, Millie D.; Hutfless, Susan; Kappelman, Michael D.; Khalili, Hamed; Kaplan, Gil; Bernstein, Charles N.; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Herrinton, Lisa; Velayos, Fernando; Loftus, Edward V.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Chan, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S.; Atreja, Ashish; Shah, Samir A.; Rothman, Kenneth; Leleiko, Neal S.; Bright, Renee; Boffetta, Paolo; Myers, Kelly D.; Sands, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the history of US government funding for surveillance programs in IBD, provides current estimates of the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in the United States (US), and enumerates a number of challenges faced by current and future IBD surveillance programs. A rationale for expanding the focus of IBD surveillance beyond counts of incidence and prevalence, in order to provide a greater understanding of the burden of IBD, disease etiology and pathogenesis, is provided. Lessons learned from other countries are summarized, as well as potential resources that may be used to optimize a new form of IBD surveillance in the US. A consensus recommendation on the goals and available resources for a new model for disease surveillance are provided. This new model should focus upon “surveillance of the burden of disease,” including 1) natural history of disease and 2) outcomes and complications of the disease and/or treatments. PMID:24280882

  16. SAMPLING DURATION DEPENDENCE OF SEMI-CONTINUOUS ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS ON STEADY STATE SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-continuous organic carbon concentrations were measured through several experiments of statically generated secondary organic aerosol formed by hydrocarbon + NOx irradiations. Repeated, randomized measurements of these steady state aerosols reveal decreases in the observed c...

  17. 75 FR 38595 - Guidance to States Regarding Driver History Record Information Security, Continuity of Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Guidance to States Regarding Driver History Record Information Security, Continuity of Operation Planning, and Disaster Recovery Planning AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  18. Steady state, erosional continuity, and the topography of landscapes developed in layered rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perne, Matija; Covington, Matthew D.; Thaler, Evan A.; Myre, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of topographic steady state has substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. In topographic steady state, erosion rates are equal everywhere, and steepness adjusts to enable equal erosion rates in rocks of different strengths. This conceptual model makes an implicit assumption of vertical contacts between different rock types. Here we hypothesize that landscapes in layered rocks will be driven toward a state of erosional continuity, where retreat rates on either side of a contact are equal in a direction parallel to the contact rather than in the vertical direction. For vertical contacts, erosional continuity is the same as topographic steady state, whereas for horizontal contacts it is equivalent to equal rates of horizontal retreat on either side of a rock contact. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we show that erosional continuity predicts the form of flux steady-state landscapes that develop in simulations with horizontally layered rocks. For stream power erosion, the nature of continuity steady state depends on the exponent, n, in the erosion model. For n = 1, the landscape cannot maintain continuity. For cases where n ≠ 1, continuity is maintained, and steepness is a function of erodibility that is predicted by the theory. The landscape in continuity steady state can be quite different from that predicted by topographic steady state. For n < 1 continuity predicts that channels incising subhorizontal layers will be steeper in the weaker rock layers. For subhorizontal layered rocks with different erodibilities, continuity also predicts larger slope contrasts than in topographic steady state. Therefore, the relationship between steepness and erodibility within a sequence of layered rocks is a function of contact dip. For the subhorizontal limit, the history of layers exposed at base level also influences the steepness-erodibility relationship. If uplift rate

  19. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  20. Menstrual Cycle Changes in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Study from the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sumona; Zhao, Yingqi; Shah, Samir A.; Esposti, Silvia Degli; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Salih, Sana; Bright, Renee; Law, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Flowers, Nicole; Merrick, Marjorie; Sands, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The effect of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on menstrual function is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether changes in menstrual function occur in the year prior to IBD diagnosis or in the initial years after diagnosis. Methods Women aged 18 and above in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All subjects were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. Menstrual cycle characteristics were retrospectively assessed. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. Results 121 subjects were studied. Twenty-five percent of subjects experienced a change in cycle interval in the year prior to IBD diagnosis and 21% experienced a change in duration of flow. Among women with dysmenorrhea, 40% experienced a change in the intensity of their menstrual pain and 31% experienced a change in its duration. Overall cycle regularity increased over time.. Quality of life (QOL) was significantly lower in women without regular cycles across all time points. Conclusions Changes in menstrual function occur frequently in the year prior to IBD diagnosis; therefore screening for menstrual irregularities should be considered in women with newly diagnosed IBD. Patients can be reassured that cycles typically become more regular over time. PMID:24451220

  1. Menstrual cycle changes in women with inflammatory bowel disease: a study from the ocean state Crohn's and colitis area registry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sumona; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Shah, Samir A; Esposti, Silvia Degli; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Salih, Sana; Bright, Renee; Law, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Flowers, Nicole; Merrick, Marjorie; Sands, Bruce E

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on menstrual function is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether changes in menstrual function occur in the year before IBD diagnosis or in the initial years after diagnosis. Women aged 18 years and older in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All patients were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. Menstrual cycle characteristics were retrospectively assessed. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes, and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. One hundred twenty-one patients were studied. Twenty-five percent of patients experienced a change in cycle interval in the year before IBD diagnosis and 21% experienced a change in the duration of flow. Among women with dysmenorrhea, 40% experienced a change in the intensity of their menstrual pain and 31% experienced a change in its duration. Overall cycle regularity increased over time. Quality of life was significantly lower in women without regular cycles across all time points. Changes in menstrual function occur frequently in the year before IBD diagnosis; therefore, screening for menstrual irregularities should be considered in women with newly diagnosed IBD. Patients can be reassured that cycles typically become more regular over time.

  2. State-of-the-art of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease research in 2008

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Lynne V

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are two of the leading causes of chronic intestinal conditions in the world. This issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG) presents a series of papers from world experts who discuss the current knowledge and opinions on these important conditions. Although great strides have been made in the diagnosis, treatment and pathology of IBS and IBD; much has yet to be explained. The etiologies and risk factors of these multifactorial conditions remain elusive. Specific diagnostic biomarkers need to be developed and safer treatments developed. The burden of IBS and IBD on the healthcare system is felt with repeated medical care visits and high costs. IBS and IBD patients can account for 30%-50% of office visits at gastroenterology services/clinics. Over one million people have IBD in the United States, with 30 000 new cases being diagnosed every year. One-quarter million people in the UK are afflicted with IBD. The cost of medical care in the United States for IBD is estimated to be $1.8 billion/year. PMID:18461647

  3. Status of adolescent pelvic inflammatory disease management in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common and serious reproductive health disorder and disease rates remain unacceptably high among adolescent girls and young adult women in the United States. Despite data demonstrating that women experience major adverse health outcomes after PID, national recommendations for management of adolescents have become increasingly less cautious in an era of cost- containment. In this review, we take an alternative look at published data on adolescents with PID to frame the next steps for optimizing management for this vulnerable population. Recent findings Several findings emerge from review of the literature. First, there is limited evidence to guide the best practice strategies for adolescents with PID due to low enrolment of early and middle adolescents in national trials. Second, adolescents and adult women in the United States receive suboptimal treatment regimens per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Third, available evidence suggests that adolescents are at an increased risk for poor adherence to CDC recommendations for self- care, reacquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PID, and subsequent adverse reproductive health outcomes. Summary Efforts to develop and integrate adolescent-focused, evidence-based strategies for PID management and prevention of subsequent STIs and recurrent PID are warranted. PMID:24018871

  4. Status of adolescent pelvic inflammatory disease management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Trent, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common and serious reproductive health disorder and disease rates remain unacceptably high among adolescent girls and young adult women in the United States. Despite data demonstrating that women experience major adverse health outcomes after PID, national recommendations for management of adolescents have become increasingly less cautious in an era of cost-containment. In this review, we take an alternative look at published data on adolescents with PID to frame the next steps for optimizing management for this vulnerable population. Several findings emerge from review of the literature. First, there is limited evidence to guide the best practice strategies for adolescents with PID due to low enrolment of early and middle adolescents in national trials. Second, adolescents and adult women in the United States receive suboptimal treatment regimens per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standards. Third, available evidence suggests that adolescents are at an increased risk for poor adherence to CDC recommendations for self-care, reacquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PID, and subsequent adverse reproductive health outcomes. Efforts to develop and integrate adolescent-focused, evidence-based strategies for PID management and prevention of subsequent STIs and recurrent PID are warranted.

  5. Graphical rule of transforming continuous-variable graph states by local homodyne detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jing

    2010-09-15

    Graphical rule, describing that any single-mode homodyne detection turns a given continuous-variable (CV) graph state into a new one, is presented. Employing two simple graphical rules--local complement operation and vertex deletion (single quadrature-amplitude x measurement)--the graphical rule for any single-mode quadrature component measurement can be obtained. The shape of CV weighted graph state may be designed and constructed easily from a given larger graph state by applying this graphical rule.

  6. Nonexistence of entangled continuous-variable Werner states with positive partial transpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Daniel; Tatham, Richard; Mišta, Ladislav

    2014-03-01

    We address an open question about the existence of entangled continuous-variable (CV) Werner states with positive partial transpose (PPT). We prove that no such state exists by showing that all PPT CV Werner states are separable. The separability follows by observing that these CV Werner states can be approximated by truncating the states into a finite-dimensional convex mixture of product states. In addition, the constituents of the product states comprise a generalized non-Gaussian measurement which gives, rather surprisingly, a strictly tighter upper bound on quantum discord than photon counting. These results uncover the presence of only negative partial transpose entanglement and illustrate the complexity of more general nonclassical correlations in this paradigmatic class of genuine non-Gaussian quantum states.

  7. Differences in Genotype, Clinical Features, and Inflammatory Potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto Strains from Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Cerar, Tjasa; Strle, Franc; Stupica, Dasa; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; McHugh, Gail; Steere, Allen C; Strle, Klemen

    2016-05-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates from patients with erythema migrans in Europe and the United States were compared by genotype, clinical features of infection, and inflammatory potential. Analysis of outer surface protein C and multilocus sequence typing showed that strains from these 2 regions represent distinct genotypes. Clinical features of infection with B. burgdorferi in Slovenia were similar to infection with B. afzelii or B. garinii, the other 2 Borrelia spp. that cause disease in Europe, whereas B. burgdorferi strains from the United States were associated with more severe disease. Moreover, B. burgdorferi strains from the United States induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete higher levels of cytokines and chemokines associated with innate and Th1-adaptive immune responses, whereas strains from Europe induced greater Th17-associated responses. Thus, strains of the same B. burgdorferi species from Europe and the United States represent distinct clonal lineages that vary in virulence and inflammatory potential.

  8. Generalized coherent states for discrete and continuous dynamics and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Muhammad

    We investigate new forms of generalized coherent states for several systems with no direct reference to their group structures. A general procedure of constructing a set of coherent states, as proposed by Perelomov, is to use an irreducible representation of a Lie group acting on an extremal state (e.g., vacuum state). However, Klauder put forth a set of conditions to define coherent states in a way free from any underlying group structure. First we critically examine Klauder's coherent states, as modified by Gazeau and Klauder, which are defined over energy eigenstates of a physical system, and construct a new modified class of coherent states satisfying Klauder's criteria. Our set of coherent states is a natural generalization of the harmonic oscillator coherent states and encompasses both the discrete and continuous spectra in a unified manner. We apply our formulation to a particle in a one-dimensional box, a particle in the Poschl-Teller potential, and the compactified Coulomb problem in order to demonstrate explicitly the limiting procedure for going from the coherent states for discrete dynamics to those for continuous dynamics. We also discuss the path integral with our coherent states. Secondly, we construct two different classes of coherent states for a cubic SU(2) or Higgs algebra. The first class is constructed by following a Perelomov-like procedure so as to retain the usual SU(2) limit; and the second one is the cubic SU(2) version of our generalized coherent states similar to those of Gazeau and Klauder. The final topic we discuss in this thesis is related to quantum computation with coherent states. We show that simulation of a dynamical quantum system can be performed on a coherent quantum computer as a Quantum Fourier Transform operator to the extremal state belonging to the irreducible representation of the group. The states obtained in this manner are termed as Perelomov type coherent states. Our construction here is based on applying the

  9. Under-reporting of pelvic inflammatory disease in Hawaii: a comparison of state surveillance and hospitalization data.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Misty; Sentell, Tetine; Katz, Alan R

    2014-04-01

    Hawaii is one of only 19 states for which pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a mandated notifiable disease. In order to assess the completeness of PID reporting, we compared the number of hospitalized PID cases in the state of Hawaii with the total number of PID cases reported to the Hawaii State Department of Health surveillance system from 2007 through 2010. While 828 unique PID cases were diagnosed in Hawaii hospitals, only 240 unique PID cases were reported through the state's surveillance system. Severe PID underreporting was seen despite mandatory reporting laws.

  10. Non-Gaussian states from continuous-wave Gaussian light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølmer, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    We present a general analysis of the state obtained by subjecting a continuous-wave (cw) Gaussian field to non-Gaussian measurements. The generic multimode state of a cw Gaussian field is fully characterized by the time dependent mean values and variances and the two-time covariances of the field quadrature variables. We present a general theory to extract from this information the results of detection and quantum state reduction within specific temporal output modes. The formalism is applied to schemes for heralded production of propagating light pulses with single photon and Schrödinger kitten states from a cw squeezed beam of light.

  11. A specific state variable for a class of 3D continuous fractional-order chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping; Cheng, Yuan-Ming; Kuang, Fei

    2010-07-01

    A specific state variable in a class of 3D continuous fractional-order chaotic systems is presented. All state variables of fractional-order chaotic systems of this class can be obtained via a specific state variable and its (q-order and 2q-order) time derivatives. This idea is demonstrated by using several well-known fractional-order chaotic systems. Finally, a synchronization scheme is investigated for this fractional-order chaotic system via a specific state variable and its (q-order and 2q-order) time derivatives. Some examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization method.

  12. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use Among Persons With Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Laura; Grubbs, Vanessa; Sarkar, Urmimala; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Robinson, Bruce; Saran, Rajiv; Geiss, Linda; Burrows, Nilka Ríos; Eberhardt, Mark; Powe, Neil

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Because avoidance of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is recommended for most individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), we sought to characterize patterns of NSAID use among persons with CKD in the United States. METHODS A total of 12,065 adult (aged 20 years or older) participants in the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) responded to a questionnaire regarding their use of over-the-counter and prescription NSAIDs. NSAIDs (excluding aspirin and acetaminophen) were defined by self-report. CKD was categorized as no CKD, mild CKD (stages 1 and 2; urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g) and moderate to severe CKD (stages 3 and 4; estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–59 mL/min/1.73 m2). Adjusted prevalence was calculated using multivariable logistic regression with appropriate population-based weighting. RESULTS Current use (nearly every day for 30 days or longer) of any NSAID was reported by 2.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% of the US population with no, mild, and moderate to severe CKD, respectively; nearly all of the NSAIDs used were available over-the-counter. Among those with moderate to severe CKD who were currently using NSAIDs, 10.2% had a current NSAID prescription and 66.1% had used NSAIDs for 1 year or longer. Among those with CKD, disease awareness was not associated with reduced current NSAID use: (3.8% vs 3.9%, aware vs unaware; P=.979). CONCLUSIONS Physicians and other health care clinicians should be aware of use of NSAIDs among those with CKD in the United States and evaluate NSAID use in their CKD patients. PMID:21911761

  13. Prevalence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    Dahlhamer, James M; Zammitti, Emily P; Ward, Brian W; Wheaton, Anne G; Croft, Janet B

    2016-10-28

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (1). IBD has been associated with poor quality of life and extensive morbidity and often results in complications requiring hospitalizations and surgical procedures (2-4). Most previous studies of IBD have used administrative claims data or data collected from limited geographic areas to demonstrate increases in estimated prevalence of IBD within the United States (5,6). Few national prevalence estimates of IBD among adults based on large, nationally representative data sources exist, and those that do tend to be based on older data. For example, the most recent national study used 1999 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data and estimated that 1.8 million (0.9%) U.S. adults had IBD (7). To examine the prevalence of IBD among the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population, data from the 2015 NHIS were analyzed. Overall, an estimated 3.1 million, or 1.3%, of U.S. adults have received a diagnosis of IBD. Within population subgroups, a higher prevalence of IBD was identified among adults aged ≥45 years, Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and adults with less than a high school level of education, not currently employed, born in the United States, living in poverty, or living in suburban areas. The use of a nationally representative data source such as the NHIS to estimate the prevalence of IBD overall and by population subgroups is important to understand the burden of IBD on the U.S. health care system.

  14. Paraoxonase 2 Induces a Phenotypic Switch in Macrophage Polarization Favoring an M2 Anti-Inflammatory State.

    PubMed

    Koren-Gluzer, Marie; Rosenblat, Mira; Hayek, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory processes are involved in atherosclerosis development. Macrophages play a major role in the early atherogenesis, and they are present in the atherosclerotic lesion in two phenotypes: proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2). Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) is expressed in macrophages, and it was shown to protect against atherosclerosis. Thus, the aim of our study was to analyze the direct effect of PON2 on macrophage inflammatory phenotypes. Ex vivo studies were performed with murine peritoneal macrophages (MPM) harvested from control C57BL/6 and PON2-deficient (PON2KO) mice. PON2KO MPM showed an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype compared to the control, both in the basal state and following M1 activation by IFNγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In parallel, PON2KO MPM also showed reduced anti-inflammatory responses in the basal state and also following M2 activation by IL-4. Moreover, the PON2-null MPM demonstrated enhanced phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the basal state and following M1 activation. The direct effect of PON2 was shown by transfecting human PON2 (hPON2) into PON2KO MPM. PON2 transfection attenuated the macrophages' response to M1 activation and enhanced M2 response. These PON2 effects were associated with attenuation of macrophages' abilities to phagocyte and to generate ROS. We conclude that PON2 promotes an M1 to M2 switch in macrophage phenotypes.

  15. Paraoxonase 2 Induces a Phenotypic Switch in Macrophage Polarization Favoring an M2 Anti-Inflammatory State

    PubMed Central

    Koren-Gluzer, Marie; Rosenblat, Mira; Hayek, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory processes are involved in atherosclerosis development. Macrophages play a major role in the early atherogenesis, and they are present in the atherosclerotic lesion in two phenotypes: proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2). Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) is expressed in macrophages, and it was shown to protect against atherosclerosis. Thus, the aim of our study was to analyze the direct effect of PON2 on macrophage inflammatory phenotypes. Ex vivo studies were performed with murine peritoneal macrophages (MPM) harvested from control C57BL/6 and PON2-deficient (PON2KO) mice. PON2KO MPM showed an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype compared to the control, both in the basal state and following M1 activation by IFNγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In parallel, PON2KO MPM also showed reduced anti-inflammatory responses in the basal state and also following M2 activation by IL-4. Moreover, the PON2-null MPM demonstrated enhanced phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the basal state and following M1 activation. The direct effect of PON2 was shown by transfecting human PON2 (hPON2) into PON2KO MPM. PON2 transfection attenuated the macrophages' response to M1 activation and enhanced M2 response. These PON2 effects were associated with attenuation of macrophages' abilities to phagocyte and to generate ROS. We conclude that PON2 promotes an M1 to M2 switch in macrophage phenotypes. PMID:26779262

  16. Practical limitation for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent States.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2004-03-19

    In this Letter, first, we investigate the security of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic scheme with a postselection process against individual beam splitting attack. It is shown that the scheme can be secure in the presence of the transmission loss owing to the postselection. Second, we provide a loss limit for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states taking into account excess Gaussian noise on quadrature distribution. Since the excess noise is reduced by the loss mechanism, a realistic intercept-resend attack which makes a Gaussian mixture of coherent states gives a loss limit in the presence of any excess Gaussian noise.

  17. Wigner spectrum and coherent feedback control of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhiyuan; Cui, Lei; Zhang, Guofeng; Fu, Hongchen

    2016-10-01

    Single photons are very useful resources in quantum information science. In real applications it is often required that the photons have a well-defined spectral (or equivalently temporal) modal structure. For example, a rising exponential pulse is able to fully excite a two-level atom while a Gaussian pulse cannot. This motivates the study of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Such states are characterized by a spectral (or temporal) pulse shape. In this paper we investigate the statistical property of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Instead of the commonly used normal ordering (Wick order), the tool we proposed is the Wigner spectrum. The Wigner spectrum has two advantages: (1) it allows to study continuous-mode single-photon Fock states in the time domain and frequency domain simultaneously; (2) because it can deal with the Dirac delta function directly, it has the potential to provide more information than the normal ordering where the Dirac delta function is always discarded. We also show how various control methods in particular coherent feedback control can be used to manipulate the pulse shapes of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states.

  18. Balancing Innate Immunity and Inflammatory State via Modulation of Neutrophil Function: A Novel Strategy to Fight Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Haoshu; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Jin; Lu, Yan; Liu, Anding; Kan, Lixin; Dahmen, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis and SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) belong to a severe disease complex characterized by infection and/or a whole-body inflammatory state. There is a growing body of evidence that neutrophils are actively involved in sepsis and are responsible for both release of cytokines and phagocytosis of pathogens. The neutrophil level is mainly regulated by G-CSF, a cytokine and drug, which is widely used in the septic patient with neutropenia. This review will briefly summarize the role of neutrophils and the therapeutic effect of G-CSF in sepsis. We further suggest that targeting neutrophil function to modulate the balance between innate immunity and inflammatory injury could be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy for sepsis.

  19. Solid-state fermentation: a continuous process for fungal tannase production.

    PubMed

    van de Lagemaat, J; Pyle, D L

    2004-09-30

    Truly continuous solid-state fermentations with operating times of 2-3 weeks were conducted in a prototype bioreactor for the production of fungal (Penicillium glabrum) tannase from a tannin-containing model substrate. Substantial quantities of the enzyme were synthesized throughout the operating periods and (imperfect) steady-state conditions seemed to be achieved soon after start-up of the fermentations. This demonstrated for the first time the possibility of conducting solid-state fermentations in the continuous mode and with a constant noninoculated feed. The operating variables and fermentation conditions in the bioreactor were sufficiently well predicted for the basic reinoculation concept to succeed. However, an incomplete understanding of the microbial mechanisms, the experimental system, and their interaction indicated the need for more research in this novel area of solid-state fermentation.

  20. Continuity of heavy Rydberg behaviour in the ungerade ion-pair states of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, Alexander M.; Donovan, Robert J.; Lawley, Kenneth P.; McCormack, Elizabeth F.

    2017-05-01

    Heavy Rydberg behaviour and absolute quantum defects are reported for resonances in the ungerade manifold of H2 above the (1 s, 3 l) dissociation limit. The continuity of the vibrational progression of the B″ B bar state through the crossing with the 3 p asymptote is demonstrated and a predominantly diabatic picture of the vibrational motion emerges, indicating that the ion-pair resonances possess little 61 Σu+ state character.

  1. Spectra of random operators with absolutely continuous integrated density of states

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Rafael del E-mail: delriomagia@gmail.com

    2014-04-15

    The structure of the spectrum of random operators is studied. It is shown that if the density of states measure of some subsets of the spectrum is zero, then these subsets are empty. In particular follows that absolute continuity of the integrated density of states implies singular spectra of ergodic operators is either empty or of positive measure. Our results apply to Anderson and alloy type models, perturbed Landau Hamiltonians, almost periodic potentials, and models which are not ergodic.

  2. State Variation in Medical Imaging: Despite Great Variation, the Medicare Spending Decline Continues.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess state-level trends in per beneficiary Medicare spending on medical imaging. Medicare part B 5% research identifiable files from 2004 through 2012 were used to compute national and state-by-state annual average per beneficiary spending on imaging. State-to-state geographic variation and temporal trends were analyzed. National average per beneficiary Medicare part B spending on imaging increased 7.8% annually between 2004 ($350.54) and its peak in 2006 ($405.41) then decreased 4.4% annually between 2006 and 2012 ($298.63). In 2012, annual per beneficiary spending was highest in Florida ($367.25) and New York ($355.67) and lowest in Ohio ($67.08) and Vermont ($72.78). Maximum state-to-state geographic variation increased over time, with the ratio of highest-spending state to lowest-spending state increasing from 4.0 in 2004 to 5.5 in 2012. Spending in nearly all states decreased since peaks in 2005 (six states) or 2006 (43 states). The average annual decrease among states was 5.1% ± 1.8% (range, 1.2-12.2%) The largest decrease was in Ohio. In only two states did per beneficiary spending increase (Maryland, 12.5% average annual increase since 2005; Oregon, 4.8% average annual increase since 2008). Medicare part B average per beneficiary spending on medical imaging declined in nearly every state since 2005 and 2006 peaks, abruptly reversing previously reported trends. Spending continued to increase, however, in Maryland and Oregon. Identification of state-level variation may facilitate future investigation of the potential effect of specific and regional changes in spending on patient access and outcomes.

  3. Quantum error correction of continuous-variable states against Gaussian noise

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, T. C.

    2011-08-15

    We describe a continuous-variable error correction protocol that can correct the Gaussian noise induced by linear loss on Gaussian states. The protocol can be implemented using linear optics and photon counting. We explore the theoretical bounds of the protocol as well as the expected performance given current knowledge and technology.

  4. Needs and Interests of Iowa State University Alumni in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Gerald Edward

    A study was made of a random sample of 934 Iowa State University alumni, who graduated between 1926 and 1965 and lived in Iowa, the purpose being to determine: their feelings of need and commitment to continuing education; their present participation; the content, type, and locations of programs they prefer; and where they think responsibility for…

  5. Traditional ranching heritage and cultural continuity in the southwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted among ranchers on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests in the Southwestern United States, examines the role of ranching in maintaining traditional heritage and cultural continuity. The mainly Hispanic ranching families of northern New Mexico first came into the region in 1598 with Spanish colonization. Many of the villages received community...

  6. State Licensure Requirements for School Counselors: Implications for Multicultural Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Glinda

    2007-01-01

    While most counselor education programs offer training or coursework in multicultural counseling at the pre-service level, it is unclear to what extent school counselors continue to pursue professional development in multicultural counseling after obtaining state certification or licensure. This manuscript presents a discussion on the state…

  7. Map of assessed continuous (unconventional) oil resources in the United States, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts quantitative assessments of potential oil and gas resources of the onshore United States and associated coastal State waters. Since 2000, the USGS has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data and has compiled digital maps of the assessment units classified into four categories: shale gas, tight gas, coalbed gas, and shale oil or tight oil (continuous oil). This is the fourth digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps; its focus being shale-oil or tight-oil (continuous-oil) assessments. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hardcopy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, which includes an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and a published map file (.pmf). Supporting geologic studies of total petroleum systems and assessment units, as well as studies of the methodology used in the assessment of continuous-oil resources in the United States, are listed with hyperlinks in table 1. Assessment results and geologic reports are available at the USGS websitehttp://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx.

  8. Continuous Cover Forestry in the United States--Experience With Southern Pines

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2002-01-01

    Continuous cover forestry (CCF) has not been common in the southern United States, but if does exist. The best record of reseurch and practice exists for mixed loblolly-shortleaf pine (Pinus taeda L.-P. echinata Mill.) stands in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain west of the Mississippi River. After 60 years, the Good and Poor...

  9. Under-Reporting of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Hawaii: A Comparison of State Surveillance and Hospitalization Data

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Misty; Sentell, Tetine

    2017-01-01

    Hawaii is one of only 19 states for which pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a mandated notifiable disease. In order to assess the completeness of PID reporting, we compared the number of hospitalized PID cases in the state of Hawaii with the total number of PID cases reported to the Hawaii State Department of Health surveillance system from 2007 through 2010. While 828 unique PID cases were diagnosed in Hawaii hospitals, only 240 unique PID cases were reported through the state’s surveillance system. Severe PID underreporting was seen despite mandatory reporting laws. PMID:23999911

  10. Four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution with long secure distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Xu, Bingjie; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong

    2012-05-01

    The four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol has a long practical secure distance [A. Leverrier and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.180504 102, 180504 (2009)], while it poses the difficulty of parameter estimation. We propose an improved four-state protocol where the covariance matrix can be estimated from experimental data without using the linear channel assumption, thus ensuring its unconditional security in the asymptotical limit. Our scheme maintains the advantage of high reconciliation efficiency of the four-state protocol, which ensures long practical secure distance its. Our scheme can be implemented with the current technology.

  11. Wang-Landau Algorithm for Continuous Models and Joint Density of States

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chenggang; Schulthess, Thomas C; Torbrugge, S.; Landau, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a modified Wang-Landau algorithm for models with continuous degrees of freedom. We demonstrate this algorithm with the calculation of the joint density of states of ferromagnet Heisenberg models and a model polymer chain. The joint density of states contains more information than the density of states of a single variable-energy, but is also much more time consuming to calculate. We present strategies to significantly speed up this calculation for large systems over a large range of energy and order parameter.

  12. Wang-Landau algorithm for continuous models and joint density of states.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenggang; Schulthess, T C; Torbrügge, Stefan; Landau, D P

    2006-03-31

    We present a modified Wang-Landau algorithm for models with continuous degrees of freedom. We demonstrate this algorithm with the calculation of the joint density of states of ferromagnet Heisenberg models and a model polymer chain. The joint density of states contains more information than the density of states of a single variable-energy, but is also much more time consuming to calculate. We present strategies to significantly speed up this calculation for large systems over a large range of energy and order parameter.

  13. Wang-Landau Algorithm for Continuous Models and Joint Density of States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenggang; Schulthess, T. C.; Torbrügge, Stefan; Landau, D. P.

    2006-03-01

    We present a modified Wang-Landau algorithm for models with continuous degrees of freedom. We demonstrate this algorithm with the calculation of the joint density of states of ferromagnet Heisenberg models and a model polymer chain. The joint density of states contains more information than the density of states of a single variable-energy, but is also much more time consuming to calculate. We present strategies to significantly speed up this calculation for large systems over a large range of energy and order parameter.

  14. Continuous Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz as Holographic Surface-State Correspondence.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Masamichi; Numasawa, Tokiro; Shiba, Noburo; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2015-10-23

    We present how the surface-state correspondence, conjectured by Miyaji and Takayanagi, works in the setup of AdS(3)/CFT(2) by generalizing the formulation of a continuous multiscale entanglement renormalization group ansatz. The boundary states in conformal field theories play a crucial role in our formulation and the bulk diffeomorphism is naturally taken into account. We give an identification of bulk local operators which reproduces correct scalar field solutions on AdS(3) and bulk scalar propagators. We also calculate the information metric for a locally excited state and show that it reproduces the time slice of AdS(3).

  15. Emergence of liposome as targeted magic bullet for inflammatory disorders: current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfoozur; Kumar, Vikas; Beg, Sarwar; Sharma, Gajanand; Katare, Om Prakash; Anwar, Firoz

    2016-11-01

    Inflammatory diseases are considered to be highly dreadful ones responsible for higher mortality in the developed countries. This includes cancer, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The tremendous strides in the area of drug development to find newer molecules like non-steroidal and steroidal agents and immunosuppressant agents delivered by conventional formulation. These therapy have enhances the life expectancy of patient, but it provide the therapeutic benefits only to a limited extent. Recent advancement in liposomes based nanomedicines has led to the possibility of improves the efficacy and safety of the pharmacotherapy of inflammatory disorders. Of late, liposomes have been highly explored as one of the promising systems for delivering numerous anti-inflammatory drugs for attaining enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Over the conventional carriers, liposomal systems have numerous drug delivery merits including advantages in both passive and active targeting of drug molecules to the inflammatory lesions. The current review article, therefore, endeavors to provide a bird's eye view account on the success of liposome-based therapeutic systems in the management of dreadful inflammatory disorders along with updated knowledge to pharmaceutical scientists in the field.

  16. 20 CFR 411.375 - Does a State VR agency continue to provide services under the requirements of the State plan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does a State VR agency continue to provide... Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Participation in the Ticket to Work Program § 411.375 Does a State VR.... The State VR agency must continue to provide services under the requirements of the State plan...

  17. New quantum dialogue protocol based on continuous-variable two-mode squeezed vacuum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan-Run; Li, Jian-Fu; Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Farouk, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    A new quantum dialogue protocol is designed by using the continuous-variable two-mode squeezed vacuum states due to its entanglement property. The two communication parties encode their own secret information into the entangled optical modes with the translation operations. Each communication party could deduce the secret information of their counterparts with the help of his or her secret information and the Bell-basis measurement results. The security of the proposed quantum dialogue protocol is guaranteed by the correlation between two-mode squeezed vacuum states and the decoy states performed with translation operations in randomly selected time slots. Compared with the discrete variable quantum dialogue protocols, the proposed continuous-variable quantum dialogue protocol is easy to realize with perfect utilization of quantum bits.

  18. The effect of continuous low dose methylprednisolone infusion on inflammatory parameters in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghiasi, Abbas; Shafiee, Akbar; Salehi Omran, Abbas; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Shirzad, Mahmood; Barkhordari, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    This trial was performed to determine if a continuous low-dose infusion of methylprednisolone is as effective as its bolus of high-dose in reducing inflammatory response. The study was single-center, double-blinded randomized clinical trial and performed in a surgical intensive care unit of an academic hospital. In this study, 72 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were assigned to receive either a methylprednisolone loading dose (1mg/kg) followed by continuous infusion (2mg/Kg/24 hours for 1 day) (low-dose regime) or a single dose of methylprednisolone (15 mg/kg) before cardiopulmonary bypass (high dose regime). Serum concentrations of IL-6 and C- reactive protein (CRP) were measured preoperatively and 6, 24 and 48 hours after surgery, and serum creatinine was measured before the operation and 24, 48 and 72 hours postoperatively. The measurements were then compared between the groups to evaluate the efficacy of each regimen. The basic characteristics and measurements were not different between the study groups. There was no significant difference in IL-6 and CRP elevation (P=0.52 and P=0.46, respectively). Early outcomes such as the length of stay in the intensive care unit, intubation time, changes in serum creatinine and blood glucose levels, inotropic support, insulin requirements, and rate of infection were also similar in both groups. A continuous low dose infusion of methylprednisolone was as effective as a single high dose methylprednisolone in reducing the inflammatory response after CABG with extracorporeal circulation with no significant difference in the postoperative measurements and outcomes.

  19. Generating arbitrary photon-number entangled states for continuous-variable quantum informatics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yong; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Hai-Woong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2012-06-18

    We propose two experimental schemes that can produce an arbitrary photon-number entangled state (PNES) in a finite dimension. This class of entangled states naturally includes non-Gaussian continuous-variable (CV) states that may provide some practical advantages over the Gaussian counterparts (two-mode squeezed states). We particularly compare the entanglement characteristics of the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian states in view of the degree of entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation, and further discuss their applications to the CV teleportation and the nonlocality test. The experimental imperfection due to the on-off photodetectors with nonideal efficiency is also considered in our analysis to show the feasibility of our schemes within existing technologies.

  20. Pomegranate juice polyphenols induce a phenotypic switch in macrophage polarization favoring a M2 anti-inflammatory state.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Saar; Lati, Yoni; Aviram, Michael; Fuhrman, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    It was documented that pomegranate has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated a direct effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) and its polyphenols on macrophage inflammatory phenotype. In vitro, PJ and its major polyphenols dose-dependently attenuated macrophage response to M1 proinflammatory activation in J774.A1 macrophage-like cell line. This was evidenced by a significant decrease in TNFα and IL-6 secretion in response to stimulation by IFNγ and Lipopolysaccharide. In addition, PJ and punicalagin dose-dependently promoted the macrophages toward a M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype, as determined by a significant increase in the spontaneous secretion of IL-10. In mice, supplementation with dietary PJ substantially inhibited the M2 to M1 macrophage phenotypic shift associated with age, toward a favorable anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. This effect was also reflected in the mice atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by the distinct expression of arginase isoforms. PJ consumption inhibited the increment of arginase II (Arg II, M1) mRNA expression during aging, and maintained the levels of Arg I (M2) expression similar to those in young mice aorta. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that pomegranate polyphenols directly suppress macrophage inflammatory responses and promote M1 to M2 switch in macrophage phenotype. Furthermore, this study indicates that PJ consumption may inhibit the progressive proinflammatory state in the aorta along atherosclerosis development with aging, due to a switch in macrophage phenotype from proinflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2.

  1. Stabilizing potentials in bound state analytic continuation methods for electronic resonances in polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    White, Alec F; Head-Gordon, Martin; McCurdy, C William

    2017-01-28

    The computation of Siegert energies by analytic continuation of bound state energies has recently been applied to shape resonances in polyatomic molecules by several authors. We critically evaluate a recently proposed analytic continuation method based on low order (type III) Padé approximants as well as an analytic continuation method based on high order (type II) Padé approximants. We compare three classes of stabilizing potentials: Coulomb potentials, Gaussian potentials, and attenuated Coulomb potentials. These methods are applied to a model potential where the correct answer is known exactly and to the Πg2 shape resonance of N2(-) which has been studied extensively by other methods. Both the choice of stabilizing potential and method of analytic continuation prove to be important to the accuracy of the results. We conclude that an attenuated Coulomb potential is the most effective of the three for bound state analytic continuation methods. With the proper potential, such methods show promise for algorithmic determination of the positions and widths of molecular shape resonances.

  2. Stabilizing potentials in bound state analytic continuation methods for electronic resonances in polyatomic molecules

    DOE PAGES

    White, Alec F.; Head-Gordon, Martin; McCurdy, C. William

    2017-01-30

    The computation of Siegert energies by analytic continuation of bound state energies has recently been applied to shape resonances in polyatomic molecules by several authors. Here, we critically evaluate a recently proposed analytic continuation method based on low order (type III) Padé approximants as well as an analytic continuation method based on high order (type II) Padé approximants. We compare three classes of stabilizing potentials: Coulomb potentials, Gaussian potentials, and attenuated Coulomb potentials. These methods are applied to a model potential where the correct answer is known exactly and to the 2Πg shape resonance of N 2 - which hasmore » been studied extensively by other methods. Both the choice of stabilizing potential and method of analytic continuation prove to be important to the accuracy of the results. We then conclude that an attenuated Coulomb potential is the most effective of the three for bound state analytic continuation methods. With the proper potential, such methods show promise for algorithmic determination of the positions and widths of molecular shape resonances.« less

  3. Stabilizing potentials in bound state analytic continuation methods for electronic resonances in polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alec F.; Head-Gordon, Martin; McCurdy, C. William

    2017-01-01

    The computation of Siegert energies by analytic continuation of bound state energies has recently been applied to shape resonances in polyatomic molecules by several authors. We critically evaluate a recently proposed analytic continuation method based on low order (type III) Padé approximants as well as an analytic continuation method based on high order (type II) Padé approximants. We compare three classes of stabilizing potentials: Coulomb potentials, Gaussian potentials, and attenuated Coulomb potentials. These methods are applied to a model potential where the correct answer is known exactly and to the Π2g shape resonance of N2- which has been studied extensively by other methods. Both the choice of stabilizing potential and method of analytic continuation prove to be important to the accuracy of the results. We conclude that an attenuated Coulomb potential is the most effective of the three for bound state analytic continuation methods. With the proper potential, such methods show promise for algorithmic determination of the positions and widths of molecular shape resonances.

  4. A White-headed langurs impulsive state feedback control model with sparse effect and continuous delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shidong; Xu, Weijian; Chen, Lansun; Huang, Zhonghao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a white-headed langurs impulsive state feedback control model with sparse effect and continuous delay is investigated. We get the sufficient condition under which the system has a unique order-1 periodic solution through the method of successor function, and prove the stability of the order-1 periodic solution by the limit method of the successor point sequences. Furthermore, we perform numerical analysis on the theoretical results. Our results show that artificial breeding and releasing langurs in captive to the wild can effectively protect wild white-headed langurs with sparse effect and continuous delay.

  5. Quantum state engineering of light with continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators.

    PubMed

    Morin, Olivier; Liu, Jianli; Huang, Kun; Barbosa, Felippe; Fabre, Claude; Laurat, Julien

    2014-05-30

    Engineering non-classical states of the electromagnetic field is a central quest for quantum optics(1,2). Beyond their fundamental significance, such states are indeed the resources for implementing various protocols, ranging from enhanced metrology to quantum communication and computing. A variety of devices can be used to generate non-classical states, such as single emitters, light-matter interfaces or non-linear systems(3). We focus here on the use of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator(3,4). This system is based on a non-linear χ(2) crystal inserted inside an optical cavity and it is now well-known as a very efficient source of non-classical light, such as single-mode or two-mode squeezed vacuum depending on the crystal phase matching. Squeezed vacuum is a Gaussian state as its quadrature distributions follow a Gaussian statistics. However, it has been shown that number of protocols require non-Gaussian states(5). Generating directly such states is a difficult task and would require strong χ(3) non-linearities. Another procedure, probabilistic but heralded, consists in using a measurement-induced non-linearity via a conditional preparation technique operated on Gaussian states. Here, we detail this generation protocol for two non-Gaussian states, the single-photon state and a superposition of coherent states, using two differently phase-matched parametric oscillators as primary resources. This technique enables achievement of a high fidelity with the targeted state and generation of the state in a well-controlled spatiotemporal mode.

  6. Quantum State Engineering of Light with Continuous-wave Optical Parametric Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Olivier; Liu, Jianli; Huang, Kun; Barbosa, Felippe; Fabre, Claude; Laurat, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Engineering non-classical states of the electromagnetic field is a central quest for quantum optics1,2. Beyond their fundamental significance, such states are indeed the resources for implementing various protocols, ranging from enhanced metrology to quantum communication and computing. A variety of devices can be used to generate non-classical states, such as single emitters, light-matter interfaces or non-linear systems3. We focus here on the use of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator3,4. This system is based on a non-linear χ2 crystal inserted inside an optical cavity and it is now well-known as a very efficient source of non-classical light, such as single-mode or two-mode squeezed vacuum depending on the crystal phase matching. Squeezed vacuum is a Gaussian state as its quadrature distributions follow a Gaussian statistics. However, it has been shown that number of protocols require non-Gaussian states5. Generating directly such states is a difficult task and would require strong χ3 non-linearities. Another procedure, probabilistic but heralded, consists in using a measurement-induced non-linearity via a conditional preparation technique operated on Gaussian states. Here, we detail this generation protocol for two non-Gaussian states, the single-photon state and a superposition of coherent states, using two differently phase-matched parametric oscillators as primary resources. This technique enables achievement of a high fidelity with the targeted state and generation of the state in a well-controlled spatiotemporal mode. PMID:24961685

  7. Stabilization of unstable steady states of a continuous stirred tank bioreactor with predator-prey kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tabiś, Bolesław; Skoneczny, Szymon

    2013-07-20

    Nonlinear properties of a bioreactor with a developed microbiological predator-prey food chain are discussed. The presence of the predator microorganism completely changes the position and stability of the stationary states. A wide range of unstable steady states appears, associated with high amplitude oscillations of the state variables. Without automatic control such a system can only operate in transient states, with the yield undergoing periodic changes following the dynamics of the stable limit cycle. Technologically, this is undesirable. It has been shown that the oscillations can be removed by employing continuous P or PI controllers. Moreover, with a PI-controller, the predator can be eliminated from the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating Latent Attentional States Based on Simultaneous Binary and Continuous Behavioral Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Cognition is a complex and dynamic process. It is an essential goal to estimate latent attentional states based on behavioral measures in many sequences of behavioral tasks. Here, we propose a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for estimating the attentional state using simultaneous binary and continuous behavioral measures. The proposed model extends the standard hidden Markov model (HMM) by explicitly modeling the state duration distribution, which yields a special example of the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM). We validate our methods using computer simulations and experimental data. In computer simulations, we systematically investigate the impacts of model mismatch and the latency distribution. For the experimental data collected from a rodent visual detection task, we validate the results with predictive log-likelihood. Our work is useful for many behavioral neuroscience experiments, where the common goal is to infer the discrete (binary or multinomial) state sequences from multiple behavioral measures. PMID:25883639

  9. 45 CFR 260.76 - What special rules apply to States that are continuing evaluations of their waiver demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... demonstrations? If a State is continuing research that employs an experimental design in order to complete an impact evaluation of a waiver demonstration, the experimental and control groups may continue to be...

