Science.gov

Sample records for continuous no-till management

  1. Integrating a complex rotation with no-till improves weed management in organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till practices are restoring and protecting soil health, and are considered critical for achieving sustainability of global agriculture. Organic producers in the United States would like to no-till, but are concerned about managing weeds without tillage. In conventional agriculture, no-till imp...

  2. Conversion to No-Till Improves Maize Nitrogen Use Efficiency in a Continuous Cover Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Habbib, Hazzar; Verzeaux, Julien; Nivelle, Elodie; Roger, David; Lacoux, Jérôme; Catterou, Manuella; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric; Tétu, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    A two-year experiment was conducted in the field to measure the combined impact of tilling and N fertilization on various agronomic traits related to nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to grain yield in maize cultivated in the presence of a cover crop. Four years after conversion to no-till, a significant increase in N use efficiency N harvest index, N remobilization and N remobilization efficiency was observed both under no and high N fertilization conditions. Moreover, we observed that grain yield and grain N content were higher under no-till conditions only when N fertilizers were applied. Thus, agronomic practices based on continuous no-till appear to be a promising for increasing N use efficiency in maize. PMID:27711154

  3. Soil C sequestration and agronomic yield of diverse crop rotations under no-till soil management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual ...

  4. No-Till Management Effects on Soil Water and Wind Erodibility Parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which no-till management improves water and wind erodibility parameters is not well understood. This study assessed changes in aggregate resistance to raindrops, dry aggregate wettability, and dry aggregate stability as well as their relationships with changes in soil organic carbon co...

  5. Bacterial indicator of agricultural management for soil under no-till crop production.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Eva L M; Guerrero, Leandro D; Rosa, Silvina M; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E; Galantini, Juan A; Bedano, José C; Wall, Luis G; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  6. Potential effect of No-till management on carbon in the agricultural soils of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Agricultural soils act as both a source and a sink for atmospheric carbon. Since the onset of cultivation, the 211.5 million ha of agricultural soils in the former Soviet Union (FSU) have lost 10.2 Gt of carbon. No-till management represents a promising option to increase the amount of carbon sequestered in the agricultural soil of the FSU. No-till management reduces erosion and sequesters additional carbon in the soil by lowering the soil temperature and raising soil moisture. To determine the carbon sequestered under no-till management, a data base containing precultivation estimates of soil carbon for the seven major classes of soil found in the agricultural areas of the FSU was used to establish an equilibrium carbon content for each soil. Other published data provided a method to quantify the change in soil carbon brought about by converting to no-till management. Soils suitable for no-till management were analyzed and estimates of changes in carbon storage were made. No-till management is not suitable in areas where crop production is limited by cold, wet soils. (Copyright (c) 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.)

  7. Contribution of macroporosity to infiltration into a continuous corn no-tilled watershed: Implications for contaminant movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, W. M.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Norton, L. D.

    1988-12-01

    Rainfall and runoff were measured for many years on small watersheds on 10-15% slopes in east-central Ohio. Surface runoff from watersheds used for corn ( Zea mays L.) production was high with conventional tillage and very low with no-tillage. A 50-year storm produced 15 times more runoff from a plowed watershed than from a mulch-covered no-till watershed. Reduced runoff from the no-till surface resulted in increased percolation and enhanced the potential for transport of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater. The mulched surface of the no-till watershed also created a favorable environment for the deep burrowing earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L., whose burrows can transmit water rapidly downward through the soil profile, thus contributing to the high infiltration rates. Open biopores and smaller structural pores were counted and measured to characterize the major flow paths of water movement in the no-till soil. Photos of horizontal surfaces at 2.5-, 7.5-, 15-, and 30 - cm depths and vertical faces of impregnated samples from the 1- and 5-cm depths were evaluated by image analysis. Number of pores was inversely proportional to pore diameter, however pores in the 0.05-1.0-mm diameter range accounted for less porosity than did those in the 1.0-5.0-mm range. The large pores were nearly vertical earthworm burrows and were continuously open from near the surface to the bedrock. Surface applications of lime increased subsoil pH in the no-till watershed but had little effect below the plow sole in the tilled watershed, suggesting that rapid movement of water in large pores can enhance chemical migration into the subsoil.

  8. Continuous Cropping Systems Reduce Near-Surface Maximum Compaction in No-Till Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased concerns over compaction in NT soils, it is important to assess how continuous cropping systems influence risks of soil compaction across a range of soils and NT management systems. We quantified differences in maximum bulk density (BDmax) and critical water content (CWC) by the...

  9. Using experimental and geospatial data to estimate regional carbon sequestration potential under no-till management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Z.; Lal, R.; Liu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation management of croplands at the plot scale has demonstrated a great potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect through sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C) into soil. This study estimated the potential of soil to sequester C through the conversion of croplands from conventional tillage (CT) to no-till (NT) in the East Central United States between 1992 and 2012. This study used the baseline soil organic C (SOC) pool (SOCP) inventory and the empirical models that describe the relationships of the SOCP under CT and NT, respectively, to their baseline SOCP in the upper 30-cm depth of soil. The baseline SOCP were obtained from the State Soil Geographic database, and the cropland distribution map was generated from the 1992 National Land Cover Database. The results indicate that if all the croplands under CT in 1992 were converted to NT, the SOCP would increase by 16.8% by 2012, which results in a total C sink of 136 Tg after 20 years. A greater sequestration rate would occur in soils with lower baseline SOCP, but the sink strength would be weaker with increasing SOCP levels. The CT-induced C sources tend to become larger in soils with higher baseline levels, which can be significantly reduced by adopting NT. We conclude that baseline SOC contents are an indicator of C sequestration potential with NT practices. ?? 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  10. Ecology and management of rodents in no-till agriculture in Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Gary; Sayler, Rodney; Huggins, David; Capelli, Jason

    2007-09-01

    No-till farming is an important approach to sustainable agriculture because it can conserve soil and water resources. Unfortunately, rodent populations can thrive under no-till conditions because burrow systems are not disrupted by annual plowing and plant residues build-up on the surface, providing cover and insulation. This can result in substantial crop damage. We assessed rodent populations, habitat use, food habits, and crop damage in a no-till cropping system in Washington, USA. We also conducted preliminary trials of methods to reduce rodent populations and crop damage. In the fall, many more rodents were captured in fields with unharvested crops than in fields containing only plant stubble, suggesting that rodents leave fields after crop harvest, providing that suitable habitats are nearby, even when adequate cover is still available in harvested crop fields. By spring, the number of voles captured was much lower relative to fall. Despite this, capture rates were much higher in surrounding permanent grass areas than in crop (barley, wheat, pea) fields, suggesting that these grassy areas serve as refugia for rodents. Furthermore, the permanent grass cover type was the landscape variable most associated with rodent capture rates. In three winter pea fields, rodents removed 5-15% of the pea plants over winter. Examination of stomach contents revealed that voles mainly fed on grain plants in spring, but that their diet was more diversified in fall. Deer mice fed heavily on grain plants in both spring and fall, but also used insects as food. Metal barrier exclosures (9 m × 9 m), extending above and below ground, did not prevent access by rodents. Rodent populations in areas treated with zinc phosphide on grain were comparable to untreated areas 1 year after application of the rodenticide, perhaps because of immigration and recruitment, suggesting that baiting does not provide a long-term solution to rodent damage in no-till agricultural fields.

  11. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  12. Effects of cover crop management and planting operations on cotton establishment and yield in a no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, for example, termination of cover crops and planting of the cash crop can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field ...

  13. Cultural strategies for managing weeds and soil moisture in cover crop based no-till soybean production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four site-year study was conducted in North Carolina to evaluate the effects of soybean planting timing and row spacing on soil moisture, weed density, soybean lodging, and yield in a cover crop-based no-till organic soybean production system. Soybean planting timing included roll-kill/planting a...

  14. Weed Community Response to No-Till in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and producers in Ukraine are interested in no-till crop production, but are concerned about weed management. In North America, producers have used no-till systems for several decades without increasing weed community density in croplands. Initially, weed density escalated with no-till, ...

  15. Carbon dioxide emissions in conventional and no-till corn production systems under different fertilizer management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices such as tillage and fertilizer application methods affect soil emissions of greenhouse gases which impacts agricultural contributions of greenhouse gases. It is important to develop and evaluate strategies for reducing soil emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

  16. Biosolids application to no-till dryland agroecosytems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dryland agroecosystems are generally ideal environments for recycling biosolids. However, what is the efficacy of biosolids addition to a no-till dryland management agroecosystem? From 2000 to 2010, we studied application of biosolids from the Littleton/Englewood, CO Wastewater Treatment Plant ver...

  17. Residue removal and climatic effects on soil carbon content of no-till soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While no-till management practices usually result in increased soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, the effect of residue removal with no-till is not well understood, especially in warmer climates. A multi-year study was conducted at six locations having a wide range of climatic conditions in centra...

  18. Soil carbon sequestration with continuous no-till management of grain cropping systems in the Virginia coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon sequestration in agroecosystems represents a significant opportunity to offset a portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Climatic conditions in the Virginia coastal plain and modern production practices make it possible for high annual photosynthetic CO2 fixation. There is potential to seques...

  19. Runoff losses of sediment and phosphorus from no-till and cultivated soils receiving dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Verbree, David A; Duiker, Sjoerd W; Kleinman, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    Managing manure in no-till systems is a water quality concern because surface application of manure can enrich runoff with dissolved phosphorus (P), and incorporation by tillage increases particulate P loss. This study compared runoff from well-drained and somewhat poorly drained soils under corn (Zea mays, L.) production that had been in no-till for more than 10 yr. Dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure was broadcast into a fall planted cover crop before no-till corn planting or incorporated by chisel/disk tillage in the absence of a cover crop. Rainfall simulations (60 mm h(-1)) were performed after planting, mid-season, and post-harvest in 2007 and 2008. In both years and on both soils, no-till yielded significantly less sediment than did chisel/disking. Relative effects of tillage on runoff and P loss differed with soil. On the well-drained soil, runoff depths from no-till were much lower than with chisel/disking, producing significantly lower total P loads (22-50% less). On the somewhat poorly drained soil, there was little to no reduction in runoff depth with no-till, and total P loads were significantly greater than with chisel/disking (40-47% greater). Particulate P losses outweighed dissolved P losses as the major concern on the well-drained soil, whereas dissolved P from surface applied manure was more important on the somewhat poorly drained soil. This study confirms the benefit of no-till to erosion and total P runoff control on well-drained soils but highlights trade-offs in no-till management on somewhat poorly drained soils where the absence of manure incorporation can exacerbate total P losses.

  20. Application of manure to no-till soils: Phosphorus losses by sub-surface and surface pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the acceleration of eutrophication by agricultural runoff has focused attention on manure management in no-till. We evaluated losses of phosphorus (P) in sub-surface and surface flow as a function of dairy manure application to no-till soils on a dairy farm in north-central Pennsylvania...

  1. Biological aspects of weed dynamics in no-till systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and producers in the Eurasian steppe are interested in no-till crop production, but are concerned that, without tillage, weed density will escalate in croplands. In the United States, producers have used no-till systems for several decades and weed density has not increased. In this pap...

  2. Effect of no-till farming on soil water intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall simulation and ponded infiltrometer methods were used to investigate the infiltration characteristics of no-till vs. conventional tillage farms. Seven pairs of no-till and conventional till farms under a corn-soybean rotation were selected on soils ranging from sandy loam to silty clay loam...

  3. No-till corn response and soil nutrient concentrations from subsurface banding of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  4. No-till corn response to subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  5. Surprising yields with no-till cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers using no-till practices have observed that crop yields can greatly exceed expectations based on nutrient and water supply. For example, Ralph Holzwarth, who farms near Gettysburg, SD, has averaged 150 bu/ac of corn on his farm for the past 6 years. We were surprised with this yield, as c...

  6. Biogeophysical benefits of no-till agriculture for mitigating heat wave impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davin, Edouard; Seneviratne, Sonia; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change[1]. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming[1]. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface[2]. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heatwaves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth's radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 degrees. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate engineering measures targeting high impact events rather than mean climate properties. References: [1] Smith, P., D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen, P. Kumar, B. McCarl, S. Ogle, F. O'Mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, O. Sirotenko (2007): Agriculture. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds

  7. Grazing and no-till cropping impacts on nitrogen retention in dryland agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Megan L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Burke, Ingrid C; Peterson, Gary; Schimel, David S; Cole, C Vernon; Elliott, Edward T; Westfall, Dwayne G

    2014-11-01

    As the world's population increases, marginal lands such as drylands are likely to become more important for food production. One proven strategy for improving crop production in drylands involves shifting from conventional tillage to no-till to increase water use efficiency, especially when this shift is coupled with more intensive crop rotations. Practices such as no-till that reduce soil disturbance and increase crop residues may promote C and N storage in soil organic matter, thus promoting N retention and reducing N losses. By sampling soils 15 yr after a N tracer addition, this study compared long-term soil N retention across several agricultural management strategies in current and converted shortgrass steppe ecosystems: grazed and ungrazed native grassland, occasionally mowed planted perennial grassland, and three cropping intensities of no-till dryland cropping. We also examined effects of the environmental variables site location and topography on N retention. Overall, the long-term soil N retention of >18% in these managed semiarid ecosystems was high compared with published values for other cropped or grassland ecosystems. Cropping practices strongly influenced long-term N retention, with planted perennial grass systems retaining >90% of N in soil compared with 30% for croplands. Grazing management, topography, and site location had smaller effects on long-term N retention. Estimated 15-yr N losses were low for intact and cropped systems. This work suggests that semiarid perennial grass ecosystems are highly N retentive and that increased intensity of semiarid land management can increase the amount of protein harvested without increasing N losses.

  8. A Multi-Year Comparison of No-Till Versus Conventional-Till Effects on the Carbon Balance in a Corn/Soybean Agro-Ecosystem Using Eddy Covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, E.; Slattery, R.; Meyers, T. P.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the industrial revolution are in large part due to the release of carbon previously stored in the soil. No-till strategies have been proposed as a means to mitigate agricultural contributions to atmospheric carbon by decreasing emissions and sequestering carbon in agricultural soils while increasing water use efficiency and soil quality. However, the effects of no-till versus conventional-till practices on carbon sequestration often vary due to difficulty in quantifying soil carbon as soil properties change with management. Eddy covariance (EC) offers a more accurate method of continuously measuring the total carbon budget and does so without relying on physical soil carbon measurements. The majority of agricultural land in the Midwestern United States is farmed using the corn/soybean rotation, making it an ideal agro-ecosystem to examine the potential of adopting no-till practices on carbon and water balances. In this study, we use EC to compare carbon and water fluxes between continuous no-till and conventional-till corn/soybean sites over several years in east central Illinois. This allows the determination and comparison of 1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net biome production (NEE after accounting for grain usage); 2) water use efficiency; and 3) response to climatic variation, both at short and long time scales, between the two tillage systems. We hypothesize that both carbon uptake and water use efficiency will improve with no-till practices, which in turn will improve crop responses to environmental factors such as drought and heat stress.

  9. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems. PMID:21520747

  10. Suppression of phytophthora blight in bell pepper by a no-till wheat cover crop.

    PubMed

    Ristaino, J B; Parra, G; Campbell, C L

    1997-03-01

    ABSTRACT Four mechanisms of dispersal of propagules of Phytophthora capsici were investigated through modifications in cultural practices and fungicide applications in field plots of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum). Dispersal of soil inoculum was suppressed, and final incidence of disease was 2.5 to 43% when stubble from a fall-sown, no-till, wheat cover crop was present. Final disease incidence was 71 to 72% and pathogen spread occurred within and across rows when all dispersal mechanisms were operative in plots of pepper planted into bare soil. Final disease incidence was 42 to 78% with black plastic mulch when a sporulating pepper fruit placed on the surface served as the source of initial inoculum. The fungicide metalaxyl applied in the irrigation system did not suppress within-row spread of surface inoculum from a sporulating fruit on plastic, but did limit across-row spread; final disease incidence in metalaxyl-treated plots was 11.5 to 14%. Pathogen dispersal mechanisms were modified most dramatically by the no-till cropping system. Thus, simple changes in cultural practices can have dramatic effects on the development of Phytophthora epidemics. Ecologically based disease management strategies have the potential to reduce our reliance on agrichemicals in this and similar pathosystems.

  11. The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One method to save resources while positively impacting the environment is combining agricultural field operations. In no-till systems, cover crop termination and cash crop planting can be performed simultaneously utilizing a tractor as a single power source. A no-till field experiment merging cover...

  12. Effects of No-Till on Yields as Influenced by Crop and Environmental Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Toliver, Dustin K.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; West, Tristram O.

    2012-02-07

    Th is research evaluated diff erences in yields and associated downside risk from using no-till and tillage practices. Yields from 442 paired tillage experiments across the United States were evaluated with respect to six crops and environmental factors including geographic location, annual precipitation, soil texture, and time since conversion from tillage to no-till. Results indicated that mean yields for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with no-till were greater than with tillage. In addition, no-till tended to produce similar or greater mean yields than tillage for crops grown on loamy soils in the Southern Seaboard and Mississippi Portal regions. A warmer and more humid climate and warmer soils in these regions relative to the Heartland, Basin and Range, and Fruitful Rim regions appear to favor no-till on loamy soils. With the exception of corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Southern Seaboard region, no-till performed poorly on sandy soils. Crops grown in the Southern Seaboard were less likely to have lower no-till yields than tillage yields on loamy soils and thus had lower downside yield risk than other farm resource regions. Consistent with mean yield results, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and wheat grown on sandy soils in the Southern Seaboard region using no-till had larger downside yield risks than when produced with no-till on loamy soils. Th e key fi ndings of this study support the hypothesis that soil and climate factors impact no-till yields relative to tillage yields and may be an important factor infl uencing risk and expected return and the adoption of the practice by farmers.

  13. Genetic Variation in Fusarium Section Liseola from No-Till Maize in Argentina†

    PubMed Central

    Chulze, S. N.; Ramirez, M. L.; Torres, A.; Leslie, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    Strains of Fusarium species belonging to section Liseola cause stalk and ear rot of maize and produce important mycotoxins, such as fumonisins. We isolated two species, Fusarium verticillioides (Gibberella fujikuroi mating population A) and Fusarium proliferatum (G. fujikuroi mating population D) from maize cultivated under no-till conditions at five locations in the Córdoba province of Argentina. We determined the effective population number for mating population A (Ne) and found that the Ne for mating type was 89% of the count (total population) and that the Ne for male or hermaphrodite status was 36%. Thus, the number of strains that can function as the female parent limits Ne, and sexual reproduction needs to occur only once every 54 to 220 asexual generations to maintain this level of sexual fertility. Our results indicate that the fungal populations isolated from no-till maize are similar to those recovered from maize managed with conventional tillage. We placed 36 strains from mating population A into 28 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Of the 13 strains belonging to five multimember VCGs, only 2 isolates belonging to one VCG were clones based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. Members of the other four multimember VCGs had an average similarity index of 0.89, and members of one VCG were no more closely related to other members of the same VCG than they were to other members of the population as a whole. This finding suggests that the common assumption that strains in the same VCG are either clonal or very closely related needs to be examined in more detail. The variability observed with AFLPs and VCGs suggests that sexual reproduction may occur more frequently than estimated by Ne. PMID:11097907

  14. Soil microbial community analysis of between no-till and tillage in a controlled horticultural field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Koo; Kim, Min Keun; Seo, Youn Won; Choi, Kyung Ju; Lee, Seong Tae; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Lee, Young Han

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the changes of soil microbial communities that were subjected to no-till and compared the results to those subject to tillage for organic farming in a controlled horticultural field by fatty acid methyl ester. Fungi (P < 0.001), gram-positive bacteria (P < 0.001), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (P < 0.01), and actinomycetes (P < 0.01) in the no-till soils were significantly larger than those in the tillage soils. The no-till in the subsoil had a significantly lower ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1ω7c compared to that of tillage, indicating that microbial stress decreased because the soils were not disturbed (P < 0.05). Fungi should be considered as a potential factor responsible for the obvious microbial community differentiation that was observed between the no-till and tillage areas in a controlled horticultural field.

  15. Increased Use of No-till Cropping Systems Improves Stream Ecosystem Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, A. G.; Bailey, R. C.; Schwindt, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Release of sediments to streams from tilled lands has been a significant stressor to streams in agro-ecosystems for decades and has been shown to impact aquatic biota in a variety of ways. To limit soil erosion from cultivated lands, conservation tillage techniques, including the use of no-till systems, have been developed and widely adopted throughout the region. However, there haves been no tests of the effects of no-till systems on stream quality at a watershed scale. We measured habitat and water quality and sampled the benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) and fish communities in 32 small (100-1400 ha) subwatersheds along a gradient of the proportion of land under no-till cropping systems to determine relationships between the use of no-till and stream quality. Our results demonstrate that with increasing proportions of no-till, habitat scores improve, the quantities of sediment and sediment associated stressors in the water decline, the BMI community exhibits reduced dominance by Oligocheata and Sphaeriidae, as well as improved Family Biotic Index (FBI) scores, and fish species richness increases. We concluded that increased use of no-till cropping systems by farmers does contribute to improved quality of streams in agro-ecosystems.

  16. 17beta-Estradiol and testosterone in drainage and runoff from poultry litter applications to tilled and no-till crop land under irrigation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Schomberg, Harry H; Hartel, Peter G; Cabrera, Miguel L

    2009-06-01

    Thirteen million [corrected] metric tons of poultry litter are produced annually by poultry producers in the U.S. Poultry litter contains the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, endocrine disruptors that have been detected in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of poultry litter applications on estradiol and testosterone concentrations in subsurface drainage and surface runoff in irrigated crop land under no-till and conventional-till management. We conducted an irrigation study in fall of 2001 and spring of 2002. Four treatments, no-till plus poultry litter, conventional-till plus poultry litter, no-till plus conventional fertilizer, and conventional-till plus conventional fertilizer, were evaluated. Flow-weighted concentration and load ha(-1) of the two hormones were measured in drainage and runoff. Soil concentrations of estradiol and testosterone were measured. Based on comparisons to the conventional fertilizer (and control) treatments, poultry litter did not add to the flow-weighted concentration or load ha(-1) of either estradiol or testosterone in subsurface drainage or surface runoff. Significant differences were, however, observed between tillage treatments: flow-weighted concentrations of estradiol were greater for no-till than conventional-till plots of the June irrigation; and runoff loads of both estradiol and testosterone were less from no-till than conventional-till plots for the November irrigation. Although the differences between no-till and conventional-tillage appeared to affect the hydrologic transport of both hormones, the differences appeared to have inconsequential environmental impact.

  17. Soil acidity amelioration in a no-till system in west Tennessee USA differs by cover crop type and nitrogen application rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation soil management practices may influence the soil acidity. Surface application of lime may be required in no-till systems to ameliorate soil acidity and to improve crop yields. The application of lime may also increase microbial activity on soil. Specifically, the microbial activity of s...

  18. Bromide transport in different soils under no till and conventional tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Elena; Costa, José Luis; Bedmar, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Prediction and description of water and solute movement within different soil tillage systems is essential when investigating pesticide contamination of soils and groundwater resources. Tillage systems can modify the chemical and biological properties of soil, and furthermore it can alter the pore system and structure. Conservation tillage can accelerate leaching of non reactive solutes and pesticides. Alternatively, solute transport is reduced in conventional tillage by diminishing functional macropores. Our research focused on the study of bromide transport in undisturbed soil columns from three different soils of Argentina, from the provinces of Córdoba, Buenos Aires, and Paraná, managed under no till (NT) and conventional till (CT). Bromide was used as a tracer solute. Experimental data was fitted using the convection dispersion equation (CDE) with the program CXTFIT 2.0. The parameters pore water velocity (v) and hydrodynamic dispersion (D) where estimated. Both NT and CT soils from the province of Paraná had the highest v compared to the other examined soils. Paraná soil has the highest clay content, which may influence its structure (increasing the amount of macropores) and possibly decreasing lateral mass exchange. Additionally, this soil had a higher v under NT practices than CT, while no significant difference between NT and CT were found in soils from Córdoba and Buenos Aires. Dispersion was relatively high in all soils, particularly for Paraná soil under NT. Dispersion was considerably much higher with NT compared to CT columns of the same soil.

