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Sample records for continuous morphological evolution

  1. Cranial morphology of Javanese Homo erectus: new evidence for continuous evolution, specialization, and terminal extinction.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Aziz, Fachroel; Indriati, Etty; Jacob, Teuku; Kurniawan, Iwan; Baba, Hisao

    2008-10-01

    Our current knowledge of the evolution of Homo during the early to middle Pleistocene is far from complete. This is not only because of the small number of fossil samples available, but also due to the scarcity of standardized datasets which are reliable in terms of landmark identification, interobserver error, and other distorting factors. This study aims to accurately describe the cranial morphological changes of H. erectus in Java using a standardized set of measurements taken by the authors from 18 adult crania from Sangiran, Trinil, Sambungmacan, and Ngandong. The identification of some obscure landmarks was aided by the use of micro-CT imaging. While recent studies tend to emphasize evolutionary conservatism in Javanese H. erectus, our results reinforce the theory that chronologically later groups experienced distinct morphological changes in a number of cranial traits. Some of these changes, particularly those related to brain size expansion, are similar to those observed for the genus Homo as a whole, whereas others are apparently unique specializations restricted to Javanese H. erectus. Such morphological specializations in Java include previously undescribed anteroposterior lengthening of the midcranial base and an anterior shift of the posterior temporal muscle, which might have influenced the morphology of the angular torus and supramastoid sulcus. Analyses of morphological variation indicate that the three crania from Sambungmacan variously fill the morphological gap between the chronologically earlier (Bapang-AG, Bapang Formation above the Grenzbank zone in Sangiran) and later (Ngandong) morphotypes of Java. At least one of the Bapang-AG crania, Sangiran 17, also exhibits a few characteristics which potentially indicate evolution toward the Ngandong condition. These strongly suggest the continuous, gradual morphological evolution of Javanese H. erectus from the Bapang-AG to Ngandong periods. The development of some unique features in later Javanese H

  2. Morphological Evolution of Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D. C.

    2003-08-01

    Recent ground- and space-based observations of asteroids have revealed that these bodies are far more complex than once imagined. Surprisingly low bulk densities, giant craters, unusual shapes, non-principal-axis spin states, and satellites are all challenging our understanding of how asteroids form and evolve. Since asteroids are the remnants of the planet building era, understanding their nature improves our understanding of the origin of solar systems in general. I will review some of the more puzzling aspects of asteroid morphology, including the existence of asteroid satellites, and discuss recent theoretical advances aimed at understanding our tiny neighbors. I will show that both theoretical and observational evidence is pointing increasingly to asteroids being fragile assemblages of smaller pieces, called gravitational aggregates. The consequences of such fragmented internal structure on asteroid evolution and hazard mitigation will be discussed. This work has been supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Contract No. NAG511722 issued through the Office of Space Science.

  3. The morphological evolution of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R G; van Den Bergh, S

    2001-08-17

    Many galaxies have taken on their familiar appearance relatively recently. In the distant Universe, galaxy morphology deviates significantly (and systematically) from that of nearby galaxies at redshifts (z) as low as 0.3. This corresponds to a time approximately 3.5 x 10(9) years in the past, which is only approximately 25% of the present age of the Universe. Beyond z = 0.5 (5 x 10(9) years in the past), spiral arms are less well developed and more chaotic, and barred spiral galaxies may become rarer. At z = 1, around 30% of the galaxy population is sufficiently peculiar that classification on Hubble's traditional "tuning fork" system is meaningless. On the other hand, some characteristics of galaxies have not changed much over time. The space density of luminous disk galaxies has not changed significantly since z = 1, indicating that although the general appearance of these galaxies has continuously changed over time, their overall numbers have been conserved.

  4. Nanoscale Morphology Evolution Under Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Michael J.

    2014-11-10

    We showed that the half-century-old paradigm of morphological instability under irradiation due to the curvature-dependence of the sputter yield, can account neither for the phase diagram nor the amplification or decay rates that we measure in the simplest possible experimental system -- an elemental semiconductor with an amorphous surface under noble-gas ion irradiation; We showed that a model of pattern formation based on the impact-induced redistribution of atoms that do not get sputtered away explains our experimental observations; We developed a first-principles, parameter-free approach for predicting morphology evolution, starting with molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts, lasting picoseconds, and upscaling through a rigorous crater-function formalism to develop a partial differential equation that predicts morphology evolution on time scales more than twelve orders of magnitude longer than can be covered by the molecular dynamics; We performed the first quantitative comparison of the contributions to morphological instability from sputter removal and from impact-induced redistribution of atoms that are removed, and showed that the former is negligible compared to the latter; We established a new paradigm for impact-induced morphology evolution based on crater functions that incorporate both redistribution and sputter effects; and We developed a model of nanopore closure by irradiation-induced stress and irradiationenhanced fluidity, for the near-surface irradiation regime in which nuclear stopping predominates, and showed that it explains many aspects of pore closure kinetics that we measure experimentally.

  5. Increased morphological asymmetry, evolvability and plasticity in human brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2013-06-22

    The study of hominin brain evolution relies mostly on evaluation of the endocranial morphology of fossil skulls. However, only some general features of external brain morphology are evident from endocasts, and many anatomical details can be difficult or impossible to examine. In this study, we use geometric morphometric techniques to evaluate inter- and intraspecific differences in cerebral morphology in a sample of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging scans of chimpanzees and humans, with special emphasis on the study of asymmetric variation. Our study reveals that chimpanzee-human differences in cerebral morphology are mainly symmetric; by contrast, there is continuity in asymmetric variation between species, with humans showing an increased range of variation. Moreover, asymmetric variation does not appear to be the result of allometric scaling at intraspecific levels, whereas symmetric changes exhibit very slight allometric effects within each species. Our results emphasize two key properties of brain evolution in the hominine clade: first, evolution of chimpanzee and human brains (and probably their last common ancestor and related species) is not strongly morphologically constrained, thus making their brains highly evolvable and responsive to selective pressures; second, chimpanzee and, especially, human brains show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry indicative of pronounced developmental plasticity. We infer that these two characteristics can have a role in human cognitive evolution.

  6. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution.

    PubMed

    Sims, Hallie J

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges.

  7. Intelsat VI - A continuing evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. B.; Braverman, D. J.

    1984-11-01

    Design, launch, and performance features of the Intelsat VI satellite scheduled for 1986 launch are described. The spacecraft will operated with SS/TDMA techniques and six antenna beams, weigh 23 kg at the beginning of life, carry 80,000 half-circuits, and will be borne aloft by either the STS or Ariane 4. The communications equipment will include Cand K-band receivers, 14/11 GHz upconverters, traveling wave tube amplifiers, and 50 input and output filters. Total interconnectivity will be present for all uplinks and downlinks, which will issue spot and shaped beam coverage of the hemisphere. Satellite power is to be supplied by solar panels furnishing 2 kW continuously and eclipse power is to be drawn from two 44 Ah NiH batteries. Orbit maintenance and attitude control are assigned to six 22 N thrusters.

  8. Matching behavioral evolution to brain morphology.

    PubMed

    Legendre, P; Lapointe, F J

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to test the relationship between a phylogenetic tree derived from brain morphology, and different hypotheses describing the evolution of a behavioral trait. This is a question of interest for evolutionary psychologists and behavioral biologists. The paper first discusses how hypotheses for behavioral evolution should be coded for such a comparison, then a triple-per-mutation test, originally proposed to compare independently obtained evolutionary trees, is used for the statistical assessment of each hypothesis. Non-parametric correlation coefficients computed between brain components and appropriately coded behavioral states can then be used to suggest what brain components are responsible for the development of the various states of the behavioral trait of interest. The procedure is illustrated with three different applications relating brain evolution to habitat selection in marsupials, locomotory specialization in primates, and trophic adaptation in bats.

  9. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely.

  10. Continuing Evolution of Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattingly, Richard; Matousek, Steve; Jordan, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the continued evolution of the Groundbreaking MSR concept over the last year. One of the tenets of the low-cost approach is to use substantial heritage from an earlier mission, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Recently, the MSL project developed and switched to a revolutionary landing approach, coined 'sky-crane' where the MSL, which is a rover, is lowered gently to the Martian surface from a hovering vehicle. MSR has adopted this approach, again continuing to capitalize on the heritage for a significant portion of the new lander. In parallel, a MSR Technology Board was formed to reexamine MSR technology needs and participate in a continuing refinement of architectural trades. While the focused technology program continues to be definitized through the remainder of this year, the current assessment of what technology development is required, is discussed in this paper. In addition, the results of new trade studies and considerations will be discussed.

  11. Adapting Digital Libraries to Continual Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Finch, Melinda; Ferebee, Michelle; Mackey, Calvin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe five investment streams (data storage infrastructure, knowledge management, data production control, data transport and security, and personnel skill mix) that need to be balanced against short-term operating demands in order to maximize the probability of long-term viability of a digital library. Because of the rapid pace of information technology change, a digital library cannot be a static institution. Rather, it has to become a flexible organization adapted to continuous evolution of its infrastructure.

  12. Size and shape in the evolution of ant worker morphology.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Tschá, Marcel K

    2013-01-01

    Morphological evolution in ants has been traditionally thought as being strongly influenced by selection for colony ergonomic efficiency. Although many studies have focused on the evolution of social characteristics in ants, little is known about the evolution of worker morphology at a macroevolutionary scale. In this study, we investigate the tempo and mode of the evolution of worker morphology, focusing on changes in size and shape. Our datasets included a large sample of species from different ant genera, as well as variation within the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole, for a total of 1650 measurements. The rate of size evolution was at least five times faster than the rate of shape evolution. The fit of alternative models of morphological evolution indicated statistically significant phylogenetic signal in both size and shape and in all datasets. Finally, tests of rate heterogeneity in phenotypic evolution among lineages identified several shifts in rates of evolution in both datasets, although the timing of shifts in size and shape was usually not concordant.

  13. Size and shape in the evolution of ant worker morphology

    PubMed Central

    Tschá, Marcel K.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological evolution in ants has been traditionally thought as being strongly influenced by selection for colony ergonomic efficiency. Although many studies have focused on the evolution of social characteristics in ants, little is known about the evolution of worker morphology at a macroevolutionary scale. In this study, we investigate the tempo and mode of the evolution of worker morphology, focusing on changes in size and shape. Our datasets included a large sample of species from different ant genera, as well as variation within the hyperdiverse genus Pheidole, for a total of 1650 measurements. The rate of size evolution was at least five times faster than the rate of shape evolution. The fit of alternative models of morphological evolution indicated statistically significant phylogenetic signal in both size and shape and in all datasets. Finally, tests of rate heterogeneity in phenotypic evolution among lineages identified several shifts in rates of evolution in both datasets, although the timing of shifts in size and shape was usually not concordant. PMID:24255818

  14. Modeling nearshore morphological evolution at seasonal scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walstra, D.-J.R.; Ruggiero, P.; Lesser, G.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2006-01-01

    A process-based model is compared with field measurements to test and improve our ability to predict nearshore morphological change at seasonal time scales. The field experiment, along the dissipative beaches adjacent to Grays Harbor, Washington USA, successfully captured the transition between the high-energy erosive conditions of winter and the low-energy beach-building conditions typical of summer. The experiment documented shoreline progradation on the order of 20 m and as much as 175 m of onshore bar migration. Significant alongshore variability was observed in the morphological response of the sandbars over a 4 km reach of coast. A detailed sensitivity analysis suggests that the model results are more sensitive to adjusting the sediment transport associated with asymmetric oscillatory wave motions than to adjusting the transport due to mean currents. Initial results suggest that alongshore variations in the initial bathymetry are partially responsible for the observed alongshore variable morphological response during the experiment. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  15. The effect of parity on morphological evolution among phrynosomatid lizards.

    PubMed

    Oufiero, C E; Gartner, G E A

    2014-11-01

    The shift from egg laying to live-bearing is one of the most well-studied transitions in evolutionary biology. Few studies, however, have assessed the effect of this transition on morphological evolution. Here, we evaluated the effect of reproductive mode on the morphological evolution of 10 traits, among 108 species of phrynosomatid lizards. We assess whether the requirement for passing shelled eggs through the pelvic girdle has led to morphological constraints in oviparous species and whether long gestation times in viviparous species have led to constraints in locomotor morphology. We fit models to the data that vary both in their tempo (strength and rate of selection) and mode of evolution (Brownian or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck) and estimates of trait optima. We found that most traits are best fit by a generalized multipeak OU model, suggesting differing trait optima for viviparous vs. oviparous species. Additionally, rates (σ(2) ) of both pelvic girdle and forelimb trait evolution varied with parity; viviparous species had higher rates. Hindlimb traits, however, exhibited no difference in σ(2) between parity modes. In a functional context, our results suggest that the passage of shelled eggs constrains the morphology of the pelvic girdle, but we found no evidence of morphological constraint of the locomotor apparatus in viviparous species. Our results are consistent with recent lineage diversification analyses, leading to the conclusion that transitions to viviparity increase both lineage and morphological diversification.

  16. Morphology and evolution of VIPERS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krywult, Janusz; Pollo, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Using the spectroscopic and photometric data from the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), together with the CFHTLS T0006 CCD images, we analyze co-evolution of rest-frame colours and Sérsic indices of the early and late-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 < z < 1.0. We find a strong Gaussian bimodality of both the galaxy rest-frame colour and Sérsic index distribution in the redshift - luminosity plane. We propose a new empirical model of galaxy colour and Sérsic index dependence on redshift and luminosity, to study the dynamical and chemical evolution of galaxies.

  17. Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

  18. Modeling nearshore morphological evolution at seasonal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.; Lesser, G.; Hanes, D.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2004-12-01

    For the first time, process and nearshore bottom change measurements are being coupled along the dissipative, yet dynamic, beaches of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. A Spring 2001 field experiment on the ebb-tidal delta and adjacent beaches near Grays Harbor, Washington USA provides detailed information about bed sediments, waves, currents, suspended-sediment concentrations, and sea-bed change for the testing and improvement of numerical models of sediment transport and morphology change. Upwelling favorable winds from the NW predominated during the two-month deployment period which successfully captured the transition between the high-energy erosive conditions of winter and the low-energy beach-building conditions typical of summer. During the experiment onshore sandbar migration O(75m), trough infilling O(1m), and sub-aerial beach (shoreline) progradation O(10m) dominated nearshore morphological changes. However, over the four kilometer study area, significant alongshore variability in morphological response was observed. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for these observed morphological changes we are using a combination of data analysis techniques and numerical model simulations. Our specific research questions include: 1) What are the relative contributions of alongshore versus cross-shore processes in seasonal morphological change? and 2) What are the mechanisms responsible for the significant alongshore variability observed in both the sandbar and the shoreline response over only a few kilometers? A recently developed capacity to model cross-shore profile change (1DV) within an overall area modeling framework (2DH or 3D) is being applied to answer these questions. Model parameters are tuned by initially balancing onshore transports due to asymmetric oscillatory wave motion and offshore transport due to undertow along a series of individual cross-shore profiles. Area model results then allow us to explore the role of cell circulation and alongshore

  19. Morphological evolution, ecological diversification and climate change in rodents.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Sabrina; Michaux, Jacques; Schmidt, Daniela N; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Mein, Pierre; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2005-03-22

    Among rodents, the lineage from Progonomys hispanicus to Stephanomys documents a case of increasing size and dental specialization during an approximately 9 Myr time-interval. On the contrary, some contemporaneous generalist lineages like Apodemus show a limited morphological evolution. Dental shape can be related to diet and can be used to assess the ecological changes along the lineages. Consequently, size and shape of the first upper molar were measured in order to quantify the patterns of morphological evolution along both lineages and compare them to environmental trends. Climatic changes do not have a direct influence on evolution, but they open new ecological opportunities by changing vegetation and allow the evolution of a specialist like Stephanomys. On the other hand, environmental changes are not dramatic enough to destroy the habitat of a long-term generalist like Apodemus. Hence, our results exemplify a case of an influence of climate on the evolution of specialist species, although a generalist species may persist without change.

  20. Environmental influence on the evolution of morphological complexity in machines.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Joshua E; Bongard, Josh C

    2014-01-01

    Whether, when, how, and why increased complexity evolves in biological populations is a longstanding open question. In this work we combine a recently developed method for evolving virtual organisms with an information-theoretic metric of morphological complexity in order to investigate how the complexity of morphologies, which are evolved for locomotion, varies across different environments. We first demonstrate that selection for locomotion results in the evolution of organisms with morphologies that increase in complexity over evolutionary time beyond what would be expected due to random chance. This provides evidence that the increase in complexity observed is a result of a driven rather than a passive trend. In subsequent experiments we demonstrate that morphologies having greater complexity evolve in complex environments, when compared to a simple environment when a cost of complexity is imposed. This suggests that in some niches, evolution may act to complexify the body plans of organisms while in other niches selection favors simpler body plans.

  1. The enduring utility of continuous culturing in experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Gresham, David; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2014-12-01

    Studying evolution in the laboratory provides a means of understanding the processes, dynamics and outcomes of adaptive evolution in precisely controlled and readily replicated conditions. The advantages of experimental evolution are maximized when the selection is well defined, which enables linking genotype, phenotype and fitness. One means of maintaining a defined selection is continuous culturing: chemostats enable the study of adaptive evolution in constant nutrient-limited environments, whereas cells in turbidostats evolve in constant nutrient abundance. Although the experimental effort required for continuous culturing is considerable relative to the experimental simplicity of serial batch culture, the opposite is true of the environments they produce: continuous culturing results in simplified and invariant conditions whereas serially diluted batch cultures are complex and dynamic. The comparative simplicity of the selective environment that is unique to continuous culturing provides an ideal experimental system for addressing key questions in adaptive evolution.

  2. The Enduring Utility of Continuous Culturing in Experimental Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, David; Dunham, Maitreya J.

    2015-01-01

    Studying evolution in the laboratory provides a means of understanding the processes, dynamics and outcomes of adaptive evolution in precisely controlled and readily replicated conditions. The advantages of experimental evolution are maximized when selection is well defined, which enables linking genotype, phenotype and fitness. One means of maintaining a defined selection is continuous culturing: chemostats enable the study of adaptive evolution in nutrient-limited environments in which growth is sub-maximal, whereas cells in turbidostats evolve in nutrient abundance that allows maximal growth. Although the experimental effort required for continuous culturing is considerable relative to the experimental simplicity of serial batch culture, the opposite is true of the environments they produce: continuous culturing results in simplified and constant conditions whereas serial batch cultures are complex and dynamic. The comparative simplicity of the selective environment that is unique to continuous culturing provides an ideal experimental system for addressing key questions in adaptive evolution. PMID:25281774

  3. The Continuing Evolution of Land Surface Parameterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) play a critical role in the simulation of climate, for they determine the character of a large fraction of the atmosphere's lower boundary. The LSM partitions the net radiative energy at the land surface into sensible heat, latent heat, and energy storage, and it partitions incident precipitation water into evaporation, runoff, and water storage. Numerous modeling experiments and the existing (though very scant) observational evidence suggest that variations in these partitionings can feed back on the atmospheric processes that induce them. This land-atmosphere feedback can in turn have a significant impact on the generation of continental precipitation. For this and other reasons (including the role of the land surface in converting various atmospheric quantities, such as precipitation, into quantities of perhaps higher societal relevance, such as runoff), many modeling groups are placing a high emphasis on improving the treatment of land surface processes in their models. LSMs have evolved substantially from the original bucket model of Manabe et al. This evolution, which is still ongoing, has been documented considerably. The present paper also takes a look at the evolution of LSMs. The perspective here, though, is different - the evolution is considered strictly in terms of the 'balance' between the formulations of evaporation and runoff processes. The paper will argue that a proper balance is currently missing, largely due to difficulties in treating subgrid variability in soil moisture and its impact on the generation of runoff.

  4. Constraints on the morphological evolution of marsupial shoulder girdles.

    PubMed

    Sears, Karen E

    2004-10-01

    Throughout their evolutionary histories, marsupial mammals have been taxonomically and morphologically less diverse than their sister taxa the placentals. Because of this, it has been proposed that the evolution of marsupials has been constrained by the functional requirements of their mode of reproduction. Marsupials give birth after short gestation times to immature neonates that immediately crawl, under the power of their precociously developed shoulder girdles, to the teat where they attach and complete their early development. Using a novel approach incorporating adult and embryological morphological data, this study is the first to both: (1) statistically support adult patterns of morphological divergence consistent with the constraint hypothesis, and (2) identify ontogenetic patterns of morphological change that demonstrate that the constraint was responsible, at least in part, for their formation. As predicted by the marsupial constraint, the shoulder girdles of adult marsupials are less diverse than those of adult placentals, and adult marsupial scapulae are less morphologically diverse than adult marsupial pelves. Furthermore, marsupials that complete an extensive crawl to the teat are restricted to a common pattern of ontogenetic scapular shape change, strongly supporting the hypothesis that the morphological development of the marsupial scapula has been limited evolutionarily by its obligate role in the crawl to the teat. Because this study establishes that ontogenetic and evolutionary morphological change is correlated within mammalian scapulae, it is probable that the marsupial constraint also restricted the morphological divergence of the scapula over evolutionary time by limiting ontogenetic change in the scapula. These findings, coupled with the importance of the shoulder girdle in mammalian locomotor specialization, support the conclusion that the low morphological diversity of marsupial forms over evolutionary time could be directly due to the

  5. The Continued Evolution of the Credit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Alejandro; Willis, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    In its ongoing support of continuous physician professional development, the American Medical Association (AMA) for use in the AMA Physician's Recognition Award has adopted 2 new learning platforms: Performance Improvement (PI) and Internet Point of Care (PoC). This article highlights the process that led to their adoption and places these new…

  6. Morphology and Tectonic Evolution of Endeavor Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Larson, R. L.; Popham, C. T.; Natland, J. H.; Abrams, L. J.; Sonder, L. J.

    2004-12-01

    Endeavor Deep is located on the Nazca/Juan Fernandez plate boundary near the triple junction of the Pacific, Nazca and Antarctic plates. The deep is the tip of the northward propagating East Ridge, which defines the eastern side of the microplate and is presently exposing ~3 Myr old oceanic crust created at the ultra-fast spreading (~150 km/myr) East Pacific Rise. Recently collected high-resolution EM300 bathymetry, deep-tow DSL120 sidescan, surface-towed magnetics, and near-bottom JASON II observations provide important details about the tectonic character and origin of Endeavor Deep. These data define a 70 km-long, 40 km-wide, and 3 km-deep rift which shoals and narrows toward the rift tip to the NW and is deeper and wider away from the rift tip toward the SE. The southern wall of the rift is uplifted and has a characteristic flexural profile. The northern wall is also uplifted, however, the classic flexural profile is complicated by the presence of a large EW-trending massif, which appears to be a rift-truncated compressional ridge emplaced during a phase of NS-oriented compression. Along both rift walls, a series of terraces suggest a series of down-dropped blocks associated with ongoing extension. Along the rift floor, a relatively flat, featureless bottom in the NW evolves into hummocky terrane in the central part of the basin that is characterized by volcanic features reminiscent of 1-2 km diameter pancakes in plan-view. Farther to the SE, tectonic lineations and pillow ridges oriented parallel to the trend of the rift valley dominate the basin floor. Magnetic profiles across this portion of the survey area indicate a well-formed central magnetic anomaly with a width equivalent to a spreading rate of 20 km/Myr, which is predicted by tectonic reconstructions of the plate boundary. Overall, these observations define a four-phase evolution of Endeavor Deep: 1) initial crustal formation at the ultra-fast spreading East Pacific Rise ~3 Ma, 2) regional compression

  7. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes.

    PubMed Central

    Hibbett, David S; Binder, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The fruiting bodies of homobasidiomycetes include some of the most complex forms that have evolved in the fungi, such as gilled mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs ('pileate-erect') forms. Homobasidiomycetes also include relatively simple crust-like 'resupinate' forms, however, which account for ca. 13-15% of the described species in the group. Resupinate homobasidiomycetes have been interpreted either as a paraphyletic grade of plesiomorphic forms or a polyphyletic assemblage of reduced forms. The former view suggests that morphological evolution in homobasidiomycetes has been marked by independent elaboration in many clades, whereas the latter view suggests that parallel simplification has been a common mode of evolution. To infer patterns of morphological evolution in homobasidiomycetes, we constructed phylogenetic trees from a dataset of 481 species and performed ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) using parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. ASR with both parsimony and ML implies that the ancestor of the homobasidiomycetes was resupinate, and that there have been multiple gains and losses of complex forms in the homobasidiomycetes. We also used ML to address whether there is an asymmetry in the rate of transformations between simple and complex forms. Models of morphological evolution inferred with ML indicate that the rate of transformations from simple to complex forms is about three to six times greater than the rate of transformations in the reverse direction. A null model of morphological evolution, in which there is no asymmetry in transformation rates, was rejected. These results suggest that there is a 'driven' trend towards the evolution of complex forms in homobasidiomycetes. PMID:12396494

  8. Morphological evolution in land plants: new designs with old genes

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno D.; Dolan, Liam

    2012-01-01

    The colonization and radiation of multicellular plants on land that started over 470 Ma was one of the defining events in the history of this planet. For the first time, large amounts of primary productivity occurred on the continental surface, paving the way for the evolution of complex terrestrial ecosystems and altering global biogeochemical cycles; increased weathering of continental silicates and organic carbon burial resulted in a 90 per cent reduction in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The evolution of plants on land was itself characterized by a series of radical transformations of their body plans that included the formation of three-dimensional tissues, de novo evolution of a multicellular diploid sporophyte generation, evolution of multicellular meristems, and the development of specialized tissues and organ systems such as vasculature, roots, leaves, seeds and flowers. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the genes and developmental mechanisms that drove the explosion of plant morphologies on land. Recent studies indicate that many of the gene families which control development in extant plants were already present in the earliest land plants. This suggests that the evolution of novel morphologies was to a large degree driven by the reassembly and reuse of pre-existing genetic mechanisms. PMID:22232763

  9. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  10. Rates of morphological evolution are heterogeneous in Early Cretaceous birds

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Graeme T.

    2016-01-01

    The Early Cretaceous is a critical interval in the early history of birds. Exceptional fossils indicate that important evolutionary novelties such as a pygostyle and a keeled sternum had already arisen in Early Cretaceous taxa, bridging much of the morphological gap between Archaeopteryx and crown birds. However, detailed features of basal bird evolution remain obscure because of both the small sample of fossil taxa previously considered and a lack of quantitative studies assessing rates of morphological evolution. Here we apply a recently available phylogenetic method and associated sensitivity tests to a large data matrix of morphological characters to quantify rates of morphological evolution in Early Cretaceous birds. Our results reveal that although rates were highly heterogeneous between different Early Cretaceous avian lineages, consistent patterns of significantly high or low rates were harder to pinpoint. Nevertheless, evidence for accelerated evolutionary rates is strongest at the point when Ornithuromorpha (the clade comprises all extant birds and descendants from their most recent common ancestors) split from Enantiornithes (a diverse clade that went extinct at the end-Cretaceous), consistent with the hypothesis that this key split opened up new niches and ultimately led to greater diversity for these two dominant clades of Mesozoic birds. PMID:27053742

  11. Rates of morphological evolution are heterogeneous in Early Cretaceous birds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2016-04-13

    The Early Cretaceous is a critical interval in the early history of birds. Exceptional fossils indicate that important evolutionary novelties such as a pygostyle and a keeled sternum had already arisen in Early Cretaceous taxa, bridging much of the morphological gap between Archaeopteryx and crown birds. However, detailed features of basal bird evolution remain obscure because of both the small sample of fossil taxa previously considered and a lack of quantitative studies assessing rates of morphological evolution. Here we apply a recently available phylogenetic method and associated sensitivity tests to a large data matrix of morphological characters to quantify rates of morphological evolution in Early Cretaceous birds. Our results reveal that although rates were highly heterogeneous between different Early Cretaceous avian lineages, consistent patterns of significantly high or low rates were harder to pinpoint. Nevertheless, evidence for accelerated evolutionary rates is strongest at the point when Ornithuromorpha (the clade comprises all extant birds and descendants from their most recent common ancestors) split from Enantiornithes (a diverse clade that went extinct at the end-Cretaceous), consistent with the hypothesis that this key split opened up new niches and ultimately led to greater diversity for these two dominant clades of Mesozoic birds.

  12. Modelling morphology evolution during solidification of IPP in processing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pantani, R. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it; De Santis, F. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it; Speranza, V. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it; Titomanlio, G. E-mail: fedesantis@unisa.it E-mail: gtitomanlio@unisa.it

    2014-05-15

    During polymer processing, crystallization takes place during or soon after flow. In most of cases, the flow field dramatically influences both the crystallization kinetics and the crystal morphology. On their turn, crystallinity and morphology affect product properties. Consequently, in the last decade, researchers tried to identify the main parameters determining crystallinity and morphology evolution during solidification In processing conditions. In this work, we present an approach to model flow-induced crystallization with the aim of predicting the morphology after processing. The approach is based on: interpretation of the FIC as the effect of molecular stretch on the thermodynamic crystallization temperature; modeling the molecular stretch evolution by means of a model simple and easy to be implemented in polymer processing simulation codes; identification of the effect of flow on nucleation density and spherulites growth rate by means of simple experiments; determination of the condition under which fibers form instead of spherulites. Model predictions reproduce most of the features of final morphology observed in the samples after solidification.

  13. Morphology Evolution of Primary Particles in Lspsf Rheocasting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong-Min; Yang, Xiang-Jie

    Experimental and microstructure simulation approaches were taken to investigate the morphological evolutions of primary particles in an Al-20wt% pct Cu alloy under LSPSF (low superheat pouring with a shear field) rheocasting conditions. The results indicate that crystals are globular and present in non-entrapped eutectic, after 3s of solidification. The morphology of these crystals during the subsequent free growth is determined by both the number of free crystals and the cooling intensity of melt. Analyzed results from microstructure simulation and two stability models suggest that the primary globular particles formed in the earlier stage of solidification can attain growth stability up to a larger size scale.

  14. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C.; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development. PMID:24027574

  15. Continuing Evolution: The Rhode Island Early Childhood Summer Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, Diane M.; O'Keefe, Beverly; Diffendale, Charlotte; Cohen, Amy; Schennum, Ruth; Pucciarelli, Larry; Collins, Cheryl; Merrifield, Margaret; Nardone, Virginia; Martin, Marilyn; Bryan, Linda; DeRobbio, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This narrative chronicles the continued evolution and development of the Rhode Island Early Childhood Summer Institute, an intensive 5-day inservice professional development program designed for educational leaders from various sectors of the early care and education field. The goal is to review the continued use of successful practices…

  16. Morphology and behaviour: functional links in development and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are known to develop and evolve semi-independently, they are matched together in development and evolution to produce a unique functional phenotype. Here I highlight similarities shared by both traits, such as the decisive role played by the environment for their ontogeny. Considering the widespread developmental and functional entanglement between both traits, many cases of adaptive evolution are better understood when proximate and ultimate explanations are integrated. A field integrating these perspectives is evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), which studies the developmental basis of phenotypic diversity. Ultimate aspects in evo-devo studies—which have mostly focused on morphological traits—could become more apparent when behaviour, ‘the integrator of form and function’, is integrated into the same framework of analysis. Integrating a trait such as behaviour at a different level in the biological hierarchy will help to better understand not only how behavioural diversity is produced, but also how levels are connected to produce functional phenotypes and how these evolve. A possible framework to accommodate and compare form and function at different levels of the biological hierarchy is outlined. At the end, some methodological issues are discussed. PMID:21690124

  17. Cryptic individual scaling relationships and the evolution of morphological scaling.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Austin P; Saleh Ziabari, Omid; Swanson, Eli M; Chawla, Akshita; Frankino, W Anthony; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2016-08-01

    Morphological scaling relationships between organ and body size-also known as allometries-describe the shape of a species, and the evolution of such scaling relationships is central to the generation of morphological diversity. Despite extensive modeling and empirical tests, however, the modes of selection that generate changes in scaling remain largely unknown. Here, we mathematically model the evolution of the group-level scaling as an emergent property of individual-level variation in the developmental mechanisms that regulate trait and body size. We show that these mechanisms generate a "cryptic individual scaling relationship" unique to each genotype in a population, which determines body and trait size expressed by each individual, depending on developmental nutrition. We find that populations may have identical population-level allometries but very different underlying patterns of cryptic individual scaling relationships. Consequently, two populations with apparently the same morphological scaling relationship may respond very differently to the same form of selection. By focusing on the developmental mechanisms that regulate trait size and the patterns of cryptic individual scaling relationships they produce, our approach reveals the forms of selection that should be most effective in altering morphological scaling, and directs researcher attention on the actual, hitherto overlooked, targets of selection.

  18. A surfzone morphological diffusivity estimated from the evolution of excavated holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Melissa; Elgar, Steve; Raubenheimer, Britt

    2014-07-01

    Downslope gravity-driven sediment transport smooths steep nearshore bathymetric features, such as channels, bars, troughs, cusps, mounds, pits, scarps, and bedforms. Downslope transport appears approximately as a diffusive term in the sediment continuity equation predicting changes in bed level, with a morphological diffusivity controlling the rate of seafloor smoothing. Despite the importance of surfzone sediment transport and morphological evolution, the size of the downslope transport term in nearshore models varies widely, and theories have not been tested with field measurements. Here observations of the infill of large excavated holes in an energetic inner surf zone provide the first opportunity to infer the morphological diffusivity in the field. The estimated diffusion coefficient is consistent with a theoretical bedload morphological diffusivity that scales with the three-halves power of the representative bed shear stress.

  19. Morphological evolution in Tropidurinae squamates: an integrated view along a continuum of ecological settings.

    PubMed

    Grizante, M B; Navas, C A; Garland, T; Kohlsdorf, T

    2010-01-01

    Variation in squamate foot morphology is likely relevant during evolutionary processes of habitat colonization because distinct surfaces differ in energetic and functional demands for locomotion. We combined new foot morphological data with published information of limb and tail lengths to investigate evolutionary changes possibly associated with the differential usage of ecological settings by Tropidurinae species. Several traits exhibited significant phylogenetic signal, and we performed conventional and phylogenetic regressions of PC scores (retained from Principal Components Analyses of morphometric traits) on continuous ecological indices. Tropidurines from sandy habitats exhibit larger foot soles, opposite to the evolution of narrow feet in species that use branches and rocks. Also, species that usually move along trunks present longer femora. This study provides evidence for morphological adaptations associated with substrate usage in Tropidurinae, and suggests that opposite morphological profiles might evolve associated with the use of surfaces energetically and functionally contrasting, possibly leading to trade-offs.

  20. Stasis and convergence characterize morphological evolution in eupolypod II ferns

    PubMed Central

    Sundue, Michael A.; Rothfels, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Patterns of morphological evolution at levels above family rank remain underexplored in the ferns. The present study seeks to address this gap through analysis of 79 morphological characters for 81 taxa, including representatives of all ten families of eupolypod II ferns. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies demonstrate that the evolution of the large eupolypod II clade (which includes nearly one-third of extant fern species) features unexpected patterns. The traditional ‘athyrioid’ ferns are scattered across the phylogeny despite their apparent morphological cohesiveness, and mixed among these seemingly conservative taxa are morphologically dissimilar groups that lack any obvious features uniting them with their relatives. Maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony character optimizations are used to determine characters that unite the seemingly disparate groups, and to test whether the polyphyly of the traditional athyrioid ferns is due to evolutionary stasis (symplesiomorphy) or convergent evolution. The major events in eupolypod II character evolution are reviewed, and character and character state concepts are reappraised, as a basis for further inquiries into fern morphology. Methods Characters were scored from the literature, live plants and herbarium specimens, and optimized using maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood, onto a highly supported topology derived from maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis of molecular data. Phylogenetic signal of characters were tested for using randomization methods and fitdiscrete. Key Results The majority of character state changes within the eupolypod II phylogeny occur at the family level or above. Relative branch lengths for the morphological data resemble those from molecular data and fit an ancient rapid radiation model (long branches subtended by very short backbone internodes), with few characters uniting the morphologically disparate clades. The traditional athyrioid ferns were

  1. A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology.

    PubMed

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2015-11-01

    Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1-0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology.

  2. A Nonstationary Markov Model Detects Directional Evolution in Hymenopteran Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Klopfstein, Seraina; Vilhelmsen, Lars; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Directional evolution has played an important role in shaping the morphological, ecological, and molecular diversity of life. However, standard substitution models assume stationarity of the evolutionary process over the time scale examined, thus impeding the study of directionality. Here we explore a simple, nonstationary model of evolution for discrete data, which assumes that the state frequencies at the root differ from the equilibrium frequencies of the homogeneous evolutionary process along the rest of the tree (i.e., the process is nonstationary, nonreversible, but homogeneous). Within this framework, we develop a Bayesian approach for testing directional versus stationary evolution using a reversible-jump algorithm. Simulations show that when only data from extant taxa are available, the success in inferring directionality is strongly dependent on the evolutionary rate, the shape of the tree, the relative branch lengths, and the number of taxa. Given suitable evolutionary rates (0.1–0.5 expected substitutions between root and tips), accounting for directionality improves tree inference and often allows correct rooting of the tree without the use of an outgroup. As an empirical test, we apply our method to study directional evolution in hymenopteran morphology. We focus on three character systems: wing veins, muscles, and sclerites. We find strong support for a trend toward loss of wing veins and muscles, while stationarity cannot be ruled out for sclerites. Adding fossil and time information in a total-evidence dating approach, we show that accounting for directionality results in more precise estimates not only of the ancestral state at the root of the tree, but also of the divergence times. Our model relaxes the assumption of stationarity and reversibility by adding a minimum of additional parameters, and is thus well suited to studying the nature of the evolutionary process in data sets of limited size, such as morphology and ecology. PMID:26272507

  3. Identifying heterogeneity in rates of morphological evolution: discrete character change in the evolution of lungfish (Sarcopterygii; Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Brusatte, Stephen L

    2012-02-01

    Quantifying rates of morphological evolution is important in many macroevolutionary studies, and critical when assessing possible adaptive radiations and episodes of punctuated equilibrium in the fossil record. However, studies of morphological rates of change have lagged behind those on taxonomic diversification, and most authors have focused on continuous characters and quantifying patterns of morphological rates over time. Here, we provide a phylogenetic approach, using discrete characters and three statistical tests to determine points on a cladogram (branches or entire clades) that are characterized by significantly high or low rates of change. These methods include a randomization approach that identifies branches with significantly high rates and likelihood ratio tests that pinpoint either branches or clades that have significantly higher or lower rates than the pooled rate of the remainder of the tree. As a test case for these methods, we analyze a discrete character dataset of lungfish, which have long been regarded as "living fossils" due to an apparent slowdown in rates since the Devonian. We find that morphological rates are highly heterogeneous across the phylogeny and recover a general pattern of decreasing rates along the phylogenetic backbone toward living taxa, from the Devonian until the present. Compared with previous work, we are able to report a more nuanced picture of lungfish evolution using these new methods.

  4. River bed morphology evolution following a streamside landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copertino, Vito; Fortunato Dal Sasso, Silvano; Giosa, Luciana; Scavone, Giuseppina; Sole, Aurelia; Telesca, Vito

    2010-05-01

    with predictions of mathematical models and software simulations of river bed altimetric evolution in different morphologic scenarios. (This work was supported by Dipartimento Infrastrutture, OO. PP. e Mobilità - Basilicata Region - Italy).

  5. The Missing Magnetic Morphology Term In Stellar Rotation Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2016-08-01

    Observations of young open clusters have revealedabimodaldistribution of the rotation periods of solar-like starsthathas proven difficult to explain under the existing rubric ofmagnetic braking. Recent studies suggest that magneticcomplexity can play an important role incontrollingstellar spin-down rates. In this talk I will discuss the missing term representing magnetic morphology in the context of stellar spin-down models. Using state-of-the-artmagnetohydrodynamical magnetized wind simulations we have derived analytical expressions representing the magnetic field morphology dependence of mass and angular momentum loss rates. Magnetic field complexity provides a natural physical basis for stellar rotation evolution models requiring a rapid transition between weak and strong spin-down modes.

  6. Morphology Evolution during Injection Molding: effect of packing pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantani, R.; Coccorullo, I.; Speranza, V.; Titomanlio, G.

    2007-04-01

    Injection molding is one of the most widely employed methods for manufacturing polymeric products. The final properties and the quality of an injection molded part are to a great extent affected by morphology. Thus, the prediction of microstructure formation is of technological importance, also for optimizing processing variables, in order to cut down on the expensive costs of tooling and the trial-and-error procedures. In this work, some injection molding tests were performed with the aim of studying the effects of packing pressure on morphology distribution. The resulting morphology of the moldings was in fact characterized by adopting different experimental techniques and, in order to underline the effects of holding pressure, it was compared with previous results gathered on samples obtained applying a lower holding pressure. Furthermore, the molding tests were simulated by means of a code developed at University of Salerno, which implements procedures able to model molecular orientation, crystallization kinetics and morphology evolution. The results obtained show that on increasing holding pressure the molecular orientation inside the samples increases, and simulations show that this is due mainly to the increase of relaxation time caused by the higher pressures. Furthermore, a sensible reduction of the percentage of α-phase is found on increasing the holding pressure, whereas the percentage of mesomorphic phase increases and a small fraction of γ-phase is found, which was not present in the samples molded at lower holding pressures.

  7. Evolution of morphological and climatic adaptations in Veronica L. (Plantaginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Cheng; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Perennials and annuals apply different strategies to adapt to the adverse environment, based on ‘tolerance’ and ‘avoidance’, respectively. To understand lifespan evolution and its impact on plant adaptability, we carried out a comparative study of perennials and annuals in the genus Veronica from a phylogenetic perspective. The results showed that ancestors of the genus Veronicawere likely to be perennial plants. Annual life history of Veronica has evolved multiple times and subtrees with more annual species have a higher substitution rate. Annuals can adapt to more xeric habitats than perennials. This indicates that annuals are more drought-resistant than their perennial relatives. Due to adaptation to similar selective pressures, parallel evolution occurs in morphological characters among annual species of Veronica. PMID:27602296

  8. Primer and interviews: molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2010-12-01

    The beauty of the developing embryo, and the awe that it inspires, lure many scientists into the field of developmental biology. What compels cells to divide, migrate, and morph into a being with a complex body plan? Evolutionary developmental biologists hold similar fascinations, with dynamics that take place on a grander timescale. How do phenotypic traits diverge over evolutionary time? This primer illustrates how a deep understanding of the basic principles that underlie developmental biology have changed how scientists think about the evolution of body form. The primer culminates in a conversation with David Stern, PhD, and Michael Shapiro, PhD, who discuss current topics in morphological evolution, why the field should be of interest to classic developmental biologists, and what lies ahead.

  9. Primer and interviews: Molecular mechanisms of morphological evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Julie C

    2010-01-01

    The beauty of the developing embryo, and the awe that it inspires, lure many scientists into the field of developmental biology. What compels cells to divide, migrate, and morph into a being with a complex body plan? Evolutionary developmental biologists hold similar fascinations, with dynamics that take place on a grander timescale. How do phenotypic traits diverge over evolutionary time? This primer illustrates how a deep understanding of the basic principles that underlie developmental biology have changed how scientists think about the evolution of body form. The primer culminates in a conversation with David Stern, PhD, and Michael Shapiro, PhD, who discuss current topics in morphological evolution, why the field should be of interest to classic developmental biologists, and what lies ahead. Developmental Dynamics 239:3497–3505, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21069831

  10. Evolution of Mound Morphology in Reversible Homoepitaxy on Cu(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, J.; Wendelken, J.

    1997-04-01

    Evolution of mound morphology in reversible homoepitaxy on Cu(100) was studied via spot-profile-analysis (SPA) LEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The mound separation shows coarsening vs growth time with L(t){approximately}t{sup 1/4}, in support of theory based on capillarity between mounds. The growth ultimately reaches a steady state characterized by a selected mound angle of {approximately}5.6{degree}. We suggest that this results from a downhill current driven by step edge line tension in balance with an uphill current due to the Schwoebel barrier effect. Also, we have clarified the interpretation for the evolution of the SPA-LEED profile from a ring structure to a single time-invariant peak. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Morphological evolution and embryonic developmental diversity in metazoa.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac

    2010-02-01

    Most studies of pattern formation and morphogenesis in metazoans focus on a small number of model species, despite the fact that information about a wide range of species and developmental stages has accumulated in recent years. By contrast, this article attempts to use this broad knowledge base to arrive at a classification of developmental types through which metazoan body plans are generated. This classification scheme pays particular attention to the diverse ways by which cell signalling and morphogenetic movements depend on each other, and leads to several testable hypotheses regarding morphological variation within and between species, as well as metazoan evolution.

  12. The continuity of bacterial and physicochemical evolution: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The continuity of chemical and biological evolution, incorporating life's emergence, can be explored experimentally by energizing 'dead' bacterial biomacromolecules with nutrients under cycling physicochemical gradients. This approach arises from three evolutionary principles rooted in physical chemistry: (i) broken bacterial cells cannot spontaneously self-assemble into a living state without the supply of external energy - 2nd law of thermodynamics, (ii) the energy delivery must be cycling - the primary mechanism of chemical evolution at rotating planetary surfaces under solar irradiation, (iii) the cycling energy must act on chemical mixtures of high molecular diversity and crowding - provided by dead bacterial populations.

  13. The missing magnetic morphology term in stellar rotation evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2016-11-01

    Aims: This study examines the relationship between magnetic field complexity and mass and angular momentum losses. Observations of open clusters have revealed a bimodal distribution of the rotation periods of solar-like stars that has proven difficult to explain under the existing rubric of magnetic braking. Recent studies suggest that magnetic complexity can play an important role in controlling stellar spin-down rates. However, magnetic morphology is still neglected in most rotation evolution models due to the difficulty of properly accounting for its effects on wind driving and angular momentum loss. Methods: Using state-of-the-art magnetohydrodynamical magnetized wind simulations we study the effect that different distributions of the magnetic flux at different levels of geometrical complexity have on mass and angular momentum loss rates. Results: Angular momentum loss rates depend strongly on the level of complexity of the field but are independent of the way this complexity is distributed. We deduce the analytical terms representing the magnetic field morphology dependence of mass and angular momentum loss rates. We also define a parameter that best represents complexity for real stars. As a test, we use these analytical methods to estimate mass and angular momentum loss rates for 8 stars with observed magnetograms and compare them to the simulated results. Conclusions: Magnetic field complexity provides a natural physical basis for stellar rotation evolution models requiring a rapid transition between weak and strong spin-down modes.

  14. The evolution of larval morphology and swimming performance in ascidians.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Matthew J; Patek, Sheila N

    2004-06-01

    The complexity of organismal function challenges our ability to understand the evolution of animal locomotion. To meet this challenge, we used a combination of biomechanics, phylogenetic comparative analyses, and theoretical morphology to examine evolutionary changes in body shape and how those changes affected swimming performance in ascidian larvae. Results of phylogenetic comparative analyses suggest that coloniality evolved at least three times among ascidians and that colonial species have a convergent larval morphology characterized by a large trunk volume and shorter tail length in proportion to the trunk. To explore the functional significance of this evolutionary change, we first verified the accuracy of a mathematical model of swimming biomechanics in a solitary (C. intestinalis) and a colonial (D. occidentalis) species and then ran numerous simulations of the model that varied in tail length and trunk volume. The results of these simulations were used to construct landscapes of speed and cost of transport predictions within a trunk volume/tail length morphospace. Our results suggest that the reduction of proportionate tail length in colonial species resulted in improved energetic economy of swimming. The increase in the size of larvae with the origin of coloniality facilitated faster swimming with negligible energetic cost, but may have required a reduction in adult fecundity. Therefore, the evolution of ascidians appears to be influenced by a trade-off between the fecundity of the adult stage and the swimming performance of larvae.

  15. Quantum jumps, superpositions, and the continuous evolution of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    The apparent dichotomy between quantum jumps on the one hand, and continuous time evolution according to wave equations on the other hand, provided a challenge to Bohr's proposal of quantum jumps in atoms. Furthermore, Schrödinger's time-dependent equation also seemed to require a modification of the explanation for the origin of line spectra due to the apparent possibility of superpositions of energy eigenstates for different energy levels. Indeed, Schrödinger himself proposed a quantum beat mechanism for the generation of discrete line spectra from superpositions of eigenstates with different energies. However, these issues between old quantum theory and Schrödinger's wave mechanics were correctly resolved only after the development and full implementation of photon quantization. The second quantized scattering matrix formalism reconciles quantum jumps with continuous time evolution through the identification of quantum jumps with transitions between different sectors of Fock space. The continuous evolution of quantum states is then recognized as a sum over continually evolving jump amplitudes between different sectors in Fock space. In today's terminology, this suggests that linear combinations of scattering matrix elements are epistemic sums over ontic states. Insights from the resolution of the dichotomy between quantum jumps and continuous time evolution therefore hold important lessons for modern research both on interpretations of quantum mechanics and on the foundations of quantum computing. They demonstrate that discussions of interpretations of quantum theory necessarily need to take into account field quantization. They also demonstrate the limitations of the role of wave equations in quantum theory, and caution us that superpositions of quantum states for the formation of qubits may be more limited than usually expected.

  16. Morphological evolution of the lizard skull: a geometric morphometrics survey.

    PubMed

    Stayton, C Tristan

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of diversity among lizard skulls were studied from a morphological, phylogenetic, and functional perspective. A sample of 1,030 lizard skulls from 441 species in 17 families was used to create a lizard skull morphospace. This morphospace was combined with a phylogeny of lizard families to summarize general trends in the evolution of the lizard skull. A basal morphological split between the Iguania and Scleroglossa was observed. Iguanians are characterized by a short, high skull, with large areas of attachment for the external adductor musculature, relative to their sister group. The families of the Iguania appear to possess more intrafamilial morphological diversity than families of the Scleroglossa, but rarefaction of the data reveals this to be an artifact caused by the greater number of species represented in Iguanian families. Iguanian families also appear more dissimilar to one another than families of the Scleroglossa. Permutation tests indicate that this pattern is real and not due to the smaller number of families in the Iguanidae. Parallel and convergent evolution is observed among lizards with similar diets: ant and termite specialists, carnivores, and herbivores. However, these patterns are superimposed over the more general phylogenetic pattern of lizard skull diversity. This study has three central conclusions. Different clades of lizards show different patterns of disparity and divergence in patterns of morphospace occupation. Phylogeny imposes a primary signal upon which a secondary ecological signal is imprinted. Evolutionary patterns in skull metrics, taken with functional landmarks, allow testing of trends and the development of new hypotheses concerning both shape and biomechanics.

  17. Langevin Equation for the Morphological Evolution of Strained Epitaxial Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vvedensky, Dimitri; Haselwandter, Christoph

    2006-03-01

    A stochastic partial differential equation for the morphological evolution of strained epitaxial films is derived from an atomistic master equation. The transition rules in this master equation are based on previous kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of a model that incorporates the effects of strain through local environment-dependent energy barriers to adatom detachment from step edges. The morphological consequences of these rules are seen in the transition from layer-by-layer growth to the appearance of three-dimensional islands with increasing strain. The regularization of the exact Langevin description of these rules yields a continuum equation whose lowest-order terms provide a coarse-grained theory of this model. The coefficients in this equation are expressed in terms of the parameters of the original lattice model, so a direct comparison between the morphologies produced by KMC simulations and this Langevin equation are meaningful. Comparisons with previous approaches are made to provide an atomistic interpretation of a similar equation derived by Golovin et al. based on classical elasticity.

  18. Simulating the evolution of coastal morphology and stratigraphy with a new morphological-behaviour model (GEOMBEST)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolper, D.; List, J.H.; Thieler, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    A new morphological-behaviour model is used to simulate evolution of coastal morphology associated with cross-shore translations of the shoreface, barrier, and estuary. The model encapsulates qualitative principles drawn from established geological concepts that are parameterized to provide quantitative predictions of morphological change on geological time scales (order 10 3 years), as well as shorter time scales applicable for long-term coastal management (order 101 to 102 years). Changes in sea level, and sediment volume within the shoreface, barrier, and estuary, drive the model behaviour. Further parameters, defining substrate erodibility, sediment composition, and time-dependent shoreface response, constrain the evolution of the shoreface towards an equilibrium profile. Results from numerical experiments are presented for the low-gradient autochthonous setting of North Carolina and the steep allochthonous setting of the Washington shelf. Simulations in the Currituck region of North Carolina examined the influence of sediment supply, substrate composition, and substrate erodibility on barrier transgression. Results demonstrate that the presence of a lithified substrate reduces the rate of barrier transgression compared to scenarios where an erodible, sand-rich substrate exists. Simulations of the Washington coast, 20 km north of the Columbia River, confirmed that the model can reproduce complex stratigraphy involving regressive and transgressive phases of coastal evolution. Results suggest that the first major addition of sediment to the shelf occurred around 12 900 years ago and resulted from the rapid addition of sediment volume from the Columbia River attributed to the Missoula floods. This was followed by a period where little or no sediment was added (12 400-9100 BP) and a third period when most sediment was added to the shelf (9100 BP to present) from the Columbia River. Comparing results from each setting demonstrates an indirect control that substrate

  19. Probing the evolution and morphology of hard carbon spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Pol, Vilas G.; Wen, Jianguo; Lau, Kah Chun; Callear, Samantha; Bowron, Daniel T.; Lin, Chi-Kai; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Curtiss, Larry A.; David, William; Miller, Dean J.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2014-03-01

    Monodispersed hard carbon spheres can be synthesized quickly and reproducibly by autogenic reactions of hydrocarbon precursors, notably polyethylene (including plastic waste), at high temperature and pressure. The carbon microparticles formed by this reaction have a unique spherical architecture, with a dominant internal nanometer layered motif, and they exhibit diamond-like hardness and electrochemical properties similar to graphite. In the present study, in-situ monitoring by X-ray diffraction along with electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, neutron pair-distribution function analysis, and computational modeling has been used to elucidate the morphology and evolution of the carbon spheres that form from the autogenic reaction of polyethylene at high temperature and pressure. A mechanism is proposed on how polyethylene evolves from a linear chain-based material to a layered carbon motif. Heating the spheres to 2400-2800 °C under inert conditions increases their graphitic character, particularly at the surface, which enhances their electrochemical and tribological properties.

  20. Time evolution of morphology in mechanically alloyed Fe-Cu.

    PubMed

    Wille, Catharina G; Al-Kassab, Tala'at; Kirchheim, Reiner

    2011-05-01

    Being widely accessible as well as already utilised in many applications, Fe-Cu acts as an ideal binary model alloy to elaborate the enforced nonequilibrium enhanced solubility in such a solution system that shows a limited regime of miscibility and characterised by a large positive heat of mixing. In addition to the detailed analysis of ball milled Fe-Cu powders by means of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), site specific structural analysis has been performed in this study using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In this contribution results on powders with low Cu concentrations (2.5-10 at%) are presented. Combining a ductile element (Cu, fcc) and a brittle one (Fe, bcc), striking differences in morphology were expected and found on all length-scales, depending on the mixing ratio of the two elements. However, not only could the atomic mixing of Fe and Cu be evaluated, but also the distribution of impurities, mostly stemming from the fabrication procedure. The combination of APT and TEM enables a correlation between the structural evolution and the chemical mixing during the milling process. For the first time, a clear distinction can be drawn between the morphological evolution at the surface and in the interior of the powder particles. This became possible owing to the site specific sample preparation of TEM lamellae by Focussed Ion Beam (FIB). Surprisingly, the texture arising from the ball milling process can directly be related to the classical rolling texture of cold rolled Fe. In addition, full homogeneity can be achieved even on the nano-scale for this material as shown by APT, resulting in an extended miscibility region in comparison to the equilibrium phase diagram. Grain sizes were determined by means of XRD and TEM. The strain corrected XRD results are in very good agreement with the values derived by TEM, both confirming a truly nanocrystalline structure.

  1. Tensile Deformation and Morphological Evolution of Precise Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Luri Robert; Szewczyk, Steve; Schwartz, Eric; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Cordaro, Joseph; Wagener, Kenneth; Winey, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Acid- and ion-containing polymers have specific interactions that produce complex and hierarchical morphologies that provide tunable mechanical properties. We report tensile testing and in situ x-ray scattering measurements of a homologous series of precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) copolymers (pxAA). Upon variation of the number of backbone carbons (x = 9, 15, 21) between pendant acrylic acid groups along the linear polyethylene chain, these materials exhibit pronounced changes in both their tensile properties as well as their morphological evolution during deformation. The hierarchical layered acid aggregate structure coincides with the onset of a strain hardening mechanism and was observed in both a semi-crystalline sample (p21AA) as well as an amorphous sample (p15AA). The polymer with the shortest spacing between acid groups (p9AA) maintains a liquid-like distribution of acid aggregates during deformation, exhibiting low tensile strength which we attribute to facile acid exchange between acid aggregates during deformation. Our results indicate that the formation of the hierarchical layered structure, which coincides with polymer strain-hardening regime, originates from the associating acid groups cooperatively preventing disentanglement. NSF-DMR-1103858.

  2. Plastic Deformation and Morphological Evolution of Precise Acid Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, L. Robert; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Cordaro, Joseph; Winey, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Acid- and ion-containing polymers have specific interactions that produce complex and hierarchical morphologies that provide remarkable mechanical properties. Historically, correlating the hierarchical structure and the mechanical properties of these polymers has been challenging due to the random arrangements of the polar groups along the backbone, ex situ characterization and the difficulty in deconvolution the effects of crystalline and amorphous regions along with secondary interactions between polymer chains. We address these challenges through in situ deformation of precise acid copolymers and relate the structural evolution to bulk properties by considering a series of copolymers with 9, 15 or 21 carbons between acid groups. Simultaneous synchrotron X-ray scattering and room temperature uniaxial tensile experiments of these precise acid copolymers were conducted. The different deformation mechanisms are compared and the microstructural evolution during deformation is discussed. For example, the liquid-like distribution of acid aggregates within the bulk copolymer transitions into a layered structure concurrent to a dramatic increase in tensile strength. Overall, we evaluate the effect and control of introducing acid groups on mechanical deformation of the bulk copolymers.

  3. Estimating the distribution of Galaxy Morphologies on a continuous space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Giuseppe; Freeman, Peter; Newman, Jeffrey; Wasserman, Larry; Genovese, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The incredible variety of galaxy shapes cannot be summarized by human defined discrete classes of shapes without causing a possibly large loss of information. Dictionary learning and sparse coding allow us to reduce the high dimensional space of shapes into a manageable low dimensional continuous vector space. Statistical inference can be done in the reduced space via probability distribution estimation and manifold estimation.

  4. Crystal morphology and gas evolution during solidification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Marcus Vinicius Andrade

    A theoretical and experimental study of the solidification process has been performed to obtain fundamental understanding relevant to metal casting, solidification of alloys, freezing of biological materials and other areas. The emphasis is on the effect of the morphology of the crystals on the solidification of binary systems and the role of dissolved gas evolution on gas porosity formation. Of specific interest is the effect of gas bubble nucleation and of crystal morphology on the effective thermal conductivity of the solidifying system. An analytical and a semi-analytical method are used to calculate the gas species redistribution due to the movement of the solid-liquid interface during the freezing processes. The gas segregation at the interface strongly depends on the solidification rate (i.e., the interface velocity). The results are important to predict the formation of gas voids in castings and, most importantly, to avoid them. It is found that for a constant solidification rate, bubble nucleation always occurs at the interface despite the magnitude of the interface velocity. On the other hand, when the solidification rate is inversely proportional to the square root of time bubble nucleation can be avoided by ensuring that the initial gas concentration is smaller than a ratio involving the gas solubilities in the liquid and in the solid. An experimental apparatus is designed and constructed to study solidification on a microscopic scale. The temperature gradient and the solidification rate are controlled and aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride of different initial concentrations are frozen in a controlled manner in order to measure the microscopic characteristic lengths of the crystals grown from ammonium chloride solutions of low initial concentrations. Air-saturated water is also solidified and the dissolved gas bubble nucleation observed. Microscopic geometric lengths of the crystal that form the mushy zone are correlated with the velocity of the

  5. In vivo continuous evolution of genes and pathways in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Nathan; Abatemarco, Joseph; Sun, Jie; Wagner, James M.; Schmitz, Alexander; Alper, Hal S.

    2016-01-01

    Directed evolution remains a powerful, highly generalizable approach for improving the performance of biological systems. However, implementations in eukaryotes rely either on in vitro diversity generation or limited mutational capacities. Here we synthetically optimize the retrotransposon Ty1 to enable in vivo generation of mutant libraries up to 1.6 × 107 l−1 per round, which is the highest of any in vivo mutational generation approach in yeast. We demonstrate this approach by using in vivo-generated libraries to evolve single enzymes, global transcriptional regulators and multi-gene pathways. When coupled to growth selection, this approach enables in vivo continuous evolution (ICE) of genes and pathways. Through a head-to-head comparison, we find that ICE libraries yield higher-performing variants faster than error-prone PCR-derived libraries. Finally, we demonstrate transferability of ICE to divergent yeasts, including Kluyveromyces lactis and alternative S. cerevisiae strains. Collectively, this work establishes a generic platform for rapid eukaryotic-directed evolution across an array of target cargo. PMID:27748457

  6. Probability distributions of continuous measurement results for conditioned quantum evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franquet, A.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2017-02-01

    We address the statistics of continuous weak linear measurement on a few-state quantum system that is subject to a conditioned quantum evolution. For a conditioned evolution, both the initial and final states of the system are fixed: the latter is achieved by the postselection in the end of the evolution. The statistics may drastically differ from the nonconditioned case, and the interference between initial and final states can be observed in the probability distributions of measurement outcomes as well as in the average values exceeding the conventional range of nonconditioned averages. We develop a proper formalism to compute the distributions of measurement outcomes, and evaluate and discuss the distributions in experimentally relevant setups. We demonstrate the manifestations of the interference between initial and final states in various regimes. We consider analytically simple examples of nontrivial probability distributions. We reveal peaks (or dips) at half-quantized values of the measurement outputs. We discuss in detail the case of zero overlap between initial and final states demonstrating anomalously big average outputs and sudden jump in time-integrated output. We present and discuss the numerical evaluation of the probability distribution aiming at extending the analytical results and describing a realistic experimental situation of a qubit in the regime of resonant fluorescence.

  7. Aggregate Morphology Evolution by Sintering: Number & Diameter of Primary Particles

    PubMed Central

    Eggersdorfer, Max L.; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of fractal-like agglomerates (physically-bonded) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded) is important in aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles, and in monitoring combustion emissions and atmospheric particles. It influences also particle mobility, scattering, and eventually performance of nanocomposites, suspensions and devices made with such particles. Here, aggregate sintering by viscous flow of amorphous materials (silica, polymers) and grain boundary diffusion of crystalline ceramics (titania, alumina) or metals (Ni, Fe, Ag etc.) is investigated. A scaling law is found between average aggregate projected area and equivalent number of constituent primary particles during sintering: from fractal-like agglomerates to aggregates and eventually compact particles (e.g. spheres). This is essentially a relation independent of time, material properties and sintering mechanisms. It is used to estimate the equivalent primary particle diameter and number in aggregates. The evolution of aggregate morphology or structure is quantified by the effective fractal dimension (Df) and mass-mobility exponent (Dfm) and the corresponding prefactors. The Dfm increases monotonically during sintering converging to 3 for a compact particle. Therefore Dfm and its prefactor could be used to gauge the degree or extent of sintering of agglomerates made by a known collision mechanism. This analysis is exemplified by comparison to experiments of silver nanoparticle aggregates sintered at different temperatures in an electric tube furnace. PMID:23658467

  8. Gravity and the evolution of cardiopulmonary morphology in snakes.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Albert, James S; Sheehy, Coleman M; Seymour, Roger S

    2012-02-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse - significantly longer heart-head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart-to-head distance and length of vascular lung are co-adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes.