  10. 45 CFR 260.76 - What special rules apply to States that are continuing evaluations of their waiver demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... demonstrations? If a State is continuing research that employs an experimental design in order to complete an impact evaluation of a waiver demonstration, the experimental and control groups may continue to be...

  11. Fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computing with continuous-variable cluster states.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Nicolas C

    2014-03-28

    A long-standing open question about Gaussian continuous-variable cluster states is whether they enable fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation. The answer is yes. Initial squeezing in the cluster above a threshold value of 20.5 dB ensures that errors from finite squeezing acting on encoded qubits are below the fault-tolerance threshold of known qubit-based error-correcting codes. By concatenating with one of these codes and using ancilla-based error correction, fault-tolerant measurement-based quantum computation of theoretically indefinite length is possible with finitely squeezed cluster states.

  12. State unit on aging involvement with continuing care retirement community (CCRC) legislation.

    PubMed

    Netting, F E; Wilson, C C; Stearns, L R; Branch, L G

    1992-09-01

    State units on aging (SUAs) from 29 states with continuing care retirement community (CCRC) legislation were surveyed to (a) assess staff familiarity with CCRC legislation, (b) examine interdepartmental working relationships surrounding such legislation and ask what role(s) ombudspersons are playing in CCRC oversight, (c) determine what role(s) aging units have had in developing legislation, and (d) gain insights regarding legislative impact. Results indicate that SUAs have been active in legislative development but vary greatly in the intensity of their involvement with the implementation and enforcement of CCRC regulation and in their perception of legislative impact.

  13. Temporal-mode continuous-variable cluster states using linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2011-06-15

    An extensible experimental design for optical continuous-variable cluster states of arbitrary size using four offline (vacuum) squeezers and six beam splitters is presented. This method has all the advantages of a temporal-mode encoding [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 250503 (2010)], including finite requirements for coherence and stability even as the computation length increases indefinitely, with none of the difficulty of inline squeezing. The extensibility stems from a construction based on Gaussian projected entangled pair states. The potential for use of this design within a fully fault-tolerant model is discussed.

  14. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  15. Solid-state continuous Lyman-alpha source for laser-cooling of antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, Jochen; Beyer, Thomas; Kolbe, Daniel; Markert, Frank; Muellers, Andreas; Scheid, Martin

    2008-08-08

    Cooling antihydrogen atoms is important for future experiments both to test the fundamental CPT symmetry by high-resolution laser spectroscopy and also to measure the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Laser-cooling of antihydrogen can be done on the strong 1 S-2 P transition at the wavelength of Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm). Ongoing work to set up a solid-state continuous-wave laser source at Lyman-alpha is described.

  16. Security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states: Decline of postselection advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the security of continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) using coherent states in the presence of quadrature excess noise. We consider an eavesdropping attack that uses a linear amplifier and a beam splitter. This attack makes a link between the beam-splitting attack and the intercept-resend attack (classical teleportation attack). We also show how postselection loses its efficiency in a realistic channel.

  17. Atomic homodyne detection of continuous-variable entangled twin-atom states.

    PubMed

    Gross, C; Strobel, H; Nicklas, E; Zibold, T; Bar-Gill, N; Kurizki, G; Oberthaler, M K

    2011-11-30

    Historically, the completeness of quantum theory has been questioned using the concept of bipartite continuous-variable entanglement. The non-classical correlations (entanglement) between the two subsystems imply that the observables of one subsystem are determined by the measurement choice on the other, regardless of the distance between the subsystems. Nowadays, continuous-variable entanglement is regarded as an essential resource, allowing for quantum enhanced measurement resolution, the realization of quantum teleportation and quantum memories, or the demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. These applications rely on techniques to manipulate and detect coherences of quantum fields, the quadratures. Whereas in optics coherent homodyne detection of quadratures is a standard technique, for massive particles a corresponding method was missing. Here we report the realization of an atomic analogue to homodyne detection for the measurement of matter-wave quadratures. The application of this technique to a quantum state produced by spin-changing collisions in a Bose-Einstein condensate reveals continuous-variable entanglement, as well as the twin-atom character of the state. Our results provide a rare example of continuous-variable entanglement of massive particles. The direct detection of atomic quadratures has applications not only in experimental quantum atom optics, but also for the measurement of fields in many-body systems of massive particles.

  18. Continuous Variable Cluster State Generation over the Optical Spatial Mode Comb

    DOE PAGES

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Jing, Jietai

    2014-10-20

    One way quantum computing uses single qubit projective measurements performed on a cluster state (a highly entangled state of multiple qubits) in order to enact quantum gates. The model is promising due to its potential scalability; the cluster state may be produced at the beginning of the computation and operated on over time. Continuous variables (CV) offer another potential benefit in the form of deterministic entanglement generation. This determinism can lead to robust cluster states and scalable quantum computation. Recent demonstrations of CV cluster states have made great strides on the path to scalability utilizing either time or frequency multiplexingmore » in optical parametric oscillators (OPO) both above and below threshold. The techniques relied on a combination of entangling operators and beam splitter transformations. Here we show that an analogous transformation exists for amplifiers with Gaussian inputs states operating on multiple spatial modes. By judicious selection of local oscillators (LOs), the spatial mode distribution is analogous to the optical frequency comb consisting of axial modes in an OPO cavity. We outline an experimental system that generates cluster states across the spatial frequency comb which can also scale the amount of quantum noise reduction to potentially larger than in other systems.« less

  19. Continuous Variable Cluster State Generation over the Optical Spatial Mode Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Jing, Jietai

    2014-10-20

    One way quantum computing uses single qubit projective measurements performed on a cluster state (a highly entangled state of multiple qubits) in order to enact quantum gates. The model is promising due to its potential scalability; the cluster state may be produced at the beginning of the computation and operated on over time. Continuous variables (CV) offer another potential benefit in the form of deterministic entanglement generation. This determinism can lead to robust cluster states and scalable quantum computation. Recent demonstrations of CV cluster states have made great strides on the path to scalability utilizing either time or frequency multiplexing in optical parametric oscillators (OPO) both above and below threshold. The techniques relied on a combination of entangling operators and beam splitter transformations. Here we show that an analogous transformation exists for amplifiers with Gaussian inputs states operating on multiple spatial modes. By judicious selection of local oscillators (LOs), the spatial mode distribution is analogous to the optical frequency comb consisting of axial modes in an OPO cavity. We outline an experimental system that generates cluster states across the spatial frequency comb which can also scale the amount of quantum noise reduction to potentially larger than in other systems.

  20. Continuous Matrix Product States for Quantum Fields: An Energy Minimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganahl, Martin; Rincón, Julián; Vidal, Guifre

    2017-06-01

    The generalization of matrix product states (MPS) to continuous systems, as proposed in the breakthrough Letter of Verstraete and Cirac [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 190405 (2010)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.190405], provides a powerful variational ansatz for the ground state of strongly interacting quantum field theories in one spatial dimension. A continuous MPS (cMPS) approximation to the ground state can be obtained by simulating a Euclidean time evolution. In this Letter we propose a cMPS optimization algorithm based instead on energy minimization by gradient methods and demonstrate its performance by applying it to the Lieb-Liniger model (an integrable model of an interacting bosonic field) directly in the thermodynamic limit. We observe a very significant computational speed-up, of more than 2 orders of magnitude, with respect to simulating a Euclidean time evolution. As a result, a much larger cMPS bond dimension D can be reached (e.g., D =256 with moderate computational resources), thus helping unlock the full potential of the cMPS representation for ground state studies.

  1. Continuous Matrix Product States for Quantum Fields: An Energy Minimization Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ganahl, Martin; Rincón, Julián; Vidal, Guifre

    2017-06-02

    The generalization of matrix product states (MPS) to continuous systems, as proposed in the breakthrough Letter of Verstraete and Cirac [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 190405 (2010).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.190405], provides a powerful variational ansatz for the ground state of strongly interacting quantum field theories in one spatial dimension. A continuous MPS (cMPS) approximation to the ground state can be obtained by simulating a Euclidean time evolution. In this Letter we propose a cMPS optimization algorithm based instead on energy minimization by gradient methods and demonstrate its performance by applying it to the Lieb-Liniger model (an integrable model of an interacting bosonic field) directly in the thermodynamic limit. We observe a very significant computational speed-up, of more than 2 orders of magnitude, with respect to simulating a Euclidean time evolution. As a result, a much larger cMPS bond dimension D can be reached (e.g., D=256 with moderate computational resources), thus helping unlock the full potential of the cMPS representation for ground state studies.

  2. Analysis of a continuous-variable quadripartite cluster state from a single optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Midgley, S. L. W.; Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.; Pfister, O.

    2010-11-15

    We examine the feasibility of generating continuous-variable multipartite entanglement in an intracavity concurrent downconversion scheme that has been proposed for the generation of cluster states by Menicucci et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 130501 (2008)]. By calculating optimized versions of the van Loock-Furusawa correlations we demonstrate genuine quadripartite entanglement and investigate the degree of entanglement present. Above the oscillation threshold the basic cluster state geometry under consideration suffers from phase diffusion. We alleviate this problem by incorporating a small injected signal into our analysis. Finally, we investigate squeezed joint operators. While the squeezed joint operators approach zero in the undepleted regime, we find that this is not the case when we consider the full interaction Hamiltonian and the presence of a cavity. In fact, we find that the decay of these operators is minimal in a cavity, and even depletion alone inhibits cluster state formation.

  3. Distillation of mixed-state continuous-variable entanglement by photon subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2010-12-15

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis for the distillation of one copy of a mixed two-mode continuous-variable entangled state using beam splitters and coherent photon-detection techniques, including conventional on-off detectors and photon-number-resolving detectors. The initial Gaussian mixed-entangled states are generated by transmitting a two-mode squeezed state through a lossy bosonic channel, corresponding to the primary source of errors in current approaches to optical quantum communication. We provide explicit formulas to calculate the entanglement in terms of logarithmic negativity before and after distillation, including losses in the channel and the photon detection, and show that one-copy distillation is still possible even for losses near the typical fiber channel attenuation length. A lower bound for the transmission coefficient of the photon-subtraction beam splitter is derived, representing the minimal value that still allows to enhance the entanglement.

  4. Combining robust state estimation with nonlinear model predictive control to regulate the acute inflammatory response to pathogen.

    PubMed

    Zitelli, Gregory; Djouadi, Seddik M; Day, Judy D

    2015-10-01

    The inflammatory response aims to restore homeostasis by means of removing a biological stress, such as an invading bacterial pathogen. In cases of acute systemic inflammation, the possibility of collateral tissue damage arises, which leads to a necessary down-regulation of the response. A reduced ordinary differential equations (ODE) model of acute inflammation was presented and investigated in [10]. That system contains multiple positive and negative feedback loops and is a highly coupled and nonlinear ODE. The implementation of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) as a methodology for determining proper therapeutic intervention for in silico patients displaying complex inflammatory states was initially explored in [5]. Since direct measurements of the bacterial population and the magnitude of tissue damage/dysfunction are not readily available or biologically feasible, the need for robust state estimation was evident. In this present work, we present results on the nonlinear reachability of the underlying model, and then focus our attention on improving the predictability of the underlying model by coupling the NMPC with a particle filter. The results, though comparable to the initial exploratory study, show that robust state estimation of this highly nonlinear model can provide an alternative to prior updating strategies used when only partial access to the unmeasurable states of the system are available.

  5. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.

    PubMed

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kerr, William C

    2017-06-01

    Support for the legalization of recreational marijuana continues to increase across the United States and globally. In 2016, recreational marijuana was legalized in the most populous US state of California, as well as three other states. The primary aim of this study was to examine trends in support for recreational marijuana legalization in Washington, a state which has had legal recreational marijuana for almost four years, using data collected over the four years post-legalization. A secondary aim was to examine trends in support for the cultivation of marijuana for personal use. Data come from geographically representative general population samples of adult (aged 18 and over) Washington residents collected over five timepoints (every six months) between January 2014 and April 2016 (N=4101). Random Digit Dial was used for recruitment. Statistical analyses involved bivariate comparisons of proportions across timepoints and subgroups (defined by age, gender, and marijuana user status), and multivariable logistic regression controlling for timepoint (time) to formally test for trend while controlling for demographic and substance use covariates. All analyses adjusted for probability of selection. Support for legalization in Washington has significantly increased: support was 64.0% (95% CI: 61.2%-67.8%) at timepoint 1 and 77.9% (95% CI: 73.2%-81.9%) at timepoint 5. With each six months' passing, support increased 19% on average. We found no statistically significant change in support for home-growing. Support for marijuana legalization has continued to significantly increase in a state that has experienced the policy change for almost four years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Continuous Production of Flor Sherry from New York State Wines1

    PubMed Central

    Lüthi, H. R.; Stoyla, Brigitta; Moyer, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    Flor sherry-like wines were produced continuously from New York State wines from Delaware or cold-pressed Concord grapes whose pigment contents were reduced with activated carbon. The course of flor fermentation was followed by total aldehyde analysis. Optimal flor production was observed at 18 to 20 C. Two continuous methods of fermentation were used. A glass column packed with ceramic saddles densely covered with yeasts gave good results, but required more careful management than the second method of submerged fermentation in a laboratory fermentor, which gave a higher sherry output and higher aldehyde production. With the laboratory fermentor, it was possible to obtain a sherry output of 22 liters per 24 hr with an aldehyde content of 300 to 500 mg per liter. The flor sherry produced by these methods required subsequent aging and fortification to the desired alcohol content. PMID:14339255

  7. Do State Continuing Medical Education Requirements for Physicians Improve Clinical Knowledge?

    PubMed

    Vandergrift, Jonathan L; Gray, Bradley M; Weng, Weifeng

    2017-04-16

    To evaluate the effect of state continuing medical education (CME) requirements on physician clinical knowledge. Secondary data for 19,563 general internists who took the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (MOC) examination between 2006 and 2013. We took advantage of a natural experiment resulting from variations in CME requirements across states over time and applied a difference-in-differences methodology to measure associations between changes in CME requirements and physician clinical knowledge. We measured changes in clinical knowledge by comparing initial and MOC examination performance 10 years apart. We constructed difference-in-differences estimates by regressing examination performance changes against physician demographics, county and year fixed effects, trend-state indicators, and state CME change indicators. Physician data were compiled by the American Board of Internal Medicine. State CME policies were compiled from American Medical Association reports. More rigorous CME credit-hour requirements (mostly implementing a new requirement) were associated with an increase in examination performance equivalent to a shift in examination score from the 50th to 54th percentile. Among physicians required to engage in a summative assessment of their clinical knowledge, CME requirements were associated with an improvement in physician clinical knowledge. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State

    PubMed Central

    Dugo, Laura; Belluomo, Maria Giovanna; Fanali, Chiara; Russo, Marina; Cacciola, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols-rich cocoa has many beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Macrophages function as control switches of the immune system, maintaining the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the hypothesis that cocoa polyphenol extract may affect macrophage proinflammatory phenotype M1 by favoring an alternative M2 anti-inflammatory state on macrophages deriving from THP-1 cells. Chemical composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of cocoa polyphenols extracted from roasted cocoa beans were determined. THP-1 cells were activated with both lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ for M1 or with IL-4 for M2 switch, and specific cytokines were quantified. Cellular metabolism, through mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were evaluated. Here, we will show that cocoa polyphenolic extract attenuated in vitro inflammation decreasing M1 macrophage response as demonstrated by a significantly lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, treatment of M1 macrophages with cocoa polyphenols influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways, thus leading to a significant increase in O2 consumption by mitochondrial complexes as well as a higher production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, cocoa polyphenolic extract suppresses inflammation mediated by M1 phenotype and influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways and M2 polarization of active macrophages. PMID:28744339

  9. Effect of Cocoa Polyphenolic Extract on Macrophage Polarization from Proinflammatory M1 to Anti-Inflammatory M2 State.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Laura; Belluomo, Maria Giovanna; Fanali, Chiara; Russo, Marina; Cacciola, Francesco; Maccarrone, Mauro; Sardanelli, Anna Maria

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols-rich cocoa has many beneficial effects on human health, such as anti-inflammatory effects. Macrophages function as control switches of the immune system, maintaining the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the hypothesis that cocoa polyphenol extract may affect macrophage proinflammatory phenotype M1 by favoring an alternative M2 anti-inflammatory state on macrophages deriving from THP-1 cells. Chemical composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of cocoa polyphenols extracted from roasted cocoa beans were determined. THP-1 cells were activated with both lipopolysaccharides and interferon-γ for M1 or with IL-4 for M2 switch, and specific cytokines were quantified. Cellular metabolism, through mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and ATP levels were evaluated. Here, we will show that cocoa polyphenolic extract attenuated in vitro inflammation decreasing M1 macrophage response as demonstrated by a significantly lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, treatment of M1 macrophages with cocoa polyphenols influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways, thus leading to a significant increase in O2 consumption by mitochondrial complexes as well as a higher production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, cocoa polyphenolic extract suppresses inflammation mediated by M1 phenotype and influences macrophage metabolism by promoting oxidative pathways and M2 polarization of active macrophages.

  10. Continuous matrix product states with periodic boundary conditions and an application to atomtronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Damian; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank; Rizzi, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a time evolution algorithm for one-dimensional quantum field theories with periodic boundary conditions. This is done by applying the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle to the set of translational invariant continuous matrix product states with periodic boundary conditions. Moreover, the ansatz is accompanied with additional boundary degrees of freedom to study quantum impurity problems. The algorithm allows for a cutoff in the spectrum of the transfer matrix and thus has an efficient computational scaling. In particular we study the prototypical example of an atomtronic system—an interacting Bose gas rotating in a ring shaped trap in the presence of a localized barrier potential.

  11. Manipulation of collective quantum states in Bose-Einstein condensates by continuous imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew C. J.; Sherson, Jacob F.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    We develop a Gaussian state treatment that allows a transparent quantum description of the continuous, nondestructive imaging of and feedback on a Bose-Einstein condensate. We have previously demonstrated [A. C. J. Wade et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 060401 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.060401] that the measurement backaction of stroboscopic imaging leads to selective squeezing and entanglement of quantized density oscillations. Here, we investigate how the squeezing and entanglement are affected by the finite spatial resolution and geometry of the probe laser beam and of the detector and how they can be optimized.

  12. Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Multipartite Quantum Communication Using Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Guo, Ying

    2017-02-01

    A continuous-variable measurement-device-independent (CV-MDI) multipartite quantum communication protocol is designed to realize multipartite communication based on the GHZ state analysis using Gaussian coherent states. It can remove detector side attack as the multi-mode measurement is blindly done in a suitable Black Box. The entanglement-based CV-MDI multipartite communication scheme and the equivalent prepare-and-measurement scheme are proposed to analyze the security and guide experiment, respectively. The general eavesdropping and coherent attack are considered for the security analysis. Subsequently, all the attacks are ascribed to coherent attack against imperfect links. The asymptotic key rate of the asymmetric configuration is also derived with the numeric simulations illustrating the performance of the proposed protocol.

  13. Reconciling semiclassical and Bohmian mechanics. III. Scattering states for continuous potentials.

    PubMed

    Trahan, Corey; Poirier, Bill

    2006-01-21

    In a previous paper [B. Poirier, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4501 (2004)] a unique bipolar decomposition psi = psi1 + psi2 was presented for stationary bound states Psi of the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation, such that the components psi1 and psi2 approach their semiclassical WKB analogs in the large-action limit. The corresponding bipolar quantum trajectories, as defined in the usual Bohmian mechanical formulation, are classical-like and well behaved, even when Psi has many nodes or is wildly oscillatory. A modification for discontinuous potential stationary scattering states was presented in a second, companion paper [C. Trahan and B. Poirier, J. Chem. Phys.124, 034115 (2006), previous paper], whose generalization for continuous potentials is given here. The result is an exact quantum scattering methodology using classical trajectories. For additional convenience in handling the tunneling case, a constant-velocity-trajectory version is also developed.

  14. [Relation between paraoxonase activity, other HDL components and inflammatory state in hemodialyzed patients].

    PubMed

    González, Ana I; Brites, Fernando; Elbert, Alicia; Gómez-Rosso, Leonardo; Berg, Gabriela; Wikinski, Regina; Schreier, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Chronic Renal Disease (CKD) is closely associated with a pro-inflammatory condition, with an increase in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and decrease in HDL level. HDL contains antioxidant enzymes such as paraoxonase (PON), whose activity is diminished in CKD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between PON activity with HDL cholesterol, apo A1 and hs-CRP levels, which are known to be inflammatory markers in hemodialyzed patients. Forty-two patients were studied; age, median (range) = 50 (25-67) years old, gender M/F = 22/20, duration of hemodialysis = 4.4 ± 0.5 years, BMI: 23 ± 0.5 kg/m2. After a 12 h fast, a blood sample was obtained and classic components of lipid profile were determined, as well as apoproteins A1 and B, PON by means of its arylsterase activity and hs-CRP levels. On the basis of the latter, patients were divided into two groups: hs-CRP ≤ 1 (low risk, range: 0.1 to 1.0 mg/l) and > 1 mg/l (moderate and high risk, 1.1 to 10.7 mg/l). No difference was found in triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and apo B in the groups. Patients with hs-CRP > 1 showed lower HDL cholesterol (40 ± 2 mg/dl) and apo A1 (118 ± 4 mg/dl) than patients with hs-CRP ≤ 1 (50 ± 4 and 133 ± 5, respectively); p < 0.05. PON was lower in hs-CRP > 1 = 90.5 ± 24.0 µmol/ml.min than in hs-CRP ≤ 1 = 105.2 ± 18.0. Consequently, inverse correlations were obtained between apo A1 and hs-CRP, r = -0.381, p = 0.013 and between PON and hs-CRP, r = -0.32, p = 0.042. Furthermore, increase in hs-CRP correlated positively with BMI r = 0.318, p = 0.042. Since apo A1 has an anti-inflammatory role and PON an antioxidant activity, the decrease in HDL and its components, cholesterol, apo A1 and PON, in subjects with higher chronic inflammatory condition might explain, in part, the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients.

  15. Initiation and continuation of long-acting reversible contraception in the United States military healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Chiles, Daniel P; Roberts, Timothy A; Klein, David A

    2016-09-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception is more effective for pregnancy prevention than shorter-acting contraceptive methods and has the potential to reduce healthcare disparities and costs. However, long-acting reversible contraception is underused in the United States. One population of interest is beneficiaries of the United States military healthcare system who have access to universal healthcare, including no-cost, no-copay contraception with unlimited method switching, and comprise a large, actual use cohort. Efforts to increase long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation in this population may improve health outcomes and mitigate the profound consequences of unintended or mistimed pregnancy on readiness and cost to the military. We aimed to determine long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation rates among the diverse population with universal healthcare who are enrolled in the US military healthcare system. This study is a retrospective cohort of >1.7 million women, aged 14-40 years, who were enrolled in the US military healthcare system, TRICARE Prime, between October 2009 and September 2014. Individuals were assessed for long-acting reversible contraception initiation and continuation with the use of medical billing records. Method continuation and factors that were associated with early method discontinuation were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazard models. During the study dates, 188,533 women initiated long-acting reversible contraception. Of these, 74.6% women selected intrauterine contraceptives. Method initiation rates remained relatively stable (41.7-50.1/1000 women/year) for intrauterine methods, although the rate for subdermal implants increased from 6.1-23.0/1000 women/year. In analysis of women who selected intrauterine contraceptives, 61.2% continued their method at 36 months, and 48.8% continued at 60 months. Among women who selected the implant, 32.0% continued their

  16. Detection of quantum steering in multipartite continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Xiang, Yu; He, Qiongyi; Gong, Qihuang

    2015-01-01

    The multipartite entangled state has drawn broad attention for both foundations of quantum mechanics and applications in quantum information processing. Here, we study the spatially separated N -partite continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like states, which can be produced by a linear optical network with squeezed light and N -1 beamsplitters. We investigate the properties of multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering possessed by those states, and find that the steering of a given quantum mode is allowed when not less than half of the modes within the states take part in the steering group. This is certified by the detection of the correlation between position and momentum quadratures of the steered mode and a combination of quadratures of other modes inside the steering group. The steering is evidenced by the high correlation where the steering group can infer the quadratures of the steered mode to high precision, i.e., below the quantum limit for the position and momentum quadratures of the steered quantum mode. We also examine the influence of inefficiency on the multipartite steering, and derive the threshold of the loss tolerance. Furthermore, we discuss the collective N -partite steering induced by the asymmetric loss on beams, which exists when a given quantum mode can only be steered by all the remaining N -1 modes collaboratively. The present multipartite steering correlation may have potential applications in certain quantum information tasks where the issue of trust is important, such as one-sided device-independent quantum secret sharing.

  17. Powder keg divisions in the critical state regime: transition from continuous to explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zongzheng; Tordesillas, Antoinette

    2017-06-01

    The underlying microstructure and dynamics of a dense granular material as it evolves towards the "critical state", a limit state in which the system deforms with an essentially constant volume and stress ratio, remains widely debated in the micromechanics of granular media community. Strain localization, a common mechanism in the large strain regime, further complicates the characterization of this limit state. Here we revisit the evolution to this limit state within the framework of modern percolation theory. Attention is paid to motion transfer: in this context, percolation translates to the emergence of a large-scale connectivity in graphs that embody information on individual grain displacements. We construct each graph G(r) by connecting nodes, representing the grains, within a distance r in the displacement-state-space. As r increases, we observe a percolation transition on G(r). The size of the jump discontinuity increases in the lead up to failure, indicating that the nature of percolation transition changes from continuous to explosive. We attribute this to the emergence of collective motion, which manifests in increasingly isolated communities in G(r). At the limit state, where the jump discontinuity is highest and invariant across the different unjamming cycles (drops in stress ratio), G(r) encapsulates multiple kinematically distinct communities that are mediated by nodes corresponding to those grains in the shear band. This finding casts light on the dual and opposing roles of the shear band: a mechanism that creates powder keg divisions in the sample, while simultaneously acting as a mechanical link that transfers motion through such subdivisions moving in relative rigid-body motion.

  18. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2010-07-15

    Many different quantum-information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding, and entanglement-based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is, however, hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order nonlinearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements, and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

  19. Mechanical state, material properties and continuous description of an epithelial tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Isabelle; Marcq, Philippe; Bosveld, Floris; Fetler, Luc; Bellaïche, Yohanns; Graner, François

    2012-01-01

    During development, epithelial tissues undergo extensive morphogenesis based on coordinated changes of cell shape and position over time. Continuum mechanics describes tissue mechanical state and shape changes in terms of strain and stress. It accounts for individual cell properties using only a few spatially averaged material parameters. To determine the mechanical state and parameters in the Drosophila pupa dorsal thorax epithelium, we severed in vivo the adherens junctions around a disc-shaped domain comprising typically a hundred cells. This enabled a direct measurement of the strain along different orientations at once. The amplitude and the anisotropy of the strain increased during development. We also measured the stress-to-viscosity ratio and similarly found an increase in amplitude and anisotropy. The relaxation time was of the order of 10 s. We propose a space–time, continuous model of the relaxation. Good agreement with experimental data validates the description of the epithelial domain as a continuous, linear, visco-elastic material. We discuss the relevant time and length scales. Another material parameter, the ratio of external friction to internal viscosity, is estimated by fitting the initial velocity profile. Together, our results contribute to quantify forces and displacements, and their time evolution, during morphogenesis. PMID:22628216

  20. The continued influence of implied and explicitly stated misinformation in news reports.

    PubMed

    Rich, Patrick R; Zaragoza, Maria S

    2016-01-01

    The piecemeal reporting of unfolding news events can lead to the reporting of mistaken information (or misinformation) about the cause of the newsworthy event, which later needs to be corrected. Studies of the continued influence effect have shown, however, that corrections are not entirely effective in reversing the effects of initial misinformation. Instead, participants continue to rely on the discredited misinformation when asked to draw inferences and make judgments about the news story. Most prior studies have employed misinformation that explicitly states the likely cause of an outcome. However, news stories do not always provide misinformation explicitly, but instead merely imply that something or someone might be the cause of an adverse outcome. Two experiments employing both direct and indirect measures of misinformation reliance were conducted to assess whether implied misinformation is more resistant to correction than explicitly stated misinformation. The results supported this prediction. Experiment 1 showed that corrections reduced misinformation reliance in both the explicit and implied conditions, but the correction was much less effective following implied misinformation. Experiment 2 showed that implied misinformation was more resistant to correction than explicit misinformation, even when the correction was paired with an alternative explanation. Finally, Experiment 3 showed that greater resistance to correction in the implied misinformation condition did not reflect greater disbelief in the correction. Potential reasons why implied misinformation is more difficult to correct than explicitly provided misinformation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. The adjoint-state method for the downward continuation of the geomagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedoorn, J. M.; Martinec, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The downward continuation of the observed geomagnetic field from the Earth's surface to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) is complicated due to induction and diffusion processes in the electrically conducting Earth mantle, which modify the amplitudes and morphology of the geomagnetic field. Various methods have been developed to solve this problem, for example, the perturbation approach by Benton & Whaler, or the non-harmonic downward continuation by Ballani et al. In this paper, we present a new approach for determining the geomagnetic field at the CMB by reformulating the ill-posed, one-sided boundary-value problem with time-variable boundary-value function on the Earth's surface into an optimization problem for the boundary condition at the CMB. The reformulated well-posed problem is solved by a conjugate gradient technique using the adjoint gradient of a misfit. For this purpose, we formulate the geomagnetic adjoint-state equations for efficient computations of the misfit gradient. Beside the theoretical description of the new adjoint-state method (ASM), the first applications to a global geomagnetic field model are presented. The comparison with other methods demonstrates the capability of the new method to determine the geomagnetic field at the CMB and allows us to investigate the variability of the determined field with respect to the applied methods. This shows that it is necessary to apply the ASM when investigating the effect of the Earth's mantle conductivity because the difference between the results of approximate methods (harmonic downward continuation, perturbation approach) and the rigorous ASM are of the same order as the difference between the results of the ASM applied for different mantle conductivities.

  2. The continuity illusion does not depend on attentional state: FMRI evidence from illusory vowels.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Antje; Carlyon, Robert P; Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2011-10-01

    We investigate whether the neural correlates of the continuity illusion, as measured using fMRI, are modulated by attention. As we have shown previously, when two formants of a synthetic vowel are presented in an alternating pattern, the vowel can be identified if the gaps in each formant are filled with bursts of plausible masking noise, causing the illusory percept of a continuous vowel ("Illusion" condition). When the formant-to-noise ratio is increased so that noise no longer plausibly masks the formants, the formants are heard as interrupted ("Illusion Break" condition) and vowels are not identifiable. A region of the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) is sensitive both to intact synthetic vowels (two formants present simultaneously) and to Illusion stimuli, compared to Illusion Break stimuli. Here, we compared these conditions in the presence and absence of attention. We examined fMRI signal for different sound types under three attentional conditions: full attention to the vowels; attention to a visual distracter; or attention to an auditory distracter. Crucially, although a robust main effect of attentional state was observed in many regions, the effect of attention did not differ systematically for the illusory vowels compared to either intact vowels or to the Illusion Break stimuli in the left STG/MTG vowel-sensitive region. This result suggests that illusory continuity of vowels is an obligatory perceptual process, and operates independently of attentional state. An additional finding was that the sensitivity of primary auditory cortex to the number of sound onsets in the stimulus was modulated by attention.

  3. Interleukin-1 antagonism moderates the inflammatory state associated with Type 1 diabetes during clinical trials conducted at disease onset.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Wang, Xujing; Chen, Yi-Guang; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L; Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-04-01

    It was hypothesized that IL-1 antagonism would preserve β-cell function in new onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA) and TrialNet Canakinumab (TN-14) trials failed to show efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or canakinumab, as measured by stimulated C-peptide response. Additional measures are needed to define immune state changes associated with therapeutic responses. Here, we studied these trial participants with plasma-induced transcriptional analysis. In blinded analyses, 70.2% of AIDA and 68.9% of TN-14 participants were correctly called to their treatment arm. While the transcriptional signatures from the two trials were distinct, both therapies achieved varying immunomodulation consistent with IL-1 inhibition. On average, IL-1 antagonism resulted in modest normalization relative to healthy controls. At endpoint, signatures were quantified using a gene ontology-based inflammatory index, and an inverse relationship was observed between measured inflammation and stimulated C-peptide response in IL-1Ra- and canakinumab-treated patients. Cytokine neutralization studies showed that IL-1α and IL-1β additively contribute to the T1D inflammatory state. Finally, analyses of baseline signatures were indicative of later therapeutic response. Despite the absence of clinical efficacy by IL-1 antagonist therapy, transcriptional analysis detected immunomodulation and may yield new insight when applied to other clinical trials.

  4. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  5. Imputation of Continuous Tree Suitability over the Continental United States from Sparse Measurements Using Associative Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Potter, K. M.; Mills, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Up-scaling from sparse measurements to a continuous raster of estimated values is a common problem in Earth System Science. We present a new general-purpose empirical imputation method based on associative clustering, which associates sparse measurements of dependent variables with particular multivariate clustered combinations of the independent variables, and then uses several methods to estimate values for unmeasured clusters, based on directional proximity in multidimensional data space, at both the cluster and map cell levels of resolution. We demonstrate this new imputation tool on tree species range distribution maps, which describe the suitable extent and expected growth performance of a particular tree species over a wide area. Range maps having continuous estimates of tree growth performance are more useful than more classical tree range maps that simply show binary occurence suitability. The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory Assessment (FIA) plots provide information about the occurence and growth performance for various tree species across the US, but such measurements are limited to FIA plots. Using Associative Clustering, we scale up the discontinuous FIA Inventory growth measurements into continuous maps that show the expected growth and suitabilty for individual tree species covering the Continental United States. A multivariate cluster analysis was applied to global output from a General Circulation Model (GCM) consisting of 17 variables downscaled to 4km2 resolution. Present global growing conditions were divided into 30 thousand relatively homogeneous ecoregions describing climatic and topographic conditions. At every mapcell a multi-linear regression was applied in 17 dimensional hyperspace to derive the suitability of a tree species where not measured using the forest inventory data. The continuous species distribution maps obtained were compared and validated against existing tree range suitability maps. Associative Clustering is intended

  6. 42 CFR 407.50 - Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. 407.50 Section 407.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.50 Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. (a) Deemed...

  7. 42 CFR 407.50 - Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. 407.50 Section 407.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.50 Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. (a) Deemed...

  8. 42 CFR 407.50 - Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. 407.50 Section 407.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.50 Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. (a) Deemed...

  9. 42 CFR 407.50 - Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. 407.50 Section 407.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.50 Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. (a) Deemed...

  10. 8 CFR 319.4 - Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by United States organizations engaged in disseminating information. 319.4 Section 319.4 Aliens and... NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.4 Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United... section 319(c)(1) of the Act; (b) Reside in the United States pursuant to a lawful admission for...

  11. 8 CFR 319.4 - Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by United States organizations engaged in disseminating information. 319.4 Section 319.4 Aliens and... NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.4 Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United... section 319(c)(1) of the Act; (b) Reside in the United States pursuant to a lawful admission for...

  12. 8 CFR 319.4 - Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by United States organizations engaged in disseminating information. 319.4 Section 319.4 Aliens and... NATURALIZED: SPOUSES OF UNITED STATES CITIZENS § 319.4 Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United... section 319(c)(1) of the Act; (b) Reside in the United States pursuant to a lawful admission for...

  13. 42 CFR 407.50 - Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. 407.50 Section 407.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) ENROLLMENT AND ENTITLEMENT State Buy-In Agreements § 407.50 Continuation of coverage: Individual enrollment following end of coverage under a State buy-in agreement. (a)...

  14. Inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles are associated with patient outcome and the hyperadrenergic state following acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Di Battista, Alex P; Rhind, Shawn G; Hutchison, Michael G; Hassan, Syed; Shiu, Maria Y; Inaba, Kenji; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Neto, Antonio Capone; Rizoli, Sandro B; Baker, Andrew J

    2016-02-16

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits intense sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation with profuse catecholamine secretion. The resultant hyperadrenergic state is linked to immunomodulation both within the brain and systemically. Dysregulated inflammation post-TBI exacerbates secondary brain injury and contributes to unfavorable patient outcomes including death. The aim of this study was to characterize the early dynamic profile of circulating inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in patients admitted for moderate-to-severe TBI, to examine interrelationships between these mediators and catecholamines, as well as clinical indices of injury severity and neurological outcome. Blood was sampled from 166 isolated TBI patients (aged 45 ± 20.3 years; 74.7 % male) on admission, 6-, 12-, and 24-h post-injury and from healthy controls (N = 21). Plasma cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1β, -2, -4, -5, -10, -12p70, -13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ] and chemokine [IL-8, eotaxin, eotaxin-3, IFN-γ-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, -4, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, thymus activation regulated chemokine (TARC)] concentrations were analyzed using high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescence multiplex immunoassays. Plasma catecholamines [epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE)] were measured by immunoassay. Neurological outcome at 6 months was assessed using the extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOSE) dichotomized as good (>4) or poor (≤4) outcomes. Patients showed altered levels of IL-10 and all chemokines assayed relative to controls. Significant differences in a number of markers were evident between moderate and severe TBI cohorts. Elevated IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, as well as alterations in 8 of 9 chemokines, were associated with poor outcome at 6 months. Notably, a positive association was found between Epi and IL-1β, IL-10, Eotaxin, IL-8, and MCP-1. NE was positively associated

  15. Inflammatory profiles in the non-pregnant state predict offspring birth weight at Cebu: evidence for intergenerational effects of low grade inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Tallman, Paula S.; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette; McDade, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although maternal infection and inflammation during pregnancy can adversely affect offspring birth weight (BW), whether low grade inflammation in the non-pregnant state predicts BW is unknown. Aim Evaluate relationships between offspring BW and pro- and anti-inflammatory factors measured in parous but non-pregnant women. Subjects and methods Data come from 234 parous Filipino females (21.5 ± 0.3 yr) in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based birth cohort in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Pro-inflammatory [Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and anti-inflammatory [Interleukin-10 (IL-10)] factors were measured in fasting plasma when the women were not pregnant, and related to recalled offspring BW. Results BW in female offspring was lower only among women with high IL-1β. Although pro-inflammatory cytokines did not predict BW in male offspring, women with higher anti-inflammatory IL-10 gave birth to larger males. Women with a combination of low inflammatory (IL-6) and high anti-inflammatory (IL-10) factors (interaction p<0.104) gave birth to the largest males. Conclusion Immune factors measured outside of pregnancy predict offspring BW in these young women. Stable variation in inflammatory phenotype could impact the gestational environment of offspring, thus pointing to potential intergenerational effects of chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:22690728

  16. Inflammatory profiles in the non-pregnant state predict offspring birth weight at Cebu: evidence for inter-generational effects of low grade inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Tallman, Paula S; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette; McDade, Thomas W

    2012-07-01

    Although maternal infection and inflammation during pregnancy can adversely affect offspring birth weight (BW), whether low grade inflammation in the non-pregnant state predicts BW is unknown. To evaluate relationships between offspring BW and pro- and anti-inflammatory factors measured in parous but non-pregnant women. Data come from 234 parous Filipino females (21.5 ± 0.3 years) in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a population-based birth cohort in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Pro-inflammatory [Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and anti-inflammatory [Interleukin-10 (IL-10)] factors were measured in fasting plasma when the women were not pregnant, and related to recalled offspring BW. BW in female offspring was lower only among women with high IL-1β. Although pro-inflammatory cytokines did not predict BW in male offspring, women with higher anti-inflammatory IL-10 gave birth to larger males. Women with a combination of low inflammatory (IL-6) and high anti-inflammatory (IL-10) factors (interaction p < 0.104) gave birth to the largest males. Immune factors measured outside of pregnancy predict offspring BW in these young women. Stable variation in inflammatory phenotype could impact the gestational environment of offspring, thus pointing to potential inter-generational effects of chronic low-grade inflammation.

  17. Continuous-wave Lyman-alpha generation with solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Martin; Kolbe, Daniel; Markert, Frank; Hänsch, Theodor W; Walz, Jochen

    2009-07-06

    A coherent continuous-wave Lyman-alpha source based on four-wave sum-frequency mixing in mercury vapor has been realized with solid-state lasers. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility is enhanced by the 6(1)S - 7(1)S two-photon resonance and the near 6(1)S-6(3)P one-photon resonance. The phase matching curve for this four-wave mixing scheme is observed for the first time. In addition we investigate the two-photon enhancement of the Lyman-alpha yield and observe that the maxima of Lyman-alpha generation are shifted compared to the two-photon resonances of the different isotopes.

  18. An Online Policy Gradient Algorithm for Markov Decision Processes with Continuous States and Actions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yao; Zhao, Tingting; Hatano, Kohei; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    We consider the learning problem under an online Markov decision process (MDP) aimed at learning the time-dependent decision-making policy of an agent that minimizes the regret-the difference from the best fixed policy. The difficulty of online MDP learning is that the reward function changes over time. In this letter, we show that a simple online policy gradient algorithm achieves regret O(√T) for T steps under a certain concavity assumption and O(log T) under a strong concavity assumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to present an online MDP algorithm that can handle continuous state, action, and parameter spaces with guarantee. We also illustrate the behavior of the proposed online policy gradient method through experiments.

  19. A Continuous Family of Equilibria in Ferromagnetic Media are Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xifeng; de la Llave, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    We show that a foliation of equilibria (a continuous family of equilibria whose graph covers all the configuration space) in ferromagnetic transitive models are ground states. The result we prove is very general, and it applies to models with long range and many-body interactions. As an application, we consider several models of networks of interacting particles including models of Frenkel-Kontorova type on Z^d and one-dimensional quasi-periodic media. The result above is an analogue of several results in the calculus of variations (fields of extremals) and in PDE's. Since the models we consider are discrete and long range, new proofs need to be given. We also note that the main hypothesis of our result (the existence of foliations of equilibria) is the conclusion (using KAM theory) of several recent papers. Hence, we obtain that the KAM solutions recently established are minimizers when the interaction is ferromagnetic and transitive (these concepts are defined later).

  20. Unsteady-state material balance model for a continuous rotary dissolver

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.E.

    1984-09-01

    The unsteady-state continuous rotary dissolver material balance code (USSCRD) is a useful tool with which to study the performance of the rotary dissolver under a wide variety of operating conditions. The code does stepwise continuous material balance calculations around each dissolver stage and the digester tanks. Output from the code consists of plots and tabular information on the stagewise concentration profiles of UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2}, fission products, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, fission product nitrates, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, stainless steel, total particulate, and total fuel in pins. Other information about material transfers, stagewise liquid volume, material inventory, and dissolution performance is also provided. This report describes the development of the code, its limitations, key operating parameters, usage procedures, and the results of the analysis of several sets of operating conditions. Of primary importance in this work was the estimation of the steady-state heavy metal inventory in a 0.5-t/d dissolver drum. Values ranging from {similar_to}12 to >150 kg of U + Pu were obtained for a variety of operating conditions. Realistically, inventories are expected to be near the lower end of this range. Study of the variation of operating parameters showed significant effects on dissolver product composition from intermittent solids feed. Other observations indicated that the cycle times for the digesters and shear feed should be closely coupled in order to avoid potential problems with off-specification product. 19 references, 14 tables.