  19. Limited potential of no-till agriculture for climate change mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powlson, David S.; Stirling, Clare M.; Jat, M. L.; Gerard, Bruno G.; Palm, Cheryl A.; Sanchez, Pedro A.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2014-08-01

    The Emissions Gap Report 2013 from the United Nations Environment Programme restates the claim that changing to no-till practices in agriculture, as an alternative to conventional tillage, causes an accumulation of organic carbon in soil, thus mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration. But these claims ignore a large body of experimental evidence showing that the quantity of additional organic carbon in soil under no-till is relatively small: in large part apparent increases result from an altered depth distribution. The larger concentration near the surface in no-till is generally beneficial for soil properties that often, though not always, translate into improved crop growth. In many regions where no-till is practised it is common for soil to be cultivated conventionally every few years for a range of agronomic reasons, so any soil carbon benefit is then lost. We argue that no-till is beneficial for soil quality and adaptation of agriculture to climate change, but its role in mitigation is widely overstated.

  20. Multivariate analysis and visualization of soil quality data for no-till systems.

    PubMed

    Villamil, M B; Miguez, F E; Bollero, G A

    2008-01-01

    To evidence the multidimensionality of the soil quality concept, we propose the use of data visualization as a tool for exploratory data analyses, model building, and diagnostics. Our objective was to establish the best edaphic indicators for assessing soil quality in four no-till systems with regard to functioning as a medium for crop production and nutrient cycling across two Illinois locations. The compared situations were no-till corn-soybean rotations including either winter fallowing (C/S) or cover crops of rye (Secale cereale; C-R/S-R), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa; C-R/S-V), or their mixture (C-R/S-VR). The dataset included the variables bulk density (BD), penetration resistance (PR), water aggregate stability (WAS), soil reaction (pH), and the contents of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), soil nitrates (NO(3)-N), and available phosphorus (P). Interactive data visualization along with canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) allowed us to show that WAS, BD, and the contents of P, TN, and SOM have the greatest potential as soil quality indicators in no-till systems in Illinois. It was more difficult to discriminate among WCC rotations than to separate these from C/S, considerably inflating the error rate associated with CDA. We predict that observations of no-till C/S will be classified correctly 51% of the time, while observations of no-till WCC rotations will be classified correctly 74% of the time. High error rates in CDA underscore the complexity of no-till systems and the need in this area for more long-term studies with larger datasets to increase accuracy to acceptable levels.

  1. Impact of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris living sites on the greenhouse gas balance of no-till arable soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15-week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32 % higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13 % higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions in the laboratory. In the field, the significantly elevated macrofaunal densities in the vicinity of middens likely contributed to the higher emissions from areas occupied by L. terrestris. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18 %, but only 6 and 2 % of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-till soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  2. Simulating the impact of no-till systems on field water fluxes and maize productivity under semi-arid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupangwa, W.; Jewitt, G. P. W.

    Crop output from the smallholder farming sector in sub-Saharan Africa is trailing population growth leading to widespread household food insecurity. It is therefore imperative that crop production in semi-arid areas be improved in order to meet the food demand of the ever increasing human population. No-till farming practices have the potential to increase crop productivity in smallholder production systems of sub-Saharan Africa, but rarely do because of the constraints experienced by these farmers. One of the most significant of these is the consumption of mulch by livestock. In the absence of long term on-farm assessment of the no-till system under smallholder conditions, simulation modelling is a tool that provides an insight into the potential benefits and can highlight shortcomings of the system under existing soil, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Thus, this study was designed to better understand the long term impact of no-till system without mulch cover on field water fluxes and maize productivity under a highly variable rainfall pattern typical of semi-arid South Africa. The simulated on-farm experiment consisted of two tillage treatments namely oxen-drawn conventional ploughing (CT) and ripping (NT). The APSIM model was applied for a 95 year period after first being calibrated and validated using measured runoff and maize yield data. The predicted results showed significantly higher surface runoff from the conventional system compared to the no-till system. Predicted deep drainage losses were higher from the NT system compared to the CT system regardless of the rainfall pattern. However, the APSIM model predicted 62% of the annual rainfall being lost through soil evaporation from both tillage systems. The predicted yields from the two systems were within 50 kg ha -1 difference in 74% of the years used in the simulation. In only 9% of the years, the model predicted higher grain yield in the NT system compared to the CT system. It is suggested that

  3. Curve numbers for no-till: field data versus standard tables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Curve Number procedure developed by Soil Conservation Service (Now Natural Resources Conservation Service) in the mid-1950s for estimating direct runoff from rainstorms has not been extensively tested in cropping systems under no-till. Analysis of CNs using the frequency matching and asymptotic ...

  4. Greenhouse gas fluxes from no-till rotated corn in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined soil surface fluxes of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) from no-till, dryland corn (Zea mays L.) in eastern South Dakota and tested the effect of rotation on greenhouse gas fluxes from corn. The corn was grown within a randomized, complete block study that incl...

  5. Long-Term No-Till and Conventional-Till Soybean Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual crop yields of long-term no-till soybean (Glycine max) and conventional-till soybean at Holly Springs, Mississippi were summarized for a 16-year period, 1984 through 1999. This research report provides a complete data set of crop yields, cultural practices, and chemical applications used for...

  6. Remediation of Stratified Soil Acidity Through Surface Application of Lime in No-Till Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield reduction and reduced crop vigor, resulting from soil acidification, are of increasing concern in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. In this region, soil pH has been decreasing at an accelerated rate, primarily due to the long-term use of ammonium based fertilizers. In no-till systems, the...

  7. No-till Snap Bean performance and weed response following Cereal Rye and Vetch cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-planted cover crops offer many benefits including weed suppressive residues in spring sown crops when controlled and left on the soil surface. However, vegetable growers have been slow to adapt direct seeding (no-till) into cover crop residues. Field studies were conducted in 2009 and 2010 near...

  8. Subsurface application of dry poultry litter: Impacts on common bermudagrass and other no-till crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure provides a rich organic nutrient source to fertilize crops and help neutralize soil acidity. However, the usual practice of broadcasting litter on the surface of pastures and other no-till systems can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surfac...

  9. Functional and nutritional characteristics of soft wheat grown in no-till and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of no-till vs. conventional farming practices were evaluated on soft wheat functional and nutritional characteristics, including kernel physical properties, whole wheat composition, antioxidant activity and end-product quality. Soft white winter wheat cv. ORCF 102 was evaluated over a tw...

  10. No-Till Corn after Bromegrass: Effect on Soil C and Soil Aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A different 13C/12C isotope signature is imparted to SOC by C4 plants versus C3 plants. We measured changes in C isotope ratios in SOC during ~ 6½ yrs of no-till corn (Zea mays L) planted into 13yr old bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) sod for a C3 ' C4 plant switch to identify SOC isotope changes ...

  11. Changes in long-term no-till corn growth and yield under different rates of stover mulch

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, Dr. Humberto; Lal, Dr. Rattan; Post, Wilfred M; Owens, Lloyd

    2006-09-01

    Received for publication January 4, 2006. Removal of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for biofuel production may affect crop yields by altering soil properties. A partial stover removal may be feasible, but information on appropriate rates of removal is unavailable. We assessed the short-term impacts of stover management on long-term no-till (NT) continuous corn grown on a Rayne silt loam (fine loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston in Ohio, and predicted corn yield from soil properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The study was conducted in 2005 on the ongoing experiments started in May 2004 under 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200)% of stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal promoted early emergence and rapid seedling growth (P < 0.01). Early-emerging plants grew taller than late-emerging plants up to about 50 d, and then the heights reversed at Coshocton and were comparable at other two sites. Stover management affected corn yield only at the Coshocton site where average grain and stover yields in the T200, T100, T75, and T50 (10.8 and 10.3 Mg ha-1) were higher than those in the T0 and T25 treatments (8.5 and 6.5 Mg ha-1) (P < 0.01), showing that stover removal at rates as low as 50% (2.5 Mg ha-1) decreased crop yields. Soil properties explained 71% of the variability in grain yield and 33% of the variability in stover yield for the Coshocton site. Seventeen months after the start of the experiment, effects of stover management on corn yield and soil properties were site-specific.

  12. Changes in soil organic carbon contents and nitrous oxide emissions after introduction of no-till in Pampean agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Haydée S; Alvarez, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed published results to estimate no-till effects on SOC and denitrification in the Argentine Pampas and the potential of no-till to mitigate the global warming effect. On an equivalent mass basis, 42 paired data sets were used for SOC comparisons of no-till vs. plow till (moldboard plow or disk plow), 18 paired data for comparison of no-till vs. reduced till (chisel plow or harrow disk), and 20 paired data for comparison of plow till vs. reduced till. Twenty-six denitrification data sets were used for evaluation of tillage system and fertilization effects on N2O emission. Changes in SOC under no-till were not correlated to time since initiation of experiments. Averaged over years a 2.76 Mg ha(-1) SOC increase (P = 0.01) was observed in no-till systems compared with tilled systems, but no differences were detected between plow and reduced till. The SOC under tillage explained most of the SOC variation under no-till (R2= 0.94, P = 0.01). The model had a positive intercept and predicted a relatively higher increase of SOC in areas of low organic matter level. The conversion of the whole pampean cropping area to no-till would increase SOC by 74 Tg C, about twice the annual C emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Argentina. Emissions of N2O were greater under no-till with a mean increase of 1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in denitrification rate for humid pampean scenarios. The increased emissions of N2O might overcome the mitigation potential of no-till due to C sequestration in about 35 yr, and therefore no-till might produce global warming.

  13. Corn Stover Impacts on Near-Surface Soil Properties of No-Till Corn In Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

    2006-01-06

    Corn stover is a primary biofuel feedstock and its expanded use could help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and net CO2 emissions. Excessive stover removal may, however, negatively impact near-surface soil properties within a short period after removal. We assessed changes in soil crust strength, bulk density, and water content over a 1-yr period following a systematic removal or addition of stover from three no-till soils under corn in Ohio.

  14. Rapid Changes in Soil Carbon and Structural Properties Due to Stover Removal from No-Till Corn Plots

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H; Lal, Rattan; Post, W M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Owens, L B.

    2006-06-01

    Harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover for producing ethanol may be beneficial to palliate the dependence on fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, but stover harvesting may deplete soil organic carbon (SOC) and degrade soil structure. We investigated the impacts of variable rates of stover removal from no-till (NT) continuous corn systems on SOC and soil structural properties after 1 year of stover removal in three soils in Ohio: Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludults) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. This study also assessed relationships between SOC and soil structural properties as affected by stover management. Six stover treatments that consisted of removing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0, and adding 100% of corn stover corresponding to 0 (T0), 1.25 (T1.25), 2.50 (T2.5), 3.75 (T3.75), 5.00 (T5), and 10.00 (T10) Mg haj1 of stover, respectively, were studied for their total SOC concentration, bulk density (>b), aggregate stability, and tensile strength (TS) of aggregates. Effects of stover removal on soil properties were rapid and significant in the 0- to 5-cm depth, although the magnitude of changes differed among soils after only 1 year of stover removal. The SOC concentration declined with increase in removal rates in silt loams but not in clay loam soils. It decreased by 39% at Coshocton and 30% at Charleston within 1 year of complete stover removal. At the same sites, macroaggregates contained 10% to 45% more SOC than microaggregates. Stover removal reduced 94.75-mm macroaggregates and increased microaggregates (P G 0.01). Mean weight diameter (MWD) and TS of aggregates in soils without stover (T0) were 1.7 and 3.3 times lower than those in soils with normal stover treatments (T5) across sites. The SOC concentration was negatively correlated with >b and positively with MWD and

  15. Forces and straw cutting performance of double disc furrow opener in no-till paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an "impossible to achieve" task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  16. Forces and Straw Cutting Performance of Double Disc Furrow Opener in No-Till Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an “impossible to achieve” task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  17. Soil Hydraulic Properties Influenced by Corn Stover Removal from No-Till Corn in Ohio.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Canqui, H.; Lal, Rattan; Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Shipitalo, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for biofuel production and other uses may alter soil hydraulic properties, but site-specific information needed to determine the threshold levels of removal for the U.S. Corn Belt region is limited. We quantified impacts of systematic removal of corn stover on soil hydraulic parameters after one year of stover management under no-till (NT) systems in three soils in Ohio including Rayne silt loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludult) at Coshocton, Hoytville clay loam (fine, illitic, mesic Mollic Epiaqualfs) at Hoytville, and Celina silt loam (fine, mixed, active, mesic Aquic Hapludalfs) at South Charleston. Interrelationships among soil properties and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) predictions were also studied. Earthworm middens, Ksat, bulk density (ρb), soil-water retention (SWR), pore-size distribution, and air permeability (ka) were determined for six stover treatments including 0 (T0), 25 (T25), 50 (T50), 75 (T75), 100 (T100), and 200 (T200) % of corn stover corresponding to 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75, 5.00, and 10.00 Mg ha-1 of stover, respectively. Stover removal reduced the number of middens, Ksat, SWR, and ka at all sites (P<0.01). Complete stover removal reduced earthworm middens by 20-fold across sites, decreased geometric mean Ksat from 6.3 to 0.1 mm h-1 at Coshocton, 3.2 to 0.3 mm h-1 at Hoytville, and 5.8 to 0.6 mm h-1 at Charleston, and increased ρb in the 0- to 10-cm depth by about 15% relative to double stover plots. The SWR for T100 was 1.3 times higher than that for T0 at 0 to -6 kPa. The log ka for T200, T100, and T75 significantly exceeded that under T50, T25, and T0 at Coshocton and Charleston. Measured parameters were strongly correlated, and ka was a potential Ksat predictor. Stover harvesting at rates above 1.25 Mg ha-1 affects soil hydraulic properties and earthworm activity, but further monitoring is needed to ascertain the threshold levels of stover removal.Corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for

  18. Continuous Risk Management Course. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA.

  19. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting.

  20. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting. PMID:23673763

  1. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  2. Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ge, Junzhu; Tian, Shaoyang; Li, Shuya; Nguy-Robertson, Anthony L; Zhan, Ming; Cao, Cougui

    2015-02-01

    As pressure on water resources increases, alternative practices to conserve water in paddies have been developed. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effectiveness of different water regimes on conserving water, mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG), and maintaining yields in rice production. This study, which was conducted during the drought of 2013, examined all three factors using a split-plot experiment with two rice varieties in a no-till paddy managed under three different water regimes: 1) continuous flooding (CF), 2) flooded and wet intermittent irrigation (FWI), and 3) flooded and dry intermittent irrigation (FDI). The Methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions were measured using static chamber-gas measurements, and the carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions were monitored using a soil CO₂ flux system (LI-8100). Compared with CF, FWI and FDI irrigation strategies reduced CH₄ emissions by 60% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, CO₂ and N₂O fluxes increased by 65% and 9%, respectively, under FWI watering regime and by 104% and 11%, respectively, under FDI managed plots. Although CO₂ and N₂O emissions increased, the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of all three GHG decreased by up to 25% and 29% (p<0.01), respectively, using water-saving irrigation strategies. The rice variety also affected yields and GHG emissions in response to different water regimes. The drought-resistance rice variety (HY3) was observed to maintain yields, conserve water, and reduce GHG under the FWI irrigation management compared with the typical variety (FYY299) planted in the region. The FYY299 only had significantly lower GWP and GHGI when the yield was reduced under FDI water regime. In conclusion, FWI irrigation strategy could be an effective option for simultaneously saving water and mitigating GWP without reducing rice yields using drought-resistant rice varieties, such as HY3. PMID:25461105

  3. Effects of water-saving irrigation practices and drought resistant rice variety on greenhouse gas emissions from a no-till paddy in the central lowlands of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Ge, Junzhu; Tian, Shaoyang; Li, Shuya; Nguy-Robertson, Anthony L; Zhan, Ming; Cao, Cougui

    2015-02-01

    As pressure on water resources increases, alternative practices to conserve water in paddies have been developed. Few studies have simultaneously examined the effectiveness of different water regimes on conserving water, mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG), and maintaining yields in rice production. This study, which was conducted during the drought of 2013, examined all three factors using a split-plot experiment with two rice varieties in a no-till paddy managed under three different water regimes: 1) continuous flooding (CF), 2) flooded and wet intermittent irrigation (FWI), and 3) flooded and dry intermittent irrigation (FDI). The Methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions were measured using static chamber-gas measurements, and the carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions were monitored using a soil CO₂ flux system (LI-8100). Compared with CF, FWI and FDI irrigation strategies reduced CH₄ emissions by 60% and 83%, respectively. In contrast, CO₂ and N₂O fluxes increased by 65% and 9%, respectively, under FWI watering regime and by 104% and 11%, respectively, under FDI managed plots. Although CO₂ and N₂O emissions increased, the global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of all three GHG decreased by up to 25% and 29% (p<0.01), respectively, using water-saving irrigation strategies. The rice variety also affected yields and GHG emissions in response to different water regimes. The drought-resistance rice variety (HY3) was observed to maintain yields, conserve water, and reduce GHG under the FWI irrigation management compared with the typical variety (FYY299) planted in the region. The FYY299 only had significantly lower GWP and GHGI when the yield was reduced under FDI water regime. In conclusion, FWI irrigation strategy could be an effective option for simultaneously saving water and mitigating GWP without reducing rice yields using drought-resistant rice varieties, such as HY3.

  4. Changes of Soil Aggregate C Isotopes in No-Till Corn Following Bromegrass.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follett, R. F.; Varvel, G.; Vogel, K. P.

    2007-12-01

    This field study is near Ithaca, Nebraska, USA (lat. 41.151, long. 96.401) on a Filbert silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Vertic Argialboll). The site was in bromegrass since 1986. Corn was no-till seeded into the bromegrass sod in spring 1999. A randomized complete block design with three replicates was used. No-till corn was the main treatment with nitrogen (N) as subplots. N was broadcast at the start of each growing season at 60 or 120 kg N/ha as NH4NO3. Total biomass was measured by weighing 4.4 m of row in each plot. Soil samples were obtained in May 1999 (baseline sampling), Sept 1999, June 2000, Oct 2000, Sept 2001, Nov 2002, Sept 2003, and Oct 2005 from pre-selected areas by removal of plant material from the soil surface and removing the 0-5, 5- 10, and at 4 of the 8 harvests also sampling the 10-30 cm depths with a flat-bladed shovel. Soil bulk densities were determined on clods from each layer. The moist soil was passed through an 8 mm sieve before air drying and storing. Aggregate size fractions were obtained with a Yoder wet-aggregate method. Soil size fractions obtained were > 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.045 and < 0.045 mm. Detritus was floated to the surface and skimmed off for transfer to a separate container. Aggregates were dried at 55°C, weighed, ground, and analyzed for total C and N and 13C:12C isotope ratio. Because soil organic carbon (SOC) was labeled with the bromegrass (C3 plant) isotope signature, then during the 77 months of this experiment the re-labeling of each fraction and the total SOC with the corn (C4 plant) isotope signature and the amounts of SOC lost from aggregate size fractions with conversion of the bromegrass sod to no-till corn was measured. During 6.5 years, total SOC decreased from 21.1, 17.0, and 55.8 t/ha in the 0-5, 5-10, and 10-30 cm depths to 20.1, 16.7, and 55.5 t/ha, respectively. However the SOC in the < 2, 0.5-2, and < 0.5 mm fractions of the 0 - 5 cm depth changed from 62, 21, and 16 % of the total SOC at the

  5. Effect of surface incorporation of broiler litter applied to no-till cotton on runoff quality.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Shankle, M W; Tewolde, H; Brooks, J P; Sistani, K R; McLaughlin, M R; Rowe, D E

    2011-01-01

    Surface application of broiler litter to no-till cotton could lead to degradation of water quality. Incorporation of broiler litter into the top surface soil (0.05 m) could alleviate this risk. A 2-yr field study was conducted on a silt loam upland soil to determine the effect of incorporation of broiler litter into the soil surface on nutrient and bacterial transport in runoff. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four treatments and three replications. Treatments were (i) unfertilized control; (ii) surface-appliedbroiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) without incorporation; (iii) surface-applied broiler litter at 7.8 Mg ha(-1) with immediate incorporation; and (iv) inorganic fertilizer N (urea ammonium nitrate, 32% N) and inorganic fertilizer P (triple superphosphate) at the recommended rate. Phosphorus was surface appliedat 25 kg ha(-1) and N was injected at 101 kg ha(-1) into the soil using a commercial liquid fertilizer applicator. Runoff was collected from small runoff plots (2.4 m by 1.6 m) established at the bottom side of main plots (13.7 m by 6.0 m). Incorporation of broiler litter reduced total N (TN), NO3-N, water soluble P (WSP), and total P (TP) concentrations in runoffby 35, 25, 61, and 64%, respectively, and litter-associated bacteria by two to three orders of magnitude compared with unincorporated treatment. No significant difference in total suspended solids (TSS) in runoffwas obtained between incorporated and unincorporated treatments. Incorporation of broiler litter into the surface soil in the no-till system immediately after application minimized the potential risk for surface nutrient losses and bacteria transport in runoff. PMID:21520764

  6. The manager and continuing education.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2002-12-01

    Continuing education in health care organizations consists of that which is required by law or regulation and that which is optional. The required is done because it must be done; the other, including most management development and some staff education, is often ignored. Nonrequired education is one of the first items to go during budget-cutting exercises. Yet continuing education at all levels, for managers as well as nonmanagers, is essential in keeping health care workers abreast of rapid change. Much continuing education, even that for rank-and-file staff, is up to the department manager, and with few exceptions, the pursuit of continuing management development is left largely to the individual manager. The department manager is an educator of staff and is also largely responsible for self-development. PMID:14959901

  7. Does no-till wheat sowing in a rice-wheat cropping sequence cause surface-soil compaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. Saleem; Nabi, Ghulam; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, M.

    2008-11-01

    Wheat planting in rice-harvested fields without land preparation is more economical, but the physical characteristics of the plant root sphere are not well documented. Comparative changes in the soil compaction in parallel fields used for no-till and conventional tillage were measured in replicated field trials for two soil types and in three randomly selected farmers’ fields. Weakly to moderately developed soils on recent to old Pleistocene calcareous alluvium were studied. They differed in their clay content. No-till wheat sowing resulted in a greater soil bulk density and a lower total porosity in the heavy-textured soils compared to the light-textured soil. In the light-textured Jhakkar soil, the no-till regime resulted in a greater infiltration at the saturated state and under most suction levels and a greater macroporosity compared to the conventional tillage. The silty clay Kotly soil had greater macroporosity in the conventional tillage than in the no-till regime. The wheat root growth and penetration seemed to be favored by the relatively low bulk density resulting from the conventional tillage, particularly in the silty clay loam soil. The dense layer restricted root penetration in the silty clay loam soil, while there was less resistance in the sandy loam soil. The study demonstrated the suitability of the no-till regime for specific soil types.

  8. Continuous Risk Management: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    Software risk management is important because it helps avoid disasters, rework, and overkill, but more importantly because it stimulates win-win situations. The objectives of software risk management are to identify, address, and eliminate software risk items before they become threats to success or major sources of rework. In general, good project managers are also good managers of risk. It makes good business sense for all software development projects to incorporate risk management as part of project management. The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to implement risk management. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This is an introductory tutorial to continuous risk management based on this course. The rational for continuous risk management and how it is incorporated into project management are discussed. The risk management structure of six functions is discussed in sufficient depth for managers to understand what is involved in risk management and how it is implemented. These functions include: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  9. Site-Specific N Management in an Intensified No-till Dryland Cropping System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional uniform N application is inefficient. Nitrogen is over-applied in low-producing parts of a field and under-applied in areas with high-production potential. The result is lost income for farmers, diminished carbon sequestration, and negative environmental impact (soil acidification, tox...

  10. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stover dry weig...

  11. Elevated carbon dioxide alters chemical management of Canada thistle in no-till soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differential responses of crops and weeds to anthropogenic climatic change may alter competition and crop yields. Here we examine the role of current and projected increases in carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], on soybean growth and seed yield with and without competition from Canada thistle (Cir...

  12. Allelopathic influence of a wheat or rye cover crop on growth and yield of no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT No-till planting cotton into small grain cover crops has many benefits including reducing soil erosion and allelopathic suppression of weeds. It is suggested that the potentials of allelopathy on cotton plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of alleloche...