  9. Aggregate Morphology Evolution by Sintering: Number & Diameter of Primary Particles.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kadau, Dirk; Herrmann, Hans J; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2012-04-01

    The structure of fractal-like agglomerates (physically-bonded) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded) is important in aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles, and in monitoring combustion emissions and atmospheric particles. It influences also particle mobility, scattering, and eventually performance of nanocomposites, suspensions and devices made with such particles. Here, aggregate sintering by viscous flow of amorphous materials (silica, polymers) and grain boundary diffusion of crystalline ceramics (titania, alumina) or metals (Ni, Fe, Ag etc.) is investigated. A scaling law is found between average aggregate projected area and equivalent number of constituent primary particles during sintering: from fractal-like agglomerates to aggregates and eventually compact particles (e.g. spheres). This is essentially a relation independent of time, material properties and sintering mechanisms. It is used to estimate the equivalent primary particle diameter and number in aggregates. The evolution of aggregate morphology or structure is quantified by the effective fractal dimension (Df ) and mass-mobility exponent (Dfm ) and the corresponding prefactors. The Dfm increases monotonically during sintering converging to 3 for a compact particle. Therefore Dfm and its prefactor could be used to gauge the degree or extent of sintering of agglomerates made by a known collision mechanism. This analysis is exemplified by comparison to experiments of silver nanoparticle aggregates sintered at different temperatures in an electric tube furnace.

  10. Low mass galaxy clusters and galaxy morphology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilo Castellón, J. L.; Órdenes, Y.; Ramos, F.; Alonso, M. V.; Cuevas, H.; García Lambas, D.; Ramírez, A.

    We present preliminary results about the galaxy morphology evolution in three low mass galaxy clusters: RX J0533.9-5809 ([VMF98]046, z 0.198), RX J1204.3-0350 ([VMF98]113, z 0.261) and RX J0533.8-5746 ([VMF98]045, z 0.295). Full photometric catalogues were created using SExtractor v2.8.0. Also, photometric redshifts (z phot ) were obtained for all the object classified as galaxies, using the ANNz code. Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMD) were generated for those galaxies clas- sified as cluster members. Clear Red Cluster Sequences (RCS) with a me- dian slopes of -0.03 are observed for all the tree clusters. Based on the RCS best fit, a blue and a red population of galaxies were defined, observ- ing that the color distribution of the cluster [VMF98]045 is well fitted by a double Gaussian function (2 0.2), while the clusters [VMF98]046 and [VMF98]113 presents a third population between the blue and red peak dis- tributions. These preliminary results would show the existence of a possible transi- tion population between the blue and the red population in these low mass galaxy clusters at low redshifts.

  11. Morphologic Evolution of the Mount St. Helens Crater Area, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The large rockslide-avalanche that preceded the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 removed approximately 2.8 cubic km of material from the summit and north flank of the volcano, forming a horseshoe-shaped crater 2.0 km wide and 3.9 km long. A variety of erosional and depositional processes, notably mass wasting and gully development, acted to modify the topographic configuration of the crater area. To document this morphologic evolution, a series of annual large-scale topographic maps is being produced as a base for comparitive geomorphic analysis. Four topographic maps of the Mount St. Helens crater area at a scale of 1:4000 were produced by the National Mapping Division of the U. S. Geological Survey. Stereo aerial photography for the maps was obtained on 23 October 1980, 10 September 1981, 1 September 1982, and 17 August 1983. To quantify topographic changes in the study area, each topographic map is being digitized and corresponding X, Y, and Z values from successive maps are being computer-compared.

  12. Morphological evolution of silver nanoparticles and its effect on metal-induced chemical etching of silicon.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong-Ho; Kong, Bo Hyun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2013-05-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated the morphological evolution of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by controlling the growth conditions and its effect on morphology of silicon (Si) during metal-induced electroless etching (MICE). Self-organized AgNPs with peculiarly shape were synthesized by an electroless plating method in a conventional aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. AgNP nuclei were densely created on Si wafer surface, and they had a strong tendency to merge and form continuous metal films with increasing AgNO3 concentrations. Also, we have demonstrated that the fabrication of aligned Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays in large area of p-Si (111) substrates by MICE in a mixture of HF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. We have found that the morphology of the initial AgNPs and oxidant concentration (H2O2) greatly influence on the shape of the SiNW etching profile. The morphological results showed that AgNP shapes were closely related to the etching direction of SiNWs, that is, the spherical AgNPs preferred to move vertical to the Si substrate, whereas non-spherical AgNPs changed their movement to the [100] directions. In addition, as the etching activity was increased at higher H2O2 concentrations, AgNPs had a tendency to move from the original [111] direction to the energetically preferred [100] direction.

  13. Morphological evolution in the variable resin-producing Detarieae (Fabaceae): do morphological characters retain a phylogenetic signal?

    PubMed Central

    Fougère-Danezan, Marie; Herendeen, Patrick S.; Maumont, Stéphan; Bruneau, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous molecular phylogenetic studies disagree with the informal generic-level taxonomic groups based on morphology. In this study morphological characters in the caesalpinioid clade Detarieae are evaluated within a phylogenetic framework as a means of better understanding phylogenetic relationships and morphological evolution. Methods Morphological characters were observed and scored for representative species of Detarieae focusing on the resin-producing genera. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out with morphological characters alone and then combined with DNA sequences. Key Results Despite a high level of homoplasy, morphological data support several clades corresponding to those recovered in molecular phylogenetic analyses. The more strongly supported clades are each defined by at least one morphological synapomorphy. Several characters (e.g. apetaly) previously used to define informal generic groups evolved several times independently, leading to the differences observed with the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Although floral evolution is complex in Detarieae some patterns are recovered. Conclusions New informal taxonomic groupings are proposed based on the present findings. Floral evolution in the diverse Detarieae clade is characterized by a repeated tendency toward zygomorphy through the reduction of lateral petals and toward complete loss of petals. PMID:19939978

  14. Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L.

    2014-09-20

    As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.

  15. Subocclusal dental morphology of sahelanthropus tchadensis and the evolution of teeth in hominins.

    PubMed

    Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Andossa, Likius; Taïsso Mackaye, Hassane; Brunet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the teeth in hominins is characterized by, among other characters, major changes in root morphology. However, little is known of the evolution from a plesiomorphic, ape-like root morphology to the crown hominin morphology. Here we present a study of the root morphology of the Miocene Chadian hominin Sahelanthropus tchadensis and its comparison to other hominins. The morphology of the whole lower dentition (I1 -M3 ) was investigated and described. The comparison with the species Ardipithecus kaddaba and Ardipithecus ramidus indicates a global homogeneity of root morphology in early hominins. This morphology, characterized notably by a reduction of the size and number of the roots of premolars, is a composite between an ape-like morphology and the later hominin morphology. Trends for root evolution in hominins are proposed, including the transition from a basal hominoid to extant Homo sapiens. This study also illustrates the low association between the evolution of tooth root morphology and the evolution of crowns in hominins.

  16. Continuous evolution of B. thuringiensis toxins overcomes insect resistance

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Ahmed H.; Guzov, Victor M.; Huai, Qing; Kemp, Melissa M.; Vishwanath, Prashanth; Kain, Wendy; Nance, Autumn M.; Evdokimov, Artem; Moshiri, Farhad; Turner, Keith H.; Wang, Ping; Malvar, Thomas; Liu, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins (Bt toxins) are widely used insecticidal proteins in engineered crops that provide agricultural, economic, and environmental benefits. The development of insect resistance to Bt toxins endangers their long-term effectiveness. We developed a phage-assisted continuous evolution (PACE) selection that rapidly evolves high-affinity protein-protein interactions, and applied this system to evolve variants of the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that bind a cadherin-like receptor from the insect pest Trichoplusia ni (TnCAD) that is not natively targeted by wild-type Cry1Ac. The resulting evolved Cry1Ac variants bind TnCAD with high affinity (Kd = 11–41 nM), kill TnCAD-expressing insect cells that are not susceptible to wild-type Cry1Ac, and kill Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni insects up to 335-fold more potently than wild-type Cry1Ac. Our findings establish that the evolution of Bt toxins with novel insect cell receptor affinity can overcome Bt toxin resistance in insects and confer lethality approaching that of the wild-type Bt toxin against non-resistant insects. PMID:27120167

  17. Continuous evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins overcomes insect resistance.

    PubMed

    Badran, Ahmed H; Guzov, Victor M; Huai, Qing; Kemp, Melissa M; Vishwanath, Prashanth; Kain, Wendy; Nance, Autumn M; Evdokimov, Artem; Moshiri, Farhad; Turner, Keith H; Wang, Ping; Malvar, Thomas; Liu, David R

    2016-05-05

    The Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins (Bt toxins) are widely used insecticidal proteins in engineered crops that provide agricultural, economic, and environmental benefits. The development of insect resistance to Bt toxins endangers their long-term effectiveness. Here we have developed a phage-assisted continuous evolution selection that rapidly evolves high-affinity protein-protein interactions, and applied this system to evolve variants of the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that bind a cadherin-like receptor from the insect pest Trichoplusia ni (TnCAD) that is not natively bound by wild-type Cry1Ac. The resulting evolved Cry1Ac variants bind TnCAD with high affinity (dissociation constant Kd = 11-41 nM), kill TnCAD-expressing insect cells that are not susceptible to wild-type Cry1Ac, and kill Cry1Ac-resistant T. ni insects up to 335-fold more potently than wild-type Cry1Ac. Our findings establish that the evolution of Bt toxins with novel insect cell receptor affinity can overcome insect Bt toxin resistance and confer lethality approaching that of the wild-type Bt toxin against non-resistant insects.

  18. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew Albion

    2013-01-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the “big five” mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing. PMID:23884651

  19. The morphology, processes, and evolution of Monterey Fan: a revisit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Field, Michael E.; Masson, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-range (GLORIA) and mid-range (TOBI) sidescan imagery and seismic-reflection profiles have revealed the surface morphology and architecture of the complete Monterey Fan. The fan has not developed a classic wedge shape because it has been blocked for much of its history by Morro Fracture Zone. The barrier has caused the fan to develop an upper-fan and lower-fan sequence that are distinctly different from one another. The upper-fan sequence is characterized by Monterey and Ascension Channels and associated Monterey Channel-levee system. The lower-fan sequence is characterized by depositional lobes of the Ascension, Monterey, and Sur-Parkington-Lucia systems, with the Monterey depositional lobe being the youngest. Presently, the Monterey depositional lobe is being downcut because the system has reached a new, lower base level in the Murray Fracture Zone. A five-step evolution of Monterey Fan is presented, starting with initial fan deposition in the Late Miocene, about 5.5 Ma. This first stage was one of filling bathymetric lows in the oceanic basement in what was to become the upper-fan segment. The second stage involved filling the bathymetric low on the north side of Morro Fracture Zone, and probably not much sediment was transported beyond the fracture zone. The third stage witnessed sediment being transported around both ends of Morro Fracture Zone and initial sedimentation on the lower-fan segment. During the fourth stage Ascension Channel was diverted into Monterey Channel, thereby cutting off sedimentation to the Ascension depositional lobe.

  20. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Albion Wills, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing.

  1. Statistical Quadrature Evolution for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2016-05-01

    We propose a statistical quadrature evolution (SQE) method for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD protocol utilizes Gaussian subcarrier quantum continuous variables (CV) for information transmission. The SQE framework provides a minimal error estimate of the quadratures of the CV quantum states from the discrete, measured noisy subcarrier variables. We define a method for the statistical modeling and processing of noisy Gaussian subcarrier quadratures. We introduce the terms statistical secret key rate and statistical private classical information, which quantities are derived purely by the statistical functions of our method. We prove the secret key rate formulas for a multiple access multicarrier CVQKD. The framework can be established in an arbitrary CVQKD protocol and measurement setting, and are implementable by standard low-complexity statistical functions, which is particularly convenient for an experimental CVQKD scenario. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund - OTKA K-112125, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  2. Continuous in vitro evolution of bacteriophage RNA polymerase promoters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breaker, R. R.; Banerji, A.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid in vitro evolution of bacteriophage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase promoters was achieved by a method that allows continuous enrichment of DNAs that contain functional promoter elements. This method exploits the ability of a special class of nucleic acid molecules to replicate continuously in the presence of both a reverse transcriptase and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Replication involves the synthesis of both RNA and cDNA intermediates. The cDNA strand contains an embedded promoter sequence, which becomes converted to a functional double-stranded promoter element, leading to the production of RNA transcripts. Synthetic cDNAs, including those that contain randomized promoter sequences, can be used to initiate the amplification cycle. However, only those cDNAs that contain functional promoter sequences are able to produce RNA transcripts. Furthermore, each RNA transcript encodes the RNA polymerase promoter sequence that was responsible for initiation of its own transcription. Thus, the population of amplifying molecules quickly becomes enriched for those templates that encode functional promoters. Optimal promoter sequences for phage T7, T3, and SP6 RNA polymerase were identified after a 2-h amplification reaction, initiated in each case with a pool of synthetic cDNAs encoding greater than 10(10) promoter sequence variants.

  3. CONTINUOUS, AUTOMATED AND SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN UPTAKE AND CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial respirometers are capable of continuously and automatically measuring oxygen uptake in bioreactors. A method for continuously and automatically measuring carbon dioxide evolution can be retrofitted to commercial respirometers. Continuous and automatic measurements of...

  4. Morphological diversity and evolution of egg and clutch structure in amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Altig, Ronald; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    The first part of this synthesis summarizes the morphology of the jelly layers surrounding an amphibian ovum. We propose a standard terminology and discuss the evolution of jelly layers. The second part reviews the morphological diversity and arrangement of deposited eggs?the ovipositional mode; we recognize 5 morphological classes including 14 modes. We discuss some of the oviductal, ovipositional, and postovipositional events that contribute to these morphologies. We have incorporated data from taxa from throughout the world but recognize that other types will be discovered that may modify understanding of these modes. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary context of the diversity of clutch structure and present a first estimate of its evolution.

  5. RPAS Monitoring of the Morphological Evolution of Coastal Foredunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, Yuri; Corbau, Corinne; Elena, Zambello; Russo, Valentina; Pellegrinelli, Alberto; Simeoni, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    The coastal environment is in rapid and continuous evolution and it is easily affected by many natural and antropic factors. Beaches are often backed by vegetated dunes and fulfill many different valuable ecosystem functions. They act as protective buffers against storm surge, wave attack and erosion, providing a unique habitat for flora and fauna. Coastal embryo dunes, found above mean high water, are dynamic landform being able to supply sand to the beach when needed. They may form rapidly and may be rapidly destructed due to high tides and storm waves or human interferences. The southern part (3 km long) of Rosolina (Adriatic Sea, Italy) is characterized by a wide beach bordered by a complex dune system. The geomorphological characteristics of embryo dunes have been identified by using an RPAS in order to develop a fast and low-cost surveying technique. The aircraft has flown at a 50 meters altitude, taking photos with a 12Mpix RGB camera and a GSD of about 1 cm. The images overlap of 80% in the flight direction and 60% laterally. Fourteen targets have been collocated in the area as ground control points and were surveyed using Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK) GNSS. Images and GCPs were elaborated in Agisoft PhotoScan to generate the model. A similar NRTK survey has been performed to integrate the wrong data (due to vegetation) for the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM) in a first step and finally to validate the model obtained through UAV photogrammetry through a comparison with specially surveyed points. The creation of a DEM from photos is one of main tasks and its accuracy is critical. A challenge in this work was to recognize the vegetation in the sand dunes area to exclude all the points not belonging to the ground. This was possible through a classification process based on slope detection. Finally, the suitable elevation accuracy has been reached and the survey has revealed a complex dune system characterized by: • on the upper part of the

  6. Continuous evolution of cloud droplet spectrum in cumulus cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Saito, Izumi; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a new method that can seamlessly simulate the continuous growth of cloud droplets to rain drops from the first principle. A cubic box ascending with a mean updraft was introduced and the updraft velocity was self-consistently determined in such a way that the mean turbulent velocity within the box vanished. All the degrees of freedom were numerically integrated by using the Lagrangian dynamics for the droplets and the Eulerian direct numerical simulation for the turbulence. The key processes included were turbulent transport, condensation/evaporation, Reynolds number dependent drag, collision-coalescence, and entrainment. We have examined the evolution of the droplet spectrum over 400 s for a few of the initial droplet spectra: (1) single peak, (2) double peaks, (3) observed distribution, each of which had the same initial mean radius 10 μm and the same mean droplet density np = 125 cm-3. The turbulence was in steady state at Rλ = 86 and ɛ = 33 cm2s-3. It is found that the mass spectrum peak moves slowly toward the larger radius in the early stage and then quickly evolves to have the second peak through the autoconversion to the accretion state. Effects of the condensation and coalescence would also be reported. Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research Nos.15H02218 and hp150088, hp160085 and jh160012.

  7. Morphological evolution of growing crystals - A Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1988-01-01

    The combined effects of nutrient diffusion and surface kinetics on the crystal morphology were investigated using a Monte Carlo model to simulate the evolving morphology of a crystal growing from a two-component gaseous nutrient phase. The model combines nutrient diffusion, based on a modified diffusion-limited aggregation process, with anisotropic surface-attachment kinetics and surface diffusion. A variety of conditions, ranging from kinetic-controlled to diffusion-controlled growth, were examined. Successive transitions from compact faceted (dominant surface kinetics) to open dendritic morphologies (dominant volume diffusion) were obtained.

  8. Applications of Physical Modeling to the Evolution of Slot Canyon Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, C. L.; Anderson, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    Abrasion-dominated fluvial erosion generates slot canyons with intricately undulating wall morphology. Flows in slot canyons are unique in that the walls comprise a significant portion of the wetted perimeter of the flow. Wire Pass, UT incises through massive cross-bedded Navajo Sandstone. The canyon ranges in width from <1 m to ˜5 m in the slotted sections, and in depth from ˜5 m to ˜25 m. Incision in Wire Pass and related slots is limited to ephemeral flash floods; paleoflood debris indicates that the depth-to-width ratios of these flows are at least 1:1. Sub-meter resolution field mapping of a 20 m length of Wire Pass shows that the wall morphology is a complicated combination of both in-phase (meander-like), and out-of-phase (pinch and swell) type undulations. In order to understand the evolution of slot canyon wallforms, and the influence of these shapes on flow dynamics, we recorded the evolution of four distinct canyon wall morphologies in a 2.4 m flume box at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. In a substrate consisting of approximately 3:2 mixtures of F110 sand and plaster of Paris, we molded in-phase and out-of-phase undulations, and wide (6.5 cm) and narrow (4 cm) straight initial wall profiles. Sediment-laden water flowed through each canyon at discharges ranging from 2.6 L/s to 4.2 L/s. We made velocity measurements in three dimensions in sections of each canyon. At 5 hr intervals we documented wall and bed morphology at 0.5 cm resolution using a Keyance LK-500 laser mounted on a moving cart. Initial results show that wall faces in both undulating canyons evolve at different rates, and their flow fields are strongly asymmetric. Upstream-facing walls in undulating canyons eroded most rapidly. In the straight-walled canyons, small perturbations developed in the walls. Each canyon incised downward and headward from a knickpoint generated by a consistent lower boundary. Incision depths averaged ˜6 cm. Incision generally propagated around small cracks in

  9. The Continuing Infrared Evolution of SN1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, David; Challis, Peter; Danziger, John; De Buizer, James; Gehrz, Robert; Kirshner, Robert; McCray, Richard; Park, Sangwook; Polomski, Elisha; Woodward, Charles

    2008-03-01

    We will use the SPITZER to continue the ongoing monitoring of SN1987A, the youngest supernova remnant that is undergoing noticable evolutionary changes during the lifetime of the Great Observatories. At infrared wavelengths SN1987A provides a unique complimentary view of the interaction of the SN blast wave with the equatorial ring (ER). Dust in the ER is being swept up by the expanding shock and collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas observed with CHANDRA, giving rise to IR emission that reveals the composition and amount of dust that formed in the outflow of the presupernova star. The IR observations also provide a unique tool for studying physical processes - the collisional heating and destruction of dust - in dusty X-ray emitting plasmas. Parts of the blast wave has penetrated the denser regions of the ER, creating the 'hotspots' observed with HUBBLE. IR line emission from these regions provide important information on the physical conditions and the elemental and dust composition in these cooling shocks. Additionally, the ejecta of the SN explosion contains dust that was observed to have formed about 530 days after the explosion. Its imminent interaction with the ring will heat up this dust, which will be observable with SPITZER. In addition to providing useful information on SN1987A and its environment, the proposed observations will address key global issues regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the universe: how much dust is formed in SN ejecta and in quiescent stellar outflows, and how efficiently grains are destroyed by interstellar shock waves.

  10. The Continuing Infrared Evolution of SN1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, David; Challis, Peter; Danziger, John; De Buizer, James; Gehrz, Robert; Kirshner, Robert; McCray, Richard; Park, Sangwook; Polomski, Elisha; Woodward, Charles

    2007-05-01

    We will use the SPITZER to continue the ongoing monitoring of SN1987A, the youngest supernova remnant that is undergoing noticable evolutionary changes during the lifetime of the Great Observatories. At infrared wavelengths SN1987A provides a unique complimentary view of the interaction of the SN blast wave with the equatorial ring (ER). Dust in theÊ ERÊ is being swept up by the expanding shock and collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas observed with CHANDRA, giving rise to IR emission that reveals the composition and amount of dust that formed in the outflow of the presupernova star. The IR observations also provide a unique tool for studying physical processes - the collisional heating and destruction of dust -Ê in dusty X-ray emitting plasmas. Parts of the blast wave has penetrated the denser regions of the ER, creating the 'hotspots' observed with HUBBLE. IR line emission from these regions provide important information on the physical conditions and theÊelemental and dust composition in these cooling shocks. Additionally, the ejecta of the SN explosion contains dust that was observed to have formed about 530 days after the explosion. Its imminent interaction with the ring will heat up this dust, which will be observable with SPITZER. In addition to providing useful information on SN1987A and its environment, the proposed observations will address key global issues regarding the origin and evolution of dust in the universe: how much dust is formed in SN ejecta and in quiescent stellar outflows, and how efficiently grains are destroyed by interstellar shock waves.

  11. Constraining supermassive black hole evolution through the continuity equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Marco; Volonteri, Marta

    2017-03-01

    The population of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is split between those that are quiescent, such as those seen in local galaxies including the Milky Way, and those that are active, resulting in quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGN). Outside our neighborhood, all the information we have on SMBHs is derived from quasars and AGN, giving us a partial view. We study the evolution of the SMBH population, total and active, by the continuity equation, backwards in time from z = 0 to z = 4. Type-1 and type-2 AGN are differentiated in our model on the basis of their respective Eddington ratio distributions, chosen on the basis of observational estimates. The duty cycle is obtained by matching the luminosity function of quasars, and the average radiative efficiency is the only free parameter in the model. For higher radiative efficiencies (≳ 0.07), a large fraction of the SMBH population, most of them quiescent, must already be in place by z = 4. For lower radiative efficiencies ( 0.05), the duty cycle increases with the redshift and the SMBH population evolves dramatically from z = 4 onwards. The mass function of active SMBHs does not depend on the choice of the radiative efficiency or of the local SMBH mass function, but it is mainly determined by the quasar luminosity function once the Eddington ratio distribution is fixed. Only direct measurement of the total black-hole mass function at redshifts z ≳ 2 could break these degeneracies, offering important constraints on the average radiative efficiency. Focusing on type-1 AGN, for which observational estimates of the mass function and Eddington ratio distribution exist at various redshifts, models with lower radiative efficiencies better reproduce the high-mass end of the mass function at high z, but tend to over-predict it at low z, and vice-versa for models with higher radiative efficiencies.

  12. Microstructural evolution and grain morphology of ZrN pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungho; Han, Ilsu; Lee, Hyunjun; Huh, Sunchul; Park, Wonjo

    2009-04-01

    Improvements in the mechanical integrity of zirconium nitride (ZrN) inert matrixes in advanced nuclear fuels were addressed in this work. This was done by first better understanding and then controlling texture and microstructural evolution of the former. Several samples were examined via orientation imaging microscopy: several monolithic specimens were hot isostatically pressed (HIP), and two sintered specimens with 80 % and 85 % density Grain size and crystallographic orientation studies revealed sample microstructure and their evolution during sintering. A correlation between larger grains and orientations near to <111> parallel to the compression axis during cold pressing was present for the 85 % density sample.

  13. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  14. Evolution of P3 morphology in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Leonard, W R; Hegmon, M

    1987-05-01

    The Australopithecus afarensis dental sample exhibits a wide range of variation, which is most notable in the morphology of the lower third premolar (P3). P3 morphology in the A. afarensis sample ranges from the primitive sectorial extreme in AL 128-23 to the derived, bicuspid (molarized) extreme in AL 333w-1. In this paper, the degree and patterning of variation of the 20 known A. afarensis P3s are examined and the evolutionary implications are discussed. Initially, a series of dental and mandibular metric criteria are evaluated to determine whether this sample may be analyzed as a single species. From the metrics, it is clear that the single species hypothesis cannot be rejected. Next, a series of morphological criteria is devised to measure P3 molarization. Taken as a whole, the A. afarensis P3 sample displays more variation than a sample of modern hominoids (Pan troglodytes) and shows a slight trend toward increased molarization through time. When separated by sex, the A. afarensis sample still displays greater variation than the chimpanzee sample; however, only the male A. afarensis specimens show a trend toward increased molarization. Additionally, the male A. afarensis P3s are more molarized than the female, a pattern that is seen as well (though less markedly) in the chimpanzee sample. The trend toward increased molarization over time indicates selection for grinding in A. afarensis. The sexual differences parallel those seen in the postcrania (cf. Stern and Susman: Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 60:279-318, 1983), as the females tend to retain the primitive condition, while the males display the derived morphology. Consequently, a model of sexual differences in niche exploitation, with the females exploiting a more arboreal environment, would seem to be supported by both the dental and postcranial evidence.

  15. Exploring the Relationship Between Hydrograph Characteristics and the Time Evolution of Sand Bed Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockelford, A.; Parsons, D. R.; Hardy, R. J.; Ashworth, P. J.; Best, J.

    2015-12-01

    The development of sand bed morphology in response to steady flow is adequately described in most bedform phase diagrams. This includes the prediction of bedform wavelength, height and shape, all important parameters in estimating flow resistance. However, during time-varying flow, such as that experienced during the passage of a flood wave, the implicit assumption that bedform adjustment tracks changes in flow depth and velocity does not hold true due to bedform hysteresis. Consequently, there is a need to understand which characteristics of unsteady flow drive the disequilibrium dynamics between bedform geometry and hydraulic conditions. This paper describes a series of experiments designed to identify the impacts of hydrograph characteristics on the morphodynamic evolution of alluvial dunes. Mobile sand bed (D50 of 450μm) experiments were undertaken in a 16m long, 1.6m wide flume. Sediment was water worked under steady unidirectional flow until equilibrium bed conditions were achieved, after which a hydrograph was applied. At the end of the hydrograph, a period of steady flow was once again run until equilibrium conditions were attained. Hydrograph one consisted of steeply rising (80 minutes) and falling (65 minutes) limbs with hydrograph two characterised by longer rising (170 minutes) and falling (230 minutes) limbs. During the hydrograph discharge was changed in discrete steps. Bed morphology profiles were measured continuously along a 5m by 0.6m, centreline transect using twelve ultrasonic sensors. Three-dimensional flow was measured with a stack of Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters downstream of the transect. Suspended sediment was quantified using a three-frequency set of Acoustic Backscatter Sensors. The impact of these differing hydrograph characteristics are discussed in terms of differences between equilibrium bed morphologies, evolving flow field characteristics and the dynamics of suspended sediment concentrations through the hydrographs.

  16. A continuous phenotype space model of cancer evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masip, David; Korobeinikiov, Andrei

    2017-02-01

    It was suggested that the ability of cancer to avoid immune response pressure (that should be expected to be capable to annihilate cancer at its early stage) can be attributed to the ability of the cancer cells to evolve. The goal of this notice is to illustrate this possibility by the means of mathematical modelling. In this notice, we construct a simple mechanistic model of cancer evolution, which is based upon a classical model of cancer-immune response interaction. Numerical simulations confirm the hypothesis that if cancer mutates fast enough and if immune response is not sufficiently strong, then cancer is able to avoid immune response pressure by evolution.

  17. Surface morphological evolution during annealing of epitaxial Cu(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Purswani, J. M.; Gall, D.

    2008-08-15

    Single crystal Cu(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering at T{sub s}=100 deg. C. Quantitative surface morphological analyses by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy show that the surfaces exhibit self-affine mound structures with a scaling exponent of 0.82{+-}0.03 and a mound radius r{sub c} that increases from 31{+-}8 to 39{+-}6 nm for increasing layer thickness t=24-120 nm. In situ annealing at 200 and 300 deg. C leads to a thermodynamically driven mass transport that minimizes the surface step density, resulting in broader mounds and a smaller root mean square surface roughness {sigma}. This effect is most pronounced for t=24 nm, for which r{sub c} increases from 31{+-}8 to 70{+-}20 nm and {sigma} decreases from 1.3{+-}0.1 to 0.74{+-}0.08 nm, resulting in a decrease in the average surface slope from {chi}=7 deg. to 2 deg. and an increase in the average terrace width w{sub T} by more than a factor of 4. In contrast, w{sub T} increases by only 20% for t=120 nm. This remarkable difference between 'thin' and 'thick' layers is attributed to diverging surface morphological pathways during annealing: The strong smoothening for t=24 nm is due to a competitive coalescence process where some mounds grow laterally at the expense of their smaller neighbors, which die out. In contrast, the initially wider mounds of thicker layers (t=120 nm) combine to form a quasistable surface morphology that exhibits anisotropic mound structures, which limit mass transport and stabilize the surface step density.

  18. Morphological Evolution of Block Copolymer Particles: Effect of Solvent Evaporation Rate on Particle Shape and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Man; Kim, YongJoo; Yun, Hongseok; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2017-02-28

    Shape and morphology of polymeric particles are of great importance in controlling their optical properties or self-assembly into unusual superstructures. Confinement of block copolymers (BCPs) in evaporative emulsions affords particles with diverse structures, including prolate ellipsoids, onion-like spheres, oblate ellipsoids, and others. Herein, we report that the evaporation rate of solvent from emulsions encapsulating symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) determines the shape and internal nanostructure of micron-sized BCP particles. A distinct morphological transition from the ellipsoids with striped lamellae to the onion-like spheres was observed with decreasing evaporation rate. Experiments and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations showed that the evaporation rate affected the organization of BCPs at the particle surface, which determined the final shape and internal nanostructure of the particles. Differences in the solvent diffusion rates in PS and PB at rapid evaporation rates induced alignment of both domains perpendicular to the particle surface, resulting in ellipsoids with axial lamellar stripes. Slower evaporation rates provided sufficient time for BCP organization into onion-like structures with PB as the outermost layer, owing to the preferential interaction of PB with the surroundings. BCP molecular weight was found to influence the critical evaporation rate corresponding to the morphological transition from ellipsoid to onion-like particles, as well as the ellipsoid aspect ratio. DPD simulations produced morphologies similar to those obtained from experiments and thus elucidated the mechanism and driving forces responsible for the evaporation-induced assembly of BCPs into particles with well-defined shapes and morphologies.

  19. Surface morphological evolution of epitaxial CrN(001) layers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.R.; Gall, D.

    2005-09-01

    CrN layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at T{sub s}=600-800 deg. C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges from an oblique deposition angle {alpha}=80 deg. . Layers grown at 600 deg. C nucleate as single crystals with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. However, rough surfaces with cauliflower-type morphologies cause the nucleation of misoriented CrN grains that develop into cone-shaped grains that protrude out of the epitaxial matrix to form triangular faceted surface mounds. The surface morphology of epitaxial CrN(001) grown at 700 deg. C is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along the orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped super mounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are attributed to a Bales-Zangwill instability while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing which leads to the formation of epitaxial inverted pyramids that are separated from the surrounding layer by tilted nanovoids. Growth at 800 deg. C yields complete single crystals with smooth surfaces. The root-mean-square surface roughness for 230-nm-thick layers decreases from 18.8 to 9.3 to 1.1 nm as T{sub s} is raised from 600 to 700 to 800 deg. C. This steep decrease is due to a transition in the roughening mechanism from atomic shadowing to kinetic roughening. Atomic shadowing is dominant at 600 and 700 deg. C, where misoriented grains and supermounds, respectively, capture a larger fraction of the oblique deposition flux in comparison to the surrounding epitaxial matrix, resulting in a high roughening rate that is described by a power law with an exponent {beta}>0.5. In contrast, kinetic roughening controls the surface morphology for T{sub s}=800 deg. C, as well as the epitaxial fraction of the layers grown at 600 and 700 deg. C, yielding relatively smooth surfaces and {beta}{<=}0.27.

  20. Evolution and Functional Morphology of the Proboscis in Kalyptorhynchia (Platyhelminthes)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Julian P. S.; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Gobert, Stefan; Uyeno, Theodore; Artois, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Predatory flatworms belonging to the taxon Kalyptorhynchia are characterized by an anterior muscular proboscis that they use to seize prey. In many cases, the proboscis is armed with hooks, derived either from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the muscles or from intracellular deposits in the epithelium covering the proboscis. Glands associated with the proboscis reportedly are venomous; however, there are few direct tests of this hypothesis. This article reviews the structure and current knowledge of the function of the proboscis in the Kalyptorhynchia, points to areas in which the current understanding of phylogenetic relationships within this taxon is incongruent with our hypothesis of how the proboscis evolved, and addresses areas in need of further research, especially as regards functional morphology and biomechanics. PMID:26002347

  1. Evolution and Functional Morphology of the Proboscis in Kalyptorhynchia (Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Smith, Julian P S; Litvaitis, Marian K; Gobert, Stefan; Uyeno, Theodore; Artois, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Predatory flatworms belonging to the taxon Kalyptorhynchia are characterized by an anterior muscular proboscis that they use to seize prey. In many cases, the proboscis is armed with hooks, derived either from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the muscles or from intracellular deposits in the epithelium covering the proboscis. Glands associated with the proboscis reportedly are venomous; however, there are few direct tests of this hypothesis. This article reviews the structure and current knowledge of the function of the proboscis in the Kalyptorhynchia, points to areas in which the current understanding of phylogenetic relationships within this taxon is incongruent with our hypothesis of how the proboscis evolved, and addresses areas in need of further research, especially as regards functional morphology and biomechanics.

  2. Evolution of pyramid morphology during InAs(001) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, J. Bubesh; Yoh, Kanji

    2010-08-16

    Growth of InAs(001) homoepitaxial layer has been carried out especially at the bistable region, where the coexistence of both In-stabilized (4x2) and As-stabilized (2x4) surface reconstruction are found to be predominant. The observation of pyramid morphology in this bistable region is reported here. Atomic force microscopy studies have been performed on such pyramids. The heights of the observed pyramids vary from 12 to 26 nm with their bases from 3.6x1.2 to 18x6.3 {mu}m{sup 2}. Formation of such pyramids in the bistable region is attributed to the unique anomalous As-desorption observed during the surface reconstruction.

  3. The seahorse genome and the evolution of its specialized morphology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Fan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yanhong; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Huixian; Yang, Yulan; Lee, Alison P; Woltering, Joost M; Ravi, Vydianathan; Gunter, Helen M; Luo, Wei; Gao, Zexia; Lim, Zhi Wei; Qin, Geng; Schneider, Ralf F; Wang, Xin; Xiong, Peiwen; Li, Gang; Wang, Kai; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Chi; Qiu, Ying; Bai, Jie; He, Weiming; Bian, Chao; Zhang, Xinhui; Shan, Dai; Qu, Hongyue; Sun, Ying; Gao, Qiang; Huang, Liangmin; Shi, Qiong; Meyer, Axel; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2016-12-14

    Seahorses have a specialized morphology that includes a toothless tubular mouth, a body covered with bony plates, a male brood pouch, and the absence of caudal and pelvic fins. Here we report the sequencing and de novo assembly of the genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Comparative genomic analysis identifies higher protein and nucleotide evolutionary rates in H. comes compared with other teleost fish genomes. We identified an astacin metalloprotease gene family that has undergone expansion and is highly expressed in the male brood pouch. We also find that the H. comes genome lacks enamel matrix protein-coding proline/glutamine-rich secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein genes, which might have led to the loss of mineralized teeth. tbx4, a regulator of hindlimb development, is also not found in H. comes genome. Knockout of tbx4 in zebrafish showed a 'pelvic fin-loss' phenotype similar to that of seahorses.

  4. Effect of Morphology of Co3O4 for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi-Zhi; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Su, Yu-Zhi; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hui; Hui, Yun-Ping; Li, Nan; Liu, Zhao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, three different morphological Co3O4 electrodes for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been synthesized. By comparing the three morphologies of Co3O4, the electrocatalytic properties show that the urchin-like spheres of Co3O4 electrode has relative low overpotential and good electrocatalysis stability, indicating that the structure of urchin-like Co3O4 spheres exhibit an easy OER for water splitting. PMID:25525423

  5. The Evolution of Dendrite Morphology during Isothermal Coarsening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkemper, Jens; Mendoza, Roberto; Kammer, Dimitris; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2003-01-01

    Dendrite coarsening is a common phenomenon in casting processes. From the time dendrites are formed until the inter-dendritic liquid is completely solidified dendrites are changing shape driven by variations in interfacial curvature along the dendrite and resulting in a reduction of total interfacial area. During this process the typical length-scale of the dendrite can change by orders of magnitude and the final microstructure is in large part determined by the coarsening parameters. Dendrite coarsening is thus crucial in setting the materials parameters of ingots and of great commercial interest. This coarsening process is being studied in the Pb-Sn system with Sn-dendrites undergoing isothermal coarsening in a Pb-Sn liquid. Results are presented for samples of approximately 60% dendritic phase, which have been coarsened for different lengths of times. Presented are three-dimensional microstructures obtained by serial-sectioning and an analysis of these microstructures with regard to interface orientation and interfacial curvatures. These graphs reflect the evolution of not only the microstructure itself, but also of the underlying driving forces of the coarsening process. As a visualization of the link between the microstructure and the driving forces a three-dimensional microstructure with the interfaces colored according to the local interfacial mean curvature is shown.

  6. Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Therizinosaurs are a group of herbivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia, best known for their iconically large and elongate manual claws. However, among Therizinosauria, ungual morphology is highly variable, reflecting a general trend found in derived theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes). A combined approach of shape analysis to characterize changes in manual ungual morphology across theropods and finite-element analysis to assess the biomechanical properties of different ungual shapes in therizinosaurs reveals a functional diversity related to ungual morphology. While some therizinosaur taxa used their claws in a generalist fashion, other taxa were functionally adapted to use the claws as grasping hooks during foraging. Results further indicate that maniraptoriform dinosaurs deviated from the plesiomorphic theropod ungual morphology resulting in increased functional diversity. This trend parallels modifications of the cranial skeleton in derived theropods in response to dietary adaptation, suggesting that dietary diversification was a major driver for morphological and functional disparity in theropod evolution. PMID:24807260

  7. The Continuing Evolution of Effective IT Security Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voloudakis, John

    2006-01-01

    In the past three years, higher education institutions have made a number of moves to secure their critical systems and protect their users, resulting in a marked change in the techniques used to combat security threats. Today, continued progress may depend on the development of an enterprise IT security program. (Contains 10 notes.)

  8. Morphological bubble evolution induced by air diffusion on submerged hydrophobic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Pengyu; Xiang, Yaolei; Xue, Yahui; Lin, Hao; Duan, Huiling

    2017-03-01

    Bubbles trapped in the cavities always play important roles in the underwater applications of structured hydrophobic surfaces. Air exchange between bubbles and surrounding water has a significant influence on the morphological bubble evolution, which in turn frequently affects the functionalities of the surfaces, such as superhydrophobicity and drag reduction. In this paper, air diffusion induced bubble evolution on submerged hydrophobic micropores under reduced pressures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The morphological behaviors of collective and single bubbles are observed using confocal microscopy. Four representative evolution phases of bubbles are captured in situ. After depressurization, bubbles will not only grow and coalesce but also shrink and split although the applied pressure remains negative. A diffusion-based model is used to analyze the evolution behavior and the results are consistent with the experimental data. A criterion for bubble growth and shrinkage is also derived along with a phase diagram, revealing that the competition of effective gas partial pressures across the two sides of the diffusion layer dominates the bubble evolution process. Strategies for controlling the bubble evolution behavior are also proposed based on the phase diagram. The current work provides a further understanding of the general behavior of bubble evolution induced by air diffusion and can be employed to better designs of functional microstructured hydrophobic surfaces.

  9. Morphological Evolution and Weak Interface Development within CVD-Zirconia Coating Deposited on Hi-Nicalon Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hao; Lee, Jinil; Libera, Matthew R.; Lee, Woo Y.; Kebbede, Anteneh; Lance, Michael J.; Wang, Hongyu; Morscher, Gregory N.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The phase contents and morphology of a ZrO2 fiber coating deposited at 1050 C on Hi-Nicalon(Tm) by chemical vapor deposition were examined as a function of deposition time from 5 to 120 min. The morphological evolution in the ZrO2 coating was correlated to the development of delamination within the ZrO2 coating. The delamination appears to occur as a result of: (1) continuous formation of tetragonal ZrO2 nuclei on the deposition surface; (2) martensitic transformation of the tetragonal phase to a monoclinic phase upon reaching a critical grain size; and (3) development of significant compressive hoop stresses due to the volume dilation associated with the transformation. Our observations suggest that it will be of critical importance to further understand and eventually control the nucleation and grain growth behavior of CVD ZrO2 and its phase transformation behavior for its potential applications for composites.

  10. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J.B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun1, Yves V.

    2014-01-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? While bacteria display a myriad of morphologies1, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk2,3. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct sub-cellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the Caulobacter genus, and sub-polar or bi-lateral in the Asticcacaulis genus4. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX5, was co-opted in the Asticcacaulis genus to specify stalk synthesis at either the sub-polar or bi-lateral positions. We show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that evolution of protein function, co-option, and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24463524

  11. Structure trees and species trees: what they say about morphological development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Geeta, R

    2003-01-01

    The evolutionary history of morphological structures generally is equated with that of the taxa that carry them. It is argued here that, analogous to genes, developmental genetic pathways underlying morphological structures may be subject to developmental evolutionary changes that result, for instance, in duplication (serial homology analogous to gene duplication and paralogy). Entities that undergo evolution are expected to be related to each other as a tree. Just as with molecular evolution, "structure trees" and species trees sometimes may be incongruent, with implications for morphological homology concepts. Detection of structure trees through morphological evolutionary analyses may point to an entity that is maintained through evolution, possibly in part because it is a developmentally integrated structure ("individualized"). This idea is illustrated in a morphological evolutionary analysis of leaf primordia. These analyses suggest that leaf primordia in monocots and close relatives are related to each other as a tree and, therefore, are developmentally integrated, evolving entities. Among monocot primordia this tree structure breaks down, and it is concluded that there is no entity, the "monocot leaf primordium." However, one group of primordia is identified within monocots that have uniform characteristics and that are well represented by model species maize and rice. Such analyses of structure trees can facilitate the extrapolation and interpretation of results from molecular developmental and other comparative studies.

  12. Coral reefs promote the evolution of morphological diversity and ecological novelty in labrid fishes.

    PubMed

    Price, S A; Holzman, R; Near, T J; Wainwright, P C

    2011-05-01

    Although coral reefs are renowned biodiversity hotspots it is not known whether they also promote the evolution of exceptional ecomorphological diversity. We investigated this question by analysing a large functional morphological dataset of trophic characters within Labridae, a highly diverse group of fishes. Using an analysis that accounts for species relationships, the time available for diversification and model uncertainty we show that coral reef species have evolved functional morphological diversity twice as fast as non-reef species. In addition, coral reef species occupy 68.6% more trophic morphospace than non-reef species. Our results suggest that coral reef habitats promote the evolution of both trophic novelty and morphological diversity within fishes. Thus, the preservation of coral reefs is necessary, not only to safeguard current biological diversity but also to conserve the underlying mechanisms that can produce functional diversity in future.

  13. Morphology evolution from thin-hexapod to aggregated sphere of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yong-Jung; Huh, Young-Duk

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} In this work we report the first simple morphology-controlled synthesis for various morphologies of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. {yields} We synthesized the Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals using a conventional microwave oven only for 3 min. {yields} We find that the amount of glucose and the microwave irradiation time play important roles in controlling the morphology of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. -- Abstract: A range of morphologies of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals, such as thin-hexapod, thick-hexapod, truncated hexapod, truncated octahedron, cuboctahedron, and aggregated sphere were prepared by the reduction reaction from the mixed solution of CuCl{sub 2}, NaOH, glucose, and poly(ethylene) glycol. Monodispersed and well-crystallized Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals were prepared for only a few minutes using a conventional microwave oven. The amount of glucose and the microwave irradiation time play important roles in controlling the morphology of the Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals. The morphology of the Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals was changed from thin-hexapod to aggregated sphere by the glucose concentration. The morphology of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals was changed from thick-hexapod to octahedron by increasing the microwave irradiation time. The crystal growth mechanism and morphology evolution of Cu{sub 2}O microcrystals are discussed.

  14. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy

    PubMed Central

    Darda, David M.; Wake, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes). Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1) phylogeny, 2) adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms), 3) size-free shape, and 4) size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work. PMID:26060996

  15. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae): Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    PubMed

    Darda, David M; Wake, David B

    2015-01-01

    Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes). Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1) phylogeny, 2) adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms), 3) size-free shape, and 4) size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  16. Continuous scaling 3d micro flow printing for improved spot morphology in protein microarrays - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Valentin; Gale, Bruce; Eckman, Josh; Miles, Adam; Brooks, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The protein microarray platform while innovative still poses a number of challenges which can only be met through creative and sophisticated system design. Pin printing while allowing for flexibility as to the type of medium printed does not offer the kind of spot reproducibility that a very sensitive application may require. The Continuous Flow Microspotter (CFM) was designed to not only allow for flexibility and reproducibility but to also achieve solution stability through flow scaling. This study uses the emerging CFM for printing protein and antibodies three dimensionally for general protein microarray applications. Consistent spot morphology, a continual and persistent problem in traditional pin printed microarrays, was compared under variable printed flow rates. The final assessment was performed using a rudimentary shear model. Force effects discussion and statistical data was used to demonstrate the versatility of the system.

  17. Cation-containing Polymers with Co-continuous Microphase-Separated Morphologies for Rapid Transport Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Frederick; Price, Samuel; Savage, Alice; Ren, Xiaoming; Pomerantz, Natalie; Zukas, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Cation-containing polymer membranes are the subject of renewed research for their potential to enable the use of alkaline fuel cells, and are also of interest for their water vapor transport properties. Charge and water vapor transport are both heavily dependent on membrane morphology and the development of hydrophilic channels throughout the material. Reaction induced phase separation has been shown to create such morphologies when used with uncharged copolymers and crosslinking monomers. Here we have applied this same technique but used ion-containing block copolymers of 4-vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride and styrene to create a cation-containing polymer membrane having a microphase-separated, co-continuous morphology, as characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM). These materials show excellent charge transport behavior and water vapor transport properties, surpassing commercially available materials. These results and efforts to improve other important physical characteristics for membrane applications will be presented.

  18. Shear Induced Morphology Evolution and Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior of Binary and Ternary Elastomer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xia; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Wei; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin

    2015-03-01

    The morphology evolution and rheological response of a near-critical composition polybutadiene /polyisoprene blend and solution-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber/polyisoprene/silica ternary composites after various shear flow were in situ studied with the rheological and rheo-optical techniques. The relationship between the morphology of the blend during the relaxation after the cessation of steady shear with different shear rates and their corresponding rheological properties was successfully established. It was found that the different shear-induced morphologies under steady shear would relax to the equilibrium states via varied mechanisms after the shear cessation. The storage modulus G' increased significantly in the breakup process of the string-like phase. In long time scale, silica slowed down the succeeding breakup of the string-phase domains and simultaneous coalescence of broken droplets, and then effectively reduced the droplets size and stabilized the morphology. The authors thank the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51173195).

  19. Morphology evolution of gold nanoparticles as function of time, temperature, and Au(III)/sodium ascorbate molar ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priolisi, Ornella; Fabrizi, Alberto; Deon, Giovanna; Bonollo, Franco; Cattini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this work the morphology evolution of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), obtained by direct reduction, was studied as a function of time, temperature, and Au(III)/sodium ascorbate molar ratio. The NPs morphology was examined by transmission electron microscope with image analysis, while time evolution was investigated by visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. It is found that initially formed star-like NPs transform in more spheroidal particles and the evolution appears more rapid by increasing the temperature while a large amount of reducing agent prevents the remodeling of AuNPs. An explication of morphology evolution is proposed.

  20. Five molecular markers reveal extensive morphological homoplasy and reticulate evolution in the Malva alliance (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Escobar García, Pedro; Schönswetter, Peter; Fuertes Aguilar, Javier; Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2009-02-01

    The Malva alliance is a well-defined group with extensive morphological homoplasy. As a result, the relationships among the taxa as well as the evolution of morphological traits have remained elusive and the traditional classifications are highly artificial. Using five molecular markers (nuclear ITS, plastid matK plus trnK, ndhF, trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH), we arrived at a phylogenetic hypothesis of this group, the genera Alcea, Althaea and Malvalthaea being studied here for the first time with molecular data. Althaea and, in particular, Lavatera and Malva are highly polyphyletic as currently circumscribed, because their diagnostic characters, the number and degree of fusion of the epicalyx bracts, evolve in a highly homoplasious manner. In contrast, fruit morphology largely agrees with the molecularly delimited groups. Hybrid origins confirmed for the genus Malvalthaea and for Lavatera mauritanica and hybridization in the group of ruderal small-flowered mallows underline the importance of reticulate evolution in shaping the history of this group and complicating the interpretation of morphological evolution.

  1. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J B; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V

    2014-02-27

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  2. Sequential evolution of bacterial morphology by co-option of a developmental regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Brown, Pamela J. B.; Ducret, Adrien; Brun, Yves V.

    2014-02-01

    What mechanisms underlie the transitions responsible for the diverse shapes observed in the living world? Although bacteria exhibit a myriad of morphologies, the mechanisms responsible for the evolution of bacterial cell shape are not understood. We investigated morphological diversity in a group of bacteria that synthesize an appendage-like extension of the cell envelope called the stalk. The location and number of stalks varies among species, as exemplified by three distinct subcellular positions of stalks within a rod-shaped cell body: polar in the genus Caulobacter and subpolar or bilateral in the genus Asticcacaulis. Here we show that a developmental regulator of Caulobacter crescentus, SpmX, is co-opted in the genus Asticcacaulis to specify stalk synthesis either at the subpolar or bilateral positions. We also show that stepwise evolution of a specific region of SpmX led to the gain of a new function and localization of this protein, which drove the sequential transition in stalk positioning. Our results indicate that changes in protein function, co-option and modularity are key elements in the evolution of bacterial morphology. Therefore, similar evolutionary principles of morphological transitions apply to both single-celled prokaryotes and multicellular eukaryotes.

  3. Insight into diversity, body size and morphological evolution from the largest Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhonghe; Clarke, Julia; Zhang, Fucheng

    2008-05-01

    Most of Mesozoic bird diversity comprises species that are part of one of two major lineages, namely Ornithurae, including living birds, and Enantiornithes, a major radiation traditionally referred to as 'opposite birds'. Here we report the largest Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird from north-east China, which provides evidence that basal members of Enantiornithes share more morphologies with ornithurine birds than previously recognized. Morphological evolution in these two groups has been thought to be largely parallel, with derived members of Enantiornithes convergent on the 'advanced' flight capabilities of ornithurine birds. The presence of an array of morphologies previously thought to be derived within ornithurine and enantiornithine birds in a basal enantiornithine species provides evidence of the complex character evolution in these two major lineages. The cranial morphology of the new specimen is among the best preserved for Mesozoic avians. The new species extends the size range known for Early Cretaceous Enantiornithes significantly and provides evidence of forelimb to hind limb proportions distinct from all other known members of the clade. As such, it sheds new light on avian body size evolution and diversity, and allows a re-evaluation of a previously proposed hypothesis of competitive exclusion among Early Cretaceous avian clades.

  4. Insight into diversity, body size and morphological evolution from the largest Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhonghe; Clarke, Julia; Zhang, Fucheng

    2008-01-01

    Most of Mesozoic bird diversity comprises species that are part of one of two major lineages, namely Ornithurae, including living birds, and Enantiornithes, a major radiation traditionally referred to as ‘opposite birds’. Here we report the largest Early Cretaceous enantiornithine bird from north-east China, which provides evidence that basal members of Enantiornithes share more morphologies with ornithurine birds than previously recognized. Morphological evolution in these two groups has been thought to be largely parallel, with derived members of Enantiornithes convergent on the ‘advanced’ flight capabilities of ornithurine birds. The presence of an array of morphologies previously thought to be derived within ornithurine and enantiornithine birds in a basal enantiornithine species provides evidence of the complex character evolution in these two major lineages. The cranial morphology of the new specimen is among the best preserved for Mesozoic avians. The new species extends the size range known for Early Cretaceous Enantiornithes significantly and provides evidence of forelimb to hind limb proportions distinct from all other known members of the clade. As such, it sheds new light on avian body size evolution and diversity, and allows a re-evaluation of a previously proposed hypothesis of competitive exclusion among Early Cretaceous avian clades. PMID:18397240

  5. Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebula Morphology: Probing Stellar Populations and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini; Shaw; Balick; Blades

    2000-05-10

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer the unique opportunity to study both the population and evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, by means of the morphological type of the nebula. Using observations from our LMC PN morphological survey, and including images available in the Hubble Space Telescope Data Archive and published chemical abundances, we find that asymmetry in PNe is strongly correlated with a younger stellar population, as indicated by the abundance of elements that are unaltered by stellar evolution (Ne, Ar, and S). While similar results have been obtained for Galactic PNe, this is the first demonstration of the relationship for extragalactic PNe. We also examine the relation between morphology and abundance of the products of stellar evolution. We found that asymmetric PNe have higher nitrogen and lower carbon abundances than symmetric PNe. Our two main results are broadly consistent with the predictions of stellar evolution if the progenitors of asymmetric PNe have on average larger masses than the progenitors of symmetric PNe. The results bear on the question of formation mechanisms for asymmetric PNe-specifically, that the genesis of PNe structure should relate strongly to the population type, and by inference the mass, of the progenitor star and less strongly on whether the central star is a member of a close binary system.

  6. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2009-09-15

    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals.

  7. Modeling morphology evolution and densification during solid-state sintering via kinetic Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaohua; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Microstructure control is an important subject in solid-state sintering and plays a crucial role in determining post-sintering material properties, such as strength, toughness and density, to name but a few. The preponderance of existing numerical sintering simulations model the morphology evolution and densification process driven by surface energy minimization by either dilating the particles to be sintered or using the vacancy annihilation model. Here, we develop a novel kinetic Monte Carlo model to model morphology evolution and densification during free sintering. Specifically, we derive analytically a heterogeneous densification rate of the sintering system by considering sintering stress induced mass transport. The densification of the system is achieved by modeling the sintering stress induced mass transfer via applying effective particle displacement and grain boundary migration with an efficient two-step iterative interfacial energy minimization procedure. Coarsening is also considered in the later stages of the simulations. We show that our model can accurately capture the diffusion-induced evolution of particle morphology, including neck formation and growth, as well as realistically reproduce the overall densification of the sintered material. The computationally obtained dynamic density evolution curves for both two-particle sintering and many-particle material sintering are found to be in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental master sintering curves. Our model can be utilized to control a variety of structural and physical properties of the sintered materials, such as the pore size and final material density.

  8. Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. Results We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account. PMID:24884745

  9. The geometry of the marmot (rodentia: sciuridae) mandible: phylogeny and patterns of morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea

    2003-04-01

    Marmots have a prominent role in the study of mammalian social evolution, but only recently has their systematics received the attention it deserves if sociobiological studies are to be placed in a phylogenetic context. Sciurid morphology can be used as model to test the congruence between morphological change and phylogeny because sciurid skeletal characters are considered to be inclined to convergence. However, no morphological study involving all marmot species has ever been undertaken. Geometric morphometric techniques were applied in a comparative study of the marmot mandible. The adults of all 14 living marmot species were compared, and mean mandible shape were used to investigate morphological evolution in the genus Marmota. Three major trends were observed. First, the phylogenetic signal in the variation of landmark geometry, which describes mandible morphology, seems to account for the shape differences at intermediate taxonomic levels. The subgenera Marmota and Petromarmota, recently proposed on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence, receive support from mandible morphology. When other sciurid genera were included in the analysis, the monophyly of the genus Marmota and that of the tribe Marmotini (i.e., marmots, prairie dogs, and ground squirrels) was strengthened by the morphological data. Second, the marmotine mandible may have evolved as a mosaic of characters and does not show convergence determined by size similarities. Third, allopatric speciation in peripheral isolates may have acted as a powerful force for modeling shape. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the peculiar mandible of M. vancouverensis and, to a lesser degree, by that of M. olympus, both thought to have originated as isolated populations in Pleistocene ice-free refugia.

  10. The Motions and Morphologies of cloud features on Neptune: continued monitoring with Keck Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. C.; de Pater, I.; Gibbard, S. G.; Macintosh, B. A.; Roe, H. G.; Max, C. E.

    2002-09-01

    We present near infrared images taken in the H band (1.4-1.8 microns) using the newly commissioned NIRC2 at the W. M. Keck II telescope as part of a continuing program to monitor the atmospheric dynamics of Neptune using Adaptive Optics. These images with a resolution of .06 arcseconds reveal five infrared bright groups of features. Two groups of features (30-40 deg N and 20-50 deg S) are confined in latitude but span all longitudes creating bands around the planet. Small cloud morphology and relative motions in the wide Southern band (20-50 deg S) identify apparent cloud shearing events and differences in relative speeds within latitude bands. One localized group of features (30 deg N) shows interesting morphologies with marked departures from lines of latitude. Another localized group of South Polar features (70 deg S) show changes in morphology from a teardrop to a train of clouds to an arc of features during three years of observations. The final group of features is spatially diffuse and spans many latitude lines but is tightly confined in longitude. This research was supported in part by the STC Program of the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. AST-9876783, and in part under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Univ. of Calif. under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  11. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted.

  12. Bayesian Morphological Clock Methods Resurrect Placoderm Monophyly and Reveal Rapid Early Evolution in Jawed Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    King, Benedict; Qiao, Tuo; Lee, Michael S Y; Zhu, Min; Long, John A

    2016-12-05

    The phylogeny of early gnathostomes provides an important framework for understanding one of the most significant evolutionary events, the origin and diversification of jawed vertebrates. A series of recent cladistic analyses have suggested that the placoderms, an extinct group of armoured fish, form a paraphyletic group basal to all other jawed vertebrates. We revised and expanded this morphological data set, most notably by sampling autapomorphies in a similar way to parsimony-informative traits, thus ensuring this data (unlike most existing morphological data sets) satisfied an important assumption of Bayesian tip-dated morphological clock approaches. We also found problems with characters supporting placoderm paraphyly, including character correlation and incorrect codings. Analysis of this data set reveals that paraphyly and monophyly of core placoderms (excluding maxillate forms) are essentially equally parsimonious. The two alternative topologies have different root positions for the jawed vertebrates but are otherwise similar. However, analysis using tip-dated clock methods reveals strong support for placoderm monophyly, due to this analysis favoring trees with more balanced rates of evolution. Furthermore, enforcing placoderm paraphyly results in higher levels and unusual patterns of rate heterogeneity among branches, similar to that generated from simulated trees reconstructed with incorrect root positions. These simulations also show that Bayesian tip-dated clock methods outperform parsimony when the outgroup is largely uninformative (e.g., due to inapplicable characters), as might be the case here. The analysis also reveals that gnathostomes underwent a rapid burst of evolution during the Silurian period which declined during the Early Devonian. This rapid evolution during a period with few articulated fossils might partly explain the difficulty in ascertaining the root position of jawed vertebrates. [Bayesian; BEAST; morphological clock; morphology

  13. Computational Examination of Orientation-Dependent Morphological Evolution during the Electrodeposition and Electrodissolution of Magnesium

    DOE PAGES

    DeWitt, S.; Hahn, N.; Zavadil, K.; ...

    2015-12-30

    Here a new model of electrodeposition and electrodissolution is developed and applied to the evolution of Mg deposits during anode cycling. The model captures Butler-Volmer kinetics, facet evolution, the spatially varying potential in the electrolyte, and the time-dependent electrolyte concentration. The model utilizes a diffuse interface approach, employing the phase field and smoothed boundary methods. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of magnesium deposited on a gold substrate show the formation of faceted deposits, often in the form of hexagonal prisms. Orientation-dependent reaction rate coefficients were parameterized using the experimental SEM images. Three-dimensional simulations of the growth of magnesium deposits yieldmore » deposit morphologies consistent with the experimental results. The simulations predict that the deposits become narrower and taller as the current density increases due to the depletion of the electrolyte concentration near the sides of the deposits. Increasing the distance between the deposits leads to increased depletion of the electrolyte surrounding the deposit. Two models relating the orientation-dependence of the deposition and dissolution reactions are presented. Finally, the morphology of the Mg deposit after one deposition-dissolution cycle is significantly different between the two orientation-dependence models, providing testable predictions that suggest the underlying physical mechanisms governing morphology evolution during deposition and dissolution.« less

  14. Computational Examination of Orientation-Dependent Morphological Evolution during the Electrodeposition and Electrodissolution of Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, S.; Hahn, N.; Zavadil, K.; Thornton, K.

    2015-12-30

    Here a new model of electrodeposition and electrodissolution is developed and applied to the evolution of Mg deposits during anode cycling. The model captures Butler-Volmer kinetics, facet evolution, the spatially varying potential in the electrolyte, and the time-dependent electrolyte concentration. The model utilizes a diffuse interface approach, employing the phase field and smoothed boundary methods. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of magnesium deposited on a gold substrate show the formation of faceted deposits, often in the form of hexagonal prisms. Orientation-dependent reaction rate coefficients were parameterized using the experimental SEM images. Three-dimensional simulations of the growth of magnesium deposits yield deposit morphologies consistent with the experimental results. The simulations predict that the deposits become narrower and taller as the current density increases due to the depletion of the electrolyte concentration near the sides of the deposits. Increasing the distance between the deposits leads to increased depletion of the electrolyte surrounding the deposit. Two models relating the orientation-dependence of the deposition and dissolution reactions are presented. Finally, the morphology of the Mg deposit after one deposition-dissolution cycle is significantly different between the two orientation-dependence models, providing testable predictions that suggest the underlying physical mechanisms governing morphology evolution during deposition and dissolution.