  1. Determinants of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Pro-inflammatory state and dysfunction of high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Yusuf; Onat, Altan; Akbaş, Tuğba; Şimşek, Barış; Yüksel, Hüsniye; Can, Günay

    The goal of this study was to determine variables preceding and predicting incident obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in the population at large. Anthropometric, lipid, and non-lipid variables in participants with newly developing OSAS (n = 131) were compared with those of a cohort sample (n = 2615) of the Turkish Adult Risk Factor study. Available values preceding (by a median of 32 mo) the development of OSAS were used in multivariable Cox regression models. Significant determinants of OSAS assessed by group differences were waist/neck circumference and fibrinogen. Fasting triacylglycerols, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein in men and low sex hormone-binding globulin and elevated homeostatic model assessment in women were further significant covariates. Cox regression analysis for the risk of incident OSAS confirmed the independent predictive value of central obesity measures, especially neck circumference (having a twofold hazard ratio) and younger age. Age-adjusted former smoking status and-compared with the lowest tertile-the upper two tertiles of fibrinogen (relative risk = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.63) were significant predictors. Elevated triacylglycerols in males and high apolipoprotein B and lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol tertile in females also predicted subsequent OSAS. Systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol did not prove to be independent predictors in multivariable adjusted Cox models in which partial sex-dependent independence of obesity measures of the previously stated five variables was essentially retained. An enhanced pro-inflammatory state appeared to be the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism for OSAS, whereas in men, the added factor of high-density lipoprotein dysfunction was suggested. Because it contributes to the pro-inflammatory state, discontinuance of smoking was another further significant predictor of OSAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The continuous time random walk, still trendy: fifty-year history, state of art and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    In this article we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism, the numerous modifications permitted by its flexibility, its various applications, and the promising perspectives in the various fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given. However, this review is still far from completeness. We focused on a pivotal role of CTRWs mainly in anomalous stochastic processes discovered in physics and beyond. This article plays the role of an extended announcement of the Eur. Phys. J. B Special Issue [http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on] containing articles which show incredible possibilities of the CTRWs. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  3. Differential diagnosis in inflammatory bowel disease colitis: State of the art and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pastorelli, Luca; Neurath, Markus F; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Distinction between Crohn’s disease of the colon-rectum and ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) type unclassified can be of pivotal importance for a tailored clinical management, as each entity often involves specific therapeutic strategies and prognosis. Nonetheless, no gold standard is available and the uncertainty of diagnosis may frequently lead to misclassification or repeated examinations. Hence, we have performed a literature search to address the problem of differential diagnosis in IBD colitis, revised current and emerging diagnostic tools and refined disease classification strategies. Nowadays, the differential diagnosis is an untangled issue, and the proper diagnosis cannot be reached in up to 10% of patients presenting with IBD colitis. This topic is receiving emerging attention, as medical therapies, surgical approaches and leading prognostic outcomes require more and more disease-specific strategies in IBD patients. The optimization of standard diagnostic approaches based on clinical features, biomarkers, radiology, endoscopy and histopathology appears to provide only marginal benefits. Conversely, emerging diagnostic techniques in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology, genetics, epigenetics, metabolomics and proteomics have already shown promising results. Novel advanced endoscopic imaging techniques and biomarkers can shed new light for the differential diagnosis of IBD, better reflecting diverse disease behaviors based on specific pathogenic pathways. PMID:25574078

  4. Occupational mortality associated with inflammatory bowel disease in the United States 1984-1998.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Walker, James T

    2012-07-01

    The occurrence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is shaped by environmental influences. Many such environmental risk factors vary potentially with occupational exposure. We used a large national database to study the occupational variation of mortality associated with CD and UC. The National Occupational Mortality Surveillance database contains data from the death certificate linked with information about the occupation and industry of each deceased individual. Deaths were grouped by gender, ethnicity, disease type, occupation, and industry. Mortality by occupation and industry were expressed as age-adjusted proportional mortality ratio. A total of 3110 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients were included in the present analysis. IBD mortality was low among blue collar workers and high among white collar workers. It was low among farming occupations, manufacturing occupations, and manual laborers. It was high among secretaries, professionals, sales workers, homemakers, managerial occupations, and teachers. There was a strong correlation between the occupational distribution of CD and UC that applied to men and women alike. The overall distribution among different industries corroborated the patterns observed with respect to the occupational distribution. The correlations between the occupational distribution of CD and UC support the contention that environmental influences shape the occurrence of both diseases. Such influence must vary by occupation and, to a lesser extent, also by industry. It must be similar for both types of IBD. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  5. 45 CFR 260.76 - What special rules apply to States that are continuing evaluations of their waiver demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... demonstrations? If a State is continuing research that employs an experimental design in order to complete an...

  6. 45 CFR 260.76 - What special rules apply to States that are continuing evaluations of their waiver demonstrations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN... demonstrations? If a State is continuing research that employs an experimental design in order to complete an...

  7. Influence to high-intensity intermittent and moderate-intensity continuous exercise on indices of cardio-inflammatory health in men

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carolina C.; Diniz, Tiego A.; Inoue, Daniela S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Panissa, Valéria L.G.; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Campos, Eduardo Z.; Hofmann, Peter; Lira, Fábio S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence to acute exercises performed in different intensities with volume equalized (5 km) on indices of cardio-inflammatory health. Twelve physically active male subjects (age, 23.22±5.47 years; height, 174.75±5.80 m; weight, 75.13±6.61 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 52.92 mL/kg/min), after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), completed two randomly experimental trials: high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE: 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE: 70% sVO2Peak). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adiponectin and plasminogen inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) data were analyzed pre, immediately, and 60 min after the exercise session. Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIIE and MICE were performed using a mixed model and statistical and significance was set at <5%. PAI-1 presented an effect for time from pre to immediately after exercise moment (P<0.018) and from immediately to 60 min after exercise moment (P<0.001) only in MICE. BDNF presented an effect for time from pre to immediately after exercise to HIIE (P<0.022) and from immediately to 60 min after exercise to MICE (P<0.034). HIIE promotes BDNF increase and that there is negative correlation between PAI-1 concentrations and BDNF in both protocols in healthy sportsmen, favoring an anti-atherogenic profile. PMID:28119886

  8. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  9. Medicaid prescription drug policies and medication access and continuity: findings from ten states.

    PubMed

    West, Joyce C; Wilk, Joshua E; Rae, Donald S; Muszynski, Irvin S; Stipec, Maritza Rubio; Alter, Carol L; Sanders, Karen E; Crystal, Stephen; Regier, Darrel A

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to compare medication access problems among psychiatric patients in ten state Medicaid programs, assess adverse events associated with medication access problems, and determine whether prescription drug utilization management is associated with access problems and adverse events. Psychiatrists from the American Medical Association's Masterfile were randomly selected (N=4,866). Sixty-two percent responded; 32% treated Medicaid patients and were randomly assigned a start day and time to report on two Medicaid patients (N=1,625 patients). A medication access problem in the past year was reported for a mean+/-SE of 48.3%+/-2.0% of the patients, with a 37.6% absolute difference between states with the lowest and highest rates (p<.001). The most common access problems were not being able to access clinically indicated medication refills or new prescriptions because Medicaid would not cover or approve them (34.0%+/-1.9%), prescribing a medication not clinically preferred because clinically indicated or preferred medications were not covered or approved (29.4%+/-1.8%), and discontinuing medications as a result of prescription drug coverage or management issues (25.8%+/-1.6%). With patient case mix adjusted to control for sociodemographic and clinical confounders, patients with medication access problems had 3.6 times greater likelihood of adverse events (p<.001), including emergency visits, hospitalizations, homelessness, suicidal ideation or behavior, or incarceration. Also, all prescription drug management features were significantly associated with increased medication access problems and adverse events (p<.001). States with more access problems had significantly higher adverse event rates (p<.001). These associations indicate that more effective Medicaid prescription drug management and financing practices are needed to promote medication continuity and improve treatment outcomes.

  10. An efficient algorithm for numerical computations of continuous densities of states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfeld, K.; Lucini, B.; Pellegrini, R.; Rago, A.

    2016-06-01

    In Wang-Landau type algorithms, Monte-Carlo updates are performed with respect to the density of states, which is iteratively refined during simulations. The partition function and thermodynamic observables are then obtained by standard integration. In this work, our recently introduced method in this class (the LLR approach) is analysed and further developed. Our approach is a histogram free method particularly suited for systems with continuous degrees of freedom giving rise to a continuum density of states, as it is commonly found in lattice gauge theories and in some statistical mechanics systems. We show that the method possesses an exponential error suppression that allows us to estimate the density of states over several orders of magnitude with nearly constant relative precision. We explain how ergodicity issues can be avoided and how expectation values of arbitrary observables can be obtained within this framework. We then demonstrate the method using compact U(1) lattice gauge theory as a show case. A thorough study of the algorithm parameter dependence of the results is performed and compared with the analytically expected behaviour. We obtain high precision values for the critical coupling for the phase transition and for the peak value of the specific heat for lattice sizes ranging from 8^4 to 20^4. Our results perfectly agree with the reference values reported in the literature, which covers lattice sizes up to 18^4. Robust results for the 20^4 volume are obtained for the first time. This latter investigation, which, due to strong metastabilities developed at the pseudo-critical coupling of the system, so far has been out of reach even on supercomputers with importance sampling approaches, has been performed to high accuracy with modest computational resources. This shows the potential of the method for studies of first order phase transitions. Other situations where the method is expected to be superior to importance sampling techniques are pointed

  11. Weight reduction, but not a moderate intake of fish oil, lowers concentrations of inflammatory markers and PAI-1 antigen in obese men during the fasting and postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Jellema, A; Plat, J; Mensink, R P

    2004-11-01

    In obese subjects, chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, which are reversed by weight loss. Sustained weight loss, however, is difficult to achieve and more insight into dietary approaches on anti-inflammatory responses in obese subjects is needed. In this respect, fish oil deserves attention. Eleven obese men (BMI: 30-35 kg m(-2)) received daily fish oil (1.35 g n-3 fatty acids) or placebo capsules in random order for 6 weeks. Eight subjects continued with a weight reduction study that lasted 8 weeks. Mean weight loss was 9.4 kg. At the end of each experimental period a postprandial study was performed. Relative to fasting concentrations, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increased by 75% 2 h and by 118% 4 h after the meal (P < 0.001), when subjects consumed the control capsules. In contrast, C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentrations decreased slightly by 0.7% and 6.6% (P = 0.046), and those of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen by, respectively, 26% and 53% (P < 0.001). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; P = 0.330) and soluble TNF-receptor concentrations (sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75; P = 0.451 and P = 0.108, respectively) did not change. Changes relative to fasting concentrations were not significantly affected by either fish oil or weight reduction. Absolute IL-6, C-RP, sTNF-R55, sTNF-R75, and PAI-1 antigen concentrations, however, were consistently lower after weight reduction, but not after fish oil consumption. For slightly obese subjects a moderate intake of fish oil does not have the same favourable effects on markers for a low-grade inflammatory state as weight reduction.

  12. Molecular dynamics in liquid and glassy states of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug: ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, U; Shahin Thayyil, M; Krishna Kumar, N S; Govindaraj, G

    2013-05-13

    Ketoprofen is a well known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. It acts by inhibiting the body's production of prostaglandin. The molecular mobility of amorphous ketoprofen has been investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) covering wide temperature and frequency range. Multiple relaxation processes were observed. Besides the primary α-relaxation, one secondary relaxation, γ-have been identified. The γ-process visible in the dielectric spectra at very low temperature is non-JG relaxation, and has an activation energy E=37.91 kJ/mol typical for local mobility. Based on Ngai's coupling model smaller n or a larger Kohlrausch exponent (1-n) of the α-relaxation associated with larger τβ (Tg). In the case of ketoprofen we conclude that the secondary relaxation (β) emerging from intermolecular motions, is hidden under the dominant α-peak. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time of the α-process can be described over the entire measured range by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation. From VFT fits, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was estimated as 267.07 K, and a fragility or steepness index m=86.57 was calculated, showing that ketoprofen is a fragile glass former. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study shows that ketoprofen is a non-crystallizing compound. To confirm the hydrogen bond patterns of ketoprofen FTIR spectroscopy was applied in both crystalline and amorphous phases. Solubility test performed at 37 °C proved that amorphous phase is more soluble than the crystalline phase.

  13. Liver Injury from Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Schmeltzer, Paul A.; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Kleiner, David E.; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Stolz, Andrew; Fontana, Robert J.; Russo, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most commonly used classes of medications and have been associated with hepatotoxicity. Studies of liver injury from NSAIDs have been retrospective and prospective data are lacking that provide details of cases. Aim To report the presenting feature and outcomes of subjects with severe drug induced liver injury from NSAIDS. Methods The U.S. Drug Induced Liver Injury Network is a prospective registry of severe idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity. All patients are evaluated in a standard fashion and followed for at least 6 months after onset. Results Of 1,221 DILIN cases that were adjudicated, 30 cases were attributed to 8 different NSAIDs. The mean age was 52 years old, 24 (80%) were women, and 21 (70%) were Caucasian. The mean latency to onset of laboratory abnormalities was 67 days. Common signs and symptoms at presentation were nausea (73%), jaundice (67%), and dark urine (67%). Mean peak serum AST, ALT, total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase were 898 U/L, 1060 U/L, 12.2 mg/dL, and 326 U/L, respectively. The most common pattern of injury was hepatocellular (70%) and autoantibodies were detected in 33% of cases. Diclofenac, was the most frequently implicated NSAID (16/30 cases), and characterized by hepatocellular injury in all cases. Seventeen cases resulted in hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization and one patient died from complications of Stevens-Johnson syndrome rather than liver failure due to diclofenac. Conclusions Hepatocellular injury is the most common pattern seen with NSAID hepatotoxicity and diclofenac is the most frequently implicated agent. Given the number of available NSAID alternatives, diclofenac use should be limited to patients who fail other NSAIDs and a high level of suspicion for hepatotoxicity should be maintained. PMID:26601797

  14. Role of molecular imaging in the management of patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease: State-of-the-art

    PubMed Central

    Caobelli, Federico; Evangelista, Laura; Quartuccio, Natale; Familiari, Demetrio; Altini, Corinna; Castello, Angelo; Cucinotta, Mariapaola; Di Dato, Rossella; Ferrari, Cristina; Kokomani, Aurora; Laghai, Iashar; Laudicella, Riccardo; Migliari, Silvia; Orsini, Federica; Pignata, Salvatore Antonio; Popescu, Cristina; Puta, Erinda; Ricci, Martina; Seghezzi, Silvia; Sindoni, Alessandro; Sollini, Martina; Sturiale, Letterio; Svyridenka, Anna; Vergura, Vittoria; Alongi, Pierpaolo; Young AIMN Working Group

    2016-01-01

    AIM To present the current state-of-the art of molecular imaging in the management of patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed in order to find important original articles on the role of molecular imaging in the management of patients affected by IBD. The search was updated until February 2016 and limited to articles in English. RESULTS Fifty-five original articles were included in this review, highlighting the role of single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography. CONCLUSION To date, molecular imaging represents a useful tool to detect active disease in IBD. However, the available data need to be validated in prospective multicenter studies on larger patient samples. PMID:27843542

  15. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities.

  16. [Identification of human papilloma viruses (HPV) in inflammatory states and ear neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, Bogdan; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna; Sokalski, Jerzy; Matusiak, Monika; Durzyński, Lukasz

    2007-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus has a strong relation to oropharyngeal mucosa and is considered to be responsible for a wide range of upper respiratory tract pathologies, like laryngeal papilloma. There's a hypothesis, that it plays a significant role in middle ear chronic inflammations and neoplasm's. MATERIAL AND METHODIC. The examination was carried on a group of 53 patients, 39 of which was suffering from granulation tissue chronic otitis media, 7-cholesteatomatous otitis media, 6--middle ear malignant neoplasm, and 1 middle and/or external ear benign neoplasm. The control group consisted of 5 patients operated on: otosclerosis--4 cases and post-traumatic tympanic membrane perforation--1 case. The material was postoperative tissue, like polyps, inflammatory granulation tissue, cholesteatoma masses and malignant neoplasm's tissue. In the whole group of 53 examined cases, HPV DNA was confirmed in 22 cases (41.5%), in that group oncogenic types 16 or 18 in 12 cases (22.6%), and in 14 cases (26.4%) types 6 or 11. In a group of chronic granulomatous otitis media DNA characteristic for Papilloma was identified in 12 cases (25.6%), in it in 9 cases DNA HPV type 6 or 11 was confirmed, and in 7 cases type 16 or 18. Among cholesteatomatous chronic otitis media HPV DNA types 6 or 11 was identified in 70%. In every case of middle ear malignant neoplasm a presence of high-risk DNA Papilloma types 16 or 18 was confirmed. In any case of control group HPV DNA was detected. The results has been compared with other authors examinations and it is claimed that they confirm the observation, that Human Papilloma Viruses may be a factor, that might play an important role in pathology of chronic otitis media and ear neoplasm's. It is concluded, that differences in percentages of HPV presence in chronic inflammations (70%) and ear neoplasm's may be explained by viral co-infection during bacterial c. o. m. Viral infection probably evolves carcinogenesis, which leads to a neoplastic growth.

  17. Inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Cerami, A

    1992-01-01

    The immune system produces cytokines and other humoral factors to protect the host when threatened by inflammatory agents, microbial invasion, or injury. In some cases this complex defense network successfully restores normal homeostasis, but at other times the overproduction of immunoregulatory mediators may actually prove deleterious to the host. Some examples of immune system-mediated injury have been extensively investigated including anaphylactic shock, autoimmune disease, and immune complex disorders. More recently it has become clear that the cytokine cachectin/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) occupies a key role in the pathophysiology associated with diverse inflammatory states and other serious illnesses including septic shock and cachexia. For example, when cachectin/TNF is produced by resident macrophages during early microbial infection, it mediates an inflammatory response that may alienate and repel the attacking organisms. If the infection spreads, however, the subsequent release of large quantities of cachectin/TNF into the circulation may be catastrophic and trigger a state of lethal shock. These toxic effects occur by direct action of TNF on host cells and by the interaction with a cascade of other endogenous mediators including interleukin-1 and interferon-gamma. The biology of cachectin/TNF will be reviewed, along with the potential for modulating the effects of this pluripotent molecule in a variety of pathologic states.

  18. AEROSOL GROWTH IN A STEADY-STATE, CONTINUOUS FLOW CHAMBER: APPLICATION TO STUDIES OF SECONDARY AEROSOL FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical solution for the steady-state aerosol size distribution achieved in a steady-state, continuous flow chamber is derived, where particle growth is occurring by gas-to-particle conversion and particle loss is occurring by deposition to the walls of the chamber. The s...

  19. AEROSOL GROWTH IN A STEADY-STATE, CONTINUOUS FLOW CHAMBER: APPLICATION TO STUDIES OF SECONDARY AEROSOL FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical solution for the steady-state aerosol size distribution achieved in a steady-state, continuous flow chamber is derived, where particle growth is occurring by gas-to-particle conversion and particle loss is occurring by deposition to the walls of the chamber. The s...

  20. 8 CFR 319.4 - Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons continuously employed for 5 years by United States organizations engaged in disseminating information. 319.4 Section 319.4 Aliens and... States organizations engaged in disseminating information. To be eligible for naturalization under...

  1. Neural Network-Based Event-Triggered State Feedback Control of Nonlinear Continuous-Time Systems.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Avimanyu; Xu, Hao; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approximation-based event-triggered control of multi-input multi-output uncertain nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form. The controller is approximated using a linearly parameterized neural network (NN) in the context of event-based sampling. After revisiting the NN approximation property in the context of event-based sampling, an event-triggered condition is proposed using the Lyapunov technique to reduce the network resource utilization and to generate the required number of events for the NN approximation. In addition, a novel weight update law for aperiodic tuning of the NN weights at triggered instants is proposed to relax the knowledge of complete system dynamics and to reduce the computation when compared with the traditional NN-based control. Nonetheless, a nonzero positive lower bound for the inter-event times is guaranteed to avoid the accumulation of events or Zeno behavior. For analyzing the stability, the event-triggered system is modeled as a nonlinear impulsive dynamical system and the Lyapunov technique is used to show local ultimate boundedness of all signals. Furthermore, in order to overcome the unnecessary triggered events when the system states are inside the ultimate bound, a dead-zone operator is used to reset the event-trigger errors to zero. Finally, the analytical design is substantiated with numerical results.

  2. Characterization of shrubland ecosystem components as continuous fields in the northwest United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, George Z.; Homer, Collin; Rigge, Matthew B.; Shi, Hua; Meyer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and consistent estimates of shrubland ecosystem components are crucial to a better understanding of ecosystem conditions in arid and semiarid lands. An innovative approach was developed by integrating multiple sources of information to quantify shrubland components as continuous field products within the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). The approach consists of several procedures including field sample collections, high-resolution mapping of shrubland components using WorldView-2 imagery and regression tree models, Landsat 8 radiometric balancing and phenological mosaicking, medium resolution estimates of shrubland components following different climate zones using Landsat 8 phenological mosaics and regression tree models, and product validation. Fractional covers of nine shrubland components were estimated: annual herbaceous, bare ground, big sagebrush, herbaceous, litter, sagebrush, shrub, sagebrush height, and shrub height. Our study area included the footprint of six Landsat 8 scenes in the northwestern United States. Results show that most components have relatively significant correlations with validation data, have small normalized root mean square errors, and correspond well with expected ecological gradients. While some uncertainties remain with height estimates, the model formulated in this study provides a cross-validated, unbiased, and cost effective approach to quantify shrubland components at a regional scale and advances knowledge of horizontal and vertical variability of these components.

  3. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  4. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-15

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  5. Effect of pregabalin on contextual memory deficits and inflammatory state-related protein expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sałat, Kinga; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Malikowska, Natalia; Podkowa, Adrian; Lipkowska, Anna; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion or its action. Complications from long-term diabetes consist of numerous biochemical, molecular, and functional tissue alterations, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuropathic pain. There is also a link between diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Hence, it is important to treat diabetic complications using drugs which do not aggravate symptoms induced by the disease itself. Pregabalin is widely used for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain, but little is known about its impact on cognition or inflammation-related proteins in diabetic patients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal (ip) pregabalin on contextual memory and the expression of inflammatory state-related proteins in the brains of diabetic, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. STZ (200 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce diabetes mellitus. To assess the impact of pregabalin (10 mg/kg) on contextual memory, a passive avoidance task was applied. Locomotor and exploratory activities in pregabalin-treated diabetic mice were assessed by using activity cages. Using Western blot analysis, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) p50 and p65, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), as well as glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT4) was assessed in mouse brains after pregabalin treatment. Pregabalin did not aggravate STZ-induced learning deficits in vivo or influence animals' locomotor activity. We observed significantly lower expression of COX-2, cPGES, and NF-κB p50 subunit, and higher expression of AhR and Nrf2 in the brains of pregabalin-treated mice in comparison to STZ-treated controls, which suggested immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of pregabalin. Antioxidant properties of pregabalin in the brains of

  6. Loss of CMAH during Human Evolution Primed the Monocyte-Macrophage Lineage toward a More Inflammatory and Phagocytic State.

    PubMed

    Okerblom, Jonathan J; Schwarz, Flavio; Olson, Josh; Fletes, William; Ali, Syed Raza; Martin, Paul T; Glass, Christopher K; Nizet, Victor; Varki, Ajit

    2017-03-15

    Humans and chimpanzees are more sensitive to endotoxin than are mice or monkeys, but any underlying differences in inflammatory physiology have not been fully described or understood. We studied innate immune responses in Cmah(-/-) mice, emulating human loss of the gene encoding production of Neu5Gc, a major cell surface sialic acid. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) loss occurred ∼2-3 million years ago, after the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, perhaps contributing to speciation of the genus HomoCmah(-/-) mice manifested a decreased survival in endotoxemia following bacterial LPS injection. Macrophages from Cmah(-/-) mice secreted more inflammatory cytokines with LPS stimulation and showed more phagocytic activity. Macrophages and whole blood from Cmah(-/-) mice also killed bacteria more effectively. Metabolic reintroduction of Neu5Gc into Cmah(-/-) macrophages suppressed these differences. Cmah(-/-) mice also showed enhanced bacterial clearance during sublethal lung infection. Although monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from humans and chimpanzees exhibited marginal differences in LPS responses, human monocyte-derived macrophages killed Escherichia coli and ingested E. coli BioParticles better. Metabolic reintroduction of Neu5Gc into human macrophages suppressed these differences. Although multiple mechanisms are likely involved, one cause is altered expression of C/EBPβ, a transcription factor affecting macrophage function. Loss of Neu5Gc in Homo likely had complex effects on immunity, providing greater capabilities to clear sublethal bacterial challenges, possibly at the cost of endotoxic shock risk. This trade-off may have provided a selective advantage when Homo transitioned to butchery using stone tools. The findings may also explain why the Cmah(-/-) state alters severity in mouse models of human disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. The Oxidative and Inflammatory State in Patients with Acute Renal Graft Dysfunction Treated with Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Ibarra, Sandra; Cerrillos-Gutiérrez, José Ignacio; Escalante-Núñez, Ariadna; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Gómez-Navarro, Benjamín; Sifuentes-Franco, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the oxidative stress/inflammation behavior in patients with/without acute graft dysfunction (AGD) with Tacrolimus. Methods. Cross-sectional study, in renal transplant (RT) recipients (1-yr follow-up). Patients with AGD and without AGD were included. Serum IL-6, TNF-α, 8-isoprostanes (8-IP), and Nitric Oxide (NO) were determined by ELISA; C-reactive protein (CRP) was determined by nephelometry; lipid peroxidation products (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined by colorimetry. Results. The AGD presentation was at 5.09 ± 3.07 versus 8.27 ± 3.78 months (p < 0.001); CRP >3.19 mg/L was found in 21 versus 19 in the N-AGD group (p = 0.83); TNF-α 145.53 ± 18.87 pg/mL versus 125.54 ± 15.92 pg/mL in N-AGD (p = 0.64); IL-6 2110.69 ± 350.97 pg/mL versus 1933.42 ± 235.38 pg/mL in N-AGD (p = 0.13). The LPO were higher in AGD (p = 0.014): 4.10 ± 0.69 µM versus 2.41 ± 0.29 µM; also levels of 8-IP were higher in AGD 27.47 ± 9.28 pg/mL versus 8.64 ± 1.54 pg/mL (p = 0.01). Serum levels of NO in AGD were lower 138.44 ± 19.20 µmol/L versus 190.57 ± 22.04 µmol/L in N-AGD (p = 0.042); antioxidant enzyme SOD activity was significantly diminished in AGD with 9.75 ± 0.52 U/mL versus 11.69 ± 0.55 U/mL in N-AGD (p = 0.012). Discussion. Patients with RT present with a similar state of the proinflammatory cytokines whether or not they have AGD. The patients with AGD showed deregulation of the oxidative state with increased LPO and 8-IP and decreased NO and SOD. PMID:27872679

  8. H∞ control of a class of 2-D continuous switched delayed systems via state-dependent switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghous, Imran; Xiang, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of state feedback H∞ stabilisation of 2-D (two-dimensional) continuous switched state delayed systems represented by the Roesser model using the multiple Lyapunov functional approach. First, an asymptotical stability condition of 2-D continuous switched systems with state-dependent switching is derived. Second, a sufficient condition for H∞ performance of the underlying system is established. Third, a state feedback controller is proposed to ensure that the resulting closed-loop system has a prescribed H∞ performance level under a state-dependent switching signal. All the results are developed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, three examples are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Increasing the number of discrete character states for continuous characters generates well-resolved trees that do not reflect phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bardin, Jérémie; Rouget, Isabelle; Yacobucci, Margaret Mary; Cecca, Fabrizio

    2014-08-01

    Since the introduction of the cladistic method in systematics, continuous characters have been integrated into analyses but no methods for their treatment have received unanimous support. Some methods require a large number of character states to discretise continuous characters in order to keep the maximum level of information about taxa differences within the coding scheme. Our objective was to assess the impact of increasing the character state number on the outcomes of phylogenetic analyses. Analysis of a variety of simulated datasets shows that these methods for coding continuous characters can lead to the generation of well-resolved trees that do not reflect a phylogenetic signal. We call this phenomenon the flattening of the tree-length distribution; it is influenced by both the relative quantity of continuous characters in relation to discrete characters, and the number of characters in relation to the number of taxa. Bootstrap tests provide a method to avoid this potential bias.

  10. Toward demonstrating controlled-X operation based on continuous-variable four-partite cluster states and quantum teleporters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yu; Su Xiaolong; Shen Heng; Tan Aihong; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi

    2010-02-15

    One-way quantum computation based on measurement and multipartite cluster entanglement offers the ability to perform a variety of unitary operations only through different choices of measurement bases. Here we present an experimental study toward demonstrating the controlled-X operation, a two-mode gate in which continuous variable (CV) four-partite cluster states of optical modes are utilized. Two quantum teleportation elements are used for achieving the gate operation of the quantum state transformation from input target and control states to output states. By means of the optical cluster state prepared off-line, the homodyne detection and electronic feeding forward, the information carried by the input control state is transformed to the output target state. The presented scheme of the controlled-X operation based on teleportation can be implemented nonlocally and deterministically. The distortion of the quantum information resulting from the imperfect cluster entanglement is estimated with the fidelity.

  11. Continuing Education Needs of Health Sciences Librarians Based on the State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Robert A.

    Surveying the literature of librarianship during the 1970-74 period, this review emphasizes continuing education for medical librarians. While looking at the issue of continuing education, specific areas of need selected by medical library directors are also reviewed. The primary areas covered included: automation and computer application,…

  12. The Effect of Continuing Education on the Test Scores of a State Licensing Board Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mergener, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    This study compares the scores optometrists obtained on a pharmacology examination with years since licensure and type of continuing education participation preceding the examination. Recent licensees scored better than those licensed before 1953. Continuing education activity also promoted better scores. (CT)

  13. Continuing Versus New Prescriptions for Sedative-Hypnotic Medications: United States, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Christopher N; Spira, Adam P; Depp, Colin A; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-11-01

    To assess trends in continuing and new prescriptions for sedative-hypnotic medications, including benzodiazepines (BZDs) and non-BZD receptor agonists (nBZRAs). Data came from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and comprised 287 288 randomly sampled patient visits. Physicians reported medications prescribed and whether they were "continuing" or "new" prescriptions. We assessed trends in continuing BZD, new BZD, continuing nBZRA, and new nBZRA prescriptions from 2005 to 2012. Proportions of visits with continuing prescriptions increased from 3.4% in 2005 to 4.7% in 2012 (P < .01) for BZDs, and from 1.0% to 1.7% (P < .01) for nBZRAs. We noted no changes in new prescriptions. We observed the same patterns across patient age and physician specialties, except psychiatry. Despite no growth over time, the prevalence of visits involving continuing and new BZD and nBZRA prescriptions was much higher in psychiatry than in primary care and other specialties. Increased sedative-hypnotic prescribing in recent years may be attributable to long-term growth in continuing prescriptions, rather than new prescriptions. Public Health Implications. Findings call for renewed efforts to limit continuing prescribing of sedative-hypnotics to reduce their use in the population.

  14. Intracellular lipid content is a key intrinsic determinant for hepatocyte viability and metabolic and inflammatory states in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Liang; Jiang, Bijie

    2013-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ. In addition to metabolizing glucose and lipids, hepatocytes also secrete various cytokines that modulate both hepatocyte metabolism and liver inflammation. Hepatocyte injury and death and liver inflammation are the major contributors to liver diseases, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Anatomic locations have a profound effect on hepatocyte metabolism, and liver zonation describes the metabolic heterogeneity of hepatocytes along the portovenous axis. However, it is unclear whether hepatocyte heterogeneity is affected by intrinsic factors and whether dietary fat, a risk factor for NASH, has distinct detrimental effects on different hepatocyte subpopulations. Here, we showed that mouse livers contained both high-lipid and low-lipid subpopulations of hepatocytes. The high-lipid subpopulation was more susceptible to injury and apoptosis and produced more proinflamatrory cytokines after treatment with endotoxin and saturated fatty acids. Dietary fat consumption further increased fatty acid uptake, intracellular lipid levels, hepatocyte injury and death, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the high-lipid subpopulation. In contrast, dietary fat slightly increased lipid levels, cell death, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the low-lipid subpopulation. The low-lipid subpopulation produced more glucose. Fat consumption further activated the gluconeogenic program in the low-lipid, but not the high-lipid, subpopulations. These data suggest that intracellular lipid content is a key intrinsic determinant for hepatocyte heterogeneity of metabolic, inflammatory, and survival states. PMID:23982157

  15. A canonical state-space representation for SISO systems using multipoint Jordan CFE. [Continued-Fraction Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Chyi; Guo, Tong-Yi; Shieh, Leang-San

    1991-01-01

    A canonical state-space realization based on the multipoint Jordan continued-fraction expansion (CFE) is presented for single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. The similarity transformation matrix which relates the new canonical form to the phase-variable canonical form is also derived. The presented canonical state-space representation is particularly attractive for the application of SISO system theory in which a reduced-dimensional time-domain model is necessary.

  16. Potential involvement of μ-opioid receptor dysregulation on the reduced antinociception of morphine in the inflammatory pain state in mice.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yuta; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Chizuko; Takeda, Kumiko; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2014-01-01

    The antinociceptive effect of morphine in the inflammatory pain state was described in the von Frey filament test using the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced mouse inflammatory pain model. After an i.pl. injection of CFA, mechanical allodynia was observed in the ipsilateral paw. The antinociceptive effect of morphine injected s.c. and i.t. against mechanical allodynia was reduced bilaterally at 1 day and 4 days after the CFA pretreatment. The expression level of mRNA for μ-opioid receptors at 1 day after the CFA pretreatment was reduced bilaterally in the lumbar spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). In contrast, the protein level of μ-opioid receptors at 1 day after CFA pretreatment was decreased in the ipsilateral side in the DRG but not the lumbar spinal cord. Single or repeated i.t. pretreatment with the protein kinase Cα (PKCα) inhibitor Ro-32-0432 completely restored the reduced morphine antinociception in the contralateral paw but only partially restored it in the ipsilateral paw in the inflammatory pain state. In conclusion, reduced morphine antinociception against mechanical allodynia in the inflammatory pain state is mainly mediated via a decrease in μ-opioid receptors in the ipsilateral side and via the desensitization of μ-opioid receptors in the contralateral side by PKCα-induced phosphorylation.

  17. The upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the rabbit uterus under the lipopolysaccaride-induced reversible immunoresponse state.

    PubMed

    Liu, S J; Shi, Y; Liu, C; Zhang, M; Zuo, Z C; Zeng, C J; Zhou, G B; Xian, H; Song, T Z

    2017-01-01

    The reproductive organs are more likely to develop gram-negative bacterial infection than other internal organs because of direct access to the body surface. The objective of this study was (1) to provide a suitable intravenous injection dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) instead of gram-negative bacterial infection in order to induce a reversible immunoresponse state and (2) to examine the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the uterus of rabbits while in an immunoresponse state. Two series of experiments were performed to accomplish these objectives. In the first series, 20 healthy New Zealand White female rabbits were divided into 5 homogeneous groups (n=4), and intravenously injected with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4mg/kg body weight (BW) of LPS derived from Escherichia coli dissolved in 2ml of sterile saline (LPS carrier). The control group received only saline. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum and the white blood cell count changed with time after LPS stimulation, and certain doses of LPS led to the death of some rabbits. The results suggested that a dose of 0.5mg/kg of LPS induced a reversible immunoresponse state. In the second series, 4 rabbits were not injected (0h), 16 rabbits were injected with 0.5mg/kg LPS, and 16 rabbits in the control group were injected with 2ml of sterile saline. Tissues of the uterine horn, uterine body, and cervix from the 36 rabbits were collected at 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12h (n=4) postinjection for examination of the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results suggested that 0.5mg/kg of LPS upregulated the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the uterine body and uterine horn, and IL-6 in the cervix. In conclusion, the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were upregulated in the uterus of rabbits under the reversible immunoresponse state induced by 0.5mg/kg of LPS-injection.

  18. A Brief History of Continuing Education in Nursing in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Signe S.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the history of continuing education in nursing from the earliest activities sponsored by alumnae associations through its necessity as a condition for the relicensure of nurses and other health professionals. (Author/RK)

  19. 75 FR 2463 - Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Department of the Army 48 CFR Parts 5132, 5136, and 5152 RIN 0710-AA69 Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers Clauses AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps...

  20. Continuously Uncertain Reform Effort: State-Mandated History and Social Science Curriculum and the Perceptions of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and beliefs in one over-performing urban/suburban high school of the state-mandated curriculum framework under conditions that I label a continuously uncertain reform effort or a top-down mandated curriculum involving constant mixed-messages as to its content, accountability demands, and future existence.…

  1. Cloning and optimal Gaussian individual attacks for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and reverse reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Namiki, Ryo; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2006-03-15

    We investigate the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and reverse reconciliation against Gaussian individual attacks based on an optimal Gaussian 1{yields}2 cloning machine. We provide an implementation of the optimal Gaussian individual attack. We also find a Bell-measurement attack which works without delayed choice of measurements and has better performance than the cloning attack.

  2. Performance of solid-state sensors for continuous, real-time measurement of soil CO2 concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent advances in sensor technology provide a robust capability for continuous measurement of soil gases. The performance of solid-state CO2 sensors (Model GMM220 series, Vaisala, Finland) was evaluated in laboratory, greenhouse, and irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In ambient CO2 concentrat...

  3. Input-to-state stable nonlinear filtering for a class of continuous-time delayed nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Choon Ki

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the input-to-state stable (ISS) nonlinear filtering problem for a class of continuous-time delayed nonlinear systems with external disturbance. A new delay-dependent nonlinear ISS filter is established through available measurements to estimate the states of delayed nonlinear systems, such that the filtering error system is both exponentially and input-to-state stable for any bounded external disturbance. The design of the nonlinear ISS filter for these nonlinear systems is achieved by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be easily facilitated by using standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter.

  4. Continuous multipartite entangled state in Wigner representation and violation of the Zukowski-Brukner inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Chunfeng; Chen Jingling; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.; Xue Kang

    2005-02-01

    We construct an explicit Wigner function for the N-mode squeezed state. Based on a previous observation that the Wigner function describes correlations in the joint measurement of the phase-space displaced parity operator, we investigate the nonlocality of the multipartite entangled state by the violation of the Zukowski-Brukner N-qubit Bell inequality. We find that quantum predictions for such a squeezed state violate these inequalities by an amount that grows with the number N.

  5. Analytic continuation of scattering data to the region of negative energies for systems that have one and two bound states

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhintsev, L. D. Savin, D. A.

    2016-05-15

    An exactly solvable potential model is used to study the possibility of deducing information about the features of bound states for the system under consideration (binding energies and asymptotic normalization coefficients) on the basis of data on continuum states. The present analysis is based on an analytic approximation and on the subsequent continuation of a partial-wave scattering function from the region of positive energies to the region of negative energies. Cases where the system has one or two bound states are studied. The α+d and α+{sup 12}C systems are taken as physical examples. In the case of one bound state, the scattering function is a smooth function of energy, and the procedure of its analytic continuation for different polynomial approximations leads to close results, which are nearly coincident with exact values. In the case of two bound states, the scattering function has two poles—one in the region of positive energies and the other in the region of negative energies between the energies corresponding to the two bound states in question. Padéapproximants are used to reproduce these poles. The inclusion of these poles proves to be necessary for correctly describing the properties of the bound states.

  6. Enrollment in the State Child Health Insurance Program: a conceptual framework for evaluation and continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Halfon, N; Inkelas, M; Newacheck, P W

    1999-01-01

    Children's enrollment in the State Child Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) is a key indicator of program impact. Past studies demonstrate that many children eligible for Medicaid or for private employer-based insurance remain uninsured, indicating that eligibility does not guarantee either enrollment or access to medical care. Important features of SCHIP evaluation include not only eligibility thresholds and enrollment volume, but also program retention, transitions in coverage, and access to medical care. Focusing on SCHIP features that affect children's participation and continuity of coverage would allow states to continually improve procedures that affect enrollment. An exploration of federal and state policy options suggests several approaches for creating evaluation strategies that can stimulate ongoing improvement.

  7. 15 CFR 923.133 - Procedure for conducting continuing reviews of approved State CZM programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... performance of coastal States with respect to coastal management. Each review shall include a written evaluation with an assessment and detailed findings concerning the extent to which the State has implemented... purpose of implementing and enforcing its approved CZM program. (2) For the purpose of evaluation,...

  8. Kentucky's Early Childhood Continuous Assessment and Accountability System: Local Decisions and State Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; McCormick, Katherine; Gooden, Caroline; Townley, Kim F.

    2007-01-01

    Kentucky has developed an assessment and accountability system that provides outcome data for a set of state early childhood standards for children birth to 5 years of age that are aligned with early childhood outcomes designated by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). Within this flexible and comprehensive state assessment system,…

  9. The Continued Existence of State-Funded Catholics Schools in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Stephen J.; Conroy, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Catholic schools in Scotland have been fully state-funded since the 1918 Education (Scotland) Act. Under this Act, 369 contemporary Catholic schools are able to retain their distinctive identity and religious education and the teachers have to be approved by the Catholic hierarchy. Similar to the position of other forms of state-funded and…

  10. China Continues to Drive Foreign-Student Growth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the results of the latest "Open Doors" report from the Institute of International Education. The report states that thousands of mainland Chinese students in pursuit of an American education helped drive up international enrollments at colleges across the United States. Double-digit growth from China, primarily at…

  11. State Wildlife Action Plans as Tools for Adapting to a Continuously Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metivier, D. W.; Yocum, H.; Ray, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Public land management plans are potentially powerful policies for building sustainability and adaptive capacity. Land managers are recognizing the need to respond to numerous climate change impacts on natural and human systems. For the first time, in 2015, the federal government required each state to incorporate climate change into their State Wildlife Action Plans (SWAP) as a condition for funding. As important land management tools, SWAPs have the potential to guide state agencies in shaping and implementing practices for climate change adaptation. Intended to be revised every ten years, SWAPs can change as conditions and understanding of climate change evolves. This study asks what practices are states using to integrate climate change, and how does this vary between states? To answer this question, we conducted a broad analysis among seven states (CO, MT, NE, ND, SD, UT, WY) and a more in-depth analysis of four states (CO, ND, SD, WY). We use seven key factors that represent best practices for incorporating climate change identified in the literature. These best practices are species prioritization, key habitats, threats, monitoring, partnerships and participation, identification of management options, and implementation of management options. The in-depth analysis focuses on how states are using climate change information for specific habitats addressed in the plans. We find that states are integrating climate change in many different ways, showing varying degrees of sophistication and preparedness. We summarize different practices and highlight opportunities to improve the effectiveness of plans through: communication tools across state lines and stakeholders, explicit targeting of key habitats, enforcement and monitoring progress and success, and conducting vulnerability analyses that incorporate topics beyond climate and include other drivers, trajectories, and implications of historic and future land-use change.

  12. Expression and contributions of the Kir2.1 inward-rectifier K+ channel to proliferation, migration and chemotaxis of microglia in unstimulated and anti-inflammatory states

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Doris; Schlichter, Lyanne C.