  13. Fungicide effect on soybean seed infection from Phomopsis longicolla and Cercospora kukuchii planted under no-till and till systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has become a standard practice for farmers to use a no-till production system where crop residue are left on the soil surface rather than incorporated into the soil. This practice helps reduce soil erosion, conserve energy, increase soil moisture, and reduce erosion. However, many plant pathogens...

  14. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dynamics of a no-till, corn-based cellulosic ethanol production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues like corn stover perform important functions that promote soil health and provide ecosystem services that influence agricultural sustainability and global biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated the effect of corn residue removal from a no-till, corn-soybean rotation on greenhouse gas (GHG...

  15. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions under no-till farming in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Sheng-Li; Pu, Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Xue, Jian-Fu; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Yu-Qiao; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Fu

    2016-04-01

    No-till (NT) practices are among promising options toward adaptation and mitigation of climate change. However, the mitigation effectiveness of NT depends not only on its carbon sequestration potential but also on soil-derived CH4 and N2O emissions. A meta-analysis was conducted, using a dataset involving 136 comparisons from 39 studies in China, to identify site-specific factors which influence CH4 emission, CH4 uptake, and N2O emission under NT. Comparative treatments involved NT without residue retention (NT0), NT with residue retention (NTR), compared to plow tillage (PT) with residue removed (PT0). Overall, NT0 significantly decreased CH4 emission by ~30% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 with an average emission 218.8 kg ha(-1) for rice paddies. However, the increase in N2O emission could partly offset the benefits of the decrease in CH4 emission under NT compared to PT0. NTR significantly enhanced N2O emission by 82.1%, 25.5%, and 20.8% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 for rice paddies, acid soils, and the first 5 years of the experiments, respectively. The results from categorical meta-analysis indicated that the higher N2O emission could be mitigated by adopting NT within alkaline soils, for long-term duration, and with less N fertilization input when compared to PT0. In addition, the natural log (lnR) of response ratio of CH4 and N2O emissions under NT correlated positively (enhancing emission) with climate factors (temperature and precipitation) and negatively (reducing emission) with experimental duration, suggesting that avoiding excess soil wetness and using NT for a long term could enhance the benefits of NT. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the conditions favoring greenhouse gas(es) reductions is essential to achieving climate change mitigation and advancing food security in China.

  16. Nitrogen source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) source comparison study was conducted to further evaluate the effects of inorganic N source and placement on growing-season and non-crop period soil nitrous oxide (NO). Commercially available controlled-release N fertilizers were evaluated for their potential to reduce NO emissions from a clay loam soil compared with conventionally used granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn ( L.) production system. Controlled-release N fertilizers evaluated were: a polymer-coated urea (ESN), stabilized urea (SuperU), and UAN+AgrotainPlus (SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain nitrification and urease inhibitors). Each N source was surface band applied (202 kg N ha) near the corn row at emergence and watered into the soil the next day. Subsurface banded ESN (ESNssb) and check (no N applied) treatments were included. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons and after harvest using static, vented chambers. All N sources had significantly lower growing-season NO emissions than granular urea (0.7% of applied N), with UAN+AgrotainPlus (0.2% of applied N) and ESN (0.3% of applied N) having lower emissions than UAN (0.4% of applied N). Similar trends were observed when expressing NO emissions on a grain yield and N uptake basis. Corn grain yields were not different among N sources but were greater than the check. Selection of N fertilizer source can be a mitigation practice for reducing NO emissions in NT, irrigated corn in semiarid areas. In our study, UAN+AgrotainPlus consistently had the lowest level of NO emissions with no yield loss. PMID:23099926

  17. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Francesco, Alluvione

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is essential for optimizing crop yields; however, it may potentially increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The study objective was to assess the ability of commercially available enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers to reduce N2O emissions following their application in comparison with conventional dry granular urea and liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn (Zea mays L.) production system. Four enhanced-efficiency fertilizers were evaluated: two polymer-coated urea products (ESN and Duration III) and two fertilizers containing nitrification and urease inhibitors (SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus). Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers significantly reduced growing-season N2O-N emissions in comparison with urea, including UAN. SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus had significantly lower N2O-N emissions than UAN. Compared with urea, SuperU reduced N2O-N emissions 48%, ESN 34%, Duration III 31%, UAN 27%, and UAN+AgrotainPlus 53% averaged over 2 yr. Compared with UAN, UAN+AgrotainPlus reduced N2O emissions 35% and SuperU 29% averaged over 2 yr. The N2O-N loss as a percentage of N applied was 0.3% for urea, with all other N sources having significantly lower losses. Grain production was not reduced by the use of alternative N sources. This work shows that enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers can potentially reduce N2O-N emissions without affecting yields from irrigated NT corn systems in the semiarid central Great Plains. PMID:21043261

  18. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions under no-till farming in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Sheng-Li; Pu, Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Xue, Jian-Fu; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Yu-Qiao; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Chen, Fu

    2016-04-01

    No-till (NT) practices are among promising options toward adaptation and mitigation of climate change. However, the mitigation effectiveness of NT depends not only on its carbon sequestration potential but also on soil-derived CH4 and N2O emissions. A meta-analysis was conducted, using a dataset involving 136 comparisons from 39 studies in China, to identify site-specific factors which influence CH4 emission, CH4 uptake, and N2O emission under NT. Comparative treatments involved NT without residue retention (NT0), NT with residue retention (NTR), compared to plow tillage (PT) with residue removed (PT0). Overall, NT0 significantly decreased CH4 emission by ~30% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 with an average emission 218.8 kg ha(-1) for rice paddies. However, the increase in N2O emission could partly offset the benefits of the decrease in CH4 emission under NT compared to PT0. NTR significantly enhanced N2O emission by 82.1%, 25.5%, and 20.8% (P < 0.05) compared to PT0 for rice paddies, acid soils, and the first 5 years of the experiments, respectively. The results from categorical meta-analysis indicated that the higher N2O emission could be mitigated by adopting NT within alkaline soils, for long-term duration, and with less N fertilization input when compared to PT0. In addition, the natural log (lnR) of response ratio of CH4 and N2O emissions under NT correlated positively (enhancing emission) with climate factors (temperature and precipitation) and negatively (reducing emission) with experimental duration, suggesting that avoiding excess soil wetness and using NT for a long term could enhance the benefits of NT. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the conditions favoring greenhouse gas(es) reductions is essential to achieving climate change mitigation and advancing food security in China. PMID:26661415

  19. Nitrogen source and placement effects on soil nitrous oxide emissions from no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) source comparison study was conducted to further evaluate the effects of inorganic N source and placement on growing-season and non-crop period soil nitrous oxide (NO). Commercially available controlled-release N fertilizers were evaluated for their potential to reduce NO emissions from a clay loam soil compared with conventionally used granular urea and urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn ( L.) production system. Controlled-release N fertilizers evaluated were: a polymer-coated urea (ESN), stabilized urea (SuperU), and UAN+AgrotainPlus (SuperU and AgrotainPlus contain nitrification and urease inhibitors). Each N source was surface band applied (202 kg N ha) near the corn row at emergence and watered into the soil the next day. Subsurface banded ESN (ESNssb) and check (no N applied) treatments were included. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons and after harvest using static, vented chambers. All N sources had significantly lower growing-season NO emissions than granular urea (0.7% of applied N), with UAN+AgrotainPlus (0.2% of applied N) and ESN (0.3% of applied N) having lower emissions than UAN (0.4% of applied N). Similar trends were observed when expressing NO emissions on a grain yield and N uptake basis. Corn grain yields were not different among N sources but were greater than the check. Selection of N fertilizer source can be a mitigation practice for reducing NO emissions in NT, irrigated corn in semiarid areas. In our study, UAN+AgrotainPlus consistently had the lowest level of NO emissions with no yield loss.

  20. Nitrogen source effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated no-till corn.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Francesco, Alluvione

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilization is essential for optimizing crop yields; however, it may potentially increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The study objective was to assess the ability of commercially available enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers to reduce N2O emissions following their application in comparison with conventional dry granular urea and liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizers in an irrigated no-till (NT) corn (Zea mays L.) production system. Four enhanced-efficiency fertilizers were evaluated: two polymer-coated urea products (ESN and Duration III) and two fertilizers containing nitrification and urease inhibitors (SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus). Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers significantly reduced growing-season N2O-N emissions in comparison with urea, including UAN. SuperU and UAN+AgrotainPlus had significantly lower N2O-N emissions than UAN. Compared with urea, SuperU reduced N2O-N emissions 48%, ESN 34%, Duration III 31%, UAN 27%, and UAN+AgrotainPlus 53% averaged over 2 yr. Compared with UAN, UAN+AgrotainPlus reduced N2O emissions 35% and SuperU 29% averaged over 2 yr. The N2O-N loss as a percentage of N applied was 0.3% for urea, with all other N sources having significantly lower losses. Grain production was not reduced by the use of alternative N sources. This work shows that enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers can potentially reduce N2O-N emissions without affecting yields from irrigated NT corn systems in the semiarid central Great Plains.

  1. Modeling hydrology, metribuzin degradation and metribuzin transport in macroporous tilled and no-till silt loam soil using RZWQM.

    PubMed

    Malone, Robert W; Ma, Liwang; Wauchope, R Don; Ahuja, Lajpat R; Rojas, Kenneth W; Ma, Qingli; Warner, Richard; Byers, Matt

    2004-03-01

    Due to the complex nature of pesticide transport, process-based models can be difficult to use. For example, pesticide transport can be effected by macropore flow, and can be further complicated by sorption, desorption and degradation occurring at different rates in different soil compartments. We have used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to investigate these phenomena with field data that included two management conditions (till and no-till) and metribuzin concentrations in percolate, runoff and soil. Metribuzin degradation and transport were simulated using three pesticide sorption models available in RZWQM: (a) instantaneous equilibrium-only (EO); (b) equilibrium-kinetic (EK, includes sites with slow desorption and no degradation); (c) equilibrium-bound (EB, includes irreversibly bound sites with relatively slow degradation). Site-specific RZWQM input included water retention curves from four soil depths, saturated hydraulic conductivity from four soil depths and the metribuzin partition coefficient. The calibrated parameters were macropore radius, surface crust saturated hydraulic conductivity, kinetic parameters, irreversible binding parameters and metribuzin half-life. The results indicate that (1) simulated metribuzin persistence was more accurate using the EK (root mean square error, RMSE = 0.03 kg ha(-1)) and EB (RMSE = 0.03 kg ha(-1)) sorption models compared to the EO (RMSE = 0.08 kg ha(-1)) model because of slowing metribuzin degradation rate with time and (2) simulating macropore flow resulted in prediction of metribuzin transport in percolate over the simulation period within a factor of two of that observed using all three pesticide sorption models. Moreover, little difference in simulated daily transport was observed between the three pesticide sorption models, except that the EB model substantially under-predicted metribuzin transport in runoff and percolate >30 days after application when transported concentrations were relatively low

  2. Modeling hydrology, metribuzin degradation and metribuzin transport in macroporous tilled and no-till silt loam soil using RZWQM.

    PubMed

    Malone, Robert W; Ma, Liwang; Wauchope, R Don; Ahuja, Lajpat R; Rojas, Kenneth W; Ma, Qingli; Warner, Richard; Byers, Matt

    2004-03-01

    Due to the complex nature of pesticide transport, process-based models can be difficult to use. For example, pesticide transport can be effected by macropore flow, and can be further complicated by sorption, desorption and degradation occurring at different rates in different soil compartments. We have used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to investigate these phenomena with field data that included two management conditions (till and no-till) and metribuzin concentrations in percolate, runoff and soil. Metribuzin degradation and transport were simulated using three pesticide sorption models available in RZWQM: (a) instantaneous equilibrium-only (EO); (b) equilibrium-kinetic (EK, includes sites with slow desorption and no degradation); (c) equilibrium-bound (EB, includes irreversibly bound sites with relatively slow degradation). Site-specific RZWQM input included water retention curves from four soil depths, saturated hydraulic conductivity from four soil depths and the metribuzin partition coefficient. The calibrated parameters were macropore radius, surface crust saturated hydraulic conductivity, kinetic parameters, irreversible binding parameters and metribuzin half-life. The results indicate that (1) simulated metribuzin persistence was more accurate using the EK (root mean square error, RMSE = 0.03 kg ha(-1)) and EB (RMSE = 0.03 kg ha(-1)) sorption models compared to the EO (RMSE = 0.08 kg ha(-1)) model because of slowing metribuzin degradation rate with time and (2) simulating macropore flow resulted in prediction of metribuzin transport in percolate over the simulation period within a factor of two of that observed using all three pesticide sorption models. Moreover, little difference in simulated daily transport was observed between the three pesticide sorption models, except that the EB model substantially under-predicted metribuzin transport in runoff and percolate >30 days after application when transported concentrations were relatively low

  3. Long-term trends in nitrous oxide emissions, soil nitrogen, and crop yields of till and no-till cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Grandy, A Stuart; Loecke, Terrance D; Parr, Sara; Robertson, G Philip

    2006-01-01

    No-till cropping can increase soil C stocks and aggregation but patterns of long-term changes in N2O emissions, soil N availability, and crop yields still need to be resolved. We measured soil C accumulation, aggregation, soil water, N2O emissions, soil inorganic N, and crop yields in till and no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotations between 1989 and 2002 in southwestern Michigan and investigated whether tillage effects varied over time or by crop. Mean annual NO3- concentrations in no-till were significantly less than in conventional till in three of six corn years and during one year of wheat production. Yields were similar in each system for all 14 years but three, during which yields were higher in no-till, indicating that lower soil NO3- concentrations did not result in lower yields. Carbon accumulated in no-till soils at a rate of 26 g C m(-2) yr(-1) over 12 years at the 0- to 5-cm soil depth. Average nitrous oxide emissions were similar in till (3.27 +/- 0.52 g N ha d(-1)) and no-till (3.63 +/- 0.53 g N ha d(-1)) systems and were sufficient to offset 56 to 61% of the reduction in CO2 equivalents associated with no-till C sequestration. After controlling for rotation and environmental effects by normalizing treatment differences between till and no-till systems we found no significant trends in soil N, N2O emissions, or yields through time. In our sandy loam soils, no-till cropping enhances C storage, aggregation, and associated environmental processes with no significant ecological or yield tradeoffs.

  4. Simulating landscape catena effects in no-till dryland agroecosystems using GPFARM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative agricultural management systems in the semi-arid Great Plains are receiving increasing attention. GPFARM is a farm/ranch decision support system (DSS) designed to assist in strategic management planning for land units from the field to the whole-farm level. This study evaluated the site...

  5. Comparing carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between no-till and conventional tillage agriculture in Lesotho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management practices can either sequester or emit carbon (C). Feeding seven billion people mandates that soils be used intensively for food production, but how these soils are managed greatly impacts soil fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the lack of CO2 flux measurements on African subs...

  6. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2, 3, and 4 yr. limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.) based crop rotations for grain yield, available soil water, crop water productivity, and profitability in co...

  7. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in West Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to numerous alternatives in crop sequence and changes in crop yield and price, finding the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.)-based crop rotations for...

  8. Impact of corn stover removal on soil microbial communities in no-till and conventional till continuous corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue, or stover, can be used as a dry forage replacement in beef cattle diets and is being considered as a feedstock for cellulosic biofuel production. The soil quality and crop productivity ramifications of removing stover, however, likely will depend on stover removal rate an...

  9. Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

    2011-01-01

    Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end.

  10. Riparian buffer zones as pesticide filters of no-till crops.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Terencio R; Bortolozo, F R; Hansel, F A; Rasera, K; Ferreira, M T

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have pointed to the potential benefits of riparian vegetation as buffer zones for agricultural and industrial pollutants harmful to aquatic ecosystems. However, other studies have called into question its use as an ecological filter, questioning the widths and conditions for which they are effective as a filter. In this work, we have investigated the buffering capacity of the riparian one to retain pesticides in the water-saturated zone, on 27 sites composed by riparian buffer zones with different vegetation structure (woody, shrubs, or grass vegetation) and width (12, 36, and 60 m). Five pesticides were analyzed. The effectiveness of the filtering was largely influenced by the width and vegetation type of the buffer zone. In general, decreasing pesticide removal followed in this order wood > shrubs > grass. The 60 m woody buffer zone was the most effective in the removal of all the pesticides. Only atrazine was detected in this case (0.3 μg L(-1)). Furthermore, a linear correlation (R (2) > 0.97) was observed in their removal for all compounds and buffer zones studied. Thus, preserving the woody vegetation in the riparian zone is important for watershed management and groundwater quality in the no-tillage system in temperate climate.

  11. Riparian buffer zones as pesticide filters of no-till crops.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Terencio R; Bortolozo, F R; Hansel, F A; Rasera, K; Ferreira, M T

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have pointed to the potential benefits of riparian vegetation as buffer zones for agricultural and industrial pollutants harmful to aquatic ecosystems. However, other studies have called into question its use as an ecological filter, questioning the widths and conditions for which they are effective as a filter. In this work, we have investigated the buffering capacity of the riparian one to retain pesticides in the water-saturated zone, on 27 sites composed by riparian buffer zones with different vegetation structure (woody, shrubs, or grass vegetation) and width (12, 36, and 60 m). Five pesticides were analyzed. The effectiveness of the filtering was largely influenced by the width and vegetation type of the buffer zone. In general, decreasing pesticide removal followed in this order wood > shrubs > grass. The 60 m woody buffer zone was the most effective in the removal of all the pesticides. Only atrazine was detected in this case (0.3 μg L(-1)). Furthermore, a linear correlation (R (2) > 0.97) was observed in their removal for all compounds and buffer zones studied. Thus, preserving the woody vegetation in the riparian zone is important for watershed management and groundwater quality in the no-tillage system in temperate climate. PMID:25744820

  12. Continuous Risk Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. This presentation will give project managers the information they need to understand if risk management is to be effectively implemented on their projects at a cost they can afford.

  13. Business continuity management in international organisations.

    PubMed

    Adamou, Christel

    2014-01-01

    In the area of business continuity management, a preliminary review of the literature reveals extensive knowledge, expertise and experience concerning organisations in the private and public sectors. It is interesting to note, however, that there is little literature about business continuity management in international organisations, although these entities are complex and particularly prone to threats. This apparent absence of literature suggests that business continuity management has not yet hit the agenda of international organisations. In recent years, member states have encouraged senior management to design and implement business continuity strategies to minimise the mishandling of an internal crisis and build organisational resilience, but very few of them have actually been able to design and implement comprehensive business continuity programmes. Based on actual experience working in international organisations, this paper outlines some of the challenges faced by international organisations in developing and implementing business continuity activities and attempts to make suggestions for further improvement. PMID:24578023

  14. Business continuity management in international organisations.

    PubMed

    Adamou, Christel

    2014-01-01

    In the area of business continuity management, a preliminary review of the literature reveals extensive knowledge, expertise and experience concerning organisations in the private and public sectors. It is interesting to note, however, that there is little literature about business continuity management in international organisations, although these entities are complex and particularly prone to threats. This apparent absence of literature suggests that business continuity management has not yet hit the agenda of international organisations. In recent years, member states have encouraged senior management to design and implement business continuity strategies to minimise the mishandling of an internal crisis and build organisational resilience, but very few of them have actually been able to design and implement comprehensive business continuity programmes. Based on actual experience working in international organisations, this paper outlines some of the challenges faced by international organisations in developing and implementing business continuity activities and attempts to make suggestions for further improvement.

  15. Hybrid Power Management Program Continued

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and photovoltaics. HPM has extremely wide potential with applications including power-generation, transportation, biotechnology, and space power systems. It may significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy.

  16. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.

  17. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

  18. A Marketing Management Approach for Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Applies a marketing management model to the revitalization, or remarketing, of continuing education. Assesses the potential of continuing education as a higher education market. Suggests surveying present students, developing and quantifying hypotheses, applying new technology, promoting selected benefits, approaching areas of opportunity, and…

  19. Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

  20. Enhancing management of fall-applied poultry litter with cover crop and subsurface band placement in no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether yield reduction risk of cotton fertilized with fall-applied poultry litter in regions with warm fall or winter months can be minimized by applying the litter in subsurface bands in conjunction with winter cover crop is unknown. A field study was conducted in Mississippi to test whether litte...

  1. Cultural strategies for managing weeds and soil moisture in cover crop-based no-till soybean production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four site-year study was conducted in North Carolina to evaluate the effects of soybean planting timing and row spacing on soil moisture, weed pressure, soybean lodging and yield in a cover crop-based soybean production system. Soybean planting timing included roll-kill and soybean planting occu...

  2. Greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in agro-ecosystems under long-term no-till: implications for global warming mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacinthe, P.; Dick, W. A.; Lal, R.; Shrestha, R. K.; Bilen, S.

    2011-12-01

    No-till (NT) management has gained wide acceptance in US agriculture, and could contribute to global warming mitigation by offsetting fossil fuel emission. While C sequestration in NT systems is fairly well documented, the dynamics of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission is less well understood. However, the literature abounds with viewpoints and assumptions. Because of crop residue accumulation on NT surface and generally higher soil moisture, it is often assumed that production of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) is greater in NT systems compared to conventional tillage (MP). But it is also possible that long-term implementation of NT could increase soil macro-porosity, lead to the evolution of an active population of methanotrophs, and ultimately result in enhanced CH4 uptake. Field data are needed to reconcile these conflicting assumptions. A 2-year (2009-2011) study was conducted to quantify C sequestration, and compare GHG fluxes in adjacent forest and cropland under MP and long-term NT (9, 13, 36 and 48 years). The study sites were located across Ohio on soil series with similar drainage characteristics (moderately well drained, MWD) so that duration of NT management is the experimental factor. We also included a site under NT for 48 years but located on somewhat poorly-drained soil (SPD) in order to assess the impact of soil drainage. Results revealed marked effect of NT duration and soil drainage characteristics on GHG fluxes. As hypothesized, we found a positive impact of NT on CH4 uptake, but significant difference with MP management was noted at sites under NT for > 10 years. At the sites under NT for 48 years, CH4 uptake rate was 10-12 times higher in MWD than in SPD soils. When data from all sites were pooled, N2O fluxes were significantly higher under MP (2.01 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1) than under NT (0.73), but the trend varied with NT duration. While at recent (<10 y) NT sites, N2O emission was significantly lower than under MP, the

  3. Initial nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and methane costs of converting conservation reserve program grassland to row crops under no-till vs. conventional tillage.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Leilei; Philip Robertson, G

    2013-08-01

    Around 4.4 million ha of land in USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts will expire between 2013 and 2018 and some will likely return to crop production. No-till (NT) management offers the potential to reduce the global warming costs of CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O emissions during CRP conversion, but to date there have been no CRP conversion tillage comparisons. In 2009, we converted portions of three 9-21 ha CRP fields in Michigan to conventional tillage (CT) or NT soybean production and reserved a fourth field for reference. Both CO2 and N2 O fluxes increased following herbicide application in all converted fields, but in the CT treatment substantial and immediate N2 O and CO2 fluxes occurred after tillage. For the initial 201-day conversion period, average daily N2 O fluxes (g N2 O-N ha(-1)  d(-1) ) were significantly different in the order: CT (47.5 ± 6.31, n = 6) ≫ NT (16.7 ± 2.45, n = 6) ≫ reference (2.51 ± 0.73, n = 4). Similarly, soil CO2 fluxes in CT were 1.2 times those in NT and 3.1 times those in the unconverted CRP reference field. All treatments were minor sinks for CH4 (-0.69 ± 0.42 to -1.86 ± 0.37 g CH4 -C ha(-1)  d(-1) ) with no significant differences among treatments. The positive global warming impact (GWI) of converted soybean fields under both CT (11.5 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) and NT (2.87 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) was in contrast to the negative GWI of the unconverted reference field (-3.5 Mg CO2 e ha(-1) ) with on-going greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. N2 O contributed 39.3% and 55.0% of the GWI under CT and NT systems with the remainder contributed by CO2 (60.7% and 45.0%, respectively). Including foregone mitigation, we conclude that NT management can reduce GHG costs by ~60% compared to CT during initial CRP conversion.