  15. Morphological Evolution and Sediment Partitioning Through a Large Confluence-Diffluence Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, C. R.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Confluence-diffluence units are key nodes in fluvial systems, controlling local bed morphology, the routing of sediment and water and ultimately defining channel stability and the larger-scale, planform dynamics. The Chaktomuk Junction on the Mekong River is the site of the confluence of the Tonlé Sap and Mekong rivers, as well as the diffluence of the Mekong and Bassac rivers. This junction defines the upstream apex of the Mekong delta. As such, the morphological evolution of this confluence-diffluence over single flood events, and larger temporal scales, determines the partitioning of water and sediment as it enters the Mekong delta, as well as to the critically important ecosystem that is the Tonlé Sap Lake. Here, we present data from a series of high spatial resolution topographic (Multibeam Echo Sounder), flow (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) and sub-bottom profiling (Parametric Echo Sounder) surveys undertaken on the Chaktomuk Junction, which reveal the temporal and spatial evolution of this critically important confluence-diffluence unit. We show spatial patterns of morphological change across a range of monsoonal flow stages and at various temporal scales, as well as sub-bottom profiling across the large bars present at the confluence. We also identify the response in the partitioning of the suspended and bedload portions of sediment transport through the confluence-diffluence, and elucidate the implications of this partitioning for the evolution of the downstream channel.

  16. Molecular mechanisms for the evolution of bacterial morphologies and growth modes

    PubMed Central

    Randich, Amelia M.; Brun, Yves V.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit a rich diversity of morphologies. Within this diversity, there is a uniformity of shape for each species that is replicated faithfully each generation, suggesting that bacterial shape is as selectable as any other biochemical adaptation. We describe the spatiotemporal mechanisms that target peptidoglycan synthesis to different subcellular zones to generate the rod-shape of model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We then demonstrate, using the related genera Caulobacter and Asticcacaulis as examples, how the modularity of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery permits repositioning of the machinery to achieve different growth modes and morphologies. Finally, we highlight cases in which the mechanisms that underlie morphological evolution are beginning to be understood, and how they depend upon the expansion and diversification of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery. PMID:26106381

  17. Morphological basis for the evolution of acoustic diversity in oscine songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic properties of vocalizations arise through the interplay of neural control with the morphology and biomechanics of the sound generating organ, but in songbirds it is assumed that the main driver of acoustic diversity is variation in telencephalic motor control. Here we show, however, that variation in the composition of the vibrating tissues, the labia, underlies diversity in one acoustic parameter, fundamental frequency (F0) range. Lateral asymmetry and arrangement of fibrous proteins in the labia into distinct layers is correlated with expanded F0 range of species. The composition of the vibrating tissues thus represents an important morphological foundation for the generation of a broad F0 range, indicating that morphological specialization lays the foundation for the evolution of complex acoustic repertoires. PMID:24500163

  18. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. At a temperature of 1,000°C, rope-, feather-, and octopus-like nanowire assemblies can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. While at 950°C, stringlike assemblies, bamboo-like nanostructures with large joints, and hollow structures with smaller sizes can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. Both vapor–liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features. PMID:22938090

  19. Molecular mechanisms for the evolution of bacterial morphologies and growth modes.

    PubMed

    Randich, Amelia M; Brun, Yves V

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit a rich diversity of morphologies. Within this diversity, there is a uniformity of shape for each species that is replicated faithfully each generation, suggesting that bacterial shape is as selectable as any other biochemical adaptation. We describe the spatiotemporal mechanisms that target peptidoglycan synthesis to different subcellular zones to generate the rod-shape of model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We then demonstrate, using the related genera Caulobacter and Asticcacaulis as examples, how the modularity of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery permits repositioning of the machinery to achieve different growth modes and morphologies. Finally, we highlight cases in which the mechanisms that underlie morphological evolution are beginning to be understood, and how they depend upon the expansion and diversification of the core components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery.

  20. Morphological basis for the evolution of acoustic diversity in oscine songbirds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Goller, Franz

    2014-03-22

    Acoustic properties of vocalizations arise through the interplay of neural control with the morphology and biomechanics of the sound generating organ, but in songbirds it is assumed that the main driver of acoustic diversity is variation in telencephalic motor control. Here we show, however, that variation in the composition of the vibrating tissues, the labia, underlies diversity in one acoustic parameter, fundamental frequency (F0) range. Lateral asymmetry and arrangement of fibrous proteins in the labia into distinct layers is correlated with expanded F0 range of species. The composition of the vibrating tissues thus represents an important morphological foundation for the generation of a broad F0 range, indicating that morphological specialization lays the foundation for the evolution of complex acoustic repertoires.

  1. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Tielin; Xi, Shuang; Lai, Wuxing; Liu, Shiyuan; Li, Xiaoping; Tang, Zirong

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. At a temperature of 1,000°C, rope-, feather-, and octopus-like nanowire assemblies can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. While at 950°C, stringlike assemblies, bamboo-like nanostructures with large joints, and hollow structures with smaller sizes can be obtained along with the Si vapor source concentration gradient flow. Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features.

  2. Life on the rocks: habitat use drives morphological and performance evolution in lizards.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Brett A; Miles, Donald B; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2008-12-01

    As a group, lizards occupy a vast array of habitats worldwide, yet there remain relatively few cases where habitat use (ecology), morphology, and thus, performance, are clearly related. The best known examples include: increased limb length in response to increased arboreal perch diameter in anoles and increased limb length in response to increased habitat openness for some skinks. Rocky habitats impose strong natural selection on specific morphological characteristics, which differs from that imposed on terrestrial species, because moving about on inclined substrates of irregular sizes and shapes constrains locomotor performance in predictable ways. We quantified habitat use, morphology, and performance of 19 species of lizards (family Scincidae, subfamily Lygosominae) from 23 populations in tropical Australia. These species use habitats with considerable variation in rock availability. Comparative phylogenetic analyses revealed that occupation of rock-dominated habitats correlated with the evolution of increased limb length, compared to species from forest habitats that predominantly occupied leaf litter. Moreover, increased limb length directly affected performance, with species from rocky habitats having greater sprinting, climbing, and clinging ability than their relatives from less rocky habitats. Thus, we found that the degree of rock use is correlated with both morphological and performance evolution in this group of tropical lizards.

  3. History of studies on mammalian middle ear evolution: a comparative morphological and developmental biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Masaki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2010-09-15

    The mammalian middle ear represents one of the most fundamental morphological features that define this class of vertebrates. Its skeletal pattern differs conspicuously from those of other amniotes and has attracted the attention of comparative zoologists for about 200 years. To reconcile this morphological inconsistency, early comparative morphologists suggested that the mammalian middle ear was derived from elements of the jaw joint of nonmammalian amniotes. Fossils of mammalian ancestors also implied a transition in skeletal morphology that resulted in the mammalian state. During the latter half of the 20th century, developmental mechanisms controlling the formation of the jaw skeleton became the subject of studies in developmental biology and molecular genetics. Mammalian middle ear evolution can now be interpreted as a series of changes in the developmental program of the pharyngeal arches. In this review, we summarize the history of middle ear research, highlight some of the remaining problems, and suggest possible future directions. We propose that to understand mammalian middle ear evolution, it is essential to identify the critical developmental events underlying the particular mammalian anatomy and to describe the evolutionary sequence of changes in developmental and molecular terms. We also discuss the degree of consistency between the developmental explanation of the mammalian middle ear based on molecular biology and morphological changes in the fossil record.

  4. Morphological and Molecular Evolution Are Not Linked in Lamellodiscus (Plathyhelminthes, Monogenea)

    PubMed Central

    Poisot, Timothée; Verneau, Olivier; Desdevises, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs 1922 (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) is a genus of common parasites on the gills of sparid fishes. Here we show that this genus is probably undergoing a fast molecular diversification, as reflected by the important genetic variability observed within three molecular markers (partial nuclear 18S rDNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 1, and mitonchondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I). Using an updated phylogeny of this genus, we show that molecular and morphological evolution are weakly correlated, and that most of the morphologically defined taxonomical units are not consistent with the molecular data. We suggest that Lamellodiscus morphology is probably constrained by strong environmental (host-induced) pressure, and discuss why this result can apply to other taxa. Genetic variability within nuclear 18S and mitochondrial COI genes are compared for several monogenean genera, as this measure may reflect the level of diversification within a genus. Overall our results suggest that cryptic speciation events may occur within Lamellodiscus, and discuss the links between morphological and molecular evolution. PMID:22022582

  5. High-temperature morphological evolution of lithographically introduced cavities in silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Narushima, Takayuki; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2000-12-01

    Internal cavities of controlled geometry and crystallography were introduced in 6H silicon carbide single crystals by combining lithographic methods, ion beam etching, and solid-state diffusion bonding. The morphological evolution of these internal cavities (negative crystals) in response to anneals of up to 128 h duration at 1900 degrees C was examined using optical microscopy. Surface energy anisotropy and faceting have a strong influence on both the geometric and kinetic characteristics of evolution. Decomposition of 12{bar 1}0 cavity edges into 101{bar 0} facets was observed after 16 h anneals, indicating that 12{bar 1}0 faces are not components of the Wulff shape. The shape evolution kinetics of penny-shaped cavities were also investigated. Experimentally observed evolution rates decreased much more rapidly with those predicted by a model in which surface diffusion is assumed to be rate-limiting. This suggests that the development of facets, and the associated loss of ledges and terraces during the initial stages of evolution results in an evolution process limited by the nucleation rate of attachment/detachment sites (ledges) on the facets.

  6. Physiological and Morphological Changes Induced by Nutrient Limitation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 378 in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Anders; Molin, Göran; Weibull, Claes

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 378 was studied in continuous culture at a dilution rate of 0.05 or 0.15 h−1 and under a limitation of carbon/energy, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron(III), or oxygen. Cultures were examined for nutritional consumption, production of biosurfactant AP-6 and lipase, and electron microscopy morphology. Morphological features were lysis and plasmolysis of the cells, vacuoles in the cells, granules in cell nuclei, and DNA coagulation during transmission electron microscopy preparation. Biosurfactant and lipase production were lost after 8 to 15 retention times, but under iron limitation and at low dilution rate they were maintained for more than 30 retention times. Consumption of nutrients varied between different cultures. Between 2.4 and 6.0 g of succinic acid per g (dry weight) was consumed; the highest value was obtained under phosphorus limitation. The uptake of nitrogen was mostly about 0.16 g/g (dry weight), and that of phosphorus varied between 13 and 58 mg/g (dry weight). Phosphorus-limited cells reduced their phosphorus consumption by at least 50% compared with other limitations. Cell morphology varied among different cultures. Up to 25% cell lysis occurred at the higher dilution rate. The frequencies of plasmolysis varied between 0 and 85%. Granules in nuclei were found in 65 to 100% of the cells. Vacuoles appeared mostly in low numbers, but at the lower dilution rate under phosphorus or iron limitation the frequencies increased to between 25 and 85%. At high dilution rate, the DNA coagulated in 30 to 70% of the cells. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated a general difference between the two tested dilution rates; i.e., both nutritional and morphological features differed more between the two tested dilution rates than between the different limitations. Cultures at the lower dilution rate changed more with time; this was especially pronounced for phosphorus or iron limitation. The data analysis also showed a correlation between

  7. Ecological causes of morphological evolution in the three-spined stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Rowena; Wootton, Robert J; Barber, Iain; Przybylski, Mirosław; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    The central assumption of evolutionary theory is that natural selection drives the adaptation of populations to local environmental conditions, resulting in the evolution of adaptive phenotypes. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) displays remarkable phenotypic variation, offering an unusually tractable model for understanding the ecological mechanisms underpinning adaptive evolutionary change. Using populations on North Uist, Scotland we investigated the role of predation pressure and calcium limitation on the adaptive evolution of stickleback morphology and behavior. Dissolved calcium was a significant predictor of plate and spine morph, while predator abundance was not. Stickleback latency to emerge from a refuge varied with morph, with populations with highly reduced plates and spines and high predation risk less bold. Our findings support strong directional selection in three-spined stickleback evolution, driven by multiple selective agents. PMID:23789080

  8. Evolution of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hierarchical morphology during slow gelation process and its superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Zhou, Chong; Du, Runhong; Li, Nana; Han, Xutong; Zhang, Yufeng; An, Shulin; Xiao, Changfa

    2013-06-26

    In the paper, we proposed an evolution process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) macromolecular aggregation in a mixed solvent through the simple and slow gelation process at room temperature. The mixed solvent is prepared with a room-temperature solvent and a high-temperature solvent. The evolution process can be terminated by quenching and exchanging with nonsolvent in a nonsolvent coagulation bath properly, and then the vivid petal-like nanostructure and microspherulite is formed simultaneously. This hierarchical morphology endows PVDF with superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties, which is useful to PVDF coating and membrane materials. The evolution processes are investigated through the measurements of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the rheological properties of solution, dry gel and wet gel, are explored.

  9. Morphological healing evolution of penny-shaped fatigue microcracks in pure iron at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. L.; Huang, P. Z.; Sun, J.; Gao, H.

    2004-08-01

    This letter reports a joint experimental and numerical investigation of high temperature morphological healing of micron-sized intragranular microcracks in pure iron. Irregular penny-shaped microcracks were first created by low-cycle fatigue and then subjected to annealing in vaccum at 1173K. It is shown theoretically that, depending on its initial aspect ratio, a penny-shaped microcrack may evolve via surface diffusion into an isolated spherical void, or a doughnut-shaped channel pore with or without a central spherical void. Subsequent evolution causes the doughnut-shaped channel pore to break up into a ring of spherical voids via Rayleigh's instabilities. These results were confirmed with experimental observations of typical configurations of voids that result from the crack healing process. The experimentally observed evolution time is also in good agreement with the predictions of finite element simulations of the evolution process.

  10. Biogeography, phylogeny, and morphological evolution of central Texas cave and spring salamanders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subterranean faunal radiations can result in complex patterns of morphological divergence involving both convergent or parallel phenotypic evolution and cryptic species diversity. Salamanders of the genus Eurycea in central Texas provide a particularly challenging example with respect to phylogeny reconstruction, biogeography and taxonomy. These predominantly aquatic species inhabit karst limestone aquifers and spring outflows, and exhibit a wide range of morphological and genetic variation. We extensively sampled spring and cave populations of six Eurycea species within this group (eastern Blepsimolge clade), to reconstruct their phylogenetic and biogeographic history using mtDNA and examine patterns and origins of cave- and surface-associated morphological variation. Results Genetic divergence is generally low, and many populations share ancestral haplotypes and/or show evidence of introgression. This pattern likely indicates a recent radiation coupled with a complex history of intermittent connections within the aquatic karst system. Cave populations that exhibit the most extreme troglobitic morphologies show no or very low divergence from surface populations and are geographically interspersed among them, suggesting multiple instances of rapid, parallel phenotypic evolution. Morphological variation is diffuse among cave populations; this is in contrast to surface populations, which form a tight cluster in morphospace. Unexpectedly, our analyses reveal two distinct and previously unrecognized morphological groups encompassing multiple species that are not correlated with spring or cave habitat, phylogeny or geography, and may be due to developmental plasticity. Conclusions The evolutionary history of this group of spring- and cave-dwelling salamanders reflects patterns of intermittent isolation and gene flow influenced by complex hydrogeologic dynamics that are characteristic of karst regions. Shallow genetic divergences among several species

  11. What explains patterns of species richness? The relative importance of climatic-niche evolution, morphological evolution, and ecological limits in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2016-08-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology and ecology is to understand why species richness varies among clades. Previous studies have suggested that variation in richness among clades might be related to variation in rates of morphological evolution among clades (e.g., body size and shape). Other studies have suggested that richness patterns might be related to variation in rates of climatic-niche evolution. However, few studies, if any, have tested the relative importance of these variables in explaining patterns of richness among clades. Here, we test their relative importance among major clades of Plethodontidae, the most species-rich family of salamanders. Earlier studies have suggested that climatic-niche evolution explains patterns of diversification among plethodontid clades, whereas rates of morphological evolution do not. A subsequent study stated that rates of morphological evolution instead explained patterns of species richness among plethodontid clades (along with "ecological limits" on richness of clades, leading to saturation of clades with species, given limited resources). However, they did not consider climatic-niche evolution. Using phylogenetic multiple regression, we show that rates of climatic-niche evolution explain most variation in richness among plethodontid clades, whereas rates of morphological evolution do not. We find little evidence that ecological limits explain patterns of richness among plethodontid clades. We also test whether rates of morphological and climatic-niche evolution are correlated, and find that they are not. Overall, our results help explain richness patterns in a major amphibian group and provide possibly the first test of the relative importance of climatic niches and morphological evolution in explaining diversity patterns.

  12. Morphological Evolution of Gyroid-Forming Block Copolymer Thin Films with Varying Solvent Evaporation Rate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Hsiu; Lo, Ting-Ya; She, Ming-Shiuan; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2015-08-05

    In this study, we aim to examine the morphological evolution of block copolymer (BCP) nanostructured thin films through solvent evaporation at different rates for solvent swollen polystyrene-block-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA). Interesting phase transitions from disorder to perpendicular cylinder and then gyroid can be found while using a partially selective solvent for PS to swell PS-PLLA thin film followed by solvent evaporation. During the transitions, gyroid-forming BCP thin film with characteristic crystallographic planes of (111)G, (110)G, and (211)G parallel to air surface can be observed, and will gradually transform into coexisting (110)G and (211)G planes, and finally transforms to (211)G plane due to the preferential segregation of constituted block to the surface (i.e., the thermodynamic origin for self-assembly) that affects the relative amount of each component at the air surface. With the decrease on the evaporation rate, the disorder phase will transform to parallel cylinder and then directly to (211)G without transition to perpendicular cylinder phase. Most importantly, the morphological evolution of PS-PLLA thin films is strongly dependent upon the solvent removal rate only in the initial stage of the evaporation process due to the anisotropy of cylinder structure. Once the morphology is transformed back to the isotropic gyroid structure after long evaporation, the morphological evolution will only relate to the variation of the surface composition. Similar phase transitions at the substrate can also be obtained by controlling the ratio of PLLA-OH to PS-OH homopolymers to functionalize the substrate. As a result, the fabrication of well-defined nanostructured thin films with controlled orientation can be achieved by simple swelling and deswelling with controlled evaporation rate.

  13. Surfactant-directed synthesis of silver nanorods and characteristic spectral changes occurred by their morphology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Guansong; Zhang, Wanzhong; Qiao, Xueliang; Wu, Kai; Chen, Qingyuan; Cai, Yuchun

    2014-11-01

    Silver nanorods with different polydispersity were synthesized in the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) rod-shaped micelles by inducing the orientation growth of silver seeds and adjusting the volumes of CTAB. The reaction for the formation of silver nanorods had basically finished in 10 min. A suitable volume of CTAB (i.e., 15.0 mL of 0.1 M CTAB) is beneficial to obtain high-quality silver nanorods in the given reaction system. That is, the volume of added CTAB is a key factor to determine the polydispersity of the formed nanorods. The aging time plays a critical role in the morphology evolution of silver nanorods due to the oxidation of silver nanorods with Br-, O2 and the Ostwald ripening of the nanoparticles. As a result, the characteristic spectral changes occurred due to the morphology evolution of silver nanorods. The ablation in the top ends of the longer nanorods is often accompanied by the growth of some shorter nanorods and nanospheres. The size distribution of silver nanorods might be more uniform in the early aging stage. All the nanorods in the colloidal solution should turn into the near-spherical nanoparticles with larger sizes and thus the characteristic absorption should change to single peak centered at about 400 nm. Based on the research results, mathematical models are proposed for explaining the formation and morphology changes of silver nanorods. The morphology evolution of silver nanorods may be important and can be used as a reference for preparing silver nanorods, nanowires and other anisotropic nanomaterials.

  14. On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K. Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D.

    2008-03-15

    High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

  15. Morphology Evolution and Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior of Ternary Elastomer Blends under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xia; Liu, Xianggui; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin

    The influence of nanoparticle geometry, such as size and shape, on the phase morphology of partially miscible binary polymer blends under and after shear has been examined by rheological and rheo-optical techniques. The phase morphologies of the solution-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber and low vinyl content polyisoprene (SSBR/LPI) blend systems were affected by the dispersion status of fillers which were determined by filler shapes and shear strength. Under weak shear flow, the domain morphology of the OMMT filled blend was much thinner than that of the SiO2 filled blend. Under strong shear flow, the string-like phase interface of the OMMT filled blend was much blurred compared with that of the SiO2 filled blend. After shear cessation, the orientation status of OMMT sheets determined the orientation of newborn domains. Combined morphology observation and rheological analysis showed that the anisotropic structure and the unfavorable bending energy of OMMT sheets played important roles on phase morphology and its evolution process during or after shear. The authors thank the financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51173195).

  16. Morphological evolution of cluster red sequence galaxies in the past 9 Gyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Propris, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Phillipps, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies arrive on the red sequences of clusters at high redshift (z > 1) once their star formation is quenched and evolve passively thereafter. However, we have previously found that cluster red sequence galaxies (CRSGs) undergo significant morphological evolution subsequent to the cessation of star formation, at some point in the past 9-10 Gyr. Through a detailed study of a large sample of cluster red sequence galaxies spanning 0.2 < z < 1.4 we elucidate the details of this evolution. Below z ˜ 0.5-0.6 (in the last 5-6 Gyr) there is little or no morphological evolution in the population as a whole, unlike in the previous 4-5 Gyr. Over this earlier time (i) disc-like systems with Sérsic n < 2 progressively disappear, as (ii) the range of their axial ratios similarly decreases, removing the most elongated systems (those consistent with thin discs seen at an appreciable inclination angle) and (iii) radial colour gradients (bluer outwards) decrease in an absolute sense from significant age-related gradients to a residual level consistent with the metallicity-induced gradients seen in low-redshift cluster members. The distribution of their effective radii shows some evidence of evolution, consistent with growth of at most a factor <1.5 between z ˜ 1.4 and ˜0.5, significantly less than for comparable field galaxies, while the distribution of their central (<1 kpc) bulge surface densities shows no evolution at least at z < 1. A simple model involving the fading and thickening of a disc component after comparatively recent quenching (after z ˜ 1.5) around an otherwise passively evolving older spheroid component is consistent with all of these findings.

  17. Evolution of a morphological novelty occurred before genome compaction in a lineage of extreme parasites

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Karen L.; James, Timothy Y.; Pombert, Jean-François; Larsson, Ronny; Schaer, Tobias M. M.; Refardt, Dominik; Ebert, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular parasitism results in extreme adaptations, whose evolutionary history is difficult to understand, because the parasites and their known free-living relatives are so divergent from one another. Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of humans and other animals, which evolved highly specialized morphological structures, but also extreme physiologic and genomic simplification. They are suggested to be an early-diverging branch on the fungal tree, but comparisons to other species are difficult because their rates of molecular evolution are exceptionally high. Mitochondria in microsporidia have degenerated into organelles called mitosomes, which have lost a genome and the ability to produce ATP. Here we describe a gut parasite of the crustacean Daphnia that despite having remarkable morphological similarity to the microsporidia, has retained genomic features of its fungal ancestors. This parasite, which we name Mitosporidium daphniae gen. et sp. nov., possesses a mitochondrial genome including genes for oxidative phosphorylation, yet a spore stage with a highly specialized infection apparatus—the polar tube—uniquely known only from microsporidia. Phylogenomics places M. daphniae at the root of the microsporidia. A comparative genomic analysis suggests that the reduction in energy metabolism, a prominent feature of microsporidian evolution, was preceded by a reduction in the machinery controlling cell cycle, DNA recombination, repair, and gene expression. These data show that the morphological features unique to M. daphniae and other microsporidia were already present before the lineage evolved the extreme host metabolic dependence and loss of mitochondrial respiration for which microsporidia are well known. PMID:25313038

  18. Adaptive responses and invasion: the role of plasticity and evolution in snail shell morphology.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Erica J; Dybdahl, Mark F

    2013-02-01

    Invasive species often exhibit either evolved or plastic adaptations in response to spatially varying environmental conditions. We investigated whether evolved or plastic adaptation was driving variation in shell morphology among invasive populations of the New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the western United States. We found that invasive populations exhibit considerable shell shape variation and inhabit a variety of flow velocity habitats. We investigated the importance of evolution and plasticity by examining variation in shell morphological traits 1) between the parental and F1 generations for each population and 2) among populations of the first lab generation (F1) in a common garden, full-sib design using Canonical Variate Analyses (CVA). We compared the F1 generation to the parental lineages and found significant differences in overall shell shape indicating a plastic response. However, when examining differences among the F1 populations, we found that they maintained among-population shell shape differences, indicating a genetic response. The F1 generation exhibited a smaller shell morph more suited to the low-flow common garden environment within a single generation. Our results suggest that phenotypic plasticity in conjunction with evolution may be driving variation in shell morphology of this widespread invasive snail.

  19. Adaptive responses and invasion: the role of plasticity and evolution in snail shell morphology

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Erica J; Dybdahl, Mark F

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often exhibit either evolved or plastic adaptations in response to spatially varying environmental conditions. We investigated whether evolved or plastic adaptation was driving variation in shell morphology among invasive populations of the New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the western United States. We found that invasive populations exhibit considerable shell shape variation and inhabit a variety of flow velocity habitats. We investigated the importance of evolution and plasticity by examining variation in shell morphological traits 1) between the parental and F1 generations for each population and 2) among populations of the first lab generation (F1) in a common garden, full-sib design using Canonical Variate Analyses (CVA). We compared the F1 generation to the parental lineages and found significant differences in overall shell shape indicating a plastic response. However, when examining differences among the F1 populations, we found that they maintained among-population shell shape differences, indicating a genetic response. The F1 generation exhibited a smaller shell morph more suited to the low-flow common garden environment within a single generation. Our results suggest that phenotypic plasticity in conjunction with evolution may be driving variation in shell morphology of this widespread invasive snail. PMID:23467920

  20. Asymmetric ecological conditions favor Red-Queen type of continued evolution over stasis.

    PubMed

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin; Stenseth, Nils C

    2016-02-16

    Four decades ago, Leigh Van Valen presented the Red Queen's hypothesis to account for evolution of species within a multispecies ecological community [Van Valen L (1973) Evol Theory 1(1):1-30]. The overall conclusion of Van Valen's analysis was that evolution would continue even in the absence of abiotic perturbations. Stenseth and Maynard Smith presented in 1984 [Stenseth NC, Maynard Smith J (1984) Evolution 38(4):870-880] a model for the Red Queen's hypothesis showing that both Red-Queen type of continuous evolution and stasis could result from a model with biotically driven evolution. However, although that contribution demonstrated that both evolutionary outcomes were possible, it did not identify which ecological conditions would lead to each of these evolutionary outcomes. Here, we provide, using a simple, yet general population-biologically founded eco-evolutionary model, such analytically derived conditions: Stasis will predominantly emerge whenever the ecological system contains only symmetric ecological interactions, whereas both Red-Queen and stasis type of evolution may result if the ecological interactions are asymmetrical, and more likely so with increasing degree of asymmetry in the ecological system (i.e., the more trophic interactions, host-pathogen interactions, and the like there are [i.e., +/- type of ecological interactions as well as asymmetric competitive (-/-) and mutualistic (+/+) ecological interactions]). In the special case of no between-generational genetic variance, our results also predict dynamics within these types of purely ecological systems.

  1. Sediment replenishment: Influence of the geometrical configuration on the morphological evolution of channel-bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisacco, E.; Franca, M. J.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    Dams trap sediment in the upstream reservoir, which may lead to river bed armoring, streambank erosion and failure, channel incision and reduction of the morphological diversity in the downstream river reaches. The replenishment of sediment is a mitigation measure for this problem to be applied in river reaches downstream of dams. Previously performed field experiments always used one single volume of sediment replenishment. To explore different alternatives, the replenished volume was here divided in four deposits with the motivation to influence also the morphological evolution downstream. Six different geometrical configurations together with three submergence conditions of sediment replenishment were tested for the first time in a laboratory experiment and are herein discussed. The results of the sediment replenishment mitigation technique are described in terms of occupied surface of the flume bed and the temporal evolution of erosion and transport of the introduced sediments. It is shown that, under our experimental conditions, complete submersion of the replenishment volume results in complete erosion of the placed sediment, with a high persistence of the added material along the channel length. The geometrical configuration of the replenishment volume plays a key role for the evolution of bed-forms downstream. Parallel configurations lead to a wider spread of material across the channel. Alternated configurations are suitable to produce sediment clustering and high persistence of placed material in the channel. Observed periodic mounds, considered as the initiating condition for alternate bars, follow a wavelength related to the length of the replenishment when the replenishment volumes are alternating.

  2. Inside the trap: gland morphologies, digestive enzymes, and the evolution of plant carnivory in the Caryophyllales⋆

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Tanya; Specht, Chelsea D

    2013-01-01

    The digestion of prey by carnivorous plants is determined in part by suites of enzymes that are associated with morphologically and anatomically diverse trapping mechanisms. Chitinases represent a group of enzymes known to be integral to effective plant carnivory. In non-carnivorous plants, chitinases commonly act as pathogenesis-related proteins, which are either induced in response to insect herbivory and fungal elicitors, or constitutively expressed in tissues vulnerable to attack. In the Caryophyllales carnivorous plant lineage, multiple classes of chitinases are likely involved in both pathogenic response and digestion of prey items. We review what is currently known about trap morphologies, provide an examination of the diversity, roles, and evolution of chitinases, and examine how herbivore and pathogen defense mechanisms may have been coopted for plant carnivory in the Caryophyllales. PMID:23830995

  3. PH dependent morphological evolution of beta-Bi2O3/PANI composite for supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, T; Ham, Dukho; Chang, Jinho; Cai, Gangri; Kil, Byung Ho; Min, Sun-Ki; Mane, Rajaram S; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline beta-Bi2O3 was synthesized through pH-dependent chemical bath deposition process, altering the morphology and evolution from nanoparticles (approximately 40 nm) at pH 9 to platelets (approximately 40 nm width and 0.8 microm length) at pH 12. In-situ aniline nucleation and growth at less basic condition on the beta-Bi2O3 increased the surface area and specific capacitance of the device. The morphological change of beta-Bi2O3/PANI composite from nanoparticles to platelets like nanostructure facilitated higher specific capacitance from 210 to 430 F/g at a scan rate of 10 mV/s with enhanced ionic diffusion and retention of specific capacitance up to 84% at higher scan rates.

  4. Controls on the Evolution of River Channel Morphology on Volcanic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    River channel morphology is thought to record the interaction of climatic and tectonic drivers of erosion, together with material properties of bedrock and the temporal changes in each of these parameters. However, unraveling the geophysical story told by river networks is complicated by the complexity of the interactions involved and the impracticality of making observations of river network evolution in situ over geological time scales. In this work, we exploit spatial gradients in an effort to understand fundamental controls on river channel morphology in volcanic terrains. We focus primarily on the Banda Arc, a complex tectonic domain with tectonic, volcanic, and climatic gradients that produce islands with river network geometries in a variety of stages and styles of evolution. We compute the Χ statistic - an integration of upstream drainage area over the length of a river - for rivers draining the Banda Arc islands, focusing on the currently and formerly active volcanic islands of the Arc. We compare Χ plots from across the Banda Arc with those from the Hawaiian Islands, which offer a time series of evolving river networks on volcanic islands of similar composition and a more stable tectonic domain to gain improved understanding of the role of tectonics and time in river network evolution. We find major disequilibria across main drainage divides in extinct volcanic terrains with little tectonic activity, as networks are forced away from their initial radial patterns by variations in lithology and/or climate. Tectonically active islands in the Banda Arc have generally smaller disequilibria across divides and produce more regular drainage patterns, indicating that, at the scale of individual volcanic islands, the tectonic signal may dominate in channel morphology.

  5. Convergent Evolution of Unique Morphological Adaptations to a Subterranean Environment in Cave Millipedes (Diplopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Golovatch, Sergei; Wesener, Thomas; Tian, Mingyi

    2017-01-01

    Animal life in caves has fascinated researchers and the public alike because of the unusual and sometimes bizarre morphological adaptations observed in numerous troglobitic species. Despite their worldwide diversity, the adaptations of cave millipedes (Diplopoda) to a troglobitic lifestyle have rarely been examined. In this study, morphological characters were analyzed in species belonging to four different orders (Glomerida, Polydesmida, Chordeumatida, and Spirostreptida) and six different families (Glomeridae, Paradoxosomatidae, Polydesmidae, Haplodesmidae, Megalotylidae, and Cambalopsidae) that represent the taxonomic diversity of class Diplopoda. We focused on the recently discovered millipede fauna of caves in southern China. Thirty different characters were used to compare cave troglobites and epigean species within the same genera. A character matrix was created to analyze convergent evolution of cave adaptations. Males and females were analyzed independently to examine sex differences in cave adaptations. While 10 characters only occurred in a few phylogenetic groups, 20 characters were scored for in all families. Of these, four characters were discovered to have evolved convergently in all troglobitic millipedes. The characters that represented potential morphological cave adaptations in troglobitic species were: (1) a longer body; (2) a lighter body color; (3) elongation of the femora; and (4) elongation of the tarsi of walking legs. Surprisingly, female, but not male, antennae were more elongated in troglobites than in epigean species. Our study clearly shows that morphological adaptations have evolved convergently in different, unrelated millipede orders and families, most likely as a direct adaptation to cave life. PMID:28178274

  6. Polyploid evolution and biogeography in Chelone (Scrophulariaceae): morphological and isozyme evidence.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A D; Elisens, W J

    1999-10-01

    Chelone is a genus of perennial herbs comprising three diploid species (C. cuthbertii, C. glabra, and C. lyonii) and a fourth species (C. obliqua) that occurs as tetraploid and hexaploid races. To assess patterns of isozyme and morphological variation, and to test hypotheses of hybridization and allopolyploidy, we analyzed variation among 16 isozyme loci from 61 populations and 16 morphological characters from 33 populations representing all taxa and ploidy levels. Based on morphological analyses using clustering (unweighted pair group method using an arithmetic average) and ordination (principal components analysis and canonical variance analysis) methods, we recognize three diploid species without infraspecific taxa. Polyploids in the C. obliqua complex were most similar morphologically to diploid populations of C. glabra and C. lyonii. Patterns of isozyme variation among polyploids, which included fixed heterozygosity and recombinant profiles of alleles present in diploids, suggested polytopic origins of tetraploids and hexaploids. Our data indicate independent origins of polyploids in or near the southern Blue Ridge, Interior Highlands and Plains, and Atlantic Coastal Plain regions from progenitors most similar to C. glabra and C. lyonii. Extant tetraploids were not implicated in evolution of hexaploids, and plants similar to C. cuthbertii appeared unlikely as diploid progenitors for polyploids. We propose multiple differentiation and hybridization/polyploidization cycles in different geographic regions to explain the pattern of allopatry and inferred polytopic origins among polyploids.

  7. Molecular phylogenetics and morphological evolution of St. John's wort (Hypericum; Hypericaceae).

    PubMed

    Nürk, Nicolai M; Madriñán, Santiago; Carine, Mark A; Chase, Mark W; Blattner, Frank R

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic hypotheses for the large cosmopolitan genus Hypericum (St. John's wort) have previously been based on morphology, and molecular studies have thus far included only a few species. In this study, we used 360 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) for 206 species representing Hypericum (incl. Triadenum and Thornea) and three other genera of Hypericaceae to generate an explicit phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus using parsimony and model-based methods. The results indicate that the small genus Triadenum is nested in a clade within Hypericum containing most of the New World species. Sister to Hypericum is Thornea from Central America. Within Hypericum, three large clades and two smaller grades were found; these are based on their general morphology, especially characters used previously in taxonomy of the genus. Relative to the most recent classification, around 60% of the sections of Hypericum were monophyletic. We used a Bayesian approach to reconstruct ancestral states of selected morphological characters, which resulted in recognition of characters that support major clades within the genus and a revised interpretation of morphological evolution in Hypericum. The shrubby habit represents the plesiomorphic state from which herbs evolved several times. Arborescent species have radiated convergently in high-elevation habitats in tropical Africa and South America.

  8. Correlated evolution of beak morphology and song in the neotropical woodcreeper radiation.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth Perrault; Seddon, Nathalie; Claramunt, Santiago; Tobias, Joseph Andrew; Baker, Adam; Aleixo, Alexandre; Brumfield, Robb Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Mating signals may diversify as a byproduct of morphological adaptation to different foraging niches, potentially driving speciation. Although many studies have focused on the direct influence of ecological and sexual selection on signal divergence, the role of indirect mechanisms remains poorly understood. Using phenotypic and molecular datasets, we explored the interplay between morphological and vocal evolution in an avian radiation characterized by dramatic beak variation, the Neotropical woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptinae). We found evidence of a trade-off between the rate of repetition of song syllables and frequency bandwidth: slow paced songs had either narrow or wide frequency bandwidths, and bandwidth decreased as song pace increased. This bounded phenotypic space for song structure supports the hypothesis that passerine birds face a motor constraint during song production. Diversification of acoustic characters within this bounded space was correlated with diversification of beak morphology. In particular, species with larger beaks produced slower songs with narrower frequency bandwidths, suggesting that ecological selection on beak morphology influences the diversification of woodcreeper songs. Because songs in turn mediate mate choice and species recognition in birds, these results indicate a broader role for ecology in avian diversification.

  9. Seasonal-scale nearshore morphological evolution: Field observations and numerical modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.-J.R.; Gelfenbaum, G.; van, Ormondt M.

    2009-01-01

    A coupled waves-currents-bathymetric evolution model (DELFT-3D) is compared with field measurements to test hypotheses regarding the processes responsible for alongshore varying nearshore morphological changes at seasonal time scales. A 2001 field experiment, along the beaches adjacent to Grays Harbor, Washington, USA, captured the transition between the high-energy erosive conditions of winter and the low-energy beach-building conditions typical of summer. The experiment documented shoreline progradation on the order of 10-20 m and on average approximately 70 m of onshore sandbar migration during a four-month period. Significant alongshore variability was observed in the morphological response of the sandbar over a 4 km reach of coast with sandbar movement ranging from 20 m of offshore migration to over 175 m of onshore bar migration, the largest seasonal-scale onshore migration event observed in a natural setting. Both observations and model results suggest that, in the case investigated here, alongshore variations in initial bathymetry are primarily responsible for the observed alongshore variable morphological changes. Alongshore varying incident hydrodynamic forcing, occasionally significant in this region due to a tidal inlet and associated ebb-tidal delta, was relatively minor during the study period and appears to play an insignificant role in the observed alongshore variability in sandbar behavior at kilometer-scale. The role of fully three-dimensional cell circulation patterns in explaining the observed morphological variability also appears to be minor, at least in the case investigated here. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Morphology Evolution of High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor Induced Intermediate Phases.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lijian; Dong, Shiqi; De Marco, Nicholas; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Sun, Pengyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-12-07

    Morphology is critical component to achieve high device performance hybrid perovskite solar cells. Here, we develop a vapor induced intermediate phase (VIP) strategy to manipulate the morphology of perovskite films. By exposing the perovskite precursor films to different saturated solvent vapor atmospheres, e.g., dimethylformamide and dimethylsufoxide, dramatic film morphological evolution occurs, associated with the formation of different intermediate phases. We observe that the crystallization kinetics is significantly altered due to the formation of these intermediate phases, yielding highly crystalline perovskite films with less defect states and high carrier lifetimes. The perovskite solar cells with the reconstructed films exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 19.2% under 1 sun AM 1.5G irradiance, which is among the highest planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Also, the perovskite solar cells with VIP processing shows less hysteresis behavior and a stabilized power output over 18%. Our work opens up a new direction for morphology control through intermediate phase formation, and paves the way toward further enhancing the device performances of perovskite solar cells.

  11. Topographic signatures of spatially-limited storm morphologies revealed from numerical landscape evolution modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valters, Declan; Brocklehurst, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Landscape evolution models typically forsake realistic spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall, assuming spatially uniform rainfall input and steady-state runoff conditions. The implications of this assumption are explored, using extensions made to the CHILD numerical landscape evolution model. A variety of rainfall distribution patterns are tested - from isolated intense storm cells associated with convective precipitation, to more extensive rainfall patterns associated with frontal or stratiform types of precipitation. Several topographic metrics are used to quantify the imprint left by variations in dominant storm shape and size, including the channel steepness (ksn) and chi (χ) gradient indices. All else being equal, resultant landscape topography is shown to be sensitive to the dominant storm morphology and storm cell positioning at the range and catchment scales.

  12. Rates of speciation and morphological evolution are correlated across the largest vertebrate radiation.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Santini, Francesco; Eastman, Jonathan; Smith, Stephen A; Sidlauskas, Brian; Chang, Jonathan; Alfaro, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Several evolutionary theories predict that rates of morphological change should be positively associated with the rate at which new species arise. For example, the theory of punctuated equilibrium proposes that phenotypic change typically occurs in rapid bursts associated with speciation events. However, recent phylogenetic studies have found little evidence linking these processes in nature. Here we demonstrate that rates of species diversification are highly correlated with the rate of body size evolution across the 30,000+ living species of ray-finned fishes that comprise the majority of vertebrate biological diversity. This coupling is a general feature of fish evolution and transcends vast differences in ecology and body-plan organization. Our results may reflect a widespread speciational mode of character change in living fishes. Alternatively, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phenotypic 'evolvability'-the capacity of organisms to evolve-shapes the dynamics of speciation through time at the largest phylogenetic scales.

  13. Morphological Evolution of Physical Robots through Model-Free Phenotype Development

    PubMed Central

    Brodbeck, Luzius; Hauser, Simon; Iida, Fumiya

    2015-01-01

    Artificial evolution of physical systems is a stochastic optimization method in which physical machines are iteratively adapted to a target function. The key for a meaningful design optimization is the capability to build variations of physical machines through the course of the evolutionary process. The optimization in turn no longer relies on complex physics models that are prone to the reality gap, a mismatch between simulated and real-world behavior. We report model-free development and evaluation of phenotypes in the artificial evolution of physical systems, in which a mother robot autonomously designs and assembles locomotion agents. The locomotion agents are automatically placed in the testing environment and their locomotion behavior is analyzed in the real world. This feedback is used for the design of the next iteration. Through experiments with a total of 500 autonomously built locomotion agents, this article shows diversification of morphology and behavior of physical robots for the improvement of functionality with limited resources. PMID:26091255

  14. The Morphology and Distribution of Submerged Reefs in the Maui Nui Complex, Hawaii: New Insights Into Their Evolution Since the Early Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faichney, I. D.; Webster, J. M.; Clague, D. A.; Kelley, C.; Appelgate, B.; Moore, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent work on submerged drowned reefs in Hawaii has provided insight into reef development within the Late Pleistocene but reefs of the Early Pleistocene remain largely unexplored. The Maui-Nui Complex (MNC) provides a natural laboratory to study reef evolution throughout this time period as new data indicate the reefs grew from 1.1 - 0.5 Ma. We use new high resolution bathymetric data combined with existing regional data and field observations from ROV and submersible dives to make a detailed analysis of reef morphology and structure around the MNC. We focus specifically on the south-central region of the complex which provide the best reef exposure and find that the morphology of the reefs varies both regionally and temporally within this region. Barrier and pinnacle features dominate the steeper margins in the north of the study area while wide, shallow backstepping occurs to the south. Additionally, the central part of the study area shows karst morphology and patch and lagoonal features between the islands. We propose that this variation in the morphology and structure of the reefs has been controlled by variations in three main factors; the subsidence rates of the complex, the amplitude and period of eustatic sea-level cycles and finally the slope and continuity of the substrate. We argue that the interaction of these three factors explains the observed variations in reef morphology within the MNC and finally we present a new model of reef evolution over the last 1.5 Ma.

  15. Decadal morphological evolution of the Yangtze Estuary in response to river input changes and estuarine engineering projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Hua Long; Ding, Ping Xing; Wang, Zheng Bing; Ge, Jian Zhong; Yang, Shi Lun

    2016-07-01

    The Yangtze Estuary in China has been intensively influenced by human activities including altered river and sediment discharges in its catchment and local engineering projects in the estuary over the past half century. River sediment discharge has significantly decreased since the 1980s because of upstream dam construction and water-soil conservation. We analyzed bathymetric data from the Yangtze Estuary between 1958 and 2010 and divided the entire estuary into two sections: inner estuary and mouth bar area. The deposition and erosion pattern exhibited strong temporal and spatial variations. The inner estuary and mouth bar area underwent different changes. The inner estuary was altered from sedimentation to erosion primarily at an intermediate depth (5-15 m) along with river sediment decline. In contrast, the mouth bar area showed continued accretion throughout the study period. The frequent river floods during the 1990s and simultaneously decreasing river sediment probably induced the peak erosion of the inner estuary in 1986-1997. We conclude that both sediment discharge and river flood events played important roles in the decadal morphological evolution of the Yangtze Estuary. Regarding the dredged sediment, the highest net accretion rate occurred in the North Passage where jetties and groins were constructed to regulate the navigation channel in 1997-2010. In this period, the jetties induced enhanced deposition at the East Hengsha Mudflat and the high accretion rate within the mouth bar area was maintained. The impacts of estuarine engineering projects on morphological change extended beyond their sites.

  16. Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Renran; Hu, Yi; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Liming; Zhang, Qiang; Koch, Marcus A; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris; Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhong, Yang; Ma, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Brassicaceae is one of the most diverse and economically valuable angiosperm families with widely cultivated vegetable crops and scientifically important model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolutionary history, ecological, morphological, and genetic diversity, and abundant resources and knowledge of Brassicaceae make it an excellent model family for evolutionary studies. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the family revealed three major lineages (I, II, and III), but relationships among and within these lineages remain largely unclear. Here, we present a highly supported phylogeny with six major clades using nuclear markers from newly sequenced transcriptomes of 32 Brassicaceae species and large data sets from additional taxa for a total of 55 species spanning 29 out of 51 tribes. Clade A consisting of Lineage I and Macropodium nivale is sister to combined Clade B (with Lineage II and others) and a new Clade C. The ABC clade is sister to Clade D with species previously weakly associated with Lineage II and Clade E (Lineage III) is sister to the ABCD clade. Clade F (the tribe Aethionemeae) is sister to the remainder of the entire family. Molecular clock estimation reveals an early radiation of major clades near or shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and subsequent nested divergences of several tribes of the previously polytomous Expanded Lineage II. Reconstruction of ancestral morphological states during the Brassicaceae evolution indicates prevalent parallel (convergent) evolution of several traits over deep times across the entire family. These results form a foundation for future evolutionary analyses of structures and functions across Brassicaceae.

  17. The morphological evolution of the axial structure and the curved columnar grain in the weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Rihong; Lu, Shanping; Dong, Wenchao; Li, Dianzhong; Li, Yiyi

    2015-12-01

    The competitive growth of microstructures in the entire weld pool for both the Al-Cu alloy and the pure aluminum was simulated by the cellular automata method to comparatively investigate the micro-mechanisms for the morphological evolution of the axial structure and the curved columnar grain in the weld. The competitive mechanism of grains during the epitaxial growth and the morphological evolution of the grain structure in the weld with various welding speeds were studied. The results indicate that both the thermal conditions and the solidification characteristic of the weld metal exert an important influence on the grain competition and the resulting structure in the weld. For the Al-Cu alloy, the dendritic structure with a large S/L interface curvature appears during the epitaxial growth. The preferential orientation affects the competition result obviously. Owing to the anisotropic growth kinetics, the straight axial structure forms at low welding speeds. With the increase of the welding speed, the width of the axial region decreases and eventually disappears. For the pure aluminum, the S/L interface during the epitaxial growth is planar, and the grain competition is controlled by the thermal conditions completely. The columnar grains curve gradually to follow the highest temperature gradient direction at low welding speeds and become straight at high welding speeds.

  18. Effect of fast mold surface temperature evolution on iPP part morphology gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liparoti, Sara; Sorrentino, Andrea; Guzman, Gustavo; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Titomanlio, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The control of mold surface temperature is an important factor that affects the sample surface morphology as well as the structural gradients (orientation crystal size, and type) as well as cooling stresses. The frozen layer thickness formed during the filling stage also has a very significant effect on the flow resistance and thus on the resulting pressure drop and flow length in thin wall parts. The possibility to have a hot mold during filling and a quick cooling soon afterward is a significant process enhancement particularly for specialized applications such as micro injection molding and for the reproduction of micro structured surfaces. Up to now, several methods (electromagnetic, infrared, hot vapor fleshing etc,) were tried to achieve fast temperature evolution of the mold. Unfortunately, all these methods require a complex balance between thermal and mechanical problems, equipment cost, energy consumption, safety, molding cycle time and part quality achievable. In this work, a thin electrical resistance was designed and used to generate a fast and confined temperature variation on mold surface (by joule effect). Since the whole temperature evolution can take place in a few seconds, one can couple the advantages of a high surface temperature during filling with the advantages of a low mold temperature, fast cooling and low heating dissipation. Some experiments were performed with a commercial iPP resin. The effects of the surface temperature and of the heating time (under constant electric power) on surface finishing and on the final morphology (thickness and structure of the different layers) are explored and discussed.

  19. Imitation, genetic lineages, and time influenced the morphological evolution of the violin.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Violin design has been in flux since the production of the first instruments in 16th century Italy. Numerous innovations have improved the acoustical properties and playability of violins. Yet, other attributes of the violin affect its performance less, and with fewer constraints, are potentially more sensitive to historical vagaries unrelated to quality. Although the coarse shape of violins is integral to their design, details of the body outline can vary without significantly compromising sound quality. What can violin shapes tell us about their makers and history, including the degree that luthiers have influenced each other and the evolution of complex morphologies over time? Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history. Specific shape attributes, which discriminate instruments produced by different luthiers, strongly correlate with historical time. Linear discriminant analysis reveals luthiers who likely copied the outlines of their instruments from others, which historical accounts corroborate. Clustering of averaged violin shapes places luthiers into four major groups, demonstrating a handful of discrete shapes predominate in most instruments. Violin shapes originating from multi-generational luthier families tend to cluster together, and familial origin is a significant explanatory factor of violin shape. Together, the analysis of four centuries of violin shapes demonstrates not only the influence of history and time leading to the modern violin, but widespread imitation and the transmission of design by human relatedness.

  20. Imitation, Genetic Lineages, and Time Influenced the Morphological Evolution of the Violin

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Violin design has been in flux since the production of the first instruments in 16th century Italy. Numerous innovations have improved the acoustical properties and playability of violins. Yet, other attributes of the violin affect its performance less, and with fewer constraints, are potentially more sensitive to historical vagaries unrelated to quality. Although the coarse shape of violins is integral to their design, details of the body outline can vary without significantly compromising sound quality. What can violin shapes tell us about their makers and history, including the degree that luthiers have influenced each other and the evolution of complex morphologies over time? Here, I provide an analysis of morphological evolution in the violin family, sampling the body shapes of over 9,000 instruments over 400 years of history. Specific shape attributes, which discriminate instruments produced by different luthiers, strongly correlate with historical time. Linear discriminant analysis reveals luthiers who likely copied the outlines of their instruments from others, which historical accounts corroborate. Clustering of averaged violin shapes places luthiers into four major groups, demonstrating a handful of discrete shapes predominate in most instruments. Violin shapes originating from multi-generational luthier families tend to cluster together, and familial origin is a significant explanatory factor of violin shape. Together, the analysis of four centuries of violin shapes demonstrates not only the influence of history and time leading to the modern violin, but widespread imitation and the transmission of design by human relatedness. PMID:25295734

  1. Resolution of Brassicaceae Phylogeny Using Nuclear Genes Uncovers Nested Radiations and Supports Convergent Morphological Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Sun, Renran; Hu, Yi; Zeng, Liping; Zhang, Ning; Cai, Liming; Zhang, Qiang; Koch, Marcus A.; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan; Edger, Patrick P.; Pires, J. Chris; Tan, Dun-Yan; Zhong, Yang; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Brassicaceae is one of the most diverse and economically valuable angiosperm families with widely cultivated vegetable crops and scientifically important model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The evolutionary history, ecological, morphological, and genetic diversity, and abundant resources and knowledge of Brassicaceae make it an excellent model family for evolutionary studies. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the family revealed three major lineages (I, II, and III), but relationships among and within these lineages remain largely unclear. Here, we present a highly supported phylogeny with six major clades using nuclear markers from newly sequenced transcriptomes of 32 Brassicaceae species and large data sets from additional taxa for a total of 55 species spanning 29 out of 51 tribes. Clade A consisting of Lineage I and Macropodium nivale is sister to combined Clade B (with Lineage II and others) and a new Clade C. The ABC clade is sister to Clade D with species previously weakly associated with Lineage II and Clade E (Lineage III) is sister to the ABCD clade. Clade F (the tribe Aethionemeae) is sister to the remainder of the entire family. Molecular clock estimation reveals an early radiation of major clades near or shortly after the Eocene–Oligocene boundary and subsequent nested divergences of several tribes of the previously polytomous Expanded Lineage II. Reconstruction of ancestral morphological states during the Brassicaceae evolution indicates prevalent parallel (convergent) evolution of several traits over deep times across the entire family. These results form a foundation for future evolutionary analyses of structures and functions across Brassicaceae. PMID:26516094

  2. STM/AFM studies of the evolution of morphology of electroplated Ni/W alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Younes, O.; Ashkenasy, N.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Gileadi, E.

    2002-11-01

    The surface morphology evolution of Ni/W alloys was studied, as a function of the alloy composition. Using the modified plating baths developed in our laboratory recently, electroplated Ni/W alloys with different W content, in the range of 7-67 atom percent (a/o), can be obtained. This was found to lead to different structures, ranging from polycrystalline fcc-Ni type structure to amorphous, followed by orthorhombic with increasing W content in the alloy. Powder XRD was studied to determine the crystal structures. Ex situ STM, AFM and SEM were used to study in detail the surface morphologies of the different alloys, and their evolution with increasing W content. The important findings are that a mixture of two crystalline forms can give rise to an amorphous structure. Hillocks that are usually a characteristic of epitaxial growth can also exist in the amorphous alloys. Oriented scratches caused by stress can also be formed. Up to 20 a/o of W is deposited in the alloys in crystalline form, with the fcc-Ni type structure. Between 20 and about 40 a/o an amorphous structure is observed, and above that an orthorhombic crystal structure is seen, which is characteristic of the NiW binary alloy. Careful choice of the composition of the plating bath allowed us to deposit an alloy containing 67 a/o W, which corresponds to the composition NiW 2.

  3. Synergistic effect of silver seeds and organic modifiers on the morphology evolution mechanism of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aili; Yin, Hengbo; Ren, Min; Liu, Yuming; Jiang, Tingshun

    2008-08-01

    Triangular, truncated triangular, quadrangular, hexagonal, and net-structured silver nanoplates as well as decahedral silver nanoparticles were manipulatively prepared starting from silver nitrate and silver seeds in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and Tween 80 at room temperature, respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, HRTEM, SAED, and FTIR were used to illustrate the crystal growth process and to characterize the resultant silver nanoparticles. It was found that the silver seeds and organic modifiers synergistically affected the morphology evolution of the silver nanoparticles. The co-presence of silver seeds and PEG was beneficial to the formation of triangular and truncated triangular silver nanoplates; the silver seeds and PVP favored the formation of polygonal silver nanoplates; the silver seeds and Tween 80 preferred to the formation of net-structured silver plates. The morphology evolution of the resultant silver nanoparticles was correlated with the crystallinity of the silver seeds and the adsorption ability of the organic modifiers on the crystal surfaces.

  4. Cure kinetics, morphologies, and mechanical properties of thermoplastic/MWCNT modified multifunctional glassy epoxies prepared via continuous reaction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaole

    The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop a novel continuous reactor method to prepare partially cured epoxy prepolymers for aerospace prepreg applications with the aim of replacing traditional batch reactors. Compared to batch reactors, the continuous reactor is capable of solubilizing and dispersing a broad range of additives including thermoplastic tougheners, stabilizers, nanoparticles and curatives and advancing epoxy molecular weights and viscosities while reducing energy consumption. In order to prove this concept, polyethersulfone (PES) modified 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (44DDS)/tetraglycidyl-4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGDDM) epoxy prepolymers were firstly prepared using both continuous reactor and batch reactor methods. Kinetic studies confirmed the chain extension reaction in the continuous reactor is similar to the batch reactor, and the molecular weights and viscosities of prepolymers were readily controlled through reaction kinetics. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed similar cured network morphologies for formulations prepared from batch and continuous reactors. Additionally tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture toughness analyses concluded mechanical properties of cured epoxy matrices produced from both reactors were equivalent. Effects of multifunctional epoxy compositions on thermoplastics phase-separated morphologies were systematically studied using a combination of AFM with nanomechanical mapping, spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to provide new insights to tailor cured reaction induced phase separation (CRIPS) in multifunctional epoxy blend networks. Furthermore, how resultant crosslinked glassy polymer network and phase-separated morphologies correlated with mechanical properties are discussed in detail. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/TGDDM epoxy prepolymers were further prepared by combining the successful strategies for advancing epoxy chemistries and dispersing nanotubes using the continuous reactor

  5. Continuous variable quantum optical simulation for time evolution of quantum harmonic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Guo, Hong; Xie, Changde; Su, Xiaolong

    2016-03-10

    Quantum simulation enables one to mimic the evolution of other quantum systems using a controllable quantum system. Quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) is one of the most important model systems in quantum physics. To observe the transient dynamics of a QHO with high oscillation frequency directly is difficult. We experimentally simulate the transient behaviors of QHO in an open system during time evolution with an optical mode and a logical operation system of continuous variable quantum computation. The time evolution of an atomic ensemble in the collective spontaneous emission is analytically simulated by mapping the atomic ensemble onto a QHO. The measured fidelity, which is used for quantifying the quality of the simulation, is higher than its classical limit. The presented simulation scheme provides a new tool for studying the dynamic behaviors of QHO.

  6. Continuous variable quantum optical simulation for time evolution of quantum harmonic oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Guo, Hong; Xie, Changde; Su, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Quantum simulation enables one to mimic the evolution of other quantum systems using a controllable quantum system. Quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) is one of the most important model systems in quantum physics. To observe the transient dynamics of a QHO with high oscillation frequency directly is difficult. We experimentally simulate the transient behaviors of QHO in an open system during time evolution with an optical mode and a logical operation system of continuous variable quantum computation. The time evolution of an atomic ensemble in the collective spontaneous emission is analytically simulated by mapping the atomic ensemble onto a QHO. The measured fidelity, which is used for quantifying the quality of the simulation, is higher than its classical limit. The presented simulation scheme provides a new tool for studying the dynamic behaviors of QHO. PMID:26961962

  7. Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with accelerated evolution of sperm morphology.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Melissah; Albrecht, Tomáš; Cramer, Emily R A; Johnsen, Arild; Laskemoen, Terje; Weir, Jason T; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2015-04-01

    Rapid diversification of sexual traits is frequently attributed to sexual selection, though explicit tests of this hypothesis remain limited. Spermatozoa exhibit remarkable variability in size and shape, and studies report a correlation between sperm morphology (sperm length and shape) and sperm competition risk or female reproductive tract morphology. However, whether postcopulatory processes (e.g., sperm competition and cryptic female choice) influence the speed of evolutionary diversification in sperm form is unknown. Using passerine birds, we quantified evolutionary rates of sperm length divergence among lineages (i.e., species pairs) and determined whether these rates varied with the level of sperm competition (estimated as relative testes mass). We found that relative testes mass was significantly and positively associated with more rapid phenotypic divergence in sperm midpiece and flagellum lengths, as well as total sperm length. In contrast, there was no association between relative testes mass and rates of evolutionary divergence in sperm head size, and models suggested that head length is evolutionarily constrained. Our results are the first to show an association between the strength of sperm competition and the speed of sperm evolution, and suggest that postcopulatory sexual selection promotes rapid evolutionary diversification of sperm morphology.

  8. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (Bayesian posterior probability >0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these evolutionary relationships suggests that (i) a larval life history stage reevolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times; (ii) there is no phylogenetic support for the “Out of Appalachia” hypothesis of plethodontid origins; and (iii) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative. PMID:15365171

  9. Morphological Evolution of Nanocluster Aggregates and Single Crystals in Alkaline Zinc Electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, D; Turney, DE; Anantharaman, B; Steingart, DA; Banerjee, S

    2014-04-24

    The morphology of Zn electrodeposits is studied on carbon-coated transmission electron microscopy grids. At low over-potentials (eta = -50 mV), the morphology develops by aggregation at two distinct length scales: similar to 5 nm diameter monocrystalline nanoclusters form similar to 50 nm diameter polycrystalline aggregates, and the aggregates form a branched network. Epitaxial (00 (0) over bar2) growth above an overpotential of vertical bar eta(c)vertical bar > 125 mV leads to the formation of hexagonal single crystals up to 2 mu m in diameter. Potentiostatic current transients were used to calculate the nucleation rate from Scharifker et al.'s model. The exp(eta) dependence of the nucleation rates indicates that atomistic nucleation theory explains the nucleation process better than Volmer-Weber theory. A kinetic model is provided using the rate equations of vapor solidification to simulate the evolution of the different morphologies. On solving these equations, we show that aggregation is attributed to cluster impingement and cluster diffusion while single-crystal formation is attributed to direct attachment.

  10. A gene fusion at a homeobox locus: alterations in leaf shape and implications for morphological evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J J; Janssen, B J; Williams, A; Sinha, N

    1997-01-01

    Compound leaves are seen in many angiosperm genera and are thought to be either fundamentally different from simple leaves or elaborations of simple leaves. The knotted1-like homeobox (knox) genes are known to regulate plant development. When overexpressed in homologous or heterologous species, this family of genes can cause changes in leaf morphology, including excessive leaf compounding in tomato. We describe here an instance of a spontaneously arisen fusion between a gene encoding a metabolic enzyme and a homeodomain protein. We show that the fusion results in overexpression of the homeodomain protein and a change in morphology that approximates the changes caused by overexpression of the same gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic plants. Exon-shuffling events can account for the modularity of proteins. If the shuffled exons are associated with altered promoters, changes in gene expression patterns can result. Our results show that gene fusions of this nature can cause changes in expression patterns that lead to altered morphology. We suggest that such phenomena may have played a role in the evolution of form. PMID:9286107

  11. A Three-Dimensional Analysis of Morphological Evolution and Locomotor Performance of the Carnivoran Forelimb

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Serra, Alberto; Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for estimating the influence of phylogeny, allometry and locomotor performance on forelimb shape in living and extinct carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora). The main objective is to investigate morphological convergences towards similar locomotor strategies in the shape of the major forelimb bones. Results indicate that both size and phylogeny have strong effects on the anatomy of all forelimb bones. In contrast, bone shape does not correlate in the living taxa with maximum running speed or daily movement distance, two proxies closely related to locomotor performance. A phylomorphospace approach showed that shape variation in forelimb bones mainly relates to changes in bone robustness. This indicates the presence of biomechanical constraints resulting from opposite demands for energetic efficiency in locomotion –which would require a slender forelimb– and resistance to stress –which would be satisfied by a robust forelimb–. Thus, we interpret that the need of maintaining a trade-off between both functional demands would limit shape variability in forelimb bones. Given that different situations can lead to one or another morphological solution, depending on the specific ecology of taxa, the evolution of forelimb morphology represents a remarkable “one-to-many mapping” case between anatomy and ecology. PMID:24454891

  12. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent, molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, ML, and MP phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (PP > 0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three out of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these new evolutionary relationships suggests that (1) a larval life history stage re-evolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times, (2) there is no phylogenetic support for the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis of plethodontid origins, and (3) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these novel scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative.