    2015-01-01

    When microglia respond to CNS damage, they can range from pro-inflammatory (classical, M1) to anti-inflammatory, alternative (M2) and acquired deactivation states. It is important to determine how microglial functions are affected by these activation states, and to identify molecules that regulate their behavior. Microglial proliferation and migration are crucial during development and following damage in the adult, and both functions are Ca2+-dependent. In many cell types, the membrane potential and driving force for Ca2+ influx are regulated by inward-rectifier K+ channels, including Kir2.1, which is prevalent in microglia. However, it is not known whether Kir2.1 expression and contributions are altered in anti-inflammatory states. We tested the hypothesis that Kir2.1 contributes to Ca2+ entry, proliferation and migration of rat microglia. Kir2.1 (KCNJ2) transcript expression, current amplitude, and proliferation were comparable in unstimulated microglia and following alternative activation (IL-4 stimulated) and acquired deactivation (IL-10 stimulated). To examine functional roles of Kir2.1 in microglia, we first determined that ML133 was more effective than the commonly used blocker, Ba2+; i.e., ML133 was potent (IC50 = 3.5 μM) and voltage independent. Both blockers slightly increased proliferation in unstimulated or IL-4 (but not IL-10)-stimulated microglia. Stimulation with IL-4 or IL-10 increased migration and ATP-induced chemotaxis, and blocking Kir2.1 greatly reduced both but ML133 was more effective. In all three activation states, blocking Kir2.1 with ML133 dramatically reduced Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. Thus, Kir2.1 channel activity is necessary for microglial Ca2+ signaling and migration under resting and anti-inflammatory states but the channel weakly inhibits proliferation. PMID:26029054

  13. The Continuing Education of Women; Some Programs in the United States of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Marion

    The Department of Adult Education of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education is involved in a project to document programs and services in continuing education for women in other countries as a frame of reference for policies that would facilitate more adequate provision for such education in Canada. Included in this document are…

  14. Discrete-State and Continuous Models of Recognition Memory: Testing Core Properties under Minimal Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellen, David; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A classic discussion in the recognition-memory literature concerns the question of whether recognition judgments are better described by continuous or discrete processes. These two hypotheses are instantiated by the signal detection theory model (SDT) and the 2-high-threshold model, respectively. Their comparison has almost invariably relied on…

  15. A Report of Selected Residential Continuing Education Centers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, W. Rex

    General information is presented concerning residential continuing education centers affiliated with public institutions of higher education. Attention was directed to those universities considered self-contained with full-service facilities, including conference facilities, housing accommodations, and food services. Based on the latest documents…

  16. Spatial continuity of tree attributes in bottomland hardwood forests in the Southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Luben D. Dimov; Jim L. Chambers; Brian Roy Lockhart

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable forest management and conservation require understanding of underlying basic structural and competitive relationships. To gain insight into these relationships, we analyzed spatial continuity of tree basal area (BA) and crown projection area (CPA) on twelve 0.64-ha plots in four mixed bottomland hardwood stands in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi....

  17. A Report of Selected Residential Continuing Education Centers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, W. Rex

    General information is presented concerning residential continuing education centers affiliated with public institutions of higher education. Attention was directed to those universities considered self-contained with full-service facilities, including conference facilities, housing accommodations, and food services. Based on the latest documents…

  18. The Continued Influence of Implied and Explicitly Stated Misinformation in News Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    The piecemeal reporting of unfolding news events can lead to the reporting of mistaken information (or misinformation) about the cause of the newsworthy event, which later needs to be corrected. Studies of the "continued influence effect" have shown, however, that corrections are not entirely effective in reversing the effects of initial…

  19. Governing Teachers by Professional Development: State Programmes for Continuing Professional Development in Sweden since 1991

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsten, Nils; Wermke, Wieland

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to analyse how teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) contributes to the government of the teaching profession. This is done by examining the CPD initiatives organized by two Swedish national educational agencies since 1991 involving the school subjects of Swedish (standard language education) and…

  20. Which States Matter? An Application of an Intelligent Discretization Method to Solve a Continuous POMDP in Conservation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Sam; Chadès, Iadine

    2012-01-01

    When managing populations of threatened species, conservation managers seek to make the best conservation decisions to avoid extinction. Making the best decision is difficult because the true population size and the effects of management are uncertain. Managers must allocate limited resources between actively protecting the species and monitoring. Resources spent on monitoring reduce expenditure on management that could be used to directly improve species persistence. However monitoring may prevent sub-optimal management actions being taken as a result of observation error. Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) can optimize management for populations with partial detectability, but the solution methods can only be applied when there are few discrete states. We use the Continuous U-Tree (CU-Tree) algorithm to discretely represent a continuous state space by using only the states that are necessary to maintain an optimal management policy. We exploit the compact discretization created by CU-Tree to solve a POMDP on the original continuous state space. We apply our method to a population of sea otters and explore the trade-off between allocating resources to management and monitoring. We show that accurately discovering the population size is less important than management for the long term survival of our otter population. PMID:22363398

  1. Which states matter? An application of an intelligent discretization method to solve a continuous POMDP in conservation biology.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Sam; Chadès, Iadine

    2012-01-01

    When managing populations of threatened species, conservation managers seek to make the best conservation decisions to avoid extinction. Making the best decision is difficult because the true population size and the effects of management are uncertain. Managers must allocate limited resources between actively protecting the species and monitoring. Resources spent on monitoring reduce expenditure on management that could be used to directly improve species persistence. However monitoring may prevent sub-optimal management actions being taken as a result of observation error. Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) can optimize management for populations with partial detectability, but the solution methods can only be applied when there are few discrete states. We use the Continuous U-Tree (CU-Tree) algorithm to discretely represent a continuous state space by using only the states that are necessary to maintain an optimal management policy. We exploit the compact discretization created by CU-Tree to solve a POMDP on the original continuous state space. We apply our method to a population of sea otters and explore the trade-off between allocating resources to management and monitoring. We show that accurately discovering the population size is less important than management for the long term survival of our otter population.

  2. Assessment of the current state of Alazhar Mosque, Cairo, Egypt: Continuous Monitoring of Minarets Inclination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, Nevin; Hamed, Ayman

    2017-04-01

    Al-Azhar considered one of the oldest mosques and the first theological college founded in Cairo. The main building material used in the mosque construction is dolomitic limestone and lime mortar. In many cases the wind affects the monumental structures and the direct action is related to the air flow by the rise of significant forces acting upon the surface of the structure. The inclination of the Mosque five minarets was monitored continuously in three dimensions X, Y &Z. Some oscillation sensors are installed on the top of the solid part of each minaret while the other sensors have been installed inside the minaret bulb to study the difference in dynamic behavior. From the recording data, it is obviously readable that all minarets are continuously oscillating in the three dimensions and such data is helpful for studying the dynamic behaviors of minarets which directly related to local wind forces.

  3. Continuity of Operations Plans: Policy and Strategy for K-12 Schools in the State of Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    their homes and wrecked six schools, three beyond repair. Nearly 20% of the district’s 7,000 students will be in replacement classrooms set up in...alternate facility planning. To ensure the continued educational operations of a facility, alternate locations for classrooms , as well as educational...that would include vocational and technical education systems with already established classrooms and mediums for the delivery of classroom

  4. Role of iNOS gene expression in the anti-inflammatory and tissue protective mechanisms of continuous wave at 630-905nm and 905nm superpulsed laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Arkady; Moriyama, Yumi; Fong, Jamie; Dumoulin-White, Roger; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Up regulation of iNOS gene expression is playing a role in the initiation of the anti-inflammatory and tissue protective mechanisms related to nitric oxide (NO) for continuous wave red and infrared as well as 905nm superpulsed laser therapy (SPLT). The iNOS expression before and after laser therapy was evaluated in a zymosan-induced acute arthritis model, in knee joints of young (<15 weeks), middle aged (>15 weeks and < 35 weeks) and old (> 35 weeks) FVB/N-Tg (iNOS-luc) mice by bioluminescence imaging.

  5. State Medicaid abortion policies continue to be challenged; courts reach varying conclusions.

    PubMed

    1979-08-01

    There is no consensus by the courts on what states may or may not legally do with regard to Medicaid funding of abortion. In Georgia a federal judge ruled that the state may not limit coverage of Medicaid abortions to those reimbursable by the federal government under the Hyde Amendment. In California funding of Medi-Cal abortions is permitted only if the woman's life is endangered; pregnancy is ectopic; the woman was raped; a minor under age 16; a victim of incest; the fetus is abnormal; or woman will suffer physical health damage. In Michigan Government William G. Milliken vetoed an appropriation of $1 for therapeutic abortion attached to a bill for hospital, physicians, and pharmacological services. Circuit Judge Jack W. Warren held that the governor did not have the authority to veto just one portion of the appropriation but must veto the entire bill. A New Jersey superior court judge has held unconstitutional proposed state guidelines which restricted Medicaid funding of abortions to those situations covered by the Hyde Amendment. A Hawaii circuit court has ruled that the state Department of Social Services and Housing has the authority to use state funds to pay for elective abortions for Medicaid recipients.

  6. Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Paradigm Established Effects of Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Cytokine on Neurodegeneration-Linked Depressive States in Hamsters with Brain Endothelial Damages.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Ennio; Fazzari, Gilda; Mele, Maria; Alò, Raffaella; Zizza, Merylin; Jiao, Wei; Di Vito, Anna; Barni, Tullio; Mandalà, Maurizio; Canonaco, Marcello

    2016-10-11

    The mechanisms by which inflammation affects the different emotional moods are only partially known. Previous works have pointed to stress hormones like glucocorticoids plus the vascular factor endothelin-1 as key factors evoking stressful states especially in relation to endothelial dysfunctions. With this work, it was our intention to establish the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression variations towards depression-like behaviors and consequently the development of neurodegeneration events caused by endothelial damages in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Such a rodent, which is considered a valuable animal model to test depression and anxiety states, exhibited a variety of depression-like behaviors including reduction in sucrose consumption, locomotion, and exploration (p < 0.01) following exposure to unpredictable chronic mild stress. Contextually, a tight correlation between unpredictable chronic mild stress-induced depressive states and expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines was detected as shown by marked expression levels (p < 0.01) of IL-1β and NF-kB in the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. Even the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 supplied notably significant (p < 0.001) expression levels in the same areas of resilient hamsters. Application of hemodynamic and endothelial functional studies pointed to altered arterial endothelial activities in depressed with respect to resilient animals. Moreover, evident damaged neuronal fields in the above areas of depressed hamsters allowed us to correlate such a behavioral phenomenon to the upregulation of IL-1β and NF-κB. Overall, the differing roles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines on depressive states, especially in view of brain endothelial damages, may provide novel therapeutic measures against mood disorders linked to neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Nonclassical-state generation in macroscopic systems via hybrid discrete-continuous quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milburn, T. J.; Kim, M. S.; Vanner, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Nonclassical-state generation is an important component throughout experimental quantum science for quantum information applications and probing the fundamentals of physics. Here, we investigate permutations of quantum nondemolition quadrature measurements and single quanta addition or subtraction to prepare quantum superposition states in bosonic systems. The performance of each permutation is quantified and compared using several different nonclassicality criteria including Wigner negativity, nonclassical depth, and optimal fidelity with a coherent-state superposition. We also compare the performance of our protocol using squeezing instead of a quadrature measurement and find that the purification provided by the quadrature measurement can significantly increase the nonclassicality generated. Our approach is ideally suited for implementation in light-matter systems such as quantum optomechanics and atomic spin ensembles, and offers considerable robustness to initial thermal occupation.

  8. Continuous-variable entanglement and quantum-state teleportation between optical and macroscopic vibrational modes through radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Vitali, David; Tombesi, Paolo

    2003-12-01

    We study an isolated, perfectly reflecting, mirror illuminated by an intense laser pulse. We show that the resulting radiation pressure efficiently entangles a mirror vibrational mode with the two reflected optical sideband modes of the incident carrier beam. The entanglement of the resulting three-mode state is studied in detail and it is shown to be robust against the mirror mode temperature. We then show how this continuous-variable entanglement can be profitably used to teleport an unknown quantum state of an optical mode onto the vibrational mode of the mirror.

  9. Efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection

    SciTech Connect

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2006-09-15

    We propose efficient-phase-encoding protocols for continuous-variable quantum key distribution using coherent states and postselection. By these phase encodings, the probability of basis mismatch is reduced and total efficiency is increased. We also propose mixed-state protocols by omitting a part of classical communication steps in the efficient-phase-encoding protocols. The omission implies a reduction of information to an eavesdropper and possibly enhances the security of the protocols. We investigate the security of the protocols against individual beam splitting attack.

  10. Continuously varying critical order-parameter fluctuations in a parity conserving absorbing-state transition with long-range diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laise, T.; Barros, P.; Argolo, C.; Lyra, M. L.

    2016-11-01

    We study the critical order parameter fluctuations of the absorbing-state phase-transition exhibited by branching and annihilating random walkers performing anomalous diffusion in a linear chain. The diffusion process is considered to follow a power-law distribution of jump lengths with a typical decay exponent α. We focus in the case of parity conserving dynamics for which deviations from the usual directed percolation universality class have been previously demonstrated even for the limiting cases of normal diffusion. Anomalous diffusion induces a continuous change of the critical exponents. By performing a finite-size scaling analysis of simulation data, we show that the critical order parameter moment ratio also varies continuously with α. We unveil that the critical order parameter distribution evolves from a nearly Gaussian to an exponential form as the range of the jump distribution is increased up to the limit α =5/2 on which the active state predominates for any finite branching probability.

  11. Continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Jing

    2007-02-15

    We propose a scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics. The quantum cloning machine yields M identical optimal clones from N replicas of a coherent state and N replicas of its phase conjugate. This scheme can be straightforwardly implemented with the setups accessible at present since its optical implementation only employs simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. Compared with the original scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning with phase-conjugate input modes proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)], which utilized a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier, our scheme loses the output of phase-conjugate clones and is regarded as irreversible quantum cloning.

  12. Inflammatory mediators in osteoarthritis: A critical review of the state-of-the-art, current prospects, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Maryam; Mobasheri, Ali; Mozafari, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has traditionally been defined as a prototypical non-inflammatory arthropathy, but today there is compelling evidence to suggest that it has an inflammatory component. Many recent studies have shown the presence of synovitis in a large number of patients with OA and demonstrated a direct association between joint inflammation and the progression of OA. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide, matrix degrading enzymes and biomechanical stress are major factors responsible for the progression of OA in synovial joints. The aim of this review is to discuss the significance of a wide range of implicated inflammatory mediators and their contribution to the progression of OA. We also discuss some of the currently available guidelines, practices, and prospects. In addition, this review argues for new innovation in methodologies and instrumentation for the non-invasive detection of inflammation in OA by modern imaging techniques. We propose that identifying early inflammatory events and targeting these alterations will help to ameliorate the major symptoms such as inflammation and pain in OA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific transfer entropy and other state-dependent transfer entropies for continuous-state input-output systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmon, David; Rapp, Paul E.

    2017-08-01

    Since its original formulation in 2000, transfer entropy has become an invaluable tool in the toolbox of nonlinear dynamicists working with empirical data. Transfer entropy and its generalizations provide a precise definition of uncertainty and information transfer that are central to the coupled systems studied in nonlinear science. However, a canonical definition of state-dependent transfer entropy has yet to be introduced. We introduce a candidate measure, the specific transfer entropy, and compare its properties to both total and local transfer entropy. Specific transfer entropy makes possible both state- and time-resolved analysis of the predictive impact of a candidate input system on a candidate output system. We also present principled methods for estimating total, local, and specific transfer entropies from empirical data. We demonstrate the utility of specific transfer entropy and our proposed estimation procedures with two model systems, and find that specific transfer entropy provides more, and more easily interpretable, information about an input-output system compared to currently existing methods.

  14. Wisconsin State Forests Continuous Forest Inventory: A look at the first year

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Teague Prichard; Vern Everson; Jim Westfall; Charles Scott

    2009-01-01

    The demand for timely, consistent, and reliable forest inventory and monitoring information for Wisconsin's state forests has increased significantly. A wide range of publics and partners, including businesses, organizations, and citizens alike are well aware of the benefits of sustainable forestry and are working together to increase knowledge through an annual...

  15. Implementing TQM at Oregon State University: Moving Continuous Quality Improvement Practices into Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Jacquelyn T.; Howard, Nancy Lee

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of an award-winning Total Quality Management (TQM) program for administrative and academic staff development at Oregon State University is chronicled. Special attention is given to application of TQM for faculty and corporate interaction, instructional improvement, and curriculum development. Special challenges for implementation of…

  16. Response to Mudford, Hogg, and Roberts on Continuous Recording of Behavior State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Doug; Roberts, Sally; Behrens, Gene Ann; Rues, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Responds to a critique by Mudford, Hogg, and Roberts (1997) that raised concerns about the observation code used in a longitudinal research project to assess emerging behavior state patterns in young children with disabilities. Concerns about the thoroughness of the reliability data collected by Mudford are discussed. (Author/CR)

  17. Implementing TQM at Oregon State University: Moving Continuous Quality Improvement Practices into Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Jacquelyn T.; Howard, Nancy Lee

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of an award-winning Total Quality Management (TQM) program for administrative and academic staff development at Oregon State University is chronicled. Special attention is given to application of TQM for faculty and corporate interaction, instructional improvement, and curriculum development. Special challenges for implementation of…

  18. A Flurry of Activity: Educator Effectiveness Policies in SREB States Continue to Improve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douez, Danielle, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Recruit, train, reward, retain. These actions sound like the core competencies of a human resources manager or the buzzwords for economic development initiatives aiming to attract Fortune 500 companies. The same principles apply to finding, preparing and retaining effective educators. All 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states have…

  19. 15 CFR 923.133 - Procedure for conducting continuing reviews of approved State CZM programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS... performance of coastal States with respect to coastal management. Each review shall include a written... and enforced the program approved by the Secretary, addressed the coastal management needs identified...

  20. 15 CFR 923.133 - Procedure for conducting continuing reviews of approved State CZM programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS... performance of coastal States with respect to coastal management. Each review shall include a written... and enforced the program approved by the Secretary, addressed the coastal management needs identified...

  1. 15 CFR 923.133 - Procedure for conducting continuing reviews of approved State CZM programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS... performance of coastal States with respect to coastal management. Each review shall include a written... and enforced the program approved by the Secretary, addressed the coastal management needs identified...

  2. The Profession's Coach: Cindi Hickey--Institute for Continuous Education, Emporia State University, KS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Kansas librarians were delighted when Cindi Hickey came into their lives. Kansas is a really big state, sprawling over 82,000 square miles. For its small-town librarians, many of whom are without an MLS, professional development opportunities required hours spent driving--as well as hard-to-come-by travel money for overnight lodging. Hickey,…

  3. Cape Verdeans in the United States (Continuing a Story of Struggle, Creativity and Persistence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Laura Pires

    This article focuses on the history of the Cape Verde Islands, the nature of Cape Verdean immigration to the United States, and the ethnic experience of Cape Verdeans in the U.S. The colonization of the Atlantic archipelago by the Portuguese as part of their expanding slave trade is described and the Islands' economic, ecologic, racial and…

  4. A Flurry of Activity: Educator Effectiveness Policies in SREB States Continue to Improve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douez, Danielle, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Recruit, train, reward, retain. These actions sound like the core competencies of a human resources manager or the buzzwords for economic development initiatives aiming to attract Fortune 500 companies. The same principles apply to finding, preparing and retaining effective educators. All 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states have…

  5. SREB States Continue To Lead the Nation in National Board Certified Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This paper presents statistics which show that states in the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) area lead the nation in teachers with National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification. North Carolina, Florida, and South Carolina lead the nation in total number of NBPTS certified teachers. In the 2001-02 school year, 71…

  6. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state.

    PubMed

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Research laboratory. 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). None. Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0-2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Output regulation of a class of unstructured models of continuous bioreactors: steady-state approaches.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Huang, M-Y

    2003-03-01

    This article deals with the output regulation of continuous bioreactors in the face of constant disturbances and inverse dynamics. Nonlinear controllers developed on the basis of approximate equilibrium manifolds can almost attenuate measurable or unmeasurable disturbances on the output. This nonlinear feed-forward/feedback control framework without any tuning parameters can be directly implemented to strictly nonlinear systems. Under dynamic actuator constraints and the availability of only output signals for use in the control law, closed-loop simulations demonstrate that the proposed control techniques are superior to a nonlinear PI control scheme based on the identified Hammerstein model.

  8. Lexical shifts, substantive changes, and continuity in State of the Union discourse, 1790–2014

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Alix; Cointet, Jean-Philippe; Bearman, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reveals that the entry into World War I in 1917 indexed the decisive transition to the modern period in American political consciousness, ushering in new objects of political discourse, a more rapid pace of change of those objects, and a fundamental reframing of the main tasks of governance. We develop a strategy for identifying meaningful categories in textual corpora that span long historic durées, where terms, concepts, and language use changes. Our approach is able to account for the fluidity of discursive categories over time, and to analyze their continuity by identifying the discursive stream as the object of interest. PMID:26261302

  9. Lexical shifts, substantive changes, and continuity in State of the Union discourse, 1790-2014.

    PubMed

    Rule, Alix; Cointet, Jean-Philippe; Bearman, Peter S

    2015-09-01

    This study reveals that the entry into World War I in 1917 indexed the decisive transition to the modern period in American political consciousness, ushering in new objects of political discourse, a more rapid pace of change of those objects, and a fundamental reframing of the main tasks of governance. We develop a strategy for identifying meaningful categories in textual corpora that span long historic durées, where terms, concepts, and language use changes. Our approach is able to account for the fluidity of discursive categories over time, and to analyze their continuity by identifying the discursive stream as the object of interest.

  10. Comparison of inflammatory cytokine levels among type I/type II and manic/hypomanic/euthymic/depressive states of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Wen-Fei, Chiou; Li, Cheng-Ta; Pei-Chi, Tu; Mu-Hong, Chen

    2014-09-01

    Inflammatory cytokines have been suggested to be the trait or state markers of bipolar disorder, but with inconsistent results. This may be related to small sample sizes and poor control of some important confounding factors. Gender/age-matched outpatients with bipolar disorder and normal controls were enrolled. The clinical symptoms were rated using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. Inflammatory cytokines, including soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNF-R1), soluble P-selectin receptor (sP-selectin), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In total, 130 patients with bipolar disorder and 130 normal subjects were enrolled. Among the patients with bipolar disorder, 77 (59.2%) had bipolar I disorder, 53 (40.8%) had bipolar II disorder; 75 (57.7%) were in a euthymic state, 14 (10.8%) were in a manic/hypomanic state, and 41 (31.5%) were in a depressive state. The 130 bipolar patients had significantly higher levels of all cytokines than the normal controls (all p<0.0001). Using multivariate regression analysis with controlling of age, gender, BMI, smoking, duration of illness, and medication grouping, the patients with bipolar II disorder had significantly lower levels of sTNF-R1 than the patients with bipolar I disorder (p=0.038); the patients in a depressive state had significantly lower levels of sTNF-R1 than the patients in manic/hypomanic and euthymic states (p=0.009). The study supported the association of bipolar disorder with inflammatory dysregulation, and sTNF-R1 may be a potential biomarker for staging bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  12. Density of states of continuous and discrete spin models: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, Cesare; Nerattini, Rachele; Casetti, Lapo

    2012-02-01

    A relation between O(n) lattice spin models and Ising models defined on the same lattice was recently put forward (Casetti et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 057208). Such a relation, inspired by an energy landscape analysis, implies that the density of states of an O(n) spin model on a lattice can be effectively approximated, at least close to the phase transition, in terms of the density of states of an Ising model defined on the same lattice and with the same interactions. In this paper we show that such a relation exactly holds, albeit in a slightly modified form, in the special cases of the mean-field XY model and the one-dimensional XY model. We also discuss the possible consequences of this result for the general case.

  13. State of South Dakota's Child 2004 continued: out of home care for infants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ann

    2005-02-01

    South Dakota leads the nation in its percent of women in the workforce who have children under the age of six. Nationally, 64% of women with children this young are employed and this is the case for 78% of women in the state. Further, 60% of South Dakota's infants live in homes where either their single mother is employed or both their parents are employed outside of their home. Nearly half of all the state's infants and children under six receive nonparental care during their parents' working hours. The significance of this reality is profound as young children's experiences, during early formative periods of life, affect their current and future development. The dimensions of quality care for infants are described as well as the economic and policy dynamics that affect its delivery in South Dakota.

  14. Continuous and discontinuous absorbing-state phase transitions on Voronoi-Delaunay random lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo M.; Alves, Sidiney G.; Ferreira, Silvio C.

    2016-01-01

    We study absorbing-state phase transitions (APTs) in two-dimensional Voronoi-Delaunay (VD) random lattices with quenched coordination disorder. Quenched randomness usually changes the criticality and destroys discontinuous transitions in low-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. We performed extensive simulations of the Ziff-Gulari-Barshad model, and verified that the VD disorder does not change the nature of its discontinuous transition. Our results corroborate recent findings of Barghathi and Vojta [H. Barghathi and T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.120602], stating the irrelevance of topological disorder in a class of random lattices that includes VD, and raise the interesting possibility that disorder in nonequilibrium APT may, under certain conditions, be irrelevant for the phase coexistence. We also verify that the VD disorder is irrelevant for the critical behavior of models belonging to the directed percolation and Manna universality classes.

  15. Application of digital infrared thermal imaging in determining inflammatory state and follow-up effect of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tien-Chun; Hsiao, Yung-Lien; Liao, Shu-Lang

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation can cause a local increase in temperature. Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) has been used to monitor the temperature distribution of human skin. Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disease, and patients are treated with immunosuppressive agents if the ophthalmopathy is at an inflammatory state. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the feasibility of DITI in determining inflammatory state and follow-up effect of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in patients with GO. Digital infrared thermal imaging was used to measure local temperatures of lateral orbit (reference point), upper eyelid, caruncle, medial conjunctiva, lateral conjunctiva, lower eyelid, and cornea, and to make thermal density plots in 14 patients (28 eyes) with GO including inflammatory signs (mean clinical activity score 2.5), and 16 normal controls (32 eyes). We also performed methylprednisolone pulse therapy in 11 patients (22 eyes) with active GO, and measured clinical activity score and local temperatures before and after treatment. The focal change in temperature after treatment and the correlation between temperature variation and change in clinical activity score were then analyzed. Thermal density plots were also compared. Local temperatures of the caruncle, medial conjunctiva, lateral conjunctiva, and lower eyelid of the patients were significantly higher than those of normal controls. In the 11 GO patients treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy, the temperatures of the caruncle, medial conjunctiva, and lower eyelid were significantly decreased after treatment. Temperature variation significantly and positively correlated with a change in clinical activity score (correlation coefficient = 0.8, n = 22, p = 0.000). The temperature decreased after treatment in patients who were responsive to methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and the thermal density plot was close to that of normal controls. Digital infrared thermal imaging might be helpful in evaluating

  16. Novel stability diagrams for continuous-wave solid-state laser resonators

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; Laporta, P.; Magni, V.

    1986-08-01

    Two novel stability diagrams are proposed, which provide a clear understanding of the behavior of solid-state laser resonators with focusing rods. By means of this graphic analysis, information on the stability boundaries, dynamic stability, misalignment sensitivity, and spot size in the rod can be obtained. On the basis of these diagrams the complicated experimental output power curves of a cw Nd:YAG laser have been easily interpreted.

  17. Naval Arms Control - Can the United States Continue to Just Say No?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-02

    Maritime commerce, in all ages, has been most fruitful o f wealth. WeMth is a concrete expression o f a nation’s energy of life , material and...force automatically is threatening in international life . The policy cannot fail to stimulate serious concern and, perhaps, vigorous defensive action...are a fact of life . The World’s Policeman The United States was the world’s dominant power by the end of World War II. With Great Britain

  18. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  19. The State of Intimate Partner Violence Intervention: Progress and Continuing Challenges.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Ward-Lasher, Allison; Thaller, Jonel; Bagwell-Gray, Meredith E

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 40 years, intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved from an emerging social problem to a socially unacceptable crime. The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 encourages state policies that focus on criminal justice intervention, including mandatory arrest and prosecution. Services offered to victim-survivors of IPV are often tied to criminal justice intervention, or otherwise encourage separation. These interventions have been seen as effectively using the authority of the state to enhance women's power relative to that of abusive men. However, these interventions do not serve the needs of women who, for cultural or personal reasons, want to remain in their relationship, or marginalized women who fear the power of the state due to institutionalized violence, heterosexism, and racism. The one-size-fits-all approach that encourages prosecution and batterer intervention programs for offenders and shelter and advocacy for victim-survivors fails to adhere to the social work value of client self-determination and the practice principle of meeting clients where they are. It is imperative that social workers in all areas of practice are aware of IPV policies, services, and laws. Social workers' challenge moving forward is to develop innovative and evidence-based interventions that serve all victim-survivors of IPV

  20. SIMULATION FROM ENDPOINT-CONDITIONED, CONTINUOUS-TIME MARKOV CHAINS ON A FINITE STATE SPACE, WITH APPLICATIONS TO MOLECULAR EVOLUTION.

    PubMed

    Hobolth, Asger; Stone, Eric A

    2009-09-01

    Analyses of serially-sampled data often begin with the assumption that the observations represent discrete samples from a latent continuous-time stochastic process. The continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) is one such generative model whose popularity extends to a variety of disciplines ranging from computational finance to human genetics and genomics. A common theme among these diverse applications is the need to simulate sample paths of a CTMC conditional on realized data that is discretely observed. Here we present a general solution to this sampling problem when the CTMC is defined on a discrete and finite state space. Specifically, we consider the generation of sample paths, including intermediate states and times of transition, from a CTMC whose beginning and ending states are known across a time interval of length T. We first unify the literature through a discussion of the three predominant approaches: (1) modified rejection sampling, (2) direct sampling, and (3) uniformization. We then give analytical results for the complexity and efficiency of each method in terms of the instantaneous transition rate matrix Q of the CTMC, its beginning and ending states, and the length of sampling time T. In doing so, we show that no method dominates the others across all model specifications, and we give explicit proof of which method prevails for any given Q, T, and endpoints. Finally, we introduce and compare three applications of CTMCs to demonstrate the pitfalls of choosing an inefficient sampler.

  1. A Five-State Continuing Professional Development Pilot Program for Practicing Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Dopp, Anna Legreid; Moulton, Jennifer R.; Rouse, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a structured educational intervention would support pharmacists' utilization of a continuing professional development (CPD) model compared to pharmacist control subjects. Methods A prospective, randomized, observational case-control study of CPD was conducted in which pharmacists participated in several educational interventions, and study and control groups completed prestudy and poststudy survey instruments. Results Survey data from 57 pharmacists (n = 28 study, n = 29 control) were analyzed and significant outcomes from the CPD stages of reflect, plan, act, evaluate, and record were found between matched study subjects and study and control group comparisons. Conclusions With appropriate training and support, pharmacists can utilize a CPD approach to their lifelong learning and professional development. PMID:20414441

  2. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism.

  3. Tuberculosis management continues to utilize a large amount of hospital resources in the United States.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Nalliah, Romesh P

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine longitudinal trends in hospital admissions attributed to tuberculosis and resulting hospitalization outcomes in the United States for the years 2000-2010. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which is the largest all-payer and nationally representative in-hospital dataset in the United States. All hospitalizations that had a primary diagnosis for tuberculosis were selected for analysis. Patient characteristics and outcomes including discharge status following hospitalization, length of stay in hospital and hospitalization charges were examined. During the study period, a total of 96 431 hospitalizations occurred due to tuberculosis. The mean age of hospitalizations was 48.6 years. Males comprised 64.2% of all hospitalizations; 24.8% were Whites, 25.5% Blacks, 26.5% Hispanics, 14.3% Asians/Pacific Islanders, 1% Native Americans, and 7.9% other/mixed races. Following hospitalization, 72.1% were discharged routinely, 3.4% were transferred to another acute-care hospital, 10.7% to long-term care facilities including skilled nursing facilities, 7.6% to home health care, and 2.1% were discharged against medical advice. There were 3815 patients who died (4% of hospitalizations). The total hospitalization charge for this cohort of patients admitted due to tuberculosis across the United States was $6.96 billion and the total hospitalization days over study period was 1 419 605 days. High-risk cohorts who are likely to be hospitalized due to tuberculosis included Blacks and Hispanics. Majority of hospitalization comprised of males. Even though the annual number of hospitalizations reduced over the study period, substantial amounts of resources are used in hospital settings to manage tuberculosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The QCD equation of state at finite density from analytical continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Jana; Bellwied, Rene; Borsanyi, Szabolcs; Fodor, Zoltan; Katz, Sandor D.; Pasztor, Attila; Ratti, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    An effcient way to study the QCD phase diagram at small finite density is to extrapolate thermodynamical observables from imaginary chemical potential. In this talk we present results on several observables for the equation of state to order (μB/T)6. The observables are calculated along the isentropic trajectories in the (T, μB) plane corresponding to the RHIC Beam Energy Scan collision energies. The simulations are performed at the physical mass for the light and strange quarks. μs was tuned in a way to enforce strangeness neutrality to match the experimental conditions; the results are continuum extrapolated using lattices of up to Nt = 16 temporal resolution.

  5. Construction of AFLT States for WN ⊗ ℋ Symmetry, Analytic Continuation and Integrability on AGT Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Sheng; Shou, Bao; Wu, Jian-Feng; Xu, Ying-Ying; Yu, Ming

    2015-04-01

    We propose a Hamiltonian to the construction of the AFLT states for WN symmetry. We generalize the AGT relation to generic (extended) conformal field theory with 1 ≤ c < ∞. We analyze the triangular structure hidden in the AGT relation with WN symmetry in detail and the triangular structure implies the integrability. Supported by the Chinese Academy of S Sciences program “Frontier Topics in Mathematical Physics” (KJCX3-SYW-S03) by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11035008

  6. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian entangled states generated via multiple-photon subtraction and addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Hou, Li-Li; Chen, Xian-Feng; Xu, Xue-Fen

    2015-06-01

    We theoretically analyze the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation, the quadrature squeezing, and the continuous-variable quantum teleportation when considering non-Gaussian entangled states generated by applying multiple-photon subtraction and multiple-photon addition to a two-mode squeezed vacuum state (TMSVs). Our results indicate that in the case of the multiple-photon-subtracted TMSVs with symmetric operations, the corresponding EPR correlation, the two-mode squeezing degree, the sum squeezing, and the fidelity of teleporting a coherent state or a squeezed vacuum state can be enhanced for any squeezing parameter r and these enhancements increase with the number of subtracted photons in the low-squeezing regime, while asymmetric multiple-photon subtractions will generally reduce these quantities. For the multiple-photon-added TMSVs, although it holds stronger entanglement, its EPR correlation, two-mode squeezing, sum squeezing, and the fidelity of a coherent state are always smaller than that of the TMSVs. Only when considering the case of teleporting a squeezed vacuum state does the symmetric photon addition make somewhat of an improvement in the fidelity for large-squeezing parameters. In addition, we analytically prove that a one-mode multiple-photon-subtracted TMSVs is equivalent to that of the one-mode multiple-photon-added one. And one-mode multiple-photon operations will diminish the above four quantities for any squeezing parameter r .

  7. Continuous formulation of atmospheric state parameters for ray-traced GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Camille; Gegout, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Biancale, Richard

    2013-04-01

    In order to improve the modeling of the propagation of GNSS electromagnetic signals through the neutral atmosphere and achieve millimetric accuracy at low elevation, the GRGS (Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale) in collaboration with CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite) has developed a new set of mapping functions called AMF (Adaptive Mapping Functions) for applications in geodesy. The idea is to fit tropospheric ray-traced delays using a few numbers of coefficients for a given site at a given time. The ray tracing algorithm is based on the integration of the eikonal system which governs the ray propagation in the refractive atmosphere. During ray tracing, the current point refractivity and its gradient are computed using model level data assimilations produced by the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecast). With the aim to improve our transformation between model level data and the atmospheric refractivity, we describe a new scheme which permits to interpolate separately each thermodynamical parameter necessary to precisely rebuild the refractivity along the ray path. To allow for the atmospheric part between the lowest model level and the Earth's surface during the ray tracing, we propose in addition an extrapolation of physical parameters below the lowest model level. These continuous formulations are implemented in the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) at ECMWF. It assures the coherence between model level data and our precise formulation of the geometrical shape of the atmosphere.

  8. Geoacoustic method for continuous monitoring of stressed-strained state of Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbitskiy, T. Z.

    1984-05-01

    Ceramic piezoelectric transducers with characteristic frequencies 10-15 KHz are used as sources and detectors of longitudinal waves in a geoacoustic measuring system. The source is excited by an alternating voltage of 150-300 V with a frequency of 1-10 KHz. The electric signals from the detectors are amplified and filtered for discriminating the frequency harmonics. The phase shift of the received signal of the fundamental frequency and the amplitude of oscillations of the fundamental and multiple frequencies are determined. The measured wave parameters are registered on punched tape, facilitating computer input. Measuring system stability is monitored. The supply voltage, as well as atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature are continuously monitored. Measurements made in the Carpathian Geodynamic Polygon Carpathian reveal a substantial influence of tidal deformations of the Earth. It can be postulated that short anomalies are caused by the discharge of stresses in the investigated rock complex. More prolonged anomalies are caused by deformations of the crust accompanying preparation for tectonic earthquakes.

  9. Continuous brain-function monitoring: state of the art in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Hellström-Westas, Lena; Rosén, Ingmar

    2006-12-01

    Continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring gives direct information on brain function in newborn infants needing intensive care. To improve the possibilities of long-term monitoring, the EEG is time-compressed and recorded with a reduced number of electrodes. A trend measure of the EEG, the amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), has proved capable of giving relevant information in newborn infants of differing levels of maturity. The electrocortical background activity gives information on the level of brain activity, which is associated with outcome in both term asphyxiated infants and in preterm infants. However, the background activity is also affected by several medications, and this must be considered when interpreting the aEEG trace. The aEEG also reveals subclinical epileptic seizure activity, and can be used for evaluation of anti-epileptic treatment. The aEEG should be used as a complement to the standard EEG, and close collaboration between neonatologists and clinical neurophysiologists is necessary for optimal performance of EEG monitoring.

  10. The curtain remains open: NGC 2617 continues in a high state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oknyansky, V. L.; Gaskell, C. M.; Huseynov, N. A.; Lipunov, V. M.; Shatsky, N. I.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Mikailov, Kh. M.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Metlov, V. G.; Nadzhip, A. E.; Kuznetsov, A. S.; Balanutza, P. V.; Burlak, M. A.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Artamonov, B. P.; Salmanov, I. R.; Malanchev, K. L.; Oknyansky, R. S.

    2017-05-01

    Optical and near-infrared photometry, optical spectroscopy, and soft X-ray and UV monitoring of the changing-look active galactic nucleus NGC 2617 show that it continues to have the appearance of a type-1 Seyfert galaxy. An optical light curve for 2010-2016 indicates that the change of type probably occurred between 2010 October and 2012 February and was not related to the brightening in 2013. In 2016, NGC 2617 brightened again to a level of activity close to that in 2013 April. We find variations in all passbands and in both the intensities and profiles of the broad Balmer lines. A new displaced emission peak has appeared in Hβ. X-ray variations are well correlated with UV-optical variability and possibly lead by ˜2-3 d. The K band lags the J band by about 21.5 ± 2.5 d and lags the combined B + J filters by ˜25 d. J lags B by about 3 d. This could be because J-band variability arises from the outer part of the accretion disc, while K-band variability comes from thermal re-emission by dust. We propose that spectral-type changes are a result of increasing central luminosity causing sublimation of the innermost dust in the hollow bi-conical outflow. We briefly discuss various other possible reasons that might explain the dramatic changes in NGC 2617.

  11. The curtain remains open: NGC 2617 continues in a high state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oknyansky, V. L.; Gaskell, C. M.; Huseynov, N. A.; Lipunov, V. M.; Shatsky, N. I.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Mikailov, Kh. M.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Metlov, V. G.; Nadzhip, A. E.; Kuznetsov, A. S.; Balanutza, P. V.; Burlak, M. A.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Artamonov, B. P.; Salmanov, I. R.; Malanchev, K. L.; Oknyansky, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Optical and near-infrared photometry, optical spectroscopy, and soft X-ray and UV monitoring of the changing look active galactic nucleus NGC 2617 show that it continues to have the appearance of a type-1 Seyfert galaxy. An optical light curve for 2010-2017 indicates that the change of type probably occurred between October 2010 and February 2012 and was not related to the brightening in 2013. In 2016 NGC 2617 brightened again to a level of activity close to that of April 2013. We find variations in all passbands and in both the intensities and profiles of the broad Balmer lines. A new displaced emission peak has appeared in Hβ. X-ray variations are well correlated with UV-optical variability and possibly lead by ˜ 2-3 days. The K band lags the J band by about 21.5 ± 2.5 days and lags the combined B + J filters by ˜ 25 days. J lags B by about 3 days. This could be because J-band variability arises from the outer part of the accretion disc while K-band variability comes from thermal re-emission by dust. We propose that spectral type changes are a result of increasing central luminosity causing sublimation of the innermost dust in the hollow bi-conical outflow. We briefly discuss various other possible reasons which might explain the dramatic changes NGC 2617.

  12. Critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Potts model with a continuous number of states; A finite size scaling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöte, H. W. J.; Nightingale, M. P.

    1982-06-01

    We investigate the critical behaviour of the two-dimensional, q-state Potts model, using finite-size scaling and transfer matrix methods. For the continuous transition range (0< q⩽4), we present accurate values of the thermal and magnetic exponents. These are in excellent agreement with the conjecture of den Nijs, and that of Nienhuis et al. and Pearson, respectively. Finite size scaling is extended for the description of the first order region ( q>4). For completely finite systems, we recover the power law behaviour describe by discontinuity fixed point exponents; however, for systems that are infinite in one direction, exponential behaviour occurs. This is illustrated numerically by the exponential divergences of the susceptibility and specific heat with increasing system size for q≫4. These results for continuous q were obtained from a transfer matrix constructed for a generalized Whitney polynomial representing the Potts models. An effective algorithm to compute the dominant eigenvalues of this essentially nonsymmetric transfer matrix is developed.

  13. [Inflammaging. Aging inflammatory origin].

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Montaña-Alvarez, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    The association between the increase in life expectancy in humans and age-related changes in the immune system promotes that individuals are exposed longer to endogenous and environment antigens which allows an activation of the innate immune system and the subsequent establishment of a low grade chronic inflammation state with an increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, etc.). This inflammatory state referred as inflammaging is characterized by a inflammatory origin of aging given by the activation of cellular systems responsible of gene promotion and suppression as the nuclear factor kappa B, sirtuins, forkhead box O and KLOTHO, who are directly or indirectly involved in cellular mechanisms of resistance to oxidative stress, apoptosis and nucleic acids transcriptional mistakes repair. The activation of these cellular systems is associated with the pathogenesis of several chronic and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, late-onset diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. However, we are placed in a crossroad because we can not establish whether this inflammatory state observed in the aging process is responsible of development of degenerative diseases or if the presences of these chronic diseases are responsible for this inflammatory state of aging. Evidence in centenarians who are healthy and have preserved functional status has shown that there is a chronic inflammatory state present among them but is balanced by a higher expression of anti-inflammatory molecules.

  14. Inflammatory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, Jackie

    2010-09-01

    Inflammatory neuropathies are acquired disorders of peripheral nerves and occasionally of the central nervous system that can affect individuals at any age. The course can be monophasic, relapsing, or progressive. Inflammatory neuropathies are classified as acute or chronic. The acute form reaches a nadir by 4 weeks and the chronic form over 8 weeks or greater. The most common example of an acute inflammatory neuropathy is acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), which is part of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The most common chronic inflammatory neuropathy is chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP). Other chronic inflammatory neuropathies are multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and the Lewis-Sumner syndrome. The Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis occur acutely and have clinical overlap with AIDP.