  4. Creating meaningful business continuity management programme metrics.

    PubMed

    Strong, Brian

    2010-11-01

    The popular axiom, 'what gets measured gets done', is often applied in the quality management and continuous improvement disciplines. This truism is also useful to business continuity practitioners as they continually strive to prove the value of their organisation's investment in a business continuity management (BCM) programme. BCM practitioners must also remain relevant to their organisations as executives focus on the bottom line and maintaining stakeholder confidence. It seems that executives always find a way, whether in a hallway or elevator, to ask BCM professionals about the company's level of readiness. When asked, they must be ready with an informed response. The establishment of a process to measure business continuity programme performance and organisational readiness has emerged as a key component of US Department of Homeland Security 'Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness (PS-Prep) Program' standards where the overarching goal is to improve private sector preparedness for disasters and emergencies. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to introduce continuity professionals to best practices that should be considered when developing a BCM metrics programme as well as providing a case study of how a large health insurance company researched, developed and implemented a process to measure BCM programme performance and company readiness. PMID:21177222

  5. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  6. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists 782 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1977. The citations, and abstracts when available, are reproduced exactly as they appeared originally in IAA and STAR, including the original accession numbers from the respective announcement journals. Topics cover the management of research and development contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control citations. Includes references on: program, project and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decisionmaking processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting.

  7. Title V continuous compliance data management

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, J.; Takacs, J.F.; Conover, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. (MBI) has realized that the hardest part about compliance with Title V requirements is not the initial permit application, but the ongoing compliance and certification process. In late 1995, the Phillipsburg New Jersey plant elected to begin the development of an Air Compliance Module. This Air Module is a component of the overall Environmental Information Management System (EIMS). The purpose of this module is to meet the needs for continuous compliance and certification of that compliance. The Air Module meets three functional needs. The first need is to verify permit compliance. The permit limitations for each emission unit are contained in this module. These limitations do not just include emissions, but also include operational limitations such as, hours of operation and product throughputs. The second need is to calculate and track emissions. The emissions from each emission unit are calculated and compared to the annual limitations. Reports are generated for total emissions and for emission units that are approaching permit limits. The third need is for production tracking. This system tracks production, hours of operation, scrubber parameters and most of the information required by the compliance plan. In addition, specific business information such as quality parameters and safety inspections is recorded. This is where this module becomes a business system, providing data accumulation, tracking and reporting not possible using the current manual systems. Data from all of the operations at the plant are captured by the production tracking system. This information is fed into the emission calculator to calculate the emissions for each emission unit. The emission data and other operating parameters are then compared to the requirements of the compliance plan stored in the permit limitations. This is then used to produce the semi-annual compliance report.

  8. Continuous Risk Management: A NASA Program Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  9. Continuing Education -- A Management Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. D.

    The needs for continuing engineering education to avoid technical obsolescence and the programs offered by one company to fill this need are discussed. Ten educational alternative programs of the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque (New Mexico) are described. (CP)

  10. A new perspective with weed management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management in no-till, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Producers are seeking a broader perspective with weed management. One approach is to disrupt weed...

  11. Effects of Cover Crops to Offset Soil Carbon Changes Under No-till on an Ohio farm when Biomass is Harvested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, J. M.; Everett, L. R.; Richards, W.

    2003-12-01

    The results of a long term experiment to look at the use of cover crops and there effect on soil organic carbon. No-till has been shown to increase SOC and improve the overall soil quality under conditions where the biomass has been returned to the field. However, biomass may be removed as silage or for use in biofuels. The removal will reduce the inputs to the field so to overcome the amount of biomass not returned to the soil different cover crops were used. This experiment was done on a working farm where the corn biomass was being removed as silage. Four cover crops were planted in early September of 2002: rye, oats, clover, and canola with two controls, one with no cover crop and one where corn stubble was left on the field. The soils were sampled soon after the crops were planted and again in the spring of 2003 before the cover crops were killed just prior to planting. The first results indicate that the most root biomass was produced by the rye followed by oats then canola and then clover.

  12. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L F; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-09-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed.

  13. Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (∼ 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil.

  14. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience.

  15. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience. PMID:26642170

  16. The strategic skills of business continuity managers: putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wei Ning Zechariah

    2009-11-01

    Despite its rapid development in the last two decades, business continuity management (BCM) as a discipline and a profession is still regarded by many as an operational entity of management. Two main issues are discussed in this paper: the role of BCM in strategic management and the strategic skills of business continuity managers. These issues are crucial as they represent the role of BCM in high-level corporate management. The paper discusses the importance of BCM in the long-term planning of organisational success and the preservation of future competitiveness. Finally, salient points that underpin the importance of its role in sustaining organisational performance are addressed. PMID:20378494

  17. The strategic skills of business continuity managers: putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wei Ning Zechariah

    2009-11-01

    Despite its rapid development in the last two decades, business continuity management (BCM) as a discipline and a profession is still regarded by many as an operational entity of management. Two main issues are discussed in this paper: the role of BCM in strategic management and the strategic skills of business continuity managers. These issues are crucial as they represent the role of BCM in high-level corporate management. The paper discusses the importance of BCM in the long-term planning of organisational success and the preservation of future competitiveness. Finally, salient points that underpin the importance of its role in sustaining organisational performance are addressed.

  18. Managing weeds with a population dynamics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till cropping systems are increasing land productivity. A critical aspect of no-till is controlling weeds. Herbicides are a crucial tool for weed management, but weed resistance is decreasing control efficacy and increasing input costs. Scientists and producers are seeking a broader perspectiv...

  19. Red to Black: A Primer for Continuing Education Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Armand; White, Sandra

    1990-01-01

    Traces the efforts of the Division of Continuing Studies at a large northeastern state university to regain fiscal solvency through business and leadership techniques including management by objectives, section management, and a course confirmation formula. Warns program administrators about potential problems with break-even registration…

  20. The Teacher as Manager in Continuing and Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanini, Judith; Higgs, Joy

    1991-01-01

    Presents a model of teachers as managers of self-directed and interactive learning, which promotes independence, interaction, communication, leadership, teamwork, conflict resolution, and responsibility for one's own work and continued learning. Teachers' roles include managing the overall program, task, group, individual development, and the…

  1. Anger in School Managers: Continuity, Direction, Control and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa; Iskender, Murat; Cardak, Mehmet; Dusunceli, Betul

    2012-01-01

    School managers undertake an important duty in structuring of education institutions. In the study carried out in this context; anger conditions, continuity, and direction of anger, anger control levels and anger styles of school managers who are the decision makers in schools were examined according to the ages, working periods, duty types, ways…

  2. Managing Adult and Continuing Education Programs and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langerman, Philip D., Ed.; Smith, Douglas H., Ed.

    Developed to assist managers of adult and continuing education programs, this management guide contains thirteen chapters written by several authors selected for their expertise in their respective areas. These chapters are divided into three major sections. The first section includes three introductory chapters providing (1) an overview of this…

  3. Planting date impacts on soil water management, plant growth, and weeds in cover-crop-based no-till corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low input and organic farmers are increasingly utilizing cover crop mulches in maize production. Many farmers are delaying planting corn into these high residue environments to allow greater growth of the cover crop to maximize nitrogen fixation and improve mechanical termination with roller crimpe...

  4. Towards a no-till no-spray future? Introduction to a symposium on nonchemical weed management for reduced-tillage cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced-tillage systems including no-tillage and strip tillage have well-known benefits for conserving and improving soils, protecting vulnerable crops from extreme weather events, and reducing labor and fuel costs associated with full-width inversion tillage. Despite these benefits, reduced-tillage...

  5. Risk Evaluation of Business Continuity Management by Using Green Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Chen

    IT disasters can be seen as the test of the ability in communities and firms to effectively protect their information and infrastructure, to reduce both human and property loss, and to rapidly recover. In this paper, we use a literature meta-analysis method to identify potential research directions in Green Business Continuity Management (GBCM). The concept and characteristics of GBCM are discussed. We analysis the connotation and the sources of green technology risk. An assessment index system is established from the perspectives of GBCM. A fuzzy comprehensive assessment method is introduced to assess the risks of green technology in Business Continuity Management.

  6. Precision Fluid Management in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Raghavan; Hoste, Eric; Mehta, Ravindra L; Samoni, Sara; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Fluid management during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients is a dynamic process that encompasses 3 inter-related goals: maintenance of the patency of the CRRT circuit, maintenance of plasma electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and regulation of patient fluid balance. In this article, we report the consensus recommendations of the 2016 Acute Disease Quality Initiative XVII conference on 'Precision Fluid Management in CRRT'. We discuss the principles of fluid management, describe various prescription methods to achieve circuit integrity and introduce the concept of integrated fluid balance for tailoring fluid balance to the needs of the individual patient. We suggest that these recommendations could serve to develop the best clinical practice and standards of care for fluid management in patients undergoing CRRT. Finally, we identify and highlight areas of uncertainty in fluid management and set an agenda for future research. PMID:27562336

  7. Lean management systems: creating a culture of continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Clark, David M; Silvester, Kate; Knowles, Simon

    2013-08-01

    This is the first in a series of articles describing the application of Lean management systems to Laboratory Medicine. Lean is the term used to describe a principle-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) management system based on the Toyota production system (TPS) that has been evolving for over 70 years. Its origins go back much further and are heavily influenced by the work of W Edwards Deming and the scientific method that forms the basis of most quality management systems. Lean has two fundamental elements--a systematic approach to process improvement by removing waste in order to maximise value for the end-user of the service and a commitment to respect, challenge and develop the people who work within the service to create a culture of continuous improvement. Lean principles have been applied to a growing number of Healthcare systems throughout the world to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of services for patients and a number of laboratories from all the pathology disciplines have used Lean to shorten turnaround times, improve quality (reduce errors) and improve productivity. Increasingly, models used to plan and implement large scale change in healthcare systems, including the National Health Service (NHS) change model, have evidence-based improvement methodologies (such as Lean CQI) as a core component. Consequently, a working knowledge of improvement methodology will be a core skill for Pathologists involved in leadership and management.

  8. Improving Our Odds: Success through Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhalgh, Phillip O.

    2009-01-01

    Launching a rocket, running a business, driving to work and even day-to-day living all involve some degree of risk. Risk is ever present yet not always recognized, adequately assessed and appropriately mitigated. Identification, assessment and mitigation of risk are elements of the risk management component of the "continuous improvement" way of life that has become a hallmark of successful and progressive enterprises. While the application of risk management techniques to provide continuous improvement may be detailed and extensive, the philosophy, ideals and tools can be beneficially applied to all situations. Experiences with the use of risk identification, assessment and mitigation techniques for complex systems and processes are described. System safety efforts and tools used to examine potential risks of the Ares I First Stage of NASA s new Constellation Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) presently being designed are noted as examples. Recommendations from lessons learned are provided for the application of risk management during the development of new systems as well as for the improvement of existing systems. Lessons learned and suggestions given are also examined for applicability to simple systems, uncomplicated processes and routine personal daily tasks. This paper informs the reader of varied uses of risk management efforts and techniques to identify, assess and mitigate risk for improvement of products, success of business, protection of people and enhancement of personal life.

  9. Development and implementation of a business continuity management risk index.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Michael

    This paper will present the building blocks for developing and implementing the BCM risk index; whether it is used as a comprehensive metric for risk or preparedness. This paper introduces the concept of a business continuity management (BCM) risk index--a comprehensive metric that measures and reports the status of the primary 'intended outcome' of the BCM programme to top management. In addition to measuring the primary programme output,;the BCM risk index can be used to demonstrate the overall value of the BCM programme to executive management. This is accomplished because the BCM risk index allows quantitative measurement of current risk levels and their comparison with established risk tolerances. The BCM Risk Index can provide executive management with reports on the risk level of individual business units, departments, subsidiaries or the enterprise in a way that drives both risk management and BCM initiatives. The name 'risk index' can be misleading, however. The BCM risk index concept can also be used to measure preparedness levels. In fact, implementation at DTE Energy has resulted in calling it the 'preparedness index', which is used to measure and report preparedness levels rather than risk levels. PMID:26591931

  10. Development and implementation of a business continuity management risk index.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Michael

    This paper will present the building blocks for developing and implementing the BCM risk index; whether it is used as a comprehensive metric for risk or preparedness. This paper introduces the concept of a business continuity management (BCM) risk index--a comprehensive metric that measures and reports the status of the primary 'intended outcome' of the BCM programme to top management. In addition to measuring the primary programme output,;the BCM risk index can be used to demonstrate the overall value of the BCM programme to executive management. This is accomplished because the BCM risk index allows quantitative measurement of current risk levels and their comparison with established risk tolerances. The BCM Risk Index can provide executive management with reports on the risk level of individual business units, departments, subsidiaries or the enterprise in a way that drives both risk management and BCM initiatives. The name 'risk index' can be misleading, however. The BCM risk index concept can also be used to measure preparedness levels. In fact, implementation at DTE Energy has resulted in calling it the 'preparedness index', which is used to measure and report preparedness levels rather than risk levels.

  11. Management of obstructive sleep apnea by continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E; Sawyer, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common problem, with 9% to 28% of women and 24% to 26% of males having apneic events at a treatable level, making this syndrome a serious public health issue. This article describes the outcomes associated with continuous positive airway pressure treatment, significance of the issue of poor adherence in OSA, discusses evidence regarding the optimal duration of nightly use, describes the nature and predictors of nonadherence, and reviews interventions that have been tested to increase nightly use and suggests management strategies.

  12. Acquisition and management of continuous data streams for crop water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireless sensor network systems for decision support in crop water management offer many advantages including larger spatial coverage and multiple types of data input. However, collection and management of multiple and continuous data streams for near real-time post analysis can be problematic. Thi...

  13. MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT SAFETY & HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (ISMS) CORE FUNCTION FOR FEEDBACK & CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    VON WEBER, M.

    2005-07-26

    Management assessment is required of US Department of Energy contractors by 10 CFR 830.122 and DOE Order 414.1. The management assessment process is a rigorous, preplanned, forward-looking review. It is required to be performed by owners of the processes that are being assessed. Written from the perspective of the Assessment Program Director and an Assessment Specialist, this paper describes the evolution of the process used by CH2MHILL to implement its management assessment program over the past two years including: roles, responsibilities, and details about our program improvement project designed to produce a clear picture of management processes and to identify opportunities for improvement. The management assessment program is essential to successful implementation, maintenance, and improvement of the CH2MHILL Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System (ISMS). The management assessment program implements, in part, ISMS Core Function No. 5. ''Feedback and Continuous Improvement''. Organizations use the management assessment process to assess ISMS implementation and effectiveness. Management assessments evaluate the total picture of how well management processes are meeting organizational objectives and the customer's requirements and expectations. The emphasis is on management issues affecting performance, systems, and processes such as: strategic planning, qualification, training, staffing, organizational interfaces, communication, cost and schedule control and mission objectives. Management assessments should identify any weaknesses in the management aspects of performance and make process improvements. All managers from first line supervisors to the president and general manager are involved in the management assessment process. More senior managers, in conducting their assessment, will use data from lower levels of management. This approach will facilitate the objective of having managers closer to the work under review focusing on more

  14. Amazon basin soils: management for continuous crop production.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P A; Bandy, D E; Villachica, J H; Nicholaides, J J

    1982-05-21

    Technology has been developed which permits continuous production of annual crops in some of the acid, infertile soils of the Amazon Basin. Studies in Yurimaguas, Peru, show that three grain crops can be produced annually with appropriate fertilizer inputs. Twenty-one crops have been harvested during the past 8(1/2) years in the same field, with an average annual production of 7.8 tons of grain per hectare. Soil properties are improving with continuous cultivation. The technology has been validated by local farmers, who normally practice shifting cultivation. Economic interpretations indicate large increases in annual family farm income and a high return on the investment of chemical inputs. Other promising land use alternatives include low-input crop production systems, paddy rice production in fertile alluvial soils, and pastures or agroforestry in rolling areas. Stable, continuous food crop production is an attractive alternative to shifting cultivation in humid tropical regions experiencing severe demographic pressures. For each hectare of land managed in a highly productive manner, there may be less need for clearing additional tropical forests to meet food demands. PMID:17819134

  15. [Continuing training plan in a clinical management unit].

    PubMed

    Gamboa Antiñolo, Fernando Miguel; Bayol Serradilla, Elia; Gómez Camacho, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Continuing Care Unit (UCA) focused the attention of frail patients, polypathological patients and palliative care. UCA attend patients at home, consulting, day unit, telephone consulting and in two hospitals of the health area. From 2002 UCA began as a management unit, training has been a priority for development. Key elements include: providing education to the workplace, including key aspects of the most prevalent health care problems in daily work, directing training to all staff including organizational aspects of patient safety and the environment, improved working environment, development of new skills and knowledge supported by the evidence-based care for the development of different skills. The unit can be the ideal setting to undertake the reforms necessary conceptual training of professionals to improve the quality of care.

  16. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan. PMID:22576137

  17. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan.

  18. Net Mineralization Response to Fertilizer Application and Site-Specific Setting in a No-Till Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem in the Pacific Northwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Emily A.; Brown, David J.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers is pivotal to maintaining agricultural productivity. Nutrient management is typically guided by a combined assessment of crop yield requirements, residual soil inorganic N concentration, and predicted N supply from organic matter. However, laboratory assays employed to forecast mineralization potential do not reflect in situ processes occurring in soils, processes that can vary spatially within a field. Furthermore, fertilizer application alters biogeochemical cycles through a variety of mechanisms including priming effects and microbial community alterations. This study investigates in-situ ammonification/nitrification rates utilizing mineralization cores as part of a five-year Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming (SCF) project. In-depth accounting of nitrate and ammonium production and flux was possible via a six bag mixed-bed ion exchange resin system. Soil cores (7.5 cm diameter by 15 cm deep) were isolated from the surrounding soil by three resin bags sealed in the top and bottom of individual plastic cylinders. Fifteen locations were selected across a commercial direct-seed wheat field based on statistical clustering of primary and secondary topographic variables. In each location surface soil-resin cores were installed in fertilized and unfertilized plots immediately after spring planting and removed before harvest. In situ ammonification/nitrification rates will be analyzed as a function of both fertilizer application and site-specific environmental characteristics as determined from soil moisture monitoring, soil characterization, and crop analysis at each measurement location. This site-specific information on N transformations and availability can then be used to guide site-specific crop management.

  19. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2008-10-03

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (Open Auto-DR or OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  20. Model Hosting for continuous updating and transparent Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jódar, Jorge; Almolda, Xavier; Batlle, Francisco; Carrera, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models have become a standard tool for water resources management. They are required for water volume bookkeeping and help in decision making. Nevertheless, numerical models are complex and they can be used only by highly qualified technicians, which are often far from the decision makers. Moreover, they need to be maintained. That is, they require updating of their state, by assimilation of measurements, natural and anthropic actions (e.g., pumping and weather data), and model parameters. Worst, their very complexity implies that are they viewed as obscure and far, which hinders transparency and governance. We propose internet model hosting as an alternative to overcome these limitations. The basic idea is to keep the model hosted in the cloud. The model is updated as new data (measurements and external forcing) becomes available, which ensures continuous maintenance, with a minimal human cost (only required to address modelling problems). Internet access facilitates model use not only by modellers, but also by people responsible for data gathering and by water managers. As a result, the model becomes an institutional tool shared by water agencies to help them not only in decision making for sustainable management of water resources, but also in generating a common discussion platform. By promoting intra-agency sharing, the model becomes the common official position of the agency, which facilitates commitment in their adopted decisions regarding water management. Moreover, by facilitating access to stakeholders and the general public, the state of the aquifer and the impacts of alternative decisions become transparent. We have developed a tool (GAC, Global Aquifer Control) to address the above requirements. The application has been developed using Cloud Computing technologies, which facilitates the above operations. That is, GAC automatically updates the numerical models with the new available measurements, and then simulates numerous management options

  1. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance with the management practice requirements? 63.10420 Section 63.10420 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital Ethylene... continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not...

  2. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the management practice requirements? 63.10420 Section 63.10420 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital Ethylene... continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not...

  3. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance with the management practice requirements? 63.10420 Section 63.10420 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital Ethylene... continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not...

  4. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance with the management practice requirements? 63.10420 Section 63.10420 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hospital Ethylene... continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not...

  5. Improvements of the Profil Cultural Method for a better Low-tech Field Assessment of Soil Structure under no-till

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger-Estrade, Jean; Boizard, Hubert; Peigné, Josephine; Sasal, Maria Carolina; Guimaraes, Rachel; Piron, Denis; Tomis, Vincent; Vian, Jean-François; Cadoux, Stephane; Ralisch, Ricardo; Filho, Tavares; Heddadj, Djilali; de Battista, Juan; Duparque, Annie

    2016-04-01

    In France, agronomists have studied the effects of cropping systems on soil structure, using a field method based on a visual description of soil structure. The "profil cultural" method (Manichon and Gautronneau, 1987) has been designed to perform a field diagnostic of the effects of tillage and compaction on soil structure dynamics. This method is of great use to agronomists improving crop management for a better preservation of soil structure. However, this method was developed and mainly used in conventional tillage systems, with ploughing. As several forms of reduced, minimum and no tillage systems are expanding in many parts of the world, it is necessary to re-evaluate the ability of this method to describe and interpret soil macrostructure in unploughed situations. In unploughed fields, soil structure dynamics of untilled layers is mainly driven by compaction and regeneration by natural agents (climatic conditions, root growth and macrofauna) and it is of major importance to evaluate the importance of these natural processes on soil structure regeneration. These concerns have led us to adapt the standard method and to propose amendments based on a series of field observations and experimental work in different situations of cropping systems, soil types and climatic conditions. We improved the description of crack type and we introduced an index of biological activity, based on the visual examination of clods. To test the improved method, a comparison with the reference method was carried out and the ability of the "profil cultural" method to make a diagnosis was tested on five experiments in France, Brazil and Argentina. Using the improved method, the impact of cropping systems on soil functioning was better assessed when natural processes were integrated into the description.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Ne1 Mead - irrigated continuous maize site

    SciTech Connect

    Suyker, Andy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ne1 Mead - irrigated continuous maize site. Site Description - The study site is one of three fields (all located within 1.6 km of each other) at the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research and Development Center near Mead, Nebraska. This site is irrigated with a center pivot system. Prior to the initiation of the study, the irrigated site had a 10-yr history of maize-soybean rotation under no-till. A tillage operation (disking) was done just prior to the 2001 planting to homogenize the top 0.1 m of soil, incorporate P and K fertilizers, as well as previously accumulated surface residues. Since the tillage operation, the site has been under no-till management until the harvest of 2005. Following harvest, a conservation-plow tillage operation was initiated where a small amount of N fertilizer is sprayed on the residue immediately prior to the plow operation. Approximately 1/3 of the crop residue is left on the surface. The post-harvest conservation-plow operation continues as the current practice.

  7. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes, March 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Management is a compilation of references to selected reports, journal articles, and other documents on the subject of management. This publication lists 368 documents originally announced in the 1975 issues of Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). It includes references on the management of research and development, contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control. It also includes references on: program, project and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decisionmaking processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting.

  8. Management of dabigatran-induced bleeding with continuous venovenous hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Suman; Hamouda, Danae; Prashar, Rohini; Mbaso, Chiamaka; Khan, Abdur; Ali, Abdulmonam; Shah, Sarthi; Assaly, Ragheb

    2015-06-01

    Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, is increasingly used for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran has a stable pharmacokinetic profile with minimum drug interactions, and requires no routine laboratory evaluation to measure level of anticoagulation. This provides a huge advantage over warfarin, and has the potential to improve patient compliance. The disadvantages of dabigatran are the lack of a reversal agent to counter dabigatran-related bleeding and the absence of a widely available laboratory test that can quantify the extent of coagulopathy in dabigatran overdose. Hemodialysis can rapidly lower dabigatran levels and assist in controlling bleeding secondary to dabigatran overdose. However, in cases in which hemodynamic instability precludes the use of hemodialysis, alternative methods have to be utilized to control dabigatran-associated bleeding. Here we document a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to dabigatran use that was successfully managed by continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD), along with supportive care with blood product transfusions. CVVHD reduces thrombin time and activated partial thrombin time, and causes a parallel decrease in amount of active bleeding. Finally, we show that compared to the rapid lowering of elevated thrombin time observed in hemodialysis, CVVHD requires several days to reduce thrombin time to normal range.