  13. Morphology evolution and rheological properties of polybutadiene/polyisoprene blend after the cessation of steady shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Dong, Xia; Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Jian; Wang, Dujin; Han, Charles C.

    2013-09-01

    The morphology evolution and rheological response of a near-critical composition polybutadiene/polyisoprene blend after the cessation of steady shear was studied with an ARES rheometer and a shear light scattering photometer equipped with an optical microscope in this work. The relationship between the morphology of the blend during the relaxation after the cessation of steady shear with different shear rates and their corresponding rheological properties was successfully established. It was found that the different shear-induced morphologies under steady shear would relax to the equilibrium states via varied mechanisms after the shear cessation. The average size of the dispersed domains in the coarsening process was influenced by the pre-shear history. The results indicated that the pre-shear history could slow down the growth rate of phase domains during the coarsening process. It had effect on the coarsening mechanism on the early stage of relaxation after the cessation of very strong shear when the homogenization effects were strong, but no effect on the late stage. The storage modulus G' increased significantly in the breakup process of the string-like phase. After all the string-like structures were broken up into small ellipsoids, then G' gradually decreased and finally approached to an invariant value. The characteristic rheological behavior can be attributed to the different structure on the relaxation process.

  14. Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z D; Manchester, S R; Sun, H Y

    1999-08-01

    Phylogeny of the Betulaceae is assessed on the basis of rbcL, ITS, and morphological data. Based upon 26 rbcL sequences representing most "higher" hamamelid families, the Betulaceae are monophyletic, with Casuarinaceae as its sister group, regardless of whether the outgroup is Cunoniaceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Hamamelidaceae, or Nothofagus. Within the Betulaceae, two sister clades are evident, corresponding to the subfamilies Betuloideae and Coryloideae. However, with only 13 phylogenetically informative sites, the rbcL sequences provide limited intra-subfamilial resolution. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences provided 96 phylogenetically informative sites from 491 aligned sites resulting in a single most parsimonious tree of 374 steps (consistency index = 0.791) with two major lineages corresponding to the two traditional subfamilies: Betuloideae (Alnus, Betula) and Coryloideae (Corylus, Ostryopsis, Carpinus, Ostrya). This arrangement is mostly consistent with those from rbcL and morphology and is greatly reinforced by analyses with the three data sets combined. In the Coryloideae, the Ostryopsis-Carpinus-Ostrya clade is well supported, with Corylus as its sister group. The sister-group relationship between Ostryopsis and the Carpinus-Ostrya clade is well supported by ITS, rbcL, and morphological data. Phylogenetic relationships among the extant genera deduced by these analyses are compatible with inferences from ecological evolution and the extensive fossil record.

  15. Adaptive simplification and the evolution of gecko locomotion: Morphological and biomechanical consequences of losing adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Timothy E.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Collins, Clint E.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Russell, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations permit the diversification of lineages, but they may also impose functional constraints on behaviors such as locomotion. Thus, it is not surprising that secondary simplification of novel locomotory traits has occurred several times among vertebrates and could potentially lead to exceptional divergence when constraints are relaxed. For example, the gecko adhesive system is a remarkable innovation that permits locomotion on surfaces unavailable to other animals, but has been lost or simplified in species that have reverted to a terrestrial lifestyle. We examined the functional and morphological consequences of this adaptive simplification in the Pachydactylus radiation of geckos, which exhibits multiple unambiguous losses or bouts of simplification of the adhesive system. We found that the rates of morphological and 3D locomotor kinematic evolution are elevated in those species that have simplified or lost adhesive capabilities. This finding suggests that the constraints associated with adhesion have been circumvented, permitting these species to either run faster or burrow. The association between a terrestrial lifestyle and the loss/reduction of adhesion suggests a direct link between morphology, biomechanics, and ecology. PMID:25548182

  16. Emergence of tissue sensitivity to Hox protein levels underlies the evolution of an adaptive morphological trait

    PubMed Central

    Refki, Peter Nagui; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Viala, Séverine; Khila, Abderrahman

    2014-01-01

    Growth control scales morphological attributes and, therefore, provides a critical contribution to the evolution of adaptive traits. Yet, the genetic mechanisms underlying growth in the context of specific ecological adaptations are poorly understood. In water striders, adaptation to locomotion on the water surface is associated with allometric and functional changes in thoracic appendages, such that T2-legs, used as propelling oars, are longer than T3-legs, used as steering rudders. The Hox gene Ubx establishes this derived morphology by elongating T2-legs but shortening T3-legs. Using gene expression assays, RNAi knockdown, and comparative transcriptomics, we demonstrate that the evolution of water surface rowing as a novel means of locomotion is associated with the evolution of a dose-dependent promoting-repressing effect of Ubx on leg growth. In the water strider Limnoporus dissortis, T3-legs express six to seven times higher levels of Ubx compared to T2-legs. Ubx RNAi shortens T2-legs and the severity of this phenotype increases with increased depletion of Ubx protein. Conversely, Ubx RNAi lengthens T3-legs but this phenotype is partially rescued when Ubx protein is further depleted. This dose-dependent effect of Ubx on leg growth is absent in non-rowing relatives that retain the ancestral relative leg length. We also show that the spatial patterns of expression of dpp, wg, hh, egfr, dll, exd, hth, and dac are unchanged in Ubx RNAi treatments. This indicates that the dose-dependent opposite effect of Ubx on T2- and T3-legs operates without any apparent effect on the spatial expression of major leg patterning genes. Our data suggest that scaling of adaptive allometries can evolve through changes in the levels of expression of Hox proteins early during ontogeny, and in the sensitivity of the tissues that express them, without any major effects on pattern formation. PMID:24886828

  17. Convergence and Divergence in the Evolution of Cat Skulls: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Morphological Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruta, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of biological shape evolution are greatly enhanced when framed in a phylogenetic perspective. Inclusion of fossils amplifies the scope of macroevolutionary research, offers a deep-time perspective on tempo and mode of radiations, and elucidates life-trait changes. We explore the evolution of skull shape in felids (cats) through morphometric analyses of linear variables, phylogenetic comparative methods, and a new cladistic study of saber-toothed cats. Methodology/Principal Findings A new phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) exclusive of Felinae and some basal felids, but does not support the monophyly of various saber-toothed tribes and genera. We quantified skull shape variation in 34 extant and 18 extinct species using size-adjusted linear variables. These distinguish taxonomic group membership with high accuracy. Patterns of morphospace occupation are consistent with previous analyses, for example, in showing a size gradient along the primary axis of shape variation and a separation between large and small-medium cats. By combining the new phylogeny with a molecular tree of extant Felinae, we built a chronophylomorphospace (a phylogeny superimposed onto a two-dimensional morphospace through time). The evolutionary history of cats was characterized by two major episodes of morphological divergence, one marking the separation between saber-toothed and modern cats, the other marking the split between large and small-medium cats. Conclusions/Significance Ancestors of large cats in the ‘Panthera’ lineage tend to occupy, at a much later stage, morphospace regions previously occupied by saber-toothed cats. The latter radiated out into new morphospace regions peripheral to those of extant large cats. The separation between large and small-medium cats was marked by considerable morphologically divergent trajectories early in feline evolution. A chronophylomorphospace has wider applications in

  18. Anatomy, morphology and evolution of the patella in squamate lizards and tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus).

    PubMed

    Regnault, Sophie; Jones, Marc E H; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-05-01

    The patella (kneecap) is the largest and best-known of the sesamoid bones, postulated to confer biomechanical advantages including increasing joint leverage and reinforcing the tendon against compression. It has evolved several times independently in amniotes, but despite apparently widespread occurrence in lizards, the patella remains poorly characterised in this group and is, as yet, completely undescribed in their nearest extant relative Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia). Through radiography, osteological and fossil studies we examined patellar presence in diverse lizard and lepidosauromorph taxa, and using computed tomography, dissection and histology we investigated in greater depth the anatomy and morphology of the patella in 16 lizard species and 19 Sphenodon specimens. We have found the first unambiguous evidence of a mineralised patella in Sphenodon, which appears similar to the patella of lizards and shares several gross and microscopic anatomical features. Although there may be a common mature morphology, the squamate patella exhibits a great deal of variability in development (whether from a cartilage anlage or not, and in the number of mineralised centres) and composition (bone, mineralised cartilage or fibrotendinous tissue). Unlike in mammals and birds, the patella in certain lizards and Sphenodon appears to be a polymorphic trait. We have also explored the evolution of the patella through ancestral state reconstruction, finding that the patella is ancestral for lizards and possibly Lepidosauria as a whole. Clear evidence of the patella in rhynchocephalian or stem lepidosaurian fossil taxa would clarify the evolutionary origin(s) of the patella, but due to the small size of this bone and the opportunity for degradation or loss we could not definitively conclude presence or absence in the fossils examined. The pattern of evolution in lepidosaurs is unclear but our data suggest that the emergence of this sesamoid may be related to the evolution of secondary

  19. Asymmetric ecological conditions favor Red-Queen type of continued evolution over stasis

    PubMed Central

    Nordbotten, Jan Martin; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2016-01-01

    Four decades ago, Leigh Van Valen presented the Red Queen’s hypothesis to account for evolution of species within a multispecies ecological community [Van Valen L (1973) Evol Theory 1(1):1–30]. The overall conclusion of Van Valen’s analysis was that evolution would continue even in the absence of abiotic perturbations. Stenseth and Maynard Smith presented in 1984 [Stenseth NC, Maynard Smith J (1984) Evolution 38(4):870–880] a model for the Red Queen’s hypothesis showing that both Red-Queen type of continuous evolution and stasis could result from a model with biotically driven evolution. However, although that contribution demonstrated that both evolutionary outcomes were possible, it did not identify which ecological conditions would lead to each of these evolutionary outcomes. Here, we provide, using a simple, yet general population-biologically founded eco-evolutionary model, such analytically derived conditions: Stasis will predominantly emerge whenever the ecological system contains only symmetric ecological interactions, whereas both Red-Queen and stasis type of evolution may result if the ecological interactions are asymmetrical, and more likely so with increasing degree of asymmetry in the ecological system (i.e., the more trophic interactions, host–pathogen interactions, and the like there are [i.e., +/− type of ecological interactions as well as asymmetric competitive (−/−) and mutualistic (+/+) ecological interactions]). In the special case of no between-generational genetic variance, our results also predict dynamics within these types of purely ecological systems. PMID:26831108

  20. Vertical distribution, flight behaviour and evolution of wing morphology in Morpho butterflies.

    PubMed

    Devries, P J; Penz, Carla M; Hill, Ryan I

    2010-09-01

    1. Flight is a key innovation in the evolution of insects that is crucial to their dispersal, migration, territoriality, courtship and predator avoidance. Male butterflies have characteristic territoriality and courtship flight behaviours, and females use a characteristic flight behaviour when searching for host plants. This implies that selection acts on wing morphology to maximize flight performance for conducting important behaviours among sexes. 2. Butterflies in the genus Morpho are obvious components of neotropical forests, and many observations indicate that they show two broad categories of flight behaviour and flight height. Although species can be categorized as using gliding or flapping flight, and flying at either canopy or understorey height, the association of flight behaviour and flight height with wing shape evolution has never been explored. 3. Two clades within Morpho differ in flight behaviour and height. Males and females of one clade inhabit the forest understorey and use flapping flight, whereas in the other clade, males use gliding flight at canopy level and females use flapping flight in both canopy and understorey. 4. We used independent contrasts to answer whether wing shape is associated with flight behaviour and height. Given a single switch to canopy habitation and gliding flight, we compared contrasts for the node at which the switch to canopy flight occurred with the distribution of values in the two focal clades. We found significant changes in wing shape at the transition to canopy flight only in males, and no change in size for either sex. A second node within the canopy clade suggests that other factors may also be involved in wing shape evolution. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that natural selection acts differently on male and female butterfly wing shape and indicate that the transition to canopy flight cannot explain all wing shape diversity in Morpho. 5. This study provides a starting point for characterizing evolution

  1. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Carol V.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Plavcan, J. Michael; Brown, Francis H.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2014-01-01

    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato. PMID:24344276

  2. Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol V; Tocheri, Matthew W; Plavcan, J Michael; Brown, Francis H; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2014-01-07

    Despite discoveries of relatively complete hands from two early hominin species (Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba) and partial hands from another (Australopithecus afarensis), fundamental questions remain about the evolution of human-like hand anatomy and function. These questions are driven by the paucity of hand fossils in the hominin fossil record between 800,000 and 1.8 My old, a time interval well documented for the emergence and subsequent proliferation of Acheulian technology (shaped bifacial stone tools). Modern and Middle to Late Pleistocene humans share a suite of derived features in the thumb, wrist, and radial carpometacarpal joints that is noticeably absent in early hominins. Here we show that one of the most distinctive features of this suite in the Middle Pleistocene to recent human hand, the third metacarpal styloid process, was present ∼1.42 Mya in an East African hominin from Kaitio, West Turkana, Kenya. This fossil thus provides the earliest unambiguous evidence for the evolution of a key shared derived characteristic of modern human and Neandertal hand morphology and suggests that the distinctive complex of radial carpometacarpal joint features in the human hand arose early in the evolution of the genus Homo and probably in Homo erectus sensu lato.

  3. Evolution of the axial system in craniates: morphology and function of the perivertebral musculature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system represents the plesiomorphic locomotor engine of the vertebrate body, playing a central role in locomotion. In craniates, the evolution of the postcranial skeleton is characterized by two major transformations. First, the axial skeleton became increasingly functionally and morphologically regionalized. Second, the axial-based locomotion plesiomorphic for craniates became progressively appendage-based with the evolution of extremities in tetrapods. These changes, together with the transition to land, caused increased complexity in the planes in which axial movements occur and moments act on the body and were accompanied by profound changes in axial muscle function. To increase our understanding of the evolutionary transformations of the structure and function of the perivertebral musculature, this review integrates recent anatomical and physiological data (e.g., muscle fiber types, activation patterns) with gross-anatomical and kinematic findings for pivotal craniate taxa. This information is mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis to infer the putative character set of the last common ancestor of the respective taxa and to conjecture patterns of locomotor and muscular evolution. The increasing anatomical and functional complexity in the muscular arrangement during craniate evolution is associated with changes in fiber angulation and fiber-type distribution, i.e., increasing obliqueness in fiber orientation and segregation of fatigue-resistant fibers in deeper muscle regions. The loss of superficial fatigue-resistant fibers may be related to the profound gross anatomical reorganization of the axial musculature during the tetrapod evolution. The plesiomorphic function of the axial musculature -mobilization- is retained in all craniates. Along with the evolution of limbs and the subsequent transition to land, axial muscles additionally function to globally stabilize the trunk against inertial and extrinsic limb muscle forces as well as

  4. Fitting models of continuous trait evolution to incompletely sampled comparative data using approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Slater, Graham J; Harmon, Luke J; Wegmann, Daniel; Joyce, Paul; Revell, Liam J; Alfaro, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, a suite of methods has been developed to fit multiple rate models to phylogenetic comparative data. However, most methods have limited utility at broad phylogenetic scales because they typically require complete sampling of both the tree and the associated phenotypic data. Here, we develop and implement a new, tree-based method called MECCA (Modeling Evolution of Continuous Characters using ABC) that uses a hybrid likelihood/approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach to simultaneously infer rates of diversification and trait evolution from incompletely sampled phylogenies and trait data. We demonstrate via simulation that MECCA has considerable power to choose among single versus multiple evolutionary rate models, and thus can be used to test hypotheses about changes in the rate of trait evolution across an incomplete tree of life. We finally apply MECCA to an empirical example of body size evolution in carnivores, and show that there is no evidence for an elevated rate of body size evolution in the pinnipeds relative to terrestrial carnivores. ABC approaches can provide a useful alternative set of tools for future macroevolutionary studies where likelihood-dependent approaches are lacking.

  5. Morphology and biomechanics of the pinniped jaw: mandibular evolution without mastication.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katrina E; Ruff, Christopher B; Goswami, Anjali

    2013-07-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) underwent a shift in jaw function away from typical carnivoran mastication to more novel marine behaviors during the terrestrial-aquatic transition. Here we test the effect of aquatic prey capture and male-male combat on the morphological evolution of a mammal jaw that does not masticate. Nine three-dimensional landmarks were taken along the mandible for 25 species (N = 83), and corpus and symphysis external and cortical breadths for a subset of five species (N = 33). Principal components analysis was performed on size-corrected landmark data to assess variation in overall jaw morphology across pinnipeds. Corpus breadths were input to a beam model to calculate strength properties and estimated bite force of specific species with contrasting behaviors (filter feeding, suction feeding, grip-and-tear feeding, and male-male combat). Results indicate that, although phylogenetic signal in jaw shape is strong, function is also important in determining morphology. Filter feeders display an elongate symphysis and a long toothrow that may play a role in filtering krill. Grip-and-tear feeders have a long jaw and large estimated bite force relative to non-biting species. However, the largest estimated bite forces were observed in males of male-male combative species, likely due to the high selection pressure associated with male success in highly polygynous species. The suction feeding jaw is weak in biting but has a different morphology in the two suction feeding taxa. In conclusion, familial patterns of pinniped jaw shape due to phylogenetic relatedness have been modified by adaptations to specialized behavior of individual taxa.

  6. Continuous lateral gradients in film morphology for position sensitive detection and organic solar cell optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoy-Quiles, M.; Randon, V.; Mróz, M. M.; Jarzaguet, M.; Garriga, M.; Cabanillas-González, J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method to fabricate binary organic donor and acceptor blends exhibiting a controlled lateral gradient in morphology. Upon combining photometry, ellipsometry and Xray maps together with photoinduced absorption measurements, we show how the gradual exposure to solvent vapor results in a varying degree of polymer crystallinity for the polythiophene/soluble fullerene system along one direction. These morphologically graded samples are characterized by a spectral photoresponse that depends on the specific location in the area of the device where the light beam impinges, a property that stands as proof-of-concept for position sensitive detection. Moreover, we demonstrate that the development of graded morphologies is an effective one-step method which allows for fast performance optimization of organic solar cells. Finally, the appropriateness of eight different solvents for morphology control via vapor annealing is evaluated in a time-effective way using the advanced method, which helps to identify boiling point and solubility as the key processing parameters.

  7. Control of Crystal Morphology for Mold Flux During High-Aluminum AHSS Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GUO, Jing; SEO, Myung-Duk; SHI, Cheng-Bin; CHO, Jung-Wook; KIM, Seon-Hyo

    2016-08-01

    In the present manuscript, the efforts to control the crystal morphology are carried out aiming at improving the lubrication of lime-alumina-based mold flux for casting advanced high-strength steel with high aluminum. Jackson α factors for crystals of melt crystallization in multi-component mold fluxes are established and reasonably evaluated by applying thermodynamic databases to understand the crystal morphology control both in lime-alumina-based and lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The results show that Jackson α factor and supercooling are the most critical factors to determine the crystal morphology in a mold flux. Crystals precipitating in mold fluxes appear with different morphologies due to their different Jackson α factors and are likely to be more faceted with higher Jackson α factor. In addition, there is a critical supercooling degree for crystal morphology dendritic transition. When the supercooling over the critical value, the crystals transform from faceted shape to dendritic ones in morphology as the kinetic roughening occurs. Typically, the critical supercooling degrees for cuspidine dendritic transition in the lime-silica-based mold fluxes are evaluated to be between 0.05 and 0.06. Finally, addition of a small amount of Li2O in the mold flux can increase the Jackson α factor and decrease the supercooling for cuspidine precipitation; thus, it is favorable to enhance a faceted cuspidine crystal.

  8. Modeled alongshore circulation and morphologic evolution onshore of a large submarine canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Raubenheimer, B.; List, J. H.; Elgar, S.; Guza, R. T.; Lippmann, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    Alongshore circulation and morphologic evolution observed at an ocean beach during the Nearshore Canyon Experiment, onshore of a large submarine canyon in San Diego, CA (USA), are investigated using a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model (Delft3D). The model is forced with waves observed in ~500 m water depth and tidal constituents derived from satellite altimetry. Consistent with field observations, the model indicates that refraction of waves over the canyon results in wave focusing ~500 m upcoast of the canyon and shadowing onshore of the canyon. The spatial variability in the modeled wave field results in a corresponding non-uniform alongshore circulation field. In particular, when waves approach from the northwest the alongshore flow converges near the wave focal zone, while waves that approach from the southwest result in alongshore flow that diverges away from the wave focal zone. The direction and magnitude of alongshore flows are determined by a balance between the (often opposing) radiation stress and alongshore pressure gradients, consistent with observations and previous results. The largest observed morphologic evolution, vertical accretion of about 1.5 m in about 3 m water depth near the wave focal zone, occurred over a one-week period when waves from the northwest reached heights of 1.8 m. The model, with limited tuning, replicates the magnitude and spatial extent of the observed accretion and indicates that net accretion of the cross-shore profile was owing to alongshore transport from converging alongshore flows. The good agreement between the observed and modeled morphology change allows for an in-depth examination of the alongshore force balance that resulted in the sediment convergence. These results indicate that, at least in this case, a depth-averaged hydrodynamic model can replicate observed surfzone morphologic change resulting from forcing that is strongly non-uniform in the alongshore. Funding was provided by the Office of Naval

  9. Non-unity molecular heritability demonstrated by continuous evolution in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, T.; Lehman, N.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When catalytic RNA is evolved in vitro, the molecule's chemical reactivity is usually the desired selection target. Sometimes the phenotype of a particular RNA molecule cannot be unambiguously determined from its genotype, however. This can occur if a nucleotide sequence can adopt multiple folded states, an example of non-unity heritability (i.e. one genotype gives rise to more than one phenotype). In these cases, more rounds of selection are required to achieve a phenotypic shift. We tested the influence of non-unity heritability at the molecular level by selecting for variants of a ligase ribozyme via continuous evolution. RESULTS: During 20 bursts of continuous evolution of a 152-nucleotide ligase ribozyme in which the Mg2+ concentration was periodically lowered, a nine-error variant of the starting 'wild-type' molecule became dominant in the last eight bursts. This variant appears to be more active than the wild type. Kinetic analyses of the mutant suggest that it may not possess a higher first-order catalytic rate constant, however. Examination of the multiple RNA conformations present under the continuous evolution conditions suggests that the mutant is superior to the wild type because it is less likely to misfold into inactive conformers. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of genotypes that are more likely to exhibit a particular phenotype is an epiphenomenon usually ascribed only to complex living systems. We show that this can occur at the molecular level, demonstrating that in vitro systems may have more life-like characteristics than previously thought, and providing additional support for an RNA world.

  10. Extensive and continuous duplication facilitates rapid evolution and diversification of gene families.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dan; Duda, Thomas F

    2012-08-01

    The origin of novel gene functions through gene duplication, mutation, and natural selection represents one of the mechanisms by which organisms diversify and one of the possible paths leading to adaptation. Nonetheless, the extent, role, and consequences of duplications in the origins of ecological adaptations, especially in the context of species interactions, remain unclear. To explore the evolution of a gene family that is likely linked to species associations, we investigated the evolutionary history of the A-superfamily of conotoxin genes of predatory marine cone snails (Conus species). Members of this gene family are expressed in the venoms of Conus species and are presumably involved in predator-prey associations because of their utility in prey capture. We recovered sequences of this gene family from genomic DNA of four closely related species of Conus and reconstructed the evolutionary history of these genes. Our study is the first to directly recover conotoxin genes from Conus genomes to investigate the evolution of conotoxin gene families. Our results revealed a phenomenon of rapid and continuous gene turnover that is coupled with heightened rates of evolution. This continuous duplication pattern has not been observed previously, and the rate of gene turnover is at least two times higher than estimates from other multigene families. Conotoxin genes are among the most rapidly evolving protein-coding genes in metazoans, a phenomenon that may be facilitated by extensive gene duplications and have driven changes in conotoxin functions through neofunctionalization. Together these mechanisms led to dramatically divergent arrangements of A-superfamily conotoxin genes among closely related species of Conus. Our findings suggest that extensive and continuous gene duplication facilitates rapid evolution and drastic divergence in venom compositions among species, processes that may be associated with evolutionary responses to predator-prey interactions.

  11. Kinetics and cluster morphology evolution of shear-driven aggregation of well-stabilized colloids.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xia; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-01-27

    We investigate the shear-driven aggregation of polystyrene colloids that are stabilized by both fixed and surfactant charges, using a microchannel device, in various particle volume fractions. The objective is to understand how the primary particles evolve to clusters with shearing time, how the cluster morphology develops along the aggregation with the effect of breakage and restructuring, and whether non-Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interactions are present, affecting the kinetics. The time evolution of the primary particle conversion to big clusters is characterized by an induction time, followed by an explosive increase when the cluster size reaches a certain critical value, which confirms the self-acceleration kinetics developed in the literature. The size of the critical clusters has been quantified for the first time, and its scaling with the shear rate follows the literature prediction well. Moreover, analysis of the shear-driven kinetics confirms the presence of substantial non-DLVO interactions in the given system.

  12. Numerical simulation of wrinkle morphology formation and the evolution of different Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Hao, Mudong; Wang, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Wrinkle morphology is a distinctive phenomenon observed in mature biofilms that are produced by a great number of bacteria. The wrinkle pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the agar substrate and the biofilm itself, governed by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we study the macroscopic structures and the evolution of Bacillus subtilis biofilm wrinkles using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. A mechanical model and simulation are set up to analyze and evaluate bacteria biofilm's wrinkle characteristics. We uncover the wrinkle formation mechanism and enumerate the quantitative relationship between wrinkle structure and mechanical properties of biofilm and its substrate. Our work can be used to modify the wrinkle pattern and control the biofilm size.

  13. Shared Human-Chimpanzee Pattern of Perinatal Femoral Shaft Morphology and Its Implications for the Evolution of Hominin Locomotor Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Naoki; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acquisition of bipedality is a hallmark of human evolution. How bipedality evolved from great ape-like locomotor behaviors, however, is still highly debated. This is mainly because it is difficult to infer locomotor function, and even more so locomotor kinematics, from fossil hominin long bones. Structure-function relationships are complex, as long bone morphology reflects phyletic history, developmental programs, and loading history during an individual’s lifetime. Here we discriminate between these factors by investigating the morphology of long bones in fetal and neonate great apes and humans, before the onset of locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative morphometric analysis of the femoral diaphysis indicates that its morphology reflects phyletic relationships between hominoid taxa to a greater extent than taxon-specific locomotor adaptations. Diaphyseal morphology in humans and chimpanzees exhibits several shared-derived features, despite substantial differences in locomotor adaptations. Orangutan and gorilla morphologies are largely similar, and likely represent the primitive hominoid state. Conclusions/Significance These findings are compatible with two possible evolutionary scenarios. Diaphyseal morphology may reflect retained adaptive traits of ancestral taxa, hence human-chimpanzee shared-derived features may be indicative of the locomotor behavior of our last common ancestor. Alternatively, diaphyseal morphology might reflect evolution by genetic drift (neutral evolution) rather than selection, and might thus be more informative about phyletic relationships between taxa than about locomotor adaptations. Both scenarios are consistent with the hypothesis that knuckle-walking in chimpanzees and gorillas resulted from convergent evolution, and that the evolution of human bipedality is unrelated to extant great ape locomotor specializations. PMID:22848680

  14. Cypris morphology in the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas (Crustacea: Cirripedia Thoracica) implications for cirripede evolution.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny K K; Chan, Karen; Jensen, Peter Gram; Pérez-Losada, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe cypris morphology in species of the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas, both of which are pivotal in understanding cirripede evolution. In Ibla, we also studied late naupliar stages with video and SEM. Special emphasis was put on the lattice organs, the antennules and the thorax and telson. In Paralepas we had settled specimens only and could therefore only investigate the carapace with the lattice organs. Cyprids of Ibla quadrivalvis and Paralepas dannevigi have five sets of lattice organs, grouped as two anterior and three posterior pairs. The organs are of the pore-field type and the terminal pore is situated anteriorly in the first pair, just as in the Rhizocephala and the Thoracica. In Ibla the armament of antennular sensilla resembles that found in the Thoracica but differs from the Rhizocephala. The absence of setules on the A and B setae sited terminally on the fourth antennular segment is a similarity with the Acrothoracica. The attachment disc is angled rather than facing distally and is encircled by a low cuticular velum. The thoracopods have two-segmented endopods and exopods as in the Thoracica, but the number, shape, and position of thoracopodal setae differ somewhat from other species of that superorder. Both Ibla and Paralepas cyprids have a deeply cleaved telson, but no independent abdominal part. In cypris morphology, Ibla and Paralepas show several synapomorphies with the clade comprising Rhizocephala and Thoracica and there are no specific apomorphies with either the Acrothoracica, the Rhizocephala or any particular subgroup within the Thoracica. This is in agreement with recent molecular evidence that Ibla (Ibliformes) is the sister taxon to all other Thoracica and the ibliforms therefore become the outgroup of choice for studying character evolution within the superorder. Paralepas, and other pedunculated barnacles without shell plates, are apparently not primitive but are secondarily evolved

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORONAL MASS EJECTION CLOUD RECONSTRUCTED FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, L.; Gan, W. Q.; Inhester, B.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, T. L.; Wang, M. Y.

    2012-05-20

    The propagation properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are crucial to predict its geomagnetic effect. A newly developed three-dimensional (3D) mask fitting reconstruction method using coronagraph images from three viewpoints has been described and applied to the CME ejected on 2010 August 7. The CME's 3D localization, real shape, and morphological evolution are presented. Due to its interaction with the ambient solar wind, the morphology of this CME changed significantly in the early phase of evolution. Two hours after its initiation, it was expanding almost self-similarly. The CME's 3D localization is quite helpful to link remote sensing observations to in situ measurements. The investigated CME was propagating to Venus with its flank just touching STEREO B. Its corresponding interplanetary CME in the interplanetary space shows a possible signature of a magnetic cloud with a preceding shock in Venus Express (VEX) observations, while from STEREO B only a shock is observed. We have calculated three principal axes for the reconstructed 3D CME cloud. The orientation of the major axis is, in general, consistent with the orientation of a filament (polarity inversion line) observed by SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI. The flux rope axis derived by the Minimal Variance Analysis from VEX indicates a radial-directed axis orientation. It might be that locally only the leg of the flux rope passed through VEX. The height and speed profiles from the Sun to Venus are obtained. We find that the CME speed possibly had been adjusted to the speed of the ambient solar wind flow after leaving the COR2 field of view and before arriving at Venus. A southward deflection of the CME from the source region is found from the trajectory of the CME geometric center. We attribute it to the influence of the coronal hole where the fast solar wind emanated from.

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.-Y.; Zanardo, G.; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K.

    2013-11-10

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600{sup +150}{sub -}200 km s{sup –1} between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400{sup +100}{sub -200} km s{sup –1} after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s{sup –1} without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model.

  17. Evolution through mutation and selection of biological and morphological features in the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Lio, C.; D'Alpaos, A.; Marani, M.

    2011-12-01

    The presence and continued existence of tidal morphologies, and in particular of salt marshes, is intimately connected with the presence/absence of halophytic vegetation. In fact, observations and models coupling morphodynamic and biological processes indicate that vegetation crucially affects the marsh equilibrium configurations in relation to the dissipation of wind waves and to the production of organic soil associated with the presence of plants. Often, different vegetation species live within very narrow elevation intervals, associated with similarly narrow ranges of environmental pressures (chiefly hypersalinity and hypoxia). Here we develop and use a 1D model of coupled biological-morphological mutation and selection to study how observed ecosystem properties emerge and how feedbacks between biological and morphological properties concur to select observed bio-morphic 'traits'. We see that the ability to transform their own environment, through increased inorganic deposition and organic soil production, allows vegetation species to more quickly develop adaptations to a changing forcing (e.g. sea level rise). Furthermore, we observe the emergence of zonation and succession and characterize the emerging biodiversity and ecosystem properties as a function of forcing characteristics (e.g. tidal range, rate of sea level rise, and inorganic sediment availability).

  18. Impact constraints on the environment for chemical evolution and the continuity of life.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Fogleman, G

    1990-01-01

    The Moon and the Earth were bombarded heavily by planetesimals and asteroids that were capable of interfering with chemical evolution and the origin of life. In this paper, we explore the frequency of giant terrestrial impacts able to stop prebiotic chemistry in the probable regions of chemical evolution. The limited time available between impacts disruptive to prebiotic chemistry at the time of the oldest evidence of life suggests the need for a rapid process for chemical evolution of life. The classical hypothesis for the origin of life through the slow accumulation of prebiotic reactants in the primordial soup in the entire ocean may not be consistent with constraints imposed by the impact history of Earth. On the other hand, rapid chemical evolution in cloud systems and lakes or other shallow evaporating water bodies would have been possible because reactants could have been concentrated and polymerized rapidly in this environment. Thus, life probably could have originated near the surface between frequent surface sterilizing impacts. There may not have been continuity of life depending on sunlight because there is evidence that life, existing as early as 3.8 Gyr ago, may have been destroyed by giant impacts. The first such organisms on Earth were probably not the ancestors of present life.

  19. Impact constraints on the environment for chemical evolution and the continuity of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Fogleman, Guy

    1990-03-01

    The Moon and the Earth were bombarded heavily by planetesimals and asteroids that were capable of interfering with chemical evolution and the origin of life. In this paper, we explore the frequency of giant terrestrial impacts able to stop prebiotic chemistry in the probable regions of chemical evolution. The limited time available between impacts disruptive to prebiotic chemistry at the time of the oldest evidence of life suggests the need for a rapid process for chemical evolution of life. The classical hypothesis for the origin of life through the slow accumulation of prebiotic reactants in the primordial soup in the entire ocean may not be consistent with constraints imposed by the impact history of Earth. On the other hand, rapid chemical evolution in cloud systems and lakes or other shallow evaporating water bodies would have been possible because reactants could have been concentrated and polymerized rapidly in this environment. Thus, life probably could have originated near the surface between frequent surface sterilizing impacts. There may not have been continuity of life depending on sunlight because there is evidence that life, existing as early as 3.8 Gyr ago, may have been destroyed by giant impacts. The first such organisms on Earth where probably not the ancestors of present life.

  20. Morphological evolution of self-deposition Bi2Se3 nanosheets by oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guozhi; Wu, Zengna; Wang, Peng; Yao, Jianghong; Chang, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Bi2Se3 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by a microwave-assisted approach in the presence of polyvinylpyrroli done at a temperature of 180 °C for 2 h. The thin film was prepared on a silicon wafer via a self-deposition process in a Bi2Se3 nanosheet ink solution using the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. The structure and morphology of the obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The highly uniform Bi2Se3 particles could be formed by controlling the oxygen plasma treatment time. After the plasma pretreatment from 10 to 20 s, the surface of Bi2Se3 film evolved from the worm-like structure to particles. The highly uniform thin film was formed on further increasing the plasma treatment time, which is consistent with the observed SEM results. Several important processes can result in the morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanosheets: (1) formation of Bi2Se3 oxide layer; (2) self-assembly of oxide nanoparticles under the action of high-energy oxygen plasma; and (3) electrostatic interaction and etching mechanism.

  1. Artificial evolution of the morphology and kinematics in a flapping-wing mini-UAV.

    PubMed

    de Margerie, E; Mouret, J B; Doncieux, S; Meyer, J-A

    2007-12-01

    Birds demonstrate that flapping-wing flight (FWF) is a versatile flight mode, compatible with hovering, forward flight and gliding to save energy. This extended flight domain would be especially useful on mini-UAVs. However, design is challenging because aerodynamic efficiency is conditioned by complex movements of the wings, and because many interactions exist between morphological (wing area, aspect ratio) and kinematic parameters (flapping frequency, stroke amplitude, wing unfolding). Here we used artificial evolution to optimize these morpho-kinematic features on a simulated 1 kg UAV, equipped with wings articulated at the shoulder and wrist. Flight tests were conducted in a dedicated steady aerodynamics simulator. Parameters generating horizontal flight for minimal mechanical power were retained. Results showed that flight at medium speed (10-12 m s(-1)) can be obtained for reasonable mechanical power (20 W kg(-1)), while flight at higher speed (16-20 m s(-1)) implied increased power (30-50 W kg(-1)). Flight at low speed (6-8 m s(-1)) necessitated unrealistic power levels (70-500 W kg(-1)), probably because our simulator neglected unsteady aerodynamics. The underlying adaptation of morphology and kinematics to varying flight speed were compared to available biological data on the flight of birds.

  2. Comparative morphology and evolution of the otic region in toothed whales (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, H A

    1986-11-01

    The otic region in the skull of archeocetes and odontocetes is compared and interpreted with special emphasis on the morphology and suspension of the ear bones. In archeocetes, the periotic was obviously separate from the mastoid but still integrated within the skull via a long anterior and posterior process. The rotation of the cochlear part of the periotic was already obvious. The tympanic bone was attached to a decreasing number of neighboring elements, with the periotic becoming more and more important in the later archeocetes. The accessory air sacs of the tympanic cavity had invaded some of the adjacent skeletal elements and attained a moderate-to-remarkable extension. In the evolution of the odontocetes, the periotic and tympanic were successively uncoupled from the skull and combined to a new morphological and functional unit (tympanoperiotic complex). This uncoupling was mainly achieved by shortening the periotical processes and simultaneously extending the tympanic air sacs. For functional reasons, however, the periotic (posterior process) stayed in immediate contact with the mastoid, the latter remaining in the lateral wall of skull. In advanced marine dolphins, the bony sheaths of the accessory air sacs are largely reduced, presumably because of volume fluctuations in the tympanic cavity during diving. The perfect uncoupling of the ear bones from the skull obviously was an essential prerequisite for directional hearing, for effective ultrasound orientation and communication, and finally, for the striking development of the dolphin brain.

  3. Dynamic Fractal TRIDYN: Modeling Surface Morphology and Composition Evolution under Ion Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobny, Jon; Hayes, Alyssa; Ruzic, David

    2016-10-01

    Fractal TRIDYN (FTRIDYN) is an upgraded version of the Monte-Carlo, Binary Collision Approximation (BCA) code TRIDYN that includes an explicit, dynamically evolving fractal model of surface roughness in addition to the dynamic composition model included in standard TRIDYN. The complete effect of surface roughness on plasma-material interactions, especially the time-resolved dynamics of surfaces under ion bombardment, is not fully understood. Presented is a version of FTRIDYN that includes new algorithms for handling the evolution of fractal surfaces. Fractals provide a consistent and physically realistic method to model rough surfaces using fractal dimension as a single input parameter that correlates with roughness. Particularly, a new algorithm for measuring the fractal dimension of noisy surfaces and capturing complicated surface morphology has been designed and utilized for this purpose. This allows for the simulation of a surface that evolves simultaneously in both surface composition and morphology, opening up the possibility of exploring these phenomena together. Simulations for proposed Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) for fusion reactors, Beryllium and Tungsten, as well as for Argon incident on Silicon, are presented in this study. Supported by DOE Project DE-S0008658.

  4. Vitamin D3 suppresses morphological evolution of the cribriform cancerous phenotype.

    PubMed

    Deevi, Ravi K; McClements, Jane; McCloskey, Karen D; Fatehullah, Aliya; Tkocz, Dorota; Javadi, Arman; Higginson, Robyn; Marsh Durban, Victoria; Jansen, Marnix; Clarke, Alan; Loughrey, Maurice B; Campbell, Frederick C

    2016-08-02

    Development of cribriform morphology (CM) heralds malignant change in human colon but lack of mechanistic understanding hampers preventive therapy. This study investigated CM pathobiology in three-dimensional (3D) Caco-2 culture models of colorectal glandular architecture, assessed translational relevance and tested effects of 1,25(OH)2D3,theactive form of vitamin D. CM evolution was driven by oncogenic perturbation of the apical polarity (AP) complex comprising PTEN, CDC42 and PRKCZ (phosphatase and tensin homolog, cell division cycle 42 and protein kinase C zeta). Suppression of AP genes initiated a spatiotemporal cascade of mitotic spindle misorientation, apical membrane misalignment and aberrant epithelial configuration. Collectively, these events promoted "Swiss cheese-like" cribriform morphology (CM) comprising multiple abnormal "back to back" lumens surrounded by atypical stratified epithelium, in 3D colorectal gland models. Intestinal cancer driven purely by PTEN-deficiency in transgenic mice developed CM and in human CRC, CM associated with PTEN and PRKCZ readouts. Treatment of PTEN-deficient 3D cultures with 1,25(OH)2D3 upregulated PTEN, rapidly activated CDC42 and PRKCZ, corrected mitotic spindle alignment and suppressed CM development. Conversely, mutationally-activated KRAS blocked1,25(OH)2D3 rescue of glandular architecture. We conclude that 1,25(OH)2D3 upregulates AP signalling to reverse CM in a KRAS wild type (wt), clinically predictive CRC model system. Vitamin D could be developed as therapy to suppress inception or progression of a subset of colorectal tumors.

  5. Production and packaging of a biological arsenal: evolution of centipede venoms under morphological constraint.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Eivind A B; Hamilton, Brett R; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Bowlay, Greg; Cribb, Bronwen W; Merritt, David J; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F; Venter, Deon J

    2015-03-31

    Venom represents one of the most extreme manifestations of a chemical arms race. Venoms are complex biochemical arsenals, often containing hundreds to thousands of unique protein toxins. Despite their utility for prey capture, venoms are energetically expensive commodities, and consequently it is hypothesized that venom complexity is inversely related to the capacity of a venomous animal to physically subdue prey. Centipedes, one of the oldest yet least-studied venomous lineages, appear to defy this rule. Although scutigeromorph centipedes produce less complex venom than those secreted by scolopendrid centipedes, they appear to rely heavily on venom for prey capture. We show that the venom glands are large and well developed in both scutigerid and scolopendrid species, but that scutigerid forcipules lack the adaptations that allow scolopendrids to inflict physical damage on prey and predators. Moreover, we reveal that scolopendrid venom glands have evolved to accommodate a much larger number of secretory cells and, by using imaging mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that toxin production is heterogeneous across these secretory units. We propose that the differences in venom complexity between centipede orders are largely a result of morphological restrictions of the venom gland, and consequently there is a strong correlation between the morphological and biochemical complexity of this unique venom system. The current data add to the growing body of evidence that toxins are not expressed in a spatially homogenous manner within venom glands, and they suggest that the link between ecology and toxin evolution is more complex than previously thought.

  6. Did Adult Diurnal Activity Influence the Evolution of Wing Morphology in Opoptera Butterflies?

    PubMed

    Penz, C M; Heine, K B

    2016-02-01

    The butterfly genus Opoptera includes eight species, three of which have diurnal habits while the others are crepuscular (the usual activity period for members of the tribe Brassolini). Although never measured in the field, it is presumed that diurnal Opoptera species potentially spend more time flying than their crepuscular relatives. If a shift to diurnal habits potentially leads to a higher level of activity and energy expenditure during flight, then selection should operate on increased aerodynamic and energetic efficiency, leading to changes in wing shape. Accordingly, we ask whether diurnal habits have influenced the evolution of wing morphology in Opoptera. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we confirmed our expectation that the wings of diurnal species have higher aspect ratios (ARs) and lower wing centroids (WCs) than crepuscular congeners. These wing shape characteristics are known to promote energy efficiency during flight. Three Opoptera wing morphotypes established a priori significantly differed in AR and WC values. The crepuscular, cloud forest dweller Opoptera staudingeri (Godman & Salvin) was exceptional in having an extended forewing tip and the highest AR and lowest WC within Opoptera, possibly to facilitate flight in a cooler environment. Our study is the first to investigate how butterfly wing morphology might evolve as a response to a behavioral shift in adult time of activity.

  7. Production and packaging of a biological arsenal: Evolution of centipede venoms under morphological constraint

    PubMed Central

    Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Hamilton, Brett R.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Bowlay, Greg; Cribb, Bronwen W.; Merritt, David J.; Fry, Bryan G.; King, Glenn F.; Venter, Deon J.

    2015-01-01

    Venom represents one of the most extreme manifestations of a chemical arms race. Venoms are complex biochemical arsenals, often containing hundreds to thousands of unique protein toxins. Despite their utility for prey capture, venoms are energetically expensive commodities, and consequently it is hypothesized that venom complexity is inversely related to the capacity of a venomous animal to physically subdue prey. Centipedes, one of the oldest yet least-studied venomous lineages, appear to defy this rule. Although scutigeromorph centipedes produce less complex venom than those secreted by scolopendrid centipedes, they appear to rely heavily on venom for prey capture. We show that the venom glands are large and well developed in both scutigerid and scolopendrid species, but that scutigerid forcipules lack the adaptations that allow scolopendrids to inflict physical damage on prey and predators. Moreover, we reveal that scolopendrid venom glands have evolved to accommodate a much larger number of secretory cells and, by using imaging mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that toxin production is heterogeneous across these secretory units. We propose that the differences in venom complexity between centipede orders are largely a result of morphological restrictions of the venom gland, and consequently there is a strong correlation between the morphological and biochemical complexity of this unique venom system. The current data add to the growing body of evidence that toxins are not expressed in a spatially homogenous manner within venom glands, and they suggest that the link between ecology and toxin evolution is more complex than previously thought. PMID:25775536

  8. Polyphyly and convergent morphological evolution in Commelinales and Commelinidae: evidence from rbcL sequence data.

    PubMed

    Givnish, T J; Evans, T M; Pires, J C; Sytsma, K J

    1999-08-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the five families of the order Commelinales remain an area of deep uncertainty in higher-level monocot systematics, despite intensive morphological and anatomical study. To test the monophyly of the Commelinales and the subclass Commelinidae, evaluate their relationships, and analyze evolutionary trends in their morphology, ecology, and biogeography, we conducted parsimony analyses on 95 rbcL sequences representing 17 taxa of Commelinales, 16 taxa of other Commelinidae, and 63 taxa from Arecidae, Liliidae, and Zingiberidae. Commelinales is polyphyletic and Commelinidae paraphyletic, with Eriocaulaceae and Xyridaceae sister to Poaceae and its relatives, Rapateaceae sister to Bromeliaceae and Mayacaceae, and Commelinaceae sister to Philydrales and allies. Thurnia is sister to Prionium at the base of Cyperaceae-Juncaceae; only 1 of Cronquist's multifamily commelinoid orders is diagnosed as monophyletic. We propose a revised Commelinidae, incorporating 4 revised superorders (Bromelianae, Commelinanae, Dasypogonanae, Arecanae) and 10 orders ((Poales, Eriocaulales, Cyperales, Typhales, Bromeliales), (Commelinales, Philydrales, Zingiberales), (Dasypogonales), (Arecales)). Morphological and anatomical characters used to define the original Commelinales and Commelinidae appear to be plesiomorphic or to reflect convergence or recurrent mutation; several characters supporting our revised classification are anatomical traits that seem relatively insulated from environmental selection pressures. The Commelinidae distal to the Arecales arose in South America, with amphiatlantic Bromeliaceae-Mayacaceae-Rapateaceae originating in the Guayana Shield. Ecological diversification involved the repeated invasion of shady, infertile, or arid microsites. The numbers of species in families of the revised Commelinidae are related partly to the extent of adaptive radiation in those families, but seem more strongly related to nonadaptive features promoting

  9. Adaptive evolution of a derived radius morphology in manakins (Aves, Pipridae) to support acrobatic display behavior.

    PubMed

    Friscia, Anthony; Sanin, Gloria D; Lindsay, Willow R; Day, Lainy B; Schlinger, Barney A; Tan, Josh; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of the avian skeleton is often studied in the context of adaptations for powered flight. The effects of other evolutionary forces, such as sexual selection, on avian skeletal design are unclear, even though birds produce diverse behaviors that undoubtedly require a variety of osteological modifications. Here, we investigate this issue in a family of passerine birds called manakins (Pipridae), which have evolved physically unusual and elaborate courtship displays. We report that, in species within the genus Manacus, the shaft of the radius is heavily flattened and shows substantial solidification. Past work anecdotally notes this morphology and attributes it to the species' ability to hit their wings together above their heads to produce loud mechanical sonations. Our results show that this feature is unique to Manacus compared to the other species in our study, including a variety of taxa that produce other sonations through alternate wing mechanisms. At the same time, our data reveal striking similarities across species in total radius volume and solidification. Together, this suggests that supposedly adaptive alterations in radial morphology occur within a conserved framework of a set radius volume and solidness, which in turn is likely determined by natural selection. Further allometric analyses imply that the radius is less constrained by body size and the structural demands that underlie powered flight, compared to other forelimb bones that are mostly unmodified across taxa. These results are consistent with the idea that the radius is more susceptible to selective modification by sexual selection. Overall, this study provides some of the first insight into the osteological evolution of passerine birds, as well as the way in which opposing selective forces can shape skeletal design in these species. J. Morphol. 277:766-775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Doping concentration driven morphological evolution of Fe doped ZnO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, A.; Goswami, N.; Kumar, Y.; Agarwal, V.; Olive-Méndez, S. F.

    2014-10-28

    In this paper, systematic study of structural, vibrational, and optical properties of undoped and 1-10 at.% Fe doped ZnO nanostructures, synthesized adopting chemical precipitation route, has been reported. Prepared nanostructures were characterized employing an assortment of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and UV-visible and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. With Fe incorporation, a gradual morphological transformation of nanostructures is demonstrated vividly through SEM/TEM characterizations. Interestingly, the morphology of nanostructures evolves with 1–10 at. % Fe doping concentration in ZnO. Nanoparticles obtained with 1 at. % Fe evolve to nanorods for 3 at. % Fe; nanorods transform to nanocones (for 5 at. % and 7 at. % Fe) and finally nanocones transform to nanoflakes at 10 at. % Fe. However, at all these stages, concurrence of primary hexagonal phase of Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O along with the secondary phases of cubic ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and rhombohedric Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is revealed through XRD analysis. Based on collective XRD, SEM, TEM, and EDX interpretations, a model for morphological evolution of nanostructures was proposed and the pivotal role of Fe dopant was deciphered. Furthermore, vibrational properties analyzed through Raman and FTIR spectroscopies unravel the intricacies of formation and gradual enhancement of secondary phases with increased Fe concentration. UV-visible and PL spectroscopic analyses provided further insight of optical processes altering with Fe incorporation. The blue shift and gradual quenching of visible photoluminescence with Fe doping was found in accordance with structural and vibrational analyses and explicated accordingly.

  11. Evolution of Morphological and Physical Properties of Laboratory Interstellar Organic Residues with Ultraviolet Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, L.; Tachibana, S.; Hama, T.; Tanaka, H.; Endo, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Dessimoulie, L.; Kimura, Y.; Miyake, A.; Matsuno, J.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Fujita, K.; Nakatsubo, S.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Chigai, T.; Yurimoto, H.; Kouchi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Refractory organic compounds formed in molecular clouds are among the building blocks of the solar system objects and could be the precursors of organic matter found in primitive meteorites and cometary materials. However, little is known about the evolutionary pathways of molecular cloud organics from dense molecular clouds to planetary systems. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the morphological and viscoelastic properties of molecular cloud refractory organic matter. We found that the organic residue, experimentally synthesized at ∼10 K from UV-irradiated H2O-CH3OH-NH3 ice, changed significantly in terms of its nanometer- to micrometer-scale morphology and viscoelastic properties after UV irradiation at room temperature. The dose of this irradiation was equivalent to that experienced after short residence in diffuse clouds (≤104 years) or irradiation in outer protoplanetary disks. The irradiated organic residues became highly porous and more rigid and formed amorphous nanospherules. These nanospherules are morphologically similar to organic nanoglobules observed in the least-altered chondrites, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, and cometary samples, suggesting that irradiation of refractory organics could be a possible formation pathway for such nanoglobules. The storage modulus (elasticity) of photo-irradiated organic residues is ∼100 MPa irrespective of vibrational frequency, a value that is lower than the storage moduli of minerals and ice. Dust grains coated with such irradiated organics would therefore stick together efficiently, but growth to larger grains might be suppressed due to an increase in aggregate brittleness caused by the strong connections between grains.

  12. The first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution: macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-12-23

    The evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic was a pivotal event in the Earth's history but is poorly understood, as previous studies have focused on vague driving mechanisms and have not untangled different macroevolutionary components (origination, diversity, abundance and disparity). We calculate the morphological disparity (morphospace occupation) of dinosaurs throughout the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and present new measures of taxonomic diversity. Crurotarsan archosaurs, the primary dinosaur 'competitors', were significantly more disparate than dinosaurs throughout the Triassic, but underwent a devastating extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. However, dinosaur disparity showed only a slight non-significant increase after this event, arguing against the hypothesis of ecological release-driven morphospace expansion in the Early Jurassic. Instead, the main jump in dinosaur disparity occurred between the Carnian and Norian stages of the Triassic. Conversely, dinosaur diversity shows a steady increase over this time, and measures of diversification and faunal abundance indicate that the Early Jurassic was a key episode in dinosaur evolution. Thus, different aspects of the dinosaur radiation (diversity, disparity and abundance) were decoupled, and the overall macroevolutionary pattern of the first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution is more complex than often considered.

  13. Anti-predator defence drives parallel morphological evolution in flea beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Deyan; Chesters, Douglas; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Xingke; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2011-01-01

    Complex morphological or functional traits are frequently considered evolutionarily unique and hence useful for taxonomic classification. Flea beetles (Alticinae) are characterized by an extraordinary jumping apparatus in the usually greatly expanded femur of their hind legs that separates them from the related Galerucinae. Here, we examine the evolution of this trait using phylogenetic analysis and a time-calibrated tree from mitochondrial (rrnL and cox1) and nuclear (small subunits and large subunits) genes, as well as morphometrics of femora using elliptic Fourier analysis. The phylogeny strongly supports multiple independent origins of the metafemoral spring and therefore rejects the monophyly of Alticinae, as defined by this trait. Geometric outline analysis of femora shows the great plasticity of this structure and its correlation with the type and diversity of the metafemoral springs. The recognition of convergence in jumping apparatus now resolves the long-standing difficulties of Galerucinae–Alticinae classification, and cautions against the value of trait complexity as a measure of taxonomic significance. The lineage also shows accelerated species diversification rates relative to other leaf beetles, which may be promoted by the same ecological factors that also favour the repeated evolution of jumping as an anti-predation mechanism. PMID:21159678

  14. Continuous In Vitro Evolution of a Ribozyme that Catalyzes Three Successive Nucleotidyl Addition Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Wright, Martin C.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the class I ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes joining of the 3' end of a template bound oligonucleotide to its own 5' end, have been made to evolve in a continuous manner by a simple serial transfer procedure that can be carried out indefinitely. This process was expanded to allow the evolution of ribozymes that catalyze three successive nucleotidyl addition reactions, two template-directed mononucleotide additions followed by RNA ligation. During the development of this behavior, a population of ribozymes was maintained against an overall dilution of more than 10(exp 406). The resulting ribozymes were capable of catalyzing the three-step reaction pathway, with nucleotide addition occurring in either a 5' yieldig 3' or a 3' yielding 5' direction. This purely chemical system provides a functional model of a multi-step reaction pathway that is undergoing Darwinian evolution.

  15. Evolution of channel morphology in a large river subject to rectification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Mastronunzio, Marco; Proto, Matteo; Zen, Simone; Bertoldi, Walter; Prà, Elena Dai; Comiti, Francesco; Surian, Nicola; Zolezzi, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Many large rivers in Europe have been subject to heavy modifications for land reclamation and flood mitigation through centuries. As a consequence, the study of the pre-alteration morphological patterns and of the related channel evolution following the anthropic modifications is rather challenging. The Adige River is the second longest river in Italy and drains 12,100 km2 of the Eastern Italian Alps. Currently, it features a straight to sinuous pattern and an average channel width of 40-60 m. A massive rectification scheme aiming at land reclamation of the Adige valley bottom was planned in the late 18th century, and implemented starting in the first decades of 19th century. Nowadays, it can be considered one of the most altered rivers in Italy, not only due to channelization but also to the presence of many hydropower reservoirs and check-dams along its tributaries. This study aims to the reconstruction of the Adige River's evolutionary trajectory over the last 250 years, and comprehension of key control factors driving channel evolution. A multi-temporal analysis of historical maps and orthophotos from 1776, to 2006 was performed in order to assess channel modifications. In addition, land use changes at the basin scale, years of occurrence of most relevant flood events, and climate variability over the investigated period were analyzed. The detailed topographical map surveyed in 1803 was taken as a reference, and the study sector (115 km long) was divided into 39 reaches. Active channel, bars, riparian vegetation and channel control works were geo-processed. Results show that the Adige River suffered the most intense alteration from 1803 to 1855, and especially from 1847 to 1855. During this period channel narrowing ranged from 14% to 70%, coupled with pattern changes and decreases in the braiding, sinuosity and anabrancing indices. Most important alterations occurred in the reaches presenting a multi-thread morphology in 1803, as their average width declined

  16. Convergent, parallel and correlated evolution of trophic morphologies in the subfamily schizothoracinae from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Qi, Delin; Chao, Yan; Guo, Songchang; Zhao, Lanying; Li, Taiping; Wei, Fulei; Zhao, Xinquan

    2012-01-01

    Schizothoracine fishes distributed in the water system of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas are characterized by being highly adaptive to the cold and hypoxic environment of the plateau, as well as by a high degree of diversity in trophic morphology due to resource polymorphisms. Although convergent and parallel evolution are prevalent in the organisms of the QTP, it remains unknown whether similar evolutionary patterns have occurred in the schizothoracine fishes. Here, we constructed for the first time a tentative molecular phylogeny of the schizothoracine fishes based on the complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene. We employed this molecular phylogenetic framework to examine the evolution of trophic morphologies. We used Pagel's maximum likelihood method to estimate the evolutionary associations of trophic morphologies and food resource use. Our results showed that the molecular and published morphological phylogenies of Schizothoracinae are partially incongruent with respect to some intergeneric relationships. The phylogenetic results revealed that four character states of five trophic morphologies and of food resource use evolved at least twice during the diversification of the subfamily. State transitions are the result of evolutionary patterns including either convergence or parallelism or both. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that some characters of trophic morphologies in the Schizothoracinae have undergone correlated evolution, which are somewhat correlated with different food resource uses. Collectively, our results reveal new examples of convergent and parallel evolution in the organisms of the QTP. The adaptation to different trophic niches through the modification of trophic morphologies and feeding behaviour as found in the schizothoracine fishes may account for the formation and maintenance of the high degree of diversity and radiations in fish communities endemic to QTP.

  17. Comet 67P's morphological dichotomy and surface evolution from the Rosetta/OSIRIS camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramy El-Maarry, M.; Thomas, Nicolas; Gracia-Berná, Antonio; Pajola, Maurizio; Groussin, Olivier; ROSETTA/OSIRIS

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta mission orbited comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Aug, 2014 to Sep, 2016. During this time, it obtained the most comprehensive image dataset for a comet's nucleus in terms of resolution, as well as spatial and temporal coverage, using the OSIRIS camera. These images have shown the surface of the comet to be very diverse in its texture and geology. In particular, the 2-year duration of the mission permitted imaging of both hemispheres and the possibility to assess the morphology and surface evolution of comet's 67P's northern hemisphere before and after perihelion passage (in Aug, 2015). The northern hemisphere (NH) is morphologically diverse including regions of consolidated, often fractured materials, smooth terrains showing aeolian-like landforms and seasonal variations, dust-covered areas suggestive of an air-fall-like mechanism, and irregular large-scale depressions suggestive of massive outburst activities. On the other hand, the southern hemisphere (SH) shows a clear dichotomy with the North showing regionally rougher terrains with little or no smooth deposits. Similarly, dusty coatings that were observed in the northern hemisphere are generally lacking in addition to the absence of large depressions. Overall, the SH shows significantly less topographical variation in comparison to the NH. The difference in relief between the NH and SH may be explained by the differences in erosional extent between both hemispheres. The SH has a shorter yet more intensive summer (close to perihelion), which could result in levels of erosion in the SH that are up to a factor of 3 higher than that of the NH. Another notable difference between both hemispheres is the absence of smooth deposits and dust coatings in the SH. The absence of similar deposits in the south may suggest that activity in the SH occurs with much higher intensity leading to ejection of dust particles at velocities exceeding comet's escape velocity. During the meeting, we plan to summarize the

  18. Evolution of terrace risers along the upper Rhine graben inferred from morphologic dating methods: evidence of climatic and tectonic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivière, B.; Marquis, Guy

    2000-06-01

    We show that morphologic dating techniques that have been applied successfully in arid and semi-arid areas are also suitable for slowly evolving scarps that are usually found in temperate climate environments. We have attempted two morphologic approaches, based on diffusion, to relate the present-day shape of an abandoned terrace riser to its age. The first assumes a model of scarp degradation based on a diffusive process (the D method). The second evaluates the state of scarp degradation using the slope distribution (the SD method) along a topographic profile. By using a manmade scarp of known age, we have obtained a mass diffusivity close to 1.4m2ka-1 when the area experiences a temperate climate characterized by a continuous vegetation cover. However, this value decreases during glacial episodes, probably on account of the permafrost. Even though the SD method requires an age correction that can be easily computed, only this method reveals that at several profiles a later scarp reactivation event has occurred. Indeed, along several profiles, the slope distribution was best fitted by two offset Gaussian curves, suggesting that some scarps have undergone a complex evolution that cannot be modelled with a single diffusive process. This scarp reactivation may correspond to a new incisive episode and allows one to estimate the vertical incision rate along the terrace riser. Applied to a Wurmian terrace riser of the upper Rhine valley (NE France), this approach reveals that the vertical incision rate ranges from 0.2 to 0.85mmyr-1 between 35 and 15ka and that the terrace bevelling occurred during two episodes related to climatic forcing. Moreover, we can identify a component of tectonic forcing evidenced by an increase to the north of vertical incision rate and Rhine stream-power. Another major result is showing that this terrace riser is not isochronous along its strike and that younger portions result from lateral incision of a 30ka pre-existing scarp.

  19. Morphological classification of low viscosity drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Li, Wei-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of Rayleigh-Taylor wave number in the region of maximum cross stream dimension (NRT) on drop breakup morphology, the breakup properties of accelerating low viscosity liquid drops (water and ethanol drops, diameter=1.2-6.6 mm, Weber number=10-80) were investigated using high-speed digital photography. The results of morphological analysis show a good correlation of the observed breakup type with NRT; bag breakup occurred when NRT was 1/√3 -1, bag-stamen breakup at 1-2, and dual-bag breakup at 2-3. The number of nodes in bag breakup, bag-stamen breakup, and dual-bag breakup all increased with Weber number. The experimental results are consistent with the model estimates and in good agreement with those reported in the literature.

  20. Influence of surface morphology evolution of SubPc layers on the performance of SubPc/C60 organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinhyun; Yim, Sanggyu

    2011-11-01

    In this study, small-molecule organic solar cells based on choloro[subphthalocyaninato]boron (III) (SubPc) as an electron donor and fullerene (C60) as an electron acceptor were fabricated by varying the thickness, d, of the SubPc layer. The power conversion efficiency was maximized to 1.8% at d ˜ 130 Å due to the relatively large values of the short-circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF). This optimal thickness was also strongly related to the surface morphology evolution of the SubPc thin films. The corrugated surface nanostructures were continually formed until the thickness of the film increased up to 130 Å, which is advantageous for the formation of an interdigitated electron donor-acceptor interface. In contrast, for films thicker than 130 Å, the corrugated surface structures were filled with subsequently deposited molecules, leading to a smoother morphology and consequently reduced JSC and FF value of the cells.