  15. Numerical Computation of a Continuous-thrust State Transition Matrix Incorporating Accurate Hardware and Ephemeris Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Donald; Conway, Bruce; Englander, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of work exists showing that providing a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver with expressions for the problem constraint gradient substantially increases the speed of program execution and can also improve the robustness of convergence, especially for local optimizers. Calculation of these derivatives is often accomplished through the computation of spacecraft's state transition matrix (STM). If the two-body gravitational model is employed as is often done in the context of preliminary design, closed form expressions for these derivatives may be provided. If a high fidelity dynamics model, that might include perturbing forces such as the gravitational effect from multiple third bodies and solar radiation pressure is used then these STM's must be computed numerically. We present a method for the power hardward model and a full ephemeris model. An adaptive-step embedded eight order Dormand-Prince numerical integrator is discussed and a method for the computation of the time of flight derivatives in this framework is presented. The use of these numerically calculated derivatieves offer a substantial improvement over finite differencing in the context of a global optimizer. Specifically the inclusion of these STM's into the low thrust missiondesign tool chain in use at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center allows for an increased preliminary mission design cadence.

  16. Cooperation and Coordination Between Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents in Continuous State Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Vengerov, David

    1999-01-01

    Successful operations of future multi-agent intelligent systems require efficient cooperation schemes between agents sharing learning experiences. We consider a pseudo-realistic world in which one or more opportunities appear and disappear in random locations. Agents use fuzzy reinforcement learning to learn which opportunities are most worthy of pursuing based on their promise rewards, expected lifetimes, path lengths and expected path costs. We show that this world is partially observable because the history of an agent influences the distribution of its future states. We consider a cooperation mechanism in which agents share experience by using and-updating one joint behavior policy. We also implement a coordination mechanism for allocating opportunities to different agents in the same world. Our results demonstrate that K cooperative agents each learning in a separate world over N time steps outperform K independent agents each learning in a separate world over K*N time steps, with this result becoming more pronounced as the degree of partial observability in the environment increases. We also show that cooperation between agents learning in the same world decreases performance with respect to independent agents. Since cooperation reduces diversity between agents, we conclude that diversity is a key parameter in the trade off between maximizing utility from cooperation when diversity is low and maximizing utility from competitive coordination when diversity is high.

  17. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; ...

    2014-11-05

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric → line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded → condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds somemore » light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities.« less

  18. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Johnson, Mark R.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-11-05

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric → line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded → condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds some light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities.

  19. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    PubMed Central

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Johnson, Mark R.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric → line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded → condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding, together with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds some light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities. PMID:25371012

  20. Continuity of states between the cholesteric → line hexatic transition and the condensation transition in DNA solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Selcuk; Podgornik, Rudolf; Valle-Orero, Jessica; Johnson, Mark R.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-11-01

    A new method of finely temperature-tuning osmotic pressure allows one to identify the cholesteric --> line hexatic transition of oriented or unoriented long-fragment DNA bundles in monovalent salt solutions as first order, with a small but finite volume discontinuity. This transition is similar to the osmotic pressure-induced expanded --> condensed DNA transition in polyvalent salt solutions at small enough polyvalent salt concentrations. Therefore there exists a continuity of states between the two. This finding, together with the corresponding empirical equation of state, effectively relates the phase diagram of DNA solutions for monovalent salts to that for polyvalent salts and sheds some light on the complicated interactions between DNA molecules at high densities.

  1. [Migration of Mexicans to the United States: patterns of continuity and change].

    PubMed

    Tuiran, R

    1997-01-01

    Mexican migration to the US has been a constant feature since the past century, and it is currently one of the most contentious issues on the bilateral agenda. The forces behind the migratory system include the inability of the Mexican economy to absorb all available labor; the demand for Mexican workers in the US agricultural, industrial, and service sectors; the wage differential; the tradition of migration to the US; and the operation of complex social and family networks linking places of origin and of destination. The predominant migratory pattern in the 1960s was a largely circular flow of rural Mexicans originating in a relatively small number of communities in a few states to work temporarily in US agriculture. The flow has become increasingly complex and heterogeneous, with regional, occupational, and sectorial diversification, a much greater presence of migrants of urban origin, and a greater tendency toward long or permanent stays. Recent surveys showed that 95% of short-term migrants crossing the border to the US were male and 70% were aged 12-34 years. The average educational level was 6.2 years, and two-thirds had previous work experience in Mexico. Only about 52% were from traditional places of origin, and 55% were urban. About half were bound for California, but the importance of Texas as a destination was increasing due to stepped-up border patrols in California. 75% hoped to stay in the US longer than 6 months. Two-thirds had previous migratory experience in the US, and two-thirds had no travel or work documents. The annual net migration to the US increased from about 26,000-29,000 in the 1960s to around 300,000 in the first half of the 1990s. 55% of Mexicans residing in the US are male and 70% are aged 15-44 years. 75% of Mexicans over age 25 residing in the US had a high school education or less, and two-thirds aged 16 or over are economically active, with 11% unemployed, 80% earning less than $20,000/year, and 35% living in poverty. A

  2. Administration of a leptin antagonist during the neonatal leptin surge induces alterations in the redox and inflammatory state in peripubertal /adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Hernandez, Oskarina; Hunsche, Caroline; Diaz, Francisca; Chowen, Julie A; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2017-10-15

    The importance of the neonatal leptin surge in rodents in neurodevelopmental processes has aroused curiosity in its implication in other physiological systems. Given the role of leptin in neuro-immune interactions, we hypothesized that the neonatal leptin surge could have an effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress situations of both systems. We blocked the neonatal leptin surge by a leptin antagonist and measured several parameters of oxidative and inflammatory stress in the spleen, hypothalamus and adipose tissue of peripubertal/adolescent rats. The treated rats showed lower activity of several antioxidant enzymes in the spleen and their leukocytes released lower levels of mitogen-stimulated IL-10 and IL-13 and higher levels of TNF-alpha. In conclusion, the neonatal leptin surge may have a key role in the establishment of adequate redox and inflammatory states in the immune system, which is important for the generation of adequate immune responses and to obtain and maintain good health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring Interacting Quantum Many-Body Systems by Experimentally Creating Continuous Matrix Product States in Superconducting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C.; Mlynek, J.; Butscher, J.; Kurpiers, P.; Hammerer, K.; Osborne, T. J.; Wallraff, A.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems such as gases of interacting atoms or electrons is one of the most important challenges in modern condensed matter physics, materials research, and chemistry. Enormous progress has been made in the past decades in developing both classical and quantum approaches to calculate, simulate, and experimentally probe the properties of such systems. In this work, we use a combination of classical and quantum methods to experimentally explore the properties of an interacting quantum gas by creating experimental realizations of continuous matrix product states—a class of states that has proven extremely powerful as a variational ansatz for numerical simulations. By systematically preparing and probing these states using a circuit quantum electrodynamics system, we experimentally determine a good approximation to the ground-state wave function of the Lieb-Liniger Hamiltonian, which describes an interacting Bose gas in one dimension. Since the simulated Hamiltonian is encoded in the measurement observable rather than the controlled quantum system, this approach has the potential to apply to a variety of models including those involving multicomponent interacting fields. Our findings also hint at the possibility of experimentally exploring general properties of matrix product states and entanglement theory. The scheme presented here is applicable to a broad range of systems exploiting strong and tunable light-matter interactions.

  4. Continuous p-n junction with extremely low leakage current for micro-structured solid-state neutron detector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuan-Chih; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2013-05-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved recently to enhance the thermal neutron detection efficiency of solid-state neutron detectors that incorporate neutron sensitive materials such as 10B and 6LiF in Si micro-structured p-n junction diode. Here, we describe the design, fabrication process optimization and characterization of an enriched boron filled honeycomb structured neutron detector with a continuous p+-n junction. Boron deposition and diffusion processes were carried out using a low pressure chemical vapor deposition to study the effect of diffusion temperature on current density-voltage characteristics of p+-n diodes. TSUPREM-4 was used to simulate the thickness and surface doping concentration of p+-Si layers. MEDICI was used to simulate the depletion width and the capacitance of the microstructured devices with continuous p+-n junction. Finally, current density-voltage and pulse height distribution of fabricated devices with 2.5×2.5 mm2 size were studied. A very low leakage current density of ~2×10-8 A/cm2 at -1 V (for both planar and honeycomb structured devices) and a bias-independent thermal neutron detection efficiency of ~26% under zero bias voltage were achieved for an enriched boron filled honeycomb structured neutron detector with a continuous p+-n junction.

  5. Online nutrition and T2DM continuing medical education course launched on state-level medical association.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Kristen K; Murano, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether a 1-hour online continuing medical education (CME) course focused on nutrition for type 2 diabetes would result in a gain in nutrition knowledge by practicing physicians. A practicing physician and dietitian collaborated to develop an online CME course (both webinar and self-study versions) on type 2 diabetes. This 1-hour accredited course was launched through the state-level medical association's education library, available to all physicians. Physicians (n=43) registered for the course, and of those, 31 completed the course in its entirety. A gain in knowledge was found when comparing pre- versus post-test scores related to the online nutrition CME (P<0.0001). Online CME courses launched via state-level medical associations offer convenient continuing education to assist practicing physicians in addressing patient nutrition and lifestyle concerns related to chronic disease. The present diabetes CME one-credit course allowed physicians to develop basic nutrition care concepts on this topic to assist patients in a better way.

  6. Refocused continuous-wave decoupling: A new approach to heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinther, Joachim M.; Nielsen, Anders B.; Bjerring, Morten; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; Kentgens, Arno P. M.; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2012-12-01

    A novel strategy for heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is presented, which eliminates residual static high-order terms in the effective Hamiltonian originating from interactions between oscillating dipolar and anisotropic shielding tensors. The method, called refocused continuous-wave (rCW) decoupling, is systematically established by interleaving continuous wave decoupling with appropriately inserted rotor-synchronized high-power π refocusing pulses of alternating phases. The effect of the refocusing pulses in eliminating residual effects from dipolar coupling in heteronuclear spin systems is rationalized by effective Hamiltonian calculations to third order. In some variants the π pulse refocusing is supplemented by insertion of rotor-synchronized π/2 purging pulses to further reduce the residual dipolar coupling effects. Five different rCW decoupling sequences are presented and their performance is compared to state-of-the-art decoupling methods. The rCW decoupling sequences benefit from extreme broadbandedness, tolerance towards rf inhomogeneity, and improved potential for decoupling at relatively low average rf field strengths. In numerical simulations, the rCW schemes clearly reveal superior characteristics relative to the best decoupling schemes presented so far, which we to some extent also are capable of demonstrating experimentally. A major advantage of the rCW decoupling methods is that they are easy to set up and optimize experimentally.

  7. Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption After High-Intensity and Sprint Interval Exercise, and Continuous Steady-State Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-11-01

    Tucker, WJ, Angadi, SS, and Gaesser, GA. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after high-intensity and sprint interval exercise, and continuous steady-state exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3090-3097, 2016-Higher excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) and sprint interval exercise (SIE) may contribute to greater fat loss sometimes reported after interval training compared with continuous steady-state exercise (SSE) training. We compared EPOC after HIE, SIE, and SSE. Ten recreationally active men (age 24 ± 4 years) participated in this randomized crossover study. On separate days, subjects completed a resting control trial and 3 exercise conditions on a cycle ergometer: HIE (four 4-minute intervals at 95% peak heart rate (HRpeak), separated by 3 minutes of active recovery), SIE (six 30-second Wingate sprints, separated by 4 minutes of active recovery), and SSE (30 minutes at 80% of HRpeak). Oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was measured continuously during and for 3 hours after exercise. For all conditions, V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was higher than resting control only during the first hour postexercise. Although 3-hour EPOC and total net exercise energy expenditure (EE) after exercise were higher (p = 0.01) for SIE (22.0 ± 9.3 L; 110 ± 47 kcal) compared with SSE (12.8 ± 8.5 L; 64 ± 43 kcal), total (exercise + postexercise) net O2 consumed and net EE were greater (p = 0.03) for SSE (69.5 ± 18.4 L; 348 ± 92 kcal) than those for SIE (54.2 ± 12.0 L; 271 ± 60 kcal). Corresponding values for HIE were not significantly different from SSE or SIE. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after SIE and HIE is unlikely to account for the greater fat loss per unit EE associated with SIE and HIE training reported in the literature.

  8. Is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio indicative of inflammatory state in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Bahadır, Anzel; Baltacı, Davut; Türker, Yasemin; Türker, Yasin; Iliev, Darkov; Öztürk, Serkan; Deler, Mehmet Harun; Sarıgüzel, Yunus Cem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obesity causes subclinical inflammation. Leukocyte count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are used to indicate inflammation in clinical practice. Also, inflammatory markers are evaluated as important indicators of cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to investigate the usage of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an inflammatory marker in obese patients with and without MetS. Methods: The study included a total of 1267 patients. The patients were assigned groups according to degree of obesity and status of MetS. Metabolic and inflammatory markers were compared between groups, and correlation analysis was performed. Results: Leukocyte count and hs-CRP were significantly different (p<0.001), but NLR was not different between body mass index (BMI) groups (p=0.168). Both lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly increased with increased degree of obesity (p<0.001, p=0.028, respectively). Leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts and hs-CRP level showed a significant correlation with BMI (r=0.198, p<0.001; r=0.163, p<0.001; r=0.167, p<0.001; r=0.445, p<0.001, respectively), whereas NLR was not correlated with BMI (r=0.017, p=0.737). Only a significant association between a MetS severity of 5 and 4 with hs-CRP level was observed (p=0.028), whereas there was no statistically significant association for leukocyte count and NLR (p=0.246; p=0.643, respectively). Conclusion: NLR was not a good indicator of inflammation, while leukocyte and hs-CRP were more useful biomarkers to indicate inflammation in non-diabetic patients with obesity and MetS. PMID:25592102

  9. Is the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio indicative of inflammatory state in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Bahadır, Anzel; Baltacı, Davut; Türker, Yasemin; Türker, Yasin; Iliev, Darkov; Öztürk, Serkan; Deler, Mehmet Harun; Sarıgüzel, Yunus Cem

    2015-10-01

    Obesity causes subclinical inflammation. Leukocyte count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are used to indicate inflammation in clinical practice. Also, inflammatory markers are evaluated as important indicators of cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to investigate the usage of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an inflammatory marker in obese patients with and without MetS. The study included a total of 1267 patients. The patients were assigned groups according to degree of obesity and status of MetS. Metabolic and inflammatory markers were compared between groups, and correlation analysis was performed. Leukocyte count and hs-CRP were significantly different (p<0.001), but NLR was not different between body mass index (BMI) groups (p=0.168). Both lymphocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly increased with increased degree of obesity (p<0.001, p=0.028, respectively). Leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts and hs-CRP level showed a significant correlation with BMI (r=0.198, p<0.001; r=0.163, p<0.001; r=0.167, p<0.001; r=0.445, p<0.001, respectively), whereas NLR was not correlated with BMI (r=0.017, p=0.737). Only a significant association between a MetS severity of 5 and 4 with hs-CRP level was observed (p=0.028), whereas there was no statistically significant association for leukocyte count and NLR (p=0.246; p=0.643, respectively). NLR was not a good indicator of inflammation, while leukocyte and hs-CRP were more useful biomarkers to indicate inflammation in non-diabetic patients with obesity and MetS.

  10. The inflammatory state provokes sexual dimorphism in left ventricular and electrocardiographic effects of chronic cyclosporine in rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassossy, Hany M.; Banjar, Zainy M.; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2017-01-01

    Although cardiotoxicity has been recognized as an adverse effect of cyclosporine A (CSA), no information exists regarding sex specificity of CSA cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) and electrocardiographic (ECG) effects of CSA and related inflammatory/histopathological derangements are sex related. CSA reduced the LV slope of end-systolic pressure volume relationship and increased isovolumic relaxation constant. These effects were more pronounced in male compared to female rats, suggesting LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. ECG recordings showed elevated ST segments and increased QTc and T peak trend intervals in CSA-treated male rats, markers of LV ischemia and arrhythmogenesis. In female rats, CSA delayed AV conduction, as reflected by prolonged PR interval. Other sex-related effects for CSA included (i) increased blood cholesterol, and reduced rates of rise and fall in LV pressure and nuclear factor kappa B and angiotensin receptors type 1 expressions in male rats, and (ii) increased LV adiponectin in females. Histopatholgically, CSA caused vascular congestion, blood extravasation, and pyknotic or even absent nuclei in both sexes. In conclusion, rats exhibit sex-independent susceptibility to negative LV and histopathological influences of CSA. These effects become more intensified in male rats, perhaps on account of aggravated ischemic and inflammatory milieus. PMID:28211883

  11. 20 CFR 408.234 - Can you continue to receive SVB payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? 408.234 Section 408.234 Employees... payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? (a) When we will consider... continue to pay you SVB payments even if you have been in the United States for more than 1 full...

  12. 20 CFR 408.234 - Can you continue to receive SVB payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? 408.234 Section 408.234 Employees... payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? (a) When we will consider... continue to pay you SVB payments even if you have been in the United States for more than 1 full...

  13. 20 CFR 408.234 - Can you continue to receive SVB payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? 408.234 Section 408.234 Employees... payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? (a) When we will consider... continue to pay you SVB payments even if you have been in the United States for more than 1 full...

  14. 20 CFR 408.234 - Can you continue to receive SVB payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? 408.234 Section 408.234 Employees... payments if you stay in the United States for more than 1 full calendar month? (a) When we will consider... continue to pay you SVB payments even if you have been in the United States for more than 1 full...

  15. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes

    PubMed Central

    Pooley, C. M.; Bishop, S. C.; Marion, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob–Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed ‘model-based proposal’ (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2–8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. PMID:25994297

  16. Continued benefits of a technical assistance web site to local tobacco control coalitions during a state budget shortfall.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Young, Walter F; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Borland, Ron; Walther, Joseph B; Helme, Donald; Andersen, Peter A; Cutter, Gary R; Maloy, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    A state budget shortfall defunded 10 local tobacco coalitions during a randomized trial but defunded coalitions continued to have access to 2 technical assistance Web sites. To test the ability of Web-based technology to provide technical assistance to local tobacco control coalitions. Randomized 2-group trial with local tobacco control coalitions as the unit of randomization. Local communities (ie, counties) within the State of Colorado. Leaders and members in 34 local tobacco control coalitions funded by the state health department in Colorado. Two technical assistance Web sites: A Basic Web site with text-based information and a multimedia Enhanced Web site containing learning modules, resources, and communication features. Use of the Web sites in minutes, pages, and session and evaluations of coalition functioning on coalition development, conflict resolution, leadership satisfaction, decision-making satisfaction, shared mission, personal involvement, and organization involvement in survey of leaders and members. Coalitions that were defunded but had access to the multimedia Enhanced Web site during the Fully Funded period and after defunding continued to use it (treatment group × funding status × period, F(3,714) = 3.18, P = .0234). Coalitions with access to the Basic Web site had low Web site use throughout and use by defunded coalitions was nearly zero when funding ceased. Members in defunded Basic Web site coalitions reported that their coalitions functioned worse than defunded Enhanced Web site coalitions (coalition development: group × status, F(1,360) = 4.81, P = .029; conflict resolution: group × status, F(1,306) = 5.69, P = .018; leadership satisfaction: group × status, F(1,342) = 5.69, P = .023). The Enhanced Web site may have had a protective effect on defunded coalitions. Defunded coalitions may have increased their capacity by using the Enhanced Web site when fully funded or by continuing to use the available online resources after defunding

  17. The Gap in Medical Informatics and Continuing Education Between the United States and China: A Comparison of Conferences in 2016.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Wei, Kunyan; Meng, Qun; Chen, Zhenying; Zhang, Jiajie; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-06-21

    China launched its second health reform in 2010 with considerable investments in medical informatics (MI). However, to the best of our knowledge, research on the outcomes of this ambitious undertaking has been limited. Our aim was to understand the development of MI and the state of continuing education in China and the United States from the perspective of conferences. We conducted a quantitative and qualitative analysis of four MI conferences in China and two in the United States: China Medical Information Association Annual Symposium (CMIAAS), China Hospital Information Network Annual Conference (CHINC), China Health Information Technology Exchange Annual Conference (CHITEC), China Annual Proceeding of Medical Informatics (CPMI) versus the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) and Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS). The scale, composition, and regional distribution of attendees, topics, and research fields for each conference were summarized and compared. CMIAAS and CPMI are mainstream academic conferences, while CHINC and CHITEC are industry conferences in China. Compared to HIMSS 2016, the meeting duration of CHITEC was 3 versus 5 days, the number of conference sessions was 132 versus 950+, the number of attendees was 5000 versus 40,000+, the number of vendors was 152 versus 1400+, the number of subforums was 12 versus 230, the number of preconference education symposiums and workshops was 0 versus 12, and the duration of preconference educational symposiums and workshops was 0 versus 1 day. Compared to AMIA, the meeting duration of Chinese CMIAAS was 2 versus 5 days, the number of conference sessions was 42 versus 110, the number of attendees was 200 versus 2500+, the number of vendors was 5 versus 75+, and the number of subforums was 4 versus 10. The number of preconference tutorials and working groups was 0 versus 29, and the duration of tutorials and working group was 0 versus 1.5 days. Given the size of the Chinese

  18. Commercial support of continuing medical education in the United States: the politics of doubt, the value of studies.

    PubMed

    Mazmanian, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    The continuing medical education (CME) system of the United States is being questioned for its integrity. Leaders in medicine and in government are asking about the effectiveness of CME, the influence of commercial support, and the value of CME credit and accreditation in assuring CME courses offer valid content, free of commercial bias. Nationally accredited CME organizations received $1.2B in commercial support during 2007, much of it associated with CME in formats shown to be less effective for improving clinical behavior and patient outcomes. There are few reliable data to respond to careful criticism. In 2007, U.S. expenditures for health exceed $2.2 trillion, with physicians responsible for clinical decisions that account for a large part of the spending. Approximately $4013 was spent per physician on CME. Rigorous studies are required to describe and explain relationships of CME accreditation and credit to better education and improved patient outcomes.

  19. Clofazimine Biocrystal Accumulation in Macrophages Upregulates Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Production To Induce a Systemic Anti-Inflammatory State.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gi S; Keswani, Rahul K; Sud, Sudha; Rzeczycki, Phillip M; Murashov, Mikhail D; Koehn, Tony A; Standiford, Theodore J; Stringer, Kathleen A; Rosania, Gus R

    2016-06-01

    Clofazimine (CFZ) is a poorly soluble antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the treatment of leprosy. In spite of its therapeutic value, CFZ therapy is accompanied by the formation of drug biocrystals that accumulate within resident tissue macrophages, without obvious toxicological manifestations. Therefore, to specifically elucidate the off-target consequences of drug bioaccumulation in macrophages, we compared the level of inflammasome activation in CFZ-accumulating organs (spleen, liver and lung) in mice after 2 and 8 weeks of CFZ treatment when the drug exists in soluble and insoluble (biocrystalline) forms, respectively. Surprisingly, the results showed a drastic reduction in caspase 1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) cleavage in the livers of mice treated with CFZ for 8 weeks (8-week-CFZ-treated mice) compared to 2-week-CFZ-treated and control mice, which was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in hepatic IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) production and a 21-fold increase in serum IL-1RA levels. In the lung and spleen, IL-1β cleavage and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression were unaffected by soluble or biocrystal CFZ forms. Functionally, there was a drastic reduction of carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the footpads and lungs, respectively, of 8-week-CFZ-treated mice. This immunomodulatory activity of CFZ biocrystal accumulation was attributable to the upregulation of IL-1RA, since CFZ accumulation had minimal effect in IL-1RA knockout mice or 2-week-CFZ-treated mice. In conclusion, CFZ accumulation and biocrystal formation in resident tissue macrophages profoundly altered the host's immune system and prompted an IL-1RA-dependent, systemic anti-inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Clofazimine Biocrystal Accumulation in Macrophages Upregulates Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Production To Induce a Systemic Anti-Inflammatory State

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gi S.; Keswani, Rahul K.; Sud, Sudha; Rzeczycki, Phillip M.; Murashov, Mikhail D.; Koehn, Tony A.; Standiford, Theodore J.

    2016-01-01

    Clofazimine (CFZ) is a poorly soluble antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the treatment of leprosy. In spite of its therapeutic value, CFZ therapy is accompanied by the formation of drug biocrystals that accumulate within resident tissue macrophages, without obvious toxicological manifestations. Therefore, to specifically elucidate the off-target consequences of drug bioaccumulation in macrophages, we compared the level of inflammasome activation in CFZ-accumulating organs (spleen, liver and lung) in mice after 2 and 8 weeks of CFZ treatment when the drug exists in soluble and insoluble (biocrystalline) forms, respectively. Surprisingly, the results showed a drastic reduction in caspase 1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) cleavage in the livers of mice treated with CFZ for 8 weeks (8-week-CFZ-treated mice) compared to 2-week-CFZ-treated and control mice, which was accompanied by a 3-fold increase in hepatic IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) production and a 21-fold increase in serum IL-1RA levels. In the lung and spleen, IL-1β cleavage and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression were unaffected by soluble or biocrystal CFZ forms. Functionally, there was a drastic reduction of carrageenan- and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the footpads and lungs, respectively, of 8-week-CFZ-treated mice. This immunomodulatory activity of CFZ biocrystal accumulation was attributable to the upregulation of IL-1RA, since CFZ accumulation had minimal effect in IL-1RA knockout mice or 2-week-CFZ-treated mice. In conclusion, CFZ accumulation and biocrystal formation in resident tissue macrophages profoundly altered the host's immune system and prompted an IL-1RA-dependent, systemic anti-inflammatory response. PMID:27021320

  1. An All-vanadium Continuous-flow Photoelectrochemical Cell for Extending State-of-charge in Solar Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zi; Shen, Yi; Liu, Dong; Liu, Fuqiang

    2017-04-04

    Greater levels of solar energy storage provide an effective solution to the inherent nature of intermittency, and can substantially improve reliability, availability, and quality of the renewable energy source. Here we demonstrated an all-vanadium (all-V) continuous-flow photoelectrochemical storage cell (PESC) to achieve efficient and high-capacity storage of solar energy, through improving both photocurrent and photocharging depth. It was discovered that forced convective flow of electrolytes greatly enhanced the photocurrent by 5 times comparing to that with stagnant electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed a great reduction of charge transfer resistance with forced convective flow of electrolytes as a result of better mass transport at U-turns of the tortuous serpentine flow channel of the cell. Taking advantage of the improved photocurrent and diminished charge transfer resistance, the all-V continuous-flow PESC was capable of producing ~20% gain in state of charge (SOC) under AM1.5 illumination for ca. 1.7 hours without any external bias. This gain of SOC was surprisingly three times more than that with stagnant electrolytes during a 25-hour period of photocharge.

  2. Comparative anti-inflammatory characterization of wild fruiting body, liquid-state fermentation, and solid-state culture of Taiwanofungus camphoratus in microglia and the mechanism of its action.

    PubMed

    Liu, Der-Zen; Liang, Hong-Jen; Chen, Chien-Ho; Su, Ching-Hua; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Huang, Chun-Ting; Hou, Wen-Chi; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Zhong, Wen-Bin; Lin, Pei-Jung; Hung, Ling-Fang; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2007-08-15

    Taiwanofungus camphoratus (syn. Antrodia camphorata), a medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, is reputed to provide several therapeutic benefits, but the wild fruiting body is very rare. In this study, we used Taiwanofungus camphoratus extracts from wild fruiting bodies and two types of artificial cultivation (solid-state culture and liquid-state fermentation) to examine their anti-inflammatory effects in microglia cells and their possible roles in protection against neurodegenerative diseases. First, EOC13.31 microglia was treated with various kinds of Taiwanofungus camphoratus extracts and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to evaluate the iNOS expression. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that among the various kinds of extracts from wild fruiting bodies, methanol extracts were the most potent inhibitors of iNOS expression. Secondly, the potency of methanol extracts could be ranked as follows: extracts of wild fruiting body>solid-state culture>liquid-state fermentation. To clarify the mechanisms involved, methanol extracts from fruiting body were found to inhibit the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinases (JNK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) induced by LPS/IFN-gamma. Methanol extracts from fruiting body also inhibited NF-kappaB activation through the prevention of inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB) degradation. Moreover, methanol extracts from wild fruiting body inhibited both the iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression induced by beta-amyloid in microglia in a dose-dependent manner. In an animal model, we confirmed that methanol extracts from fruiting bodies were able to suppress ear edema, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. These results suggest that Taiwanofungus camphoratus exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity that might contribute to the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Mixing Bandt-Pompe and Lempel-Ziv approaches: another way to analyze the complexity of continuous-state sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zozor, S.; Mateos, D.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose to mix the approach underlying Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy with Lempel-Ziv complexity, to design what we call Lempel-Ziv permutation complexity. The principle consists of two steps: (i) transformation of a continuous-state series that is intrinsically multivariate or arises from embedding into a sequence of permutation vectors, where the components are the positions of the components of the initial vector when re-arranged; (ii) performing the Lempel-Ziv complexity for this series of `symbols', as part of a discrete finite-size alphabet. On the one hand, the permutation entropy of Bandt-Pompe aims at the study of the entropy of such a sequence; i.e., the entropy of patterns in a sequence (e.g., local increases or decreases). On the other hand, the Lempel-Ziv complexity of a discrete-state sequence aims at the study of the temporal organization of the symbols (i.e., the rate of compressibility of the sequence). Thus, the Lempel-Ziv permutation complexity aims to take advantage of both of these methods. The potential from such a combined approach - of a permutation procedure and a complexity analysis - is evaluated through the illustration of some simulated data and some real data. In both cases, we compare the individual approaches and the combined approach.

  4. Moisture and drug solid-state monitoring during a continuous drying process using empirical and mass balance models.

    PubMed

    Fonteyne, Margot; Gildemyn, Delphine; Peeters, Elisabeth; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Vercruysse, Jurgen; Gernaey, Krist V; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Classically, the end point detection during fluid bed drying has been performed using indirect parameters, such as the product temperature or the humidity of the outlet drying air. This paper aims at comparing those classic methods to both in-line moisture and solid-state determination by means of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools (Raman and NIR spectroscopy) and a mass balance approach. The six-segmented fluid bed drying system being part of a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (ConsiGma™-25) was used for this study. A theophylline:lactose:PVP (30:67.5:2.5) blend was chosen as model formulation. For the development of the NIR-based moisture determination model, 15 calibration experiments in the fluid bed dryer were performed. Six test experiments were conducted afterwards, and the product was monitored in-line with NIR and Raman spectroscopy during drying. The results (drying endpoint and residual moisture) obtained via the NIR-based moisture determination model, the classical approach by means of indirect parameters and the mass balance model were then compared. Our conclusion is that the PAT-based method is most suited for use in a production set-up. Secondly, the different size fractions of the dried granules obtained during different experiments (fines, yield and oversized granules) were compared separately, revealing differences in both solid state of theophylline and moisture content between the different granule size fractions.

  5. Searching for motifs in the behaviour of larval Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans reveals continuity between behavioural states

    PubMed Central

    Szigeti, Balázs; Webb, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method for the unsupervised discovery of behavioural motifs in larval Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. A motif is defined as a particular sequence of postures that recurs frequently. The animal's changing posture is represented by an eigenshape time series, and we look for motifs in this time series. To find motifs, the eigenshape time series is segmented, and the segments clustered using spline regression. Unlike previous approaches, our method can classify sequences of unequal duration as the same motif. The behavioural motifs are used as the basis of a probabilistic behavioural annotator, the eigenshape annotator (ESA). Probabilistic annotation avoids rigid threshold values and allows classification uncertainty to be quantified. We apply eigenshape annotation to both larval Drosophila and C. elegans and produce a good match to hand annotation of behavioural states. However, we find many behavioural events cannot be unambiguously classified. By comparing the results with ESA of an artificial agent's behaviour, we argue that the ambiguity is due to greater continuity between behavioural states than is generally assumed for these organisms. PMID:26609067

  6. Searching for motifs in the behaviour of larval Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans reveals continuity between behavioural states.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, Balázs; Deogade, Ajinkya; Webb, Barbara

    2015-12-06

    We present a novel method for the unsupervised discovery of behavioural motifs in larval Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. A motif is defined as a particular sequence of postures that recurs frequently. The animal's changing posture is represented by an eigenshape time series, and we look for motifs in this time series. To find motifs, the eigenshape time series is segmented, and the segments clustered using spline regression. Unlike previous approaches, our method can classify sequences of unequal duration as the same motif. The behavioural motifs are used as the basis of a probabilistic behavioural annotator, the eigenshape annotator (ESA). Probabilistic annotation avoids rigid threshold values and allows classification uncertainty to be quantified. We apply eigenshape annotation to both larval Drosophila and C. elegans and produce a good match to hand annotation of behavioural states. However, we find many behavioural events cannot be unambiguously classified. By comparing the results with ESA of an artificial agent's behaviour, we argue that the ambiguity is due to greater continuity between behavioural states than is generally assumed for these organisms.

  7. The continued success of registered nurse care coordination in a state evaluation of aging in place in senior housing.

    PubMed

    Rantz, Marilyn; Popejoy, Lori L; Galambos, Colleen; Phillips, Lorraine J; Lane, Kari R; Marek, Karen Dorman; Hicks, Lanis; Musterman, Katy; Back, Jessica; Miller, Steven J; Ge, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Older adults prefer to age in place, remaining in their home as their health care needs intensify. In a state evaluation of aging in place (AIP), the University of Missouri Sinclair School of Nursing and Americare System Inc, Sikeston, MO, developed an elder housing facility to be an ideal housing environment for older adults to test the AIP care delivery model. An evaluation of the first 4 years (2005-2008) of the AIP program at TigerPlace (n = 66) revealed that the program was effective in restoring health and maintaining independence while being cost-effective. Similar results evaluating the subsequent 4 years (2009-2012) of the program (N = 128) revealed positive health outcomes (fall risk, gait velocity, Functional Ambulation Profile, handgrips, Short-Form 12 Physical Health, Short-Form 12 Mental Health, and Geriatric Depression Scale); slightly negative activities of daily living, independent activities of daily living, and Mini-Mental State Examination; and positive cost-effectiveness results. Combined care and housing costs for any resident who was receiving additional care services and qualified for nursing home care (n = 44) was about $20,000 less per year per person than nursing home care. Importantly, residents continued to live in private apartments and were encouraged to be as independent as possible through the end of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. n-3 Fatty acids regulate the inflammatory-state related genes in the lung epithelial cells exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Czepiel, Jacek; Totoń-Żurańska, Justyna; Wołkow, Paweł; Librowski, Tadeusz; Czapkiewicz, Anna; Perucki, William; Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Woźniakiewicz, Aneta

    2016-04-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is coordinated by a complex of inflammatory mediators, including eicosanoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the human lung epithelial carcinoma A549 cells supplemented with docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids. We analyzed the influence of DHA, EPA and/or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene (Chr), fluoranthene (Flu) and benzo(a)anthracene (Baa) treatment on the fatty acids (FAs) profile and the formation of isoprostanes. We studied the cyclooxygenase-2, FP-receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARδ and PPARγ, transcription factor NF-кB p50 and p65 expression by Western blot, phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity, as well as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A) and prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene expression by qRT-PCR. DHA or EPA supplementation and BaP or Baa treatment resulted in a higher level of PGF3α. COX-2 expression was decreased while PPARδ expression and cPLA2 activity was increased after fatty acid supplementation and PAHs treatment. DHA and EPA up-regulated AHR and PLA2G4A genes. Supplementation with n-3 FAs resulted in changes of inflammatory-state related genes in the lung epithelial cells exposed to PAHs. The altered profile of lipid mediators from n-3 FA as well as repression of the COX-2 protein by n-3 PUFAs in A549 cells incubated with PAHs suggests anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties of DHA and EPA. It remains to be shown whether these pleiotropic and protective actions of n-3 FAs contribute to fish oil's therapeutic effect in asthma. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell yields and fermentation responses of a Salmonella Typhimurium poultry isolate at different dilution rates in an anaerobic steady state continuous culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of these studies were to determine cell yield and fermentation responses of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium poultry isolate using various dilution rates in steady state continuous culture incubations. S. enterica Typhimurium cells were propagated in continuous cultures with ...

  10. 42 CFR 438.420 - Continuation of benefits while the MCO or PIHP appeal and the State fair hearing are pending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuation of benefits while the MCO or PIHP... CARE Grievance System § 438.420 Continuation of benefits while the MCO or PIHP appeal and the State... before the later of the following: (1) Within ten days of the MCO or PIHP mailing the notice of...

  11. A Plan for Continuing Education in Nursing in Five North Central States (Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and Wisconsin): A Proposal for Discussion and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Signe W.; Byrns, Helene Hestad

    The purpose of the paper is to provide recommendations and suggest approaches for the coordination of continuing education in the North Central States of Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and Wisconsin. The document is directed to non-credit continuing education exclusively and does not consider inservice education within its scope.…

  12. Continuing global significance of emissions of Montreal Protocol-restricted halocarbons in the United States and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Lin, J. C.; Romashkin, P. A.; Daube, B. C.; Gerbig, C.; Matross, D. M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Hall, B. D.; Elkins, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    Contemporary emissions of six restricted, ozone-depleting halocarbons, chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11, CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-113 (CCl2FCClF2), methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and Halon-1211 (CBrClF2), and two nonregulated trace gases, chloroform (CHCl3) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), are estimated for the United States and Canada. The estimates derive from 900 to 2900 in situ measurements of each of these gases within and above the planetary boundary layer over the United States and Canada as part of the 2003 CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne-North America (COBRA-NA) study. Air masses polluted by anthropogenic sources, identified by concurrently elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO), SF6, and CHCl3, were sampled over a wide geographical range of these two countries. For each polluted air mass, we calculated emission ratios of halocarbons to CO and employed the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model to determine the footprint associated with the air mass. Gridded CO emission estimates were then mapped onto the footprints and combined with measured emission ratios to generate footprint-weighted halocarbon flux estimates. We present statistically significant linear relationships between halocarbon fluxes (excluding CCl4) and footprint-weighted population densities, with slopes representative of per capita emission rates. These rates indicate that contemporary emissions of five restricted halocarbons (excluding CCl4) in the United States and Canada continue to account for significant fractions (7-40%) of global emissions.

  13. Using model-based proposals for fast parameter inference on discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes.

    PubMed

    Pooley, C M; Bishop, S C; Marion, G

    2015-06-06

    Bayesian statistics provides a framework for the integration of dynamic models with incomplete data to enable inference of model parameters and unobserved aspects of the system under study. An important class of dynamic models is discrete state space, continuous-time Markov processes (DCTMPs). Simulated via the Doob-Gillespie algorithm, these have been used to model systems ranging from chemistry to ecology to epidemiology. A new type of proposal, termed 'model-based proposal' (MBP), is developed for the efficient implementation of Bayesian inference in DCTMPs using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This new method, which in principle can be applied to any DCTMP, is compared (using simple epidemiological SIS and SIR models as easy to follow exemplars) to a standard MCMC approach and a recently proposed particle MCMC (PMCMC) technique. When measurements are made on a single-state variable (e.g. the number of infected individuals in a population during an epidemic), model-based proposal MCMC (MBP-MCMC) is marginally faster than PMCMC (by a factor of 2-8 for the tests performed), and significantly faster than the standard MCMC scheme (by a factor of 400 at least). However, when model complexity increases and measurements are made on more than one state variable (e.g. simultaneously on the number of infected individuals in spatially separated subpopulations), MBP-MCMC is significantly faster than PMCMC (more than 100-fold for just four subpopulations) and this difference becomes increasingly large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Additive Role of a Potentially Reversible Cognitive Frailty Model and Inflammatory State on the Risk of Disability: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Scafato, Emanuele; Lozupone, Madia; Seripa, Davide; Giannini, Michele; Sardone, Rodolfo; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Inzitari, Domenico; Daniele, Antonio; Sabbà, Carlo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Panza, Francesco

    2017-07-06

    Cognitive frailty is a condition recently defined by operationalized criteria describing the simultaneous presence of physical frailty and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Two subtypes for this clinical construct have been proposed: "potentially reversible" cognitive frailty (physical frailty plus MCI) and "reversible" cognitive frailty (physical frailty plus pre-MCI subjective cognitive decline). Here the prevalence of a potentially reversible cognitive frailty model was estimated. It was also evaluated if introducing a diagnosis of MCI in older subjects with physical frailty could have an additive role on the risk of dementia, disability, and all-cause mortality in comparison with frailty state or MCI condition alone, with analyses separately performed for inflammatory state. In 2,373 individuals from the population-based Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging with a 3.5-year-follow-up, we operationally categorized older individuals without dementia into four groups: non-frail/non-MCI, non-frail/MCI, frail/non-MCI, and frail/MCI. The prevalence of potentially reversible cognitive frailty was 1%, increasing with age and more represented in women than in men, and all groups were associated with significant increased incident rate ratios of dementia, disability, and mortality. A significant difference in rates of disability has been found between the MCI and non-MCI groups (contrasts of adjusted predictions: 0.461; 95% confidence interval: 0.187-0.735) in frail individuals with high inflammatory states (fibrinogen >339 mg/dL). In older individuals without dementia and with elevated inflammation, a potentially reversible cognitive frailty model could have a significant additional predictive effect on the risk of disability than the single conditions of frailty or MCI. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct metabolic network states manifest in the gene expression profiles of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients and controls

    PubMed Central

    Knecht, Carolin; Fretter, Christoph; Rosenstiel, Philip; Krawczak, Michael; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Information on biological networks can greatly facilitate the function-orientated interpretation of high-throughput molecular data. Genome-wide metabolic network models of human cells, in particular, can be employed to contextualize gene expression profiles of patients with the goal of both, a better understanding of individual etiologies and an educated reclassification of (clinically defined) phenotypes. We analyzed publicly available expression profiles of intestinal tissues from treatment-naive pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and age-matched control individuals, using a reaction-centric metabolic network derived from the Recon2 model. By way of defining a measure of ‘coherence’, we quantified how well individual patterns of expression changes matched the metabolic network. We observed a bimodal distribution of metabolic network coherence in both patients and controls, albeit at notably different mixture probabilities. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed a bisectional pattern as well that overlapped widely with the metabolic network-based results. Expression differences driving the observed bimodality were related to cellular transport of thiamine and bile acid metabolism, thereby highlighting the crosstalk between metabolism and other vital pathways. We demonstrated how classical data mining and network analysis can jointly identify biologically meaningful patterns in gene expression data. PMID:27585741

  16. The human gastrointestinal tract and oral microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: a state of the science review.

    PubMed

    Lucas López, Rosario; Grande Burgos, María José; Gálvez, Antonio; Pérez Pulido, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a spectrum of diseases from ulcerative colitis (UC) to Crohn's disease (CD). Many studies have addressed the changes in the microbiota of individuals affected by UC and CD. A decrease in biodiversity and depletion of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes has been reported, among others. Changes in microbial composition also result in changes in the metabolites generated in the gut from microbial activity that may involve the amount of butyrate and other metabolites such as H2 S being produced. Other factors such as diet, age, or medication need to be taken into consideration when studying dysbiosis associated with IBD. Diverse bacterial species have been associated specifically or non-specifically to IBD, but none of them have been demonstrated to be its ethiological agent. Recent studies also suggest that micro-eukaryotic populations may also be altered in IBD patients. Last, but not least, viruses, and specially bacteriophages, can play a role in controlling microbial populations in the gastrointestinal tract. This may affect both bacterial diversity and metabolism, but possible implications for IBD still remain to be solved. Dysbiosis in the oral microbiome associated with IBD remains an emerging field for future research.