  9. Managers' role in maximising investment in continuing professional education.

    PubMed

    Draper, Jan; Clark, Liz; Rogers, Jill

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare organisations face the challenge of delivering care in increasingly complex environments. To do so they depend on competent professionals, and continuing professional education (CPE) plays a major part in ensuring that staff maintain and develop their knowledge and skills. However, there is limited evidence of the effect of CPE on healthcare outcomes, and an emphasis on outcomes has overlooked the contribution of the processes that underlie effective CPE. This article reports the results of a study that explored a range of stakeholders' perceptions of the processes that maximise the positive effects of CPE on practice. Analysis of results shows that CPE can help improve care when supported by positive organisational cultures, effective partnership working between stakeholders and supportive learning environments that enable individuals to maximise their learning. This article discusses how managers play a pivotal role in creating positive cultures in which CPE can flourish by being role models and change agents, ensuring organisational strategic objectives are aligned with personal development plans, and by working collaboratively with education colleagues to ensure that learning from CPE is embedded in practice. PMID:26938913

  10. Managers' role in maximising investment in continuing professional education.

    PubMed

    Draper, Jan; Clark, Liz; Rogers, Jill

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare organisations face the challenge of delivering care in increasingly complex environments. To do so they depend on competent professionals, and continuing professional education (CPE) plays a major part in ensuring that staff maintain and develop their knowledge and skills. However, there is limited evidence of the effect of CPE on healthcare outcomes, and an emphasis on outcomes has overlooked the contribution of the processes that underlie effective CPE. This article reports the results of a study that explored a range of stakeholders' perceptions of the processes that maximise the positive effects of CPE on practice. Analysis of results shows that CPE can help improve care when supported by positive organisational cultures, effective partnership working between stakeholders and supportive learning environments that enable individuals to maximise their learning. This article discusses how managers play a pivotal role in creating positive cultures in which CPE can flourish by being role models and change agents, ensuring organisational strategic objectives are aligned with personal development plans, and by working collaboratively with education colleagues to ensure that learning from CPE is embedded in practice.

  11. Management. A continuing bibliography with indexes. [March 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography cites 604 reports, articles, and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1979 covering the management of research and development, contracts, production, logistics, personnel, safety, reliability and quality control. Program, project, and systems management; management policy, philosophy, tools, and techniques; decision making processes for managers; technology assessment; management of urban problems; and information for managers on Federal resources, expenditures, financing, and budgeting are also covered. Abstracts are provided as well as subject, personal author, and corporate source indexes.

  12. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  13. Training Women in Management: A Continuing Education Workshop Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Samuel S.

    The number of women occupying managerial positions in the U.S. is relatively small, but it rose 47% from 1,321,000 in 1970 to 1,942,000 in 1976. Circumstances contributing to this rise are enforcement of legal sanctions against discrimination and women's increased educational attainment. This report describes a continuing education workshop series…

  14. Managing Distance Education Courses. The Guide Series in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houdek, Elizabeth

    This guide for managers of distance education programs consists of five chapters, each with its own appendix. Chapter 1 considers characteristics of good distance educators, possible sources of instructors, and limitations in recruiting instructors. The appendix to this chapter outlines the recruiting process followed at a particular academic…

  15. Management: A continuing literature survey with indexes, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of selected reports, journal articles, and other documents on the subject of management is presented. There are 450 references to documents which were originally announced in the 1971 issues of Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) or International Aerospace Abstracts (IAA). Subject, personal author, and corporate source indexes are included.

  16. Total Quality Management Continuous Improvement: Is the Philosophy a Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Aidan; Hughes, Helen; Maddox, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 72 Irish companies identified 51 using total quality management (TQM); second-survey responses from 28 of the latter showed that 57% of TQM initiatives were successful or very successful; most have a good understanding of comprehensive TQM and value long-term over short-term results. Benefits were experienced throughout…

  17. Water management in the Senegal River Delta: a continuing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietton, M.; Dumas, D.; Hamerlynck, O.; Kane, A.; Coly, A.; Duvail, S.; Pesneaud, F.; Baba, M. L. O.

    2007-11-01

    Water management is the driving force behind the productivity of the ecosystems of the Senegal River Estuary and floodplains. It is dependent on human decision-making, but has been separated from the River's flooding since the building of the Diama Dam. The current objectives of the Office de Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS: Senegal River Development Agency) are mainly turned towards the development of irrigated agriculture on the former floodplains and since 2002 the production of hydroelectric power at Manantali. In October 2003, a four-metre-wide runoff canal, which quickly widened into a breach several hundred metres across, was dug in the Barbary Spit area to protect the city of Saint-Louis from heavy flooding. The hydraulic quality of the area downstream from the dam has improved to the extent that there is no longer any flooding there, but as the management of the dams concerns only the section of the river between Manantali and Diama, a certain amount of flood risk probably still persists. The intrusion of seawater into the estuary is also threatening ecosystems and fresh water supplies, and abruptly altering agricultural practices such as fruit and vegetable growing in the Gandiolais district. When added to the tentative efforts to coordinate the management of the two dams, with no management objective downstream from Diama, such permanent modifications impose serious constraints on the managers and residents of the lower delta. This paper presents an overview of the constraints and uncertainties at different levels and scales. This wholly human-wrought environment can be considered as a learning experience, where a large number of variables need to be monitored closely and an ongoing process of participatory analysis should be backed up by multidisciplinary research.

  18. Academe Makes for Strange Bedfellows: How Continuing Education and Schools of Management Collide and Cooperate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    A significant component of continuing education involves teaching management, especially through the array of academic degree programs offered to part-time older students. In fact, the ability to offer management education is critical for the viability of continuing education. Co-existing amicably with its institution's business schools is the…

  19. Management of pneumothorax in cattle by continuous-flow evacuation.

    PubMed

    Peek, Simon E; Slack, J A; McGuirk, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    Pneumothorax in cattle can develop subsequent to acute or chronic pulmonary disease, and if unresolved may lead to respiratory distress and death due to hypoxia and compression and collapse of cardiac and thoracic great vessels. Therapeutic evacuation of free air within the pleural space can provide acute relief and improve chances of survival. This article descibes the adaptation and use of a continuous flow evacuation device to resolve pneumothorax in 3 cattle with pneumothorax associated with infectious lower airway disease. PMID:12564738

  20. Organization and Management of Continuing Education in German and Finnish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Knust, Michaela; Hanft, Anke

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, an international comparison study investigated the organization and management of university continuing education (UCE). The Finnish continuing education system proved to be especially advanced in this study. On the other hand, it became clear that Germany was still lagging behind in continuing education. In this article, German and…

  1. Revitalizing a Continuing Education Department through Self-Managed Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinehart, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    A continuing education manager used the literature-based concept of self-managed work teams to reorganize the department, resulting in better productivity, financial solvency, and better customer focus and responsiveness. However, not all managers wanted to share power, and not all employees wanted to be empowered. (SK)

  2. 14 CFR 91.1411 - Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... program use by fractional ownership program manager. 91.1411 Section 91.1411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1411 Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager. Fractional ownership...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1411 - Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... program use by fractional ownership program manager. 91.1411 Section 91.1411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1411 Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager. Fractional ownership...

  4. Neonatal Hypoglycemia: A Continuing Debate in Definition and Management.

    PubMed

    Stomnaroska-Damcevski, Orhideja; Petkovska, Elizabeta; Jancevska, Snezana; Danilovski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia (NH) is one of the most common abnormalities encountered in the newborn. Maintaining glucose homeostasis is one of the important physiological events during fetal-to-neonatal transition. Transient low blood glucose concentrations are frequently encountered in the majority of healthy newborns and are the reflections of normal metabolic adaptation processes. Nevertheless, there is a great concern that prolonged or recurrent low blood glucose levels may result in long-term neurological and developmental consequences. Strikingly, it was demonstrated that the incidence and timing of low glucose concentrations in the groups most at risk for asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia, did not find association between repetitive low glucose concentrations and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. On the contrary, NH due to hyperinsulinism is strongly associated with brain injury. Fundamental issue of great professional controversy is concerning the best manner to manage asymptomatic newborns NH. Both, overtreating NH and undertreating NH are poles with significant potential disadvantages. Therefore, NH is one of the most important issues in the day-to-day practice. This article appraises the critical questions of definition (widely accepted blood glucose concentration: < 2.6 mmol/l or 47 mg/dl), follow-up ad management of NH. PMID:27442401

  5. The Continuing Evolution of Water Management in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early 1990s Australia has pursued a broad national agenda of water reform which includes full cost pricing, sufficient water for the environment, water conservation, irrigation infrastructure improvements, and clear delineation of roles and responsibilities of different water institutions among other reforms. A series of substantial changes to commonwealth and state law has resulted from these major initiatives. This reform effort was capped by groundbreaking commonwealth legislation in 2007 and 2008 that to large extent federalized the operation of the nation's largest river system, the Murray-Darling. A new basin wide authority, the MDBA, was created to manage the river via the concept of sustainable diversion limits (SDLs) to be promulgated through additional federal legislation. The October 2010 initial plan for these SDLs suggested cuts in use of up to 40% in the basin and was met with widespread opposition by irrigators. Subsequently, top leadership in the MDBA resigned, a number of parliamentary inquiries were begun, and the entire process has been delayed. How did Australia get to its current position with respect to water reform, and what is the likely outcome of the current delay? How has water management evolved in Australia over the last 20 years? What lessons exist for the Western United States?

  6. Chapter 5, "License Renewal and Aging Management for Continued Service

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2013-01-01

    As of August 2011, there were 104 commercial nuclear power reactors licensed to operate in 31 states in the United States. Initial operating licenses in the United States are granted for a period of 40 years. In order to help assure an adequate energy supply, the USNRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements that are needed to ensure safe plant operation for an extended plant life. The principals of license renewal and the basic requirements that address license renewal are identified as well as additional sources of guidance that can be utilized as part of the license renewal process. Aging management program inspections and operating experience related to the concrete and steel containment structures are provided. Finally, several lessons learned are provided based on containment operating experience.

  7. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter's working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real-time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications.

  8. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter’s working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real–time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications. PMID:27070608

  9. Practical considerations for disaster preparedness and continuity management in research facilities.

    PubMed

    Mortell, Norman; Nicholls, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Many research facility managers, veterinarians and directors are familiar with the principles of Good Laboratory Practice, requirements of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, tenets of biosecurity and standards of animal welfare and housing but may be less familiar with the ideas of business continuity. But business continuity considerations are as applicable to research facilities as they are to other institutions. The authors discuss how business continuity principles can be applied in the research context and propose that such application, or 'research continuity management,' enables a focused but wide-reaching approach to disaster preparedness.

  10. Program/Project Management Resources: A collection of 50 bibliographies focusing on continual improvement, reinventing government, and successful project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    These Program/Project Management Resource Lists were originally written for the NASA project management community. Their purpose was to promote the use of the NASA Headquarters Library Program/Project Management Collection funded by NASA Headquarters Code FT, Training & Development Division, by offering introductions to the management topics studied by today's managers. Lists were also written at the request of NASA Headquarters Code T, Office of Continual improvements, and at the request of NASA members of the National Performance Review. This is the second edition of the compilation of these bibliographies; the first edition was printed in March 1994.

  11. Continuous Improvement in the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering Programme at Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the process employed by the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University to continuously improve the programme. Using a continuous improvement framework, the paper demonstrates how various qualitative and quantitative analyses methods, such as hypothesis testing and control charts, have been…

  12. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  13. The Correlates and Influences of Career-Related Continuous Learning: Implications for Management Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznia, Kevin D.; Kerno, Steven J., Jr.; Gilley, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Management personnel are increasingly aware that career success depends on the ability to continuously learn and adapt to the environment. However, scant attention has been paid to how learning activities contribute to managerial success. This study examines the degree to which involvement in career-related continuous learning affects managerial…

  14. Total Quality Management and Organizational Behavior Management: An Integration for Continual Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The history and main features of organizational behavior management (OBM) are compared and integrated with those of total quality management (TQM), with emphasis on W.E. Deming's 14 points and OBM's operant-based approach to performance management. Interventions combining OBM, TQM, and statistical process control are recommended. (DB)

  15. A Knowledge Tree Model and Its Application for Continuous Management Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yun; Bao, Zhen-Qiang; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Gui-Jun

    This chapter analyzes the relationship of organizational knowledge and brings forward that organizational knowledge consists of three layers: core knowledge, structural knowledge, and implicit knowledge. According to the principle of knowledge maps, a dynamic management model of organizational knowledge based on knowledge tree is introduced and the definition of the value of knowledge node is given so that the quantitative management on knowledge is realized, which lays a foundation for performance evaluation of knowledge management. We also carefully study the application of knowledge tree in service quality management of hospital organizations and management innovation process and give the example of cooperation in endoscopic surgery to establish a knowledge tree about operational cooperation degree, which states the principle of organizational knowledge management and the knowledge innovation process of continuous management improvement.

  16. Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by "exciting students about science", who perceived increases in "student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts" and/or students as "more interested in termites after participating in this project" were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula.

  17. Use of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring during a Contingency Management Procedure to Reduce Excessive Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on contingency management to treat excessive alcohol use is limited due to feasibility issues with monitoring adherence. This study examined the effectiveness of using transdermal alcohol monitoring as a continuous measure of alcohol use to implement financial contingencies to reduce heavy drinking. Methods Twenty-six male and female drinkers (from 21–39 years old) were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences. Sequence 1 received 4 weeks of no financial contingency (i.e., $0) drinking followed by 4 weeks each of $25 and then $50 contingency management; Sequence 2 received 4 weeks of $25 contingency management followed by 4 weeks each of no contingency (i.e., $0) and then $50 contingency management. During the $25 and $50 contingency management conditions, participants were paid each week when the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM-II™) identified no heavy drinking days. Results Participants in both contingency management conditions had fewer drinking episodes and reduced frequencies of heavy drinking compared to the $0 condition. Participants randomized to Sequence 2 (receiving $25 contingency before the $0 condition) exhibited less frequent drinking and less heavy drinking in the $0 condition compared to participants from Sequence 1. Conclusions Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to implement contingency management programs to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:25064019

  18. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  19. Management intensive grazing and continuous grazing of hill pasture by beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management Intensive Grazing (MIG) is an increasingly used practice that can offer producers many benefits including higher profit. The main objective of this study was to compare MIG and Continuous Grazing (CG)practices on pastures in Appalachian Ohio. The study was conducted at the North Appalac...

  20. Management of Hypertension in Private Practice: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullion, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A randomized control trial was used to evaluate a physician education program designed to improve physician management of patients' hypertension, hypertension-related behaviors, and diastolic blood pressure. It was suggested that more intensive continuing medical education programs are needed to improve physician performance and patient outcome.…

  1. (TQM)2 = The Quick Move to Total Quality Management: A "Window of Opportunity" for Continuing Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    Research shows that academics are either disinterested or slow to react to total quality management, which many businesses consider vital to economic growth. Continuing educators may demonstrate leadership by advocating, developing, and furnishing credit or noncredit activities about quality improvement topics. (SK)

  2. 40 CFR 63.10420 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the management practice requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous compliance with the management practice requirements? For each sterilization unit not equipped... practice standard in § 63.10390 by recording the date and time of each sterilization cycle, whether each sterilization cycle contains a full load of items, and if not, a statement from a hospital central...

  3. Application of Risk Assessment Tools in the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently implementing the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) Program developed by the Carnegie Mellon University and recommended by NASA as the Risk Management (RM) implementation approach. The four most frequently used risk assessment tools in the center are: (a) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA). There are some guidelines for selecting the type of risk assessment tools during the project formulation phase of a project, but there is not enough guidance as to how to apply these tools in the Continuous Risk Management process (CRM). But the ways the safety and risk assessment tools are used make a significant difference in the effectiveness in the risk management function. Decisions regarding, what events are to be included in the analysis, to what level of details should the analysis be continued, make significant difference in the effectiveness of risk management program. Tools of risk analysis also depends on the phase of a project e.g. at the initial phase of a project, when not much data are available on hardware, standard FMEA cannot be applied; instead a functional FMEA may be appropriate. This study attempted to provide some directives to alleviate the difficulty in applying FTA, PRA, and FMEA in the CRM process. Hazard Analysis was not included in the scope of the study due to the short duration of the summer research project.

  4. Establishing ecological and social continuities: new challenges to optimize urban watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitroi, V.; de Coninck, A.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J.-F.

    2014-09-01

    The (re)construction of the ecological continuity is stated as one of the main objectives of the European Water Framework Directive for watershed management in Europe. Analysing the social, political, technical and scientific processes characterising the implementation of different projects of ecological continuity in two adjacent peri-urban territories in Ile-de-France, we observed science-driven approaches disregarding the social contexts. We show that, in urbanized areas, ecological continuity requires not only important technical and ecological expertise, but also social and political participation to the definition of a common vision and action plan. Being a challenge for both, technical water management institutions and "classical" ecological policies, we propose some social science contributions to deal with ecological unpredictability and reconsider stakeholder resistance to this kind of project.

  5. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event.

  6. Continuity of operations planning in college athletic programs: The case for incorporating Federal Emergency Management Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hall, Stacey A; Allen, Brandon L; Phillips, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    College athletic departments have a responsibility to provide a safe environment for student-athletes; however, most colleges do not have a crisis management plan that includes procedures for displaced student-athletes or alternate facilities to perform athletic events. Continuity of operations planning ensures athletic programs are equipped to maintain essential functions during, or shortly after, a disruption of operations due to possible hazards. Previous studies have identified a lack of emergency preparedness and continuity planning in college athletic departments. The purpose of this article is to illustrate in detail one approach to disaster planning for college athletic departments, namely the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) continuity of operations framework. By adhering to FEMA guidelines and promoting a best practices model, athletic programs can effectively plan to address potential hazards, as well as protect the organization's brand, image, and financial sustainability after a crisis event. PMID:26963231

  7. Continuous improvement in the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldowaisan, Tariq; Allahverdi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the process employed by the Industrial and Management Systems Engineering programme at Kuwait University to continuously improve the programme. Using a continuous improvement framework, the paper demonstrates how various qualitative and quantitative analyses methods, such as hypothesis testing and control charts, have been applied to the results of four assessment tools and other data sources to improve performance. Important improvements include the need to reconsider two student outcomes as they were difficult to implement in courses. In addition, through benchmarking and the engagement of Alumni and Employers, key decisions were made to improve the curriculum and enhance employability.

  8. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    PubMed

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap. PMID:24457324

  9. Cyber crime: can a standard risk analysis help in the challenges facing business continuity managers?

    PubMed

    Vande Putte, Danny; Verhelst, Marc

    Risk management has never been easy. Finding efficient mitigating measures is not always straightforward. Finding measures for cyber crime, however, is a really huge challenge because cyber threats are changing all the time. As the sophistication of these threats is growing, their impact increases. Moreover, society and its economy have become increasingly dependent on information and communication technologies. Standard risk analysis methodologies will help to score the cyber risk and to place it in the risk tolerance matrix. This will allow business continuity managers to figure out if there is still a gap with the maximum tolerable outage for time-critical business processes and if extra business continuity measures are necessary to fill the gap.

  10. How Visual Management for Continuous Improvement Might Guide and Affect Hospital Staff: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Westerlund, Hugo; Sandahl, Christer; Thor, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visual management (VM) tools such as whiteboards, often employed in Lean thinking applications, are intended to be helpful in improving work processes in different industries including health care. It remains unclear, however, how VM is actually applied in health care Lean interventions and how it might influence the clinical staff. We therefore examined how Lean-inspired VM using whiteboards for continuous improvement efforts related to the hospital staff's work and collaboration. Within a case study design, we combined semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observations, and photography on 2 cardiology wards. The fate of VM differed between the 2 wards; in one, it was well received by the staff and enhanced continuous improvement efforts, whereas in the other ward, it was not perceived to fit in the work flow or to make enough sense in order to be sustained. Visual management may enable the staff and managers to allow communication across time and facilitate teamwork by enabling the inclusion of team members who are not present simultaneously; however, its adoption and value seem contingent on finding a good fit with the local context. A combination of continuous improvement and VM may be helpful in keeping the staff engaged in the change process in the long run. PMID:26426324

  11. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  12. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  13. Regional Workshop on Planning and Management of Literacy and Continuing Education (4th, Solo, Indonesia, December 10-19, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This document summarizes the research papers and panel discussions submitted or presented for a conference on planning and management of literacy and continuing education. The conference participants shared findings and important features in the planning and management of literacy and continuing education among participating countries, imparted…

  14. Management of drug interactions with beta-blockers: continuing education has a short-term impact

    PubMed Central

    Driesen, Annelies; Simoens, Steven; Laekeman, Gert

    There is a lack of clear guidelines regarding the management of drug-drug interactions. Objective To assess the impact of an educational intervention on the management of drug interactions with beta-blockers. Methods The study had a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention group (n=10 pharmacies) received a continuing education course and guidelines on the management of drug interactions with beta-blockers. The control group (n=10 pharmacies) received no intervention. Pharmacy students and staff of internship pharmacies participated in this study. Before and after the intervention, students registered interactions with beta-blockers during two weeks. Information was obtained on drug information of the beta-blocker and the interacting drug, patient’s demographics, and the mode of transaction. Results A total number of 288 interactions were detected during both study periods. Most beta-blockers causing an interaction were prescribed for hypertension, and interacted with hypoglycemic agents, NSAIDs, or beta2-agonists. Pharmacists’ intervention rate was low (14% in the pre-test compared to 39% in the post-test), but increased significantly in the post-test in the intervention group. Reasons for overriding the interaction included limited clinical relevance, refill prescriptions, not being aware of the interaction, and communication problems with the prescriber. Conclusion An interactive continuing education course, during which practice-oriented guidelines were offered, affected pharmacists’ short-term behavior at the counter in dealing with interactions of beta-blockers. Continuing education plays a role in raising pharmacists’ awareness and responsibility towards the detection and management of drug interactions in the pharmacy. PMID:25214902

  15. Human resources management and firm performance: The differential role of managerial affective and continuance commitment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yaping; Law, Kenneth S; Chang, Song; Xin, Katherine R

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed a dual-concern (i.e., maintenance and performance) model of human resources (HR) management. The authors identified commonly examined HR practices that apply to the middle manager level and classified them into the maintenance- and performance-oriented HR subsystems. The authors found support for the 2-factor model on the basis of responses from 2,148 managers from 463 firms operating in China. Regression results indicate that the performance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with firm performance and that the relationship was mediated by middle managers' affective commitment to the firm. The maintenance-oriented HR subsystems had a positive relationship with middle managers' continuance commitment but not with their affective commitment and firm performance. This study contributes to the understanding of how HR practices relate to firm performance and offers an improved test of the argument that valuable and firm-specific HR provide a source of competitive advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Is emergency management an integrated element of business continuity management? A case study with security professionals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Frohde, Kenny; Brooks, David J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency management (EM) and business continuity management (BCM) frameworks incorporate various strategic and operational measures. Defined within a number of national and international standards and guidelines, such concepts may be integrated within one another to provide increased resilience to disruptive events. Nevertheless, there is a degree of dispute regarding concept integration among security and EM professionals and bodies of knowledge. In line with cognitive psychology exemplar-based concepts, such disputes may be associated with a lack of precision in communality in the approach to EM and BCM. This paper presents a two-stage study, where stage 1 critiqued national and international literature and stage 2 applied semi-structured interviews with security managers in Western Australia. Findings indicate the existence of contradictory views on EM and its integration within BCM. As such, this study concludes that EM is considered a vital component of BCM by the majority of security managers. However, there is broader dispute regarding its degree of integration. Understanding the underpinnings of such disputes will aid in raising the standards and application of professionalism within security, EM and BCM domains, supporting clarification and definition of professional boundaries. PMID:25193457

  17. Is emergency management an integrated element of business continuity management? A case study with security professionals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Frohde, Kenny; Brooks, David J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency management (EM) and business continuity management (BCM) frameworks incorporate various strategic and operational measures. Defined within a number of national and international standards and guidelines, such concepts may be integrated within one another to provide increased resilience to disruptive events. Nevertheless, there is a degree of dispute regarding concept integration among security and EM professionals and bodies of knowledge. In line with cognitive psychology exemplar-based concepts, such disputes may be associated with a lack of precision in communality in the approach to EM and BCM. This paper presents a two-stage study, where stage 1 critiqued national and international literature and stage 2 applied semi-structured interviews with security managers in Western Australia. Findings indicate the existence of contradictory views on EM and its integration within BCM. As such, this study concludes that EM is considered a vital component of BCM by the majority of security managers. However, there is broader dispute regarding its degree of integration. Understanding the underpinnings of such disputes will aid in raising the standards and application of professionalism within security, EM and BCM domains, supporting clarification and definition of professional boundaries.