  1. Genome replication engineering assisted continuous evolution (GREACE) to improve microbial tolerance for biofuels production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microbial production of biofuels requires robust cell growth and metabolism under tough conditions. Conventionally, such tolerance phenotypes were engineered through evolutionary engineering using the principle of “Mutagenesis followed-by Selection”. The iterative rounds of mutagenesis-selection and frequent manual interventions resulted in discontinuous and inefficient strain improvement processes. This work aimed to develop a more continuous and efficient evolutionary engineering method termed as “Genome Replication Engineering Assisted Continuous Evolution” (GREACE) using “Mutagenesis coupled-with Selection” as its core principle. Results The core design of GREACE is to introduce an in vivo continuous mutagenesis mechanism into microbial cells by introducing a group of genetically modified proofreading elements of the DNA polymerase complex to accelerate the evolution process under stressful conditions. The genotype stability and phenotype heritability can be stably maintained once the genetically modified proofreading element is removed, thus scarless mutants with desired phenotypes can be obtained. Kanamycin resistance of E. coli was rapidly improved to confirm the concept and feasibility of GREACE. Intrinsic mechanism analysis revealed that during the continuous evolution process, the accumulation of genetically modified proofreading elements with mutator activities endowed the host cells with enhanced adaptation advantages. We further showed that GREACE can also be applied to engineer n-butanol and acetate tolerances. In less than a month, an E. coli strain capable of growing under an n-butanol concentration of 1.25% was isolated. As for acetate tolerance, cell growth of the evolved E. coli strain increased by 8-fold under 0.1% of acetate. In addition, we discovered that adaptation to specific stresses prefers accumulation of genetically modified elements with specific mutator strengths. Conclusions We developed a novel GREACE method

  2. A New LC-MS-based Strategy to integrate chemistry, morphology, and evolution of eggplant (Solanum) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economically valuable giant genus Solanum, containing dozens of functional food species such as eggplant and tomato, affords an excellent system to compare and correlate metabolic chemistry with species morphology and evolution. Here, we devised a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-T...

  3. Application of morphological synthesis for understanding electrode microstructure evolution as a function of applied charge/discharge cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazoff, Michael V.; Dufek, Eric J.; Shalashnikov, Egor V.

    2016-10-01

    Morphological synthesis operations were employed for understanding electrode microstructure transformations and evolution accompanying the application of charge/discharge cycles to electrochemical storage systems (batteries). Using state-of-the-art morphological algorithms, it was possible to predict microstructure evolution in porous Si electrodes for Li-ion batteries with reasonable accuracy. The developed techniques could be considered supplementary to a phase-field mesoscopic approach to microstructure evolution that is based upon clear and definitive changes in the appearance of microstructure. However, unlike in phase field, the governing equations for the morphological approach are geometry, not physics, based. A similar non-physics-based approach to understanding different phenomena was attempted with the introduction of cellular automata. It is anticipated that morphological synthesis will represent a useful supplementary tool to phase field and will render assistance to unraveling the underlying microstructure-property relationships. The paper contains data on electrochemical characterization of different electrode materials that was conducted in parallel to the morphological study.

  4. Quantum measurements in continuous time, non-Markovian evolutions and feedback.

    PubMed

    Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo

    2012-11-28

    In this article, we reconsider a version of quantum trajectory theory based on the stochastic Schrödinger equation with stochastic coefficients, which was mathematically introduced in the 1990s, and we develop it in order to describe the non-Markovian evolution of a quantum system continuously measured and controlled, thanks to a measurement-based feedback. Indeed, realistic descriptions of a feedback loop have to include delay and thus need a non-Markovian theory. The theory allows us to put together non-Markovian evolutions and measurements in continuous time, in agreement with the modern axiomatic formulation of quantum mechanics. To illustrate the possibilities of such a theory, we apply it to a two-level atom stimulated by a laser. We introduce closed loop control too, via the stimulating laser, with the aim of enhancing the 'squeezing' of the emitted light, or other typical quantum properties. Note that here we change the point of view with respect to the usual applications of control theory. In our model, the 'system' is the two-level atom, but we do not want to control its state, to bring the atom to a final target state. Our aim is to control the 'Mandel Q-parameter' and the spectrum of the emitted light; in particular, the spectrum is not a property at a single time, but involves a long interval of times (a Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the observed output is needed).

  5. Plateau-Rayleigh Instability Morphology Evolution (PRIME): From Electrospun Core-Shell Polymer Fibers to Polymer Microbowls.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Jing; Tseng, Hsiao-Fan; Lo, Yu-Ching; Wu, Bo-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Tai

    2017-03-01

    Electrospun core-shell fibers have great potentials in many areas, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and organic solar cells. Although many core-shell fibers have been prepared and studied, the morphology transformation of core-shell fibers have been rarely studied. In this work, the morphology evolution of electrospun core-shell polymer fibers driven by the Plateau-Rayleigh instability is investigated. Polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) core-shell fibers are first prepared by using blend solutions and a single axial electrospinning setup. After PS/PMMA core-shell fibers are annealed on a PS film, the fibers undulate and sink into the polymer film, forming core-shell hemispheres. The evolution process, which can be observed in situ by optical microscopy, is mainly driven by achieving lower surface and interfacial energies. The morphologies of the transformed structures can be confirmed by a selective removal technique, and polymer microbowls can be obtained.

  6. Plantain starch granules morphology, crystallinity, structure transition, and size evolution upon acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jaimes, C; Bello-Pérez, L A; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2013-06-05

    Plantain native starch was hydrolysed with sulphuric acid for twenty days. Hydrolysis kinetics was described by a logistic function, with a zero-order rate during the first seven days, followed by a slower kinetics dynamics at longer times. X-ray diffraction results revealed a that gradual increase in crystallinity occurred during the first seven days, followed by a decrease to values similar to those found in the native starch. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested a sharp structure transition by the seventh day probably due to a molecular rearrangement of the starch blocklets and inhomogeneous erosion of the amorphous regions and semi crystalline lamellae. Scanning electron micrographs showed that starch granules morphology was continually degraded from an initial oval-like shape to irregular shapes due to aggregation effects. Granule size distribution broadened as hydrolysis time proceeded probably due to fragmentation and agglomeration phenomena of the hydrolysed starch granules.

  7. A Real Time Investigation of Morphological Evolution During Solidification of Different Alloy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Curreri, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Solidification phenomenon which occur at the solid/liquid (s/I) interface play a major role in the determination of structure and hence the technologically important properties of a casting. However, metals being opaque, conclusions related to several important phenomenon such as boundary layer thickness, morphological evolution, and eutectic and cell spacing are deduced from quenching experiments and subsequent post solidification metallographic analysis. Consequently, limited information is obtained about the dynamics of the process. This paper will discuss the recent efforts at the Space Science Laboratory, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, to view and quantify in-situ and in real time the dynamics of the solidification process and to measure interfacial undercooling. First, a high resolution x-ray transmission microscope (XTM) has been developed to monitor fundamental interfacial phenomena during directional solidification of metals and alloys. The XTM operates in the range of 10-100 KeV and through projection is capable of achieving magnification of up to 16OX. Secondly, an innovative collapsible furnace has been designed to quantify interfacial undercooling by measuring the temperature of a moving s/I interface in reference to a fixed s/l interface. This measurement technique is non-intrusive in nature and is based on the Seebeck principle. In this paper real time results obtained to characterize the dynamics of irregular eutectic spacing will be presented. As an example fiber to lamella or plate transition in the Al-Al2Au eutectic system will be discussed. Further, a resolution limit of 25 micron has permitted viewing in real time morphological instability and cellular growth in Al-Au and Al-Ag systems. Simultaneously, a systematic investigation has been carried out to measure interfacial undercooling for Pb-1 wt.% Sn at and near the marginal stability regime. In conjunction with the XTM observations this study attempts to validate existing relationships

  8. Geometric evolution law for modeling strongly anisotropic thin-film morphology.

    PubMed

    Ograin, Christopher; Lowengrub, John

    2011-12-01

    The morphology of the solid-vapor interface of a nanoscale thin crystalline film is influenced by many factors including surface diffusion, attachment-detachment, deposition, and interface kinetics. Using a high-order accurate and efficient numerical method, we investigate the dynamics of two dimensional thin films when all of these effects are considered. The observed morphologies consist of facets of constant slope separated by narrow transition intervals: kinks (valleys) and antikinks (hills). The number of kinks and antikinks decreases as the system coarsens in time. Our numerical results confirm that when deposition is present, the only possible coarsening event is the kink-ternary where two kinks meet and annihilate an antikink. We characterize the total amount of coarsening, the time over which the coarsening occurs and the associated coarsening scaling laws when all effects are considered. As found in previous work that considered only attachment-detachment, or surface diffusion, there are three distinct coarsening regimes associated with increasing magnitudes of the deposition flux-fast coarsening, a regime in which periodic structures form with little or no subsequent coarsening, and a regime in which the film surface evolves chaotically. We find that the inclusion of attachment-detachment leads to additional coarsening compared to the dynamics that result from driven surface diffusion alone. When deposition and interface kinetics are both considered, the slowdown of evolution caused by the kinetic effects necessitates a decrease in the deposition flux in order to produce a nonchaotic coarsening regime. Together, these provide testable predictions for experiments of thin-film dynamics.

  9. Molecular phylogenetics of the Brazilian giant bromeliads (Alcantarea, Bromeliaceae): implications for morphological evolution and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Versieux, Leonardo M; Barbará, Thelma; Wanderley, Maria das Graças Lapa; Calvente, Alice; Fay, Michael F; Lexer, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The genus Alcantarea comprises near 30 species endemic to rocky outcrops from eastern Brazil. Most species are ornamental and several are threatened due to habitat loss and over collection. In this paper we examine the phylogenetics of Alcantarea and its relationship with the Brazilian members of Vriesea, a genus of which Alcantarea has been treated as a subgenus. We discuss the morphological evolution of the stamen position and its implication for pollination and the occurrence of Alcantarea in the Espinhaço mountain range rocky savanna-like habitat vegetation. DNA sequence data derived from two plastid markers (trnK-rps16, trnC-petN) and from a low copy nuclear gene (Floricaula/Leafy) together with 20 nuclear microsatellite loci were the data source to perform analyses and construct phylogenetic and Neighbor Joining trees for the genus. Alcantarea is well supported as monophyletic in both Bayesian and parsimony analyses, but sections of Vriesea, represented by the eastern Brazilian species, appear paraphyletic. Microsatellites delimit geographically isolated species groups. Nevertheless individuals belonging to a single species may appear related to distinct clusters of species, suggesting that hybridization and/or homoplasy and/or incomplete lineage sorting are also influencing the analysis based on such markers and may be the reasons for some unexpected results. Alcantarea brasiliana is hypothesized as putative hybrid between A. imperialis and A. geniculata. Spreading stamens, a morphological floral characteristic assumed to be related to Chiropterophily, apparently evolved multiple times within the genus, and invasion of rocky savanna-like habitat vegetation by Atlantic rainforest ancestors seems to have occurred multiple times as well.

  10. Vitamin D3 suppresses morphological evolution of the cribriform cancerous phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Deevi, Ravi K.; McClements, Jane; McCloskey, Karen D.; Fatehullah, Aliya; Tkocz, Dorota; Javadi, Arman; Higginson, Robyn; Durban, Victoria Marsh; Jansen, Marnix; Loughrey, Maurice B.; Campbell, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of cribriform morphology (CM) heralds malignant change in human colon but lack of mechanistic understanding hampers preventive therapy. This study investigated CM pathobiology in three-dimensional (3D) Caco-2 culture models of colorectal glandular architecture, assessed translational relevance and tested effects of 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. CM evolution was driven by oncogenic perturbation of the apical polarity (AP) complex comprising PTEN, CDC42 and PRKCZ (phosphatase and tensin homolog, cell division cycle 42 and protein kinase C zeta). Suppression of AP genes initiated a spatiotemporal cascade of mitotic spindle misorientation, apical membrane misalignment and aberrant epithelial configuration. Collectively, these events promoted “Swiss cheese-like” cribriform morphology (CM) comprising multiple abnormal “back to back” lumens surrounded by atypical stratified epithelium, in 3D colorectal gland models. Intestinal cancer driven purely by PTEN-deficiency in transgenic mice developed CM and in human CRC, CM associated with PTEN and PRKCZ readouts. Treatment of PTEN-deficient 3D cultures with 1,25(OH)2D3 upregulated PTEN, rapidly activated CDC42 and PRKCZ, corrected mitotic spindle alignment and suppressed CM development. Conversely, mutationally-activated KRAS blocked 1,25(OH)2D3 rescue of glandular architecture. We conclude that 1,25(OH)2D3 upregulates AP signalling to reverse CM in a KRAS wild type (wt), clinically predictive CRC model system. Vitamin D could be developed as therapy to suppress inception or progression of a subset of colorectal tumors. PMID:27119498

  11. The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Caroline B; Simakov, Oleg; Mitros, Therese; Wang, Z Yan; Pungor, Judit R; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Brenner, Sydney; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-08-13

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are active, resourceful predators with a rich behavioural repertoire. They have the largest nervous systems among the invertebrates and present other striking morphological innovations including camera-like eyes, prehensile arms, a highly derived early embryogenesis and a remarkably sophisticated adaptive colouration system. To investigate the molecular bases of cephalopod brain and body innovations, we sequenced the genome and multiple transcriptomes of the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides. We found no evidence for hypothesized whole-genome duplications in the octopus lineage. The core developmental and neuronal gene repertoire of the octopus is broadly similar to that found across invertebrate bilaterians, except for massive expansions in two gene families previously thought to be uniquely enlarged in vertebrates: the protocadherins, which regulate neuronal development, and the C2H2 superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors. Extensive messenger RNA editing generates transcript and protein diversity in genes involved in neural excitability, as previously described, as well as in genes participating in a broad range of other cellular functions. We identified hundreds of cephalopod-specific genes, many of which showed elevated expression levels in such specialized structures as the skin, the suckers and the nervous system. Finally, we found evidence for large-scale genomic rearrangements that are closely associated with transposable element expansions. Our analysis suggests that substantial expansion of a handful of gene families, along with extensive remodelling of genome linkage and repetitive content, played a critical role in the evolution of cephalopod morphological innovations, including their large and complex nervous systems.

  12. The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties

    PubMed Central

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Simakov, Oleg; Mitros, Therese; Wang, Z. Yan; Pungor, Judit R.; Edsinger-Gonzalez, Eric; Brenner, Sydney; Ragsdale, Clifton W.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, squid, and cuttlefish) are active, resourceful predators with a rich behavioral repertoire1. They have the largest nervous systems among the invertebrates2 and present other striking morphological innovations including camera-like eyes, prehensile arms, a highly derived early embryogenesis, and the most sophisticated adaptive coloration system among all animals1,3. To investigate the molecular bases of cephalopod brain and body innovations we sequenced the genome and multiple transcriptomes of the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides. We found no evidence for hypothesized whole genome duplications in the octopus lineage4–6. The core developmental and neuronal gene repertoire of the octopus is broadly similar to that found across invertebrate bilaterians, except for massive expansions in two gene families formerly thought to be uniquely enlarged in vertebrates: the protocadherins, which regulate neuronal development, and the C2H2 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors. Extensive mRNA editing generates transcript and protein diversity in genes involved in neural excitability, as previously described7, as well as in genes participating in a broad range of other cellular functions. We identified hundreds of cephalopod-specific genes, many of which showed elevated expression levels in such specialized structures as the skin, the suckers, and the nervous system. Finally, we found evidence for large-scale genomic rearrangements that are closely associated with transposable element expansions. Our analysis suggests that substantial expansion of a handful of gene families, along with extensive remodeling of genome linkage and repetitive content, played a critical role in the evolution of cephalopod morphological innovations, including their large and complex nervous systems. PMID:26268193

  13. Elephant brain. Part I: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Jeheskel; Kupsky, William J; Marchant, Gary H

    2006-06-30

    We report morphological data on brains of four African, Loxodonta africana, and three Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. Brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. Cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. The insula is not as opercularized as in man. The temporal lobe is disproportionately large and expands laterally. Humans and elephants have three parallel temporal gyri: superior, middle, and inferior. Hippocampal sizes in elephants and humans are comparable, but proportionally smaller in elephant. A possible carotid rete was observed at the base of the brain. Brain size appears to be related to body size, ecology, sociality, and longevity. Elephant adult brain averages 4783 g, the largest among living and extinct terrestrial mammals; elephant neonate brain averages 50% of its adult brain weight (25% in humans). Cerebellar weight averages 18.6% of brain (1.8 times larger than in humans). During evolution, encephalization quotient has increased by 10-fold (0.2 for extinct Moeritherium, approximately 2.0 for extant elephants). We present 20 figures of the elephant brain, 16 of which contain new material. Similarities between human and elephant brains could be due to convergent evolution; both display mosaic characters and are highly derived mammals. Humans and elephants use and make tools and show a range of complex learning skills and behaviors. In elephants, the large amount of cerebral cortex, especially in the temporal lobe, and the well-developed olfactory system, structures associated with complex learning and behavioral functions in humans, may provide the substrate for such complex skills and behavior.

  14. Evolution of unusual morphologies in Lentibulariaceae (bladderworts and allies) and Podostemaceae (river-weeds): a pictorial report at the interface of developmental biology and morphological diversification

    PubMed Central

    Rutishauser, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Background Various groups of flowering plants reveal profound (‘saltational’) changes of their bauplans (architectural rules) as compared with related taxa. These plants are known as morphological misfits that appear as rather large morphological deviations from the norm. Some of them emerged as morphological key innovations (perhaps ‘hopeful monsters’) that gave rise to new evolutionary lines of organisms, based on (major) genetic changes. Scope This pictorial report places emphasis on released bauplans as typical for bladderworts (Utricularia, approx. 230 secies, Lentibulariaceae) and river-weeds (Podostemaceae, three subfamilies, approx. 54 genera, approx. 310 species). Bladderworts (Utricularia) are carnivorous, possessing sucking traps. They live as submerged aquatics (except for their flowers), as humid terrestrials or as epiphytes. Most Podostemaceae are restricted to rocks in tropical river-rapids and waterfalls. They survive as submerged haptophytes in these extreme habitats during the rainy season, emerging with their flowers afterwards. The recent scientific progress in developmental biology and evolutionary history of both Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae is summarized. Conclusions Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae follow structural rules that are different from but related to those of more typical flowering plants. The roots, stems and leaves – as still distinguishable in related flowering plants – are blurred (‘fuzzy’). However, both families have stable floral bauplans. The developmental switches to unusual vegetative morphologies facilitated rather than prevented the evolution of species diversity in both families. The lack of one-to-one correspondence between structural categories and gene expression may have arisen from the re-use of existing genetic resources in novel contexts. Understanding what developmental patterns are followed in Lentibulariaceae and Podostemaceae is a necessary prerequisite to discover the genetic

  15. Morphological Evolution of Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Chloroform: Mechanism of Switching on/off by Protic Species

    PubMed Central

    Douglas-Gallardo, O. A.; Gomez, C. G.; Macchione, M. A.; Cometto, F. P.; Coronado, E. A.; Macagno, V. A.; Pérez, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The morphological stability/morphological reshaping of noble metal nanoparticles are studied experimentally in order to unravel the chemical mechanisms lying beneath. Gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs, respectively) formed in chloroformic environment are used, as model synthetic systems, to study phenomena of morphological change. The morphological evolution of NPs that follows their formation, is characterized by spectroscopy (UV-Visible, Raman and FTIR) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The change of NP morphology involves the increase of the average NP size and the broadening of size distribution, in a close resemblance with the effect characteristically obtained from the Ostwald ripening. The effect of the poor solvating properties of chloroform in stabilizing small charged species (H+, Ag+, Au+) as well as the principle of electroneutrality of matter are analyzed in order to formulate a feasible reaction scheme consisting of a three-step processes: the generation of soluble intermediary species by corrosion of nanoparticles, the diffusion of intermediary species from one nanoparticle to another, and the re-deposition process involving the reduction of intermediary species. This basic reaction scheme is used as hypothesis to plan and perform experiments, which reveal that molecular oxygen dissolved in the dispersive medium can drive NP corrosion, however, protic species are also required as co-reactant. The polarity of the hydrogen bond and the ligand properties of the anions produced by deprotonation are feature of the protic species that enable/disable the corrosion and, in turn, the NP morphological evolution. PMID:26889378

  16. Sediment transport dynamics linked to morphological evolution of the Selenga River delta, Lake Baikal, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, T. Y.; Nittrouer, J.; McElroy, B. J.; Czapiga, M. J.; Il'icheva, E.; Pavolv, M.; Parker, G.

    2014-12-01

    for all lobes, and that the delta is undergoing an active phase of erosion, characterized by channel incision and extensive lateral erosion of terraces; this process of delta 'self-cannibalization' contributes to the downstream sediment flux and morphological evolution of the delta.

  17. Evolution of galaxy structure using visual morphologies in CANDELS and Hydro-ART simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozena, Mark W.

    2013-08-01

    The general properties, morphologies, and classes of galaxies in the local Universe are well studied. Most local galaxies are morphologically members of the Hubble sequence and can be crudely separated into elliptical red quiescent galaxies or disky blue star-forming galaxies. This Hubble sequence of relaxed structures has been shown to dominate galaxy populations out to a redshift of z~1. The description of galaxies at earlier times is not well known nor is it understood how and at what epoch the Hubble sequence formed. Of particular interest is the structure of galaxies at z~2. This epoch was an active time for galaxy growth and was the peak epoch for star formation rate, active galactic nuclei activity, and mergers between galaxies. With the installation of the near-infrared Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope in 2009, large area photometric surveys of galaxies were able to be performed for the first time at moderate redshifts (z~2) in wavebands that effectively trace the older stellar populations and stellar mass of the galaxies rather than the clumpy star-forming regions. Using WFC3 HST images, an in-depth morphology classification system was developed to probe the galaxy populations at higher redshifts (focusing on z~2). These visual classifications were used with other galaxy parameters (stellar mass, color, star formation rate, radius, Sersic profiles, etc) to identify and quantify the moderate redshift galaxy populations and study how these populations changed with time to form the relaxed Hubble sequence Universe we observe today. Additionally, these same tools that were used to probe galaxy populations at z~2 in the observed Universe were also used on simulated galaxy images produced from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations. These Hydro-ART simulations build artificial galaxies that are compared to observations so as to shed light on the relevant mechanisms in galaxy evolution. By classifying and comparing the populations

  18. Continuous "in vitro" Evolution of a Ribozyme Ligase: A Model Experiment for the Evolution of a Biomolecule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Michael P.; Hwang, Tony W.; Stovall, Gwendolyn M.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Evolution is a defining criterion of life and is central to understanding biological systems. However, the timescale of evolutionary shifts in phenotype limits most classroom evolution experiments to simple probability simulations. "In vitro" directed evolution (IVDE) frequently serves as a model system for the study of Darwinian…

  19. A first continuous 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP)-based screening system for directed esterase evolution.

    PubMed

    Lülsdorf, Nina; Vojcic, Ljubica; Hellmuth, Hendrik; Weber, Thomas T; Mußmann, Nina; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Esterases hydrolyze ester bonds with an often high stereoselectivity as well as regioselectivity and are therefore industrially employed in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, in food processing, and in laundry detergents. Continuous screening systems based on p-nitrophenyl- (e.g., p-nitrophenyl acetate) or umbelliferyl-esters are commonly used in directed esterase evolution campaigns. Ongoing challenges in directed esterase evolution are screening formats which offer a broad substrate spectrum, especially for complex aromatic substrates. In this report, a novel continuous high throughput screening system for indirect monitoring of esterolytic activity was developed and validated by detection of phenols employing phenyl benzoate as substrate and p-nitrobenzyl esterase (pNBEBL from Bacillus licheniformis) as catalyst. The released phenol directly reacts with 4-aminoantipyrine yielding the red compound 1,5-dimethyl-4-(4-oxo-cyclohexa-2,5-dienylidenamino)-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-one. In this continuous B. licheniformis esterase activity detection system (cBLE-4AAP), the product formation is followed through an increase in absorbance at 509 nm. The cBLE-4AAP screening system was optimized in 96-well microtiter plate format in respect to standard deviation (5 %), linear detection range (15 to 250 μM), lower detection limit (15 μM), and pH (7.4 to 10.4). The cBLE-4AAP screening system was validated by screening a random epPCR pNBEBL mutagenesis library (2000 clones) for improved esterase activity at elevated temperatures. Finally, the variant T3 (Ser378Pro) was identified which nearly retains its specific activity at room temperature (WT 1036 U/mg and T3 929 U/mg) and shows compared to WT a 4.7-fold improved residual activity after thermal treatment (30 min incubation at 69.4 °C; WT 170 U/mg to T3 804 U/mg).

  20. Structural and morphological evolution of thrust wedges above a ductile layer with different viscous behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerca, M.; Barrientos, B.; Garcia-Marquez, J.; Portillo-Pineda, R.; Hernandez-Bernal, C.

    2007-05-01

    A series of scaled physical experiments illustrate the importance of differences in density and viscous behavior of décollement in the structural evolution of thrust wedges during shortening. In particular, we have analyzed the effect of changes in viscosity in the morphological evolution and strain of the brittle overburden surface. Ten models properly scaled in geometry and mechanical behavior of natural geological materials were deformed at the Modeling Laboratory (LAMMG) of UNAM. Mechanical stratification of the models included basal and upper brittle layers of 1 and 2 cm, respectively; separated by an intermediate viscous layer of 0.5 cm. Brittle layers were constructed with grains of quartz sand following a Mohr-Coulomb criterion of faulting and bulk density of ca. 1300 kg m-3. The viscous layer was composed of silicon-sand mixtures having differences in dynamic viscosity (Pa s) and density (kg m-3) as the following cases: (A) 2.0 e 4 and 978, (B) 3.3 e 4 and 1195, (C) 4.7 e 4 and 1270. The experiments were carried out in a Plexiglas box of 40x15x10 cm and deformed by moving a vertical wall at a constant velocity of 1.5 cm hr-1. Cross sections of the experiments were obtained for values of bulk shortening of ca. 20 and 40 percent. The modeling results suggest a close relation of structural style of the thrust wedge with the initial conditions of décollement viscosity. Low viscosity models have a structural development characterized by low angle napes and detachment folds with limb rotation indicating a predominant vergence towards foreland. High viscosity models have a greater mechanical coupling between décollement and overburden and develop preferentially detachment folds with higher elevation and undefined vergence. The evolution of the surface in two models with different initial dynamic viscosity, cases A and B, was analyzed at the optical interferometry laboratory of CIO with two full-field optical techniques: fringe projection and laser speckle

  1. Evolution of Shh endoderm enhancers during morphological transition from ventral lungs to dorsal gas bladder

    PubMed Central

    Sagai, Tomoko; Amano, Takanori; Maeno, Akiteru; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Takehana, Yusuke; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Okada, Norihiro; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Shh signalling plays a crucial role for endoderm development. A Shh endoderm enhancer, MACS1, is well conserved across terrestrial animals with lungs. Here, we first show that eliminating mouse MACS1 causes severe defects in laryngeal development, indicating that MACS1-directed Shh signalling is indispensable for respiratory organogenesis. Extensive phylogenetic analyses revealed that MACS1 emerged prior to the divergence of cartilaginous and bony fishes, and even euteleost fishes have a MACS1 orthologue. Meanwhile, ray-finned fishes evolved a novel conserved non-coding sequence in the neighbouring region. Transgenic assays showed that MACS1 drives reporter expression ventrally in laryngeal epithelium. This activity has been lost in the euteleost lineage, and instead, the conserved non-coding sequence of euteleosts acquired an enhancer activity to elicit dorsal epithelial expression in the posterior pharynx and oesophagus. These results implicate that evolution of these two enhancers is relevant to the morphological transition from ventral lungs to dorsal gas bladder. PMID:28155855

  2. Structural and morphological evolution of gallium nitride nanorods grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Shou-Yi; Lai, Fang-I; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Lin, Woei-Tyng

    2009-07-15

    The morphological and structural evolution is presented for GaN nanorods grown by chemical beam epitaxy on (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. Their structural and optical properties are investigated by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements. While increasing the growth temperature and the flow rate of radio-frequency nitrogen radical, the three-dimensional growth mode will be enhanced to form one-dimensional nanostructures. The high density of well-aligned nanorods with a diameter of 30-50 nm formed uniformly over the entire sapphire substrate. The x-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopic images indicate that the self-assembled GaN nanorods are a pure single crystal and preferentially oriented in the c-axis direction. Particularly, the ''S-shape'' behavior with localization of {approx}10 meV observed in the temperature-dependent photoluminescence might be ascribed to the fluctuation in crystallographic defects and composition.

  3. Morphology and crystal phase evolution of GeO 2 in liquid phase deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chengbin; Sun, Wei; Wang, Wei; Li, Yi; Chu, Junhao

    2012-01-01

    Morphology and crystal phase evolution of GeO 2 in liquid phase deposition (LPD) process is investigated. Rod-like solid phases precipitate out of solution ahead of truncated cube-like phases. SEM, XRD and TEM analyses reveal that the two sorts of solid phases are tetragonal GeO 2 and hexagonal GeO 2, respectively. The tetragonal GeO 2 phases start to experience a re-dissolving process as soon as the hexagonal phases come into being. The prior precipitation of the rod-like phase arises from a relatively low solute saturation of tetragonal GeO 2. Fast growth of a tetragonal GeO 2 phase along [111] direction leads to development of a rod-like shape. The re-dissolving phenomenon does not agree with the classic growth kinetics of crystals but is strongly favored by our calculations based on thermodynamics. The GeO 2 solutes are released in a fluctuant way by germanate ions, which promotes the occurrence of the re-dissolution phenomenon. The current researches open a door for room-temperature LPD growth of not only the hexagonal GeO 2 particles and film but also the one-dimensional tetragonal GeO 2 product.

  4. Morphological evolution and structural characterization of bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Srivastava, Punita; Singh, Jai; Belwal, Ritu; Pandey, Mukesh Kumar; Hui, K. S.; Hui, K. N.; Singh, Kedar

    2013-07-01

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with a layered structure, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), have been attracting a large amount of attention due to their unique properties and fascinating application in several devices for energy harvesting. Recently, single and few-layer Bi2Te3 2D nanosheets have attracted great attention. In this paper, the morphological evolution of Bi2Te3 2D nanosheets to nanotubes, which were fabricated by bottom-up assembly at low temperature by a controlled wet-chemical growth mechanism, is reported. The products are ultrathin nanosheets with thicknesses down to a few quintuple layers, and single, double and multiwall nanotubes with lengths of up to 2 µm. As a new member, Bi2Te3 nanotubes have extremely large surface-to-volume ratios and can be electrically gated more efficiently than the bulk form to enhance surface state effects potentially in transport measurements. The method presented herein allows the mass production of identical tubes that can be easily integrated into device structures for futuristic applications.

  5. Mechanisms of morphological evolution on faceted core-shell nanowire surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Aqua, Jean-Noël; Voorhees, Peter W.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2016-06-01

    Core-shell nanowires with radial heterostructures hold great promise in photonic and electronic applications and controlling the formation of these heterostructures in the core-shell configuration remains a challenge. Recently, GaAs nanowires have been used as substrates to create AlGaAs shells. The deposition of the AlGaAs layer leads to the spontaneous formation of Al-rich stripes along certain crystallographic directions and quantum dots/wires near the apexes of the shell. A general two-dimensional model has been developed for the motion of the faceted solid-vapor interfaces for pure materials that accounts for capillarity and deposition. With this model, the growth processes and morphological evolution of shells of nanowires around hexagonal cores (six small facets {112} in the corners of six equivalent facets {110}) are investigated in detail both analytically and numerically. It is found that deposition can yield facets that are not present on the Wulff shape. These small facets can have slowly time-varying sizes that can lead to stripe structures and quantum dots/wires depending on the balances between diffusion and deposition. The effects of deposition rates and polarity (or asymmetry) on planes {112} on the development of the configurations of nanowires are discussed. The numerical results are compared with experimental results giving almost quantitative agreement, despite the fact that only pure materials are treated herein whereas the experiments deal with alloys.

  6. Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in Caribbean Anolis ecomorphs.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Jason J; Revell, Liam J; Szekely, Brian; Brodie, Edmund D; Losos, Jonathan B

    2011-12-01

    The adaptive landscape and the G-matrix are keys concepts for understanding how quantitative characters evolve during adaptive radiation. In particular, whether the adaptive landscape can drive convergence of phenotypic integration (i.e., the pattern of phenotypic variation and covariation summarized in the P-matrix) is not well studied. We estimated and compared P for 19 morphological traits in eight species of Caribbean Anolis lizards, finding that similarity in P among species was not correlated with phylogenetic distance. However, greater similarity in P among ecologically similar Anolis species (i.e., the trunk-ground ecomorph) suggests the role of convergent natural selection. Despite this convergence and relatively deep phylogenetic divergence, a large portion of eigenstructure of P is retained among our eight focal species. We also analyzed P as an approximation of G to test for correspondence with the pattern of phenotypic divergence in 21 Caribbean Anolis species. These patterns of covariation were coincident, suggesting that either genetic constraint has influenced the pattern of among-species divergence or, alternatively, that the adaptive landscape has influenced both G and the pattern of phenotypic divergence among species. We provide evidence for convergent evolution of phenotypic integration for one class of Anolis ecomorph, revealing yet another important dimension of evolutionary convergence in this group.

  7. An interface tracking method applied to morphological evolution during phase change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, W.; Udaykumar, H. S.; Liang, S.-J.

    1992-01-01

    The focus of this work is the numerical simulation of interface motion during solidification of pure materials. First, the applicability of the oft-used quasi-stationary approximation for interface motion is assessed. It is seen that such an approximation results in poor accuracy for nontrivial Stefan numbers. Solution of the full set of equations including grid movement terms yields close agreement with analytical results. Next, a generic interface tracking procedure is designed, which overcomes restrictions of single-valuedness of the interface imposed by commonly used mapping methods. This method incorporates with ease interface phenomena involving curvature, which assume importance at the smaller scales of a deformed interface. The method is then applied to study the development of a morphologically unstable phase interface. The issue of appropriate scaling has been addressed. The Gibbs-Thomson effect for curved interfaces has been included. The evolution of the interface, with the competing mechanisms of undercooling and surface tension is found to culminate in tip-splitting, cusp formation and persistent cellular development.

  8. Evolution of grain size and morphology of Si thin films fabricated on lunar regolith glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, C.; Williams, L.; Feltrin, A.; Alemu, A.; Freundlich, A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical requirement for space colonization and in particular for its lunar exploration component is the availability of large amounts of electric energy. Novel architectures which involve the in situ manufacture of solar cells on the Moon using indigenous lunar materials have been proposed to meet this need [1]. In support of this effort, this study delves on several aspects of interest starting from the fabrication of a glass substrate from lunar regolith, to the deposition of Si films and the effects of thermal processing induced changes on the properties of these films. The experiments were implemented using several types of commercially available glasses as well as in-house fabricated regolith glass. In particular, the study provides valuable information on the effect of temperature on the interactions between Si and the substrates, and also the interaction between metallic contact layers and Si, which could affect regions beyond their common interface. This insight sheds a light on the evolution of grain size and morphology of Si thin films grown on lunar regolith.

  9. Repeated evolution of exaggerated dewlaps and other throat morphology in lizards.

    PubMed

    Ord, T J; Klomp, D A; Garcia-Porta, J; Hagman, M

    2015-11-01

    The existence of elaborate ornamental structures in males is often assumed to reflect the outcome of female mate choice for showy males. However, female mate choice appears weak in many iguanian lizards, but males still exhibit an array of ornament-like structures around the throat. We performed a phylogenetic comparative study to assess whether these structures have originated in response to male-male competition or the need for improved signal efficiency in visually difficult environments. We found little evidence for the influence of male-male competition. Instead, forest species were more likely to exhibit colourful throat appendages than species living in open habitats, suggesting selection for signal efficiency. On at least three independent occasions, throat ornamentation has become further elaborated into a large, conspicuously coloured moving dewlap. Although the function of the dewlap is convergent, the underlying hyoid apparatus has evolved very differently, revealing the same adaptive outcome has been achieved through multiple evolutionary trajectories. More generally, our findings highlight that extravagant, ornament-like morphology can evolve in males without the direct influence of female mate choice and that failure to consider alternative hypotheses for the evolution of these structures can obscure the true origins of signal diversity among closely related taxa.

  10. Dynamical Evolution and High-Energy Radiation of Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Takafumi

    2014-03-01

    Evolution of a supernova remnant (SNR) without an active neutron star is basically described by probation of shock waves. The shock waves accelerate charged particles. The particles accelerated to GeV radiate synchrotron radio emission, which appears to be shelllike morphology. The shock waves heat matter up to keV, and heated-electrons ionize ions. Compared with a time-scale of shock-heating of electrons by the shock, a time-scale of ionization of ions by electron collisions in the shock down stream region is longer. Hence an ionization state of SNR plasma is thought to be under-ionized state in which the ionization temperature is lower than the electron temperature, or collisional ionization equilibrium state at late time. In fact, X-ray spectra of many SNRs are explained by such plasma state model. SNRs that exhibit shell-like morphology in thermal X-ray as well as radio are categorized into shell-like SNRs. In contrast to shell-like SNRs, some SNRs exhibit shell-like radio but center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Such SNRs are categorized into mixed-morphology SNRs (MM SNRs). Many MM SNRs interact with molecular clouds, suggested by OH maser and near infrared observations, and hence are thought to be remnants of core-collapse supernova of massive stars. Interestingly, recombination radiation X-rays, which are evidence that X-ray emitting plasmas are over-ionized states in which the ionization temperature is higher than the electron temperature, are detected from six MM SNRs. The center-filled X-rays with recombination radiation can not be explained by a picture of shock-wave propagation that explains the X-rays of shell-like SNRs. As well as X-rays, MM SNRs are characteristic in γ-ray emission. Several MM SNRs and shell-like SNRs are detected in the GeV γ-ray band by Fermi. The 1 - 100 GeV γ-ray luminosities of MM SNRs are ˜ 1034-1036 erg s-1, which are systematically higher than those of shell-like SNRs of ˜ 1033-1035 erg s-1. Such high luminosities

  11. Temporal evolution of surface structure and morphology in thin-film growth and etching processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drotar, Jason Todd

    The temporal evolution of surface structure and morphology in growth and etching processes is of great importance to the understanding of such processes. For example, by looking at the time dependence of the surface roughness, one can often discover the scaling symmetries inherent in a process. In addition to providing clues about what mechanisms might be at work, these symmetries are also of practical interest. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the basic mechanisms that influence the temporal scaling of such systems, many systems still cannot be explained in terms of the known universality classes. Studies of both continuum and discrete models of surface roughening are presented. The temporal scaling of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation has been studied using direct numerical integration, and the existence of two distinct scaling regimes is observed. The results are discussed in the context of previous computational and analytical results and compared to existing experimental studies of ion sputtering. It is found that low-energy ion sputtering experiments are consistent with the early-time KS scaling regime; while high-energy ion sputtering experiments are consistent with asymptotic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) behavior. Next, the temporal scaling behavior of a line-of-sight model of surface roughening has been studied. The model can be applied to both growth and etching processes. Several different limiting cases for the sticking coefficients have been examined using analytical arguments and computational techniques, and it is found that the scaling exponents are, in some cases, universal. The predicted scaling exponents, in some cases, do not belong to any of the known universality classes and therefore define a new universality class. In another case, the exponents are identical to the exponents predicted by the Edwards-Wilkinson equation. The newly discovered universality classes are used to explain experimentally observed behavior of

  12. A three-dimensional analysis of the morphological evolution and locomotor behaviour of the carnivoran hind limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shape of the appendicular bones in mammals usually reflects adaptations towards different locomotor abilities. However, other aspects such as body size and phylogeny also play an important role in shaping bone design. We used 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics to analyse the shape of the hind limb bones (i.e., femur, tibia, and pelvic girdle bones) of living and extinct terrestrial carnivorans (Mammalia, Carnivora) to quantitatively investigate the influence of body size, phylogeny, and locomotor behaviour in shaping the morphology of these bones. We also investigated the main patterns of morphological variation within a phylogenetic context. Results Size and phylogeny strongly influence the shape of the hind limb bones. In contrast, adaptations towards different modes of locomotion seem to have little influence. Principal Components Analysis and the study of phylomorphospaces suggest that the main source of variation in bone shape is a gradient of slenderness-robustness. Conclusion The shape of the hind limb bones is strongly influenced by body size and phylogeny, but not to a similar degree by locomotor behaviour. The slender-robust “morphological bipolarity” found in bone shape variability is probably related to a trade-off between maintaining energetic efficiency and withstanding resistance to stresses. The balance involved in this trade-off impedes the evolution of high phenotypic variability. In fact, both morphological extremes (slender/robust) are adaptive in different selective contexts and lead to a convergence in shape among taxa with extremely different ecologies but with similar biomechanical demands. Strikingly, this “one-to-many mapping” pattern of evolution between morphology and ecology in hind limb bones is in complete contrast to the “many-to-one mapping” pattern found in the evolution of carnivoran skull shape. The results suggest that there are more constraints in the evolution of the shape of the appendicular

  13. TRIBUTE: In Goethe's Wake: Marvalee Wake's conceptual contributions to the development and evolution of a science of morphology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2005-01-01

    De-crying the typological approach in much of the teaching of morphology, from the outset of her career Marvalee Wake advocated a synthetic, mechanistic and pluralistic developmental and evolutionary morphology. In this short essay, I do not evaluate Wake's contributions to our knowledge of the morphology of caecilians, nor her contributions to viviparity, both of which are seminal and substantive, nor do I examine her role as mentor, supervisor and collaborator, but assess her broader conceptual contributions to the development and evolution of morphology as a science. One of the earliest morphologists to take on board the concept of constraint, she viewed constraint explicitly in relation to adaptation and diversity. Her approach to morphology as a science was hierarchical - measure form and function in a phylogenetic context; seek explanations at developmental, functional, ecological, evolutionary levels of the biological hierarchy; integrate those explanations to the other levels. The explanatory power of morphology thus practised allows morphology to inform evolutionary biology and evolutionary theory, and paves the way for the integrative biology Wake has long championed.

  14. Co-extrusion of biocompatible polymers for scaffolds with co-continuous morphology.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Newell R; Simon, Carl G; Tona, Alessandro; Elgendy, Hoda M; Karim, Alamgir; Amis, Eric J

    2002-04-01

    A methodology for the preparation of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering using co-extrusion is presented. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) is blended with poly(ethylene oxide) in a twinscrew extruder to form a two-phase material with micron-sized domains. Selective dissolution of the poly(ethylene oxide) with water results in a porous material. A range of blend volume fractions results in co-continuous networks of polymer and void spaces. Annealing studies demonstrate that the characteristic pore size may be increased to larger than 100 microm. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds are characterized by a compressive modulus on the order of 1 MPa at low strains but displaying a marked strain-dependence. The results of osteoblast seeding suggest it is possible to use co-extrusion to prepare polymer scaffolds without the introduction of toxic contaminants. Polymer co-extrusion is amenable to both laboratory- and industrial-scale production of scaffolds for tissue engineering and only requires rheological characterization of the blend components. This method leads to scaffolds that have continuous void space and controlled characteristic length scales without the use of potentially toxic organic solvents.

  15. Diamond Morphology: Link to Metasomatic Events in the Mantle or Record of Evolution of Kimberlitic Fluid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedortchouk, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Morphology and surface features on diamonds show tremendous variation even within a single kimberlite body reflecting a complex history of growth and dissolution. But does the diamond surface record the conditions in the several mantle sources sampled by the rising kimberlite magma, or evolution of the fluid system in the kimberlite magma itself? To address this question I revised morphological classification of diamonds from several kimberlite pipes from EKATI Mine property, N.W.T., Canada. The novelty of the approach, compared to the existing classifications, is in utilizing a random but large dataset of diamond dissolution experiments accumulated by several researchers including myself. These experiments have shown that similar forms (e.g. trigon etch pits) can be produced in a variety of conditions and environments, whereas their shape and size would depend on the reactant. Similarly, different types of resorption features always form together and can be used for deriving the composition of oxidizing fluid. The proposed classification method is focused on relating various types of diamond surfaces to the composition and conditions of oxidizing media. The study uses parcels of micro-and macro-diamonds (total of 125 carats) from Misery, Grizzly, Leslie and Koala kimberlites, EKATI Mine property, Northwest Territories, Canada. Only octahedron and hexoctahedron diamonds were selected (total ~600 stones). Diamond surfaces were studied using an optical and Field- Emission Scanning Electron Microscope to define resorption elements - simple surface features. These elements were identified for each of the three categories: 1) present on octahedral faces (well-preserved diamonds), 2) present on hexoctahedral faces (rounded resorbed diamonds), and 3) frosting (micro-features). Consistent associations of several elements define Resorption Types of diamonds, which form during a single oxidizing event. We further relate these types to the composition of the C-H-O + chlorides

  16. Synthesis and morphological evolution of inorganic nanoparticles in gas phase flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yangchuan

    The formation and growth of flame-generated inorganic nanoparticles at low particle volume fractions (ca. 0.1 ppm) were investigated experimentally. Alumina nanoparticles were synthesized from precursor trimethylaluminum in a well-defined/characterized laminar counterflow diffusion flame (CHsb4/Nsb2/Osb2) reactor. Experimental techniques included spatially resolved angle-dependent/polarized laser light scattering and thermophoretic sampling/TEM image analysis. Local aggregate morphology was characterized via. spherule size, aggregate size and aggregate fractal structure. The effects of flame temperature, precursor concentration and flame strain rate were also systematically studied. Higher precursor concentration resulted in larger spherule diameters, found to be in the range 13-26 nm under current experimental conditions. Nominal strain rate, varied from 11 to 20 ssp{-1}, was found to have a negligible effect on spherule size. Aggregate structure was characterized by fractal dimension, Dsb{f}, found by image analysis to be 1.55 ± 0.03 for aggregates without apparent restructuring (early in the flames). Dsb{f} approached 3 after the flame sheet due to the collapse of aggregates. Alumina aggregate morphological evolution was tracked using both TEM-image analysis and laser light scattering. Significant aggregate shrinkage due to high temperature sintering was found near the flame sheet, with a gyration-radius shrinkage rate of about 16 mum/s at temperatures near 2000 K. A theoretical approach was also developed to model spherule growth (and, hence, specific surface area) in such aerosol processes. This formulation, based on the competition between coalescence and Brownian coagulation rates, incorporates the surface melting concept into the surface self-diffusion coefficient, now dependent on particle size via. curvature and surface energy. This approach was used to calculate spherule growth in heating (and cooling) environments. Predicted spherule sizes show

  17. Monitoring the morphological evolution of complex glaciers: the Planpincieux case-study (Mont Blanc - Aosta Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Curtaz, Michèle; Vagliasindi, Marco; Bertolo, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The Planpincieux Glacier (PG) is located on the Italian side of the Grandes Jorasses massif, Mont Blanc, Italy. This area is historically known for the occasional activation of ice falls events from the frontal part of the glacier. The PG is a so-called "polythermal" glacier, meaning that the liquid water present at contact between ice and the bedrock in the lower part of the glacier itself plays an important role in the glacier dynamics, and ice falls might occur in a sudden and unpredictable fashion. In this scenario, the accurate analysis of the glacier morphological evolution assumes a crucial role. Starting from 2012, within the framework of the regional plan for glaciers risk detection, a research project was set up to study the Planpincieux Glacier and evaluate the potential hazard concerning the possible activation of large ice or ice-snow avalanches triggered by icefall events in that area. Dynamics of such avalanches, as well as potentially endangered areas, have been evaluated in an expertise by the SLF Institute. Therefore, the availability of both qualitative information and quantitative measurements relevant to the glacier movements represented a primary goal. After a careful evaluation of several possible technical solutions to achieve displacement monitoring also based on the results of a preliminary study managed by the ETH Zurich (prof. M. Funk), we installed an experimental monitoring station located on the opposite side of the valley, at the top of the Mt. de la Saxe, ca. 3.5 km away from the main target. The monitoring station is composed of two modules, including: (i) a surveillance module, based on a medium resolution digital camera, observing large part of the slope; (ii) a photogrammetric module, based on a high resolution digital camera equipped with a 300mm optical zoom, pointed on the Planpincieux glacier front. At this stage, our analyses focused mainly on the qualitative assessment and recognition of impulsive phenomena affecting the

  18. Organic tissues in rotating bioreactors: fluid-mechanical aspects, dynamic growth models, and morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Lappa, Marcello

    2003-12-05

    This analysis deals with advances in tissue-engineering models and computational methods as well as with novel results on the relative importance of "controlling forces" in the growth of organic constructs. Specifically, attention is focused on the rotary culture system, because this technique has proven to be the most practical solution for providing a suitable culture environment supporting three-dimensional tissue assemblies. From a numerical point of view, the growing biological specimen gives rise to a moving boundary problem. A "volume-of-fraction" method is specifically and carefully developed according to the complex properties and mechanisms of organic tissue growth and, in particular, taking into account the sensitivity of the construct/liquid interface to the effect of the fluid-dynamic shear stress (it induces changes in tissue metabolism and function that elicit a physiological response from the biological cells). The present study uses available data to introduce a set of growth models. The surface conditions are coupled to the transfer of mass and momentum at the specimen/culture-medium interface and lead to the introduction of a group of differential equations for the nutrient concentration around the sample and for the evolution of tissue mass displacement. The models are then used to show how the proposed surface kinetic laws can predict (through sophisticated numerical simulations) many of the known characteristics of biological tissues grown using rotating-wall perfused vessel bioreactors. This procedure provides a validation of the models and associated numerical method and also gives insight into the mechanisms of the phenomena. The interplay between the increasing size of the tissue and the structure of the convective field is investigated. It is shown that this interaction is essential in determining the time evolution of the tissue shape. The size of the growing specimen plays a critical role with regard to the intensity of convection and

  19. Dynamical patterning modules: physico-genetic determinants of morphological development and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Stuart A.; Bhat, Ramray

    2008-03-01

    The shapes and forms of multicellular organisms arise by the generation of new cell states and types and changes in the numbers and rearrangements of the various kinds of cells. While morphogenesis and pattern formation in all animal species are widely recognized to be mediated by the gene products of an evolutionarily conserved 'developmental-genetic toolkit', the link between these molecular players and the physics underlying these processes has been generally ignored. This paper introduces the concept of 'dynamical patterning modules' (DPMs), units consisting of one or more products of the 'toolkit' genes that mobilize physical processes characteristic of chemically and mechanically excitable meso- to macroscopic systems such as cell aggregates: cohesion, viscoelasticity, diffusion, spatiotemporal heterogeneity based on lateral inhibition and multistable and oscillatory dynamics. We suggest that ancient toolkit gene products, most predating the emergence of multicellularity, assumed novel morphogenetic functions due to change in the scale and context inherent to multicellularity. We show that DPMs, acting individually and in concert with each other, constitute a 'pattern language' capable of generating all metazoan body plans and organ forms. The physical dimension of developmental causation implies that multicellular forms during the explosive radiation of animal body plans in the middle Cambrian, approximately 530 million years ago, could have explored an extensive morphospace without concomitant genotypic change or selection for adaptation. The morphologically plastic body plans and organ forms generated by DPMs, and their ontogenetic trajectories, would subsequently have been stabilized and consolidated by natural selection and genetic drift. This perspective also solves the apparent 'molecular homology-analogy paradox', whereby widely divergent modern animal types utilize the same molecular toolkit during development by proposing, in contrast to the Neo

  20. Continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in Central Asia, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, A; Kasymbekov, Y; Khan, E; Daulbayeva, K; Asanova, S; Zhumatov, K; Seidalina, A; Sayatov, M; Fereidouni, S R

    2014-09-01

    Equine influenza (EI) continues to be an important respiratory pathogen of horses worldwide. Since 2007 several outbreaks of EI have occurred in Central Asian countries, including Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, India and western China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) isolates from Kazakhstan, A/equine/Almaty/26/2007 and A/equine/South Kazakhstan/236/12, were related to Florida sublineage 2, with high similarity to EIVs circulating in the same period in neighbouring countries. New outbreaks of EI during 2011 and 2012 in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries were caused by viruses of the same lineage. Genetic characterization of the viruses showed formation of a small EIV cluster with specific genetic signatures and continued evolution of this lineage in Central Asia between 2007 and 2012. The main genetic changes were observed in hemagglutinin gene without any antigenic drift. Although no vaccination policy was carried out in Kazakhstan, application of Florida clade 2-based vaccines is recommended.

  1. The evolution of continuous learning of the structure of the environment.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Edelman, Shimon; Lotem, Arnon

    2014-03-06

    Continuous, 'always on', learning of structure from a stream of data is studied mainly in the fields of machine learning or language acquisition, but its evolutionary roots may go back to the first organisms that were internally motivated to learn and represent their environment. Here, we study under what conditions such continuous learning (CL) may be more adaptive than simple reinforcement learning and examine how it could have evolved from the same basic associative elements. We use agent-based computer simulations to compare three learning strategies: simple reinforcement learning; reinforcement learning with chaining (RL-chain) and CL that applies the same associative mechanisms used by the other strategies, but also seeks statistical regularities in the relations among all items in the environment, regardless of the initial association with food. We show that a sufficiently structured environment favours the evolution of both RL-chain and CL and that CL outperforms the other strategies when food is relatively rare and the time for learning is limited. This advantage of internally motivated CL stems from its ability to capture statistical patterns in the environment even before they are associated with food, at which point they immediately become useful for planning.

  2. Diurnal Evolution of Aerosol Optical Properties and Morphology at Pico Tres Padres: A Phenomenological Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, C.; Chakrabarty, R.; Dubey, M. K.; Moosmuller, H.; Chylek, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Herndon, S.; Zavala, M.; Kolb, C.

    2007-05-01

    Aerosol optical properties affect planetary radiative balance and therefore climate. The optical properties are related to chemical composition, size distribution, and morphology, which also have implications for human health and environmental degradation. During the MILAGRO field campaign, we measured ensemble aerosol absorption and angle-integrated scattering in Mexico City. These measurements were performed using the Los Alamos aerosol photoacoustic instrument with an integrated nephelometer (LAPA) operating at 781 nm. The LAPA was mounted on-board the Aerodyne Inc. mobile laboratory, which hosted a wide variety of gaseous and aerosol instruments. During the campaign, the Aerodyne mobile laboratory was moved to different sites, capturing the influence of spatial and temporal parameters including location, aging, elevation, and sources on ambient air pollution. The LAPA operated almost continuously between the 3rd and the 28th of March 2006. During the same period we collected ambient aerosols on more than 100 Nuclepore filters for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Filter samples were collected during specific pollution events and different times of the day. Subsequently, SEM images of selected filters were taken to study particle morphology. The elemental composition of a few individual particles was also qualitatively assessed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Between March 7th and 19th the laboratory was sampling air close to the top of the Pico Tres Padres, a ~3000 m high mountain on the north side of the Mexico City. Daily changes of aerosol loading and pollutant concentrations followed the expected diurnal variations of the boundary layer height. Here we report a preliminary analysis of aerosol absorption, scattering, and morphology at Pico Tres Padres for three specific days (9th, 11th and 12th of March 2006). The single scattering albedo (ratio of scattering to total extinction) during these three days showed a characteristic drop in the

  3. Jet Morphology and Coma Analysis of 103P/Hartley 2: Temporal Evolution and Interspecies Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Charles M.; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2014-11-01

    We present our results on an expanded study of the jet and coma behavior of comet 103P/Hartley 2 (a continuation of original results presented in Vaughan et al. 2012). We observed Hartley 2 pre- and post-perihelion in 2010 using the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Data for CN, C2, C3, CH, and NH2 were collected over six nights from 15 July to 10 November. The spectral data were used to create coma maps for each of the observed species, and the maps were processed using radial and azimuthal division techniques to create enhanced images of the coma to examine coma morphological features. To compliment the ongoing investigation of Hartley 2 as studied by the EPOXI flyby mission, we use findings from other researchers (Belton et al. 2012; Syal et al. 2012; Thomas et al. 2012) to identify dust jet locations on the nucleus and compare the computed jet directions to the radical densities in the coma at our observation times. We also calculate production rates and mixing ratios with water for suspected parent species. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellows program (Award No. DGE-0947419) and NASA’s Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH18G).

  4. How discordant morphological and molecular evolution among microorganisms can revise our notions of biodiversity on Earth.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Oliverio, Angela M; Gao, Feng; Katz, Laura A

    2014-10-01

    Microscopy has revealed tremendous diversity of bacterial and eukaryotic forms. Recent molecular analyses show discordance in estimates of biodiversity between morphological and molecular analyses. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the diversity of microbial forms reveal evidence of convergence at scales as deep as interdomain: morphologies shared between bacteria and eukaryotes. Here, we highlight examples of such discordance, focusing on exemplary lineages such as testate amoebae, ciliates, and cyanobacteria. These have long histories of morphological study, enabling deeper analyses on both the molecular and morphological sides. We discuss examples in two main categories: (i) morphologically identical (or highly similar) individuals that are genetically distinct and (ii) morphologically distinct individuals that are genetically the same. We argue that hypotheses about discordance can be tested using the concept of neutral morphologies, or more broadly neutral phenotypes, as a null hypothesis.

  5. Morphological Analysis of Apo Volcanic Complex in Southern Mindanao, Philippines: implications on volcano-tectonic evolution of different volcanic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, T. M. L.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Eco, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Apo Volcanic Complex (AVC) is one of the largest volcanic centers in the Philippines, located in the southern island of Mindanao. It is composed of four edifices and several smaller cones. The youngest volcanic unit, the Apo Dome, is the highest elevation in the Philippines. This unit is classified as potentially active, whereas other units, Talomo, Sibulan and Kitubod, are inactive. The study gives insight to the construction and deformation history of the volcanic units and imparts foresight to subsequent events that can affect populated areas. A morphological analysis integrating high-resolution digital terrain models and public domain satellite data and images was done to recognize and discriminate volcanic units and characterize volcano-tectonic features and processes. Morphological domains were defined based on surface textures, slope variation, degrees and controls of erosion, and lineament density and direction. This establishes the relative ages and extent of volcanic units as well as the volcano-tectonic evolution of the complex. Six edifice building events were recognized, two of which form the elevated base of Apo dome. The geodynamic setting of the region is imprinted in the volcanic units as five morphostructural lineaments. They reveal the changes in maximum regional stress through time such as the N-S extension found across the whole volcanic complex displaying the current stress regime. This has implications on the locality and propagation of geothermal activity, magma ascent, and edifice collapses. One main result of the compounded effects of inherited structures and current stress regime is the Sandawa Collapse Zone. This is a large valley formed by several collapses where NE-SW fractures propagate and the increasing lateral spreading by debuttressing continue to eat away the highest peak. The AVC is surrounded by the major metropolitan area of Davao City to the east and the cities of Kidapawan and Digos to the west and south, respectively

  6. Influence of Harbor construction on downcoast morphological evolution: Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revell, D.L.; Barnard, P.L.; Mustain, N.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Sand impoundment caused by construction of the Santa Barbara Harbor in the 1920s, created an erosion wave that impacted downcoast Carpinteria Beach. Historic beach and shoreline changes were analyzed to understand continuing erosion using a combination of historic air photos, lidar, and physical measurements. The long-term analyses show a clockwise rotation with erosion of - 0.35 m/yr at the updrift end and accretion downdrift of 0.3 m/yr. Storm impacts measured before and after the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Ni??o events show similar rotation patterns, providing evidence that El Ni??os may be driving coastal evolution. Differences in shoreline responses between El Nino events show that the erosion hotspot migrated downdrift following construction of a revetment after the 1982-83 storms. Seasonal field measurements in the winter show beach narrowing while sediment coarsen variably alongshore. The coarsest materials and erosion hotspot are co-located at the end of the revetment on the city beach. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  7. Controllable synthesis, morphology evolution and electrochemical properties of LiFePO4 cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianjun; Wang, Lin; Shao, Guangjie; Shi, Meiwu; Ma, Zhipeng; Wang, Guiling; Song, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Caixia

    2014-05-07

    Monodispersed LiFePO4 nanocrystals with diverse morphologies were successfully synthesized via a mild and controllable solvothermal approach with a mixture of ethylene glycol and oleic acid as the solvent. Morphology evolution of LiFePO4 nanoparticles from nanoplates to nanorods can be simply realized by varying the volume ratio of oleic acid to ethylene glycol. Moreover, the mechanism of competitive adsorption between ethylene glycol and oleic acid was proposed for the formation of different morphologies. Electrochemical measurements show that the LiFePO4/C nanorods have an initial discharge capacity of 155 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C with a capacity retention of 80% at a high rate of 5 C, which confirms that LiFePO4/C nanorods exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability.

  8. Crystal Growth and Dissolution of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite in Sequential Deposition: Correlation between Morphology Evolution and Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Huang, Chi-Kai; Su, Tzu-Sen; Hong, Cheng-You; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2017-03-15

    Crystal morphology and structure are important for improving the organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductor property in optoelectronic, electronic, and photovoltaic devices. In particular, crystal growth and dissolution are two major phenomena in determining the morphology of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite in the sequential deposition method for fabricating a perovskite solar cell. In this report, the effect of immersion time in the second step, i.e., methlyammonium iodide immersion in the morphological, structural, optical, and photovoltaic evolution, is extensively investigated. Supported by experimental evidence, a five-staged, time-dependent evolution of the morphology of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite crystals is established and is well connected to the photovoltaic performance. This result is beneficial for engineering optimal time for methylammonium iodide immersion and converging the solar cell performance in the sequential deposition route. Meanwhile, our result suggests that large, well-faceted methylammonium lead iodide perovskite single crystal may be incubated by solution process. This offers a low cost route for synthesizing perovskite single crystal.

  9. Ecology and caudal skeletal morphology in birds: the convergent evolution of pygostyle shape in underwater foraging taxa.

    PubMed

    Felice, Ryan N; O'Connor, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc.) and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.). Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also the underlying

  10. Ecology and Caudal Skeletal Morphology in Birds: The Convergent Evolution of Pygostyle Shape in Underwater Foraging Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Felice, Ryan N.; O’Connor, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Birds exhibit a specialized tail that serves as an integral part of the flight apparatus, supplementing the role of the wings in facilitating high performance aerial locomotion. The evolution of this function for the tail contributed to the diversification of birds by allowing them to utilize a wider range of flight behaviors and thus exploit a greater range of ecological niches. The shape of the wings and the tail feathers influence the aerodynamic properties of a bird. Accordingly, taxa that habitually utilize different flight behaviors are characterized by different flight apparatus morphologies. This study explores whether differences in flight behavior are also associated with variation in caudal vertebra and pygostyle morphology. Details of the tail skeleton were characterized in 51 Aequornithes and Charadriiformes species. Free caudal vertebral morphology was measured using linear metrics. Variation in pygostyle morphology was characterized using Elliptical Fourier Analysis, a geometric morphometric method for the analysis of outline shapes. Each taxon was categorized based on flight style (flap, flap-glide, dynamic soar, etc.) and foraging style (aerial, terrestrial, plunge dive, etc.). Phylogenetic MANOVAs and Flexible Discriminant Analyses were used to test whether caudal skeletal morphology can be used to predict flight behavior. Foraging style groups differ significantly in pygostyle shape, and pygostyle shape predicts foraging style with less than 4% misclassification error. Four distinct lineages of underwater foraging birds exhibit an elongate, straight pygostyle, whereas aerial and terrestrial birds are characterized by a short, dorsally deflected pygostyle. Convergent evolution of a common pygostyle phenotype in diving birds suggests that this morphology is related to the mechanical demands of using the tail as a rudder during underwater foraging. Thus, distinct locomotor behaviors influence not only feather attributes but also the underlying

  11. Processing temperature driven morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures prepared by electro-exploding wire technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lalit; Medwal, Rohit; Sen, P.; Annapoorni, S.