  17. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  18. Prevalence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Sexually Experienced Women of Reproductive Age - United States, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Kreisel, Kristen; Torrone, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Kyle; Hong, Jaeyoung; Gorwitz, Rachel

    2017-01-27

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome of the female reproductive tract characterized by inflammation of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (1). PID occurs when microorganisms ascend from the vagina or cervix to the fallopian tubes and other upper genital tract structures (1). PID can result from untreated bacterial infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain (1). Because there is no single diagnostic test for PID, clinicians rely on nonspecific signs and symptoms for diagnosis. The purpose of these analyses was to assess the burden of self-reported PID in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 cycle. Starting in 2013, NHANES female participants aged 18-44 years were asked about a lifetime history of PID diagnosis. Based on these data, the estimated prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was 4.4% in sexually experienced women of reproductive age (18-44 years). The prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was highest in women at increased risk, such as women reporting a previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Stratified by race/ethnicity and having a previous STI diagnosis, non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) women reporting a previous STI diagnosis had nearly equal self-reported lifetime PID prevalence (10.0% versus 10.3%). However, the lifetime prevalence of PID among black women was 2.2 times that among white women if no previous STI was diagnosed (6.0% versus 2.7%). These findings suggest that PID is prevalent and associated with previous STI diagnoses; therefore, it is important for clinicians to screen female patients for chlamydia and gonorrhea to reduce the incidence of PID.

  19. 42 CFR 438.420 - Continuation of benefits while the MCO or PIHP appeal and the State fair hearing are pending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appeal and the State fair hearing are pending. 438.420 Section 438.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... fair hearing are pending. (a) Terminology. As used in this section, “timely” filing means filing on or..., within the 10-day timeframe, has requested a State fair hearing with continuation of benefits until a...

  20. 42 CFR 438.420 - Continuation of benefits while the MCO or PIHP appeal and the State fair hearing are pending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appeal and the State fair hearing are pending. 438.420 Section 438.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... fair hearing are pending. (a) Terminology. As used in this section, “timely” filing means filing on or..., within the 10-day timeframe, has requested a State fair hearing with continuation of benefits until a...

  1. 42 CFR 438.420 - Continuation of benefits while the MCO or PIHP appeal and the State fair hearing are pending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appeal and the State fair hearing are pending. 438.420 Section 438.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... fair hearing are pending. (a) Terminology. As used in this section, “timely” filing means filing on or..., within the 10-day timeframe, has requested a State fair hearing with continuation of benefits until a...

  2. The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Fuller, Nicholas Robert; Zulet, María Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Caterson, Ian Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.

  3. Scalable large-area solid-state neutron detector with continuous p-n junction and extremely low leakage current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuan-Chih; Dahal, Rajendra; Lu, James J.-Q.; Weltz, Adam; Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara B.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of solid-state thermal neutron detectors with detection areas up to 16 cm2 that require only a single preamplifier for data acquisition. These detectors consist of a honeycomb-like micro-structured Si diode with boron-10 filled deep holes. A continuous p-n junction formed over the entire surface of the microstructure helps to achieve a low leakage current density of ~6.1×10-9 A/cm2 at -1 V for a 2.5×2.5 mm2 detector. This low leakage current results in low electronic noise, which enables the fabrication of large-area detectors. An intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of up to 26% was measured for a 2.5×2.5 mm2 detector module and up to 24% was measured for a 1 cm2 detector module. These measurements were obtained under zero bias voltage using a moderated californium-252 source. The relative efficiency remains almost the same when scaling the detector area up to 8 cm2 by connecting 1 cm2 detector modules in series. However, it decreases to 0.89 and 0.82, respectively, for 12 and 16 cm2. Nevertheless, these results demonstrate the promise of using boron filled micro-structured Si diodes as a cost effective alternative to the helium-3 based neutron detection technology and the potential of fabricating scalable large-area solid-state neutron detectors that are desirable for many applications.

  4. Continuous Estimation of Human Multi-Joint Angles From sEMG Using a State-Space Model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qichuan; Han, Jianda; Zhao, Xingang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the couplings among joint-relative muscles, it is a challenge to accurately estimate continuous multi-joint movements from multi-channel sEMG signals. Traditional approaches always build a nonlinear regression model, such as artificial neural network, to predict the multi-joint movement variables using sEMG as inputs. However, the redundant sEMG-data are always not distinguished; the prediction errors cannot be evaluated and corrected online as well. In this work, a correlation-based redundancy-segmentation method is proposed to segment the sEMG-vector including redundancy into irredundant and redundant subvectors. Then, a general state-space framework is developed to build the motion model by regarding the irredundant subvector as input and the redundant one as measurement output. With the built state-space motion model, a closed-loop prediction-correction algorithm, i.e., the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), can be employed to estimate the multi-joint angles from sEMG, where the redundant sEMG-data are used to reject model uncertainties. After having fully employed the redundancy, the proposed method can provide accurate and smooth estimation results. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on the multi-joint movements of the upper limb. The maximum RMSE of the estimations obtained by the proposed method is 0.16±0.03, which is significantly less than 0.25±0.06 and 0.27±0.07 (p < 0.05) obtained by common neural networks.

  5. Sympathetic Nerve Activity Maintains an Anti-Inflammatory State in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice by Inhibiting TNF-α Gene Expression in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lijun; Okamoto, Shiki; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Toda, Chitoku; Takagi, Kazuyo; Sato, Tatsuya; Saito, Kumiko; Yokota, Shigefumi; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play an important role in the inflammatory response in obese animals. How ATMs are regulated in lean animals has remained elusive, however. We now show that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is necessary to maintain the abundance of the mRNA for the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α at a low level in ATMs of lean mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of agouti-related neuropeptide increased the amount of TNF-α mRNA in epididymal (epi) white adipose tissue (WAT), but not in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), through inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity in epiWAT. The surgical denervation and β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol up-regulated TNF-α mRNA in both epiWAT and BAT in vivo. Signaling by the β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) and protein kinase A down-regulated TNF-α mRNA in epiWAT explants and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of TNF-α mRNA in the stromal vascular fraction of this tissue. β-AR-deficient (β-less) mice manifested an increased plasma TNF-α concentration and increased TNF-α mRNA abundance in epiWAT and BAT. TNF-α mRNA abundance was greater in ATMs (CD11b(+) cells of the stromal vascular fraction) from epiWAT or BAT of wild-type mice than in corresponding CD11b(-) cells, and β2-AR mRNA abundance was greater in ATMs than in CD11b(-) cells of epiWAT. Our results show that the SNS and β2-AR-protein kinase A pathway maintain an anti-inflammatory state in ATMs of lean mice in vivo, and that the brain melanocortin pathway plays a role in maintaining this state in WAT of lean mice via the SNS.

  6. One-way quantum computing with arbitrarily large time-frequency continuous-variable cluster states from a single optical parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Rafael N.; Wang, Pei; Sridhar, Niranjan; Chen, Moran; Pfister, Olivier; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2016-09-01

    One-way quantum computing is experimentally appealing because it requires only local measurements on an entangled resource called a cluster state. Record-size, but nonuniversal, continuous-variable cluster states were recently demonstrated separately in the time and frequency domains. We propose to combine these approaches into a scalable architecture in which a single optical parametric oscillator and simple interferometer entangle up to (3 ×103 frequencies) × (unlimited number of temporal modes) into a computationally universal continuous-variable cluster state. We introduce a generalized measurement protocol to enable improved computational performance on this entanglement resource.

  7. Inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Podell, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory myopathies are the result of infiltration of inflammatory cells into striated muscle, with or without an association with an underlying cause. Two broad classifications are IIMs and secondary inflammatory myopathies associated with other diseases. Standard diagnostic criteria for inflammatory myopathy include the presence of weakness or loss of specific muscle group function, an increase in CK, EMG changes associated with muscle membrane instability, and histologic evidence of inflammation. Not all these criteria, however, must be present. Fresh-frozen biopsy from two proximal muscles is recommended for biopsy confirmation. IIM can either focally affect head or neck muscles or be more diffuse. MMM is an immune-mediated disease characterized by a humoral antibody produced against the unique type IIM and type I variant mvofibers of masticatory muscles of dogs, which causes inflammation and loss of function of the muscles of mastication. Idiopathic polymyositis can affect focal muscle groups (extraocular, laryngeal) or present as multifocal or diffuse involvement of skeletal muscle in the cat and dog. Familial canine DM is an inflammatory disease of the striated muscle, skin, and vasculature in young Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs (Shelties), and, rarely, Collie-crossbred dogs. Immunosuppressive therapy is the key to successful treatment. Protozoal parasitic myopathies are the most common cause of clinically relevant secondary inflammatory myopathies. The degree of systemic involvement is often the limiting factor to successful treatment. Early recognition of the clinical signs for proper diagnostic testing and institution of appropriate therapy can result in a rewarding outcome in treating inflammatory myopathies in the cat and dog.

  8. Using disease-state management as the key to promoting employer sponsorship of medical nutrition therapy (continuing education credit).

    PubMed

    Israel, D A; McCabe, M

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this project was to design, implement, and improve a nationwide medical nutrition therapy (MNT) intervention program for nutritionally at-risk employees and their dependents and retirees (hereinafter referred to as clients) with a Fortune 100 company (Texas Instruments, Dallas, Tex) with a dispersed population of 80,000. Preferred Nutrition Therapists (PNT), a network of registered dietitians, with the assistance of the Texas Instruments Health Promotion and Benefits Department, identified International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed (ICD-9), codes for which MNT intervention was appropriate. PNT then negotiated a contract with the Texas Instruments Health Promotion and Benefits Department and implemented clients' self-referral process. The main challenge was to promote utilization of a new service from an outside vendor (PNT) and to measure outcomes in meaningful ways. The goal was to use MNT as a tool to prevent the progression of clients' diseases to states that require more costly treatments. PNT used a continuous quality improvement process to refine the system and improve information gathering and reporting, by providing quarterly reports to the Health Promotion and Benefits Department. These reports summarized the outcomes for all clients seen at least 3 times during the quarter. The cost was less than $0.35 per member per month (less than the employer spent on advertising the program), and 0.5% of the population requested MNT during the first year of implementation (about what was expected for a new carveout benefit).

  9. Production of extracellular protease and glucose uptake in Bacillus clausii in steady-state and transient continuous cultures.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Torben; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-08-28

    The production of the extracellular alkaline protease Savinase (EC 3.4.21.62) and glucose uptake in a non-sporulating strain of Bacillus clausii were investigated by analysing steady-state and transients during continuous cultivations. The specific production rate was found to have an optimum at a dilution rate between 0.14 and 0.17 h(-1), whereas the yield of Savinase on glucose was found to increase with decreasing specific growth rate. A linear relationship between the ribosomal RNA content and the specific production rate was found, indicating that the translational capacity may be limiting for product formation. The dynamics of the production of Savinase were studied during step changes in the dilution rate. During a step down in the dilution rate the specific production rate decreased immediately until it reached a new steady value. During a step-up an initial cease in the production rate was observed, but when glucose stopped to accumulate the production rate was regained. The glucose uptake was further investigated when chemostat cultures growing at different dilution rates were exposed to glucose pulses. The maximal glucose uptake capacity was found to be dependent on the initial specific growth rate. Furthermore, the adaptation to high glucose concentrations was faster at high dilution rates than at low dilution rates.

  10. Increased risk of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) infection among patients hospitalized for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Leung, Wesley; Weizman, Adam V

    2011-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infection has become an increasingly common hospital-acquired infection in U.S. hospitals. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently require hospitalization and therefore may be at increased risk of nosocomial infections. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify admissions for IBD (n = 116,842) between 1998 and 2004. We compared the prevalence of VRE in this group to that of non-IBD gastrointestinal (GI) inpatients and general inpatients and assessed for associations between VRE and hospital mortality, length of stay, and total charges. The crude VRE prevalence was 2.1/10,000 in hospitalized IBD patients, 1.3/10,000 in non-IBD GI patients, and 0.9/10,000 in general inpatients. After adjustment for confounders, IBD inpatients were at increased risk of VRE compared to the non-IBD GI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-2.64) and general inpatient (aOR 2.37; 95% CI: 1.31-4.27) groups. Among IBD patients, there was a higher prevalence of VRE infection in those who had surgery (4.4/10,000 versus 1.7/10,000; P < 0.04) and total parenteral nutrition (6.9/10,000 versus 1.8/10,000; P < 0.003). VRE infection was not associated with an increase in mortality (0% versus 0.7%, P = 0.8); however, it was associated with 3-fold higher total hospital charges ($63,517 versus $21,918 USD; P < 0.0001) and increased average length of stay in hospital (16.1 versus 6.1 days; P < 0.0001). Hospitalized IBD patients have increased susceptibility to VRE that is associated with increased economic burden. This study reinforces the importance of measures to prevent nosocomial infection, particularly in the vulnerable IBD population. Copyright © 2010 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  11. An Appraisal of the Status and Future of the Continuing Education (Non-Credit) for Engineers in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasher, Richard Dempsey

    The current status of noncredit continuing engineering education is described and criticized to facilitate the planning of future activity in this field. First, in a review of the background and current nature of continuing education in general, it is shown that rapid technological change makes periodic continuing education imperative for…

  12. Continuity of care: is the personal doctor still important? A survey of general practitioners and family physicians in England and Wales, the United States, and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Tim; Tarrant, Carolyn; Mainous, Arch G; Schers, Henk; Freeman, George; Baker, Richard

    2005-01-01

    We determined the reported value general practitioners/family physicians in 3 different health care systems place on the various types of continuity of care. We conducted a postal questionnaire survey in England and Wales, the United States, and The Netherlands. The participants were 1,523 general practitioners/family physicians (568 from England and Wales, 453 from the United States and 502 from The Netherlands). Our main outcome measures were the perceived importance of the types of continuity of care and doctor or practice characteristics that may influence attitudes toward personal continuity of care. The response rates were England and Wales 60% (568/946), United States 47% (453/963) and Netherlands 76% (502/660). The doctors in all 3 countries felt strongly that personal continuity remained an important aspect of good-quality care to their patients. Within a given health care system, doctors' personal and practice characteristics explained only a small part of the variance in attitudes toward the provision of personal continuity of care (England and Wales and The Netherlands r2 = 0.04, United States r2 = 0.01). The doctors in all 3 countries felt that they were currently able to provide all 3 types of continuity of care, although doctors in England and Wales were least positive about the provision of informational and management continuity across the primary-secondary care divide. General practitioners/family physicians from 3 differing health care systems all place high value on being able to provide personal continuity of care to patients. Personal continuity of care remains a core value of general practice/family medicine and should be taken account of by policy makers when redesigning health care systems.

  13. The Role of Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Poniatowski, Łukasz A.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of human joints. The basis of pathologic changes involves all the tissues forming the joint; already, at an early stage, it has the nature of inflammation with varying degrees of severity. An analysis of the complex relationships indicates that the processes taking place inside the joint are not merely a set that (seemingly) only includes catabolic effects. Apart from them, anti-inflammatory anabolic processes also occur continually. These phenomena are driven by various mediators, of which the key role is attributed to the interactions within the cytokine network. The most important group controlling the disease seems to be inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, and IL-18. The second group with antagonistic effect is formed by cytokines known as anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of OA with respect to inter- and intracellular signaling pathways is still under investigation. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge. The cytokine network in OA is put in the context of cells involved in this degenerative joint disease. The possibilities for further implementation of new therapeutic strategies in OA are also pointed. PMID:24876674

  14. [Inflammatory myopathies].

    PubMed

    Maurer, Britta

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory myopathies comprise heterogeneous, often multisystemic autoimmune diseases with muscle involvement as a common feature. The prognosis largely depends on a timely diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Given the complexity of these rare diseases, when an inflammatory myopathy is suspected patients should be referred to an expert center with established algorithms for the diagnostic work-up. The differential diagnostic exclusion of myositis mimics should ideally be carried out in close collaboration with neurologists and neuropathologists. The choice of immunosuppressive treatment should primarily depend on disease severity and organ involvement but age and comorbidities also have to be taken into account.

  15. Osteoporosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tauseef; Lam, David; Bronze, Michael S.; Humphrey, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis commonly afflicts patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and many factors link the 2 states together. A literature review was conducted about the pathophysiology of osteoporosis in relation to inflammatory bowel disease. Screening guidelines for osteoporosis in general as well as those directed at patients with inflammatory bowel disease are reviewed, as are currently available treatment options. The purpose of this article is to increase physician awareness about osteopenia and osteoporosis occurring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and to provide basic, clinically relevant information about the pathophysiology and guidelines to help them treat these patients in a cost-effective manner. PMID:19559158

  16. The solid-state fermentation of Artemisia capillaris leaves with Ganoderma lucidum enhances the anti-inflammatory effects in a model of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Seul; Heo, Jin-Chul; Lee, Sang-Han

    2017-05-01

    Artemisia capillaris, which belongs to the Asteraceae family and the genus Artemisia, has been reported to exert inhibitory effects on diabetes, cancer and inflammation. In this study, in order to enhance the bioactivity potential of the leaves of Artemisia by Ganoderma lucidum mycelium, we prepared aqueous samples of Artemisia capillaris (Ac) leaves, Ganoderma lucidum (Gl) and aqueous fractions produced by the solid fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum on Artemisia capillaris leaves (afAc/Gl). Thereafter, we evaluated whether these samples have potential to attenuate inflammation-related symptoms in an amimal model of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis. We found that afAc/Gl exhibited enhanced anti-inflamamatory activity following the solid fermentation process when compared with Ac or Gl on ear thickness, ear epidermal thickness and eosinophil infiltration in the skin tissues. The expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOSs) was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The results revealed that afAc/Gl decreased endothelial NOS and inducible NOS expression compared with the DNFB group, while neuronal NOS expression was not altered. By comparing NO production, we found that as opposed to Ac, afAc/Gl has potential to inhibit atopic dermatitis-related symptoms during the inflammatory event. As regards matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns, afAc/Gl exerted potent inhibitory activity on the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -7, -9, -12, -14 and -19. Taken together, these results suggest that the solid state fermentation of Ac by Gl is an effective strategy to obtaining useful ingredients which are converted into valuable compounds during an atopic inflammatory insult.

  17. Outcome measures in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory rheumatic diseases are generally multifaceted disorders and, therefore, measurement of multiple outcomes is relevant to most of these diseases. Developments in outcome measures in the rheumatic diseases are promoted by the development of successful treatments. Outcome measurement will increasingly deal with measurement of low levels of disease activity and avoidance of disease consequences. It is an advantage for patient management and knowledge transfer if the same outcomes are used in practice and in trials. Continuous measures of change are generally the most powerful and, therefore, are preferred as primary outcomes in trials. For daily clinical practice, outcome measures should reflect the patients' state and have to be easily derivable. The objective of this review is to describe recent developments in outcome measures for inflammatory rheumatic diseases for trials and clinical practice, with an emphasis on rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:19849821

  18. Calculation of S-matrix poles by means of analytic continuation in the coupling constant: Application to the 2Πg state of N2-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horáček, J.; Mach, P.; Urban, J.

    2010-09-01

    The method of analytic continuation in the coupling constant in combination with use of the statistical Padé approximation is applied to the determination of resonance energy and width of the 2Πg state of N2-. It is shown that standard quantum chemistry codes provide accurate data which can be used for analytic continuation in the coupling constant, and the resonance energy and width can be inferred with an accuracy comparable to other more elaborate methods.

  19. Spin excitation spectrum in a magnetic nanodot with continuous transitions between the vortex, Bloch-type skyrmion, and Néel-type skyrmion states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mruczkiewicz, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Guslienko, K. Y.

    2017-03-01

    We study spin-wave excitations in a circular ferromagnetic nanodot in different inhomogeneous, topologically nontrivial magnetization states, specifically, vortex and skyrmion states. Gradual change in the strength of the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction leads to continuous phase transitions between different stable magnetic configurations and allows for mapping of dynamic spin modes in and between the vortex, Bloch-type skyrmion, and Néel-type skyrmion states. Our study elucidates the connections between gyrotropic modes, azimuthal spin waves, and breathing modes in these various stable magnetization states and helps us to understand the rich spin excitation spectrum on the skyrmion background.

  20. [Low-manifest infections with CNS damage in patients in prolonged unconscious state of non-inflammatory etiology].

    PubMed

    Vaĭnshenker, Iu I; Ivchenko, I M; Tsinzerling, V A; Nuralova, I V; Khlopunova, O V; Berezina, L A; Kuliashova, L B; Viazovaia, A A; Kalinina, O V; Korotkov, A D; Kataeva, G V; Medvedev, S V

    2011-01-01

    Study of specter of low-manifest infections (LMI) with central nervous system (CNS) damage and their role in patients in prolonged unconscious state (PUS) of noninflammatory etiology. 32 patients (23 male, 9 female; age 14-58) in PUS of various etiology were examined. The main group (18 patients) received therapy against all infectious diseases including LMI; control group (14 patients)--only against common and nosocomial microflora. Patients were immunologically, infectologically and neurologically examined in dynamic. The data obtained were treated by using STATISTICA for Windows (version 5.5). Significant differences in immune and infectologic status depending on the nature of primary CNS damage were not detected. Immunodeficiency was detected in all patients; 94% of patients had increased non-specific IgM and IgE. Among LMI agents Chlamydia spp. were predominant. Cultural and/or PCR methods detected this microorganism during the primary examination in cerebrospinal fluid samples in 56% patients and in blood samples in 56%; during the second diagnostics or autopsy--only in 13 and 25%, respectively. Detection of Bacteroides fragilis, Human Herpes Virus (HHV-6), Virus Epstein Barr (VEB), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cerebrospinal fluid, blood and on mucous membranes of nasopharynx and conjunctiva was grouped more frequently with the presence of Chlamydia spp. in the CNS (p < 0.05) than with other LMI agents. Sanation of CNS from LMI was significantly accompanied by regeneration of communicative activity in comparison with the control group. In patients with PUS high frequency of CNS infection by various LMI agents and primarily Chlamydia spp. should be considered. Sanation from LMI can become a "window" for effective neuro-regenerative treatment.

  1. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  2. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-07-05

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit.

  3. State Policy Leadership for Higher Education: A Brief Summary of the Origins and Continuing Evolution of a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingenfelter, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    While state policy leadership for higher education is not universally recognized as a profession, either within states or within higher education, the profession has existed in the United States for more than half a century. Moreover, its essential work is now practiced in other countries all over the world. This essay will briefly consider how…

  4. Entanglement transfer from two-mode continuous variable SU(2) cat states to discrete qubits systems in Jaynes-Cummings Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Du; Hu, Chang-Sheng; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2016-01-01

    We study the entanglement transfer from a two-mode continuous variable system (initially in the two-mode SU(2) cat states) to a couple of discrete two-state systems (initially in an arbitrary mixed state), by use of the resonant Jaynes-Cummings (JC) interaction. We first quantitatively connect the entanglement transfer to non-Gaussianity of the two-mode SU(2) cat states and find a positive correlation between them. We then investigate the behaviors of the entanglement transfer and find that it is dependent on the initial state of the discrete systems. We also find that the largest possible value of the transferred entanglement exhibits a variety of behaviors for different photon number as well as for the phase angle of the two-mode SU(2) cat states. We finally consider the influences of the noise on the transferred entanglement. PMID:27553881

  5. Medicare, Medicaid, and CLIA programs; Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 continuance of exemption of laboratories licensed by the State of Washington--HCFA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1997-07-01

    This notice announces that laboratories located in the State of Washington that possess a valid license under the Medical Test Site Licensure Law, Chapter 70.40 of the Revised Code of Washington (RCW), continue to be exempt from the requirements of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) until April 30, 2001.

  6. Political Stability and Continuity in the Indian States During the Nehru Era, 1947-1964: A Statistical Analysis. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Baljit; Vajpeyi, Dhirendra K.

    The period of Nehru's administration of India, 1974-1964, is statistically analyzed for political continuity and stability by examining the office terms of chief ministers for the Indian states during that time. After a brief introduction, the document mainly consists of statistical tables. A summary table of percentage turnover of ministers and…

  7. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  8. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  9. 20 CFR 411.375 - Does a State VR agency continue to provide services under the requirements of the State plan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Participation in the Ticket to Work Program § 411.375 Does a State VR...

  10. Importance of agglomeration state and exposure conditions for uptake and pro-inflammatory responses to amorphous silica nanoparticles in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Skuland, Tonje; Iversen, Tore-Geir; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Bilaničová, Dagmar; Pojana, Giulio; Refsnes, Magne

    2012-11-01

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs, 30 and 50 nm) and rhodamine-coated SiNPs (50 nm) were examined for their ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses and cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B cells under different experimental conditions. The SiNPs formed micrometre-sized agglomerates in the absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the culture medium, whereas with BSA (0.1%) they were much less agglomerated. All the SiNPs induced IL-6 and IL-8 responses, as measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. The responses were more marked without BSA and higher for the rhodamine SiNPs than the plain ones. Rhodamine SiNPs were not taken up by cells during a 3-h exposure, even though cytokine mRNAs were up-regulated. In conclusion, agglomerated SiNPs induced more potent cytokine responses than the non-agglomerated ones; either due to the agglomeration state per se or more conceivably to a change in surface reactivity against cellular targets due to BSA. Furthermore, cytokine expression was up-regulated independently of SiNP uptake.

  11. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk for anastomotic failure: a report from Washington State's Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP).

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Timo W; Steele, Scott R; Bastaworous, Amir; Dellinger, E Patchen; Farrokhi, Ellen; Farjah, Farhood; Florence, Michael; Helton, Scott; Horton, Marc; Pietro, Michael; Varghese, Thomas K; Flum, David R

    2015-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have many physiologic effects and are being used more commonly to treat postoperative pain, but recent small studies have suggested that NSAIDs may impair anastomotic healing in the gastrointestinal tract. To evaluate the relationship between postoperative NSAID administration and anastomotic complications. Retrospective cohort study of 13,082 patients undergoing bariatric or colorectal surgery at 47 hospitals in Washington State from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2010, using data from the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program linked to the Washington State Comprehensive Abstract Reporting System. NSAID administration beginning within 24 hours after surgery. We used multivariate logistic regression modeling to assess the risk for anastomotic complications (reoperation, rescue stoma, revision of an anastomosis, and percutaneous drainage of an abscess) through 90 days after bariatric and colorectal surgery involving anastomoses. Of the 13,082 patients (mean [SD] age, 58.1 [15.8] years; 60.7% women), 3158 (24.1%) received NSAIDs. The overall 90-day rate of anastomotic leaks was 4.3% for all patients (151 patients [4.8%] in the NSAID group and 417 patients [4.2%] in the non-NSAID group; P=.16). After risk adjustment, NSAIDs were associated with a 24% increased risk for anastomotic leak (odds ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.01-1.56]; P=.04). This association was isolated to nonelective colorectal surgery, for which the leak rate was 12.3% in the NSAID group and 8.3% in the non-NSAID group (odds ratio, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.11-2.68]; P=.01). Postoperative NSAIDs were associated with a significantly increased risk for anastomotic complications among patients undergoing nonelective colorectal resection. To determine the role of NSAIDs in colorectal surgery, future evaluations should consider specific formulations, the dose effect, mechanism, and other relevant outcome domains, including pain control, cardiac complications, and

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... work? How does inflammatory bowel disease interfere with digestion? Who gets inflammatory bowel disease? How is inflammatory ... top How does inflammatory bowel disease interfere with digestion? When the small intestine becomes inflamed, as in ...

  13. Continuing to Hold the Test Maker Accountable: The ISLLC Standards and the New York State School District Leadership Licensure Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markson, Craig; Inserra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of school leadership candidates' perceptions of their level of training in the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium Standards (ISLLC) with their scores on Parts I and II of the New York State School District Leader (SDL) licensure assessments. The New York State assessments were…

  14. A Latent Markov Model for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data Collected in Continuous Time: States, Durations, and Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockenholt, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    Markov models provide a general framework for analyzing and interpreting time dependencies in psychological applications. Recent work extended Markov models to the case of latent states because frequently psychological states are not directly observable and subject to measurement error. This article presents a further generalization of latent…

  15. 28 CFR 1100.35 - Authority to permit continued presence in the United States for victims of severe forms of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encounter alien victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons who are potential witnesses to that... the United States for victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. 1100.35 Section 1100.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND DEPARTMENT OF STATE TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS Victims of...

  16. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. Most clinical neurologists will be involved in the management of patients with these disorders, and should be familiar with available therapies for CIDP. We review the distinctive clinical, laboratory, and electro-diagnostic features that aid in diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of clinical patterns that define treatment responsiveness and the most appropriate therapies in order to improve prognosis. PMID:23564314

  17. Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators: Tutorial Overview, Design Guide, and State-of-the-Art Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosho, Shiro

    This paper presents a tutorial overview of Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators (CTDSM); their operating principles to understand what is important intuitively and architectures to achieve higher conversion efficiency and to operate low supply voltage, design methods against loop stability problem, tuning methods of the bandwidth and so on. A survey of cutting-edge CMOS implementations is described.

  18. Knowledge and Attitude of Secondary School Teachers towards Continuous Assessment Practices in Esan Central Senatorial District of Edo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, P. J.; Akinlosotu, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude towards CA practices in secondary…

  19. A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Treesearch

    Jingfeng Xiao; Qianlai Zhuang; Beverly E. Law; Jiquan Chen; Dennis D. Baldocchi; David R. Cook; Ram Oren; Andrew D. Richardson; Sonia Wharton; Siyan Ma; Tomothy A. Martin; Shashi B. Verma; Andrew E. Suyker; Russel L. Scott; Russel K. Monson; Marcy Litvak; David Y. Hollinger; Ge Sun; Kenneth J. Davis; Paul V. Bolstad; Sean P. Burns; Peter S. Curtis; BErt G. Drake; Matthias Falk; MArc L. Fischer; David R. Foster; Lianhong Gu; Julian L. Hadley; Gabriel G. Katul; Roser Matamala; Steve McNulty; Tilden P. Meyers; J. William Munger; Asko Noormets; Walter C. Oechel; Kyaw Tha U Paw; Hans Peter Schmid; Gregory Starr; Margaret S. Torn; Steven C. Wofsy

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales....

  20. Steady-state pharmacokinetic simulation of intermittent vs. continuous infusion valproic acid therapy in non-critically ill and critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Van Matre, Edward T; Cook, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug used for a variety of neurologic disorders. The relatively short half-life seen with intermittent intravenous bolus doing may lead to serum concentration variability. Continuous infusion VPA therapy is an approach to mitigate these effects. The objective of this study is to characterize the pharmacokinetics of continuous infusion of VPA in acutely ill patients and to determine dosing regimens that most frequently obtain goal steady-state serum concentrations. This is a retrospective pharmacokinetics study in adult patients receiving continuous infusion VPA per institutional protocol for seizure or status migrainosus. Pharmacokinetic parameters were reviewed for 234 patients (25 critically ill) and compared between the two groups (non-critically ill vs. critically ill). Intermittent and continuous infusion dosing strategies were modeled utilizing Monte Carlo simulations for both cohorts. Frequencies of serum concentration attainment were reported. The percent target attainment for the non-critically ill group and critically ill group were 69.4 and 58.3% (p = 0.282) post-loading dose and 69.7 and 37.5% (p = 0.004) steady state, respectively. The volume of distribution was significantly different between the two groups (0.35 vs. 0.68 L/kg, p = < 0.0001). Highest frequency of target attainment (50-100 mcg/ml) occurred in the continuous infusion 2 mg/kg/h simulation for both critically ill (45.19%) and acutely ill (48.16%) groups. Critically ill patients have an increased volume of distribution. Increasing the volume of distribution requires higher loading doses of VPA to obtain desired therapeutic concentrations. Continuous infusion VPA provides more consistent serum steady-state concentrations while mitigating pharmacokinetic variability.

  1. Integration of Department of Defense and State Department Efforts to Continue the Global Pursuit of Violent Extremist Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    State Department for diplomatic approval in a timely manner to conduct a military operation to accomplish the US objectives ( Opall - Rome 2012). “The...influence potential 32 adversaries and destroy known enemies ( Opall -Rome 2012). Such global integration would, at a minimum, seek to standardize SOF...will have the ability to accomplish goals within the policy objectives of the State Department ( Opall -Rome 2012), but there is currently no plan to

  2. Temperature and field-dependent transport measurements in continuously tunable tantalum oxide memristors expose the dominant state variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Catherine E.; Dávila, Noraica; Merced-Grafals, Emmanuelle J.; Lam, Si-Ty; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley

    2017-03-01

    Applications of memristor devices are quickly moving beyond computer memory to areas of analog and neuromorphic computation. These applications require the design of devices with different characteristics from binary memory, such as a large tunable range of conductance. A complete understanding of the conduction mechanisms and their corresponding state variable(s) is crucial for optimizing performance and designs in these applications. Here we present measurements of low bias I-V characteristics of 6 states in a Ta/ tantalum-oxide (TaOx)/Pt memristor spanning over 2 orders of magnitude in conductance and temperatures from 100 K to 500 K. Our measurements show that the 300 K device conduction is dominated by a temperature-insensitive current that varies with non-volatile memristor state, with an additional leakage contribution from a thermally-activated current channel that is nearly independent of the memristor state. We interpret these results with a parallel conduction model of Mott hopping and Schottky emission channels, fitting the voltage and temperature dependent experimental data for all memristor states with only two free parameters. The memristor conductance is linearly correlated with N, the density of electrons near EF participating in the Mott hopping conduction, revealing N to be the dominant state variable for low bias conduction in this system. Finally, we show that the Mott hopping sites can be ascribed to oxygen vacancies, where the local oxygen vacancy density responsible for critical hopping pathways controls the memristor conductance.

  3. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of basal cell carcinoma in the United States Radiologic Technologists study

    PubMed Central

    EK, Cahoon; P, Rajaraman; BH, Alexander; MM, Doody; MS, Linet; DM, Freedman

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with reduced risk of colorectal and other cancers, but the association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is unclear. Previous epidemiological studies have been small in size, conducted in especially vulnerable populations, or have not accounted for solar UV exposure, a major risk factor for BCC. In the United States Radiologic Technologists cohort, we followed subjects to assess NSAID use on risk of first incident BCC. We included Caucasian participants who responded to both second and third questionnaires (administered from 1994–1998 and 2003–2005, respectively) and who reported no cancer at the time of the second questionnaire, N=58,213. BCC, constituent risk factors (e.g., eye color, complexion, hair color) and sun exposure history were assessed through self-administered survey. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 58,213 people in the study population, 2,291 went on to develop BCC. Any NSAID use was not associated with subsequent incidence of BCC (HR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92–1.16) after adjusting for age, sex, and estimated lifetime summer sun exposure. No association was observed when stratified by NSAID type (aspirin and other NSAIDs), nor did dose-response patterns emerge by frequency of use (average days per month). Further analyses did not reveal interaction with sex, birth cohort, smoking, alcohol consumption, sun exposure, occupational radiation exposure, or personal risk factors for BCC. In this large nationwide study, we observed no association between NSAID use and subsequent BCC risk. PMID:21780102

  4. Acute experimental changes in mood state regulate immune function in relation to central opioid neurotransmission: a model of human CNS-peripheral inflammatory interaction.

    PubMed

    Prossin, A R; Koch, A E; Campbell, P L; Barichello, T; Zalcman, S S; Zubieta, J-K

    2016-02-01

    Although evidence shows depressed moods enhance risk for somatic diseases, molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced somatic susceptibility are ill-defined. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will inform development of treatment and prevention strategies across comorbid depressive and somatic illnesses. Existing evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18; an IL-1 family cytokine) is elevated in depression and implicated in pathophysiology underlying comorbid medical illnesses. We previously identified strong associations between baseline IL-18 and μ-opioid receptor availability in major depressive disorder (MDD) volunteers. Combined with the evidence in animal models, we hypothesized that experimental mood induction would change IL-18, the extent proportional to opioid neurotransmitter release. Using the Velten technique in a [(11)C]carfentanil positron emission tomography neuroimaging study, we examined the impact of experimentally induced mood (sad, neutral) on plasma IL-18 and relationships with concurrent changes in the central opioid neurotransmission in 28 volunteers (healthy, MDD). Results showed mood induction impacted IL-18 (F2,25=12.2, P<0.001), sadness increasing IL-18 (T27=2.6, P=0.01) and neutral mood reducing IL-18 (T27=-4.1, P<0.001). In depressed volunteers, changes in IL-18 were more pronounced (F2,25=3.6, P=0.03) and linearly proportional to sadness-induced μ-opioid activation (left ventral pallidum, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, right hypothalamus and bilateral amygdala). These data demonstrate that dynamic changes of a pro-inflammatory IL-1 superfamily cytokine, IL-18, and its relationship to μ-opioid neurotransmission in response to experimentally induced sadness. Further testing is warranted to delineate the role of neuroimmune interactions involving IL-18 in enhancing susceptibility to medical illness (that is, diabetes, heart disease and persistent pain states) in depressed individuals.

  5. Acute experimental changes in mood state regulate immune function in relation to central opioid neurotransmission: a model of human CNS-peripheral inflammatory interaction

    PubMed Central

    Prossin, A R; Koch, A E; Campbell, P L; Barichello, T; Zalcman, S S; Zubieta, J-K

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence shows depressed moods enhance risk for somatic diseases, molecular mechanisms underlying enhanced somatic susceptibility are ill-defined. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms will inform development of treatment and prevention strategies across comorbid depressive and somatic illnesses. Existing evidence suggests that interleukin-18 (IL-18; an IL-1 family cytokine) is elevated in depression and implicated in pathophysiology underlying comorbid medical illnesses. We previously identified strong associations between baseline IL-18 and μ-opioid receptor availability in major depressive disorder (MDD) volunteers. Combined with the evidence in animal models, we hypothesized that experimental mood induction would change IL-18, the extent proportional to opioid neurotransmitter release. Using the Velten technique in a [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography neuroimaging study, we examined the impact of experimentally induced mood (sad, neutral) on plasma IL-18 and relationships with concurrent changes in the central opioid neurotransmission in 28 volunteers (healthy, MDD). Results showed mood induction impacted IL-18 (F2,25=12.2, P<0.001), sadness increasing IL-18 (T27=2.6, P=0.01) and neutral mood reducing IL-18 (T27=−4.1, P<0.001). In depressed volunteers, changes in IL-18 were more pronounced (F2,25=3.6, P=0.03) and linearly proportional to sadness-induced μ-opioid activation (left ventral pallidum, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, right hypothalamus and bilateral amygdala). These data demonstrate that dynamic changes of a pro-inflammatory IL-1 superfamily cytokine, IL-18, and its relationship to μ-opioid neurotransmission in response to experimentally induced sadness. Further testing is warranted to delineate the role of neuroimmune interactions involving IL-18 in enhancing susceptibility to medical illness (that is, diabetes, heart disease and persistent pain states) in depressed individuals. PMID:26283642

  6. Assessing Trends in Chlamydia Positivity and Gonorrhea Incidence and Their Associations With the Incidence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Washington State, 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Moore, Miranda S; Golden, Matthew R; Scholes, Delia; Kerani, Roxanne P

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening for women is beneficial if it prevents serious reproductive sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ectopic pregnancy (EP). We assessed trends in PID and EP among women in Washington and their association with gonorrhea incidence and chlamydia positivity in a screened population of women over a 23 year period. Using data on chlamydia positivity from the Infertility Prevention Project, gonorrhea incidence from state surveillance, and PID and EP hospitalizations from hospital discharge records, we assessed trends in each condition over time. In addition, we estimated total incidence of PID and EP by incorporating information on outpatient-treated cases in alternative populations using a Bayesian approach that accounted for uncertainty in the estimates. We assessed associations between each infection and PID/EP using a linear regression model that accounts for year-to-year correlation in data points. We observed substantial declines in both infections and in each outcome over time. For every 2% decrease in chlamydia positivity, there was a 35.7/100,000 decrease in estimated total PID incidence (P = 0.058) and 184.4/100,000 decrease in estimated total EP (P = 0.149). For every 32/100,000 decline in gonorrhea incidence, there was a 16.5/100,000 decrease in total PID (P = 0.292) and 159.8/100,000 decrease in total EP (P = 0.020). The associations with inpatient PID and EP were highly significant for both chlamydia and gonorrhea. These ecological data note concurrent and substantial declines in chlamydia positivity and gonorrhea incidence, and in PID and EP incidence in Washington from 1988 to 2010 during a time when widespread chlamydia screening was ongoing.

  7. Inflammatory response and blood hypercoagulable state induced by low level co-exposure with silica nanoparticles and benzo[a]pyrene in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Duan, Junchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Yang; Wang, Yapei; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-05-01

    Given the severe situation of world-wide particulate matter air pollution, it is urgent to explore the combined effects of particulate matter components on cardiovascular system. Using zebrafish model, this study was aimed to determine whether the low level co-exposure to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) had a pronounced cardiovascular toxicity than the single exposure to either SiNPs or B[a]P alone. The FTIR and TGA analysis showed that the co-exposure system possessed of high absorption and thermal stability. Embryos exposed to SiNPs or B[a]P alone did not show cardiac toxicity phenotype at the NOAEL level. However, embryos co-exposed to SiNPs and B[a]P exhibited pericardial edema and bradycardia. While ROS generation remained unaffected, the co-exposure induced significant neutrophil-mediated inflammation and caused erythrocyte aggregation in caudal vein of embryos. Microarray analysis and STC analysis were performed to screen the cardiovascular-related differential expression genes and the expression trend of genes in each group. The co-exposure of SiNPs and B[a]P significantly enhanced the expression of proinflammatory and procoagulant genes. Moreover, the co-exposure markedly increased the phosphorylated AP-1/c-Jun and induced TF expression, but not NF-κB p65. This study for the first time demonstrated the inflammatory response and blood hypercoagulable state were triggered by the combination of SiNPs and B[a]P at low level exposure.

  8. Signature of a continuous quantum phase transition in non-equilibrium energy absorption: Footprints of criticality on higher excited states.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sirshendu; Dasgupta, Subinay; Das, Arnab

    2015-11-16

    Understanding phase transitions in quantum matters constitutes a significant part of present day condensed matter physics. Quantum phase transitions concern ground state properties of many-body systems, and hence their signatures are expected to be pronounced in low-energy states. Here we report signature of a quantum critical point manifested in strongly out-of-equilibrium states with finite energy density with respect to the ground state and extensive (subsystem) entanglement entropy, generated by an external pulse. These non-equilibrium states are evidently completely disordered (e.g., paramagnetic in case of a magnetic ordering transition). The pulse is applied by switching a coupling of the Hamiltonian from an initial value (λI) to a final value (λF) for sufficiently long time and back again. The signature appears as non-analyticities (kinks) in the energy absorbed by the system from the pulse as a function of λF at critical-points (i.e., at values of λF corresponding to static critical-points of the system). As one excites higher and higher eigenstates of the final Hamiltonian H(λF) by increasing the pulse height (|λF - λI|), the non-analyticity grows stronger monotonically with it. This implies adding contributions from higher eigenstates help magnifying the non-analyticity, indicating strong imprint of the critical-point on them. Our findings are grounded on exact analytical results derived for Ising and XY chains in transverse field.

  9. Signature of a continuous quantum phase transition in non-equilibrium energy absorption: Footprints of criticality on higher excited states

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sirshendu; Dasgupta, Subinay; Das, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Understanding phase transitions in quantum matters constitutes a significant part of present day condensed matter physics. Quantum phase transitions concern ground state properties of many-body systems, and hence their signatures are expected to be pronounced in low-energy states. Here we report signature of a quantum critical point manifested in strongly out-of-equilibrium states with finite energy density with respect to the ground state and extensive (subsystem) entanglement entropy, generated by an external pulse. These non-equilibrium states are evidently completely disordered (e.g., paramagnetic in case of a magnetic ordering transition). The pulse is applied by switching a coupling of the Hamiltonian from an initial value (λI) to a final value (λF) for sufficiently long time and back again. The signature appears as non-analyticities (kinks) in the energy absorbed by the system from the pulse as a function of λF at critical-points (i.e., at values of λF corresponding to static critical-points of the system). As one excites higher and higher eigenstates of the final Hamiltonian H(λF) by increasing the pulse height , the non-analyticity grows stronger monotonically with it. This implies adding contributions from higher eigenstates help magnifying the non-analyticity, indicating strong imprint of the critical-point on them. Our findings are grounded on exact analytical results derived for Ising and XY chains in transverse field. PMID:26568306

  10. Variability of distributions of well-scale estimated ultimate recovery for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey has completed assessments of continuous (unconventional) resources in the United States based on geologic studies and analysis of well-production data. This publication uses those 132 continuous oil and gas assessments to show the variability of well productivity within and among the 132 areas. The production from the most productive wells in an area commonly is more than 100 times larger than that from the poorest productive wells. The 132 assessment units were classified into four categories: shale gas, coalbed gas, tight gas, and continuous oil. For each category, the mean well productivity in the most productive assessment units is considerably greater than that of the least productive assessment units.