  18. Simulations of Continuous Descent Operations with Arrival-management Automation and Mixed Flight-deck Interval Management Equipage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Kupfer, Michael; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Prevot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Air traffic management simulations conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center have addressed the integration of trajectory-based arrival-management automation, controller tools, and Flight-Deck Interval Management avionics to enable Continuous Descent Operations (CDOs) during periods of sustained high traffic demand. The simulations are devoted to maturing the integrated system for field demonstration, and refining the controller tools, clearance phraseology, and procedures specified in the associated concept of operations. The results indicate a variety of factors impact the concept's safety and viability from a controller's perspective, including en-route preconditioning of arrival flows, useable clearance phraseology, and the characteristics of airspace, routes, and traffic-management methods in use at a particular site. Clear understanding of automation behavior and required shifts in roles and responsibilities is important for controller acceptance and realizing potential benefits. This paper discusses the simulations, drawing parallels with results from related European efforts. The most recent study found en-route controllers can effectively precondition arrival flows, which significantly improved route conformance during CDOs. Controllers found the tools acceptable, in line with previous studies.

  19. Implementing business continuity management systems and sharing best practices at a European bank.

    PubMed

    Aronis, Stelios; Stratopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology applied by the Alpha Bank Group in order to implement a business continuity management (BCM) programme to its parent company (Alpha Bank SA), as well as to its subsidiaries in Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Serbia, UK and Ukraine. It also reviews the problems faced, how they were overcome and the lessons learned. When implementing a BCM programme in a large organisation, it is very important to follow the methodology described by BCM standard ISO 22301, otherwise the business continuity plan is unlikely to work efficiently or comply with the business recovery requirements, as well as with the requirements of other interested parties, such as customers, regulatory authorities, vendors, service providers, critical associates, etc. PMID:26897617

  20. Implementing business continuity management systems and sharing best practices at a European bank.

    PubMed

    Aronis, Stelios; Stratopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology applied by the Alpha Bank Group in order to implement a business continuity management (BCM) programme to its parent company (Alpha Bank SA), as well as to its subsidiaries in Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Romania, Serbia, UK and Ukraine. It also reviews the problems faced, how they were overcome and the lessons learned. When implementing a BCM programme in a large organisation, it is very important to follow the methodology described by BCM standard ISO 22301, otherwise the business continuity plan is unlikely to work efficiently or comply with the business recovery requirements, as well as with the requirements of other interested parties, such as customers, regulatory authorities, vendors, service providers, critical associates, etc.

  1. Power management systems for sediment microbial fuel cells in high power and continuous power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Conrad Koble

    The objective of this dissertation was to develop power management systems (PMS) for sediment microbial fuel cells (SFMCs) for high power and continuous applications. The first part of this dissertation covers a new method for testing the performance of SMFCs. This device called the microbial fuel cell tester was developed to automatically test power generation of PMS. The second part focuses on a PMS capable of delivering high power in burst mode. This means that for a small amount of time a large amount of power up to 2.5 Watts can be delivered from a SMFC only generating mW level power. The third part is aimed at developing a multi-potentiostat laboratory tool that measures the performance at fixed cell potentials of microbial fuel cells so that I can optimize them for use with the PMS. This tool is capable of controlling the anode potential or cathode potential and measuring current of six separate SMFCs simultaneously. By operating multiple potentiostats, I was able to run experiments that find ideal operating conditions for the sediment microbial fuel cells, and also I can optimize the power management system for these conditions. The fourth part of the dissertation is targeting a PMS that was able to operate a sensor continuously which was powered by an SMFC. In pervious applications involving SMFCs, the PMS operated in batch mode. In this PMS, the firmware on the submersible ultrasonic receiver (SUR) was modified for use with my PMS. This integration of PMS and SUR allowed for the continuous operation of the SUR without using a battery. Finally, the last part of the dissertation recommends a scale-up power management system to overcome the linearity scale up issue of SMFCs as future work. Concluding remarks are also added to summarize the goal and focus of this dissertation.

  2. Definition of Information Technology Architectures for Continuous Data Management and Medical Device Integration in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, M. Elena; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H.; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Gómez, Enrique J.

    2008-01-01

    The growing availability of continuous data from medical devices in diabetes management makes it crucial to define novel information technology architectures for efficient data storage, data transmission, and data visualization. The new paradigm of care demands the sharing of information in interoperable systems as the only way to support patient care in a continuum of care scenario. The technological platforms should support all the services required by the actors involved in the care process, located in different scenarios and managing diverse information for different purposes. This article presents basic criteria for defining flexible and adaptive architectures that are capable of interoperating with external systems, and integrating medical devices and decision support tools to extract all the relevant knowledge to support diabetes care. PMID:19885276

  3. Definition of information technology architectures for continuous data management and medical device integration in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hernando, M Elena; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H; García-Sáez, Gema; Rodríguez-Herrero, Agustín; Martínez-Sarriegui, Iñaki; Gómez, Enrique J

    2008-09-01

    The growing availability of continuous data from medical devices in diabetes management makes it crucial to define novel information technology architectures for efficient data storage, data transmission, and data visualization. The new paradigm of care demands the sharing of information in interoperable systems as the only way to support patient care in a continuum of care scenario. The technological platforms should support all the services required by the actors involved in the care process, located in different scenarios and managing diverse information for different purposes. This article presents basic criteria for defining flexible and adaptive architectures that are capable of interoperating with external systems, and integrating medical devices and decision support tools to extract all the relevant knowledge to support diabetes care.

  4. Management of severe obstructive sleep apnea using mandibular advancement devices with auto continuous positive airway pressures

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    The use of continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) is considered standard treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Treatment of the disease poses a great challenge not only for its diagnostic purpose but also for its treatment part. In about 29-83% of the patients, treatment is difficult because of non-compliance resulting due to high pressures, air leaks and other related issues. In such situations, alternative methods of treatment need to be looked for so as to ascertain better management. Mandibular advancement devices along with CPAP may show better treatment outcome in specific situations. PMID:25814802

  5. ICONic training: use of a course management system to provide continual reference student education.

    PubMed

    Skhal, Kathryn J; Thureson, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide continuing education to the students working at the Hardin Library reference desk, staff members have created an online training course using the University of Iowa's course management system called ICON(Iowa Courses Online). The course has four main components-a content page, an article discussion forum, quizzes, and a challenging questions module. ICON has quickly become an essential training resource and has also provided an electronic professional community for students who primarily work in isolation. Additionally, the experience with the software has positioned the library to provide training support for the health campus and to take advantage of new technology based collaborations.

  6. Environmental Management Assessment of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in Newport News, Virginia. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the CEBAF Site Office; the CEBAF management and operating contractor (M&O), Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc. (SURA); the Oak Ridge Field Office (OR); and the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Office, the Office of Energy Research (ER). The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 8 through March 19, 1993, by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, ``Environment, Safety and Health Appraisal Program,`` and Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN)-6E-92, ``Departmental Organizational and Management Arrangements,`` establish the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission utilizing systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations, and through use of supplemental activities which serve to strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations.

  7. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  8. Continuous subcutaneous levetiracetam in the management of seizures at the end of life: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wells, Geoffrey Howard; Mason, Louise D; Foreman, Emma; Chambers, John

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a man who developed seizures on a background of recurrent metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with intracranial involvement. Initial seizure control with enteral levetiracetam was achieved, and when enteral and intravenous (i.v.) access was no longer available, a continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of levetiracetam successfully controlled his seizures without the need for sedating anticonvulsants. As a result, end-of-life care was able to be given with the patient retaining the ability to communicate with his family and healthcare staff. This report adds to the sparse but growing evidence base for the use of subcutaneous levetiracetam to manage seizures in palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:26744359

  9. Performance evaluation of continuity of care records (CCRs): parsing models in a mobile health management system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ming; Liou, Yong-Zan

    2014-10-01

    In a mobile health management system, mobile devices act as the application hosting devices for personal health records (PHRs) and the healthcare servers construct to exchange and analyze PHRs. One of the most popular PHR standards is continuity of care record (CCR). The CCR is expressed in XML formats. However, parsing is an expensive operation that can degrade XML processing performance. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify different operational and performance characteristics for those CCR parsing models including the XML DOM parser, the SAX parser, the PULL parser, and the JSON parser with regard to JSON data converted from XML-based CCR. Thus, developers can make sensible choices for their target PHR applications to parse CCRs when using mobile devices or servers with different system resources. Furthermore, the simulation experiments of four case studies are conducted to compare the parsing performance on Android mobile devices and the server with large quantities of CCR data. PMID:25086611

  10. Organisational performance and business continuity management: a theoretical perspective and a case study.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab Hanna Salman

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend the research relating to the strategic view of business continuity management (BCM) to the context of organisational performance (OP). It discusses potential performance consequences resulting from applying BCM aspects/elements within an organisation. The paper contributes to the understanding of the role of BCM in OP by discussing how deployment of BCM key aspects/elements can improve OP. Two main issues are discussed: first, background to performance and the elements of OP; and secondly, the role of BCM in achieving optimised OP. These issues are significant, as they go further than the extant literature relating to the significance of BCM and its potential influence on OP. The study focuses on Jordanian banks as a case study and as a way of illustrating how BCM helps improve OP for those organisations facing performance shortcomings or difficulties.

  11. Organisational performance and business continuity management: a theoretical perspective and a case study.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab Hanna Salman

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend the research relating to the strategic view of business continuity management (BCM) to the context of organisational performance (OP). It discusses potential performance consequences resulting from applying BCM aspects/elements within an organisation. The paper contributes to the understanding of the role of BCM in OP by discussing how deployment of BCM key aspects/elements can improve OP. Two main issues are discussed: first, background to performance and the elements of OP; and secondly, the role of BCM in achieving optimised OP. These issues are significant, as they go further than the extant literature relating to the significance of BCM and its potential influence on OP. The study focuses on Jordanian banks as a case study and as a way of illustrating how BCM helps improve OP for those organisations facing performance shortcomings or difficulties. PMID:23835428

  12. Regional Sediment Management Experiment Using the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and the Landsat Data Continuity Mission Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The central aim of this RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment is to demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/ Radiometer Suite and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensors as key input to the RSM (Regional Sediment Management) GIS (geographic information system) DSS (Decision Support System). The project affects the Coastal Management National Application.

  13. Environmental sensor networks and continuous data quality assurance to manage salinity within a highly regulated river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Holm, L.

    2010-01-05

    This paper describes a new approach to environmental decision support for salinity management in the San Joaquin Basin of California that focuses on web-based data sharing using YSI Econet technology and continuous data quality management using a novel software tool, Aquarius.

  14. Efficacy of Continuing Education in Improving Pharmacists' Competencies for Providing Weight Management Service: Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Weight management is a new public health role for community pharmacists in many countries. Lack of expertise is one of the key barriers to counseling obese patients. We evaluated the comparative efficacy of three alternative continuing education (CE) meetings on weight management. Methods: We designed a randomized controlled trial…

  15. Development of an accurate fluid management system for a pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy device

    PubMed Central

    SANTHANAKRISHNAN, ARVIND; NESTLE, TRENT T.; MOORE, BRIAN L.; YOGANATHAN, AJIT P.; PADEN, MATTHEW L.

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill children and renal replacement therapies provide a life saving therapy to a subset of these children. However, there is no Food and Drug Administration approved device to provide pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Consequently, clinicians adapt approved adult CRRT devices for use in children due to lack of safer alternatives. Complications occur using adult CRRT devices in children due to inaccurate fluid balance (FB) between the volumes of ultrafiltrate (UF) removed and replacement fluid (RF) delivered. We demonstrate the design and validation of a pediatric fluid management system for obtaining accurate instantaneous and cumulative FB. Fluid transport was achieved via multiple novel pulsatile diaphragm pumps. The conservation of volume principle leveraging the physical property of fluid incompressibility along with mechanical coupling via a crankshaft was used for FB. Accuracy testing was conducted in vitro for 8-hour long continuous operation of the coupled UF and RF pumps. The mean cumulative FB error was <1% across filtration flows from 300 mL/hour to 3000 mL/hour. This approach of FB control in a pediatric specific CRRT device would represent a significant accuracy improvement over currently used clinical implementations. PMID:23644618

  16. Rectified Continuous Flow Loop for the Thermal Management of Large Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skye, H. M.; Hoch, D. W.; Nellis, G. F.; Maddocks, J. R.; Klein, S. A.; Roberts, T.; Davis, T.

    2006-04-01

    Distributed loads are frequently encountered in large deployable structures used in space applications such as optical mirrors, actively cooled sunshades, and on focal plane electronics. One mechanism for providing distributed cooling is via an oscillatory cryocooler such as a pulse-tube that is integrated with a fluid rectification system consisting of check-valves and buffer volumes in order to extract a small amount of continuous flow. This continuous flow allows relatively large loads to be accepted over a long distance with a small temperature difference and has advantages relative to vibration and electrical isolation. Also, it is possible to provide rapid and precise temperature control via modulation of the flow rate. The same working fluid, helium, can be used throughout the entire system, reducing complexity and simplifying the contamination control process. This paper describes steady state and transient modeling results and presents experimental data for a single-stage pulse tube with a rectifying interface that is integrated with a distributed load. The predicted and measured steady state and transient behaviors are compared. The experimental data are used to demonstrate the thermal management concept and illustrate how it can be used for rapid and precise temperature control.

  17. Development of an accurate fluid management system for a pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy device.

    PubMed

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Nestle, Trent T; Moore, Brian L; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Paden, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill children, and renal replacement therapies provide a life-saving therapy to a subset of these children. However, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved device to provide pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Consequently, clinicians adapt approved adult CRRT devices for use in children because of lack of safer alternatives. Complications occur using adult CRRT devices in children because of inaccurate fluid balance (FB) between the volumes of ultrafiltrate (UF) removed and replacement fluid (RF) delivered. We demonstrate the design and validation of a pediatric fluid management system for obtaining accurate instantaneous and cumulative FB. Fluid transport was achieved via multiple novel pulsatile diaphragm pumps. The conservation of volume principle leveraging the physical property of fluid incompressibility along with mechanical coupling via a crankshaft was used for FB. Accuracy testing was conducted in vitro for 8 hour long continuous operation of the coupled UF and RF pumps. The mean cumulative FB error was <1% across filtration flows from 300 to 3000 ml/hour. This approach of FB control in a pediatric-specific CRRT device would represent a significant accuracy improvement over currently used clinical implementations. PMID:23644618

  18. Refusing analgesics: using continuous improvement to improve pain management on a surgical ward.

    PubMed

    Carr, Eloise C J

    2002-11-01

    Despite advances in pain control many patients experience moderate to severe pain whilst in hospital. Contributory factors include inadequate assessment and documentation of pain, as well as patient and professional misconceptions. A 28-bedded surgical ward in a District General Hospital in the South of England was the setting for the project. A small preliminary audit of pain on this ward indicated that some patients experienced postoperative pain, which was not effectively controlled. A 'continuous improvement' framework was used to increase understanding of the problem and identify an aim for the project, which was to reduce the number of patients refusing analgesics when offered by nurses. An audit to ascertain how many patients refused analgesia revealed that, of 133 patients offered, 93 (70%) refused. Using the 'Model for Improvement' (Langley et al., 1996) a number of changes were introduced, including a patient information sheet, regular documented pain assessment and an innovative staff education programme. To evaluate if the changes in practice had been successful, further audit data were collected from 167 patients. Sixty-three (44%) accepted analgesics, indicating a significant decrease in the number refusing (P = 0.005). This small project demonstrated that continuous improvement methodology can improve the management of pain and quality of care for patients. Such an approach brings practitioner and patient into meaningful understanding and offers solutions which are realistic, achievable and sustainable over time. Despite finite resources and increased pressure on staff it is possible to motivate people when they feel they have ownership and change is meaningful. Continuous improvement methods offer an exciting, feasible, patient-centred approach to improving care. PMID:12427179

  19. Dairy reproductive management: assessing a comprehensive continuing education program for veterinary practitioners.

    PubMed

    Schuenemann, Gustavo M; Bas, Santiago; Workman, Jeffrey D; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) programs are critical for veterinary practitioners to update their knowledge and improve their skills and services. CVME must offer an educational environment in which veterinarians can effectively rejuvenate their knowledge and skills and learn about new practices. The Ohio Dairy Health and Management Certificate Program is a comprehensive CVME program for practicing dairy veterinarians that was developed to provide advanced training on previously identified needs of the dairy industry. Our objectives in this article were (1) to provide a description of a comprehensive CVME program designed to enhance the flow of applied, research-based knowledge from educators and researchers to dairy veterinary practitioners and (2) to provide an assessment of outcomes achieved and experiences gained after the delivery of the first two modules on advanced dairy reproductive management. Findings from the two reproductive modules suggested that (1) the designed dairy reproductive management program was able to meet the participants' educational needs, (2) the implemented delivery methods significantly increased participants' knowledge level, and (3) additional educational needs should be addressed with future programming. In conclusion, results from the participants' self-reports suggested that both reproductive modules were relevant and effective, offering new information with immediate field application. These types of educational programs are important for dairy veterinary practitioners because they are a vital source of information and service providers for dairy producers. For the program to be considered completely successful, a detailed follow-up assessment of participants' behavior change, adoption of new practices and skills, and their on-farm impact is needed.

  20. Thrombosis in continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices: pathophysiology, prevention, and pharmacologic management.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Douglas L; Weeks, Phillip A

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices reduce short-term mortality and improve quality of life in patients with end-stage heart failure. Unfortunately, device-related complications remain common, with many patients experiencing adverse events within the first year. New literature suggests that rates of device-related thrombosis may be increasing since 2011, which is particularly troublesome given that this pathology can result in a disabling stroke, organ damage, and death. In 2013, a group of practitioners in the field of mechanical circulatory support published a treatment algorithm based on their expert opinion. However, a comprehensive review of the pharmacotherapy of this condition is lacking. A search of the literature revealed 20 separate publications of case reports or case series describing outcomes associated with the use of drug therapy for suspected pump thrombosis. Each of these experiences was limited by small sample size, nonrandomized treatment allocation, and nonstandardized medication dosing. Data describing the outcomes of surgical versus medical management of device thrombosis are also sparse, with only three published reports identified. Based on the review of this limited literature, surgical management appears to be the preferred treatment modality, especially in those with organ hypoperfusion or hemodynamic instability. In patients ineligible for surgery, pharmacotherapy options remain limited. Use of all drug classes described in the literature for the HeartMate II device-fibrinolytics, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and direct thrombin inhibitors-was hindered by either marginal efficacy or bleeding. Based on historical experience with unfractionated heparin in patients under HeartMate II support, we recommend this agent as a possible option for those with suspected pump thrombosis in lieu of surgical device exchange. For the HeartWare HVAD, limited data suggest that direct intraventricular administration of alteplase may be an

  1. Innovating Conservation Agriculture: The Case of No-Till Cropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughenour, C. Milton

    2003-01-01

    The extensive sociological studies of conservation agriculture have provided considerable understanding of farmers' use of conservation practices, but attempts to develop predictive models have failed. Reviews of research findings question the utility of the conceptual and methodological perspectives of prior research. The argument advanced here…

  2. N response of no-till dryland winter triticale forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticale’s forage-yield response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) is impressive on soils testing low in available N. Our objective is to quantify the forage yield response of dryland winter triticale to applied N and to residual NO3-N. A second objective is to fit the yield data to a regression equation ...

  3. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    PubMed

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices. PMID:23615067

  4. Integrating an incident management system within a continuity of operations programme: case study of the Bank of Canada.

    PubMed

    Loop, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out critical business functions without interruption requires a resilient and robust business continuity framework. By embedding an industry-standard incident management system within its business continuity structure, the Bank of Canada strengthened its response plan by enabling timely response to incidents while maintaining a strong focus on business continuity. A total programme approach, integrating the two disciplines, provided for enhanced recovery capabilities. While the value of an effective and efficient response organisation is clear, as demonstrated by emergency events around the world, incident response structures based on normal operating hierarchy can experience unique challenges. The internationally-recognised Incident Command System (ICS) model addresses these issues and reflects the five primary incident management functions, each contributing to the overall strength and effectiveness of the response organisation. The paper focuses on the Bank of Canada's successful implementation of the ICS model as its incident management and continuity of operations programmes evolved to reflect current best practices.

  5. Assessing the impact of continuous quality improvement/total quality management: concept versus implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, S M; O'Brien, J L; Carman, J M; Foster, R W; Hughes, E F; Boerstler, H; O'Connor, E J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationships among organizational culture, quality improvement processes and selected outcomes for a sample of up to 61 U. S. hospitals. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Primary data were collected from 61 U. S. hospitals (located primarily in the midwest and the west) on measures related to continuous quality improvement/total quality management (CQI/TQM), organizational culture, implementation approaches, and degree of quality improvement implementation based on the Baldrige Award criteria. These data were combined with independently collected data on perceived impact and objective measures of clinical efficiency (i.e., charges and length of stay) for six clinical conditions. STUDY DESIGN: The study involved cross-sectional examination of the named relationships. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Reliable and valid scales for the organizational culture and quality improvement implementation measures were developed based on responses from over 7,000 individuals across the 61 hospitals with an overall completion rate of 72 percent. Independent data on perceived impact were collected from a national survey and independent data on clinical efficiency from a companion study of managed care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A participative, flexible, risk-taking organizational culture was significantly related to quality improvement implementation. Quality improvement implementation, in turn, was positively associated with greater perceived patient outcomes and human resource development. Larger-size hospitals experienced lower clinical efficiency with regard to higher charges and higher length of stay, due in part to having more bureaucratic and hierarchical cultures that serve as a barrier to quality improvement implementation. CONCLUSIONS: What really matters is whether or not a hospital has a culture that supports quality improvement work and an approach that encourages flexible implementation. Larger-size hospitals face more difficult

  6. Optimal Multi-scale Demand-side Management for Continuous Power-Intensive Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumit

    With the advent of deregulation in electricity markets and an increasing share of intermittent power generation sources, the profitability of industrial consumers that operate power-intensive processes has become directly linked to the variability in energy prices. Thus, for industrial consumers that are able to adjust to the fluctuations, time-sensitive electricity prices (as part of so-called Demand-Side Management (DSM) in the smart grid) offer potential economical incentives. In this thesis, we introduce optimization models and decomposition strategies for the multi-scale Demand-Side Management of continuous power-intensive processes. On an operational level, we derive a mode formulation for scheduling under time-sensitive electricity prices. The formulation is applied to air separation plants and cement plants to minimize the operating cost. We also describe how a mode formulation can be used for industrial combined heat and power plants that are co-located at integrated chemical sites to increase operating profit by adjusting their steam and electricity production according to their inherent flexibility. Furthermore, a robust optimization formulation is developed to address the uncertainty in electricity prices by accounting for correlations and multiple ranges in the realization of the random variables. On a strategic level, we introduce a multi-scale model that provides an understanding of the value of flexibility of the current plant configuration and the value of additional flexibility in terms of retrofits for Demand-Side Management under product demand uncertainty. The integration of multiple time scales leads to large-scale two-stage stochastic programming problems, for which we need to apply decomposition strategies in order to obtain a good solution within a reasonable amount of time. Hence, we describe two decomposition schemes that can be applied to solve two-stage stochastic programming problems: First, a hybrid bi-level decomposition scheme with

  7. Continuous nocturnal intragastric feeding for management of type 1 glycogen-storage disease.

    PubMed

    Greene, H L; Slonim, A E; O'Neill, J A; Burr, I M

    1976-02-19

    The clinical and biochemical abnormalities associated with Type 1 glycogen-storage disease can be reversed by avoidance of hypoglycemia and secondary hormonal flux. Three patients with Type 1 disease were treated with intragastric infusions of a high glucose formula at night with three-hour starch feedings during the day. This regimen stabilized blood glucose levels above 70 mg per deciliter and decreased serum uric acid, triglyceride, lactate and serum oxalacetic transaminase levels, as well as hepatic size, in all patients. Increased linear growth rate (mean 1 cm per month) was associated with a decrease in mean plasma glucagon (from 190 to 40 pg per milliliter) and an increase in mean plasma insulin (from 19 to 43 muU per milliliter, [two patients]). These changes occurred within four weeks of beginning of treatment and continued with home treatment for 13 months. No complications resulted from tube placement daily by the patients. Type 1 disease can be managed by nighttime intragastric feeding and frequent daytime high starch meals.