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an effective approach for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles with desired morphology via an environmentally benevolent electro-exploding wire (EEW) technique. In this process, ZnO nanoparticles evolve through the plasma generated from the parent Zn metal. Compared to other typical chemical methods, electro-exploding wire technique is a simple and economical technique that normally operates in water or organic liquids under ambient conditions. The effect of different processing temperatures in the range (5-80 °C), on the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles is clearly demonstrated. At 5 °C, nanoparticles with spherical morphology are observed. However, elliptical morphology is observed at room temperature and multipod nanorods at 50 °C and 80 °C. The evolution of ZnO phase is investigated with the help of time dependent UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The mechanism of formation and different morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles formed are also proposed.

  12. Prediction of damage evolution in continuous fiber metal matrix composites subjected to fatigue loading

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.; Helms, K.; Lagoudas, D.

    1995-08-01

    A life prediction model is being developed by the authors for application to metal matrix composites (MMC`s). The systems under study are continuous silicon carbide fibers imbedded in titanium matrix. The model utilizes a computationally based framework based on thermodynamics and continuum mechanics, and accounts for matrix inelasticity, damage evolution, and environmental degradation due to oxidation. The computational model utilizes the finite element method, and an evolutionary analysis of a unit cell is accomplished via a time stepping algorithm. The computational scheme accounts for damage growth such as fiber-matrix debonding, surface cracking, and matrix cracking via the inclusion of cohesive zone elements in the unit cell. These elements are located based on experimental evidence also obtained by the authors. The current paper outlines the formulation utilized by the authors to solve this problem, and recent results are discussed. Specifically, results are given for a four-ply unidirectional composite subjected to cyclic fatigue loading at 650{degrees}C both in air and inert gas. The effects of oxidation on the life of the composite are predicted with the model, and the results are compared to limited experimental results.

  13. How discordant morphological and molecular evolution among microorganisms can revise our notions of biodiversity on earth

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Laughinghouse, H. Dail; Oliverio, Angela; Gao, Feng; Katz, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy has revealed a tremendous diversity of bacterial and eukaryotic forms. More recent molecular analyses show discordance in estimates of biodiversity based on morphological analyses. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the diversity of microbial forms have revealed evidence of convergence at scales as large as interdomain – i.e. convergent forms shared between bacteria and eukaryotes. Here, we highlight examples of such discordance, focusing on exemplary lineages such as testate amoebae, ciliates and cyanobacteria, which have long histories of morphological study. We discuss examples in two categories: 1) morphologically identical (or highly similar) individuals that are genetically distinct and 2) morphologically distinct individuals that are genetically distinct. We argue that hypotheses about discordance can be tested using the concept of neutral morphologies, or more broadly neutral phenotypes, as a null hypothesis. PMID:25156897

  14. Surface Evolution of Nano-Textured 4H–SiC Homoepitaxial Layers after High Temperature Treatments: Morphology Characterization and Graphene Growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingfang; Chen, Yu; Sun, Changzheng; Guan, Min; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Guosheng; Zeng, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Nano-textured 4H–SiC homoepitaxial layers (NSiCLs) were grown on 4H–SiC(0001) substrates using a low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique (LPCVD), and subsequently were subjected to high temperature treatments (HTTs) for investigation of their surface morphology evolution and graphene growth. It was found that continuously distributed nano-scale patterns formed on NSiCLs which were about submicrons in-plane and about 100 nanometers out-of-plane in size. After HTTs under vacuum, pattern sizes reduced, and the sizes of the remains were inversely proportional to the treatment time. Referring to Raman spectra, the establishment of multi-layer graphene (MLG) on NSiCL surfaces was observed. MLG with sp2 disorders was obtained from NSiCLs after a high temperature treatment under vacuum at 1700 K for two hours, while MLG without sp2 disorders was obtained under Ar atmosphere at 1900 K.

  15. Design by Nature in a Confined Flood Alleviation Scheme: Analysis of Form-Process Feedbacks and Morphological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, D.; German, S.

    2015-12-01

    any conventional hard flood risk alleviation schemes have been detrimental to natural geomorphic processes and have damaged fluvial habitats. This is primarily due to the over-riding focus on managing flood risk by dictating channel capacity and hydraulics, which is not always conducive to the promotion of geomorphologically-healthy and diverse conditions that allow and promote natural processes. This paper explains how the principles of fluvial geomorphology had a large influence on the design, construction and post project monitoring of a flood alleviation scheme in Wales within a heavily confined river corridor that is designated as having special ecological status; without adversely impacting on flood risk. The challenge was to ensure that the physical habitat required by the important species (including Atlantic Salmon and Ranunculus) were retained and that the surrounding infrastructure and properties were not at risk of being undercut as a result of scour in the confined high energy channel. A geomorphologically-guided soft engineering approach was taken to promote local morphological diversity and flow diversity, utilising information from up and downstream natural river reaches, and general geomorphological principles. The proposed layout was modelled in 1D to understand the effects of the reprofiling on flows, allowing for a basic assessment of coarse sediment transport to be undertaken. A combination of terrestrial laser scanning and contact GPS surveys were used to monitor morphological evolution post construction, and to determine how morphological form adjusted post-construction within the confined channel. This paper will introduce the guiding principles of process restoration that influenced scheme design, and then report on the morphological evolution of the river channel that occurred as river processes produced and maintained a dynamic, diverse and healthy physical habitat. Keywords: Process Restoration; Form Process Feedbacks; Fluvial

  16. Evolution of Morphology and Composition of the Carbides in Cr-Mo-V Steel after Service Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jiling; Shin, Keesam; He, Yinsheng; Song, Geewook; Jung, Jinesung

    2011-06-01

    Low alloy Cr-Mo-V steels are usually used in steam power generation units. The evolution of the carbides often leads to embrittlement of the components during elongated service. Therefore, the determination of carbide evolution mechanism during long-time service is important to understand and prevent premature failures such as temper embrittlement. In this study, low alloy Cr-Mo-V steels used as main steam pipes in a thermal power plant were studied after various service times as well as in the as-fabricated condition. Electron microscopic analyses were carried out on extraction replicas to observe and analyze the morphology and composition of the carbides. Predominant plate-like vanadium-rich carbides were observed in the as-fabricated condition. When exposed to on-site service, the V-rich carbides transformed to Mo-rich carbides which have a typical H morphology. The change of morphology and composition of the carbide is mainly due to the gradual depletion of Mo from the solid solution. In addition, a non-destructive carbide extraction method was established for examination of the precipitates in the working turbine rotor.

  17. Evolution effects of the copper surface morphology on the nucleation density and growth of graphene domains at different growth pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayat, Seyed Mahdi; Karimi-Sabet, Javad; Shariaty-Niassar, Mojtaba

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we study the influence of the surface morphology of the catalytic copper substrate on the nucleation density and the growth rate of graphene domains at low and atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD and APCVD) processes. In order to obtain a wide range of initial surface morphology, precisely controlled electropolishing methods were developed to manipulate the roughntreess value of the as-received Cu substrate (RMS = 30 nm) to ultra-rough (RMS = 130 nm) and ultra-smooth (RMS = 2 nm) surfaces. The nucleation and growth of graphene domains show obviously different trends at LPCVD and APCVD conditions. In contrast to APCVD condition, the nucleation density of graphene domains is almost equal in substrates with different initial roughness values at LPCVD condition. We show that this is due to the evolution of the surface morphology of the Cu substrate during the graphene growth steps. By stopping the surface sublimation of copper substrate in a confined space saturated with Cu atoms, the evolution of the Cu surface was impeded. This results in the reduction of the nucleation density of graphene domains up to 24 times in the pre-smoothed Cu substrates at LPCVD condition.

  18. Modeling the effects of ion dose and crystallographic symmetry on the morphological evolution of embedded precipitates under thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun-Dar

    2014-10-01

    Thermal annealing is one of the most common techniques to synthesize embedded precipitates by ion implantation process. In this study, an anisotropic phase field model is presented to investigate the effects of ion dose and crystallographic symmetry on the morphological formation and evolution of embedded precipitates during post-implantation thermal annealing process. This theoretical model provides an efficient numerical approach to understand the phenomenon of faceted precipitates formation by ion implantation. As a theoretical analysis, the interfacial energy and diffusion kinetics play prominent roles in the mechanism of atomic diffusion for the precipitates formation. With a low ion dose, faceted precipitates are developed by virtue of the anisotropic interfacial energy. As an increase of ion dose, connected precipitates with crystallographic characters on the edge are appeared. For a high ion dose, labyrinth-like nanostructures of precipitates are produced and the characteristic morphology of crystallographic symmetry becomes faint. These simulation results for the morphological evolutions of embedded precipitates by ion implantation are corresponded with many experimental observations in the literatures. The quantitative analyses of the simulations are also well described the consequence of precipitates formation under different conditions.

  19. Observations of Interannual Dune Morphological Evolution With Comparisons to Shoreline Change Along the Columbia River Littoral Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermann, L.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Ruggiero, P.

    2006-12-01

    Beach topographic data have been collected along the 160 km-long Columbia River Littoral Cell in southwest Washington and northwest Oregon, USA as part of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study and a NANOOS pilot project. The monitoring program includes the collection of cross-shore beach profiles at 49 sites for each of the 34 seasons since 1997 (with few exceptions), enabling the investigation of the seasonal to interannual morphological variability of this high-energy coast. We focus here on the dunes backing the beaches, aiming to quantitatively describe the wide variety of characteristics they exhibit, as well as to relate dune evolution to shoreline change. To analyze the large volume of high-quality data, we use automated algorithms and systematic processes to identify the location of the dune toe, crest, and face, and calculate a volume (where enough data are available) and beach width for each survey. We define the position of the dune face as the elevation half-way between the average dune toe and average dune crest elevations at each profile location, and beach width as the horizontal distance between the 2-m contour (~MSL) and the dune toe. Much like shoreline proxies lower on the beach profile, (e.g., the 3-m contour), the location of the dune toe shows large seasonal variability with onshore deposition of sand in summer months and offshore sand transport in the winter. However, the location of the dune face and the elevation of the dune crest are much less variable and are useful in describing the evolution of the dune/beach system in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, over interannual time scales. On beaches with the highest shoreline change rates in the study area, the dune face follows the progradational trend of the shoreline with the dune face prograding at approximately 25-50% of the rate of the shoreline. Along many of these beaches that experienced severe erosion during the El Niño of 1997/98, the dune face

  20. Effect of Phase Contiguity and Morphology on the Evolution of Deformation Texture in Two-Phase Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurao, N. P.; Suwas, Satyam

    2017-02-01

    Deformation texture evolution in two-phase xFe- yNi-(100- x- y)Cr model alloys and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was studied during rolling to develop an understanding of micro-mechanisms of deformation in industrially relevant two-phase FCC-BCC steels and HCP-BCC titanium alloys, respectively. It was found that volume fraction and contiguity of phases lead to systematic changes in texture, while morphology affects the strength of texture. There was a characteristic change in texture from typical Brass-type to a weaker Copper-type texture in the austenite phase accompanied with a change from alpha fiber to gamma fiber in ferrite phase for Fe-Ni-Cr alloys with increase in fraction of harder ferrite phase. However, similar characteristic texture evolution was noted in both α and β phase irrespective of the different initial morphologies in Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy. Viscoplastic self-consistent simulations with two-phase scheme were able to qualitatively predict texture evolution in individual phases. It is proposed that the transition from iso-strain-type behavior for equiaxed microstructure at low strain to iso-stress-type behavior at higher strain is aided by the presence of higher volume fraction of the second phase and increasing aspect ratio of individual phases in two-phase alloys.

  1. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs – including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088

  2. The role of behaviour in adaptive morphological evolution of African proboscideans.

    PubMed

    Lister, Adrian M

    2013-08-15

    The fossil record richly illustrates the origin of morphological adaptation through time. However, our understanding of the selective forces responsible in a given case, and the role of behaviour in the process, is hindered by assumptions of synchrony between environmental change, behavioural innovation and morphological response. Here I show, from independent proxy data through a 20-million-year sequence of fossil proboscideans in East Africa, that changes in environment, diet and morphology are often significantly offset chronologically, allowing dissection of the roles of behaviour and different selective drivers. These findings point the way to hypothesis-driven testing of the interplay between habitat change, behaviour and morphological adaptation with the use of independent proxies in the fossil record.

  3. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

    PubMed

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-08-06

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

  4. Limits in the evolution of biological form: a theoretical morphologic perspective

    PubMed Central

    McGhee, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Limits in the evolution of biological form can be empirically demonstrated by using theoretical morphospace analyses, and actual analytic examples are given for univalved ammonoid shell form, bivalved brachiopod shell form and helical bryozoan colony form. Limits in the evolution of form in these animal groups can be shown to be due to functional and developmental constraints on possible evolutionary trajectories in morphospace. Future evolutionary-limit research is needed to analyse the possible existence of temporal constraint in the evolution of biological form on Earth, and in the search for the possible existence of functional alien life forms on Titan and Triton that are developmentally impossible for Earth life. PMID:26640645

  5. Continuing evolution and interspecies transmission of influenza viruses in live bird markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Yu-Na; Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kim, Min-Chul; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) provide an ideal environment for the evolution and interspecies transfer of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). In this study, we analyzed AIVs present in LBMs in Korea during the winter seasons of 2006-08. Sixty-five AIVs that belong to four hemagglutination (HA) subtypes ofAIV (H3, H4, H6, and H9) were isolated from 644 pooled tissue or swab samples collected in LBMs. Most H9 subtypes of AIVs were isolated from Galliformes (chickens, silky fowls, pheasants, and guinea fowls), and other subtypes were isolated from Anseriformes (Pekin ducks and mallards). In addition, we obtained a single H3N2 virus from nasal swabs of dogs sold in LBMs, and the virus was genetically identical to the canine influenza virus (CIV) isolated from pet dogs in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Korean H9N2 viruses prevalent in chickens have provided their gene segments to AIVs circulating in ducks. These gene transfers facilitated reassortment events among AIVs and likely generated the ancestors of CIV in Korea. An animal challenge study using chickens, quail, mice, and dogs had shown that the H4 and H6 subtypes could replicate in mice and that some H4 and H6 viruses could replicate in chickens without preadaptation. In addition, two H3 subtype viruses (H3N2 and H3N8) induced interstitial pneumonia that accompanied clinical signs and seroconversion in dogs. Our findings indicate that the newly evolved AIVs have been continuously generated by reassortment in ducks, and these reassortments could result in expanding the host range of AIVs.

  6. Recent human impacts on the morphological evolution of the Yangtze River delta foreland: A review and new perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jing-Long; Yang, Shi-Lun; Feng, Huan

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the morphological change in the Yangtze River delta due to increasing human impacts from three major aspects. The first is the reduction of sediment supply to the ocean due to dam construction, soil conservation, and sand mining within the Yangtze River basin. The reduced sediment supply has decreased the progradation rate of the delta and triggered erosion in the front of the delta. The second impact relates to the reclamation of intertidal wetlands by human activities. Since the 1950s, approximately 1100 km2 of intertidal land has been embanked, resulting in the disappearance of salt marshes and even the entire intertidal zone along some sections of the coastline. The third change in the delta due to human interference is the construction of deep-waterway structures at the mouth bar, which has greatly modified the local hydrodynamics and morphology. Sediment accretion has increased significantly in these areas as a result of sheltering by these deep-waterway structures. This review shows that human activities have severely altered the natural balance among the hydrodynamics and sediment supply, affecting the morphological features of the Yangtze River watershed and delta. Human impacts on the morphological evolution of deltaic coasts in general are becoming an increasingly concern, and more attention should be paid to the management and mitigation of these effects.

  7. Phase- and morphology-controlled synthesis of cobalt sulfide nanocrystals and comparison of their catalytic activities for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yuan; Liu, Yunqi; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-12-01

    Colalt sulfide nanocrystals (NCs), including dandelion-like Co9S8 and sphere-like Co3S4, have been synthesized via a thermal decomposition approach using cobalt acetylacetonate as the cobalt source, 1-dodecanethiol as the sulfur source and oleic acid or oleylamine as the high boiling organic solvent. It is found that the molar ratio of the Co:S precursor and the species of solvent play an important role in the control of phase and morphology of cobalt sulfide nanostructures. The phase structure and morphology of the as-synthesized nickel sulfide NCs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 adsorption-desorption. Then we further compare the electrocatalytic activity and stability of as-synthesized cobalt sulfide NCs for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The results show that sphere-like Co3S4 exhibits better electrocatalytic activity than the dandelion-like Co9S8 NCs for HER, which can be attributed to the difference of phase structure and morphology. The sphere-like Co3S4 NCs have large surface area and high electrical conductivity, both are beneficial to enhance the catalytic activity. This study indicates that the crystalline phase structure and morphology of cobalt sulfide NCs are important for designing HER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability.

  8. PartitionFinder 2: New Methods for Selecting Partitioned Models of Evolution for Molecular and Morphological Phylogenetic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Lanfear, Robert; Frandsen, Paul B; Wright, April M; Senfeld, Tereza; Calcott, Brett

    2017-03-01

    PartitionFinder 2 is a program for automatically selecting best-fit partitioning schemes and models of evolution for phylogenetic analyses. PartitionFinder 2 is substantially faster and more efficient than version 1, and incorporates many new methods and features. These include the ability to analyze morphological datasets, new methods to analyze genome-scale datasets, new output formats to facilitate interoperability with downstream software, and many new models of molecular evolution. PartitionFinder 2 is freely available under an open source license and works on Windows, OSX, and Linux operating systems. It can be downloaded from www.robertlanfear.com/partitionfinder. The source code is available at https://github.com/brettc/partitionfinder.

  9. Bayesian inference of phylogeny, morphology and range evolution reveals a complex evolutionary history in St. John's wort (Hypericum).

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Andrea Sánchez; Aldasoro, Juan Jose; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    The genus Hypericum L. ("St. John's wort", Hypericaceae) comprises nearly 500 species of shrubs, trees and herbs distributed mainly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but also in high-altitude tropical and subtropical areas. Until now, molecular phylogenetic hypotheses on infra-generic relationships have been based solely on the nuclear marker ITS. Here, we used a full Bayesian approach to simultaneously reconstruct phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of morphological and range evolution in Hypericum, using nuclear (ITS) and plastid DNA sequences (psbA-trnH, trnS-trnG, trnL-trnF) of 186 species representing 33 of the 36 described morphological sections. Consistent with other studies, we found that corrections of the branch length prior helped recover more realistic branch lengths in by-gene partitioned Bayesian analyses, but the effect was also seen within single genes if the overall mutation rate differed considerably among sites or regions. Our study confirms that Hypericum is not monophyletic with the genus Triadenum embedded within, and rejects the traditional infrageneric classification, with many sections being para- or polyphyletic. The small Western Palearctic sections Elodes and Adenotrias are the sister-group of a geographic dichotomy between a mainly New World clade and a large Old World clade. Bayesian reconstruction of morphological character states and range evolution show a complex pattern of morphological plasticity and inter-continental movement within the genus. The ancestors of Hypericum were probably tropical shrubs that migrated from Africa to the Palearctic in the Early Tertiary, concurrent with the expansion of tropical climates in northern latitudes. Global climate cooling from the Mid Tertiary onwards might have promoted adaptation to temperate conditions in some lineages, such as the development of the herbaceous habit or unspecialized corollas.

  10. Morphological evolution of X-ray flare structures from the rise through the decay phase. [Skylab study of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Krieger, A. S.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    The morphological evolution of 12 solar X-ray subflares from onset through the decay phase has been studied using photographic X-ray images obtained from Skylab. The spatial configurations are found to vary widely from flare to flare, but they appear to be composed of two basic kinds of structures. The first, termed 'X-ray kernels', are brightest during the rise phase; the second, looplike structures, appear during the maximum and decay phases of the event. The X-ray kernels are small pointlike structures which may be related to the nonthermal phases of flares.

  11. Divergence times and the evolution of morphological complexity in an early land plant lineage (Marchantiopsida) with a slow molecular rate.

    PubMed

    Villarreal A, Juan Carlos; Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J; Hart, Michelle L; Long, David G; Forrest, Laura L

    2016-03-01

    We present a complete generic-level phylogeny of the complex thalloid liverworts, a lineage that includes the model system Marchantia polymorpha. The complex thalloids are remarkable for their slow rate of molecular evolution and for being the only extant plant lineage to differentiate gas exchange tissues in the gametophyte generation. We estimated the divergence times and analyzed the evolutionary trends of morphological traits, including air chambers, rhizoids and specialized reproductive structures. A multilocus dataset was analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Relative rates were estimated using local clocks. Our phylogeny cements the early branching in complex thalloids. Marchantia is supported in one of the earliest divergent lineages. The rate of evolution in organellar loci is slower than for other liverwort lineages, except for two annual lineages. Most genera diverged in the Cretaceous. Marchantia polymorpha diversified in the Late Miocene, giving a minimum age estimate for the evolution of its sex chromosomes. The complex thalloid ancestor, excluding Blasiales, is reconstructed as a plant with a carpocephalum, with filament-less air chambers opening via compound pores, and without pegged rhizoids. Our comprehensive study of the group provides a temporal framework for the analysis of the evolution of critical traits essential for plants during land colonization.

  12. Evolution and controlling of defects during the preparation of continuous high-temperature resistant SiC(Al) fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ke; Wang, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Continuous high-temperature resistant SiC(Al) fibers were prepared by polymer-derived method using polyaluminocarbosilane (PACS) as the precursor. The formation and evolution of defects formed in the preparation of continuous high-temperature resistant SiC(Al) fibers were investigated by analyzing continuous PACS green fibers, cured products, pyrolysis process and continuous SiC(Al) fibers. The results showed that there were two major types of defects in the continuous PACS green fibers: pits and inclusion. These defects were difficult to be eliminated during the next processes. Other new defects may form during the preparation process under improper conditions, especially during the pyrolysis and sintering processes. The properties of the fibers are greatly affected by the defects. The formation of defects could be reduced to prepare high performance SiC(Al) fibers if effective measures are taken according to the formation mechanism of defects.

  13. K/Ar ages, magnetic stratigraphy and morphological evolution of La Gomera: implications for the Canary Islands hotspot evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, R.; Guillou, H.; Carracedo, J. C.; Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2003-04-01

    The Canary Islands are a group of seven volcanic islands, 100-700 km west of the Sahara continental margin. The spatial and chronological evolution of the canarian volcanism, from east to west, is due to the progression of the slow-moving african plate on a hotspot. La Gomera is located between the western shield-growing stage islands (La Palma, 1,7 Ma and El Hierro, 1,1 Ma) and the central "rejuvaneted stage" islands (Tenerife, 11,9 Ma and Gran Canaria, 14,5 Ma). After 23 K-Ar ages and paleomagnetism datas, we determine the main volcanic phases of La Gomera : (1) the submarine shield volcano (> 9,5 Ma), (2) the first subaeriel shield volcano (9,43-7,36 Ma), (3) the Vallehermoso stratovolcan, (4) the peripheral "planèzes" and domes forming series (6,67-1,94 Ma) and the Garajonay horizontal series (5,42-4,25 Ma). The stratovolcano and the horizontal series fill a 10 km wide depression that is supposed to be a giant landslide embayment. The scarps of this landslide correspond to the main discontinuity in the island structure. After 4 M.y. of very scarce volcanism, the whole structure of La Gomera is in relief inversion, with a radial pattern of deep barrancos. The erosion rates are lower during the hiatus (< 0,2 m/ka) than during the shield stage (0,2-0,9 m/ka), pointing out the fact that the volcanic construction rates and the erosion rates are strongly correlated. La Gomera is one of the best example of a hiatus stage of hotspot evolution. The volcanic load La Gomera and Tenerife may have delayed the western islands volcanism, favouring a dual-line.

  14. Historical Biogeography of the Marine Snail Littorina saxatilis Inferred from Haplotype and Shell Morphology Evolution in NW Spain

    PubMed Central

    Tirado, Terencia; Saura, María; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Quesada, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The marine snail Littorina saxatilis exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographical regions and represents an excellent model for assessing local adaptation. Previous studies support the hypothesis of parallel evolution in sympatry of two morphologically different ecotypes (named as RB and SU) that co-inhabit different habitats from Galician rocky shores (NW Spain), and which are interrupted by sheltered areas inhabited by a different morph never studied before (named as SRB). Here, we use morphological and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to test hypotheses on the origin and diversification of SRB snails and to assess their evolutionary relationships with RB and SU ecotypes. Our results show that the SRB morph displays the largest size and shell elongation and the smallest relative shell aperture, representing an extreme type of the RB vs. SU polymorphism, which has been linked to adaptation to sheltered ecological factors. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the SRB morph shares ancestry with RB and SU ecotypes, rejecting the hypothesis that the SRB morph marks relict populations from which these ecotypes evolved in Galician coasts. Our data support that genetic differentiation among SRB, RB and SU morphs results from a general pattern of restricted gene flow and isolation by distance linked to the colonization of Galician coasts by two independent mtDNA lineages, rather than from a random fragmentation of the initial distributional range. Therefore, the confinement of distinct lineages to specific geographical areas denote evident limits to the distances these snails can disperse. Morphological analysis indicates no association between mtDNA lineage and a specific morphotype, and suggests the independent gain of convergent morphological patterns within each mtDNA lineage in populations occupying contrasting habitats following the colonization of Galician coasts. PMID:27513934

  15. Historical Biogeography of the Marine Snail Littorina saxatilis Inferred from Haplotype and Shell Morphology Evolution in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Terencia; Saura, María; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Quesada, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The marine snail Littorina saxatilis exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographical regions and represents an excellent model for assessing local adaptation. Previous studies support the hypothesis of parallel evolution in sympatry of two morphologically different ecotypes (named as RB and SU) that co-inhabit different habitats from Galician rocky shores (NW Spain), and which are interrupted by sheltered areas inhabited by a different morph never studied before (named as SRB). Here, we use morphological and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data to test hypotheses on the origin and diversification of SRB snails and to assess their evolutionary relationships with RB and SU ecotypes. Our results show that the SRB morph displays the largest size and shell elongation and the smallest relative shell aperture, representing an extreme type of the RB vs. SU polymorphism, which has been linked to adaptation to sheltered ecological factors. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the SRB morph shares ancestry with RB and SU ecotypes, rejecting the hypothesis that the SRB morph marks relict populations from which these ecotypes evolved in Galician coasts. Our data support that genetic differentiation among SRB, RB and SU morphs results from a general pattern of restricted gene flow and isolation by distance linked to the colonization of Galician coasts by two independent mtDNA lineages, rather than from a random fragmentation of the initial distributional range. Therefore, the confinement of distinct lineages to specific geographical areas denote evident limits to the distances these snails can disperse. Morphological analysis indicates no association between mtDNA lineage and a specific morphotype, and suggests the independent gain of convergent morphological patterns within each mtDNA lineage in populations occupying contrasting habitats following the colonization of Galician coasts.

  16. Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-09-22

    Convergent morphologies are thought to indicate functional similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent morphologies are used as analogues to assess function in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, functional studies of extant taxa have shown that functional similarity can arise from differing morphologies, calling into question the paradigm that form and function are closely related. We test the hypothesis that convergent skeletal morphology indicates functional similarity in the fossil record using ornithischian dinosaurs. The rare transition from bipedality to quadrupedality occurred at least three times independently in this clade, resulting in a suite of convergent osteological characteristics. We use homology rather than analogy to provide an independent line of evidence about function, reconstructing soft tissues using the extant phylogenetic bracket and applying biomechanical concepts to produce qualitative assessments of muscle leverage. We also optimize character changes to investigate the sequence of character acquisition. Different lineages of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur stood and walked differently from each other, falsifying the hypothesis that osteological convergence indicates functional similarity. The acquisition of features correlated with quadrupedalism generally occurs in the same order in each clade, suggesting underlying developmental mechanisms that act as evolutionary constraints.

  17. Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Barrett, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Convergent morphologies are thought to indicate functional similarity, arising because of a limited number of evolutionary or developmental pathways. Extant taxa displaying convergent morphologies are used as analogues to assess function in extinct taxa with similar characteristics. However, functional studies of extant taxa have shown that functional similarity can arise from differing morphologies, calling into question the paradigm that form and function are closely related. We test the hypothesis that convergent skeletal morphology indicates functional similarity in the fossil record using ornithischian dinosaurs. The rare transition from bipedality to quadrupedality occurred at least three times independently in this clade, resulting in a suite of convergent osteological characteristics. We use homology rather than analogy to provide an independent line of evidence about function, reconstructing soft tissues using the extant phylogenetic bracket and applying biomechanical concepts to produce qualitative assessments of muscle leverage. We also optimize character changes to investigate the sequence of character acquisition. Different lineages of quadrupedal ornithischian dinosaur stood and walked differently from each other, falsifying the hypothesis that osteological convergence indicates functional similarity. The acquisition of features correlated with quadrupedalism generally occurs in the same order in each clade, suggesting underlying developmental mechanisms that act as evolutionary constraints. PMID:22719033

  18. Morphology Evolution of Polypropylene in Immiscible Polymer Blends for Fabrication of Nanofibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs) with different melting index were extruded through a two-strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios by controlling the drawing speed. The morphologies of iPP fibers e...

  19. A Short-Snouted, Middle Triassic Phytosaur and its Implications for the Morphological Evolution and Biogeography of Phytosauria

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Michelle R.; Zhao, Li-Jun; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Chun

    2017-01-01

    Following the end-Permian extinction, terrestrial vertebrate diversity recovered by the Middle Triassic, and that diversity was now dominated by reptiles. However, those reptilian clades, including archosaurs and their closest relatives, are not commonly found until ~30 million years post-extinction in Late Triassic deposits despite time-calibrated phylogenetic analyses predicting an Early Triassic divergence for those clades. One of these groups from the Late Triassic, Phytosauria, is well known from a near-Pangean distribution, and this easily recognized clade bears an elongated rostrum with posteriorly retracted nares and numerous postcranial synapomorphies that are unique compared with all other contemporary reptiles. Here, we recognize the exquisitely preserved, nearly complete skeleton of Diandongosuchus fuyuanensis from the Middle Triassic of China as the oldest and basalmost phytosaur. The Middle Triassic age and lack of the characteristically-elongated rostrum fill a critical morphological and temporal gap in phytosaur evolution, indicating that the characteristic elongated rostrum of phytosaurs appeared subsequent to cranial and postcranial modifications associated with enhanced prey capture, predating that general trend of morphological evolution observed within Crocodyliformes. Additionally, Diandongosuchus supports that the clade was present across Pangea, suggesting early ecosystem exploration for Archosauriformes through nearshore environments and leading to ease of dispersal across the Tethys. PMID:28393843

  20. Two-Fold Anisotropy Governs Morphological Evolution and Stress Generation in Sodiated Black Phosphorus for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianwu; Zhao, Peng; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Sulin

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus represents a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries owing to its extremely high theoretical capacity. Recent in situ transmission electron microscopy studies evidenced anisotropic swelling in sodiated black phosphorus, which may find an origin from the two intrinsic anisotropic properties inherent to the layered structure of black phosphorus: sodium diffusional directionality and insertion strain anisotropy. To understand the morphological evolution and stress generation in sodiated black phosphorus, we develop a chemo-mechanical model by incorporating the intrinsic anisotropic properties into the large elasto-plastic deformation. Our modeling results reveal that the apparent morphological evolution in sodiated black phosphorus is critically controlled by the coupled effect of the two intrinsic anisotropic properties. In particular, sodium diffusional directionality generates sharp interphases along the [010] and [001] directions, which constrain anisotropic development of the insertion strain. The coupled effect renders distinctive stress-generation and fracture mechanisms when sodiation starts from different crystal facets. In addition to providing a powerful modeling framework for sodiation and lithiation of layered structures, our findings shed significant light on the sodiation-induced chemo-mechanical degradation of black phosphorus as a promising anode for the next-generation sodium ion batteries.

  1. Multiple phylogenetically distinct events shaped the evolution of limb skeletal morphologies associated with bipedalism in the jerboas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Talia Y.; Organ, Chris L.; Edwards, Scott V.; Biewener, Andrew A.; Tabin, Clifford J.; Jenkins, Farish A.; Cooper, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent rapid advances in experimental biology have expanded the opportunity for interdisciplinary investigations of the evolution of form and function in non-traditional model species. However, historical divisions of philosophy and methodology between evolutionary/organismal biologists and developmental geneticists often preclude an effective merging of disciplines. In an effort to overcome these divisions, we take advantage of the extraordinary morphological diversity of the rodent superfamily Dipodoidea, including the bipedal jerboas, to experimentally study the developmental mechanisms and biomechanical performance of a remarkably divergent limb structure. Here, we place multiple limb character states in a locomotor and phylogenetic context. While obligate bipedalism arose once in the ancestor of extant jerboas, we find that digit loss, metatarsal fusion, between limb proportions, and within hindlimb proportions all evolved independently of one another. Digit loss occurred three times through at least two distinct developmental mechanisms, and elongation of the hindlimb relative to the forelimb is not simply due to growth mechanisms that change proportions within the hindlimb. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for punctuated evolution of allometric scaling of hindlimb elements during the radiation of Dipodoidea. Our work demonstrates the value of leveraging the evolutionary history of a clade to establish criteria for identifying the developmental genetic mechanisms of morphological diversification. PMID:26455300

  2. Multiple phylogenetically distinct events shaped the evolution of limb skeletal morphologies associated with bipedalism in the jerboas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Talia Y; Organ, Chris L; Edwards, Scott V; Biewener, Andrew A; Tabin, Clifford J; Jenkins, Farish A; Cooper, Kimberly L

    2015-11-02

    Recent rapid advances in experimental biology have expanded the opportunity for interdisciplinary investigations of the evolution of form and function in non-traditional model species. However, historical divisions of philosophy and methodology between evolutionary/organismal biologists and developmental geneticists often preclude an effective merging of disciplines. In an effort to overcome these divisions, we take advantage of the extraordinary morphological diversity of the rodent superfamily Dipodoidea, including the bipedal jerboas, to experimentally study the developmental mechanisms and biomechanical performance of a remarkably divergent limb structure. Here, we place multiple limb character states in a locomotor and phylogenetic context. Whereas obligate bipedalism arose just once in the ancestor of extant jerboas, we find that digit loss, metatarsal fusion, between-limb proportions, and within-hindlimb proportions all evolved independently of one another. Digit loss occurred three times through at least two distinct developmental mechanisms, and elongation of the hindlimb relative to the forelimb is not simply due to growth mechanisms that change proportions within the hindlimb. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for punctuated evolution of allometric scaling of hindlimb elements during the radiation of Dipodoidea. Our work demonstrates the value of leveraging the evolutionary history of a clade to establish criteria for identifying the developmental genetic mechanisms of morphological diversification.

  3. Structure and morphology evolution of silica-modified pseudoboehmite aerogels during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Pakharukova, V.P.; Shalygin, A.S.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Tsybulya, S.V.; Martyanov, O.N.

    2016-01-15

    Silica-modified pseudoboehmite aerogels (0, 10, 20 at% of Si) were prepared by sol–gel method followed by supercritical drying. The phase transformations, changes in structure and morphology upon calcination were thoroughly investigated by advanced X-Ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Obtained pseudoboehmite samples had specific nanostructure: ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystallites were loosely packed. The silica dopant drastically enhanced the crystallite anisotropy. Thus, the aerogel with Al:Si atomic ratio of 9:1 consisted of the pseudoboehmite nanosheets with thickness of one unit cell (average dimensions of 14.0×1.2×14.5 nm). The specific nanostructure caused remarkable features of experimental XRD patterns, including anisotropic peak broadening and appearance of forbidden reflection. Direct simulation of XRD patterns with using the Debye Scattering Equation allowed the size and morphology of pseudoboehmite crystallites to be determined. The silica addition strongly delayed formation of γ-alumina and further phase transformations upon calcinaton. Thermal stability of alumina was suggested to be affected by the particle morphology inherited from the pseudoboehmite precursor. - Graphical abstract: Pseudoboehmite samples had specific nanostructure: ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystallites were loosely packed. - Highlights: • Silica-doped boehmites were prepared by sol–gel method with supercritical drying. • Ultrathin two-dimensional crystallites of pseudoboehmite were obtained. • Changes in structure and morphology upon calcination were studied. • Simulation of XRD patterns was performed with use of the Debye Scattering Equation. • Thermal stability of alumina depended on morphology inherited from pseudoboehmite.

  4. New family of allomorphic jellyfishes, Drymonematidae (Scyphozoa, Discomedusae), emphasizes evolution in the functional morphology and trophic ecology of gelatinous zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Bayha, Keith M; Dawson, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Molecular analyses have revealed many cryptic species in the oceans, often permitting small morphological differences to be recognized as diagnosing species, but less commonly leading to consideration of cryptic ecology. Here, based on analyses of three nuclear DNA sequence markers (ribosomal 18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 [ITS1]), two mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] and ribosomal 16S), and 55 morphological features, we revise the classification of the enigmatic jellyfish genus Drymonema. We describe a new scyphozoan family, Drymonematidae, elevating the previous subfamily Drymonemidae to accommodate three species: the type species D. dalmatinum from the Mediterranean region, for which we identify a neotype; the western South Atlantic species D. gorgo; and a new species, D. larsoni from the western Atlantic and Caribbean, which also is described here. This revision emphasizes the remarkable morphological disparity of Drymonematidae from all other scyphomedusae, including allometric growth of the bell margin distal of the rhopalia, an annular zone of tentacles on the subumbrella, and ontogenetic loss of gastric filaments. Anatomical innovations are likely functionally related to predatory specialization on large gelatinous zooplankton, most notably the phylogenetically younger moon jellyfish Aurelia, indicating evolution of the feeding niche in Drymonematidae. This family-level revision contributes to the growing body of evidence that scyphomedusae are far more taxonomically rich, their biogeography is a more detailed mosaic, and their phenotypes are more nuanced than traditionally thought. Ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change, past or future, are likely to be commensurately diverse.

  5. Morphology evolution via self-organization and lateral and vertical diffusion in polymer:fullerene solar cell blends.

    PubMed

    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Ferenczi, Toby; Agostinelli, Tiziano; Etchegoin, Pablo G; Kim, Youngkyoo; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Stavrinou, Paul N; Bradley, Donal D C; Nelson, Jenny

    2008-02-01

    Control of blend morphology at the microscopic scale is critical for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of plastic solar cells based on blends of conjugated polymer with fullerene derivatives. In the case of bulk heterojunctions of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a soluble fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM), both blend morphology and photovoltaic device performance are influenced by various treatments, including choice of solvent, rate of drying, thermal annealing and vapour annealing. Although the protocols differ significantly, the maximum power conversion efficiency values reported for the various techniques are comparable (4-5%). In this paper, we demonstrate that these techniques all lead to a common arrangement of the components, which consists of a vertically and laterally phase-separated blend of crystalline P3HT and PCBM. We propose a morphology evolution that consists of an initial crystallization of P3HT chains, followed by diffusion of PCBM molecules to nucleation sites, at which aggregates of PCBM then grow.

  6. Evolution of vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells and inner ears: toward identifying stimuli that select mutation driven altered morphologies.

    PubMed

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Straka, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Among the major distance senses of vertebrates, the ear is unique in its complex morphological changes during evolution. Conceivably, these changes enable the ear to adapt toward sensing various physically well-characterized stimuli. This review develops a scenario that integrates sensory cell with organ evolution. We propose that molecular and cellular evolution of the vertebrate hair cells occurred prior to the formation of the vertebrate ear. We previously proposed that the genes driving hair cell differentiation were aggregated in the otic region through developmental re-patterning that generated a unique vertebrate embryonic structure, the otic placode. In agreement with the presence of graviceptive receptors in many vertebrate outgroups, it is likely that the vertebrate ear originally functioned as a simple gravity-sensing organ. Based on the rare occurrence of angular acceleration receptors in vertebrate outgroups, we further propose that the canal system evolved with a more sophisticated ear morphogenesis. This evolving morphogenesis obviously turned the initial otocyst into a complex set of canals and recesses, harboring multiple sensory epithelia each adapted to the acquisition of a specific aspect of a given physical stimulus. As support for this evolutionary progression, we provide several details of the molecular basis of ear development.

  7. Evolution of vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells and inner ears: toward identifying stimuli that select mutation driven altered morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsch, Bernd; Straka, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Among the major distance senses of vertebrates, the ear is unique in its complex morphological changes during evolution. Conceivably, these changes enable the ear to adapt toward sensing various physically well-characterized stimuli. This review develops a scenario that integrates sensory cell with organ evolution. We propose that molecular and cellular evolution of the vertebrate hair cells occurred prior to the formation of the vertebrate ear. We previously proposed that the genes driving hair cell differentiation, were aggregated in the otic region through developmental re-patterning that generated a unique vertebrate embryonic structure, the otic placode. In agreement with the presence of graviceptive receptors in many vertebrate outgroups, it is likely that the vertebrate ear originally functioned as a simple gravity-sensing organ. Based on the rare occurrence of angular acceleration receptors in vertebrate outgroups, we further propose that the canal system evolved with a more sophisticated ear morphogenesis. This evolving morphogenesis obviously turned the initial otocyst into a complex set of canals and recesses, harboring multiple sensory epithelia each adapted to the acquisition of a specific aspect of a given physical stimulus. As support for this evolutionary progression, we provide several details of the molecular basis of ear development. PMID:24281353

  8. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Berumen, Michael L; Smith, Dave J; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Pezold, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family.

  9. Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: the neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (aves: Furnariidae).

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Graham; Chesser, R Terry; Cracraft, Joel; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Remsen, J V; Brumfield, Robb T

    2011-10-01

    Patterns of diversification in species-rich clades provide insight into the processes that generate biological diversity. We tested different models of lineage and phenotypic diversification in an exceptional continental radiation, the ovenbird family Furnariidae, using the most complete species-level phylogenetic hypothesis produced to date for a major avian clade (97% of 293 species). We found that the Furnariidae exhibit nearly constant rates of lineage accumulation but show evidence of constrained morphological evolution. This pattern of sustained high rates of speciation despite limitations on phenotypic evolution contrasts with the results of most previous studies of evolutionary radiations, which have found a pattern of decelerating diversity-dependent lineage accumulation coupled with decelerating or constrained phenotypic evolution. Our results suggest that lineage accumulation in tropical continental radiations may not be as limited by ecological opportunities as in temperate or island radiations. More studies examining patterns of both lineage and phenotypic diversification are needed to understand the often complex tempo and mode of evolutionary radiations on continents.

  10. Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: The neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (Aves: Furnariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Graham; Chesser, R. Terry; Cracraft, Joel; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of diversification in species-rich clades provide insight into the processes that generate biological diversity. We tested different models of lineage and phenotypic diversification in an exceptional continental radiation, the ovenbird family Furnariidae, using the most complete species-level phylogenetic hypothesis produced to date for a major avian clade (97% of 293 species). We found that the Furnariidae exhibit nearly constant rates of lineage accumulation but show evidence of constrained morphological evolution. This pattern of sustained high rates of speciation despite limitations on phenotypic evolution contrasts with the results of most previous studies of evolutionary radiations, which have found a pattern of decelerating diversity-dependent lineage accumulation coupled with decelerating or constrained phenotypic evolution. Our results suggest that lineage accumulation in tropical continental radiations may not be as limited by ecological opportunities as in temperate or island radiations. More studies examining patterns of both lineage and phenotypic diversification are needed to understand the often complex tempo and mode of evolutionary radiations on continents.

  11. Morphology and histology of chimpanzee primary visual striate cortex indicate that brain reorganization predated brain expansion in early hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ralph L; Broadfield, Douglas C; Yuan, Michael S

    2003-07-01

    Human brain evolution is characterized by an overall increase in brain size, cerebral reorganization, and cerebral lateralization. It is generally understood when brain enlargement occurred during human evolution. However, issues concerning cerebral reorganization and hemispheric lateralization are more difficult to determine from brain endocasts, and they are topics of considerable debate. One region of the cerebral cortex that may represent the earliest evidence for brain reorganization is the primary visual cortex (PVC), or area 17 of Brodmann. In nonhuman primates, this region is larger in volume (demarcated anteriorly by the lunate sulcus), and extends further rostrally than it does in modern humans. In early hominid fossil (Australopithecus) endocasts, this region appears to occupy a smaller area compared to that in nonhuman primates. Some have argued that the brain first underwent size expansion prior to reorganization, while others maintain that reorganization predated brain expansion. To help resolve this question, we provide a description of two male, common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) brains, YN77-111 and YN92-115, which clearly display a more posterior lunate sulcal morphology than seen in other chimpanzees. These data show that neurogenetic variability exists in chimpanzees, and that significant differences in organization (e.g., a reduced PVC) can predate brain enlargement. While the human brain has experienced numerous expansion and reorganization events throughout evolution, the data from these two chimpanzees offer significant support for the hypothesis that the neurogenetic basis for brain reorganization was present in our early fossil ancestors (i.e., the australopithecines) prior to brain enlargement.

  12. Evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies: the influence of morphology, stellar mass and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongyao; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Conselice, Christopher J.

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 425 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from von der Linden et al., we study the relationship between their internal properties (stellar masses, structural parameters and morphologies) and their environment. More massive BCGs tend to inhabit denser regions and more massive clusters than lower mass BCGs. Furthermore, cDs, which are BCGs with particularly extended envelopes, seem to prefer marginally denser regions and tend to be hosted by more massive haloes than elliptical BCGs. cD and elliptical BCGs show parallel positive correlations between their stellar masses and environmental densities. However, at a fixed environmental density, cDs are, on average, ˜40 per cent more massive. Our results, together with the findings of previous studies, suggest an evolutionary link between elliptical and cD BCGs. We suggest that most present-day cDs started their life as ellipticals, which subsequently grew in stellar mass and size due to mergers. In this process, the cD envelope developed. The large scatter in the stellar masses and sizes of the cDs reflects their different merger histories. The growth of the BCGs in mass and size seems to be linked to the hierarchical growth of the structures they inhabit: as the groups and clusters became denser and more massive, the BCGs at their centres also grew. This process is nearing completion since the majority (˜60 per cent) of the BCGs in the local Universe have cD morphology. However, the presence of galaxies with intermediate morphological classes (between ellipticals and cDs) suggests that the growth and morphological transformation of some BCGs is still ongoing.

  13. Morphology evolution in high-performance polymer solar cells processed from nonhalogenated solvent

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Wanzhu; Liu, Peng; Jin, Yaocheng; ...

    2015-05-26

    A new processing protocol based on non-halogenated solvent and additive is developed to produce polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies better than those processed from commonly used halogenated solvent-additive pair. Morphology studies show that good performance correlates with a finely distributed nanomorphology with a well-defined polymer fibril network structure, which leads to balanced charge transport in device operation.

  14. Hydrothermal growth and morphology evolution of CePO{sub 4} aggregates by a complexing method

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lin; Chen Weixiang Zheng Yifan; Xu Zhude

    2008-11-03

    A facile hydrothermal route assisted by Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium) has been successfully developed to prepare uniform cerium phosphate (CePO{sub 4}) aggregates with different morphologies, such as peanut-like and spindle-like. It was found that the as-prepared uniform CePO{sub 4} aggregates were constructed with many nearly parallel aligned nanorods. The molar ratio of EDTA/Ce{sup 3+}, solution pH and reaction time had great influences on the morphologies and sizes of the CePO{sub 4} samples. In our process of synthesis, Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA played important roles as complexing reagent and inducing agent on the formation of CePO{sub 4} aggregates. The possible growth mechanism for CePO{sub 4} aggregates was presented. Ce{sub 0.9}Tb{sub 0.1}PO{sub 4} aggregates with different morphologies were also prepared and their photoluminescence properties were characterized.

  15. Structure and morphology evolution of silica-modified pseudoboehmite aerogels during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakharukova, V. P.; Shalygin, A. S.; Gerasimov, E. Yu.; Tsybulya, S. V.; Martyanov, O. N.

    2016-01-01

    Silica-modified pseudoboehmite aerogels (0, 10, 20 at% of Si) were prepared by sol-gel method followed by supercritical drying. The phase transformations, changes in structure and morphology upon calcination were thoroughly investigated by advanced X-Ray diffraction (XRD) techniques and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Obtained pseudoboehmite samples had specific nanostructure: ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystallites were loosely packed. The silica dopant drastically enhanced the crystallite anisotropy. Thus, the aerogel with Al:Si atomic ratio of 9:1 consisted of the pseudoboehmite nanosheets with thickness of one unit cell (average dimensions of 14.0×1.2×14.5 nm). The specific nanostructure caused remarkable features of experimental XRD patterns, including anisotropic peak broadening and appearance of forbidden reflection. Direct simulation of XRD patterns with using the Debye Scattering Equation allowed the size and morphology of pseudoboehmite crystallites to be determined. The silica addition strongly delayed formation of γ-alumina and further phase transformations upon calcinaton. Thermal stability of alumina was suggested to be affected by the particle morphology inherited from the pseudoboehmite precursor.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of morphologically diverse groups, Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allies

    PubMed Central

    Takamiya, Tomoko; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sathapattayanon, Apirada; Tajima, Natsuko; Suzuki, Shunichiro; Kitamura, Saki; Shioda, Nao; Handa, Takashi; Kitanaka, Susumu; Iijima, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2014-01-01

    It is always difficult to construct coherent classification systems for plant lineages having diverse morphological characters. The genus Dendrobium, one of the largest genera in the Orchidaceae, includes ∼1100 species, and enormous morphological diversification has hindered the establishment of consistent classification systems covering all major groups of this genus. Given the particular importance of species in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups as floriculture and crude drug genetic resources, there is an urgent need to establish a stable classification system. To clarify phylogenetic relationships in Dendrobium section Dendrobium and allied groups, we analysed the macromolecular characters of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of 210 taxa of Dendrobium were conducted on DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of 18S–26S nuclear ribosomal DNA and the maturase-coding gene (matK) located in an intron of the plastid gene trnK using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods. The parsimony and Bayesian analyses revealed 13 distinct clades in the group comprising section Dendrobium and its allied groups. Results also showed paraphyly or polyphyly of sections Amblyanthus, Aporum, Breviflores, Calcarifera, Crumenata, Dendrobium, Densiflora, Distichophyllae, Dolichocentrum, Holochrysa, Oxyglossum and Pedilonum. On the other hand, the monophyly of section Stachyobium was well supported. It was found that many of the morphological characters that have been believed to reflect phylogenetic relationships are, in fact, the result of convergence. As such, many of the sections that have been recognized up to this point were found to not be monophyletic, so recircumscription of sections is required. PMID:25107672

  17. Synthesis, structure, morphology evolution and magnetic properties of single domain strontium hexaferrite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deyang; Zeng, Dechang; Liu, Zhongwu

    2016-04-01

    Single domain strontium ferrite particles (SrFe12O19) with hexagonal morphology were synthesized by conventional ceramic process. Effects of Fe/Sr mole ratio and milling time on structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the strontium ferrite particles have been systematically studied. Single phase SrFe12O19 was successfully synthesized in a large composition range of Fe/Sr ratio (Fe/Sr = 9-11). The particle size refinement effect and the morphology change were observed with the increase of Fe/Sr ratio. It was also found that the change of Fe/Sr ratio had little effect on the magnetization curve. However, the magnetization process was significantly influenced with different milling time. The optimal magnetic properties obtained at Fe/Sr = 11 with 6 h milling are 68.2 emu g-1 and 5540 Oe for saturation magnetization (M S) and intrinsic coercivity (H C), respectively. The high performance single domain strontium hexaferrite particles obtained in this paper would greatly facilitate the application in the permanent magnet industry.

  18. How ecology shapes caste evolution: linking resource use, morphology, performance and fitness in a superorganism.

    PubMed

    Powell, S

    2009-05-01

    Caste evolution is a central process in the adaptive diversification of insect superorganisms. Nevertheless, how ecology shapes adaptive caste evolution remains poorly understood. Recent work with the ant genus Cephalotes has provided new comparative evidence that ecological specialization may drive adaptive caste specialization. Here, three key predictions of this adaptive hypothesis are supported, using a representative of the highest level of ecological specialization and the most specialized soldier phenotype. First, soldier defensive performance was maximal for the specific nesting resource used most often in nature. Second, colonies only used a specialized subset of available nesting resources and preferred the specific resource that maximizes soldier performance. Third, soldier performance and its limitations on resource use were found to have both direct and indirect consequences for colony reproduction. These findings suggest that the most specialized soldier phenotype in Cephalotes is indeed an adaptation to ecological specialization on a narrowly defined subset of available nesting resources.

  19. Geochemical evolution of the northern plains of Mars - Early hydrosphere, carbonate development, and present morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Martha W.

    1990-01-01

    An equilibrium geochemical model of the primitive Martian atmosphere-regolith-ocean system that could have existed early in the history of Mars is developed. The results of this model are used to examine the evolution of the volatile budget of Mars and the processes occurring in the Martian ocean that may have contributed to the deposition of large carbonate beds on the northern plains. Results of this model are compared to those of the Pollack et al. (1987) model.

  20. Effects of mechanical dispersion on the morphological evolution of a chemical dissolution front in a fluid-saturated porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lai, Geng-Xin; Ni, Chuen-Fa

    2009-06-01

    SummaryThe dissolution-induced finger or wormhole patterns in porous medium or fracture rock play a crucial role in a variety of scientific, industrial, and engineering practices. Although previous studies have extensively presented a number of numerical models which couples a system of nonlinear governing equations of porosity change due to mineral dissolution, the conservations of groundwater flow and transport of chemical species to investigate the morphological pattern of a chemical dissolution front within a fluid-saturated porous medium, whereas the mechanical dispersion effect has generally been neglected in the model development. This study addresses the effects of mechanical dispersion on the morphological evolution of a chemical dissolution front for a variety of cases. Mechanical dispersion processes is incorporated with the coupled nonlinear governing equation system so as to rebuild a newly numerical model. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that mechanical dispersion has pronounced impacts on the morphological pattern of the chemical dissolution front. For single local non-uniformity case, mechanical dispersion reduces the finger length of an unstable single-fingering front or retains the shape of a stable planar front while speeding up the front advancement. In the case of two local non-uniformities, adding mechanical dispersion with different flow conditions can yield one of the following results: (1) the shape of the stable planar front is maintained but its advancement is accelerated; (2) the shape of the unstable single-fingering front is maintained but its length is reduced; (3) the unstable double-fingering front is merged into an unstable single-fingering front; and (4) the shape of the unstable double-fingering front is preserved but its fingering length is reduced. A comparison between the behavior diagrams of dissolution front morphology (with and without considering mechanical dispersion) shows that the double-fingering front

  1. The Continuous Mutual Evolution of Equatorial Waves and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of Zonal Flow in the Equatorial Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C.; Cai, M.; Shin, C. S.; Chagnon, J.

    2014-12-01

    The continuous mutual evolution of equatorial waves and the background QBO is demonstrated using daily NCEP-DOE reanalysis for the period from January 1, 1979 to December 31, 2010. Using a novel diagnostic technique, the phase speed, vertical tilting, and form stress of equatorial waves in the stratosphere are obtained continuously on daily basis. The results indicate that on top of a weak-amplitude annual cycle signal, all of these wave properties have a pronounced QBO signal with a downward propagation that evolves continuously together with the background QBO. Our analysis also highlights the potential role of wave-induced form stress in driving the QBO regime change. We find that the dominant waves in the equatorial stratosphere propagate very slowly relative to the ground at all times, implying that their observed intrinsic phase speed evolution follows the background QBO nearly exactly but with opposite sign, as the established theory predicts. By revealing the continuous evolution of the form stress associated with the vertically tilted waves, the new diagnostic method also demonstrates the dominance of eastward-tilted eastward-propagating waves contributing to a deceleration of easterly flow at high altitudes, which causes a downward propagation of the easterly flow signal. Similarly, the dominance of westward-tilted westward-propagating waves acts to reverse westerly flow to easterly flow and causes a downward propagation of westerly flow signal. Our results suggest that in addition to the wave-breaking processes, such continuously alternating downward transfer of westerly and easterly angular momentum by westward-tilted westward-propagating waves and eastward-tilted eastward-propagating waves contributes to the wave-mean flow interaction mechanism for the QBO.

  2. Pretangles and neurofibrillary changes: similarities and differences between AD and CBD based on molecular and morphological evolution.

    PubMed

    Uchihara, Toshiki

    2014-12-01

    Pretangles are cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity in neurons without apparent formation of fibrillary structures. In Alzheimer disease, such tau deposition is considered to represent a premature state prior to fibril formation (AD-pretangles), later to form neurofibrillary tangles and finally ghost tangles. This morphological evolution from pretangles to ghost tangles is in parallel with their profile shift from four repeat (4R) tau-positive pretangles to three repeat (3R) tau-positive ghost tangles with both positive neurofibrillary tangles in between. This complementary shift of tau profile from 4R to 3R suggests that these tau epitopes are represented interchangeably along tangle evolution. Similar tau immunoreactivity without fibril formation is also observed in corticobasal degeneration (CBD-pretangles). CBD-pretangles and AD-pretangles share: (i) selective 4R tau immunoreactivity without involvement of 3R tau; and (ii) argyrophilia with Gallyas silver impregnation. However, CBD-pretangles neither evolve into ghost tangles nor exhibit 3R tau immunoreactivity even at the advanced stage. Because electron microscopic studies on these pretangles are quite limited, it remains to be clarified whether such differences in later evolution are related to their primary ultrastructures, potentially distinct between AD and CBD. As double staining for 3R and 4R tau clarified complementary shift from 4R to 3R tau along evolution from pretangles to ghost tangles, double immunoelectron microscopy, if possible, may clarify similar profile shifts in relation to each tau fibril at the ultrastructural dimension. This will provide a unique viewpoint on how molecular (epitope) representations are related to pathogenesis of fibrillary components.

  3. Real-time observation of drying kinetics and morphology evolution in organic bulk heterojunctions (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güldal, Nusret S.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Osvet, Andres; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-08-01

    In organic photovoltaics field, an optimized bulk heterojunction film consists of an electron-donating conjugated polymer and an electron-accepting fullerene derivative, which is organized in a well phase-separated, yet interconnected network. This sensitive morphology, affecting the light absorption, exciton dissociation and subsequent charge generation-extraction, is determined by the film formation during solution casting under certain processing conditions. Therefore, a number of previous studies focused on characterizing the thin film formation during solution casting, mainly with in-situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering methods, accompanied by various optical methods, such as ellipsometry/reflectometry and UV-VIS absorption. Although these studies provided invaluable information on the matter, the development of nanoscale morphology is yet to be fully understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a portable in-situ characterization chamber, which can characterize any organic/hybrid thin film during solution casting. The chamber is a miniature doctor blade under controlled atmosphere, equipped with white light reflectometry (WLR), photoluminescence (PL) and laser light scattering (LLS). WLR was used to monitor the thickness reduction of the thin film during the drying, enabling to establish a drying curve. LLS informed the time scale of aggregate/crystallite formation. PL monitored molecular arrangement and enabled the estimation of microstructure. The combined data is used to understand the competition between thermodynamics (e.g. solubility, miscibility) and kinetics of morphology formation. In this study, we measured different BHJ systems with binary and ternary solvent mixtures under different processing conditions, from which we built a roadmap for microstructure formation in organic thin films, used in organic photovoltaics.

  4. Quantitative Flow Morphology, Recent Volcanic Evolution and Future Activity of the Kameni Islands, Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. R.; Pyle, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    The fundamental importance of careful field investigation, and the long term value of detailed published volcanic eruption reports, means that much can be learned about eruption processes even many decades after an eruption has ceased. We illustrate this with reference to the young dacite lava flows of the Kameni islands, Santorini. We have created a new, high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) for the intra-caldera Kameni islands, Santorini, based on new data from a recent airborne laser-ranging (LiDAR) and aerial photography mission. This DEM reveals a wealth of surface morphological information on the dacite lava flows that comprise the Kameni islands. When combined with a re-analysis of contemporary eruption accounts, these data yield important insights into the physical properties and flow behaviour of dacite magma during slow effusive eruptions. Kameni island lava flows exhibit the classic surface morphologies associated with viscous aa: levees, and compression folds. Levee heights and flow widths are consistent with a Bingham rheology, and lava yield strengths of (3 to 7)× 104 Pa. Analysis of the shapes of flow edges confirms that the blocky aa dacite lava flows show a scale-invariant morphology with a typical fractal dimension that is indistinguishable from Hawaiian aa. Dome-growth rates during eruptions of the Kameni islands in 1866 and 1939 are consistent with a model of slow inflation of a dome with a strong crust. Lava domes on the Kameni islands have a crustal yield strength (4×107 Pa) that is lower by a factor of 2 to 4 than the domes at Pinatubo and Mount St Helens. The dome height model, combined with the apparent time-predictable nature of volcanic eruptions of the Kameni islands, allows us to predict that the next eruption of the Kameni islands will last for > 2.6 years (in 2005) and will involve formation of a dome ca. 115 to 123 m high.

  5. Morphology evolution during manufacture and extrusion of polypropylene/graphite nanoplates composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, P.; Santos, R. M.; Paiva, M. C.; Covas, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    This work monitors the evolution of the dispersion of two commercial grades of graphite nanoplates during compounding with PP in a co-rotating twin screw extruder, followed by processing in a single screw extruder. Both machines are fitted with sampling ports, so that samples can be collected along their axes and subsequently characterized. Most of the dispersion takes place upon melting in the twin screw extruder. Upon processing in the single screw extruder re-agglomeration may occur, while dispersion in the metering zone depends on screw speed.

  6. Trigeminal nerve morphology in Alligator mississippiensis and its significance for crocodyliform facial sensation and evolution.

    PubMed

    George, Ian D; Holliday, Casey M

    2013-04-01

    Modern crocodylians possess a derived sense of face touch, in which numerous trigeminal nerve-innervated dome pressure receptors speckle the face and mandible and sense mechanical stimuli. However, the morphological features of this system are not well known, and it remains unclear how the trigeminal system changes during ontogeny and how it scales with other cranial structures. Finally, when this system evolved within crocodyliforms remains a mystery. Thus, new morphological insights into the trigeminal system of extant crocodylians may offer new paleontological tools to investigate this evolutionary transformation. A cross-sectional study integrating histological, morphometric, and 3D imaging analyses was conducted to identify patterns in cranial nervous and bony structures of Alligator mississippiensis. Nine individuals from a broad size range were CT-scanned followed by histomorphometric sampling of mandibular and maxillary nerve divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Endocast volume, trigeminal fossa volume, and maxillomandibular foramen size were compared with axon counts from proximal and distal regions of the trigeminal nerves to identify scaling properties of the structures. The trigeminal fossa has a significant positive correlation with skull length and endocast volume. We also found that axon density is greater in smaller alligators and total axon count has a significant negative correlation with skull size. Six additional extant and fossil crocodyliforms were included in a supplementary scaling analysis, which found that size was not an accurate predictor of trigeminal anatomy. This suggests that phylogeny or somatosensory adaptations may be responsible for the variation in trigeminal ganglion and nerve size in crocodyliforms.