  11. Running Head: Texas State Children’s Health Insurance Program. Proposed Solutions for the Continuance of the Texas State Children’s Health Insurance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    study, etc. and address of the organization(s) financially responsible for and monitoring the work. 3. DATES COVERED. Indicate the time during...the ease of financial support from the state to providers. The more money collected by a provider would directly translate into less money the state...treatment services; • Rehabilitation services (including physical, occupational, and speech therapy, and developmental assessments); • Hospice care

  12. Generation and replication of continuous-variable quadripartite cluster and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in four chains of superconducting transmission line resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Ma, Sheng-li; Yang, Zhi-peng; Fang, Ai-ping; Li, Pen-bo; Gao, Shao-yan; Li, Fu-li

    2016-04-01

    We consider a system consisting of four independent chains of coupled single-mode superconducting transmission line resonators and a gap-tunable qubit. When the first four resonators of the chains are coupled to the qubit properly driven by multicolor fields, we show that the resonators can be prepared in continuous-variable quadripartite cluster states via the decay of the qubit to its ground state. Moreover, the resulting cluster states can be replicated in the other resonators in column via the nearest-neighbor swapping interaction of the resonators. This means that one can generate a set of cluster states, each of which involves the four resonators from the different chains. By a similar protocol, we show that the generation and replication of continuous-variable quadripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in the chains of the resonators can be achieved. The numerical simulation shows that the present scheme is realizable in current accessible on-chip quantum circuit experiments. The present result may have a potential application for the realization of a large-scale one-way quantum computation.

  13. Solving Faddeev equations for a bound state and a continuous spectrum of a three-nucleon system by the method of K-harmonic expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalchuk, V. I.; Kozlovsky, I. V.; Tartakovsky, V. K.

    2011-05-15

    A method for solving Faddeev equations in configuration space for a bound state and a continuous spectrum of the system of three nucleons was developed on the basis of expansions in K harmonics. Coulomb interaction and particle spins were not taken into account in this study. The method in question was used to describe the triton bound state and differential cross sections for neutron-deuteron scattering at subthreshold incident-neutron energies. The Volkov, Malfliet-Tjon, and Eikemeier-Hackenbroich local nucleon-nucleon potentials were employed in the present calculations.

  14. Inflammatory glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Sonam A.; Kumar, Vasu; Raina, Usha K.; Ghosh, B.; Thakar, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is seen in about 20% of the patients with uveitis. Anterior uveitis may be acute, subacute, or chronic. The mechanisms by which iridocyclitis leads to obstruction of aqueous outflow include acute, usually reversible forms (e.g., accumulation of inflammatory elements in the intertrabecular spaces, edema of the trabecular lamellae, or angle closure due to ciliary body swelling) and chronic forms (e.g., scar formation or membrane overgrowth in the anterior chamber angle). Careful history and follow-up helps distinguish steroid-induced glaucoma from uveitic glaucoma. Treatment of combined iridocyclitis and glaucoma involves steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and antiglaucoma drugs. However, glaucoma drugs can often have an unpredictable effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) in the setting of uveitis. Surgical intervention is required in case of medical failure. Method of Literature Search: Literature on the Medline database was searched using the PubMed interface. PMID:21713239

  15. The Effects of Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in United States Air Force Personnel: A Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effects of Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in United States Air Force ... Force (USAF) physical fitness testing components. Thirty trained male (n=15) and female (n=15) USAF subjects volunteered and were sequentially...run), and (3) traditional USAF physical training (PT) according to Air Force Instruction 36-2905. The following measurements were made before and

  16. Direct observation of DME carbonylation in the different channels of H-MOR zeolite by continuous-flow solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Ren, Pengju; Liu, Xianchun; Xu, Shutao; Han, Xiuwen; Bao, Xinhe

    2015-12-07

    The dynamic evolution of acetyl intermediates in the two different channels of H-mordenite (H-MOR) zeolite during dimethyl ether (DME) carbonylation is tracked by using in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy under continuous-flow conditions. Thus, the reaction path via methyl acetate produced over active sites in 8 member ring (MR) channels, followed by diffusion into 12 MR channels, is proposed.

  17. Indian Tribes: A Continuing Quest for Survival. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Bonnie, Ed.

    Based on Commission public hearings held in 1977 through 1979 and on research conducted since 1977, this report examines state, federal, and tribal governments' role in major conflicts concerning fishing rights, reservation criminal law enforcement, and Eastern Indian land claims existing between Indian tribes and non-Indians. Chapter 1 discusses…

  18. High-power, continuous-wave, solid-state, single-frequency, tunable source for the ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Aadhi, A; Apurv Chaitanya, N; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2014-06-15

    We report the development of a compact, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, ultraviolet (UV) source with extended wavelength tunability. The device is based on single-pass, intracavity, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of the signal radiation of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) working in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. The SRO is pumped in the green with a 25-mm-long, multigrating, MgO doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) as nonlinear crystal. Using three grating periods, 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5 μm of the MgO:sPPLT crystal and a single set of cavity mirrors, the SRO can be tuned continuously across 710.7-836.3 nm in the signal and corresponding idler across 2115.8-1462.1 nm with maximum idler power of 1.9 W and maximum out-coupled signal power of 254 mW. By frequency-doubling the intracavity signal with a 5-mm-long bismuth borate (BIBO) crystal, we can further tune the SRO continuously over 62.8 nm across 355.4-418.2 nm in the UV with maximum single-frequency UV power, as much as 770 mW at 398.28 nm in a Gaussian beam profile. The UV radiation has an instantaneous line-width of ∼14.5  MHz and peak-peak frequency stability of 151 MHz over 100 s. More than 95% of the tuning range provides UV power >260  mW. Access to lower UV wavelengths can in principle be realized by operating the SRO in the visible using shorter grating periods.

  19. Continuous detection of the self-initiated walking pre-movement state from EEG correlates without session-to-session recalibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Montesano, Luis; Minguez, Javier

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as a rehabilitation tool have been used to restore functions in patients with motor impairments by actively involving the central nervous system and triggering prosthetic devices according to the detected pre-movement state. However, since EEG signals are highly variable between subjects and recording sessions, typically a BCI is calibrated at the beginning of each session. This process is inconvenient especially for patients suffering locomotor disabilities in maintaining a bipedal position for a longer time. This paper presents a continuous EEG decoder of a pre-movement state in self-initiated walking and the usage of this decoder from session to session without recalibrating. Approach. Ten healthy subjects performed a self-initiated walking task during three sessions, with an intersession interval of one week. The implementation of our continuous decoder is based on the combination of movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) and event-related desynchronization (ERD) features with sparse classification models. Main results. During intrasession our technique detects the pre-movement state with 70% accuracy. Moreover this decoder can be applied from session to session without recalibration, with a decrease in performance of about 4% on a one- or two-week intersession interval. Significance. Our detection model operates in a continuous manner, which makes it a straightforward asset for rehabilitation scenarios. By using both temporal and spectral information we attained higher detection rates than the ones obtained with the MRCP and ERD detection models, both during the intrasession and intersession conditions.

  20. Comparison of Functional Connectivity Estimated from Concatenated Task-State Data from Block-Design Paradigm with That of Continuous Task

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang; Cheng, Lin; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Tong, Shanbao

    2017-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) analysis with data collected as continuous tasks and activation analysis using data from block-design paradigms are two main methods to investigate the task-induced brain activation. If the concatenated data of task blocks extracted from the block-design paradigm could provide equivalent FC information to that derived from continuous task data, it would shorten the data collection time and simplify experimental procedures, and the already collected data of block-design paradigms could be reanalyzed from the perspective of FC. Despite being used in many studies, such a hypothesis of equivalence has not yet been tested from multiple perspectives. In this study, we collected fMRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals from 24 healthy subjects during a continuous task session as well as in block-design task sessions. We compared concatenated task blocks and continuous task data in terms of region of interest- (ROI-) based FC, seed-based FC, and brain network topology during a short motor task. According to our results, the concatenated data was not significantly different from the continuous data in multiple aspects, indicating the potential of using concatenated data to estimate task-state FC in short motor tasks. However, even under appropriate experimental conditions, the interpretation of FC results based on concatenated data should be cautious and take the influence due to inherent information loss during concatenation into account. PMID:28191030

  1. Comparison of Functional Connectivity Estimated from Concatenated Task-State Data from Block-Design Paradigm with That of Continuous Task.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Cheng, Lin; He, Naying; Yang, Yang; Ling, Huawei; Ayaz, Hasan; Tong, Shanbao; Sun, Junfeng; Fu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) analysis with data collected as continuous tasks and activation analysis using data from block-design paradigms are two main methods to investigate the task-induced brain activation. If the concatenated data of task blocks extracted from the block-design paradigm could provide equivalent FC information to that derived from continuous task data, it would shorten the data collection time and simplify experimental procedures, and the already collected data of block-design paradigms could be reanalyzed from the perspective of FC. Despite being used in many studies, such a hypothesis of equivalence has not yet been tested from multiple perspectives. In this study, we collected fMRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals from 24 healthy subjects during a continuous task session as well as in block-design task sessions. We compared concatenated task blocks and continuous task data in terms of region of interest- (ROI-) based FC, seed-based FC, and brain network topology during a short motor task. According to our results, the concatenated data was not significantly different from the continuous data in multiple aspects, indicating the potential of using concatenated data to estimate task-state FC in short motor tasks. However, even under appropriate experimental conditions, the interpretation of FC results based on concatenated data should be cautious and take the influence due to inherent information loss during concatenation into account.

  2. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-03-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0-6.5) Gg CCl4 y-1 during 2008-2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y-1) but only 8% (3-22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008-2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach).

  3. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A; Miller, Ben R; Andrews, Arlyn E; Miller, John B; Lehman, Scott J; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L; Blake, Donald R; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L; Mountain, Marikate E; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C; Moore, Fred L; Tans, Pieter

    2016-03-15

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0-6.5) Gg CCl4 y(-1) during 2008-2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y(-1)) but only 8% (3-22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008-2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach).

  4. A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, D. D.; Ma, Siyan; Cook, David R.; Oren, Ram; Katul, G. G.; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-03-01

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these

  5. Effect of modern surgical treatment on the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Binar, M; Akcam, T M; Karakoc, O; Sagkan, R I; Musabak, U; Gerek, M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance - T helper 1/T helper 2 ratios - in obstructive sleep apnoea patients, before and after treatment. Twenty-eight patients received continuous positive airway pressure treatment and 29 patients who could not tolerate continuous positive airway pressure were scheduled for surgery. Serum levels of interleukins 2, 4 and 10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon gamma were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays before and three months after treatment. The success rate of surgical treatment was 65.5 per cent. Mean compliance for the continuous positive airway pressure group was 40.9 per cent. The apnoea/hypopnoea index significantly decreased in both groups after treatment (p < 0.001). The interferon gamma/interleukin-4 ratio decreased following surgical treatment (p = 0.014), and the interleukin-2/interleukin-4 ratio decreased after treatment in 57 patients in the overall cohort (p = 0.032). After treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea, some ratios reflecting T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine balance favoured the T helper 2 direction, suggesting a shift to an anti-inflammatory state. Successful surgery and better continuous positive airway pressure compliance can help ameliorate inflammation in obstructive sleep apnoea patients, which may reduce associated morbidities.

  6. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (For Children)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be caused by a defect in the body's immune system . continue What Are the Symptoms of IBD? Inflammatory bowel disease can cause symptoms that range from mild to severe. Symptoms can include: diarrhea that happens again and again, with or without ...

  7. Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lei; Montzka, Stephen A.; Miller, Ben R.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Miller, John B.; Lehman, Scott J.; Sweeney, Colm; Miller, Scot M.; Thoning, Kirk; Siso, Carolina; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; de Gouw, Joost; Gilman, Jessica B.; Dutton, Geoff; Elkins, James W.; Hall, Bradley; Chen, Huilin; Fischer, Marc L.; Mountain, Marikate E.; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Moore, Fred L.; Tans, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    National-scale emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are derived based on inverse modeling of atmospheric observations at multiple sites across the United States from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s flask air sampling network. We estimate an annual average US emission of 4.0 (2.0–6.5) Gg CCl4 y−1 during 2008–2012, which is almost two orders of magnitude larger than reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) (mean of 0.06 Gg y−1) but only 8% (3–22%) of global CCl4 emissions during these years. Emissive regions identified by the observations and consistently shown in all inversion results include the Gulf Coast states, the San Francisco Bay Area in California, and the Denver area in Colorado. Both the observation-derived emissions and the US EPA TRI identified Texas and Louisiana as the largest contributors, accounting for one- to two-thirds of the US national total CCl4 emission during 2008–2012. These results are qualitatively consistent with multiple aircraft and ship surveys conducted in earlier years, which suggested significant enhancements in atmospheric mole fractions measured near Houston and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the emission distribution derived for CCl4 throughout the United States is more consistent with the distribution of industrial activities included in the TRI than with the distribution of other potential CCl4 sources such as uncapped landfills or activities related to population density (e.g., use of chlorine-containing bleach). PMID:26929368

  8. A Continuing Blazar Monitoring Campaign at Radio Wavelengths with the Morehead State University 21-Meter Space Tracking Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas; Grimes, C. K.; Tussey, J. M.; Goff, E. J.; Fite, N. D.; Cahall, B. J.

    2011-05-01

    The Morehead State University 21-Meter Space Tracking Antenna is a particularly unique scientific instrument for pursuing undergraduate research in astrophysics. Current research projects in the radio continuum include pointed observations of Galactic supernova remnants and blazars. In the latter case, undergraduate students and faculty have routinely conducted observations of such well-known blazars as BL Lac, CTA 102 and 3C 454.3: in addition, observations of other blazars detected in outburst at other wavelengths (such as the gamma-ray) have also been observed. We present the results of these observations and an initial analysis of the light curves generated by our observations.

  9. The levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in individuals occupationally exposed to municipal solid waste in Ogun State, South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ebesunu, Maria O; Ekor, Martins

    2013-10-01

    Airway inflammation and related respiratory complaints are common symptoms among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the relationship between exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) and the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress among WMW of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. A total of 280 subjects consisting of 180 WMW and 100 controls were recruited. Ten millilitres of blood were collected from antecubital vein of the subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to MSW is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant (p < 0.001) elevation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and C-reactive protein was associated with marked decreases in superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.001), and glutathione (p < 0.05) and significant (p < 0.001) increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and uric acid when compared with control. Haematological disorders include significant (p < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume and significant (p < 0.01) increase in total leucocyte count. Apart from decreased albumin (p < 0.05) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.05) activity observed in WMW, other markers of hepatic (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides) and renal (urea and creatinine) functions did not change significantly (p > 0.05) when compared with the control. A positive correlation between leucocytes (r = 0.195, p < 0.01), Cp (r = 0.210, p < 0.01) and job duration and between Cp and MDA (r = 0.200, p < 0.01) and Cp and leucocytes (r = 0.260, p < 0.001) were observed in WMW. Overall, exposure to MSW predisposes to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and Cp may be a useful biomarker for monitoring health status of Nigerian WMWs.

  10. L-carnitine and cancer cachexia. II. Effects of lipid emulsion used in total parenteral nutrition on parameters of hemostasis and inflammatory state in L-carnitine deficiency in myocytes.

    PubMed

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Ciesielski, Maciej; Szajewski, Mariusz; Kawecki, Krzysztof; Jankun, Jerzy; Lysiak-Szydłowska, Wiesława

    2012-07-01

    Cancer cachexia (CC), a progressive loss of body mass, leads to malnutrition and deficiencies of essential substances including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and L-carnitine (LC). The availability of these 2 compounds determines the rate of eicosanoid synthesis, which modulates inflammatory processes and hemostasis. We compared the effects of administration of emulsions containing long chain triglycerides (LCTs) relative to a 50:50 mix of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) with LCTs on hemostasis and inflammatory reactions in patients with CC. The study was conducted on 50 patients with CC (23 women, 27 men) aged 66 ± 11 years with a mean loss in body weight of 21 ± 9% in the previous 6 months. Twenty patients received MCTs/LCTs while 30 received LCTs. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was administered using the 'all in one' method (25 kcal/kg/day, protein 1.2 g/kg/day). Selected parameters of coagulation and inflammatory state were evaluated on days 1, 5, 7 and 11 of TPN. Initial concentrations of D-dimers, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), fibronectin, CRP and IL-6 significantly exceeded the upper limit of the reference values. After 10 days of TPN, we detected significant differences in inflammatory state and hemostasis. Immunological state and hemostasis varied depending on the type of fat emulsion administered. The most likely reasons are the 2-fold higher concentrations of PUFAs in LCTs relative to MCTs/LCTs and a deficiency of LC in skeletal muscles. Both of these factors may contribute to the observed increase in the rate of eicosanoid synthesis.

  11. A scalable algorithm to order and annotate continuous observations reveals the metastable states visited by dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöchliger, Nicolas; Vitalis, Andreas; Caflisch, Amedeo

    2013-11-01

    Advances in IT infrastructure have enabled the generation and storage of very large data sets describing complex systems continuously in time. These can derive from both simulations and measurements. Analysis of such data requires the availability of scalable algorithms. In this contribution, we propose a scalable algorithm that partitions instantaneous observations (snapshots) of a complex system into kinetically distinct sets (termed basins). To do so, we use a combination of ordering snapshots employing the method's only essential parameter, i.e., a definition of pairwise distance, and annotating the resultant sequence, the so-called progress index, in different ways. Specifically, we propose a combination of cut-based and structural annotations with the former responsible for the kinetic grouping and the latter for diagnostics and interpretation. The method is applied to an illustrative test case, and the scaling of an approximate version is demonstrated to be O(NlogN) with N being the number of snapshots. Two real-world data sets from river hydrology measurements and protein folding simulations are then used to highlight the utility of the method in finding basins for complex systems. Both limitations and benefits of the approach are discussed along with routes for future research.

  12. On the description of conical intersections—A continuous representation of the local topography of seams of conical intersection of three or more electronic states: A generalization of the two state result

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaolei Yarkony, David R.

    2014-11-07

    For conical intersections of two states (I,J = I + 1) the vectors defining the branching or g-h plane, the energy difference gradient vector g{sup I,J}, and the interstate coupling vector h{sup I,J}, can be made orthogonal by a one parameter rotation of the degenerate electronic eigenstates. The representation obtained from this rotation is used to construct the parameters that describe the vicinity of the conical intersection seam, the conical parameters, s{sup I,J}{sub x} (R), s{sup I,J}{sub y} (R), g{sup I,J}(R), and h{sup I,J}(R). As a result of the orthogonalization these parameters can be made continuous functions of R, the internuclear coordinates. In this work we generalize this notion to construct continuous parametrizations of conical intersection seams of three or more states. The generalization derives from a recently introduced procedure for using non-degenerate electronic states to construct coupled diabatic states that represent adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections. The procedure is illustrated using the seam of conical intersections of three states in parazolyl as an example.

  13. On the description of conical intersections--a continuous representation of the local topography of seams of conical intersection of three or more electronic states: a generalization of the two state result.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R

    2014-11-07

    For conical intersections of two states (I,J = I + 1) the vectors defining the branching or g-h plane, the energy difference gradient vector g(I,J), and the interstate coupling vector h(I,J), can be made orthogonal by a one parameter rotation of the degenerate electronic eigenstates. The representation obtained from this rotation is used to construct the parameters that describe the vicinity of the conical intersection seam, the conical parameters, s(x)(I,J)(R), s(y)(I,J)(R), g(I,J)(R), and h(I,J)(R). As a result of the orthogonalization these parameters can be made continuous functions of R, the internuclear coordinates. In this work we generalize this notion to construct continuous parametrizations of conical intersection seams of three or more states. The generalization derives from a recently introduced procedure for using non-degenerate electronic states to construct coupled diabatic states that represent adiabatic states coupled by conical intersections. The procedure is illustrated using the seam of conical intersections of three states in parazolyl as an example.

  14. A Continuing Campaign of Radio Monitoring Observations of Blazars with the Morehead State University 21-Meter Space Tracking Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Caleb; Fite, N. D.; Spence, A. C.; Pannuti, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present the latest results from our on-going campaign of radio monitoring observations of radio-loud blazars with the Morehead State University 21-Meter Space Tracking Antenna (STA). With its medium aperture and location in a radio-quiet rural environment, the STA is a unique research instrument suitable for undergraduate research projects in radio astrophysics. One project which lends itself easily to participation by undergraduate students is monitoring observations of radio-loud blazars: with this goal in mind, we have been conducting such observations at the frequencies of KU band and L-band of a sample of approximately five radio-loud blazars. We illustrate this work with a discussion of our observations made of the blazar 3C 454.3 during the 2009 calendar year: initial results will be presented and discussed.

  15. Solid state active/passive night vision imager using continuous-wave laser diodes and silicon focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

    2013-04-01

    Passive imaging offers covertness and low power, while active imaging provides longer range target acquisition without the need for natural or external illumination. This paper describes a focal plane array (FPA) concept that has the low noise needed for state-of-the-art passive imaging and the high-speed gating needed for active imaging. The FPA is used with highly efficient but low-peak-power laser diodes to create a night vision imager that has the size, weight, and power attributes suitable for man-portable applications. Video output is provided in both the active and passive modes. In addition, the active mode is Class 1 eye safe and is not visible to the naked eye or to night vision goggles.

  16. Numerical continuation of bound and resonant states of the two-channel Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłosiewicz, P.; Vanroose, W.; Broeckhove, J.

    2012-01-01

    Resonant solutions of the quantum Schrödinger equation occur at complex energies where the S matrix becomes singular. Knowledge of such resonances is important in the study of the underlying physical system. Often the Schrödinger equation depends on some parameter and one is interested in following the path of the resonances in the complex energy plane as the parameter changes. This is particularly true in coupled-channel systems where the resonant behavior is highly influenced by the strength of the channel coupling, the energy separation of the channels, and other factors. In previous work it was shown that numerical continuation, a technique familiar in the study of dynamical systems, can be brought to bear on the problem of following the resonance path in one-dimensional problems [J. Broeckhove, P. Klosiewicz, and W. Vanroose, J. Comput. Appl. Math.JCAMDI0377-042710.1016/j.cam.2009.07.054 234, 1238 (2010).] and multichannel problems without energy separation between the channels [P. Kłosiewicz, J. Broeckhove, and W. Vanroose, Commun. Comput. Phys.1815-240610.4208/cicp.121209.050111s 11, 435 (2012).]. A regularization can be defined that eliminates coalescing poles and zeros that appear in the S matrix at the origin due to symmetries. Following the zeros of this regularized function then traces the resonance path. In this work we show that this approach can be extended to channels with energy separation, albeit limited to two channels. The issue here is that the energy separation introduces branch cuts in the complex energy domain that need to be eliminated with a so-called uniformization. We demonstrate that the resulting approach is suitable for investigating resonances in two-channel systems and provide an extensive example.

  17. Quantum theory of optical temporal phase and instantaneous frequency. II. Continuous-time limit and state-variable approach to phase-locked loop design

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Mankei; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Lloyd, Seth

    2009-05-15

    We consider the continuous-time version of our recently proposed quantum theory of optical temporal phase and instantaneous frequency [M. Tsang et al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 053820 (2008)]. Using a state-variable approach to estimation, we design homodyne phase-locked loops that can measure the temporal phase with quantum-limited accuracy. We show that postprocessing can further improve the estimation performance if delay is allowed in the estimation. We also investigate the fundamental uncertainties in the simultaneous estimation of harmonic-oscillator position and momentum via continuous optical phase measurements from the classical estimation theory perspective. In the case of delayed estimation, we find that the inferred uncertainty product can drop below that allowed by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Although this result seems counterintuitive, we argue that it does not violate any basic principle of quantum mechanics.

  18. Semi-Continuous Measurement of PM2.5 Ionic Composition at Several Rural Locations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2008-09-01

    To improve understanding of the nature and variability of the ionic fraction of atmospheric fine aerosol particles in non-urban environments, one to two month measurement campaigns were conducted at several rural locations in the United States. Study sites included Yosemite National Park (NP) (July – September 2002), Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon NP, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains NP, Tennessee (July/August 2004). PM2.5 ion composition was measured at 15-minute intervals using a Particle Into Liquid Sampler (PILS) coupled to two ion chromatographs. Comparison of PILS measurements with parallel traditional 24-hr denuder/filter-pack measurements reveal generally good agreement between the two techniques, although PILS measurements of PM2.5 NH4+ appear to be biased slightly low. High-time resolution aerosol concentration measurements provide much better estimates of the range of aerosol concentration levels experienced at these rural locations. Ratios of peak 15-min to 24-hr nitrate concentrations, for example, ranged from 1.7 at Brigantine NWR to 7.0 at the Great Smoky Mountains NP. A strong influence of diurnal upslope/downslope transport patterns was observed on aerosol concentrations at several locations, including Yosemite NP, San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, and Great Smoky Mountains NP, with peak concentrations typically occurring during afternoon upslope transport. High time resolution aerosol composition measurements also provide new insight into relationships between individual aerosol species and the influence of environmental conditions on aerosol composition. Observations at several locations revealed important information about mechanisms of particle nitrate formation. At Yosemite and Grand Canyon NPs, for example, evidence was observed for reaction of nitric acid or its precursors with

  19. Semi-continuous measurement of PM 2.5 ionic composition at several rural locations in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyoung; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    To improve understanding of the nature and variability of the ionic fraction of atmospheric fine aerosol particles in non-urban environments, one to two month measurement campaigns were conducted at several rural locations in the United States. Study sites included Yosemite National Park (NP) (July-September 2002), Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, California (April and July 2003), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May 2003), Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee (July/August 2004). PM 2.5 ion composition was measured at 15 min intervals using a Particle-Into-Liquid-Sampler (PILS) coupled to two ion chromatographs. Comparisons of PILS measurements with parallel traditional 24 h denuder/filter-pack measurements reveal generally good agreement between the two techniques for major species, although PILS measurements of PM 2.5 NH 4+ are biased low by approximately 4-20%. High time resolution PILS aerosol concentration measurements provide better estimates of the range of aerosol concentrations at the rural locations than the 24 h integrated filter data. Ratios of peak 15 min to 24 h nitrate concentrations, for example, ranged from 1.7 at Brigantine NWR to 7.0 at Great Smoky Mountains NP. A strong influence of diurnal upslope/downslope transport patterns was observed on aerosol concentrations at several locations, including Yosemite NP, San Gorgonio Wilderness Area, and Great Smoky Mountains NP, with peak concentrations typically occurring during afternoon upslope transport. High time resolution aerosol composition measurements also provide new insight into relationships between individual aerosol species and the influence of environmental conditions on aerosol composition. Observations at several locations revealed important information about mechanisms of particle nitrate formation. At Yosemite and Grand Canyon National Parks, for example, evidence

  20. Continual Decrease in Blood Lead Level in Americans: United States National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2014.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Man-Fung; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2016-11-01

    Lead is toxic and affects neurodevelopment in children even at low levels. There has been a long-term effort in the United States to reduce exposure to lead in the environment. We studied the latest US population blood lead levels and analyzed its trend. Blood lead levels in 63,890 participants of the National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2014 were analyzed using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Mean blood lead levels and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.65 μg/dL (1.62-1.68), 1.44 μg/dL (1.42-1.47), 1.43 μg/dL (1.40-1.45), 1.29 μg/dL (1.27-1.32), 1.27 μg/dL (1.25-1.29), 1.12 μg/dL (1.10-1.14), 0.97 μg/dL (0.95-0.99), and 0.84 μg/dL (0.82-0.86) in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, respectively. Blood lead levels decreased significantly (P <.001), and the trend remained significant when stratified by age, gender, ethnicity, and pregnancy status (P <.05). Estimated percentages of children with blood lead level ≥5 μg/dL were 9.9% (95% CI, 7.5-12.9), 7.4% (95% CI, 5.9-9.4), 5.3% (95% CI, 4.1-6.9), 2.9% (95% CI, 2.1-3.9), 3.1% (95% CI, 2.0-4.8), 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5-3.1), 2.0% (95% CI, 1.0-3.6), and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.3-1.0) in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, respectively. The decreasing trend was significant (P <.05). In children aged 1 to 5 years in the National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 2011-2014, the estimated 97.5 percentile of blood lead level was 3.48 μg/dL. Blood lead levels have been decreasing in the US population. The reference level also should decrease. It is still important to monitor blood lead levels in the population, especially among pregnant women and children aged 1 to 5 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Lopez, Davin L; Shelton, Paul

    2012-09-01

    One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns.

  2. The walk is never random: subtle landscape effects shape gene flow in a continuous white-tailed deer population in the Midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Stacie J.; Samuel, Michael D.; Lopez, Davin L.; Shelton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    One of the pervasive challenges in landscape genetics is detecting gene flow patterns within continuous populations of highly mobile wildlife. Understanding population genetic structure within a continuous population can give insights into social structure, movement across the landscape and contact between populations, which influence ecological interactions, reproductive dynamics or pathogen transmission. We investigated the genetic structure of a large population of deer spanning the area of Wisconsin and Illinois, USA, affected by chronic wasting disease. We combined multiscale investigation, landscape genetic techniques and spatial statistical modelling to address the complex questions of landscape factors influencing population structure. We sampled over 2000 deer and used spatial autocorrelation and a spatial principal components analysis to describe the population genetic structure. We evaluated landscape effects on this pattern using a spatial autoregressive model within a model selection framework to test alternative hypotheses about gene flow. We found high levels of genetic connectivity, with gradients of variation across the large continuous population of white-tailed deer. At the fine scale, spatial clustering of related animals was correlated with the amount and arrangement of forested habitat. At the broader scale, impediments to dispersal were important to shaping genetic connectivity within the population. We found significant barrier effects of individual state and interstate highways and rivers. Our results offer an important understanding of deer biology and movement that will help inform the management of this species in an area where overabundance and disease spread are primary concerns.

  3. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution based on a plug-and-play dual-phase-modulated coherent-states protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Wang, Tao; Li, Huasheng; Zhou, Yingming; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-09-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) protocol using dual-phase-modulated coherent states. We show that the modulation scheme of our protocol works equivalently to that of the Gaussian-modulated coherent-states (GMCS) protocol, but shows better experimental feasibility in the plug-and-play configuration. Besides, it waives the necessity of propagation of a local oscillator (LO) between legitimate users and generates a real local LO for quantum measurement. Our protocol is proposed independent of the one-way GMCS QKD without sending a LO [Opt. Lett. 40, 3695 (2015), 10.1364/OL.40.003695; Phys. Rev. X 5, 041009 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041009; Phys. Rev. X 5, 041010 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041010]. In those recent works, the system stability will suffer the impact of polarization drifts induced by environmental perturbations, and two independent frequency-locked laser sources are necessary to achieve reliable coherent detection. In the proposed protocol, these previous problems can be resolved. We derive the security bounds for our protocol against collective attacks, and we also perform a proof-of-principle experiment to confirm the utility of our proposal in real-life applications. Such an efficient scheme provides a way of removing the security loopholes associated with the transmitting LO, which have been a notoriously hard problem in continuous-variable quantum communication.

  4. Analyzing a steady-state phenomenon using an ensemble of sequential transient events: A proof of concept on photocurrent of bacteriorhodopsin upon continuous photoexcitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chang-Wei; Chu, Li-Kang; Ho, Ching-Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The proton pump activity of bacteriorhodopsin in aqueous solution upon excitation with modulated continuous light was monitored electrochemically and analyzed by superimposing a series of transient proton translocation events Hᵢ⁺(t). An evolution function f(t)=(he{sup –lt}+k)/(h+k) , including a decay and a stationary offset, was introduced to weight the contribution of the individual transient events evolving with time in the envelope of the steady-state event. The evolution of the total proton concentration can be treated as an ensemble of weighted sequential transient events, H{sub total}⁺(t)=Σ{{sub i=0}sup n}Hᵢ⁺(t)∙f(t), and the temporal profile of the photocurrent is derived by differentiating the proton concentration with respect to time, (table) . The temporal profiles of the bacteriorhodopsin photocurrent in pH range of 6.3–8.1 were analyzed using a well-defined kinetics model and restricted mathematical formulization, and fitted temporal behaviors agreed with the observations. This successful proof-of-concept study on analyzing a steady-state phenomenon using an ensemble of sequential transient events can be generalized to quantify other phenomena upon continuous stimulation, such as estimation of the light-driven ion pump activities of the photosynthetic proteins upon illumination.

  5. Decolorization and biosorption for Congo red by system rice hull- Schizophyllum sp. F17 under solid-state condition in a continuous flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xudong; Jia, Rong

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic dyes are important chemical pollutants from various industries. This work developed an efficient and relatively simple continuous decolorization system rice hull-Schizophyllum sp. F17 under solid-state condition in a packed-bed bioreactor, for decolorizing Congo red. In the decolorization system, two decolorization mechanisms exist, one is decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17, the other is biosorption by rice hull. The decolorization efficiency was greatly affected by dye concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT), which were quantificationally analyzed and optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). A 2(2) full factorial central composite design (CCD) was performed, and three second order polynomial models were generated to describe the effects of dye concentration and HRT on total decolorization (R2=0.902), decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17 (R2=0.866) and biosorption by rice hull (R2=0.890). Response surface contour plots were constructed to show the individual and cumulative effects of dye concentration and HRT, and the optimum values. A maximum total decolorization 89.71% and maximum decolorization by Schizophyllum sp. F17 60.44% was achieved at dye concentration 142.63mg/L, HRT 41h, and dye concentration 110.7mg/L, HRT 29.4h, respectively. Meanwhile, the role of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in the decolorizaion process was investigated. This study proved the feasibility of continuous mode for decolorizing synthetic dyes by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation bioreactors.

  6. Studies on batch and continuous cultures of Botryococcus braunii: hydrocarbon production in relation to physiological state, cell ultrastructure, and phosphate nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Casadevall, E.; Dif, D.; Largeau, C.; Gudin, C.; Chaumont, D.; Desanti, O.

    1985-01-01

    The growth of the hydrocarbon-rich alga Botryococcus braunii was studied under air-lift conditions using batch and continuous cultures. Large variations in the physiological state of B. braunii were achieved in batch cultures and in continuous cultures with various dilution rates. The possible effects of these variations upon hydrocarbons (nature, relative abundance, location, level, productivity) and also on the production of exocellular polysaccharides were examined. The relationships between the physiological state of B. braunii and its hydrocarbon and polysaccharide production were discussed and compared with those generally observed in unicellular algae. The factors giving rise to the transition from high to low productivity stages were considered. To this end the authors examined, at first, the variations in cell ultrastructure and the resulting degeneration occurring during batch cultures. Afterward the parallel changes in some parameters of the medium (pH, phosphate level) were determined and their possible relationships with B. braunii growth and hydrocarbon production were discussed. The main features of phosphate nutrition in B. braunii and its effects on hydrocarbons were finally examined.

  7. Nutritional modulation of the inflammatory bowel response.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Orestis; Varnalidis, Ioannis; Paraskevas, George; Botsios, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis represent distinct phenotypic forms of inflammatory bowel disease and continue to be a common cause of morbidity. The corticosteroids and the immunomodulatory drugs, which are the basis of treatment for the inflammatory bowel diseases, do not assure always satisfactory outcomes. Nutrition has been used in order to modify the inflammatory response of various chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, the intestinal microflora and the intestinal mucosal disorders play a crucial role. Also, the release of reactive oxygen species is a significant factor of initiation and preservation of the inflammatory reaction in these diseases. The advantages of the nutritional treatment derive from the sequestration of intraluminal agents which may promote the inflammatory bowel response or, alternatively, nutrition is able to modify the immune response, reducing the uncontrolled inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, nutrition can enhance the mucosal barrier function and consists a significant source of antioxidants. This review focuses on certain nutritional components that modulate the inflammatory response of the bowel and aims to present a rational thesis regarding the use of nutritional agents in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. Modeling of the spatial state of the ionosphere using regular definitions of the VTEC identifier at the network of continuously operating GNSS stations of Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankiv-Vitkovska, Liubov; Dzhuman, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Due to the wide application of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the development of the modern GNSS infrastructure moved the monitoring of the Earth's ionosphere to a new methodological and technological level. The peculiarity of such monitoring is that it allows conducting different experimental studies including the study of the ionosphere directly while using the existing networks of reference GNSS stations intended for solving other problems. The application of the modern GNSS infrastructure is another innovative step in the ionospheric studies as such networks allow to conduct measurements continuously over time in any place. This is used during the monitoring of the ionosphere and allows studying the global and regional phenomena in the ionosphere in real time. Application of a network of continuously operating reference stations to determine numerical characteristics of the Earth's ionosphere allows creating an effective technology to monitor the ionosphere regionally. This technology is intended to solve both scientific problems concerning the space weather, and practical tasks such as providing coordinates of the geodetic level accuracy. For continuously operating reference GNSS stations, the results of the determined ionization identifier TEC (Total Electron Content). On the one hand, this data reflects the state of the ionosphere during the observation; on the other hand, it is a substantial tool for accuracy improvement and reliable determination of coordinates of the observation place. Thus, it was decided to solve a problem of restoring the spatial position of the ionospheric state or its ionization field according to the regular definitions of the TEC identifier, i.e. VTEC (Vertical TEC). The description below shows one of the possible solutions that is based on the spherical cap harmonic analysis method for modeling VTEC parameter. This method involves transformation of the initial data to a spherical cap and construction of model using

  9. Microbiota biodiversity in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health and energy balance, and provides protection against disease states. An altered balance between microbiota and its host (dysbiosis) would appear to contribute to the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). CD and UC are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tes. PMID:24684926

  10. Short-term administration of GW501516 improves inflammatory state in white adipose tissue and liver damage in high-fructose-fed mice through modulation of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Magliano, D'Angelo C; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Vazquez-Carrera, Manuel; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A; Aguila, Marcia B

    2015-11-01

    High activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/(angiotensin-II type 1 receptor) AT1r axis is closely linked to pro-inflammatory effects and liver damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the short-term administration of GW501516 on pro-inflammatory markers in white adipose tissue (WAT) and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), lipogenesis and insulin resistance in the liver upon high-fructose diet (HFru)-induced ACE/AT1r axis activation. Three-month-old male C57Bl/6 mice were fed a standard chow diet or a HFru for 8 weeks. Then, the animals were separated randomly into four groups and treated with GW501516 for 3 weeks. Morphological variables, systolic blood pressure, and plasma determinations were analyzed. In the WAT, the ACE/AT1r axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed, and in the liver, the ACE/AT1r axis, HSCs, fatty acid oxidation, insulin resistance, and AMPK activation were evaluated. The HFru group displayed a high activation of the ACE/AT1r axis in both the WAT and liver; consequently, we detected inflammation and liver damage. Although GW501516 abolished the increased activation of the ACE/AT1r axis in the WAT, no differences were found in the liver. GW501516 blunted the inflammatory state in the WAT and reduced HSC activation in the liver. In addition, GW501516 alleviates damage in the liver by increasing the expression of the genes that regulate beta-oxidation and decreasing the expression of the genes and proteins that are involved in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. We conclude that GW501516 may serve as a therapeutic option for the treatment of a highly activated ACE/AT1r axis in WAT and liver.

  11. Inflammatory aspects of Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Claudia; McGeer, Patrick L

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of reactive microglia and reactive astrocytes in association with the lesions. The classic view that microglia exist primarily in either a resting or activated state needs to be broadened in view of recent results. Resting microglia are in constant activity sampling their surround. Activated microglia may be pro-inflammatory, releasing inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, or anti-inflammatory, promoting the healing process. There is evidence that microglial phagocytosis is more powerful in the anti-inflammatory state. Activated astrocytes also have pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In the pro-inflammatory state they release inflammatory cytokines. In the anti-inflammatory state they release various growth factors. In AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, both microglia and astrocytes are in a pro-inflammatory state. From a therapeutic point of view it is desirable to find methods of tipping the balance towards an anti-inflammatory state for both types of glia.

  12. Assessment of disease specific knowledge and health-related quality of life among United States military veterans with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jason K; Turkeltaub, Joshua A; McCarty III, Thomas R; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between patient disease knowledge of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) and identify patient and disease related predictors of patient knowledge of IBD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of IBD patients with an established diagnosis of IBD longer than 3 mo prior to enrollment. The Crohn’s and colitis knowledge score (CCKNOW) and short inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (SIBDQ) were self-administered to assess patient knowledge of IBD and HRQoL, respectively. Demographic and disease characteristics were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The correlation between CCKNOW and SIBDQ scores was assessed by a linear regression model. Associations of patient knowledge and the variables of interest were calculated using ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients were recruited. Caucasian race, younger age at diagnosis, and having a college or post-graduate degree were significantly associated with higher CCKNOW scores. Patients with CD had higher CCKNOW scores compared to patients with ulcerative colitis and inflammatory bowel disease type unclassified, P < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between overall CCKNOW and SIBDQ scores (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.13). The knowledge sub-domain of diet in CCKNOW was negatively correlated with HRQoL (r2 = 0.69, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: IBD diagnosis at a younger age in addition to Caucasian race and higher education were significantly associated with higher knowledge about IBD. However, patient knowledge of IBD was not correlated with HRQoL. Further studies are required to study the effect of patient knowledge of IBD on other clinical outcomes. PMID:26019466

  13. Phosphocholine‐containing ligands direct CRP induction of M2 macrophage polarization independent of T cell polarization: Implication for chronic inflammatory states

    PubMed Central

    Cieslik, Katarzyna A.; Entman, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We studied monocyte transendothelial migration and subsequent polarization into M1/M2 macrophages in response to C‐reactive protein (CRP) with two disease‐related ligands: (1) phosphocholine (PC) and (2) multilamellar liposomes containing both unoxidized and oxidized forms of the lipid, phosphatidylcholine. These ligands differ in biological origin: PC is present on bacterial cell walls while oxidized lipids are present in atherogenic lipids. Methods We used an in vitro model of human monocyte transendothelial migration and assessed the polarization of monocytes and T cells and signaling through Fcγ receptors in monocytes. Results CRP without ligands did not promote M2 macrophage differentiation over background levels. However, when paired with either ligand, it increased M2 numbers. M2 differentiation was dependent on IL‐13, and in the case of CRP with PC, was associated with a Th2 response. Paradoxically, while CRP with PC initiated a Th2 response, the combination of liposomes with CRP resulted in a Th1 response without any change in Th2 numbers despite association with M2 macrophage polarization. To resolve the conundrum of an anti‐inflammatory macrophage response coexisting with a proinflammatory T cell response, we investigated signaling of CRP and its ligands through Fcγ receptors, which leads to macrophage activation independent of T cell signaling. We found that CRP plus PC acted via FcγRI, whereas CRP with liposomes bound to FcγRII. Both were activating signals as evidenced by SYK phosphorylation. Conclusion We conclude that CRP with ligands can promote M2 macrophage differentiation to fibroblasts through FcγR activation, and this may result in an anti‐inflammatory influence despite a proinflammatory T cell environment caused by oxidized lipids. The potential relationship of this mechanism to chronic inflammatory disease is discussed. PMID:27621811

  14. Survey of state health information exchanges regarding inclusion of Continuity of Care Documents for long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) patient assessment.