  8. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration

    PubMed Central

    Zaytsev, Yury V.; Morrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI), a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI-based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique. PMID:23316158

  9. Residue management, nitrogen, and carbon amendment effects on corn under full and limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn residue is a suitable feedstock for livestock forage and cellulosic ethanol. However, information about the response of the subsequent corn crop to residue removal in irrigated no-till continuous corn rotations is lacking. Subsequently, little is known regarding its response under limited irrig...

  10. Influence of conservation management practices on indicators of soil quality in a claypan agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation management practices including vegetative filter strips (VFS) and no-till cultivation have the potential to enhance soil carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services in agroecosystems. A modified two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with subsamples was used to compare SOC and TN...

  11. Aggregate Carbon Pools after 13 Years of Integrated Crop-Livestock Management in Semiarid Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semi-arid regions have the potential to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC) but the magnitude and rate of sequestration is highly management specific. Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems that utilize perennial or high-residue no-till annual forage crops as part of the overall agronomic system ma...

  12. The management of pain from collapse of osteoporotic vertebrae with continuous intrathecal morphine infusion.

    PubMed

    Saltari, Maria Rita; Shaladi, Alì; Piva, Bruno; Gilli, Giuseppe; Tartari, Stefano; Dall'ara, Roberto; Bevilacqua, Marzio; Micheletto, Giuseppe

    2007-04-01

    Objectives.  Vertebral fractures are the most common consequences of severe osteoporosis. The chronic pain from collapse of osteoporotic vertebrae affects quality of life (QoL) and autonomy of patients. The management of pain with oral or transdermal opiates can cause severe side-effects. Continuous intrathecal administration of morphine through an implantable pump might represent an alternative therapy to conventional oral or transdermal administration of opioids and has some advantages and disadvantages for pain relief and improvement in QoL when compared to conventional opioid delivery. It is our objective to report our experience using intrathecal delivery of analgesics in a population of patients with refractory pain due to vertebral fractures. Materials and Methods.  In 24 patients, refractory to conventional delivery of opioids, we used intrathecal analgesic therapy. To test for efficacy and improvement in QoL, we administered the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO). Before patients were selected for pump implantation, an intraspinal drug delivery trial was performed to monitor side-effects and responses to intrathecal therapy. Results.  Significant pain relief was obtained in all implanted patients. Using the QUALEFFO, we observed significant improvement of all variables such as QDL (quality of daily life), DW (domestic work), ambulation, and PHS (perception of health status), before and after one year after pump implantation. With intrathecal morphine infusion, none of the 24 patients required additional systemic analgesic medication. The mean morphine dose during the spinal trial was 11.28 mg/day, 7.92 mg/day at pump implantation, and 16.32 mg/day at one-year follow-up. Conclusions.  Our results show that intrathecal administration of morphine efficiently relieves the symptoms of pain and improves QoL. Continuous intrathecal administration of morphine

  13. Rethinking business continuity: Emerging trends in the profession and the manager's role.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Where is business continuity going in the future? What should continuity professionals be planning for in their programmes and in their career? This paper offers an in-depth look into both of these questions and provides the reader with eight activities for reinventing their continuity programme and career. PMID:25193456

  14. Forests may need centuries to recover their original productivity after continuous intensive management: an example from Douglas-fir stands.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan A

    2012-10-15

    How long would it take for forests to recover their original productivity following continuous intensive management if they are left untouched? This issue was explored using the model FORECAST, calibrated and validated for coastal Douglas-fir stands on Vancouver Island (western Canada). Three types of forest management (production of timber, pulp, and biomass) were simulated, being different in utilization level and rotation length (stem-only and 75-year rotation for timber production, whole-tree and 30-year rotation for pulp/fiber, and whole-tree and 15-year rotations for biomass production). Management was simulated for 150 years, followed by several cycles of natural growth without management ending with a stand-replacing windstorm with a return time of 200 years. Productivity-related ecological variables in previously managed stands were compared to natural forests. Stands developed after management for timber would quickly reach values similar to non-managed forests for tree and understory total biomass, stored carbon, available nitrogen and soil organic matter (SOM). However, intensive management regimes designed for fiber and biomass production would cause a decrease in SOM and nutrient availability, increasing understory biomass. As a consequence, stands recovering from intensive management would need at least two stand-replacing events (400 years) to reach a productivity status similar to non-managed stands. Stands developed after management for biomass would take much longer, up to 600 or 800 years to recover similar values of SOM and understory biomass, respectively. Current fertilization prescriptions will likely be not enough to stop a quick drop in forest productivity associated with intensive management. Intensifying forest management to achieve short-term objectives could produce a reduction of stand productivity that would influence tree growth for very long time (up to several centuries), if such management is continuously implemented at the same

  15. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    PubMed

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W

    2015-08-01

    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species--Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices. PMID:26470320

  16. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    PubMed

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W

    2015-08-01

    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species--Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices.

  17. 75 FR 2463 - Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Department of the Army 48 CFR Parts 5132, 5136, and 5152 RIN 0710-AA69 Continuing Contract for Civil Works Project Managed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers Clauses AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps...

  18. Sustainable MSD prevention: management for continuous improvement between prevention and production. Ergonomic intervention in two assembly line companies.

    PubMed

    Caroly, S; Coutarel, F; Landry, A; Mary-Cheray, I

    2010-07-01

    To increase output and meet customers' needs, companies have turned to the development of production management systems: Kaizen, one piece flow, Kanban, etc. The aim of such systems is to accelerate decisions, react to environmental issues and manage various productions. In the main, this type of management system has led to the continuous improvement of production performance. Consequently, such production management systems can have unexpected negative effects on operators' health and safety. Conversely, regulation and control systems focusing on work-related risks have obliged firms to implement health and safety management systems such as OHSAS 18001. The purpose of this type of system, also based on continuous improvement, is to reduce risks, facilitate work-related activities and identify solutions in terms of equipment and tools. However, the prevention actions introduced through health and safety systems often result in other unexpected and unwanted effects on production. This paper shows how companies can improve the way they are run by taking into account both types of management system.

  19. 75 FR 23582 - Federal Housing Administration: Continuation of FHA Reform-Strengthening Risk Management Through...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Reform-- Strengthening Risk Management Through Responsible FHA-Approved Lenders; Correction AGENCY... to strengthen FHA by improving its management of risk. Although the preamble to the final rule... that appeared in the Federal Register of April 20, 2010 (75 FR 20718). This final rule adopted...

  20. [Managing a health research institute: towards research excellence through continuous improvement].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Carmen; Buño, Ismael; Plá, Rosa; Lomba, Irene; Bardinet, Thierry; Bañares, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Health research institutes are a strategic commitment considered the ideal environment to develop excellence in translational research. Achieving quality research requires not only a powerful scientific and research structure but also the quality and integrity of management systems that support it. The essential instruments in our institution were solid strategic planning integrated into and consistent with the system of quality management, systematic evaluation through periodic indicators, measurement of key user satisfaction and internal audits, and implementation of an innovative information management tool. The implemented management tools have provided a strategic thrust to our institute while ensuring a level of quality and efficiency in the development and management of research that allows progress towards excellence in biomedical research. PMID:26215894

  1. [Managing a health research institute: towards research excellence through continuous improvement].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Carmen; Buño, Ismael; Plá, Rosa; Lomba, Irene; Bardinet, Thierry; Bañares, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Health research institutes are a strategic commitment considered the ideal environment to develop excellence in translational research. Achieving quality research requires not only a powerful scientific and research structure but also the quality and integrity of management systems that support it. The essential instruments in our institution were solid strategic planning integrated into and consistent with the system of quality management, systematic evaluation through periodic indicators, measurement of key user satisfaction and internal audits, and implementation of an innovative information management tool. The implemented management tools have provided a strategic thrust to our institute while ensuring a level of quality and efficiency in the development and management of research that allows progress towards excellence in biomedical research.

  2. Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management

    PubMed Central

    Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heat waves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth’s radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 °C. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate-engineering measures targeting high-impact events rather than mean climate properties. PMID:24958872

  3. Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management.

    PubMed

    Davin, Edouard L; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Ciais, Philippe; Olioso, Albert; Wang, Tao

    2014-07-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are considered a possible option to mitigate climate change. In particular, reducing or suppressing tillage (no-till) may have the potential to sequester carbon in soils, which could help slow global warming. On the other hand, such practices also have a direct effect on regional climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface. These biogeophysical effects, however, are still poorly known. Here we show that no-till management increases the surface albedo of croplands in summer and that the resulting cooling effect is amplified during hot extremes, thus attenuating peak temperatures reached during heat waves. Using a regional climate model accounting for the observed effects of no-till farming on surface albedo, as well as possible reductions in soil evaporation, we investigate the potential consequences of a full conversion to no-till agriculture in Europe. We find that the summer cooling from cropland albedo increase is strongly amplified during hot summer days, when surface albedo has more impact on the Earth's radiative balance due to clear-sky conditions. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect is the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 °C. The identified asymmetric impact of surface albedo change on summer temperature opens new avenues for climate-engineering measures targeting high-impact events rather than mean climate properties. PMID:24958872

  4. Effectiveness and safety of continuous wound infiltration for postoperative pain management after open gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xing; Feng, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of continuous wound infiltration (CWI) for pain management after open gastrectomy. METHODS: Seventy-five adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System (ASA) grade 1-3 undergoing open gastrectomy were randomized to three groups. Group 1 patients received CWI with 0.3% ropivacaine (group CWI). Group 2 patients received 0.5 mg/mL morphine intravenously by a patient-controlled analgesia pump (PCIA) (group PCIA). Group 3 patients received epidural analgesia (EA) with 0.12% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL morphine with an infusion at 6-8 mL/h for 48 h (group EA). A standard general anesthetic technique was used for all three groups. Rescue analgesia (2 mg bolus of morphine, intravenous) was given when the visual analogue scale (VAS) score was ≥ 4. The outcomes measured over 48 h after the operation were VAS scores both at rest and during mobilization, total morphine consumption, relative side effects, and basic vital signs. Further results including time to extubation, recovery of bowel function, surgical wound healing, mean length of hospitalization after surgery, and the patient’s satisfaction were also recorded. RESULTS: All three groups had similar VAS scores during the first 48 h after surgery. Group CWI and group EA, compared with group PCIA, had lower morphine consumption (P < 0.001), less postoperative nausea and vomiting (1.20 ± 0.41 vs 1.96 ± 0.67, 1.32 ± 0.56 vs 1.96 ± 0.67, respectively, P < 0.001), earlier extubation (16.56 ± 5.24 min vs 19.76 ± 5.75 min, P < 0.05, 15.48 ± 4.59 min vs 19.76 ± 5.75 min, P < 0.01), and earlier recovery of bowel function (2.96 ± 1.17 d vs 3.60 ± 1.04 d, 2.80 ± 1.38 d vs 3.60 ± 1.04 d, respectively, P < 0.05). The mean length of hospitalization after surgery was reduced in groups CWI (8.20 ± 2.58 d vs 10.08 ± 3.15 d, P < 0.05) and EA (7.96 ± 2.30 d vs 10.08 ± 3.15 d, P < 0.01) compared with group PCIA

  5. Continuing challenges in the diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Veronica; Marya, Neil; Singh, Anupam; Rupawala, Abbas; Gondal, Bilal; Cave, David

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB. PMID:25400996

  6. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration along with charcoal hemoperfusion for the management of life-threatening lercanidipine and amlodipine overdose.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Prashant; Singh, Akhilesh; Juneja, Deven; Singh, Omender; Javeri, Yash

    2014-11-01

    Overdose with calcium channel blockers is uncommon, but is associated with high mortality. The management includes fluid resuscitation, calcium gluconate, glucagon, vasopressors, and high-dose insulin-euglycemia therapy. We describe a rare case of massive overdose of lercanidipine with shock, refractory to conventional therapies and multi-organ failure. Charcoal hemoperfusion with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration was then used successfully and the patient showed remarkable recovery.

  7. Practice Stories in Natural Resource Management Continuing Professional Education: Springboards for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stummann, Cathy Brown

    2014-01-01

    The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These…

  8. Nitrogen, stover and tillage management affect nitrogen use efficiency in continuous corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in corn (Zea mays L.) is critical for optimizing yield and reducing environmental impact. Stover removal in continuous corn (CC) for biofuel production, coupled with reduced-tillage systems, could alter NUE and residual soil nitrate-N. Experiments were conduct...

  9. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  10. How to Setup a Continuous Experimental Teaching System: Case Study on the Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Mu; Huang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese higher tourism education witnesses 32-year continuous innovation and exploration since the reform and opening policies. And it has gained many successful experiences in the aspects of talents cultivation mentality, nurture target, subject construction, curriculum arrangement and training module. However, it suffers the shortage of tourism…

  11. The Planning Process in Managing Organisations of Continuing Education: The Case of Greek Vocational Training Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petridou, Eugenia; Chatzipanagiotou, Paraskevi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer a framework model of the planning of the activities of organisations of continuing education and training, which gives the opportunity to determine their mission, to seek specific aims, to develop the available resources and to create a cooperative operating climate. Adopting this recommended model would help…

  12. [Tactics of the patients management in continuing acute thrombosis of deep veins].

    PubMed

    Prasol, V A; Mishenina, E V; Okley, D V

    2015-03-01

    Experience of active tactics of treatment application in 18 patients, suffering an acute thrombosis in system of lower vena cava, is presented. Possibilities were estimated and efficacy of active surgical tactics proved in continuing deep vein thrombosis on early stage were estimated. Active tactics, using catheter--governed thrombolysis, permits to escape pulmonary thromboembolism and to reduce a severity of further chronic venous insufficiency.

  13. Lean management: innovative tools for engaging teams in continuous quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Lucille; Vaillancourt, Lise; Filion, Catherine; Hadj, Camélia

    2014-01-01

    Lean management has proven to be a sustainable method to ensure a high level of patient care through innovation and teamwork. It involves a set of six tools that allow for visual management shared among team members. The team focuses their efforts on the improvement of organizational indicators in a standardized and engaging way, resulting in the sustainability of improvements. This article outlines the program's rollout at Montfort Hospital (l'Hôpital Montfort). In only a few months, two pilot units accomplished close to 50 improvements each. In addition, the organizational employee satisfaction questionnaire showed very positive results.

  14. Managing Staff Development Effectively in Further Education. Discussion Paper in Continuing Education. Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheale, John

    A 1989 project provided models and ideas to help British further education colleges manage staff development more effectively. It examined the relationship between staff development and organizational development in colleges, found a common language for the two, and discovered ways of integrating their planning processes. A survey of literature…

  15. Reconsidering Social Science Theories in Natural Resource Management Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stummann, C. B.; Gamborg, C.

    2014-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, the "wicked problems" concept was introduced into forestry to describe the increasingly complex work situations faced by many natural resource management (NRM) professionals and at the same time the demand and frequency of public involvement in NRM issues also grew. Research on the impact of these changes for NRM…

  16. CQESTR simulated changes in soil organic carbon under residue management practices in continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property and strongly influenced by management. Changes in SOC stocks are difficult to measure through direct sampling, requiring both long time periods and intensive sampling to detect small changes in the large, highly variable pool. Models have the p...

  17. Urban Quality Development and Management: Capacity Development and Continued Education for the Sustainable City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of urban quality development and management (UQDM), and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other universities. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  18. Jobs, Authority, and Earnings among Managers: The Continuing Significance of Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reskin, Barbara F.; Ross, Catherine E.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 222 self-described managers found that women were concentrated low in chains of command, they tended to supervise other women, and their decision-making role was primarily providing input into men's decisions. Decision making raised men's salaries but not women's. (SK)

  19. Walking the Talk: Continuous Improvement of a Quality Management Field Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Steven; Adams, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    This article provides results from a three semester case study of the pedagogical efficacy of an innovative quality management field exercise. A series of direct and indirect measures were used to assess the extent to which the field exercise met a set of learning objectives. The results indicate that the assessment framework is useful in…

  20. Management of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropic support.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, Maeve; Mott, Sandra; Tong, Elizabeth; Handa, Sonia; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean Anne

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate present practice of maintaining PICC line patency in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropes by comparing one cohort receiving low dose continuous heparin with one receiving no heparin. A case control retrospective chart review compared the two cohorts on duration of patency (measured in days) and need for thrombolytic agents. Median duration of patency for the heparin group was 24 days versus 16 days for the no heparin group (p=0.07). Use of thrombolytic agents was 28% in the heparin group compared to 50% in the no heparin group (p=0.08). Although not statistically significant, findings were clinically significant and supportive of current practice.

  1. Data storage for managing the health enterprise and achieving business continuity.

    PubMed

    Hinegardner, Sam

    2003-01-01

    As organizations move away from a silo mentality to a vision of enterprise-level information, more healthcare IT departments are rejecting the idea of information storage as an isolated, system-by-system solution. IT executives want storage solutions that act as a strategic element of an IT infrastructure, centralizing storage management activities to effectively reduce operational overhead and costs. This article focuses on three areas of enterprise storage: tape, disk, and disaster avoidance.

  2. Monitoring Two Small Catchments to Evaluate Effects of No-Tillage Agricultural Management in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Gonçalves, A. O.; Melo, A. D. S.; de Bona, F. D.; Hernani, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, declines in water and soil quality have been observed in areas of Brazil where no-till agriculture had been previously implemented. Poor soil management associated with the absence of public policies has caused soil erosion, because many farmers are moving back from no-till to traditional cultivation for faster economic gains. A research project - SoloVivo Project - leaded by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) in partnership with Itaipu Binacional aims to develop and validate, in a participatory way, tools to evaluate the technical performance of soil and water management at the rural properties that practice no-till agriculture. In this context we have selected two paired small (< 100 ha) catchments in the Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, where no-till management is practiced at two different degrees of effectiveness. In the figure bellow it can be seen a scene of one of the two studied catchments. For monitoring rainfall, soil solution and stream water, each catchment will be equipped with a programmable datalogger (with cell phone communication for data collection) linked to: a high intensity tipping bucket rain gage; a reflectometer to monitor soil volumetric water content, bulk electric conductivity and temperature; a radar water level sensor; a turbidity sensor; and an electric conductivity-temperature probe. We expect that stream flow and sediment generation, besides water quality (measured by conductivity) may serve as indicators of the benefits of no-tillage agriculture done more or less well. The results of this study will be used to stimulate discussions at workshops with the farmers who participate in a rural producers association in the region. In addition this and other results can be used to help the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA) decide about applying no-till agricultural management systems in its programs of payment for environmental services.

  3. Residual Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Optimization: Causes and Management.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Julia L; Serinel, Yasmina; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2016-09-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but it is also common in the general population. When sleepiness remains after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA, comorbid conditions or permanent brain injury before CPAP therapy may be the cause of the residual sleepiness. There is currently no broad approach to treating residual EDS in patients with OSA. Individual assessment must be made of comorbid conditions and medications, and of lifestyle factors that may be contributing to the sleepiness. Modafinil and armodafinil are the only pharmacologic agents indicated for residual sleepiness in these patients. PMID:27542881

  4. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization.

  5. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791

  6. Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2011-09-30

    Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

  7. Action on AMD. Optimising patient management: act now to ensure current and continual delivery of best possible patient care

    PubMed Central

    Amoaku, W; Blakeney, S; Freeman, M; Gale, R; Johnston, R; Kelly, S P; McLaughlan, B; Sahu, D; Varma, D

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in the clinical management of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD)—a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding degenerative eye disease. Wet AMD is responsible for more than half of registered severe sight impairment (blindness) in the United Kingdom, and patients who are being treated for wet AMD require frequent and long-term follow-up for treatment to be most effective. The clinical workload associated with the frequent follow-up required is substantial. Furthermore, as more new patients are diagnosed and the population continues to age, the patient population will continue to increase. It is thus vital that clinical services continue to adapt so that they can provide a fast and efficient service for patients with wet AMD. This Action on AMDdocument has been developed by eye health-care professionals and patient representatives, the Action on AMDgroup. It is intended to highlight the urgent and continuing need for change within wet AMD services. This document also serves as a guide for eye health-care professionals, NHS commissioners, and providers to present possible solutions for improving NHS retinal and macular services. Examples of good practice and service development are considered and can be drawn upon to help services meet the recommended quality of care and achieve best possible outcomes. PMID:22302094

  8. Action on AMD. Optimising patient management: act now to ensure current and continual delivery of best possible patient care.

    PubMed

    Amoaku, W; Blakeney, S; Freeman, M; Gale, R; Johnston, R; Kelly, S P; McLaughlan, B; Sahu, D; Varma, D

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advances in the clinical management of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD)--a rapidly progressing and potentially blinding degenerative eye disease. Wet AMD is responsible for more than half of registered severe sight impairment (blindness) in the United Kingdom, and patients who are being treated for wet AMD require frequent and long-term follow-up for treatment to be most effective. The clinical workload associated with the frequent follow-up required is substantial. Furthermore, as more new patients are diagnosed and the population continues to age, the patient population will continue to increase. It is thus vital that clinical services continue to adapt so that they can provide a fast and efficient service for patients with wet AMD. This Action on AMD document has been developed by eye health-care professionals and patient representatives, the Action on AMD group. It is intended to highlight the urgent and continuing need for change within wet AMD services. This document also serves as a guide for eye health-care professionals, NHS commissioners, and providers to present possible solutions for improving NHS retinal and macular services. Examples of good practice and service development are considered and can be drawn upon to help services meet the recommended quality of care and achieve best possible outcomes.

  9. Evaluating the impact of pain management (PM) education on physician practice patterns--a continuing medical education (CME) outcomes study.

    PubMed

    Leong, L; Ninnis, J; Slatkin, N; Rhiner, M; Schroeder, L; Pritt, B; Kagan, J; Ball, T; Morgan, R

    2010-06-01

    California Assembly Bill AB487 mandates that all practicing physicians are required to obtain 12 h of Continuing Medical Education in Pain Management and End of Life Care before the year 2006 in order to renew their state license to practice medicine. In order to determine the effectiveness of this bill in influencing the practice of medicine, we conducted the first of five planned annual Pain Management seminars and utilized physician questionnaires to determine possible practice changes as a result of this seminar. Eighty-one physicians representing 17 multiple specialties of medicine enrolled in this seminar. The topics included: management of malignant and non-malignant pain, pharmacology and management of side effects of opiate and non-opiate analgesics, and adjunctive therapies including depression management and spirituality issues. Physicians were asked to respond to an immediate post-seminar questionnaire and were subsequently queried 4 months following the conference. Fifty-one out of 81 physician registrants responded to an immediate post-attendance questionnaire, and 31 responded to the 4-month follow-up questionnaire. Responses included: [Please see text]. This audience represents the most motivated group of practitioners electing to receive Pain Management Education long before the mandated deadline. Sixty-seven percent expressed an interest in changing their practice following this intensive educational experience. Ninety percent responding to the follow-up evaluation indicated that their practices had changed, suggesting that this seminar series is effective in altering physician practice patterns (supported by Cancer Center Support Grant CA 33572 and Sarnat Foundation).