  7. Evolution of eye morphology and rhodopsin expression in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup.

    PubMed

    Posnien, Nico; Hopfen, Corinna; Hilbrant, Maarten; Ramos-Womack, Margarita; Murat, Sophie; Schönauer, Anna; Herbert, Samantha L; Nunes, Maria D S; Arif, Saad; Breuker, Casper J; Schlötterer, Christian; Mitteroecker, Philipp; McGregor, Alistair P

    2012-01-01

    A striking diversity of compound eye size and shape has evolved among insects. The number of ommatidia and their size are major determinants of the visual sensitivity and acuity of the compound eye. Each ommatidium is composed of eight photoreceptor cells that facilitate the discrimination of different colours via the expression of various light sensitive Rhodopsin proteins. It follows that variation in eye size, shape, and opsin composition is likely to directly influence vision. We analyzed variation in these three traits in D. melanogaster, D. simulans and D. mauritiana. We show that D. mauritiana generally has larger eyes than its sibling species, which is due to a combination of larger ommatidia and more ommatidia. In addition, intra- and inter-specific differences in eye size among D. simulans and D. melanogaster strains are mainly caused by variation in ommatidia number. By applying a geometric morphometrics approach to assess whether the formation of larger eyes influences other parts of the head capsule, we found that an increase in eye size is associated with a reduction in the adjacent face cuticle. Our shape analysis also demonstrates that D. mauritiana eyes are specifically enlarged in the dorsal region. Intriguingly, this dorsal enlargement is associated with enhanced expression of rhodopsin 3 in D. mauritiana. In summary, our data suggests that the morphology and functional properties of the compound eyes vary considerably within and among these closely related Drosophila species and may be part of coordinated morphological changes affecting the head capsule.

  8. Stream channel morphology, sediment and large wood transport evolution patterns following the 2008 Chaitén volcano eruption, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroume, A.; Andreoli, A.; Ulloa, H.; Sandoval, V.; Lara, L. E.

    2012-04-01

    The study about hydrologic and geomorphic impacts of explosive eruptions on river systems and associated patterns of stream channel morphology, sediment and large wood transport evolution is extremely important in a country like Chile which, according to the Global Volcanism Program, is ranked 5th in terms of active volcanoes among nations. To date, such effects have been little studied in the densely vegetated and steep forested watersheds of southern Chile, and the likely hydrologic and geomorphic responses to these disturbance processes are not well understood. In addition to the overall need for greater understanding, the 2008 Chaitén volcano eruption provides a rare opportunity to study post-eruption landscape adjustments Explosive eruptions have the potential to inflict large impacts in terms of scale and severity. They can damage, destroy, or bury extensive areas of forest vegetation and cover the landscape with volcanic ash, filling river valleys, obliterating watershed divides, disturbing drainage patterns and changing channel size, shape, pattern and structure, and dead trees can contribute to large log jams on valley floors. Hydrologic, sedimentologic, and geomorphic responses to major explosive eruptions can be dramatic, widespread and persistent, and present enormous challenges to those entrusted with managing disturbance response. Specific channel segments in river systems affected by the 2008 Chaiten volcano eruption are investigated since January 2010. Data acquisition methods include the use of a sequence of remote images, GIS, continuous hydrologic measurements, periodic field surveying and sampling campaigns, and radio tagging. From the first two field campaigns in January 2010 and 2011, huge amounts of large wood (LW) were observed in the severely impacted river systems. In the Chaiten river (total catchment area of ~120 km2), LW deposited parallel to stream indicates high mobilization rates and some typical wood structures (log steps, valley

  9. Surface-morphology evolution during growth-interrupt in situ annealing on GaAs(110) epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.

    2007-05-01

    Temperature and surface-coverage dependence of the evolution of surface morphology during growth-interrupt in situ annealing on GaAs epitaxial layers grown on the singular (110) cleaved edges by the cleaved-edge overgrowth method with molecular-beam epitaxy has been studied by means of atomic force microscopy. Annealing at substrate temperatures below 630 °C produced atomically flat surfaces with characteristic islands or pits, depending on the surface coverage. The atomic flatness of the surfaces is enhanced with increasing annealing temperature owing to the enhanced adatom migration. At a higher annealing temperature of about 650 °C, however, 2-monolayer-deep triangular pits with well-defined step edges due to Ga-atom desorption from the crystal appeared in the atomically flat surface. The growth-interrupt annealing temperature optimal for the formation of atomically flat GaAs(110) surfaces is therefore about 630 °C.

  10. Morphological Evolution During Tensile Deformation in Semi-Crystalline Precise Functional Copolymers via Fitting of In Situ Xray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Edward B.; Middleton, L. Robert; Aitken, Brian S.; Azoulay, Jason; Murtagh, Dustin; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Cordaro, Joseph; Winey, Karen I.

    Morphological evolution during tensile deformation of semi-crystalline polymers is often described qualitatively. The layered crystal structures of precise copolymers, in which functional groups are bonded at precise intervals along the polymer backbone, allow for quantitative fitting of oriented X-ray scattering peaks to provide additional information. The crystallites in precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) align with the acid group layers' normal vector parallel to the tensile direction, while those in precise poly(ethylene-co-imidazolium bromide) align with the layers' normal vector perpendicular to the tensile direction. We present fits of in situ X-ray scattering during tensile deformation of semi-crystalline precise copolymers, to quantify the size, shape, and degree of orientation of the crystallites during the deformation process. Mathematical descriptions of the X-ray scattering in these two cases is explored, and a physical explanation for the difference in alignment direction is proposed.

  11. Morphological and kinematic evolution of three interacting coronal mass ejections of 2011 February 13-15

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Wageesh; Srivastava, Nandita

    2014-10-10

    During 2011 February 13-15, three Earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in succession were recorded as limb CMEs by STEREO/SECCHI coronagraphs (COR). These CMEs provided an opportunity to study their geometrical and kinematic evolution from multiple vantage points. In this paper, we examine the differences in geometrical evolution of slow and fast CMEs during their propagation in the heliosphere. We also study their interaction and collision using STEREO/SECCHI COR and Heliospheric Imager (HI) observations. We have found evidence of interaction and collision between the CMEs of February 15 and 14 in the COR2 and HI1 field of view (FOV), respectively, while the CME of February 14 caught up with the CME of February 13 in the HI2 FOV. By estimating the true mass of these CMEs and using their pre- and post-collision dynamics, the momentum and energy exchange between them during the collision phase are studied. We classify the nature of the observed collision between the CMEs of February 14 and 15 as inelastic, reaching close to the elastic regime. Relating imaging observations with in situ WIND measurements at L1, we find that the CMEs move adjacent to each other after their collision in the heliosphere and are recognized as distinct structures in in situ observations. Our results highlight the significance of HI observations in studying CME-CME collision for the purpose of improved space weather forecasting.

  12. Evolution of paleostresses with depth in the limestone formations at Bure (east of France) inferred from stylolite morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, A.; Toussaint, R.; Baud, P.; Conil, N.

    2012-04-01

    In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a radioactive waste repository (HLW) in clay-stone formation, the french national radioactive waste management agency (Andra) started in 2000 to build an underground research laboratory (URL) at Bure in the south of the Meuse district. The target horizon for the laboratory is a 135 m thick layer of argillaceous rock (Callovo-Oxfordian claystone) that lies between about 420 and 555 meters below the surface at the URL site. The argillite layer (COX) is surrounded by limestones from the Dogger and the Oxfordian ages (respectively 164,7 to 175,6 Ma and 161,2 to 164,7Ma). Numerous stylolites were found in these limestones. Recent studies show that paleotresses can be inferred from the stylolites morphologies. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of these paleostresses with depth in the Dogger and Oxfordian formations. A wide range of stylolites are sampled in the Dogger and Oxfordian formations. The morphology analysis is done on stylolites at various depths, starting from the Oxfordian formation at a depth of 158 meters to the Dogger formation at a depth of 747 meters. No stylolites are found in the intermediate Callovo-Oxfordian claystone formation. We analyze 1D profiles taken on the outer part of the cores. The profiles are digitized by a simple reconstruction of high resolution photographs. We select the Fourier power spectrum method to analyze the frequency content of the stylolites. In agreement with theoretical predictions, we always observe two regimes for small and large scales separated by a cross-over length. The corresponding paleostresses are then inferred from this cross-over length and from the elastic properties of the rocks. Considering several scenarios for the geological evolution of the area, we discuss the variation with depth of the inferred paleostresses in the Dogger and Oxfordian formations.

  13. Evolution of Morphology and Crystallinity of Silica Minerals Under Hydrothermal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.

    2011-12-01

    Silica minerals are quite common mineral species in surface environment of the terrestrial planets. They are good indicator of terrestrial processes including hydrothermal alteration, diagenesis and soil formation. Hydrothermal quartz, metastable low temperature cristobalite and amorphous silica show characteristic morphology and crystallinity depending on their formation processes and kinetics under wide range of temperature, pressure, acidity and thermal history. In this study, silica minerals produced by acidic hydrothermal alteration related to volcanic activities and hydrothermal crystallization experiments from diatom sediment are examined with crystallographic analysis and morphologic observations. Low temperature form of cistobalite is a metastable phase and a common alteration product occured in highly acidic hydrothermal environment around fumaroles in geothermal / volcanic areas. XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree of whole rock is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Detailed powder XRD analysis show that the primary diffraction peak of cristobalite composed with two or three phases with different d-spacing and FWHM by peak profile fitting analysis. Shorter d-spacing and narrower FWHM cristobalite crystallize from precursor materials with less-crystallized, longer d-spacing and wider FWHM cristobalite. Textures of hydrothermal cristobalite in altered rock shows remnant of porphylitic texture of the host rock, pyroxene-amphibole andesite. Diatom has amorphous silica shell and makes diatomite sediment. Diatomite found in less diagenetic Quarternary formation keeps amorphous silica diatom shells. Hydrothermal alteration experiments of amorphous silica diatomite sediment are carried out from 300 °C to 550 °C. Mineral composition of run products shows crystallization of cristobalite and quartz progress depending on temperature and run durations. Initial crystallization product, cristobalite grains occur as characteristic lepispheres and

  14. Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Morphology, boulder evolution, and spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Oklay, Nilda; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Bertini, Ivano; El-Maarry, M. R.; Marzari, Francesco; Preusker, Frank; Scholten, Frank; Höfner, Sebastian; Lee, Jui-Chi; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Groussin, Olivier; Naletto, Giampiero; Lazzarin, Monica; Barbieri, Cesare; Sierks, Holger; Lamy, Philippe; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Rickman, Hans; Keller, Horst U.; Agarwal, Jessica; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Barucci, Maria A.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Cremonese, Gabriele; Da Deppo, Vania; Davidsson, Björn; De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Ferri, Francesca; Fornasier, Sonia; Fulle, Marco; Güttler, Carsten; Gutierrez, Pedro J.; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Jorda, Laurent; Knollenberg, Jörg; Kramm, J.-Rainer; Küppers, Michael; Kürt, Ekkehard; Lara, Luisa M.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Lopez Moreno, Jose J.; Magrin, Sara; Michalik, Harald; Mottola, Stefano; Thomas, Nicholas; Tubiana, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We provide a detailed morphological analysis of the Aswan site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). We derive the size-frequency distribution of boulders ≥2 m and correlate this distribution with the gravitational slopes for the first time on a comet. We perform the spectral analysis of this region to understand if possible surface variegation is related to thedifferent surface textures observable on the different units. Methods: We used two OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image data sets acquired on September 19 and 22, 2014, with a scale of 0.5 m/px. Gravitational slopes derived from the 3D shape model of 67P were used to identify and interpret the different units of the site. By means of the high-resolution NAC data sets, boulders ≥2.0 m can be unambiguously identified and extracted using the software ArcGIS. Coregistered and photometrically corrected color cubes were used to perform the spectral analyses, and we retrieved the spectral properties of the Aswan units. Results: The high-resolution morphological map of the Aswan site (0.68 km2) shows that this site is characterized by four different units: fine-particle deposits located on layered terrains, gravitational accumulation deposits, taluses, and the outcropping layered terrain. Multiple lineaments are identified on the Aswan cliff, such as fractures, exposed layered outcrops, niches, and terraces. Close to the terrace margin, several arched features observed in plan view suggest that the margin progressively retreats as a result of erosion. The size-frequency of boulders ≥2 m in the entire study area has a power-law index of -3.9 +0.2/-0.3 (1499 boulders ≥2 m/km2), suggesting that the Aswan site is mainly dominated by gravitational events triggered by sublimation and/or thermal insolation weathering causing regressive erosion. The boulder size-frequency distribution versus gravitational slopes indicates that when higher gravitational slope terrains are considered, only boulders ≤10 m

  15. Nonlinear selection and the evolution of variances and covariances for continuous characters in an anole.

    PubMed

    Revell, L J; Mahler, D L; Sweeney, J R; Sobotka, M; Fancher, V E; Losos, J B

    2010-02-01

    The pattern of genetic variances and covariances among characters, summarized in the additive genetic variance-covariance matrix, G, determines how a population will respond to linear natural selection. However, G itself also evolves in response to selection. In particular, we expect that, over time, G will evolve correspondence with the pattern of multivariate nonlinear natural selection. In this study, we substitute the phenotypic variance-covariance matrix (P) for G to determine if the pattern of multivariate nonlinear selection in a natural population of Anolis cristatellus, an arboreal lizard from Puerto Rico, has influenced the evolution of genetic variances and covariances in this species. Although results varied among our estimates of P and fitness, and among our analytic techniques, we find significant evidence for congruence between nonlinear selection and P, suggesting that natural selection may have influenced the evolution of genetic constraint in this species.

  16. Tracing Evolution of Galactic Disks: Continuing the Legacy of HST / Keck with TMT, JWST and ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Kartik

    2014-07-01

    With HST and Keck we have been able to measure the detailed assembly of L* and brighter galaxy disks to z~0.85. We have shown evidence for downsizing in the formation and evolution of structures such as stellar bars. These signposts for disk maturity have allowed us to measure the precise rate of disk assembly over the last 7Gyr. Recent analysis of DEEP2 data also indicate that bars are absent in dynamically hot disks - however, we do not have solid measurements for stellar velocity dispersion in disks at high redshift. With the TMT we will be able to make such measurements for the first time. Combined with high resolution infrared observations from JWST we will be able to measure the stellar mass distribution and structures in disks to z~3. And with ALMA we are measuring the evolution of the molecular gas fraction and dust in disk galaxies. I will discuss the synergy of these new great observatories and describe how they will allow us to extend our study of disk assembly and evolution from the present day to the epoch of disk formation at z~3. I will also discuss how these facilities will allow us to push the boundaries of such studies to lower mass (sub-L*) galaxies.

  17. The Arkansas Galaxy Evolution Survey: SMBH Mass and Spiral Arm Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigar, M. S.; Berrier, J. C.; Davis, B. L.; Kennefick, D.; Kennefick, J.; Barrows, R. S.; Hartley, M. T.; Shields, D. W.; Bentz, M. C.; Lacy, C. H. S.

    2014-03-01

    We confirm the existence of a previously reported relationship between spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass MBH of a disk galaxy's central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to determine spiral arm pitch angles and generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses, and a further 20 galaxies with measured core velocity dispersions. Such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure (density wave theory, swing amplification, and manifold theory). We propose that this relationship be used as a method for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. Spiral arm pitch angle can be measured from imaging data alone, and with the scatter in the presented relationship (0.45 dex), this tool is potentially superior when compared to other SMBH scaling relationship.

  18. Morphology and models for the evolution of eastern Hecate Chasma, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Victoria E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1993-01-01

    Hecate Chasma is a deep trough characterized by a chain-like concentration of coronae and corona-like features trending approximately southwest-northeast between approximately 200 and 260 degrees east longitude (terminating at Beta Regio). The section of Hecate in which we have concentrated our study is centered at 15N, 249, where the trough is especially well-defined. Nearby, a smaller chain of eight coronae lies along a minor trough parallel to the general trend of the greater chain. The trough itself is unusual in this area because it has a highly asymmetric profile. Using Magellan radar and topography data, we have examined the morphology of this area in order to assess the tectonic and volcanic history of the area. After examining the most important types of features (linear, arcuate and circular) in eastern Hecate, we present two possible models of origin. A companion abstract presents an overview of the Hecate and Parga linear deformation zones.

  19. Evolution and control of the phase competition morphology in a manganite film.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haibiao; Wang, Lingfei; Hou, Yubin; Huang, Zhen; Lu, Qingyou; Wu, Wenbin

    2015-11-25

    The competition among different phases in perovskite manganites is pronounced since their energies are very close under the interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. To reveal the roles of underlying interactions, many efforts have been devoted towards directly imaging phase transitions at microscopic scales. Here we show images of the charge-ordered insulator (COI) phase transition from a pure ferromagnetic metal with reducing field or increasing temperature in a strained phase-separated manganite film, using a home-built magnetic force microscope. Compared with the COI melting transition, this reverse transition is sharp, cooperative and martensitic-like with astonishingly unique yet diverse morphologies. The COI domains show variable-dimensional growth at different temperatures and their distribution can illustrate the delicate balance of the underlying interactions in manganites. Our findings also display how phase domain engineering is possible and how the phase competition can be tuned in a controllable manner.

  20. Morphological Evolution of Multilayer Ni/NiO Thin Film Electrodes during Lithiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko, Guennadi; Fister, Timothy T.; Buchholz, D. Bruce; Li, Qianqian; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Hersam, Mark C.; Fenter, Paul; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2016-08-10

    Oxide conversion reactions in lithium ion batteries are challenged by substantial irreversibility associated with significant volume change during the phase separation of an oxide into lithia and metal species (e.g., NiO + 2Li(+) + 2e(-) -> Ni + Li2O). We demonstrate that the confinement of nanometer-scale NiO layers within a Ni/NiO multilayer electrode can direct lithium transport and reactivity, leading to coherent expansion of the multilayer. The morphological changes accompanying lithiation were tracked in real-time by in-operando X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy on well-defined periodic Ni/NiO multilayers grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Comparison of pristine and lithiated structures reveals that the nm-thick nickel layers help initiate the conversion process at the interface and then provide an architecture that confines the lithiation to the individual oxide layers. XRR data reveal that the lithiation process starts at the top and progressed through the electrode stack, layer by layer resulting in a purely vertical expansion. Longer term cycling showed significant reversible capacity (similar to 800 mA h g(-1) after similar to 100 cycles), which we attribute to a combination of the intrinsic bulk lithiation capacity of the NiO and additional interfacial lithiation capacity. These observations provide new insight into the role of metal/metal oxide interfaces in controlling lithium ion conversion reactions by defining the relationships between morphological changes and film architecture during reaction.

  1. Barb geometry of asymmetrical feathers reveals a transitional morphology in the evolution of avian flight.

    PubMed

    Feo, Teresa J; Field, Daniel J; Prum, Richard O

    2015-03-22

    The geometry of feather barbs (barb length and barb angle) determines feather vane asymmetry and vane rigidity, which are both critical to a feather's aerodynamic performance. Here, we describe the relationship between barb geometry and aerodynamic function across the evolutionary history of asymmetrical flight feathers, from Mesozoic taxa outside of modern avian diversity (Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Sapeornis, Confuciusornis and the enantiornithine Eopengornis) to an extensive sample of modern birds. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find that barb angle is not related to vane-width asymmetry; instead barb angle varies with vane function, whereas barb length variation determines vane asymmetry. We demonstrate that barb geometry significantly differs among functionally distinct portions of flight feather vanes, and that cutting-edge leading vanes occupy a distinct region of morphospace characterized by small barb angles. This cutting-edge vane morphology is ubiquitous across a phylogenetically and functionally diverse sample of modern birds and Mesozoic stem birds, revealing a fundamental aerodynamic adaptation that has persisted from the Late Jurassic. However, in Mesozoic taxa stemward of Ornithurae and Enantiornithes, trailing vane barb geometry is distinctly different from that of modern birds. In both modern birds and enantiornithines, trailing vanes have larger barb angles than in comparatively stemward taxa like Archaeopteryx, which exhibit small trailing vane barb angles. This discovery reveals a previously unrecognized evolutionary transition in flight feather morphology, which has important implications for the flight capacity of early feathered theropods such as Archaeopteryx and Microraptor. Our findings suggest that the fully modern avian flight feather, and possibly a modern capacity for powered flight, evolved crownward of Confuciusornis, long after the origin of asymmetrical flight feathers, and much later than previously recognized.

  2. Barb geometry of asymmetrical feathers reveals a transitional morphology in the evolution of avian flight

    PubMed Central

    Feo, Teresa J.; Field, Daniel J.; Prum, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of feather barbs (barb length and barb angle) determines feather vane asymmetry and vane rigidity, which are both critical to a feather's aerodynamic performance. Here, we describe the relationship between barb geometry and aerodynamic function across the evolutionary history of asymmetrical flight feathers, from Mesozoic taxa outside of modern avian diversity (Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Sapeornis, Confuciusornis and the enantiornithine Eopengornis) to an extensive sample of modern birds. Contrary to previous assumptions, we find that barb angle is not related to vane-width asymmetry; instead barb angle varies with vane function, whereas barb length variation determines vane asymmetry. We demonstrate that barb geometry significantly differs among functionally distinct portions of flight feather vanes, and that cutting-edge leading vanes occupy a distinct region of morphospace characterized by small barb angles. This cutting-edge vane morphology is ubiquitous across a phylogenetically and functionally diverse sample of modern birds and Mesozoic stem birds, revealing a fundamental aerodynamic adaptation that has persisted from the Late Jurassic. However, in Mesozoic taxa stemward of Ornithurae and Enantiornithes, trailing vane barb geometry is distinctly different from that of modern birds. In both modern birds and enantiornithines, trailing vanes have larger barb angles than in comparatively stemward taxa like Archaeopteryx, which exhibit small trailing vane barb angles. This discovery reveals a previously unrecognized evolutionary transition in flight feather morphology, which has important implications for the flight capacity of early feathered theropods such as Archaeopteryx and Microraptor. Our findings suggest that the fully modern avian flight feather, and possibly a modern capacity for powered flight, evolved crownward of Confuciusornis, long after the origin of asymmetrical flight feathers, and much later than previously recognized. PMID

  3. Capacity retention behavior and morphology evolution of SixGe1-x nanoparticles as lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mingyuan; Kim, Seongbeom; Nie, Anmin; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Lu, Yunhao; Fang, Xin; Shen, Chenfei; Rong, Jiepeng; Yi Park, Song; Suk Kim, Dong; Young Kim, Jin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-01-26

    Engineering silicon into nanostructures has been a well-adopted strategy to improve the cyclic performance of silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode. Here, we show that the electrode performance can be further improved by alloying silicon with germanium. We have evaluated the electrode performance of SixGe1-x nanoparticles (NPs) with different compositions. Experimentally, SixGe1-x NPs with compositions approaching Si50Ge50 are found to have better cyclic retention than both Si-rich and Ge-rich NPs. During the charge/discharge process, NP merging and Si-Ge homogenization are observed. In addition, a distinct morphology difference is observed after 100 cycles, which is believed to be responsible for the different capacity retention behavior. The present study on SixGe1-x alloy NPs sheds light on the development of Si-based electrode materials for stable operation in lithium-ion batteries (e.g., through a comprehensive design of material structure and chemical composition). The investigation of composition-dependent morphology evolution in the delithiated Li-SiGe ternary alloy also significantly broadens our understanding of dealloying in complex systems, and it is complementary to the well-established understanding of dealloying behavior in binary systems (e.g., Au-Ag alloys).

  4. Sex-specific patterns of morphological diversification: evolution of reaction norms and static allometries in neriid flies.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Elizabeth J; Bath, Eleanor; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-02-01

    The consequences of sex-specific selection for patterns of diversification remain poorly known. Because male secondary sexual traits are typically costly to express, and both costs and benefits are likely to depend on ambient environment and individual condition, such traits may be expected to diversify via changes in reaction norms as well as the scaling of trait size with body size (static allometry). We investigated morphological diversification within two species of Australian neriid flies (Telostylinus angusticollis, Telostylinus lineolatus) by rearing larvae from several populations on larval diets varying sixfold in nutrient concentration. Mean body size varied among populations of T. angusticollis, but body size reaction norms did not vary within either species. However, we detected diversification of reaction norms for body shape in males and females within both species. Moreover, unlike females, males also diversified in static allometry slope and reaction norms for static allometry slope of sexual and nonsexual traits. Our findings reveal qualitative sex differences in patterns of morphological diversification, whereby shape-size relationships diversify extensively in males, but remain conserved in females despite extensive evolution of trait means. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating plasticity and allometry in studies of adaptation and diversification.

  5. The spider Harpactea sadistica: co-evolution of traumatic insemination and complex female genital morphology in spiders.

    PubMed

    Rezác, Milan

    2009-08-07

    The males of invertebrates from a few phyla, including arthropods, have been reported to practise traumatic insemination (TI; i.e. injecting sperm by using the copulatory organ to penetrate the female's body wall). As all previously reported arthropod examples have been insects, there is considerable interest in whether TI might have evolved independently in other arthropods. The research reported here demonstrates the first case of TI in the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, in particular how the genital morphology and mating behaviour of Harpactea sadistica (Rezác 2008), a spider from Israel, has become adapted specifically for reproduction based on TI. Males have needle-like intromittent organs and females have atrophied spermathecae. In other spiders, eggs are fertilized simultaneously with oviposition, but the eggs of H. sadistica are fertilized in the ovaries (internal fertilization) and develop as embryos before being laid. Sperm-storage organs of phylogenetically basal groups to H. sadistica provide males with last male sperm priority and allow removal of sperm by males that mate later, suggesting that TI might have evolved as an adaptive strategy to circumvent an unfavourable structure of the sperm-storage organs, allowing the first male to mate with paternity advantage. Understanding the functional significance of TI gives us insight into factors underlying the evolution of the genital and sperm-storage morphology in spiders.

  6. Evolution of increased competitiveness in cows trades off with reduced milk yield, fertility and more masculine morphology.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Cristina; Mazza, Serena; Guzzo, Nadia; Mantovani, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    In some species females compete for food, foraging territories, mating, and nesting sites. Competing females can exhibit morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations typical of males, which are commonly considered as secondary sexual traits. Competition and the development of traits increasing competitiveness require much energy and may exert adverse effects on fecundity and survival. From an evolutionary perspective, positive selection for increased competitiveness would then result in evolution of reduced values for traits related to fitness such as fecundity and survival. There is recent evidence for such evolutionary trade-offs involving male competition, but no study has considered competing females so far. Using data from competitions for dominance in cows (Bos taurus), we found negative genetic correlations between traits providing success in competition, that is, fighting ability and fitness traits related to milk production and with fertility (the inverse of parity-conception interval). Fighting ability also showed low but positive genetic correlations with "masculine" morphological traits, and negative correlations with "feminine" traits. A genetic change in traits over time has occurred due to selection on competitiveness, corresponding to an evolutionary process of "masculinization" counteracting the official selection for milk yield. Similar evolutionary trade-off between success in competition and fitness components may be present in various species experiencing female competition.

  7. Geochemical evolution of the northern plains of Mars: Early hydrosphere, carbonate development, and present morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, M.W. )

    1990-08-30

    It is likely that early in Mars' history, abundant liquid water was available. Under a thick (several bars) carbon dioxide atmosphere, this water could have formed an ocean, located primarily in the lowlands of the northern hemisphere. An equilibrium geochemical model of this ocean and its interactions with the atmosphere and regolith of Mars was developed, and the results of this model were used to discuss the evolution of the volatile budget of Mars, including the deposition of large carbonate beds on the northern plains. Differential solutional weathering of these carbonate beds may have caused the formation of some of the enigmatic features seen on the northern plains of Mars, such as the thumbprint terrain and enclosed depressions.

  8. Evolution of the nervous system: a critical evaluation of how genetic changes translate into morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Prochiantz, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Living creatures evolve, and this evolution allows them to adapt to an ever-changing milieu. Two main adaptive strategies coexist. The first involves genetic mutations taking place at the species level. The second strategy occurs at the individual level, and primarily involves changes in chromatin organization and brain circuits. We shall illustrate how the two modes of adaptation are interdependent, and will show the difference in their respective importance depending on the species. It will be proposed that changes in developmental strategies, genetically selected, can lead to more or less epigenetic freedom, sometimes with dramatic consequences. In particular it will be shown, taking chimpanzees and humans as examples, how minor genetic modifications can translate into nonlinear changes in brain structure and cultural practices, placing the two types of primates at a much greater distance than had been anticipated.

  9. Growth evolution and phase transition from chalcocite to digenite in nanocrystalline copper sulfide: Morphological, optical and electrical properties

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Ramirez, Priscilla Vasthi; Santos-Cruz, José; Vega-González, Marina; Martínez-Alvarez, Omar; Castaño-Meneses, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Summary Copper sulfide is a promising p-type inorganic semiconductor for optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, due its small band gap energy and its electrical properties. In this work nanocrystalline copper sulfide (CuxS), with two stoichiometric ratios (x = 2, 1.8) was obtained by one-pot synthesis at 220, 230, 240 and 260 °C in an organic solvent and amorphous CuxS was obtained in aqueous solution. Nanoparticle-like nucleation centers are formed at lower temperatures (220 °C), mixtures of morphologies (nanorods, nanodisks and nanoprisms) are seen at 230 and 240 °C, in which the nanodisks are predominant, while big hexagonal/prismatic crystals are obtained at 260 °C according to TEM results. A mixture of chalcocite and digenite phases was found at 230 and 240 °C, while a clear transition to a pure digenite phase was seen at 260 °C. The evolution of morphology and transition of phases is consistent to the electrical, optical, and morphological properties of the copper sulfide. In fact, digenite Cu1.8S is less resistive (346 Ω/sq) and has a lower energy band gap (1.6 eV) than chalcocite Cu2S (5.72 × 105 Ω/sq, 1.87 eV). Low resistivity was also obtained in CuxS synthesized in aqueous solution, despite its amorphous structure. All CuxS products could be promising for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25247136

  10. Growth evolution and phase transition from chalcocite to digenite in nanocrystalline copper sulfide: Morphological, optical and electrical properties.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Ramirez, Priscilla Vasthi; Arenas-Arrocena, Ma Concepción; Santos-Cruz, José; Vega-González, Marina; Martínez-Alvarez, Omar; Castaño-Meneses, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfide is a promising p-type inorganic semiconductor for optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, due its small band gap energy and its electrical properties. In this work nanocrystalline copper sulfide (Cu x S), with two stoichiometric ratios (x = 2, 1.8) was obtained by one-pot synthesis at 220, 230, 240 and 260 °C in an organic solvent and amorphous Cu x S was obtained in aqueous solution. Nanoparticle-like nucleation centers are formed at lower temperatures (220 °C), mixtures of morphologies (nanorods, nanodisks and nanoprisms) are seen at 230 and 240 °C, in which the nanodisks are predominant, while big hexagonal/prismatic crystals are obtained at 260 °C according to TEM results. A mixture of chalcocite and digenite phases was found at 230 and 240 °C, while a clear transition to a pure digenite phase was seen at 260 °C. The evolution of morphology and transition of phases is consistent to the electrical, optical, and morphological properties of the copper sulfide. In fact, digenite Cu1.8S is less resistive (346 Ω/sq) and has a lower energy band gap (1.6 eV) than chalcocite Cu2S (5.72 × 10(5) Ω/sq, 1.87 eV). Low resistivity was also obtained in Cu x S synthesized in aqueous solution, despite its amorphous structure. All Cu x S products could be promising for optoelectronic applications.

  11. Role of carbon impurities on the surface morphology evolution of tungsten under high dose helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ajlony, A.; Tripathi, J. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of carbon impurities on the surface evolution (e.g., fuzz formation) of tungsten (W) surface during 300 eV He ions irradiation was studied. Several tungsten samples were irradiated by He ion beam with a various carbon ions percentage. The presence of minute carbon contamination within the He ion beam was found to be effective in preventing the fuzz formation. At higher carbon concentration, the W surface was found to be fully covered with a thick graphitic layer on the top of tungsten carbide (WC) layer that cover the sample surface. Lowering the ion beam carbon percentage was effective in a significant reduction in the thickness of the surface graphite layer. Under these conditions the W surface was also found to be immune for the fuzz formation. The effect of W fuzz prevention by the WC formation on the sample surface was more noticeable when the He ion beam had much lower carbon (C) ions content (0.01% C). In this case, the fuzz formation was prevented on the vast majority of the W sample surface, while W fuzz was found in limited and isolated areas. The W surface also shows good resistance to morphology evolution when bombarded by high flux of pure H ions at 900 °C.

  12. Model-independent test of the truncated crater function theory of surface morphology evolution during ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkinson, Joy C.; Anzenberg, Eitan; Aziz, Michael J.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2014-03-01

    A broad class of "local response" theories seeks to predict morphology evolution during energetic particle irradiation in terms of average surface height response to individual impacts—an approach that has been generalized by the crater function formalism of Norris et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21, 224017 (2009), 10.1088/0953-8984/21/22/224017; Nat. Commun. 2, 276 (2011), 10.1038/ncomms1280]. Keeping only the terms in the crater function formalism associated with the response of a flat surface has facilitated the use of molecular dynamics simulations of individual ion impacts to predict the stability or instability of a flat surface to ion bombardment. Here we report a sensitive experimental test of this truncated crater function theory that is independent of any a priori knowledge of the crater function itself. Existing measurements for 1 keV Ar+/Si and Kr+/Ge are inconsistent with the predictions of truncated crater function theory, for any conceivable crater function, at high bombardment angles. The failure of the theory suggests that the prediction of surface evolution from simulations of single-ion impacts will be more challenging than had been assumed.

  13. Morphological evolution and reconstruction of silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: the roles of natural organic matter and light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng; Zhang, Hongwu

    2015-07-15

    With the proliferation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their potential entry into the environment has attracted increasing concern. Although photochemical transformation is an important fate of AgNPs in aquatic environments due to their strong light absorption, little is known about the evolution and transformation mechanisms of AgNPs. This study investigated the morphological evolution and reconstruction of AgNPs during photoconversion in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In the dark, the AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L, and the proportion of Ag(+) in solution in the presence of 10 mg/L NOM was reduced by roughly half compared with that in the absence of NOM. Under irradiation, NOM participated in the photoreaction of AgNPs and can decelerate the photoreaction of AgNPs via several mechanisms, including light attenuation, the formation of a NOM coating, and competing with Ag for photons. Additionally, NOM can substitute for citrate as a stabilizing agent to compensate for the loss of AgNP stability due to citrate mineralization under extended irradiation, producing stable triangular nanosilver in aquatic environments. This study sheds light on the behavioral differences of AgNPs in different aquatic systems, which create uncertainties and difficulties in assessing the environmental risks of AgNPs.

  14. A Differential Evolution Algorithm Based on Nikaido-Isoda Function for Solving Nash Equilibrium in Nonlinear Continuous Games

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    A differential evolution algorithm for solving Nash equilibrium in nonlinear continuous games is presented in this paper, called NIDE (Nikaido-Isoda differential evolution). At each generation, parent and child strategy profiles are compared one by one pairwisely, adapting Nikaido-Isoda function as fitness function. In practice, the NE of nonlinear game model with cubic cost function and quadratic demand function is solved, and this method could also be applied to non-concave payoff functions. Moreover, the NIDE is compared with the existing Nash Domination Evolutionary Multiplayer Optimization (NDEMO), the result showed that NIDE was significantly better than NDEMO with less iterations and shorter running time. These numerical examples suggested that the NIDE method is potentially useful. PMID:27589229

  15. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  16. Investigating Causes and Consequences of 150 Years of Channel Morphology Evolution in San Pablo Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegen, M. V.; Roelvink, J.; Jaffe, B. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Delta is an area where rivers draining the Central Valley and Sierras of California, including the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, meet before discharging into the northeastern end of the San Francisco Estuary. San Pablo Bay, a sub-embayment in the northern Estuary, is circular with an area of about 250 km2 and an average tidal range of about 1.5 m. It is rather shallow (depths generally less than 4 m, average depth <2 m) and muddy apart from the main channel that transects the Bay from East to West conveying the river flow seaward. Bathymetric surveys from the 1850s to 1980s on a 30-year interval show that the morphology of San Pablo Bay has changed markedly since the Gold Rush. Deposition of more than a quarter billion cubic meters of hydraulic gold mining debris reduced the average depth of San Pablo Bay by 85 cm in the middle and late 1800s. In the late 1900s the intertidal flats narrowed and the major channel in the Bay deepened as more sediment was lost to the sea than entered from rivers. Processes of sediment redistribution caused the main channel to become narrower as well, a trend observed over the last 150 years. It is not clear what is causing the change in channel geometry and the implications of the change in geometry on the seaward transport of sediment through San Pablo Bay. This study investigates the cause of this channel geometry development and its impact on the conveyance of sediment through and distribution within San Pablo Bay using a process-based, numerical model (Delft3D). The Delft3D model developed for this study is a 3D model that includes the k-ɛ turbulence model, wind, waves, multiple mud and sand fractions and salt-fresh water density differences, as well as schematized tidal and river flow boundary conditions. The approach is to perform different runs with equal forcing on different historic bathymetries. By keeping the bed in a fixed, non-erodible state, we can analyze the impact of the evolving San Pablo Bay morphology on

  17. Loss of YABBY2-Like Gene Expression May Underlie the Evolution of the Laminar Style in Canna and Contribute to Floral Morphological Diversity in the Zingiberales

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, Kelsie; Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M. R.; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2015-01-01

    The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies. PMID:26734021

  18. Evolution of the respiratory system in nonavian theropods: evidence from rib and vertebral morphology.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Emma R; Lyson, Tyler R; Dodson, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Recent reports of region-specific vertebral pneumaticity in nonavian theropod dinosaurs have brought attention to the hypothesis that these animals possessed an avian-style respiratory system with flow-through ventilation. This study explores the thoracic rib and vertebral anatomy of Sinraptor, Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Deinonychus; four nonavian theropods that all show well-preserved thoracic vertebrae and ribs. Comparisons to the osteology and soft tissue anatomy of extant saurians provide new evidence supporting the hypothesis of flow-through ventilation in nonavian theropods. Analyses of diapophyseal and parapophyseal position and thoracic rib morphology suggest that most nonavian theropods possessed lungs that were deeply incised by the adjacent bicapitate thoracic ribs. This functionally constrains the lungs as rigid nonexpansive organs that were likely ventilated by accessory nonvascularized air sacs. The axial anatomy of this group also reveals that a crocodilian-like hepatic-piston lung would be functionally and biomechanically untenable. Taken together with the evidence that avian-like air sacs were present in basal theropods, these data lead us to conclude that an avian-style pulmonary system was likely a universal theropod trait.

  19. Evolution and morphology of microenvironment-enhanced malignancy of three-dimensional invasive solid tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-05-01

    The emergence of invasive and metastatic behavior in malignant tumors can often lead to fatal outcomes for patients. The collective malignant tumor behavior resulting from the complex tumor-host interactions and the interactions between the tumor cells is currently poorly understood. In this paper, we employ a cellular automaton (CA) model to investigate microenvironment-enhanced malignant behaviors and morphologies of in vitro avascular invasive solid tumors in three dimensions. Our CA model incorporates a variety of microscopic-scale tumor-host interactions, including the degradation of the extracellular matrix by the malignant cells, nutrient-driven cell migration, pressure buildup due to the deformation of the microenvironment by the growing tumor, and its effect on the local tumor-host interface stability. Moreover, the effects of cell-cell adhesion on tumor growth are explicitly taken into account. Specifically, we find that while strong cell-cell adhesion can suppress the invasive behavior of the tumors growing in soft microenvironments, cancer malignancy can be significantly enhanced by harsh microenvironmental conditions, such as exposure to high pressure levels. We infer from the simulation results a qualitative phase diagram that characterizes the expected malignant behavior of invasive solid tumors in terms of two competing malignancy effects: the rigidity of the microenvironment and cell-cell adhesion. This diagram exhibits phase transitions between noninvasive and invasive behaviors. We also discuss the implications of our results for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of malignant tumors.

  20. H-ATLAS/GAMA: quantifying the morphological evolution of the galaxy population using cosmic calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, Stephen; Fullard, Andrew; Allen, Matthew; Smith, M. W. L.; Baldry, Ivan; Bourne, Nathan; Clark, C. J. R.; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Graham, Alister W.; Ibar, Edo; Hopkins, Andrew; Ivison, Rob; Kelvin, Lee S.; Maddox, Steve; Maraston, Claudia; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Smith, Dan; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Werf, Paul van der; Baes, Maarten; Brough, Sarah; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Gomez, Haley; Loveday, Jon; Phillipps, Steven; Scott, Douglas; Serjeant, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Using results from the Herschel Astrophysical Terrahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) project, we show that, for galaxy masses above ≃ 108 M⊙, 51 per cent of the stellar mass-density in the local Universe is in early-type galaxies (ETGs; Sérsic n > 2.5) while 89 per cent of the rate of production of stellar mass-density is occurring in late-type galaxies (LTGs; Sérsic n < 2.5). From this zero-redshift benchmark, we have used a calorimetric technique to quantify the importance of the morphological transformation of galaxies over the history of the Universe. The extragalactic background radiation contains all the energy generated by nuclear fusion in stars since the big bang. By resolving this background radiation into individual galaxies using the deepest far-infrared survey with the Herschel Space Observatory and a deep near-infrared/optical survey with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and using measurements of the Sérsic index of these galaxies derived from the HST images, we estimate that ≃83 per cent of the stellar mass-density formed over the history of the Universe occurred in LTGs. The difference between this value and the fraction of the stellar mass-density that is in LTGs today implies there must have been a major transformation of LTGs into ETGs after the formation of most of the stars.

  1. The stratigraphy and evolution of lower Mount Sharp from spectral, morphological, and thermophysical orbital data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Milliken, R. E.; Quinn, D. P.; Rice, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a refined geologic map and stratigraphy for lower Mount Sharp using coordinated analyses of new spectral, thermophysical, and morphologic orbital data products. The Mount Sharp group consists of seven relatively planar units delineated by differences in texture, mineralogy, and thermophysical properties. These units are (1-3) three spatially adjacent units in the Murray formation which contain a variety of secondary phases and are distinguishable by thermal inertia and albedo differences, (4) a phyllosilicate-bearing unit, (5) a hematite-capped ridge unit, (6) a unit associated with material having a strongly sloped spectral signature at visible near-infrared wavelengths, and (7) a layered sulfate unit. The Siccar Point group consists of the Stimson formation and two additional units that unconformably overlie the Mount Sharp group. All Siccar Point group units are distinguished by higher thermal inertia values and record a period of substantial deposition and exhumation that followed the deposition and exhumation of the Mount Sharp group. Several spatially extensive silica deposits associated with veins and fractures show that late-stage silica enrichment within lower Mount Sharp was pervasive. At least two laterally extensive hematitic deposits are present at different stratigraphic intervals, and both are geometrically conformable with lower Mount Sharp strata. The occurrence of hematite at multiple stratigraphic horizons suggests redox interfaces were widespread in space and/or in time, and future measurements by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover will provide further insights into the depositional settings of these and other mineral phases.

  2. Evolution of complex symbiotic relationships in a morphologically derived family of lichen-forming fungi.

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Crespo, Ana; Wedin, Mats; Leavitt, Steven D; Hawksworth, David L; Myllys, Leena; McCune, Bruce; Randlane, Tiina; Bjerke, Jarle W; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Schmitt, Imke; Boluda, Carlos G; Alors, David; Roca-Valiente, Beatriz; Del-Prado, Ruth; Ruibal, Constantino; Buaruang, Kawinnat; Núñez-Zapata, Jano; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Rico, Víctor J; Molina, M Carmen; Elix, John A; Esslinger, Theodore L; Tronstad, Inger Kristin K; Lindgren, Hanna; Ertz, Damien; Gueidan, Cécile; Saag, Lauri; Mark, Kristiina; Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Beck, Andreas; Benatti, Michel Navarro; Blanchon, Dan; Candan, Mehmet; Clerc, Philippe; Goward, Trevor; Grube, Martin; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kantvilas, Gintaras; Kirika, Paul M; Lendemer, James; Mattsson, Jan-Eric; Messuti, María Inés; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Nelsen, Matthew; Ohlson, Jan I; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Saag, Andres; Sipman, Harrie J M; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Thell, Arne; Thor, Göran; Truong, Camille; Yahr, Rebecca; Upreti, Dalip K; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-12-01

    We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The lichenicolous lifestyle originated independently three times in lichenized ancestors within Parmeliaceae, and a new generic name is introduced for one of these fungi. In all cases, the independent origins occurred c. 24 million yr ago. Further, we show that the Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene were key periods when diversification of major lineages within Parmeliaceae occurred, with subsequent radiations occurring primarily during the Oligocene and Miocene. Our phylogenetic hypothesis supports the independent origin of lichenicolous fungi associated with climatic shifts at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Moreover, diversification bursts at different times may be crucial factors driving the diversification of Parmeliaceae. Additionally, our study provides novel insight into evolutionary relationships in this large and diverse family of lichen-forming ascomycetes.

  3. Oldest cingulate skulls provide congruence between morphological and molecular scenarios of armadillo evolution.

    PubMed

    Billet, Guillaume; Hautier, Lionel; de Muizon, Christian; Valentin, Xavier

    2011-09-22

    The cingulates of the mammalian order Xenarthra present a typical case of disagreement between molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies. We report here the discovery of two new skulls from the Late Oligocene Salla Beds of Bolivia (approx. 26 Ma), which are the oldest known well-preserved cranial remains of the group. A new taxon is described: Kuntinaru boliviensis gen. et sp. nov. A phylogenetic analysis clusters K. boliviensis together with the armadillo subfamily Tolypeutinae. These skulls document an early spotty occurrence for the Tolypeutinae at 26 Ma, in agreement with the temporal predictions of previous molecular studies. The fossil record of tolypeutines is now characterized by a unique occurrence in the Late Oligocene, and a subsequent 12 Myr lack in the fossil record. It is noteworthy that the tolypeutines remain decidedly marginal in the Late Palaeogene and Early Neogene deposits, whereas other cingulate groups diversify. Also, the anatomical phylogenetic analysis herein, which includes K. boliviensis, is congruent with recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. Kuntinaru boliviensis is the oldest confident calibration point available for the whole Cingulata.

  4. The stratigraphy and evolution of lower Mount Sharp from spectral, morphological, and thermophysical orbital data sets

    PubMed Central

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Arvidson, R. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Milliken, R. E.; Quinn, D. P.; Rice, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have developed a refined geologic map and stratigraphy for lower Mount Sharp using coordinated analyses of new spectral, thermophysical, and morphologic orbital data products. The Mount Sharp group consists of seven relatively planar units delineated by differences in texture, mineralogy, and thermophysical properties. These units are (1–3) three spatially adjacent units in the Murray formation which contain a variety of secondary phases and are distinguishable by thermal inertia and albedo differences, (4) a phyllosilicate‐bearing unit, (5) a hematite‐capped ridge unit, (6) a unit associated with material having a strongly sloped spectral signature at visible near‐infrared wavelengths, and (7) a layered sulfate unit. The Siccar Point group consists of the Stimson formation and two additional units that unconformably overlie the Mount Sharp group. All Siccar Point group units are distinguished by higher thermal inertia values and record a period of substantial deposition and exhumation that followed the deposition and exhumation of the Mount Sharp group. Several spatially extensive silica deposits associated with veins and fractures show that late‐stage silica enrichment within lower Mount Sharp was pervasive. At least two laterally extensive hematitic deposits are present at different stratigraphic intervals, and both are geometrically conformable with lower Mount Sharp strata. The occurrence of hematite at multiple stratigraphic horizons suggests redox interfaces were widespread in space and/or in time, and future measurements by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover will provide further insights into the depositional settings of these and other mineral phases. PMID:27867788

  5. Predicting the role of seed morphology in the evolution of anisotropic nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Barron, Hector; Opletal, George; Tilley, Richard; Barnard, Amanda S

    2017-01-26

    Controlling the structure of nanocrystals is an effective way to tune their properties and improve performance in a wide variety of applications. However, the atomic pathways for achieving this goal are difficult to identify and exercise, due to competing kinetic and thermodynamic influences during formation. In particular, an understanding of how symmetry, and symmetry breaking, determine nanocrystal morphology would significantly advance our ability to produce nanomaterials with prescribed functions. In this study we present results of a detailed computational study into the atomic structure of platinum nanoparticles at early growth stages of formation, as a function of temperature and atomic deposition rates. We investigate the impact of different types of crystalline seeds and characterize the emergent structures via simulated High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images. We find that the choice of initial seed is an important driver for symmetry breaking, due to a combination of atomic deposition and etching on different seed facets. A mix of low index facets causes the formation of important surface defects, in addition to the absorption/adsorption of single atoms, which can be correlated with different catalytic reactions as the process perpetuates. These findings provide new insights into nanocrystal shape-control mechanisms and suggest new opportunities for future design of this important class of nanomaterials.

  6. Evolution of phase and morphology of titanium dioxide induced from peroxo titanate complex aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeong Ah; Vithal, Muga; Baek, In Chan; Seok, Sang Il

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the growth of anatase TiO2 in nanospheres and rutile TiO2 in nanorods, by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at 100 degrees C using sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface area measurement techniques are used to characterize the phase and shape developments of TiO2 obtained from peroxo titanate complex in an aqueous solution at 100 degrees C. Peroxo titanate complexes were prepared by a reaction of titanium hydroxide, formed by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), and different amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). TEM and XRD investigations reveal that the size of spheres (anatase) and rods (rutile) are about 8 nm (diameter) and about 13 x 29 nm approximately 20 x 75 nm (width x length) respectively. The influence of molar ratio of H2O2/TTIP on the phase and morphology of TiO2 is presented. A mixture of anatase spheres and short rutile rods are formed at low H2O2/TTIP ratio while predominantly rutile a quit long rods are formed at higher H2O2/TTIP ratio.

  7. The stratigraphy and evolution of lower Mount Sharp from spectral, morphological, and thermophysical orbital data sets.

    PubMed

    Fraeman, A A; Ehlmann, B L; Arvidson, R E; Edwards, C S; Grotzinger, J P; Milliken, R E; Quinn, D P; Rice, M S

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a refined geologic map and stratigraphy for lower Mount Sharp using coordinated analyses of new spectral, thermophysical, and morphologic orbital data products. The Mount Sharp group consists of seven relatively planar units delineated by differences in texture, mineralogy, and thermophysical properties. These units are (1-3) three spatially adjacent units in the Murray formation which contain a variety of secondary phases and are distinguishable by thermal inertia and albedo differences, (4) a phyllosilicate-bearing unit, (5) a hematite-capped ridge unit, (6) a unit associated with material having a strongly sloped spectral signature at visible near-infrared wavelengths, and (7) a layered sulfate unit. The Siccar Point group consists of the Stimson formation and two additional units that unconformably overlie the Mount Sharp group. All Siccar Point group units are distinguished by higher thermal inertia values and record a period of substantial deposition and exhumation that followed the deposition and exhumation of the Mount Sharp group. Several spatially extensive silica deposits associated with veins and fractures show that late-stage silica enrichment within lower Mount Sharp was pervasive. At least two laterally extensive hematitic deposits are present at different stratigraphic intervals, and both are geometrically conformable with lower Mount Sharp strata. The occurrence of hematite at multiple stratigraphic horizons suggests redox interfaces were widespread in space and/or in time, and future measurements by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover will provide further insights into the depositional settings of these and other mineral phases.

  8. Molecules vs. morphology in avian evolution: the case of the "pelecaniform" birds.

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, S B; Sibley, C G

    1994-01-01

    The traditional avian Order Pelecaniformes is composed of birds with all four toes connected by a web. This "totipalmate" condition is found in ca. 66 living species: 8 pelicans (Pelecanus), 9 boobies and gannets (Sula, Papasula, Morus), ca. 37 cormorants (Phalacrocorax), 4 anhingas or darters (Anhinga), 5 frigatebirds (Fregata), and 3 tropicbirds (Phaethon). Several additional characters are shared by these genera, and their monophyly has been assumed since the beginning of modern zoological nomenclature. Most ornithologists classify these genera as an order, although tropicbirds have been viewed as related to terns, and frigatebirds as relatives of the petrels and albatrosses. DNA.DNA hybridization data indicated that the pelicans are most closely related to the Shoebill (Balaeniceps rex), a stork-like bird that lives in the swamps of central Africa; the boobies, gannets, cormorants, and anhingas form a closely related cluster; the tropicbirds are not closely related to the other taxa; and the frigatebirds are closest to the penguins, loons, petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses (Procellarioidea). Most of these results are corroborated by DNA sequences of the 12S and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes, and they provide another example of incongruence between classifications derived from morphological versus genetic traits. Images PMID:7937906

  9. Developmental basis of toothlessness in turtles: insight into convergent evolution of vertebrate morphology.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Chaeychomsri, Win; Siruntawineti, Jindawan

    2013-01-01

    The tooth is a major component of the vertebrate feeding apparatus and plays a crucial role in species survival, thus subjecting tooth developmental programs to strong selective constraints. However, irrespective of their functional importance, teeth have been lost in multiple lineages of tetrapod vertebrates independently. To understand both the generality and the diversity of developmental mechanisms that cause tooth agenesis in tetrapods, we investigated expression patterns of a series of tooth developmental genes in the lower jaw of toothless turtles and compared them to that of toothed crocodiles and the chicken as a representative of toothless modern birds. In turtle embryos, we found impairment of Shh signaling in the oral epithelium and early-stage arrest of odontoblast development caused by termination of Msx2 expression in the dental mesenchyme. Our data indicate that such changes underlie tooth agenesis in turtles and suggest that the mechanism that leads to early-stage odontogenic arrest differs between birds and turtles. Our results demonstrate that the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate early-stage arrest of tooth development are diverse in tetrapod lineages, and odontogenic developmental programs may respond to changes in upstream molecules similarly thereby evolving convergently with feeding morphology.

  10. The Continued Evolution of U.S. Law of Armed Conflict Implementation: Implications for the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Big Data, and the Changing Face of Conflict,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 2014a, pp. 108–118. 42 The Continued Evolution of U.S...NLWs have already been developed and are in use by U.S. forces, such as Tasers and flash bang grenades.21 Current U.S. Department of Defense policy...Navy’s Tiny 5-Pound Missile Packs a Big Punch,” Wired, February 28, 2014; Jon Rosamond, “USN Spike Miniature PGM Success- fully Engages FIAC Targets

  11. Continuing the International Roadmapping Effort - An Introduction to the Evolution of the ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlutz, Juergen; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Laurini, Kathy; Spiero, Francois

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As ISECG agencies advance their individual planning, they also advance the mission themes and reference architecture of the GER to consolidate common goals, near-term mission scenarios and initial opportunities for collaboration. In this context, particular focus has been given to the Better understanding and further refinement of cislunar infrastructure and potential lunar transportation architecture Interaction with international science communities to identify and articulate the scientific opportunities of the near-term exploration mission themes Coordination and consolidation of interest in lunar polar volatiles prospecting and potential for in-situ resource utilisation Identification and articulation of the benefits from exploration and the technology transfer activities The paper discusses the ongoing roadmapping activity of the ISECG agencies. It provides an insight into the status of the above activities and an outlook towards the evolution of the GER that is currently foreseen in the 2017 timeframe.

  12. The evolution of cursorial carnivores in the Tertiary: implications of elbow-joint morphology.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ki; Werdelin, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of cursorial adaptations in Tertiary (65-1.65 Myr ago) carnivores has been a contentious issue. Most such studies have focused on the relationship between hind limb proportions and running speed. Here, we show morphometrically that in extant carnivores, the elbow joint has evolved in two distinct directions with mutually exclusive implications for locomotor ability and prey procurement. Some carnivores retain supinatory ability, allowing them to manipulate prey and other items with the forepaws. Such carnivores can become very large. Other carnivores lose the ability to supinate and become cursors. This allows for only moderate size increase. Modern carnivores above ca. 20 kg body mass are committed to one or other of these strategies. This threshold coincides with a postulated threshold in carnivore physiology. The biaxial pattern mostly follows phylogenetic lines, but a strong selective regime can override this signal, as shown by the extant cheetah. Oligocene (33.7-23.8 Myr ago) and early-middle Miocene (23.8-11.2 Myr ago) carnivores follow the same pattern, though in the Miocene the pattern is shifted towards larger body mass, which may be owing to the extraordinary richness of browsing ungulates at this time. PMID:14667370

  13. The Morphology and Chemistry Evolution of Inclusions in Fe-Si-Al-O Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Youjong; Choi, Juhan; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-08-01

    This study aims to elucidate the process of inclusion precipitation in Fe-Si and Fe-Si-Al melts. Deoxidation experiments were carried out in a vacuum induction furnace (VIF) at 1873 K (1600 °C). In the Si-deoxidation experiments, spherical SiO2 of 1~2 μm diameter was dominant. When 3 wt pct Si and 300 ppm Al were added, such that Al2O3 and mullite were thermodynamically stable, the resulting inclusions depended on the addition sequence. When aluminum was added before silicon, spherical aluminum oxides were dominant after the Al addition, but after the Si addition, the number and size of alumina decreased and Al-Si oxides and mullite appeared with increasing time. When silicon was added before aluminum, spherical SiO2 was dominant after the Si addition, but after the Al addition, spherical and polygonal alumina inclusions were dominant. When Al/Si was added simultaneously, polygonal alumina inclusions were dominant initially, but with time, Al-Si oxide and mullite inclusions increased in numbers. If the Al amount in the Al/Si addition was increased to 600 ppm, only alumina was found. This study shows how, under similar thermodynamic conditions, the transient evolution of inclusions in iron melts in the Si-Al-O system differ depending on the alloy addition sequence.

  14. Functional morphology of the feeding apparatus and evolution of proboscis length in metalmark butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, Julia Anne-Sophie; Handschuh, Stephan; Metscher, Brian Douglas; Krenn, Harald Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the anatomical costs of extremely long proboscid mouthparts can contribute to the understanding of the evolution of form and function in the context of insect feeding behaviour. An integrative analysis of expenses relating to an exceptionally long proboscis in butterflies includes all organs involved in fluid feeding, such as the proboscis plus its musculature, sensilla, and food canal, as well as organs for proboscis movements and the suction pump for fluid uptake. In the present study, we report a morphometric comparison of derived long-tongued (proboscis approximately twice as long as the body) and short-tongued Riodinidae (proboscis half as long as the body), which reveals the non-linear scaling relationships of an extremely long proboscis. We found no elongation of the tip region, low numbers of proboscis sensilla, short sensilla styloconica, and no increase of galeal musculature in relation to galeal volume, but a larger food canal, as well as larger head musculature in relation to the head capsule. The results indicate the relatively low extra expense on the proboscis musculature and sensilla equipment but significant anatomical costs, such as reinforced haemolymph and suction pump musculature, as well as thick cuticular proboscis walls, which are functionally related to feeding performance in species possessing an extremely long proboscis. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 110, 291–304. PMID:24839308

  15. Solid-state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayers: The effect of alloying on morphology evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Herz, A.; Wang, D. Kups, Th.; Schaaf, P.

    2014-07-28

    The solid-state dewetting of thin Au/Ni bilayers deposited onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates is investigated. A rapid thermal treatment is used to induce the dewetting process by an increase in temperature. The evolution of the (111) peaks of X-ray diffraction reveals a characteristic change due to mixing of Au and Ni. At low temperature, the Au-Ni thin film is found to break up at the phase boundaries and growing voids are shown to be surrounded by a Ni-rich phase. Branch-like void growth is observed. Upon annealing at increasing temperatures, Au-Ni solid solutions are formed well above the bulk equilibrium solubility of Au and Ni. It is found that this metastable phase formation makes the Au-Ni thin film less vulnerable to rupturing. Moreover, growth mode of still evolving voids changes into a more regular, faceted one due to alloying. Finally, it is shown that annealing above the miscibility gap forms supersaturated, well-oriented Au-Ni solid solution agglomerates via dewetting.

  16. Morphological diversity and evolution of the spermatozoon in the mouse-related clade of rodents.

    PubMed

    Breed, William G; Leigh, Chris M; Aplin, Ken P; Shahin, Adel A B; Avenant, Nico L

    2014-05-01

    Most species in the three highly speciose families of the mouse-related clade of rodents, the Muridae, Cricetidae, and Nesomyidae (superfamily Muroidea), have a highly complex sperm head in which there is an apical hook but there are few data available for the other related families of these rodents. In the current study, using light and electron microscopies, we investigated the structure of the spermatozoon in representative species of four other families within the mouse-related clade, the Dipodidae, Spalacidae, Pedetidae, and Heteromyidae, that diverged at or near the base of the muroid lineage. Our results indicate that a diverse array of sperm head shapes and tail lengths occurs but none of the species in the families Spalacidae, Dipodidae, or Pedetidae has a sperm head with an apical hook. By contrast, a rostrally extending apical hook is present in spermatozoa of members of the Family Heteromyidae which also invariably have comparatively long sperm tails. These findings suggest that the hook-shaped sperm head in the murid, cricetid, and nesomyid rodents evolved after divergence of this lineage from its common ancestor with the other families of the mouse-related clade, and that separate, and independent, convergent evolution of a similar sperm head form, and long sperm tail, occurred in the Heteromyidae.