    PubMed

    Hassol, Andrea; Goodman, Laura; Younkin, Jim; Honicker, Mary; Chaundy, Kimberly; Walker, James M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to measure awareness and interest among state health information exchanges (HIEs) in a tool that translates long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) patient assessment information to a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) format for sharing; whether any state HIEs currently integrate patient information from LTPAC providers; and the anticipated benefits and barriers to using such a tool. The study consisted of an online survey of state HIEs. Responses were received from representatives of 29 of the 51 HIEs (57 percent). Eleven of the 29 respondents (38 percent) were aware of the LTPAC-to-CCD translation tool, and 24 (83 percent of respondents) were interested in it or felt LTPAC providers in their state would be interested. Twenty-one of the 24 interested respondents (88 percent) indicated a desire for more information about this technology. Skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies receive no incentives for adoption of electronic health record systems and are not commonly included in HIEs. These organizations do, however collect extensive structured data about their patients (Minimum Data Set for nursing facilities, Outcome and Assessment Information Set for home health agencies) and transmit the data electronically to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A tool is now available that will intercept the transmissions to CMS, transform content extracted from patient assessments into CCDs, and send the CCDs to a designated HIE. Responding HIEs reported almost no experience exchanging patient assessment information from LTPAC providers. Anticipated benefits include safer care transitions; anticipated barriers include information technology constraints in LTPAC settings.

  15. Survey of State Health Information Exchanges Regarding Inclusion of Continuity of Care Documents for Long-Term Post-Acute Care (LTPAC) Patient Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hassol, Andrea; Goodman, Laura; Younkin, Jim; Honicker, Mary; Chaundy, Kimberly; Walker, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to measure awareness and interest among state health information exchanges (HIEs) in a tool that translates long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) patient assessment information to a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) format for sharing; whether any state HIEs currently integrate patient information from LTPAC providers; and the anticipated benefits and barriers to using such a tool. Materials and Methods The study consisted of an online survey of state HIEs. Results Responses were received from representatives of 29 of the 51 HIEs (57 percent). Eleven of the 29 respondents (38 percent) were aware of the LTPAC-to-CCD translation tool, and 24 (83 percent of respondents) were interested in it or felt LTPAC providers in their state would be interested. Twenty-one of the 24 interested respondents (88 percent) indicated a desire for more information about this technology. Discussion Skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies receive no incentives for adoption of electronic health record systems and are not commonly included in HIEs. These organizations do, however collect extensive structured data about their patients (Minimum Data Set for nursing facilities, Outcome and Assessment Information Set for home health agencies) and transmit the data electronically to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A tool is now available that will intercept the transmissions to CMS, transform content extracted from patient assessments into CCDs, and send the CCDs to a designated HIE. Conclusion Responding HIEs reported almost no experience exchanging patient assessment information from LTPAC providers. Anticipated benefits include safer care transitions; anticipated barriers include information technology constraints in LTPAC settings. PMID:25593573

  16. Fungal solid state fermentation on agro-industrial wastes for acid wastewater decolorization in a continuous flow packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Iandolo, Donata; Amore, Antonella; Birolo, Leila; Leo, Gabriella; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Faraco, Vincenza

    2011-08-01

    This study was aimed at developing a process of solid state fermentation (SSF) with the fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor on apple processing residues for wastewater decolorization. Both fungi were able to colonize apple residues without any addition of nutrients, material support or water. P. ostreatus produced the highest levels of laccases (up to 9U g(-1) of dry matter) and xylanases (up to 80U g(-1) of dry matter). A repeated batch decolorization experiment was set up with apple residues colonized by P. ostreatus, achieving 50% decolorization and 100% detoxification after 24h, and, adding fresh wastewater every 24h, a constant decolorization of 50% was measured for at least 1 month. A continuous decolorization experiment was set up by a packed-bed reactor based on colonized apple residues achieving a performance of 100mg dye L(-1)day(-1) at a retention time of 50h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous fields of land cover for the conterminous United States using Landsat data: First results from the Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.C.; Egorov, A.; Roy, D.P.; Potapov, P.; Ju, J.; Turubanova, S.; Kommareddy, I.; Loveland, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) layers of 30 m percent tree cover, bare ground, other vegetation and probability of water were derived for the conterminous United States (CONUS) using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data sets from the Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. Turnkey approaches to land cover characterization were enabled due to the systematic WELD Landsat processing, including conversion of digital numbers to calibrated top of atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature, cloud masking, reprojection into a continental map projection and temporal compositing. Annual, seasonal and monthly WELD composites for 2008 were used as spectral inputs to a bagged regression and classification tree procedure using a large training data set derived from very high spatial resolution imagery and available ancillary data. The results illustrate the ability to perform Landsat land cover characterizations at continental scales that are internally consistent while retaining local spatial and thematic detail.

  18. Macrophages exposed continuously to lipopolysaccharide and other agonists that act via toll-like receptors exhibit a sustained and additive activation state

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A; Underhill, David M; Sweet, Matthew J; Ozinsky, Adrian O; Liew, Foo Y; Aderem, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Background Macrophages sense microorganisms through activation of members of the Toll-like receptor family, which initiate signals linked to transcription of many inflammation associated genes. In this paper we examine whether the signal from Toll-like receptors [TLRs] is sustained for as long as the ligand is present, and whether responses to different TLR agonists are additive. Results RAW264 macrophage cells were doubly-transfected with reporter genes in which the IL-12p40, ELAM or IL-6 promoter controls firefly luciferase, and the human IL-1β promoter drives renilla luciferase. The resultant stable lines provide robust assays of macrophage activation by TLR stimuli including LPS [TLR4], lipopeptide [TLR2], and bacterial DNA [TLR9], with each promoter demonstrating its own intrinsic characteristics. With each of the promoters, luciferase activity was induced over an 8 hr period, and thereafter reached a new steady state. Elevated expression required the continued presence of agonist. Sustained responses to different classes of agonist were perfectly additive. This pattern was confirmed by measuring inducible cytokine production in the same cells. While homodimerization of TLR4 mediates responses to LPS, TLR2 appears to require heterodimerization with another receptor such as TLR6. Transient expression of constitutively active forms of TLR4 or TLR2 plus TLR6 stimulated IL-12 promoter activity. The effect of LPS, a TLR4 agonist, was additive with that of TLR2/6 but not TLR4, whilst that of lipopeptide, a TLR2 agonist, was additive with TLR4 but not TLR2/6. Actions of bacterial DNA were additive with either TLR4 or TLR2/6. Conclusions These findings indicate that maximal activation by any one TLR pathway does not preclude further activation by another, suggesting that common downstream regulatory components are not limiting. Upon exposure to a TLR agonist, macrophages enter a state of sustained activation in which they continuously sense the presence of a

  19. Determination of canal leakage potential using continuous resistivity profiling techniques, Interstate and Tri-State Canals, western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Kress, Wade H.; Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.; Andersen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    In the North Platte River Basin, a ground-water model is being developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using water leakage from selected irrigation canal systems to enhance ground-water recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, used land-based capacitively coupled and water-borne direct-current continuous resistivity profiling techniques to map the lithology of the upper 8 meters and to interpret the relative canal leakage potential of 110 kilometers of the Interstate and Tri-State Canals in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming. Lithologic descriptions from 25 test holes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of both techniques for indicating relative grain size. An interpretive color scale was developed that symbolizes contrasting resistivity features indicative of different grain-size categories. The color scale was applied to the vertically averaged resistivity and used to classify areas of the canals as having either high, moderate, or low canal leakage potential. When results were compared with the lithologic descriptions, both land-based and water-borne continuous resistivity profiling techniques were determined to be effective at differentiating coarse-grained from fine-grained sediment. Both techniques were useful for producing independent, similar interpretations of canal leakage potential.

  20. Accuracy Assessment of Landsat-Derived Continuous Fields of Tree Cover Products Using Airborne LIDAR Data in the Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X. P.; Tang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Knowing the detailed error structure of a land cover map is crucial for area estimation. Facilitated by the opening of the Landsat archive, global land cover mapping at 30-m resolution has become possible in recent years. Two global Landsat-based continuous fields of tree cover maps have been generated by Sexton et al. (2013) and Hansen et al. (2013) but the accuracy of which have not been comprehensively evaluated. Here we used canopy cover derived from airborne small-footprint Lidar data as a reference to evaluate the accuracy of these two datasets as well as the National Land Cover Database 2001 canopy cover layer (Homer et al. 2004) in two entire counties in Maryland, United States. Our results showed that all three Landsat datasets captured well the spatial variations of tree cover in the study area with an r2 ranging between 0.54 and 0.58, a mean bias error ranging between -15% and 5% tree cover, and a root mean square error ranging between 27% and 29% tree cover. When the continuous tree cover maps were converted to binary forest/nonforest maps, all three products were proved to have an overall accuracy >= 80% but with significant differences in producer's accuracy and user's accuracy. Data users are thus suggested to beware of these accuracy patterns when selecting the most appropriate dataset for their specific applications.

  1. Infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by ANDES Hantavirus enhances pro-inflammatory state, the secretion of active MMP-9 and indirectly enhances endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Andes virus (ANDV), a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9) that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs, that are primarily

  2. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator.

  3. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  4. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  5. Platelet granule release is associated with reactive oxygen species generation during platelet storage: A direct link between platelet pro-inflammatory and oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Mehran; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat

    2017-08-01

    Upon platelet stimulation with agonists, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation enhances platelet activation and granule release. Whether ROS generation during platelet storage could be directly correlated with the expression of proinflammatory molecules and granule release has been investigated in this study. PRP-platelet concentrates were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to assess the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin and CD40L during storage. Intracellular ROS generation was also detected in platelet by flowcytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR) 123. Through the dual staining, ROS production was analyzed in either P-selectin positive or negative populations. ROS formation in platelet population was significantly increased by either TRAP (a potent agonist that induces granule release) or PMA (a classic inducer of ROS generation), while the effects of each agonists on P-selectin expression and ROS generation in platelets were comparable. Platelet storage was also associated with the increasing levels of ROS (day 0 vs. day 5; p<0.001) while this increasing pattern was directly correlated with the either expressed P-selectin or CD40L. In addition, in 5 day-stored platelets, samples with ROS levels above 40% showed significantly higher levels of P-selectin and CD40L expression. P-selectin negative population of platelet did not show significant amount of ROS. Our data demonstrated decreased levels of important platelet pro-inflammatory molecules in stored platelets with lower levels of intraplatelet ROS. However, whether quenching of ROS generation during platelet storage can attenuate adverse transfusion reactions raised by platelet pro-inflammatory status is required to be further studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Incidence is on the Continuous Rise Among All Paediatric Patients Except for the Very Young: A Nationwide Registry-based Study on 28-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Virta, Lauri J; Saarinen, Maiju M; Kolho, Kaija-Leena

    2017-02-01

    The burden of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in health care is high. We conducted research on the temporal changes in the incidence of paediatric IBD [PIBD] using nationwide registry-based data in Finland. All PIBD cases diagnosed at less than 20 years of age during 1987-2014 [in total, 5415 patients] were retrieved from a database documenting reimbursements for drug costs. Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of annual new PIBD cases by the size of the paediatric population at risk during each calendar year. Temporal trends in the incidences of PIBD and its subtypes, ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [CD], were estimated using Poisson regression analyses. The mean annual incidence of PIBD increased from 7/100000 for the years 1987-1990 to 23/100000 for the years 2011-2014. The average rate of increase was 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6-4.5) per annum. In the period 2000-2014, the increase rate in the annual incidence of UC [3.8%; 95% CI: 2.7-5.0], was steeper than for CD [2.5%; 95% CI: 1.0-3.8]. The most pronounced increase occurred in UC among adolescents aged 16-19 years [4.8%; 95% CI: 2.9-6.7]. For children less than 10 years of age, the rate of change remained low. Approximately 0.17% of the birth cohort for the years 1999-2000 was diagnosed with PIBD by the age of 14 years. The incidence of PIBD is primarily increasing among adolescents, challenging the identification of the possible environmental triggers for the disease. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Continuing Vocational Training (CVT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drogosz-Zablocka, Elzbieta; Izycka, Halina; Trzeciak, Wlodzimierz

    Polish continuing education (CE) includes education, further education, and professional development in and out of school; in day, evening, or weekend courses; and distance education. The state, workplaces, grants, and foreign assistance provide financing. A variety of organizations cooperate to provide continuing education. High-risk groups…

  8. Residential Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  9. Continuous Temperature and Water-Level Data Collected for a Heat Tracer Study on a Selected Reach of Tri-State Canal, Western Nebraska, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobza, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    The water supply in parts of the North Platte River Basin in the Nebraska Panhandle has been designated as fully appropriated or over appropriated by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources. Recent legislation (LB 962) requires the North Platte Natural Resources District and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources to develop an Integrated Management Plan to balance ground- and surface-water supply and demand within the North Platte Natural Resources District. For a ground-water-flow model to accurately simulate existing or future ground-water and surface-water conditions, accurate estimates of specific input variables such as streambed conductance or canal-seepage rates are required. As of 2008, the values input into ground-water models were estimated on the basis of interpreted lithology from test holes and geophysical surveys. Often, contrasts of several orders of magnitude exist for streambed conductance among the various sediment textures present locally, and thin, near-surface layers of fine sediment can clog the streambed, substantially reducing conductance. To accurately quantify the rates of leakage from irrigation canals and estimate ground-water recharge, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, collected continuous temperature and water-level data to use heat as a tracer for a selected reach of Tri-State Canal west of Scottsbluff, Nebraska. Continuous records of subsurface temperature, ground-water level, canal stage, and water temperature, and sediment core data are presented in this report. Subsurface temperature was monitored at four vertical sensor arrays of thermocouples installed at various depths beneath the canal bed from March through September 2007. Canal stage and water temperature were measured from June to September 2007. Ground-water level was recorded continuously in an observation well drilled near the subsurface temperature monitoring site. These data sets were collected for

  10. Chronic stress induced disturbances in Laminin: a significant contributor to modulating microglial pro-inflammatory tone?

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Giovanni; Mabotuwana, Nishani; Zhao, Zidan; Mahmoud, Abdolhoseini; Johnson, Sarah J; Nilsson, Michael; Walker, Frederick R

    2017-09-21

    Over the last decade, evidence supporting a link between microglia enhanced neuro-inflammatory signalling and mood disturbance has continued to build. One issue that has not been well addressed yet are the factors that drive microglia to enter into a higher pro-inflammatory state. The current study addressed the potential role of the extracellular matrix protein Laminin. C57BL6 adult mice were either exposed to chronic stress or handled for 6 consecutive weeks. Changes in Laminin, microglial morphology and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were examined in tissue obtained from mice exposed to a chronic restraint stress procedure. These in-vivo investigations were complemented by an extensive set of in-vitro experiments utilising both a primary microglia and BV2 cell line to examine how Laminin influenced microglial pro-inflammatory tone. Chronic stress was associated with enhanced the expression of Laminin, microglial de-ramification and pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling. We further identified that microglia when cultured in the presence of Laminin produced and released significantly greater levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; took longer to return to baseline following stimulation and exhibited enhanced phagocytic activity. These results suggest that chronic restraint stress is capable of modulating Laminin within the CNS, an effect that has implications for understanding environmental mediated disturbances of microglial function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Increased sensitivity to age-related differences in brain functional connectivity during continuous multiple object tracking compared to resting-state.

    PubMed

    Dørum, Erlend S; Kaufmann, Tobias; Alnæs, Dag; Andreassen, Ole A; Richard, Geneviève; Kolskår, Knut K; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Westlye, Lars T

    2017-03-01

    Age-related differences in cognitive agility vary greatly between individuals and cognitive functions. This heterogeneity is partly mirrored in individual differences in brain network connectivity as revealed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), suggesting potential imaging biomarkers for age-related cognitive decline. However, although convenient in its simplicity, the resting state is essentially an unconstrained paradigm with minimal experimental control. Here, based on the conception that the magnitude and characteristics of age-related differences in brain connectivity is dependent on cognitive context and effort, we tested the hypothesis that experimentally increasing cognitive load boosts the sensitivity to age and changes the discriminative network configurations. To this end, we obtained fMRI data from younger (n=25, mean age 24.16±5.11) and older (n=22, mean age 65.09±7.53) healthy adults during rest and two load levels of continuous multiple object tracking (MOT). Brain network nodes and their time-series were estimated using independent component analysis (ICA) and dual regression, and the edges in the brain networks were defined as the regularized partial temporal correlations between each of the node pairs at the individual level. Using machine learning based on a cross-validated regularized linear discriminant analysis (rLDA) we attempted to classify groups and cognitive load from the full set of edge-wise functional connectivity indices. While group classification using resting-state data was highly above chance (approx. 70% accuracy), functional connectivity (FC) obtained during MOT strongly increased classification performance, with 82% accuracy for the young and 95% accuracy for the old group at the highest load level. Further, machine learning revealed stronger differentiation between rest and task in young compared to older individuals, supporting the notion of network dedifferentiation in cognitive aging. Task

  12. Determining a magnetic resonance imaging inflammatory activity acceptable state without subsequent radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: results from a followup MRI study of 254 patients in clinical remission or low disease activity.

    PubMed

    Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Conaghan, Philip G; Ejbjerg, Bo; Foltz, Violaine; Brown, Andrew K; Døhn, Uffe Møller; Lassere, Marissa; Freeston, Jane E; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Bøyesen, Pernille; Bird, Paul; Fautrel, Bruno; Hetland, Merete Lund; Emery, Paul; Bourgeois, Pierre; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Kvien, Tore K; McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2014-02-01

    To assess the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected subclinical inflammation for subsequent radiographic progression in a longitudinal study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical remission or low disease activity (LDA), and to determine cutoffs for an MRI inflammatory activity acceptable state in RA in which radiographic progression rarely occurs. Patients with RA in clinical remission [28-joint Disease Activity Score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) < 2.6, n = 185] or LDA state (2.6 ≤ DAS28-CRP < 3.2, n = 69) with longitudinal MRI and radiographic data were included from 5 cohorts (4 international centers). MRI were assessed according to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) RA MRI scoring system (RAMRIS). Statistical analyses included an underlying conditional logistic regression model stratified per cohort, with radiographic progression as dependent variable. A total of 254 patients were included in the multivariate analyses. At baseline, synovitis was observed in 95% and osteitis in 49% of patients. Radiographic progression was observed in 60 patients (24%). RAMRIS synovitis was the only independent predictive factor in multivariate analysis. ROC analysis identified a cutoff value for baseline RAMRIS synovitis score of 5 (maximum possible score 21). Rheumatoid factor (RF) status yielded a significant interaction with synovitis (p value = 0.044). RF-positive patients with a RAMRIS synovitis score of > 5 vs ≤ 5, had an OR of 4.4 (95% CI 1.72-11.4) for radiographic progression. High MRI synovitis score predicts radiographic progression in patients in clinical remission/LDA. A cutoff point for determining an MRI inflammatory activity acceptable state based on the RAMRIS synovitis score was established. Incorporating MRI in future remission criteria should be considered.

  13. Continual Reintroduction of Human Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses into Swine in the United States, 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Stratton, Jered; Killian, Mary Lea; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) presents an important pandemic threat. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the United States, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses has occurred continuously in the years following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been an important contributor to the genetic diversity of U.S. swIAVs. Although pandemic H1 and N1 segments had been largely removed from the U.S. swine population by 2013 via reassortment with other swIAVs, these antigens reemerged following multiple human-to-swine transmission events during the 2013-2014 seasonal epidemic. These findings indicate that the six internal gene segments from pH1N1 viruses are likely to be sustained long term in the U.S. swine population, with periodic reemergence of pandemic hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Vaccinating U.S. swine workers may reduce infection of both humans and swine and in turn limit the role of humans as sources of influenza virus diversity in pigs. Swine are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we analyze influenza virus sequence data generated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's national surveillance system to identify the central role of humans in the reemergence of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses in U.S. swine herds in 2014. These findings emphasize the important role of humans as continuous sources of influenza virus diversity in swine and indicate that influenza viruses with pandemic HA and NA segments are likely to continue to reemerge in U.S. swine in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Continual Reintroduction of Human Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses into Swine in the United States, 2009 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Jered; Killian, Mary Lea; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Vincent, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diversity of influenza A viruses in swine (swIAVs) presents an important pandemic threat. Knowledge of the human-swine interface is particularly important for understanding how viruses with pandemic potential evolve in swine hosts. Through phylogenetic analysis of contemporary swIAVs in the United States, we demonstrate that human-to-swine transmission of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses has occurred continuously in the years following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and has been an important contributor to the genetic diversity of U.S. swIAVs. Although pandemic H1 and N1 segments had been largely removed from the U.S. swine population by 2013 via reassortment with other swIAVs, these antigens reemerged following multiple human-to-swine transmission events during the 2013-2014 seasonal epidemic. These findings indicate that the six internal gene segments from pH1N1 viruses are likely to be sustained long term in the U.S. swine population, with periodic reemergence of pandemic hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. Vaccinating U.S. swine workers may reduce infection of both humans and swine and in turn limit the role of humans as sources of influenza virus diversity in pigs. IMPORTANCE Swine are important hosts in the evolution of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we analyze influenza virus sequence data generated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's national surveillance system to identify the central role of humans in the reemergence of pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza viruses in U.S. swine herds in 2014. These findings emphasize the important role of humans as continuous sources of influenza virus diversity in swine and indicate that influenza viruses with pandemic HA and NA segments are likely to continue to reemerge in U.S. swine in association with seasonal pH1N1 epidemics in humans. PMID:25833052

  15. Continuation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont Unified School District, CA.

    The Fremont, California Unified School District organized a continuing education program through a workshop held in the summer of 1968. This paper presents the results of that workshop. Following a statement of philosophy, an outline of the characteristics of the continuation student, and an outline of the functions of the program, an overview of…

  16. Effective Measures of Continuing Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Effective Measures of Continuing Education by Colonel Morris A. Turner United States Army Dr. Craig Bullis Department... Effective Measures of Continuing Education by Colonel Morris A. Turner United States Army United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effective Measures of Continuing Education

  17. Biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Sandro; Bianchi Porro, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    Despite all of the advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we still do not know its cause. Some of the most recently available data are discussed in this review; however, this field is changing rapidly and it is increasingly becoming accepted that immunogenetics play an important role in the predisposition, modulation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of intestinal milieu, and enteric flora in particular, appears to be of greater significance than previously thought. This complex interplay of genetic, microbial and environmental factors culminates in a sustained activation of the mucosal immune and non-immune response, probably facilitated by defects in the intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal immune system, resulting in active inflammation and tissue destruction. Under normal situations, the intestinal mucosa is in a state of 'controlled' inflammation regulated by a delicate balance of proinflammatory (tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interferon [IFN]-gamma, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-12) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-11). The mucosal immune system is the central effector of intestinal inflammation and injury, with cytokines playing a central role in modulating inflammation. Cytokines may, therefore, be a logical target for IBD therapy using specific cytokine inhibitors. Biotechnology agents targeted against TNF, leukocyte adhesion, T-helper cell (T(h))-1 polarisation, T-cell activation or nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and other miscellaneous therapies are being evaluated as potential therapies for IBD. In this context, infliximab is currently the only biologic agent approved for the treatment of inflammatory and fistulising Crohn's disease. Other anti-TNF biologic agents have emerged, including CDP 571, certolizumab pegol (CDP 870), etanercept, onercept and adalimumab. However, ongoing research continues to generate new biologic agents targeted at specific pathogenic mechanisms involved

  18. Solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes to produce bioorganic fertilizer for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of cucumber in continuously cropped soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihua; Yang, Xingming; Raza, Waseem; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Fengge; Shen, Qirong

    2011-02-01

    Agro-industrial wastes of cattle dung, vinegar-production residue and rice straw were solid-state fermented by inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T037 (SQR-T037) for production of bioorganic fertilizers containing SQR-T037 and 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PAP) to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber in a continuously cropped soil. Fermentation days, temperature, inoculum and vinegar-production residue demonstrated significant effects on the SQR-T037 biomass and the yield of 6PAP, based on fractional factorial design. Three optimum conditions for producing the maximum SQR-T037 biomass and 6PAP yield were predicted by central composite design and validated. Bioorganic fertilizer containing 8.46 log(10) ITS copies g(-1) dry weight of SQR-T037 and 1291.73 mg kg(-1) dry weight of 6PAP, and having the highest (p<0.05) biocontrol efficacy, was achieved at 36.7 fermentation days, 25.9°C temperature, 7.6% inoculum content, 41.0% vinegar-production residue, 20.0% rice straw and 39.0% cattle dung. This is a way to offer a high value-added use for agro-industrial wastes.

  19. The proton to electron stoichiometry of steady-state photosynthesis in living plants: A proton-pumping Q cycle is continuously engaged

    PubMed Central

    Sacksteder, Colette A.; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Jacoby, Michael E.; Kramer, David M.

    2000-01-01

    A noninvasive technique is introduced with which relative proton to electron stoichiometries (H+/e− ratios) for photosynthetic electron transfer can be obtained from leaves of living plants under steady-state illumination. Both electron and proton transfer fluxes were estimated by a modification of our previously reported dark-interval relaxation kinetics (DIRK) analysis, in which processes that occur upon rapid shuttering of the actinic light are analyzed. Rates of turnover of linear electron transfer through the cytochrome (cyt) b6f complex were estimated by measuring the DIRK signals associated with reduction of cyt f and P700. The rates of proton pumping through the electron transfer chain and the CFO-CF1 ATP synthase (ATPase) were estimated by measuring the DIRK signals associated with the electrochromic shifting of pigments in the light-harvesting complexes. Electron transfer fluxes were also estimated by analysis of saturation pulse-induced changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence yield. It was shown that the H+/e− ratio, with respect to both cyt b6f complex and photosystem (PS) II turnover, was constant under low to saturating illumination in intact tobacco leaves. Because a H+/e− ratio of 3 at a low light is generally accepted, we infer that this ratio is maintained under conditions of normal (unstressed) photosynthesis, implying a continuously engaged, proton-pumping Q cycle at the cyt b6f complex. PMID:11121034

  20. Lack of private health insurance is associated with higher mortality from cancer and other chronic diseases, poor diet quality, and inflammatory biomarkers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bittoni, Marisa A; Wexler, Randy; Spees, Colleen K; Clinton, Steven K; Taylor, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    The lack of health insurance reduces access to care and often results in poorer health outcomes. The present study simultaneously assessed the effects of health insurance on cancer and chronic disease mortality, as well as the inter-relationships with diet, obesity, smoking, and inflammatory biomarkers. We hypothesized that public/no insurance versus private insurance would result in increased cancer/chronic disease mortality due to the increased prevalence of inflammation-related lifestyle factors in the underinsured population. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants (NHANES III;1988-1994) were prospectively examined to assess the effects of public/no insurance versus private insurance and inflammation-related lifestyle factors on mortality risk from cancer, all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to assess these relationships. Multivariate regression analyses revealed substantially greater risks of mortality ranging from 35% to 245% for public/no insurance versus private insurance for cancer (HR=1.35; 95% CI=1.09,1.66), all causes (HR=1.54; 95% CI=1.39,1.70), CVD (HR=1.62; 95% CI=1.38,1.90) and diabetes (HR=2.45; 95% CI=1.45,4.14). Elevated CRP, smoking, reduced diet quality and higher BMI were more prevalent in those with public insurance, and were also associated with increased risks of cancer/chronic disease mortality. Insurance status was strongly associated with cancer/chronic disease mortality after adjusting for lifestyle factors. The results suggest that inadequate health insurance coverage results in a substantially greater need for preventive strategies that focus on tobacco control, obesity, and improved dietary quality. These efforts should be incorporated into comprehensive insurance coverage programs for all Americans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlates of self-reported pelvic inflammatory disease treatment in sexually experienced reproductive-aged women in the United States, 1995 and 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have examined recent temporal trends in self-reported receipt of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) treatment. We assessed trends in receipt of PID treatment and associated correlates using national survey data. We used data from the National Survey of Family Growth, a multistage national probability survey of 15- to 44-year-old women. We examined trends in self-reported receipt of PID treatment from 1995, 2002, to 2006-2010. In addition, we examined correlates of PID treatment in 1995 and 2006-2010 in bivariate and adjusted analyses. From 1995 to 2002, receipt of PID treatment significantly declined from 8.6% to 5.7% (P < 0.0001); however, there was no difference from 2002 to 2006-2010 (5.0%, P = 0.16). In bivariate analyses, racial differences in PID treatment declined across time; in 2006-2010, there was no significant difference between racial/ethnic groups (P = 0.22). Also in bivariate analyses, similar to 1995, in 2006 to 2010, some of the highest reports of receipt of PID treatment were women who were 35 to 44 years old (5.6%), had an income less than 150% of poverty level (7.5%), had less than high school education (6.7%), douched (7.7%), had intercourse before age 15 years (10.3%), and had 10 or more lifetime partners (8.0%). In adjusted analyses, differing from 1995, women at less than 150% of the poverty level were more likely (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-3.76) than women at 300% or more of the poverty level to have received PID treatment in 2006-2010. Receipt of PID treatment declined from 1995 to 2006-2010, with the burden affecting women of lower socioeconomic status.

  2. Advances in Continuous Mass Measurement Technology: TEOM Mass Monitor at 30° C with a Nafion Dryer at Rural and Urban New York State Locations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, J. J.; Felton, H. D.; Ambs, J.; Spicer, J.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (both PM10 and PM2.5) are expressed in terms of mass concentrations in micrograms per cubic meter of air. While there is tremendous interest in measuring chemically speciated concentrations of PM, bulk mass concentration will clearly be the regulated quantity for the foreseeable future. With this in mind, it is critically important to establish the quality of data collected under current promulgated PM2.5 mass measurement techniques; to identify any significant sources of error associated with the techniques; as well as to evaluate newer technologies that are capable of measuring PM continuously and in real time. The well-known problems inherent in the measurement of ambient particulate matter include evaporation (and condensation) of semi-volatile compounds from (or onto) the collection medium; and the condensation and adsorption of reactive gases from the atmosphere. Recent work quantifying the sources of artifact errors for the Federal Reference Method (Pang, et al., 2002a; 2002b) showed significant evaporative losses from FRM filters. Similar losses are observed for the TEOM mass monitor, where evaporation of material from the filter head occurs at the default sensor temperature setting of 50° C. The TEOM SES (Sample Equilibration System) was developed to reduce the transient measurement errors reported by the TEOM instrument due to water vapor, the most abundant condensable gas in the atmosphere; and to allow instrument operation at temperatures lower than 50° C. The SES TEOM has been operated at a site in rural SW New York State (Addison, NY) for more than two years and at a site in Queens, New York City for more than a year. Each site also has a co-located standard TEOM (operated at 50° C without a Nafion dryer) and an FRM filter sampler. For these sites, the summer data from all three instruments agrees quite well, typically to better than 10%. Significant differences, on the order

  3. Inflammatory myopathies and lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick

    2016-10-15

    The inflammatory myopathies comprise a group of immune-mediated muscle diseases. Lymphoma is a term for a variety of lymphatic system malignancies. Autoimmune diseases and lymphoproliferative malignancies share a complex bidirectional relationship. A causal relationship between inflammatory mypathies and lymphoma has not been established. The diagnosis/treatment of inflammatory myopathy usually precedes the detection/diagnosis of lymphoma. Immune system dysregulation presumably underlies the evolution of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory myopathies. Inflammatory activity with chronic B-cell activation and/or antigen stimulation is deemed the major risk factor for lymphoma in patients with autoimmunity. A "paraneoplastic" phenomenon or the effects of immunosuppressive therapy may be alternative immune-based mechanisms. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia immune system disturbance rarely results in non-hematological autoimmune disease, including inflammatory myopathies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Augmentation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and mRNA transcript in chronic inflammatory states induced by potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Conti, P; Reale, M; Feliciani, C; Frydas, S; Trakatellis, M; Placido, F C; Cataldo, I; Di Gioacchino, M; Barbacane, R C

    1997-01-01

    translation is generated in chronic experimental inflammatory tissue, an effect inhibited by dexamethasone. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9415040

  5. Inflammatory Biomarkers and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Soeki, Takeshi; Sata, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis has been regarded as a form of chronic vascular inflammation. Numerous biomarkers associated with inflammation have been identified as novel targets to monitor atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the most actively studied and established inflammatory biomarkers for cardiovascular events. However, CRP response is triggered by many disorders unrelated to cardiovascular disease, which interferes with the clinical application. This review describes established and traditional inflammatory biomarkers including CRP as well as novel inflammatory biomarkers reflective of local atherosclerotic inflammation. In addition, we focus on the potential usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in developing anti-atherosclerotic therapeutic approaches.

  6. Tobacco control environment in the United States and individual consumer characteristics in relation to continued smoking: Differential responses among menthol smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Berg, Carla J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used a consumer panel augmented with state-specific measures of tobacco control activities to examine main effects and interactions among consumer behaviors, particularly menthol cigarette smoking, and tobacco control environment on cessation over a six-year period. Methods We used the Nielson Homescan Panel, which tracks consumer purchasing behaviors, and tobacco control information matched to panelist zip code. We focused on 1,582 households purchasing ≥20 packs from 2004–2009. Our analysis included demographics; purchasing behavior including menthol versus nonmenthol use (≥80% of cigarettes purchased being menthol), quality preferences (average price/pack), purchase recency, and nicotine intake (nicotine levels of cigarettes purchased); and tobacco control metrics (taxation, anti-tobacco advertising, smoke-free policies). Results Menthol smoking (Hazards Ratio [HR]=0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.64, 0.99), being African American (HR=0.67, CI 0.46, 0.98), being male (HR=0.46; CI 0.28, 0.74), higher quality premium preferences (HR=0.80, CI0.77, 0.91), lower recency (HR=1.04, CI 1.02, 1.05), and higher nicotine intake rates (HR=0.99, CI 0.99, 0.99) were related to continued smoking. No significant interactions were found. Conclusion While there were no interactions between menthol use and effects of tobacco control activities, we did find additional support for the decreased cessation rates among menthol cigarette smokers, particularly in the African American population. PMID:24780527

  7. Tobacco control environment in the United States and individual consumer characteristics in relation to continued smoking: differential responses among menthol smokers?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Berg, Carla J

    2014-08-01

    We used a consumer panel augmented with state-specific measures of tobacco control activities to examine the main effects and interactions among consumer behaviors, particularly menthol cigarette smoking, and tobacco control environment on cessation over a six-year period. We used the Nielson Homescan Panel, which tracks consumer purchasing behaviors, and tobacco control information matched to panelist zip code. We focused on 1582 households purchasing ≥20 packs from 2004 to 2009. Our analysis included demographics; purchasing behavior including menthol versus nonmenthol use (≥80% of cigarettes purchased being menthol), quality preferences (average price/pack), purchase recency, and nicotine intake (nicotine levels of cigarettes purchased); and tobacco control metrics (taxation, anti-tobacco advertising, smoke-free policies). Menthol smoking (Hazard Ratio [HR]=0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.64, 0.99), being African American (HR=0.67, CI 0.46, 0.98), being male (HR=0.46, CI 0.28, 0.74), higher quality premium preferences (HR=0.80, CI 0.77, 0.91), lower recency (HR=1.04, CI 1.02, 1.05), and higher nicotine intake rates (HR=0.99, CI 0.99, 0.99) were related to continued smoking. No significant interactions were found. While there were no interactions between menthol use and effects of tobacco control activities, we did find additional support for the decreased cessation rates among menthol cigarette smokers, particularly in the African American population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and implementation of an integrated, continuous evaluation, and quality improvement system for a state-based home-visiting program.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Bridget K; Potash, Dru; Omohundro, Ellen; Taylor, Cathy R

    2012-10-01

    To describe the design and implementation of an evaluation system to facilitate continuous quality improvement (CQI) and scientific evaluation in a statewide home visiting program, and to provide a summary of the system's progress in meeting intended outputs and short-term outcomes. Help Us Grow Successfully (HUGS) is a statewide home visiting program that provides services to at-risk pregnant/post-partum women, children (0-5 years), and their families. The program goals are to improve parenting skills and connect families to needed services and thus improve the health of the service population. The evaluation system is designed to: (1) integrate evaluation into daily workflow; (2) utilize standardized screening and evaluation tools; (3) facilitate a culture of CQI in program management; and, (4) facilitate scientifically rigorous evaluations. The review of the system's design and implementation occurred through a formative evaluation process (reach, dose, and fidelity). Data was collected through electronic and paper surveys, administrative data, and notes from management meetings, and medical chart review. In the design phase, four process and forty outcome measures were selected and are tracked using standardized screening and monitoring tools. During implementation, the reach and dose of training were adequate to successfully launch the evaluation/CQI system. All staff (n = 165) use the system for management of families; the supervisors (n = 18) use the system to track routine program activities. Data quality and availability is sufficient to support periodic program reviews at the region and state level. In the first 7 months, the HUGS evaluation system tracked 3,794 families (7,937 individuals). System use and acceptance is high. A successful implementation of a structured evaluation system with a strong CQI component is feasible in an existing, large statewide program. The evaluation/CQI system is an effective mechanism to drive modest change in management

  9. Covert enaction at work: Recording the continuous movements of visuospatial attention to visible or imagined targets by means of Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs).

    PubMed

    Gregori Grgič, Regina; Calore, Enrico; de'Sperati, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Whereas overt visuospatial attention is customarily measured with eye tracking, covert attention is assessed by various methods. Here we exploited Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) - the oscillatory responses of the visual cortex to incoming flickering stimuli - to record the movements of covert visuospatial attention in a way operatively similar to eye tracking (attention tracking), which allowed us to compare motion observation and motion extrapolation with and without eye movements. Observers fixated a central dot and covertly tracked a target oscillating horizontally and sinusoidally. In the background, the left and the right halves of the screen flickered at two different frequencies, generating two SSVEPs in occipital regions whose size varied reciprocally as observers attended to the moving target. The two signals were combined into a single quantity that was modulated at the target frequency in a quasi-sinusoidal way, often clearly visible in single trials. The modulation continued almost unchanged when the target was switched off and observers mentally extrapolated its motion in imagery, and also when observers pointed their finger at the moving target during covert tracking, or imagined doing so. The amplitude of modulation during covert tracking was ∼25-30% of that measured when observers followed the target with their eyes. We used 4 electrodes in parieto-occipital areas, but similar results were achieved with a single electrode in Oz. In a second experiment we tested ramp and step motion. During overt tracking, SSVEPs were remarkably accurate, showing both saccadic-like and smooth pursuit-like modulations of cortical responsiveness, although during covert tracking the modulation deteriorated. Covert tracking was better with sinusoidal motion than ramp motion, and better with moving targets than stationary ones. The clear modulation of cortical responsiveness recorded during both overt and covert tracking, identical for motion observation

  10. Continuous short-wave (radio-frequency) diathermy.

    PubMed

    Goats, G C

    1989-06-01

    Continuous shortwave diathermy is the technique of choice when uniform marked elevation of temperature is required in the deep tissues. This heating can be targeted accurately by using an appropriate applicator positioned correctly. SWD also allows superficial structures to be heated selectively, although for this the various methods of surface heating are usually preferable. Sub-acute or chronic conditions respond best to continuous shortwave diathermy which, when used properly, can be as effective as ultrasound. Acute lesions are better treated with pulsed shortwave diathermy. Continuous shortwave diathermy can help to relieve pain and muscle spasm, resolve inflammatory states and reduce swelling, promote vasodilation, increase the compliance of connective tissue, increase joint range and decrease joint stiffness.

  11. New GI Bill Continuation Act. Hearing before the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Veteran's Affairs.

    This document contains testimony from a congressional hearing on the proposed New GI Bill Continuation Act to provide for the continuation beyond the current eligibility expiration date of June 30, 1988. (The bill would make permanent the veterans' education program of the benefits program.) Testimony includes statements and prepared statements…

  12. Insulin resistance via modification of PGC1α function identifying a possible preventive role of vitamin D analogues in chronic inflammatory state of obesity. A double blind clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, K; Hossein-Nezhad, A; Keshavarz, S A; Eshaghi, S M; Koohdani, F; Saboor-Yaraghi, A A; Hosseini, S; Tootee, A; Djalali, M

    2014-02-01

    increased in Alfacalcidol group. We found also significant positive correlation between circulating 25-OH vitamin D and relative PGC1α gene expression in participants with insulin resistance. It seems that Alfacalcidol treatment may be effective in amelioration of the inflammatory state in obesity. This supplement might also improve resistance to insulin through enhancement of relative VDR and its downstream genes expression, which are demonstrated to be involved in glucose homeostasis pathways.

  13. Adaptive continuous twisting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jaime A.; Negrete, Daniel Y.; Torres-González, Victor; Fridman, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive continuous twisting algorithm (ACTA) is presented. For double integrator, ACTA produces a continuous control signal ensuring finite time convergence of the states to zero. Moreover, the control signal generated by ACTA compensates the Lipschitz perturbation in finite time, i.e. its value converges to the opposite value of the perturbation. ACTA also keeps its convergence properties, even in the case that the upper bound of the derivative of the perturbation exists, but it is unknown.

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a ... tubal blockage; •• Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the womb); •• Infertility (inability to get pregnant); •• Long-term pelvic/abdominal ...

  15. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weström, L., Joesoef, R., Reynolds, G., Hagdu, A., Thompson, S.E. (1992). Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility. A ... Weström, L., Joesoef, R., Reynolds, G., Hagdu, A., Thompson, S.E. (1992). Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility. A ...

  16. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future.

  17. [Inflammatory neuropathies and multineuritis].

    PubMed

    Kuntzer, Thierry; Chofflon, Michel

    2009-12-02

    Inflammatory neuropathies include those neuropathies in which the diagnosis, outcome and type of treatment are badly known, the reason of this review. They are expressed as diffuse (such as CIDP and ganglionopathies), multifocal (vasculitic neuropathy) or focal (MMN; plexopathies; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome). These forms of neuropathies are important to be known because the beneficial therapeutic possibilities of immunosuppression.

  18. Inhibiting inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kluth, D C; Rees, A J

    1996-11-01

    Acute glomerulonephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction and ultimately renal failure. The inflammation involved is a tightly regulated response with pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines playing key roles. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are the principal pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by intrinsic cells and infiltrating leukocytes. IL-1 and TNF can be directly antagonized using IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) or binding proteins such as soluble receptors or antibodies. Alternatively, cytokines with anti-inflammatory properties can be used to decrease IL-1 and TNF synthesis, increase the production of their natural antagonists and deactivate inflammatory cells such as macrophages. This review will focus on these anti-inflammatory cytokines, principally IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13, and highlight recent research of their activities in existing models of renal disease. The results of these experiments offer a promising new avenue of treatment.

  19. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Karen A; Breuer, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and differentiating between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Once diagnosed, the goal of medical management is to induce remission of disease while minimizing the side effects of the medication. Specific attention needs to be paid to achieving normal growth in this susceptible population. Surgical management is usually indicated for failure of medical management, complication, or malignancy. Algorithms for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are presented. The specific psychosocial issues facing these patients are also discussed in this review as are the future goals of research in the complex problem of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:16718840

  20. Leveraging State Longitudinal Data Systems to Inform Teacher Preparation and Continuous Improvement: A Data-Sharing Template to Prompt Discussion and Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    States are looking to leverage their longitudinal data systems, particularly the teacher/student data link, to inform the policies and practices that support educator success. It is essential that states bring critical stakeholders together in partnership to determine what teacher data the state should be collecting and matching to student data…