  17. The Evolution of the Automated Continuous Evaluation System (ACES) for Personnel Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-12

    recession, which reduced funding across the government for research and development of efficiencies like ACES, the obvious promise of ACES continues. The...Approved for Public Distribution: Distribution Unlimited Defense Personnel and Security Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center Technical... Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center Defense Personnel and Security Research Center Defense Manpower Data Center 400 Gigling

  18. Evolution of Technology for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Forty Years of Improvements.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was proposed in 1977 as an alternative treatment for acute renal failure in patients in whom peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis was clinically or technically precluded. In the mid-1980s, this technique was extended to infants and children. CAVH presented important advantages in the areas of hemodynamic stability, control of circulating volume, and nutritional support. However, there were serious shortcomings such as the need for arterial cannulation and limited solute clearance. These problems were solved by the introduction of continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration (CAVHDF) and continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis (CAVHD) where uremic control could be by increasing countercurrent dialysate flow rates to 1.5 or 2 liters/h as necessary, or by venovenous techniques utilizing a double-lumen central venous catheter for vascular access. Thus, continuous venovenous hemofiltration replaced CAVH because of its improved performance and safety. From the initial adoptive technology, specific machines have been designed to permit safe and reliable performance of the therapy. These new machines have progressively undergone a series of technological steps that have resulted in the highly sophisticated equipment utilized today. A significant number of advances have taken place since the beginning of continuous renal replacement therapy. In particular, there have been successful experiments with high-volume hemofiltration and high-permeability hemofiltration. The additional and combined use of sorbent has also been tested successfully. Progress has been made in the technology as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury. Today, new biomaterials and new devices are available and new frontiers are on the horizon. Although improvements have been made, a lot remains to be done. Critical care nephrology is expected to further evolve in the near future, especially in the area of information and

  19. The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): drift morphology and Plio-Quaternary stratigraphic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Cattaneo, Antonio; Jouet, Gwenael; Thereau, Estelle; Thomas, Yannick; Rovere, Marzia; Cauquil, Eric; Trincardi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (CDS) is located in the Corsica Trough (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea), a confined basin dominated by mass transport and contour currents in the eastern flank and by turbidity currents in the western flank. The morphologic and stratigraphic characterisation of the Pianosa CDS is based on multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection data (multi-channel high resolution mini GI gun, single-channel sparker and CHIRP), sediment cores and ADCP data. The Pianosa CDS is located at shallow to intermediate water depths (170 to 850 m water depth) and is formed under the influence of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). It is 120 km long, has a maximum width of 10 km and is composed of different types of muddy sediment drifts: plastered drift, separated mounded drift, sigmoid drift and multicrested drift. The reduced tectonic activity in the Corsica Trough since the early Pliocene permits to recover a sedimentary record of the contourite depositional system that is only influenced by climate fluctuations. Contourites started to develop in the Middle-Late Pliocene, but their growth was enhanced since the Middle Pleistocene Transition (0.7-0.9 Ma). Although the general circulation of the LIW, flowing northwards in the Corsica Trough, remained active all along the history of the system, contourite drift formation changed, controlled by sediment influx and bottom current velocity. During periods of sea level fall, fast bottom currents often eroded the drift crest in the middle and upper slope. At that time the proximity of the coast to the shelf edge favoured the formation of bioclastic sand deposits winnowed by bottom currents. Higher sediment accumulation of mud in the drifts occurred during periods of fast bottom currents and high sediment availability (i.e. high activity of turbidity currents), coincident with periods of sea level low-stands. Condensed sections were formed during sea level high-stands, when bottom currents were more sluggish

  20. ATLBS EXTENDED SOURCE SAMPLE: THE EVOLUTION IN RADIO SOURCE MORPHOLOGY WITH FLUX DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, L.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Thorat, K.; Ekers, R. D.; Hunstead, R. W.; Johnston, H. M.; Sadler, E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on the Australia Telescope Low Brightness Survey (ATLBS) we present a sample of extended radio sources and derive morphological properties of faint radio sources. One hundred nineteen radio galaxies form the ATLBS Extended Source Sample (ATLBS-ESS) consisting of all sources exceeding 30'' in extent and integrated flux densities exceeding 1 mJy. We give structural details along with information on galaxy identifications and source classifications. The ATLBS-ESS, unlike samples with higher flux-density limits, has almost equal fractions of FR-I and FR-II radio galaxies, with a large fraction of the FR-I population exhibiting 3C31-type structures. Significant asymmetry in lobe extents appears to be a common occurrence in the ATLBS-ESS FR-I sources compared with FR-II sources. We present a sample of 22 FR-Is at z > 0.5 with good structural information. The detection of several giant radio sources, with size exceeding 0.7 Mpc, at z > 1 suggests that giant radio sources are not less common at high redshifts. The ESS also includes a sample of 28 restarted radio galaxies. The relative abundance of dying and restarting sources is indicative of a model where radio sources undergo episodic activity in which an active phase is followed by a brief dying phase that terminates with restarting of the central activity; in any massive elliptical a few such activity cycles wherein adjacent events blend may constitute the lifetime of a radio source and such bursts of blended activity cycles may be repeated over the age of the host. The ATLBS-ESS includes a 2 Mpc giant radio galaxy with the lowest surface brightness lobes known to date.

  1. Productivity links morphology, symbiont specificity and bleaching in the evolution of Caribbean octocoral symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David M; Freeman, Christopher J; Knowlton, Nancy; Thacker, Robert W; Kim, Kiho; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2015-01-01

    Many cnidarians host endosymbiotic dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. It is generally assumed that the symbiosis is mutualistic, where the host benefits from symbiont photosynthesis while providing protection and photosynthetic substrates. Diverse assemblages of symbiotic gorgonian octocorals can be found in hard bottom communities throughout the Caribbean. While current research has focused on the phylo- and population genetics of gorgonian symbiont types and their photo-physiology, relatively less work has focused on biogeochemical benefits conferred to the host and how these benefits vary across host species. Here we examine this symbiosis among 11 gorgonian species collected in Bocas del Toro, Panama. By coupling light and dark bottle incubations (P/R) with 13C-bicarbonate tracers, we quantified the link between holobiont oxygen metabolism with carbon assimilation and translocation from symbiont to host. Our data show that P/R varied among species, and was correlated with colony morphology and polyp size. Sea fans and sea plumes were net autotrophs (P/R>1.5), while nine species of sea rods were net heterotrophs with most below compensation (P/R<1.0). 13C assimilation corroborated the P/R results, and maximum δ13Chost values were strongly correlated with polyp size, indicating higher productivity by colonies with high polyp SA:V. A survey of gorgonian-Symbiodinium associations revealed that productive species maintain specialized, obligate symbioses and are more resistant to coral bleaching, whereas generalist and facultative associations are common among sea rods that have higher bleaching sensitivities. Overall, productivity and polyp size had strong phylogenetic signals with carbon fixation and polyp size showing evidence of trait covariance. PMID:25989369

  2. Productivity links morphology, symbiont specificity and bleaching in the evolution of Caribbean octocoral symbioses.

    PubMed

    Baker, David M; Freeman, Christopher J; Knowlton, Nancy; Thacker, Robert W; Kim, Kiho; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2015-12-01

    Many cnidarians host endosymbiotic dinoflagellates from the genus Symbiodinium. It is generally assumed that the symbiosis is mutualistic, where the host benefits from symbiont photosynthesis while providing protection and photosynthetic substrates. Diverse assemblages of symbiotic gorgonian octocorals can be found in hard bottom communities throughout the Caribbean. While current research has focused on the phylo- and population genetics of gorgonian symbiont types and their photo-physiology, relatively less work has focused on biogeochemical benefits conferred to the host and how these benefits vary across host species. Here we examine this symbiosis among 11 gorgonian species collected in Bocas del Toro, Panama. By coupling light and dark bottle incubations (P/R) with (13)C-bicarbonate tracers, we quantified the link between holobiont oxygen metabolism with carbon assimilation and translocation from symbiont to host. Our data show that P/R varied among species, and was correlated with colony morphology and polyp size. Sea fans and sea plumes were net autotrophs (P/R>1.5), while nine species of sea rods were net heterotrophs with most below compensation (P/R<1.0). (13)C assimilation corroborated the P/R results, and maximum δ(13)Chost values were strongly correlated with polyp size, indicating higher productivity by colonies with high polyp SA:V. A survey of gorgonian-Symbiodinium associations revealed that productive species maintain specialized, obligate symbioses and are more resistant to coral bleaching, whereas generalist and facultative associations are common among sea rods that have higher bleaching sensitivities. Overall, productivity and polyp size had strong phylogenetic signals with carbon fixation and polyp size showing evidence of trait covariance.

  3. Tracking the evolution of a coherent magnetic flux rope continuously from the inner to the outer corona

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sun, J. Q.; Li, C.; Vourlidas, A.; Liu, Y. D.; Olmedo, O.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic flux rope (MFR) is believed to be the underlying magnetic structure of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it remains unclear how an MFR evolves into and forms the multi-component structure of a CME. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) MFR eruption on 2013 May 22 by tracking its morphological evolution, studying its kinematics, and quantifying its thermal property. As EUV brightenings begin, the MFR starts to rise slowly and shows helical threads winding around an axis. Meanwhile, cool filamentary materials descend spirally down to the chromosphere. These features provide direct observational evidence of intrinsically helical structure of the MFR. Through detailed kinematical analysis, we find that the MFR evolution has two distinct phases: a slow rise phase and an impulsive acceleration phase. We attribute the first phase to the magnetic reconnection within the quasi-separatrix layers surrounding the MFR, and the much more energetic second phase to the fast magnetic reconnection underneath the MFR. We suggest that the transition between these two phases is caused by the torus instability. Moreover, we identify that the MFR evolves smoothly into the outer corona and appears as a coherent structure within the white-light CME volume. The MFR in the outer corona was enveloped by bright fronts that originated from plasma pile-up in front of the expanding MFR. The fronts are also associated with the preceding sheath region followed by the outmost MFR-driven shock.

  4. Development of bat flight: Morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Karen E.; Behringer, Richard R.; Rasweiler, John J.; Niswander, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    The earliest fossil bats resemble their modern counterparts in possessing greatly elongated digits to support the wing membrane, which is an anatomical hallmark of powered flight. To quantitatively confirm these similarities, we performed a morphometric analysis of wing bones from fossil and modern bats. We found that the lengths of the third, fourth, and fifth digits (the primary supportive elements of the wing) have remained constant relative to body size over the last 50 million years. This absence of transitional forms in the fossil record led us to look elsewhere to understand bat wing evolution. Investigating embryonic development, we found that the digits in bats (Carollia perspicillata) are initially similar in size to those of mice (Mus musculus) but that, subsequently, bat digits greatly lengthen. The developmental timing of the change in wing digit length points to a change in longitudinal cartilage growth, a process that depends on the relative proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. We found that bat forelimb digits exhibit relatively high rates of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) can stimulate cartilage proliferation and differentiation and increase digit length in the bat embryonic forelimb. Also, we show that Bmp2 expression and Bmp signaling are increased in bat forelimb embryonic digits relative to mouse or bat hind limb digits. Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the developmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism in their evolutionary elongation as well. PMID:16618938

  5. CFD-DEM simulations of current-induced dune formation and morphological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Rui; Xiao, Heng

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport, particularly those during the formation and evolution of bedforms, is of critical scientific importance and has engineering relevance. Traditional approaches of sediment transport simulations heavily rely on empirical models, which are not able to capture the physics-rich, regime-dependent behaviors of the process. With the increase of available computational resources in the past decade, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method) has emerged as a viable high-fidelity method for the study of sediment transport. However, a comprehensive, quantitative study of the generation and migration of different sediment bed patterns using CFD-DEM is still lacking. In this work, current-induced sediment transport problems in a wide range of regimes are simulated, including 'flat bed in motion', 'small dune', 'vortex dune' and suspended transport. Simulations are performed by using SediFoam, an open-source, massively parallel CFD-DEM solver developed by the authors. This is a general-purpose solver for particle-laden flows tailed for particle transport problems. Validation tests are performed to demonstrate the capability of CFD-DEM in the full range of sediment transport regimes. Comparison of simulation results with experimental and numerical benchmark data demonstrates the merits of CFD-DEM approach. In addition, the improvements of the present simulations over existing studies using CFD-DEM are presented. The present solver gives more accurate prediction of sediment transport rate by properly accounting for the influence of particle volume fraction on the fluid flow. In summary, this work demonstrates that CFD-DEM is a promising particle-resolving approach for probing the physics of current-induced sediment transport.

  6. The Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes): a model to study the molecular basis of eukaryote-prokaryote mutualism and the development and evolution of morphological novelties in cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Patricia N; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Callaerts, Patrick; de Couet, H Gert

    2009-11-01

    The Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, is a cephalopod whose small size, short lifespan, rapid growth, and year-round availability make it suitable as a model organism. E. scolopes is studied in three principal contexts: (1) as a model of cephalopod development; (2) as a model of animal-bacterial symbioses; and (3) as a system for studying adaptations of tissues that interact with light. E. scolopes embryos can be obtained continually and can be reared in the laboratory over an entire generation. The embryos and protective chorions are optically clear, facilitating in situ developmental observations, and can be manipulated experimentally. Many molecular protocols have been developed for studying E. scolopes development. This species is best known, however, for its symbiosis with the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and has been used to study determinants of symbiont specificity, the influence of symbiosis on development of the squid light organ, and the mechanisms by which a stable association is achieved. Both partners can be grown independently under laboratory conditions, a feature that offers the unusual opportunity to manipulate the symbiosis experimentally. Molecular and genetic tools have been developed for V. fischeri, and a large expressed sequence tag (EST) database is available for the host symbiotic tissues. Additionally, comparisons between light organ form and function to those of the eye can be made. Both types of tissue interact with light, but have divergent embryonic development. As such, they offer an opportunity to study the molecular basis for the evolution of morphological novelties.

  7. Continuity versus split and reconstitution: exploring the molecular developmental corollaries of insect eye primordium evolution.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Markus

    2006-11-15

    Holometabolous insects like Drosophila proceed through two phases of visual system development. The embryonic phase generates simple eyes of the larva. The postembryonic phase produces the adult specific compound eyes during late larval development and pupation. In primitive insects, by contrast, eye development persists seemingly continuously from embryogenesis through the end of postembryogenesis. Comparative literature suggests that the evolutionary transition from continuous to biphasic eye development occurred via transient developmental arrest. This review investigates how the developmental arrest model relates to the gene networks regulating larval and adult eye development in Drosophila, and embryonic compound eye development in primitive insects. Consistent with the developmental arrest model, the available data suggest that the determination of the anlage of the rudimentary Drosophila larval eye is homologous to the embryonic specification of the juvenile compound eye in directly developing insects while the Drosophila compound eye primordium is evolutionarily related to the yet little studied stem cell based postembryonic eye primordium of primitive insects.

  8. The Morphology of the Tasmantid Seamounts: Interactions between Tectonic Inheritance and Magmatic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Fred; Kalnins, Lara; Watts, Anthony; Cohen, Benjamin; Beaman, Robin

    2015-04-01

    The Tasmantid seamounts extend for over 2000 km off the east coast of Australia and constitute one of three contemporaneous, sub-parallel Cenozoic hotspot tracks that traverse the region (the Tasmantid, Lord Howe, and East Australian volcanic chains), locally separated by as little as 500 km. Where dated, the three chains young from north to south, spanning ca. 34-6 Ma. At multiple locations, the Tasmantid chain intersects the extinct Tasman Sea spreading centre, which was active from 84 Ma to 53 Ma. Detailed morphological analysis reveals a strong correlation between tectonic setting, seamount orientation, and volcanic structure. Seamounts at inside corners of the spreading segment-transform intersections are more rugged and constructed via numerous intersecting fissure-fed volcanic ridges, whereas off-axis seamounts tend to be conical with summit craters and isolated dyke-fed flank cones. In addition, the orientation of the Bouguer gravity anomaly highs, interpreted as magmatic conduits, and the long axes of the seamounts align closely with the principal stress directions expected for a ridge system in which strong mechanical coupling occurs across transform faults. Such a strong connection between the long-lived mantle upwelling, ridge structure, and subsequent dyke emplacement ' despite the ≥ 20 Ma offset between spreading cessation and initial seamount emplacement ' suggests deep faulting of the Tasman Sea oceanic lithosphere in order to channel melts along pre-existing structural trends. Despite the large size of the edifices, up to ~ 4000 m high, slope gradient and backscatter analysis along the chain point to sluggish mass wasting rates with few or no large sector collapse structures. In addition, most seamounts are associated with Bouguer gravity highs. Together, these features suggest that the seamounts have dense, coherent cores with high intrusive to extrusive volume ratios. This indicates low rates of melt generation and intra-lithospheric transport

  9. Morphology evolution of ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yun; Li Ruixing; Jiang Yanshan; Zhao Bin; Duan Huiping; Li Junping; Feng Zhihai

    2011-08-15

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method using zirconium n-propoxide (Zr(OPr){sub 4}), boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), sucrose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}), and acetic acid (AcOH). Clearly, it was a non-aqueous solution system at the very beginning of the reactions. Here, AcOH was used as both chemical modifier and solvent to control Zr(OPr){sub 4} hydrolysis. Actually, AcOH could dominate the hydrolysis by self-produced water of the chemical propulsion, rather than the help of outer water. C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11} was selected, since it can be completely decomposed to carbon. Thus, carbon might be accounted precisely for the carbothermal reduction reaction. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of the gelation temperature on the morphology of ZrB{sub 2} particles. Increasing the gelation temperature, the particle shapes changed from sphere-like particles at 65 deg. C to a particle chain at 75 deg. C, and then form rod-like particles at 85 deg. C. An in-depth HRTEM observation revealed that the nanoparticles of ZrB{sub 2} were gradually fused together to evolve into a particle chain, finally into a rod-like shape. These crystalline nature of ZrB{sub 2} related to the gelation temperature obeyed the 'oriented attachment mechanism' of crystallography. - Graphical Abstract: Increasing the gelation temperature, the particle shapes changed from sphere-like particles at 65 deg. C to a particle chain at 75 deg. C, and then form rod-like particles at 85 deg. C. Highlights: > ZrB{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method in an non-aqueous solution system. > AcOH was used as both chemical modifier and solvent to control Zr(OPr){sub 4} hydrolysis. > C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11} was selected since it can be completely decomposed to carbon. > Increasing the gelation temperature, the particles changed from sphere-like to rod-like ones. > Crystalline nature of ZrB{sub 2} obeyed the 'oriented attachment mechanism' of

  10. Evaluating the efficacy of continuous quantitative characters for reconstructing the phylogeny of a morphologically homogeneous spider taxon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Antrodiaetidae, Antrodiaetus).

    PubMed

    Hendrixson, Brent E; Bond, Jason E

    2009-10-01

    The use of continuous quantitative characters for phylogenetic analyses has long been contentious in the systematics literature. Recent studies argue for and against their use, but there have been relatively few attempts to evaluate whether these characters provide an accurate estimate of phylogeny, despite the fact that a number of methods have been developed to analyze these types of data for phylogenetic inference. A tree topology will be produced for a given methodology and set of characters, but little can be concluded with regards to the accuracy of phylogenetic signal without an independent evaluation of those characters. We assess the performance of continuous quantitative characters for the mygalomorph spider genus Antrodiaetus, a group that is morphologically homogeneous and one for which few discrete (morphological) characters have been observed. Phylogenetic signal contained in continuous quantitative characters is compared to an independently derived phylogeny inferred on the basis of multiple nuclear and mitochondrial gene loci. Tree topology randomizations, regression techniques, and topological tests all demonstrate that continuous quantitative characters in Antrodiaetus conflict with the phylogenetic signal contained in the gene trees. Our results show that the use of continuous quantitative characters for phylogenetic reconstruction may be inappropriate for reconstructing Antrodiaetus phylogeny and indicate that due caution should be exercised before employing this character type in the absence of other independently derived sources of characters.

  11. Evolution of a Neotropical marine fish lineage (Subfamily Chaenopsinae, Suborder Blennioidei) based on phylogenetic analysis of combined molecular and morphological data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Hastings, Philip A

    2011-08-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within tube blennies (Chaenopsinae) were reconstructed using Bayesian, maximum parsimony and likelihood analyses of multiple molecular markers (mitochondrial DNA: COI; nuclear DNA: TMO-4C4, RAG1, Rhodopsin, and Histone H3) and 148 morphological characters. This total-evidence based topology is well-resolved and congruent across analytical methods with strong support for the monophyly of the Chaenopsinae, all included genera and several internal nodes. A rapid radiation in the early evolution of chaenopsins is inferred from the relatively poor support values for relationships among basal lineages and their divergence into different habitats (rocky reefs, coral reefs and the reef/sand interface). Rates of molecular evolution in chaenopsins, as inferred by divergence among four putative transisthmian geminate species pairs, are rapid compared to other fishes. Conflicts among genetic markers and morphology are especially evident within the genus Coralliozetus, with different species relationships supported by morphology, TMO-4C4, and RAG1 plus Rhodopsin. This study hypothesizes a novel sistergroup relationship between Ekemblemaria and Hemiemblemaria, consistent with morphological, molecular and habitat use data. Our total evidence phylogenetic hypothesis indicates that previously hypothesized morphological characters supporting a close relationship between Hemiemblemaria and Chaenopsis plus Lucayablennius resulted from convergent evolution in these relatively free-swimming blennies.

  12. The morphology of insular shelves as a key for understanding the geological evolution of volcanic islands: Insights from Terceira Island (Azores)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartau, R.; Hipólito, A.; Romagnoli, C.; Casalbore, D.; Madeira, J.; Tempera, F.; Roque, C.; Chiocci, F. L.

    2014-05-01

    from volcanic ocean islands result from the competition between two main processes, wave erosion that forms and enlarges them and volcanic progradation that reduces their dimension. In places where erosion dominates over volcanism, shelf width can be used as a proxy for the relative age of the subaerial volcanic edifices and reconstruction of their extents prior to erosion can be achieved. In this study, new multibeam bathymetry and high-resolution seismic reflection profiles are exploited to characterize the morphology of the insular shelves adjacent to each volcanic edifice of Terceira Island in order to improve the understanding of its evolution. Subaerial morphological and geological/stratigraphic data were also used to establish the connection between the onshore and offshore evolution. Shelf width contiguous to each main volcanic edifice is consistent with the known subaerial geological history of the island; most of the older edifices have wider shelves than younger ones. The shelf edge proved to be a very useful indicator in revealing the original extent of each volcanic edifice in plan view. Its depth was also used to reconstruct vertical movements, showing that older edifices like Serra do Cume-Ribeirinha, Guilherme Moniz, and Pico Alto have subsided while more recent ones have not. The morphology of the shelf (namely the absence/presence of fresh lava flow morphologies and several types of erosional, depositional, and tectonic features) integrated with the analysis of the coastline morphology allowed us to better constrain previous geological interpretations of the island evolution.

  13. Exploring Quenching, Morphological Transformation and AGN-Driven Winds with Simulations of Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Ryan; CANDELS

    2017-01-01

    We present an examination of the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies since z~3 by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare these fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR)-Sersic index plane. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily while the fraction of quiescent spheroids increases with cosmic time. The fraction of star-forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible and remain nearly constant. Our model is qualitatively successful at reproducing these fractions, suggesting a plausible explanation for the observed correlations between star formation activity and galaxy structure.Next, we study the correlation of galaxy structural properties with their location relative to the star-formation rate-stellar mass correlation, or the star forming main sequence. We find that as we move from observed galaxies above the main sequence to those below it, we see a nearly monotonic trend towards higher median Sersic index, smaller radius, lower SFR density and higher stellar mass density. Our model again qualitatively reproduces these trends, supporting a picture in which bulges and black holes co-evolve and AGN feedback plays a critical role in galaxy quenching.Finally, we examine AGN-driven winds in a suite of cosmological zoom simulations including a novel mechanical and radiation-driven AGN feedback prescription and compare the gas cycle with a matched suite of zoom simulations that include only feedback from supernovae and young stars. We find that while stellar feedback can drive mass out of galaxies, it is unlikely to be able to keep the gas from re-accreting, whereas in our AGN runs it

  14. A synthesis of morphological evolutions and Holocene stratigraphy of a wave-dominated estuary: The Arcachon lagoon, SW France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Jonathan; Chaumillon, Eric; Féniès, Hugues

    2009-05-01

    This work presents the first synthesis of secular to millenary morphological evolutions and stratigraphy of a wave-dominated estuary, the Arcachon lagoon, from a combination of unpublished bathymetric maps (1865 and 2001), core results and high-resolution seismic profiles recorded for the first time in this lagoon. The Arcachon lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of France, facing the wave-dominated shelf of the Bay of Biscay. It is a mesotidal semi-enclosed environment of about 160 km 2. The sediment budget of the Arcachon lagoon was computed by subtracting the 1865 bathymetric map from that of 2001. The computed volume difference is low (-9.9±35×10 6 m 3 in 136 yrs) and is the result of the balance between erosion and accretion that occurs within tidal channels and tidal flats, respectively. This morphological evolution pattern is explained by low sediment supply and also by the tidal distortion resulting from the morphology of the lagoon. Deep channels connected to the inlet are dominated by ebb currents inducing erosion. Tidal flats and transverse channels display weak or flood-dominated tidal currents leading to the deposition of silts. The areas of tidal flat siltation locally correlate with the presence of oyster farms, suggesting the influence of Man on the lagoon sediment-fill. Transverse channel-infill is related to weak tidal currents resulting from the hydraulically inefficient orientation of these channels which served as an ancient drainage network. Evidence for tidal channel-infill and channel abandonment are also provided by seismic profiling and cores. The upper stratigraphic succession of the lagoon (about 10 m thick) includes four main stratigraphic units dominated by channel-fills. The two lower units (around 7500-2800 yrs BP) display tabular-shape sandy channels interpreted to be records of the open estuarine phase of the Arcachon lagoon. The two upper units (around 2800 yrs BP to present-day) display U-shaped mixed sand-and-mud channel

  15. Functional morphology and evolution of the hyper-elongated intromittent organ in Cassida leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Michels, Jan; Appel, Esther; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-02-01

    The peculiar phenomenon of hyper-elongation of intromittent organs is well known in a number of insect groups. However, the unresolved questions of how and why such a phenomenon originated independently many times continue to attract biologists' attention. To be able to detect the evolutionary driving mechanisms that enabled insects to repeatedly acquire such a peculiarity, first of all the structural key features and the mechanics of these organs have to be determined. In the present study, the morphology of the reproductive organs of two species of the beetle genus Cassida, with a special focus on the male structures, was scrutinised in detail during copulation and at rest using different microscopy techniques. We found that the hyper-elongated structure of the intromittent organ, called flagellum, is part of the male ejaculatory duct. When the flagellum is inserted into the female spermathecal duct, longitudinal muscles of the ejaculatory duct, but not the flagellum, are shortened. These results strongly suggest that the contraction of the longitudinal muscles of the ejaculatory duct causes propulsion of the flagellum into the highly spiralled spermathecal duct of the female. The tip of the cuticular flagellum is curled up, which can suggest that its physical properties differ from those of the rest of the flagellum. Considering the preceding modelling studies, this property aids the flagellum in penetrating within the highly spiralled and very variable female duct. Based on our morphological results and in comparison with the morphology of intromittent organs of other beetles, we discuss the evolutionary origin of the hyper-elongation in the Cassida species and propose a hypothesis that explains the independent origin of the hyper-elongation of intromittent organs.

  16. The insular shelves of the Faial-Pico Ridge (Azores archipelago): A morphological record of its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartau, R.; Madeira, J.; Mitchell, N. C.; Tempera, F.; Silva, P. F.; Brandão, F.

    2015-05-01

    Shelves surrounding reefless volcanic ocean islands are formed by surf erosion of their slopes during changing sea levels. Posterosional lava flows, if abundant, can cross the coastal cliffs and fill partially or completely the accommodation space left by erosion. In this study, multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, and sediment samples are used to characterize the morphology of the insular shelves adjacent to Pico Island. The data show offshore fresh lava flow morphologies, as well as an irregular basement beneath shelf sedimentary bodies and reduced shelf width adjacent to older volcanic edifices in Pico. These observations suggest that these shelves have been significantly filled by volcanic progradation and can thus be classified as "rejuvenated." Despite the general volcanic infilling of the shelves around Pico, most of their edges are below the depth of the Last Glacial Maximum, revealing that at least parts of the island have subsided after the shelves formed by surf erosion. Prograding lava deltas reached the shelf edge in some areas triggering small slope failures, locally decreasing the shelf width and depth of their edges. These areas can represent a significant risk for the local population; hence, their identification can be useful for hazard assessment and contribute to wiser land use planning. Shelf and subaerial geomorphology, magnetic anomalies and crustal structure data of the two islands were also interpreted to reconstruct the long-term combined onshore and offshore evolution of the Faial-Pico ridge. The subaerial emergence of this ridge is apparently older than previously thought, i.e., before ˜850 ka.

  17. Development of a modelling methodology for simulation of long-term morphological evolution of the southern Baltic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenyan; Harff, Jan; Schneider, Ralf; Wu, Chaoyu

    2010-10-01

    The Darss-Zingst peninsula at the southern Baltic Sea is a typical wave-dominated barrier island system which includes an outer barrier island and an inner lagoon. The formation of the Darss-Zingst peninsula dates back to the Littorina Transgression onset about 8,000 cal BP. It originated from several discrete islands, has been reshaped by littoral currents, wind-induced waves during the last 8,000 years and evolved into a complex barrier island system as today; thus, it may serve as an example to study the coastal evolution under long-term climate change. A methodology for developing a long-term (decadal-to-centennial) process-based morphodynamic model for the southern Baltic coastal environment is presented here. The methodology consists of two main components: (1) a preliminary analysis of the key processes driving the morphological evolution of the study area based on statistical analysis of meteorological data and sensitivity studies; (2) a multi-scale high-resolution process-based model. The process-based model is structured into eight main modules. The two-dimensional vertically integrated circulation module, the wave module, the bottom boundary layer module, the sediment transport module, the cliff erosion module and the nearshore storm module are real-time calculation modules which aim at solving the short-term processes. A bathymetry update module and a long-term control function set, in which the ‘reduction’ concepts and technique for morphological update acceleration are implemented, are integrated to up-scale the effects of short-term processes to a decadal-to-centennial scale. A series of multi-scale modelling strategies are implemented in the application of the model to the research area. Successful hindcast of the coastline change of the Darss-Zingst peninsula for the last 300 years validates the modelling methodology. Model results indicate that the coastline change of the Darss-Zingst peninsula is dominated by mechanisms acting on different

  18. Ultrastructure, functional morphology and evolution of recto-canal epidermal glands in Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carsten H G; Rosenberg, Jörg; Hilken, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Lithobiomorpha and Craterostigmomorpha. Five different cell types per glandular unit are found only in Scolopendromorpha. The partial cuticularization of the lower part of the conducting canal formed by the intermediary cell, as found in Chilopoda, differs from the pattern described for equivalent euarthropod epidermal glands, as for instance in Hexapoda. Their wide distribution in Chilopoda and Progoneata makes it likely that tricellular rceg were at least present in the last common ancestor of the Myriapoda. Concerning Chilopoda, the evolution of highly diverse rceg is well explained on the basis of the Pleurostigmophora concept. Glands of the recto-canal type are also found in other arthropods. The paper discusses cases where homology of rceg and also fceg may be assumed beyond Myriapoda and briefly evaluates the potentials and the still-to-be-solved issues prior to use them as an additional character system to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Euarthropoda.

  19. Molecular evolution, adaptive radiation, and geographic diversification in the amphiatlantic family Rapateaceae: evidence from ndhF sequences and morphology.

    PubMed

    Givnish, T J; Evans, T M; Zjhra, M L; Patterson, T B; Berry, P E; Sytsma, K J

    2000-12-01

    Rapateaceae (16 genera, approximately 100 species) is largely restricted to the tepuis and sandplains of the Guayana Shield in northern South America, with Maschalocephalus endemic to West Africa. The family has undergone extensive radiation in flower form, leaf shape, habit, and habitat. To analyze the evolution of these distributions and traits, we derived a molecular phylogeny for representatives of 14 genera, based on sequence variation in the chloroplast-encoded ndhF gene. The lowland subfamily Rapateoideae is paraphyletic and includes the largely montane subfamily Saxofridericioideae as a monophyletic subset. Overall, the morphological/anatomical data differ significantly from ndhF sequences in phylogenetic structure, but show a high degree of concordance with the molecular tree in three of four tribes. Branch lengths are consistent with the operation of a molecular clock. Maschalocephalus diverges only slightly from other Monotremae: it is the product of relatively recent, long-distance dispersal, not continental drift--only its habitat atop rifted, nutrient-poor sandstones is vicariant. The family appears to have originated approximately 65 Mya in inundated lowlands of the Guayana Shield, followed by: (1) wide geographic spread of lowland taxa along riverine corridors; (2) colonization of Amazonian white-sand savannas in the western Shield; (3) invasion of tepui habitats with frequent speciation, evolution of narrow endemism, and origin of hummingbird pollination in the western Shield; and (4) reinvasion of lowland white-sand savannas. The apparent timing of speciation in the Stegolepis alliance about 6-12 Mya occurred long after the tepuis began to be dissected from each other as the Atlantic rifted approximately 90 Mya. Given the narrow distributions of most montane taxa, this suggests that infrequent long-distance dispersal combined with vicariance accounts for speciation atop tepuis in the Stegolepis alliance.

  20. ESTEEM - a New 'Hybrid Complexity' Model for Prediction of Estuary Morphological Evolution at Decadal to Centennial Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.; Thornhill, G.; Burningham, H.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the wealth of historical and geological insights into coastal and estuarine landform behaviour, models capable of generating quantitative predictions at decadal to centennial scales are required if we are to meet the management challenges of the 21st century. Despite an emerging consensus that progress on this front is more likely to be made through models that are essentially synthesist in approach, the nature of marine forcing, especially in estuaries, means that it is frequently necessary to retain a degree of hydrodynamic complexity that can only be obtained via more reductionist models. We see great potential, therefore, in fusing these approaches rather than deploying them separately as end members of a modelling spectrum. This paper thus presents a novel approach to mesoscale estuary morphological evolution that combines physically complete 1-D simulation of tidal hydrodynamics, highly parameterised 2-D mechanistic representation of wave-driven tidal flat morphodynamics, and a largely empirical representation of 2-D variation in salt marsh deposition. This approach is embodied in the Estuary SpaTial LandscapE Evolution Model (ESTEEM) code, being developed in the UK as part of the NERC-funded iCOASST project. ESTEEM classifies an estuary into the distinct landform types (subtidal channel, tidal flat, etc), which are then simulated appropriately via one of the approaches highlighted above. Other notable aspects of the model architecture include use of a composite raster and vector data model and compatibility with the OpenMI external coupling standard. The paper describes the contrasting algorithmic approaches and presents illustrative 100-year simulations for a test case estuary.

  1. Hybridization and polyploidy as drivers of continuing evolution and speciation in Sorbus.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ashley; Rich, Timothy C G; Allen, Alexandra M; Houston, Libby; Roberts, Cat; Bridle, Jon R; Harris, Stephen A; Hiscock, Simon J

    2010-04-01

    Interspecific hybridization and polyploidy are pivotal processes in plant evolution and speciation. The fate of new hybrid and polyploid taxa is determined by their ability to reproduce either sexually or asexually. Hybrids and allopolyploids with odd chromosome numbers are frequently sterile but some establish themselves through asexual reproduction (vegetative or apomixis). This allows novel genotypes to become established by isolating them from gene flow and leads to complex patterns of variation. The genus Sorbus is a good example of taxonomic complexity arising from the combined effects of hybridization, polyploidy and apomixis. The Avon Gorge in South-west Britain contains the greatest diversity of Sorbus in Europe, with three endemic species and four putative endemic novel hybrids among its 15 native Sorbus taxa. We used a combination of nuclear microsatellite and chloroplast DNA markers to investigate the evolutionary relationships among these Sorbus taxa within the Avon Gorge. We confirm the genetic identity of putative novel taxa and show that hybridization involving sexual diploid species, primarily S. aria and S. torminalis and polyploid facultative apomictic species from subgenus Aria, has been responsible for generating this biodiversity. Importantly our data show that this creative evolutionary process is ongoing within the Avon Gorge. Conservation strategies for the rare endemic Sorbus taxa should therefore consider all Sorbus taxa within the Gorge and must strive to preserve this evolutionary process rather than simply the individual rare taxa that it produces.

  2. Submarine canyon morphologies and evolution on a modern carbonate system: the Northern Slope of Little Bahama Bank (Bahamas).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournadour, Elsa; Mulder, Thierry; Borgomano, Jean; Hanquiez, Vincent; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Gillet, Hervé; Sorriaux, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The recent CARAMBAR cruise (Nov. 2010) on the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank (LBB, Bahamas) provided new seafloor and subsurface data, that improve our knowledge on carbonate slope systems. The new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data (Kongsberg EM302 echosounder) and very high resolution (3.5 kHz/Chirp subbotom profiler) seismic data show that the upper LBB slope is dissected by 18 canyons. These canyons evolve sharply into short channels opening to depositional fan-shaped lobes. These architectural elements form a narrow carbonate gravity system extending over 40 km along the LBB slope. The features previously described as small linear canyons have a more complex morphology than originally supposed. The several architectural elements that can be distinguished share similar characteristics with siliciclastic canyons. The average morphological features of the canyons are: minimum and maximum water depths of 460 and 970 m resp., mean length = 16.3 km and sinuosity = 1.14. Canyons are floored with flat elongated morphologies interpreted as terraces. Some of these terraces are located at the toe of slide scars on canyon heads and canyon sides which suggest that they result from sediment failures. On the Chirp seismic data, wedge-shape aggrading terraces interpreted as "internal levees" can be observed. These terraces would then be formed by overbanking of the upper part of turbidity currents. Between 530 and 630 m water depth, some canyons exhibit an amphitheater-shaped head with a head wall height ranging from 80 to 100 m. The wall edges of these canyon heads consist of coalescing arcuate slump scars, which suggests that the canyons formed by retrogressive erosion. Other canyons show an amphitheater-shaped head that evolves upslope into linear valleys incising the upper slope between 460 m and 530 m water depth. The onset and the spatial distribution of these linear valleys seem to be influenced by sediments transported from oolitic shoals of Walker Cay

  3. Morphological evolution of protective works by Genetic Algorithms: An application to Mt Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, Davide; Spataro, William; D'Ambrosio, Donato; Filippone, Giuseppe; Rongo, Rocco; Iovine, Giulio; Neri, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The hazard induced by dangerous flow-type phenomena - e.g. lava flows, earth flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches - has increased in recent years due to continuous urbanization. In many cases, the numerical simulation of hypothetical events can help to forecast the flow path in advance and therefore give indications about the areas that can be considered for the construction of protective works - e.g. earth barriers or channels. In this way, urbanized areas, as well as cultural heritage sites or even important infrastructures, can be protected by diverting the flow towards lower interest regions. Here, we have considered the numerical Cellular Automata model Sciara-fv2 for simulating lava flows at Mt Etna and Genetic Algorithms for optimizing the position, orientation and extension of an earth barrier built to protect the Rifugio Sapienza, a well-known touristic facility located near the summit of the volcano. The Rifugio Sapienza area was in fact interested by a lava flow in 2003, which destroyed a Service Center, a parking area and a Cafeteria. In this study, a perimeter was devised around the Rifugio (i.e., security perimeter), which delimitates the area that has to be protected by the flow. Furthermore, another perimeter was devised (i.e., work perimeter), specifying the area in which the earth barrier can be located. The barrier is specified by three parameters, namely the two geographic coordinates of the vertex and the height. In fact, in this preliminary analysis the barrier was modeled as a segment (in plant) having a constant height. Though preliminary, the study has produced extremely positive results. Among different alternatives generated by the genetic algorithm, an interesting scenario consists of a 35 meters barrier high solution, which completely deviates the flow avoiding that the lava reaches the inhabited area. The relative elevated height of the barrier is high due to the fact that the crater is located close to the area to be protected

  4. Continuing evolution of H9N2 influenza viruses in Southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y K; Ozaki, H; Webby, R J; Webster, R G; Peiris, J S; Poon, L; Butt, C; Leung, Y H C; Guan, Y

    2004-08-01

    H9N2 influenza viruses are panzootic in domestic poultry in Eurasia and since 1999 have caused transient infections in humans and pigs. To investigate the zoonotic potential of H9N2 viruses, we studied the evolution of the viruses in live-poultry markets in Hong Kong in 2003. H9N2 was the most prevalent influenza virus subtype in the live-poultry markets between 2001 and 2003. Antigenic and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (HA) showed that all of the 19 isolates found except one belonged to the lineage represented by A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97 (H9N2). The exception was A/Guinea fowl/NT184/03 (H9N2), whose HA is most closely related to that of the human isolate A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2), a virus belonging to the A/Chicken/Beijing/1/94-like (H9N2) lineage. At least six different genotypes were recognized. The majority of the viruses had nonstructural (and HA) genes derived from the A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/97-like virus lineage but had other genes of mixed avian virus origin, including genes similar to those of H5N1 viruses isolated in 2001. Viruses of all six genotypes of H9N2 found were able to replicate in chickens and mice without adaptation. The infected chickens showed no signs of disease, but representatives of two viral genotypes were lethal to mice. Three genotypes of virus replicated in the respiratory tracts of swine, which shed virus for at least 5 days. These results show an increasing genetic and biologic diversity of H9N2 viruses in Hong Kong and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents.

  5. Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Nozawa, Yoko; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2014-08-01

    Coral-inhabiting barnacles (Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) are obligatory symbionts of scleractinian and fire corals. We attempted to reconstruct the phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles using a multi-locus approach (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, H3 and RP gene sequences, total 3532bp), which recovered a paraphyletic pattern. The fire-coral inhabiting barnacle Wanella milleporae occupied a basal position with respect to the other coral inhabiting barnacles. Pyrgomatids along with the coral-inhabiting archaeobalanid Armatobalanus nested within the same clade and this clade was subdivided into two major lineages: Armatobalanus+Cantellius with species proposed to be the ancestral stock of extant coral barnacles, and the other comprising the remaining genera studied. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) suggested multiple independent fusions and separations of shell plates and opercular valves in coral barnacle evolution, which counters the traditional hypothesis founded on a scheme of morphological similarities. Most of the coral barnacles are restricted to one or two coral host families only, suggesting a trend toward narrow host range and more specific adaptation. Furthermore, there is a close linkage between coral host usage and phylogenetic relationships with sister taxa usually being found on the same coral host family. This suggests that symbiotic relationships in coral-inhabiting barnacles are phylogenetically conserved and that host associated specialization plays an important role in their diversification.

  6. Morphology Evolution and Degradation of CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals under Blue Light-Emitting Diode Illumination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shouqiang; Li, Zhichun; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhang, Congyang; Kong, Long; Zhang, Qi; Shan, Aidang; Li, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Under illumination of light-emitting diode (LED) or sunlight, the green color of all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (CPB-NCs) often quickly changes to yellow, followed by large photoluminescence (PL) loss. To figure out what is happening on CPB-NCs during the color change process, the morphology, structure, and PL evolutions are systematically investigated by varying the influence factors of illumination, moisture, oxygen, and temperature. We find that the yellow color is mainly originated from the large CPB crystals formed in the illumination process. With maximized isolation of oxygen for the sandwiched film or the uncovered film stored in nitrogen, the color change can be dramatically slowed down whether there is water vapor or not. Under dark condition, the PL emissions are not significantly influenced by the varied relative humidity (RH) levels and temperatures up to 60 °C. Under the precondition of oxygen or air, color change and PL loss become more obvious when increasing the illumination power or RH level, and the large-sized cubic CPB crystals are further evolved into the oval-shaped crystals. We confirm that oxygen is the crucial factor to drive the color change, which has the strong synergistic effect with the illumination and moisture for the degradation of the CPB film. Meanwhile, the surface decomposition and the increased charge trap states occurred in the formed large CPB crystals play important roles for the PL loss.

  7. Statistical analysis of mounded surfaces: application to the evolution of ultrathin gold film morphology with deposition temperature.

    PubMed

    Siniscalco, D; Edely, M; Bardeau, J-F; Delorme, N

    2013-01-15

    Extracting characteristic dimensions from mounded surfaces such as grain size or intergrain lengths is usually made by statistical analysis. Different statistical functions are used in the literature to extract characteristic lengths. The main issue is that depending on the choice of the statistical function the results can be very different. In this paper, we demonstrate using a series of model mounded surfaces for which characteristic dimensions are known, that a method (namely, interfacial differential function, IDF) is the most effective method to determine the different characteristic lengths. The influence on the statistical treatment of the variation of the different characteristic lengths is then studied and confirms the ability of the IDF analysis. The IDF method was used to analyze the evolution of ultrathin gold film morphology as function of deposition temperature. This approach allows us to demonstrate that the roughness increase with deposition temperature is mainly due to a grain height increase and not to a grain coarsening phenomena as it was claimed before.

  8. Influence of the substrate on the morphological evolution of gold thin films during solid-state dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsimama, Patrick D.; Herz, Andreas; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of electron-beam evaporated Au thin films deposited on crystalline TiO2 (c-TiO2) and amorphous TiO2 (a-TiO2) as well as amorphous SiO2 substrates are investigated. The kinetic of dewetting is clearly dependent on the type of substrate and is faster on TiO2 substrates than on SiO2 substrates. This difference can result from the difference in adhesion energy. Furthermore, the kinetic of dewetting is faster on a-TiO2 than on c-TiO2, possibly due to the crystallization of TiO2 during annealing induced dewetting process. The morphologies of dewetted Au films deposited on crystalline TiO2 are characterized by branched holes. The XRD patterns of the Au films deposited on TiO2 substrates constituted peaks from both metallic Au and anatase TiO2. The activation energy of Au films deposited on crystalline TiO2 substrates was higher than that that of the films deposited on amorphous TiO2 substrates.

  9. The continuing evolution of the Langendorff and ejecting murine heart: new advances in cardiac phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ronglih; Podesser, Bruno K; Lim, Chee Chew

    2012-07-15

    The isolated retrograde-perfused Langendorff heart and the isolated ejecting heart have, over many decades, resulted in fundamental discoveries that form the underpinnings of our current understanding of the biology and physiology of the heart. These two experimental methodologies have proven invaluable in studying pharmacological effects on myocardial function, metabolism, and vascular reactivity and in the investigation of clinically relevant disease states such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes, obesity, and heart failure. With the advent of the genomics era, the isolated mouse heart preparation has gained prominence as an ex vivo research tool for investigators studying the impact of gene modification in the intact heart. This review summarizes the historical development of the isolated heart and provides a practical guide for the establishment of the Langendorff and ejecting heart preparations with a particular emphasis on the murine heart. In addition, current applications and novel methods of recording cardiovascular parameters in the isolated heart preparation will be discussed. With continued advances in methodological recordings, the isolated mouse heart preparation will remain physiologically relevant for the foreseeable future, serving as an integral bridge between in vitro assays and in vivo approaches.

  10. The continuing evolution of the Langendorff and ejecting murine heart: new advances in cardiac phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ronglih; Podesser, Bruno K.

    2012-01-01

    The isolated retrograde-perfused Langendorff heart and the isolated ejecting heart have, over many decades, resulted in fundamental discoveries that form the underpinnings of our current understanding of the biology and physiology of the heart. These two experimental methodologies have proven invaluable in studying pharmacological effects on myocardial function, metabolism, and vascular reactivity and in the investigation of clinically relevant disease states such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes, obesity, and heart failure. With the advent of the genomics era, the isolated mouse heart preparation has gained prominence as an ex vivo research tool for investigators studying the impact of gene modification in the intact heart. This review summarizes the historical development of the isolated heart and provides a practical guide for the establishment of the Langendorff and ejecting heart preparations with a particular emphasis on the murine heart. In addition, current applications and novel methods of recording cardiovascular parameters in the isolated heart preparation will be discussed. With continued advances in methodological recordings, the isolated mouse heart preparation will remain physiologically relevant for the foreseeable future, serving as an integral bridge between in vitro assays and in vivo approaches. PMID:22636675

  11. Adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a continuous and closed circulating fermentation (CCCF) system coupled with PDMS membrane pervaporation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-yan; Tang, Xiao-yu; Xiao, Ze-yi; Zhou, Yi-hui; Jiang, Yue; Fu, Sheng-wei

    2013-04-01

    As an efficient means of strain improvement, adaptive evolution is a technique with great potential. Long-term cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was performed in a polydimethylsiloxane membrane bioreactor system which was constructed by coupling the fermentation with pervaporation. A parent strain was subjected to three rounds of fermentation-screening-transfer procedure lasting 1,500 h in a continuous and closed circulating fermentation (CCCF) system, and its 600-generation descendant S33 was screened. In shaking flask culture test, the selected strain S33 from the third round showed great superiority over the parent strain in the residual broth medium, with the ethanol yield and specific ethanol productivity increasing by 34.5 and 34.7 %, respectively. In the long-term CCCF test, the fermentation performance of the descendant strain in the third round was higher than that of its parent strain in the second round. These results show the potential of this novel adaptive evolution approach in optimization of yeast strains.

  12. Functional morphology of parasitic isopods: understanding morphological adaptations of attachment and feeding structures in Nerocila as a pre-requisite for reconstructing the evolution of Cymothoidae

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites significantly influence food webs and ecosystems and occur all over the world in almost every animal group. Within crustaceans there are numerous examples of ectoparasites; for example, representatives of the isopod group Cymothoidae. These obligatory parasitic isopods are relatively poorly studied regarding their functional morphology. Here we present new details of the morphological adaptations to parasitism of the cymothoiid ingroup Nerocila with up-to-date imaging methods (macro photography, stereo imaging, fluorescence photography, micro CT, and histology). Central aspects of the study were (1) the morphology of the mouthparts and (2) the attachment on the host, hence the morphology of the thoracopods. The mouthparts (labrum, mandibles, paragnaths, maxillulae, maxillae, maxillipeds) form a distinct mouth cone and are most likely used for true sucking. The mouthparts are tightly “folded” around each other and provide functional rails for the only two moving mouthparts, mandible and maxillula. Both are not moving in an ancestral-type median-lateral movement, but are strongly tilted to move more in a proximal-distal axis. New details concerning the attachment demonstrate that the angular arrangement of the thoracopods is differentiated to impede removal by the host. The increased understanding of morphological adaptation to parasitism of modern forms will be useful in identifying disarticulated (not attached to the host) fossil parasites. PMID:27441121

  13. Postmating sexual selection: allopatric evolution of sperm competition mechanisms and genital morphology in calopterygid damselflies (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Cordero Rivera, A; Andrés, J A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Utzeri, C

    2004-02-01

    three species of the same family (Calopteryx splendens, C. virgo and Hetaerina cruentata). Our results suggest that there is geographic variation in the sperm competition mechanisms in all four studied species. Furthermore, genitalic morphology was significantly divergent between populations within species even when different populations were using the same copulatory mechanism. These results can be explained by probable local coadaptation processes that have given rise to an ability or inability to reach and displace spermathecal sperm in different populations. This set of results provides the first direct evidence of intraspecific evolution of genitalic traits shaped by postmating sexual selection.

  14. Precise Morphology Control and Continuous Fabrication of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Droplet-Controllable Electrospray Coating System.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Chan; Lee, Gunhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Yoon, Jungjin; Ahn, Namyoung; Cho, Woohyung; Park, Mincheol; Choi, Mansoo

    2017-03-08

    Herein, we developed a novel electrospray coating system for continuous fabrication of perovskite solar cells with high performance. Our system can systemically control the size of CH3NH3PbI3 precursor droplets by modulating the applied electrical potential, shown to be a crucial factor for the formation of perovskite films. As a result, we have obtained pinhole-free and large grain-sized perovskite solar cells, yielding the best PCE of 13.27% with little photocurrent hysteresis. Furthermore, the average PCE through the continuous coating process was 11.56 ± 0.52%. Our system demonstrates not only the high reproducibility but also a new way to commercialize high-quality perovskite solar cells.

  15. Improving understanding of near-term barrier island evolution through multi-decadal assessment of morphologic change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Erika E.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Hehre, Rachel E.

    2013-01-01

    Observed morphodynamic changes over multiple decades were coupled with storm-driven run-up characteristics at Fire Island, New York, to explore the influence of wave processes relative to the impacts of other coastal change drivers on the near-term evolution of the barrier island. Historical topography was generated from digital stereo-photogrammetry and compared with more recent lidar surveys to quantify near-term (decadal) morphodynamic changes to the beach and primary dune system between the years 1969, 1999, and 2009. Notably increased profile volumes were observed along the entirety of the island in 1999, and likely provide the eolian source for the steady dune crest progradation observed over the relatively quiescent decade that followed. Persistent patterns of erosion and accretion over 10-, 30-, and 40-year intervals are attributable to variations in island morphology, human activity, and variations in offshore bathymetry and island orientation that influence the wave energy reaching the coast. Areas of documented long-term historical inlet formation and extensive bayside marsh development show substantial landward translation of the dune–beach profile over the near-term period of this study. Correlations among areas predicted to overwash, observed elevation changes of the dune crestline, and observed instances of overwash in undeveloped segments of the barrier island verify that overwash locations can be accurately predicted in undeveloped segments of coast. In fact, an assessment of 2012 aerial imagery collected after Hurricane Sandy confirms that overwash occurred at the majority of near-term locations persistently predicted to overwash. In addition to the storm wave climate, factors related to variations within the geologic framework which in turn influence island orientation, offshore slope, and sediment supply impact island behavior on near-term timescales.

  16. The Role of Fine Sediment in the Morphologic Evolution of Vegetated, Braided Channel Networks: Results from Flume Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batts, V. A.; Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Flume experiments over the past two decades shed light on the individual roles of vegetation and fine sediment deposition in determining channel pattern. Those modeling encroaching vegetation on self-formed, braided networks demonstrate that enhanced bank strength from root growth limits lateral mobility and encourages flow into fewer channels with lower width to depth ratios. Repeat seedings encourage meandering by strengthening newly-formed bars, thus promoting outer bend migration. Others show that fine sediment deposition can sustain meandering by filling in chute cutoffs and building new floodplain. However, there is more to be learned about transitional phases as vegetation and fines work in tandem to drive morphologic reorganization of braided channel networks. We are conducting a series of flume experiments to investigate the role of fine sediment in the evolution of self-formed, braided channels undergoing repeat seedings of vegetation (Medicago sativa). Flood regime, sediment feed rate, and seeding density are held constant between runs, while sediment size distribution is varied. After generating a braided network, the flume is then re-seeded in between 4-hour floods. Discharge is reduced by 50% during seeding to expose bars, mimicking natural colonization during low flow. Channel migration rate, elevation, depth, and velocity are recorded hourly. Preliminary results build upon previous, similarly-scaled experiments that investigated the role of vegetation alone on the self-organization of these systems. Runs without fine sediment lack the ability to deposit in the floodplain, yet enhanced bank strength derived from vegetation lowers channel migration rates, forcing aggradation into narrower channels, and potentially forcing a more avulsive system. We anticipate that further results from upcoming experiments that allow overbank deposition will answer important questions regarding channel aggradation and floodplain formation as channel roughness increases.

  17. Insight into the evolution of avian flight from a new clade of Early Cretaceous ornithurines from China and the morphology of Yixianornis grabaui

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia A; Zhou, Zhonghe; Zhang, Fucheng

    2006-01-01

    In studies of the evolution of avian flight there has been a singular preoccupation with unravelling its origin. By contrast, the complex changes in morphology that occurred between the earliest form of avian flapping flight and the emergence of the flight capabilities of extant birds remain comparatively little explored. Any such work has been limited by a comparative paucity of fossils illuminating bird evolution near the origin of the clade of extant (i.e. ‘modern’) birds (Aves). Here we recognize three species from the Early Cretaceous of China as comprising a new lineage of basal ornithurine birds. Ornithurae is a clade that includes, approximately, comparatively close relatives of crown clade Aves (extant birds) and that crown clade. The morphology of the best-preserved specimen from this newly recognized Asian diversity, the holotype specimen of Yixianornis grabaui Zhou and Zhang 2001, complete with finely preserved wing and tail feather impressions, is used to illustrate the new insights offered by recognition of this lineage. Hypotheses of avian morphological evolution and specifically proposed patterns of change in different avian locomotor modules after the origin of flight are impacted by recognition of the new lineage. The complete articulated holotype specimen of Yixianornis grabaui, from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province, in north-eastern China, arguably the best-preserved basal ornithurine specimen yet discovered, provides the earliest evidence consistent with the presence of extant avian tail feather fanning. PMID:16533313

  18. Phase diagrams and morphological evolution in wrapping of rod-shaped elastic nanoparticles by cell membrane: A two-dimensional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xin; Gao, Huajian

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental understanding of cell-nanomaterial interaction is essential for biomedical diagnostics, therapeutics, and nanotoxicity. Here, we perform a theoretical analysis to investigate the phase diagram and morphological evolution of an elastic rod-shaped nanoparticle wrapped by a lipid membrane in two dimensions. We show that there exist five possible wrapping phases based on the stability of full wrapping, partial wrapping, and no wrapping states. The wrapping phases depend on the shape and size of the particle, adhesion energy, membrane tension, and bending rigidity ratio between the particle and membrane. While symmetric morphologies are observed in the early and late stages of wrapping, in between a soft rod-shaped nanoparticle undergoes a dramatic symmetry breaking morphological change while stiff and rigid nanoparticles experience a sharp reorientation. These results are of interest to the study of a range of phenomena including viral budding, exocytosis, as well as endocytosis or phagocytosis of elastic particles into cells.

  19. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack L.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-06-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  20. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  1. The Subparsec-Scale Structure and Evolution of Centaurus A. II. Continued Very Long Baseline Array Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Preston, R. A.; Jauncey, D. L.

    2001-10-01

    We present the results of continued 8.4 GHz Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the subparsec-scale structure and evolution of Centaurus A, following on from the initial results presented in 1998 by Tingay et al. We include, for the first time, multiepoch VLBI images at 22.2 GHz that show that the jet is linear and well collimated on scales as small as 0.02 pc (~1000rs). Two components in the subparsec-scale jet continue to evolve slowly with a speed of 0.12c. We confirm that an additional component, close to the core, has no significant motion. Some evidence is seen for rapid variations within individual components, as noted dramatically in 1991-1992 by Tingay et al., albeit at a lower level of activity. Both the stationary behavior of the component close to the core and the internal variability of components in the subparsec-scale jet of Centaurus A may be explained as being due to the existence of shocks created in the wake of major component ejections from the nucleus, as simulated by Agudo et al. (published in 2001). Tentative evidence is found to suggest that two subparsec-scale counterjet components are in motion away from the nucleus. The estimated apparent speeds of the jet and counterjet components are consistent with the previously suggested likely jet viewing angle range, 50°-80°. We also compare our Centaurus A images with high-resolution VLBI images of M87 to show that the region of the Centaurus A jet in which collimation likely first occurs lies a factor of 10 below our current resolution limit. Future space VLBI missions at high frequency will be required to resolve this region.

  2. The Evolution of Galaxy Size and Morphology at z ~ 0.5-3.0 in the GOODS-N Region with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Takashi; Kajisawa, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    We analyze the recently released Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 IR images in the GOODS-N region to study the formation and evolution of quiescent galaxies (QGs). After examining the reliability of two-dimensional light profiles with artificial galaxies, we obtain the morphological parameters with Sérsic profile of 299 QGs and 1083 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z ~ 0.5-3.0, finding the evolution of r e and n of massive (M * >= 1010.5 M ⊙) QGs and weaker evolution of SFGs and less massive (M * < 1010.5 M ⊙) QGs. The regression of the size evolution of massive QGs follows r_{e}\\propto (1+z)^{-\\alpha _{r_{e}}} with \\alpha _{r_{e}}=1.06+/- 0.19 (a factor of ~2.2 increases from z ~ 2.5 to ~0.5), which is consistent with the general picture of the significant size growth. For the further understanding of the evolution scenario, we study the evolution of the Sérsic index, n, and find that massive QGs significantly evolve as n\\propto (1+z)^{-\\alpha _n} with α n = 0.74 ± 0.23 (n ~ 1 at z ~ 2.5 to n ~ 4 at z ~ 0.5), while those of the other populations are unchanged (n ~ 1) over the redshift range. The results in the present study are consistent with both observations and numerical simulations where a gas-poor minor merger is believed to be the main evolution scenario. By taking the connection with less massive QGs and SFGs into account, we discuss the formation and evolution of the massive QGs over "Cosmic High Noon", or the peak of star-formation in the universe.

  3. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. The finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  4. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; ...

    2016-02-25

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors.more » Here in this paper, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. In conclusion, the finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.« less

  5. Effect of Ni content on the morphological evolution of Ni-YSZ solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kennouche, David; Scott Cronin, J.; Barnett, Scott A.; Wang, Jun

    2016-02-25

    The coarsening of Ni in Ni–yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes is a potential cause of long term solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) performance degradation. The specifics of the Ni-YSZ structure—including Ni/YSZ ratio, porosity, and particle size distributions—are normally selected to minimize anode polarization resistance, but they also impact long-term stability. A better understanding of how these factors influence long-term stability is important for designing more durable anodes. The effect of structural details, e.g., Ni-YSZ ratio, on Ni coarsening has not been quantified. Furthermore, prior measurements have been done by comparing evolved structures with control samples, such that sample-to-sample variations introduce errors. Here in this paper, we report a four dimensional (three spatial dimensions and time) study of Ni coarsening in Ni-YSZ anode functional layers with different Ni/YSZ ratios, using synchrotron x-ray nano-tomography. The continuous structural evolution was observed and analyzed at sub-100 nm resolution. It is shown quantitatively that increasing the Ni/YSZ ratio increases the Ni coarsening rate. This is due to both increased pore volume and a decrease in the YSZ volume fraction, such that there is more free volume and a less obtrusive YSZ network, both of which allow greater Ni coarsening. The results are shown to be in good agreement with a power-law coarsening model. In conclusion, the finding is critical for informing the design of SOFC electrode microstructures that limit coarsening and performance degradation.

  6. Effects of mechanical dispersion on the morphological evolution of the reaction front during transport in a homogeneous porous medium with initial small non-uniformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.-S.; Lai, G.-X.

    2009-04-01

    The morphological evolution of a chemical dissolution front is an important topic in geological processes and engineering practices. Although previous studies have extensively presented a number of numerical models which couples a system of nonlinear governing equations of porosity change due to mineral dissolution, the conservations of groundwater flow and transport of chemical species to investigate the morphological pattern of a chemical dissolution front within a fluid-saturated porous medium, whereas the mechanical dispersion effect has generally been neglected in the model development. This study addresses the effects of mechanical dispersion on the morphological evolution of a chemical dissolution front for a variety of cases. Mechanical dispersion processes is incorporated with the coupled nonlinear governing equation system so as to rebuild a newly numerical model. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that mechanical dispersion has pronounced impacts on the morphological pattern of the chemical dissolution front. For single local non-uniformity case, mechanical dispersion reduces the finger length of an unstable single-fingering front or retains the shape of a stable planar front while speeding up the front advancement. In the case of two local non-uniformities, adding mechanical dispersion with different flow conditions can yield one of the following results: (1) the shape of the stable planar front is maintained but its advancement is accelerated; (2) the shape of the unstable single-fingering front is maintained but its length is reduced; (3) the unstable double-fingering front is merged into an unstable single-fingering front; and (4) the shape of the unstable double-fingering front is preserved but its fingering length is reduced.. A comparison between the behavior diagrams of dissolution front morphology (with and without considering mechanical dispersion) shows that the double-fingering front occurs under condition where the upstream

  7. Coupled Porosity and Chemical Evolution of Hydrothermal Circulation: Implications for the Morphology of Vents and Recharge Zones at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesi, L.; Liao, Y.; Bai, H.; Ma, Z.; Tao, R.; Syverson, D. D.; Lowell, R. P.; Fischer, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    While the clearest evidence for hydrothermal circulation resides in focused upwellings at high-temperature vents, which form chimneys, circulation also features less-understood low-temperature diffuse flow and recharge zones. Flow focusing depends on the subsurface porosity and permeability structure, which, in the reactive environment of hydrothermal circulation, is likely influenced by mineral dissolution and precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. We developed two-dimensional Finite Element models of coupled reactive flow and porosity evolution and discuss how reactions may influence flow focusing and the morphology of upwellings and downwellings. This work can also address the chemical and thermal flux provided to the ocean, and the grade and volume of metal sulfide deposition. Our coupled system (See image) considers 1) Darcy flow driven by fluid buoyancy; 2) Heat transport in a porous medium; 3) Evolution of dissolved mineral concentration; 4) Evolution of porosity and permeability in response to mineral precipitation or dissolution. We also include an "ocean" layer, which allows hot fluid to escape the system without being forced to cool dramatically as they a