  10. How The Australian National University's emergency management and continuity plans responded to a large-scale fire.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Bart

    2008-01-01

    On 18th January, 2003, one of the worst bushfires in the history of Australia hit the capital city, Canberra. By the time it was under control, four people were dead and more than 500 homes were destroyed. The fire also destroyed the Mount Stromlo campus of the Australian National University, the location of the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. In response to the fires, the University initiated its emergency management strategy and business continuity plans. These allowed the School to recommence limited operations within two weeks of the disaster. This paper details a case study of the impact of the fire (in part using personal recollections of staff and students), and the emergency response implemented by the University. It describes the development of the University's emergency management strategy, with its emphasis on the key elements of clear chain of command and flexibility in developing an incident-specific response. The paper also provides an assessment of how the plan worked during an actual incident and some of the lessons learned, including the importance of the early response, managing the impact on people, media management, insurance and communications. PMID:21339105

  11. Antibiotic management teams in Belgian hospitals: continued improvement in the period from 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Van Gastel, E; Balligand, E; Costers, M; Magerman, K

    2015-04-01

    Since 2002, the Belgian Antibiotic Policy Coordination Committee (BAPCOC) has supported the development of antibiotic management teams (AMTs) in Belgian hospitals with policy guidance and federal funding for antibiotic managers. We report on the analysis of the activity reports for the year 2011 and compare the results with those for 2007. A structured questionnaire survey was performed on the composition, organisation and service activities of the AMT in all acute care and larger chronic care hospitals in the country in 2011. Descriptive statistics were stratified by duration of AMT funding. Completed questionnaires were provided by 105 of 109 hospitals (response rate 96.3%). The AMTs have further formalised their working method over the previous years. Significantly higher implementation rates were achieved in 2011 for concurrent review for antibiotic therapies (92.0% in 2011 vs. 64.2% in 2007), for the de-escalation of therapy after a few days (93.0% in 2011 vs. 63.9% in 2007) and for sequential i.v.-oral therapy for antibiotics with equivalent bioavailability (86.0% in 2011 vs. 78.7% in 2007). The AMTs who first joined the project were able to maintain their activities at a high level, while those who last joined the national project in 2007 made considerable progress 4 years later. This has also resulted in significantly higher implementation rates for the totality of the acute care hospitals. The presence of AMTs in all hospitals also proves to be a great boon when setting up projects, surveys and studies on a(n) (inter)national level. PMID:25407373

  12. Continuity of care in addictions treatment: the role of advocacy and coordination in case management.

    PubMed

    Graham, K; Timney, C B; Bois, C; Wedgerfield, K

    1995-11-01

    Although advocacy and coordination are recognized as important aspects of the addictions treatment process, little research has been done in these areas. The present study examined advocacy and coordination at two programs where the mandate was assessment, referral, and case management. Both programs spent a similar proportion of client-related effort on advocacy and/or coordination (about 25% of contact time, accounting for about half of contacts made regarding clients). The majority of advocacy and coordination contacts were with other agencies about clients (the remainder with family and friends of clients). A framework for advocacy and coordination was developed that allowed contacts to be categorized into mutually exclusive advocacy or coordination activities. Advocacy was defined as any activity undertaken to obtain something for clients; coordination involved the giving or receiving of information regarding specific clients. Sources of variability in the provision of advocacy and coordination were found between the programs that could be attributed to differences between the systems within which the programs operated, as well as differences in program clientele. In terms of client characteristics, it was found that females were more likely than males to receive advocacy; those over 65 years were most likely to receive both advocacy and coordination; those who were referred by school or employer or by corrections were most likely to receive coordination; those with no prior treatment were most likely to receive advocacy; and self-referrals and those who had had prior treatment were most likely to receive neither advocacy nor coordination. Receiving advocacy or coordination was not found to reduce the need by clients for other case management services, such as supportive counseling. The findings are discussed in terms of the need for knowledge regarding highly variable aspects of treatment such as advocacy and coordination. New research approaches (as taken in

  13. Characteristics and Management of Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep.

    PubMed

    Fatema, K; Rahman, M M; Begum, S

    2015-10-01

    This study was done to describe the clinical spectrum, EEG characteristics and treatment modalities in children with continuous spike and slow wave in sleep (CSWS). Ten patients with CSWS had been treated between 2012 and 2013. Mean age of the patients was 6.9 years; male female ratio was 3:2. The main etiologic group in this study was epilepsy (10), cerebral palsy (3) and brain lesion (arachnoid cyst). All the patients had prior seizure. Presenting features were abnormal behavior (4), agitation (4), aggression (4), eye blinking (2) and involuntary movement (2). Three patients had speech regression and 1 had motor regression. Regarding EEG finding, 7 out 10 cases had SWI>85% whereas, rest of them had SWI 50 to 80%. Most of the patients were resistant to two or more oral AED. The AED found to be efficacious were Midazolam drip, pulse methyl prednisolone and valproate. Eighty percent (80%) patient responded to midazolam drip. Methyl prednisolone caused 50% improvement in one patient but failed in 2 cases. In contrast to the previous studies where high dose valproic acid, levetiracetam, Injection ACTH was more efficacious, this study demonstrates significant positive result with midazolam drip. PMID:26620024

  14. Use of continuous local anesthetic infusion in the management of postoperative split-thickness skin graft donor site pain.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jorge L Reguero; Savetamal, Alisa; Crombie, Roselle E; Cholewczynski, Walter; Atweh, Nabil; Possenti, Paul; Schulz, John T

    2013-01-01

    Donor sites from split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) impose significant pain on patients in the early postoperative period. We report the use of continuous local anesthetic infusion as a method for the management of postoperative STSG donor site pain. Patients undergoing single or dual, adjacent STSG harvest from the thigh (eight patients) or back (one patient) were included in this study. Immediately after STSG harvest, subcutaneous catheters were placed for continuous infusion of local anesthetic. Daily donor site-specific pain severity scores were prospectively recorded in nine patients receiving local anesthetic infusion. Patient characteristics, technical aspects, and postoperative complications were identified in the study. The thigh was the anatomic location chosen for most donor sites. A single catheter was placed for donor sites limited to 4 inches in width or less. A dual catheter system was used for those wider than 4 inches. An elastomeric pump delivered continuously a total of 4 ml/hr of a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine. The average anesthetic infusion duration was 3.1 days. A substantial decrease in worst, least, and average donor site pain scores was found from the first 24 hours to the second postoperative day in our patients, a treatment trend that continued through postoperative day 3. One patient developed minor anesthetic leakage from the catheter insertion site; and in three cases, accidental dislodgement of the catheters occurred. There were no cases of donor site secondary infection. All donor sites were completely epithelialized at 1-month follow-up. Continuous local anesthetic infusion is technically feasible and may represent an option for postoperative donor site pain control after STSG harvesting. Relative cost-benefit of the technique remains to be determined. PMID:23271060

  15. Managing perceived conflicts of interest while ensuring the continued innovation of medical technology.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    If it were not for the ongoing collaboration between vascular surgeons and the medical technology industry, many of these advanced treatments used every day in vascular interventional surgery would not exist. The flip side of this coin is that these vital relationships create multiple roles for surgeons and must be appropriately managed. The dynamic process of innovation, along with factors such as product delivery technique refinement, education, testing and clinical trials, and product support, all make it necessary for ongoing and close collaboration between surgeons and the device industry. This unique relationship sometimes leads to the perception of conflicts of interest for physicians, in part because the competing pressures from the multiple, overlapping roles as clinician/caregiver/investigator/innovator/customer are significant. To address this issue, the Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed), the nation's largest medical technology association representing medical device and diagnostics companies, developed a Code of Ethics to guide medical technology companies in their interactions with health care professionals. First introduced in 1993, the AdvaMed Code strongly encourages both industry and physicians to commit to openness and high ethical standards in the conduct of their business interactions. The AdvaMed Code addresses many of the types of interactions that can occur between companies and health care professionals, including training, consulting agreements, the provision of demonstration and evaluation units, and charitable donations. By following the Code, companies send a strong message that treatment decisions must always be based on the best interest of the patient.

  16. Managing perceived conflicts of interest while ensuring the continued innovation of medical technology.

    PubMed

    Van Haute, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    If it were not for the ongoing collaboration between vascular surgeons and the medical technology industry, many of these advanced treatments used every day in vascular interventional surgery would not exist. The flip side of this coin is that these vital relationships create multiple roles for surgeons and must be appropriately managed. The dynamic process of innovation, along with factors such as product delivery technique refinement, education, testing and clinical trials, and product support, all make it necessary for ongoing and close collaboration between surgeons and the device industry. This unique relationship sometimes leads to the perception of conflicts of interest for physicians, in part because the competing pressures from the multiple, overlapping roles as clinician/caregiver/investigator/innovator/customer are significant. To address this issue, the Advanced Medical Technology Association (AdvaMed), the nation's largest medical technology association representing medical device and diagnostics companies, developed a Code of Ethics to guide medical technology companies in their interactions with health care professionals. First introduced in 1993, the AdvaMed Code strongly encourages both industry and physicians to commit to openness and high ethical standards in the conduct of their business interactions. The AdvaMed Code addresses many of the types of interactions that can occur between companies and health care professionals, including training, consulting agreements, the provision of demonstration and evaluation units, and charitable donations. By following the Code, companies send a strong message that treatment decisions must always be based on the best interest of the patient. PMID:21872113

  17. [The total-quality-management-analysis of the continuation and discontinuation of alcohol family treatment: a grassroots approach].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Tatsuki, S

    2001-06-01

    A family support/treatment program was provided to thirty-three cases where a drinking family member (identified patient) had shown alcohol related problems but not yet admitted the problem. After a period of between thirteen and twenty-one months of family treatment, fourteen (42.4%) identified patients started their own treatment. The only statistically significant factor that was related to the patients' treatment program participation was the continuation of family members' involvement in a family treatment program. Among the thirty-three cases, a little less than one half (48.5%) continued the family program. In order to increase the patients' participation, it is crucial to encourage family members to continue their family support/treatment program. In order to identify factors that contribute treatment continuation as well as dropouts, workshops were held with those who dropped out and those who continued the family treatment program. The Total-Quality-Management (TQM) affinity and arrow diagram techniques were employed to classify the participants' statements and to find cause-effect relationships among the identified factors, respectively. Five family treatment discontinuation factors were identified: 1) a lack of information about family support program, 2) resistance against a "family change" orientation in family treatment program, 3) family member burnout, 4) a misfit between family needs for immediate problem solutions and what family program offers, and 5) a temporal improvement of patients' drinking problems. While widely varied factors were found to contribute discontinuation, only a very few factors were identified to facilitate the treatment continuation. It was concluded that treatment discontinuation, rather than continuation, was the norm among the families of problem drinkers. Based on the above findings, three kaizen plans were proposed. First, in order to make sure that family members obtain necessary information about the family support

  18. A dynamic process of health risk assessment for business continuity management during the World Exposition Shanghai, China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Keim, Mark; Dong, Chen; Mahany, Mollie; Guo, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reports of health issues related to mass gatherings around the world have indicated a potential for public health and medical emergencies to occur on a scale that could place a significant impact on business continuity for national and international organisations. This paper describes a risk assessment process for business continuity management that was performed as part of the planning efforts related to the World Expo 2010 Shanghai China (Expo), the world's largest mass gathering to date. Altogether, 73 million visitors attended the Expo, generating over US$2bn of revenue. During 2008 to 2010, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention performed a dynamic series of four disaster risk assessments before and during the Expo. The purpose of this assessment process was to identify, analyse and evaluate risks for public health security during different stages of the Expo. This paper describes an overview of the novel approach for this multiple and dynamic process of assessment of health security risk for ensuring business continuity.

  19. A dynamic process of health risk assessment for business continuity management during the World Exposition Shanghai, China, 2010.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Keim, Mark; Dong, Chen; Mahany, Mollie; Guo, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reports of health issues related to mass gatherings around the world have indicated a potential for public health and medical emergencies to occur on a scale that could place a significant impact on business continuity for national and international organisations. This paper describes a risk assessment process for business continuity management that was performed as part of the planning efforts related to the World Expo 2010 Shanghai China (Expo), the world's largest mass gathering to date. Altogether, 73 million visitors attended the Expo, generating over US$2bn of revenue. During 2008 to 2010, the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention performed a dynamic series of four disaster risk assessments before and during the Expo. The purpose of this assessment process was to identify, analyse and evaluate risks for public health security during different stages of the Expo. This paper describes an overview of the novel approach for this multiple and dynamic process of assessment of health security risk for ensuring business continuity. PMID:24854735

  20. Neuroma-in-continuity of the median nerve managed by nerve expansion and direct suture with vein conduit.

    PubMed

    Jeudy, J; Raimbeau, G; Rabarin, F; Fouque, P A; Saint-Cast, Y; Césari, B; Bigorre, N

    2014-06-01

    Autologous nerve grafting is the current standard for bridging large gaps in major sensory and motor nerves. It allows both function and pain improvement with predictable results. Clinical observations of nerve elongation caused by tumours have prompted experimental animal studies of induced gradual elongation of the nerve stump proximal to the gap. This technique allows direct suturing of the two nerve ends to bridge the gap. Here, we describe a case of neuroma-in-continuity of the median nerve managed by resection and direct suture after nerve elongation with a tissue expander. We are not aware of similar reported cases. Secondary repair 3 years after the initial injury improved the pain and hypersensitivity and restored a modest degree of protective sensory function (grade S1).

  1. Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys: comparison of patient and physician perceptions about COPD risk and management

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M; Landis, Sarah H; Han, MeiLan K; Muellerova, Hana; Aisanov, Zaurbek; van der Molen, Thys; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Ichinose, Masakazu; Mannino, David M; Davis, Kourtney J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Using data from the Continuing to Confront COPD International Physician and Patient Surveys, this paper describes physicians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prognosis, and compares physician and patient perceptions with respect to COPD. Methods In 12 countries worldwide, 4,343 patients with COPD were identified through systematic screening of population samples, and 1,307 physicians who regularly saw patients with COPD were sampled from in-country professional databases. Both patients and physicians completed surveys about their COPD knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions; physicians answered further questions about diagnostic methods and treatment choices for COPD. Results Most physicians (79%) responded that the long-term health outlook for patients with COPD has improved over the past decade, largely attributed to the introduction of better medications. However, patient access to medication remains an issue in many countries, and some physicians (39%) and patients (46%) agreed/strongly agreed with the statement “there are no truly effective treatments for COPD”. There was strong concordance between physicians and patients regarding COPD management practices, including the use of spirometry (86% of physicians and 76% of patients reporting they used/had undergone a spirometry test) and smoking cessation counseling (76% of physicians reported they counseled their smoking patients at every clinic visit, and 71% of smoking patients stated that they had received counseling in the past year). However, the groups differed in their perception about the role of smoking in COPD, with 78% of physicians versus 38% of patients strongly agreeing with the statement “smoking is the cause of most cases of COPD”. Conclusion The Continuing to Confront COPD International Surveys demonstrate that while physicians and patients largely agreed about COPD management practices and the need for more effective treatments for COPD

  2. A comparative study of continuous versus pulsed radiofrequency discectomy for management of low backache: Prospective randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Bhagya Ranjan; Paswan, Anil; Singh, Yashpal; Loha, Sandeep; Singh, Anil Prasad; Rastogi, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency (RF) is a minimally invasive target-selective technique that has been used with success for many years in the treatment of different pathologies, such as low back pain, trigeminal neuralgia, and others. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare different mode of RF - continuous RF (CRF) versus pulsed RF (PRF) along with steroid in the management of low back pain of discogenic origin. Setting and Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with chronic discogenic low back pain were randomized to receive CRF plus intradiscal triamcinolone 40 mg (Group 1) or to receive PRF plus intradiscal triamcinolone 40 mg (Group 2). Outcome measured includes immediate as well as long-term pain relief using visual analog scale, the Oswestry Disability Index and straight leg raising test. Statistical Analysis: The continuous variables were compared by one-way analysis of variance test. Discrete variables were compared by Fisher's exact test/Chi-square test/Student's t-test, whichever appropriate. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a significant decrease in pain score after CRF without any added side effect. Pain relief after PRF was insignificant. Conclusion: CRF with steroid seems to be better for treatment of chronic discogenic low back pain than PRF with steroid. PMID:27746559

  3. A Predictive Safety Management System Software Package Based on the Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to integrate a previously validated and reliable safety model, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM), into a software application. This led to the development of a safety management information system (PSMIS). This means that the theory or principles of the CHTFPM were incorporated in a software package; hence, the PSMIS is referred to as CHTFPM management information system (CHTFPM MIS). The purpose of the PSMIS is to reduce the time and manpower required to perform predictive studies as well as to facilitate the handling of enormous quantities of information in this type of studies. The CHTFPM theory encompasses the philosophy of looking at the concept of safety engineering from a new perspective: from a proactive, than a reactive, viewpoint. That is, corrective measures are taken before a problem instead of after it happened. That is why the CHTFPM is a predictive safety because it foresees or anticipates accidents, system failures and unacceptable risks; therefore, corrective action can be taken in order to prevent all these unwanted issues. Consequently, safety and reliability of systems or processes can be further improved by taking proactive and timely corrective actions.

  4. Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Risk identification is an ongoing activity that takes place during the routine project work flow. Project activities such as programmatic and technical meetings, telecons, reviews, and other forms of communication often bring to light project risks. When this occurs, we record and analyze the risk on a Risk Information Sheet. This process helps the project team identify and cope with project risks throughout the life of the project.

  5. Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A. Stuart; Reed, Sasha; Cleveland, Cory

    2011-01-01

    Current conceptual models predict that changes in plant litter chemistry during decomposition are primarily regulated by both initial litter chemistry and the stage-or extent-of mass loss. Far less is known about how variations in decomposer community structure (e.g., resulting from different ecosystem management types) could influence litter chemistry during decomposition. Given the recent agricultural intensification occurring globally and the importance of litter chemistry in regulating soil organic matter storage, our objectives were to determine the potential effects of agricultural management on plant litter chemistry and decomposition rates, and to investigate possible links between ecosystem management, litter chemistry and decomposition, and decomposer community composition and activity. We measured decomposition rates, changes in litter chemistry, extracellular enzyme activity, microarthropod communities, and bacterial versus fungal relative abundance in replicated conventional-till, no-till, and old field agricultural sites for both corn and grass litter. After one growing season, litter decomposition under conventional-till was 20% greater than in old field communities. However, decomposition rates in no-till were not significantly different from those in old field or conventional-till sites. After decomposition, grass residue in both conventional- and no-till systems was enriched in total polysaccharides relative to initial litter, while grass litter decomposed in old fields was enriched in nitrogen-bearing compounds and lipids. These differences corresponded with differences in decomposer communities, which also exhibited strong responses to both litter and management type. Overall, our results indicate that agricultural intensification can increase litter decomposition rates, alter decomposer communities, and influence litter chemistry in ways that could have important and long-term effects on soil organic matter dynamics. We suggest that future

  6. Inputs and losses by surface runoff and subsurface leaching for pastures managed by continuous or rotational stocking.

    PubMed

    Owens, L B; Barker, D J; Loerch, S C; Shipitalo, M J; Bonta, J V; Sulc, R M

    2012-01-01

    Pasture management practices can affect forage quality and production, animal health and production, and surface and groundwater quality. In a 5-yr study conducted at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed near Coshocton, Ohio, we compared the effects of two contrasting grazing methods on surface and subsurface water quantity and quality. Four pastures, each including a small, instrumented watershed (0.51-1.09 ha) for surface runoff measurements and a developed spring for subsurface flow collection, received 112 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and were grazed at similar stocking rates (1.8-1.9 cows ha(-1)). Two pastures were continuously stocked; two were subdivided so that they were grazed with frequent rotational stocking (5-6 times weekly). In the preceding 5 yr, these pastures received 112 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) after several years of 0 N fertilizer and were grazed with weekly rotational stocking. Surface runoff losses of N were minimal. During these two periods, some years had precipitation up to 50% greater than the long-term average, which increased subsurface flow and NO(3)-N transport. Average annual NO(3)-N transported in subsurface flow from the four watersheds during the two 5-yr periods ranged from 11.3 to 22.7 kg N ha(-1), which was similar to or less than the mineral-N received in precipitation. Flow and transport variations were greater among seasons than among watersheds. Flow-weighted seasonal NO(3)-N concentrations in subsurface flow did not exceed 7 mg L(-1). Variations in NO(3)-N leached from pastures were primarily due to variable precipitation rather than the effects of continuous, weekly rotational, or frequent rotational stocking practices. This suggests that there was no difference among these grazing practices in terms of NO(3)-N leaching. PMID:22218179

  7. The Arabic culture of Jordan and its impacts on a wider Jordanian adoption of business continuity management.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Meaton, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Culture is important to individuals and societies, as well as organisations. Failing to address cultural aspects will hinder the wider adoption and development of business continuity management (BCM) and will subsequently increase the vulnerabilities of organisations to crises, disasters and business interruptions. Three main issues are discussed in this paper. The first is the background to culture and the characteristics of the Jordanian culture. Secondly, the influence of the Arab culture on the wider adoption and development of BCM in Jordan is considered. Thirdly, the paper looks at potential factors that underpin the role of culture in the BCM process in Jordan. These issues are significant, as they represent the characteristics and influence of the Arab culture. This paper contributes to the understanding of the significance of culture in the adoption and development of BCM for organisations operating in Jordan and in the Arab world more generally. It also highlights current cultural changes and trends taking place in the Arab world in a time of huge political instability in the Middle East and Arab countries. PMID:22948108

  8. The Arabic culture of Jordan and its impacts on a wider Jordanian adoption of business continuity management.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Meaton, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Culture is important to individuals and societies, as well as organisations. Failing to address cultural aspects will hinder the wider adoption and development of business continuity management (BCM) and will subsequently increase the vulnerabilities of organisations to crises, disasters and business interruptions. Three main issues are discussed in this paper. The first is the background to culture and the characteristics of the Jordanian culture. Secondly, the influence of the Arab culture on the wider adoption and development of BCM in Jordan is considered. Thirdly, the paper looks at potential factors that underpin the role of culture in the BCM process in Jordan. These issues are significant, as they represent the characteristics and influence of the Arab culture. This paper contributes to the understanding of the significance of culture in the adoption and development of BCM for organisations operating in Jordan and in the Arab world more generally. It also highlights current cultural changes and trends taking place in the Arab world in a time of huge political instability in the Middle East and Arab countries.

  9. Revenue enhancement through total quality management/continuous quality improvement (TQM/CQI) in outpatient coding and billing.

    PubMed

    Dwore, R B; Murray, B P; Parsons, R J; Smith, P M; Vorderer, L H

    1995-01-01

    To survive and thrive, rural hospitals are seeking enhanced revenues. This study focuses on outpatient laboratory and radiology coding and billing accuracy in a nonrandom sample of seven rural hospitals in a Western state. Information was gathered on (1) procedures incorrectly coded, (2) potential revenue increases from correct coding and billing, (3) barriers to implementing changes, and (4) perceived audit value. The identified major source of potential revenue enhancement was increased fees from private payers. Correct coding and billing to Medicare and Medicaid offered the potential of additional revenue. Participating administrators appreciated the validation of coding and billing practices and identification of potential enhanced revenues. Five of seven hospitals (71.4%) selectively implemented recommended changes. Complete compliance with recommended changes was limited by barriers of tradition, competition, and reimbursement, which must be overcome to realize successful implementation. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization's (JCAHO) new Total Quality Management/Continuous Quality Improvement (TQM/CQI) emphasis provides an opportunity for revenue enhancement through coding/billing assessments and interdepartmental focus and coordination.

  10. Fall rice straw management and winter flooding treatment effects on a subsequent soybean crop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, M.M.; Windham, T.E.; McNew, R.W.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fall rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw management and winter flooding on the yield and profitability of subsequent irrigated and dryland soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops were studied for 3 years. Rice straw treatments consisted of disking, rolling, or standing stubble. Winter flooding treatments consisted of maintaining a minimum water depth of 10 cm by pumping water when necessary, impounding available rainfall, and draining fields to prevent flooding. The following soybean crop was managed as a conventional-tillage system or no-till system. Tillage system treatments were further divided into irrigated or dryland. Results indicated that there were no significant effects from either fall rice straw management or winter flooding treatments on soybean seed yields. Soybean seed yields for, the conventional tillage system were significantly greater than those for the no-till system for the first 2 yrs and not different in the third year. Irrigated soybean seed yields were significantly greater than those from dryland plots for all years. Net economic returns averaged over the 3 yrs were greatest ($390.00 ha-1) from the irrigated no-till system.

  11. Influences of Climate Warming and Facility Management on Continuous Permafrost at Matterhorn Glacier Paradise, Zermatt, Swiss Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lorenz; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Imbery, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    In many parts of the Alps, hazardous bedrock instabilities occur more often during the past 30 years. In many cases, permafrost degradation played a central role for instability (e.g. in 1987 the Val Pola rockslide, Italy). At other events, the role of permafrost degradation is more complex or unpredictable (e.g. in 1991 the Randa rockfall, Wallis, Swiss Alps). However, instabilities in perennially frozen bedrock may also be provoked by human influence. This is exemplarily shown at touristic facilities in the Alps. Human impact on permafrost is often underestimated, or even carelessly taken into account. The tourist resort Zermatt with more than 1.8 million overnight stays per year is located at 1600 m a.s.l. and is surrounded by high mountain ranges that often reach above 4000 m. The dry and sunny climate results in a high glacier equilibrium line thus leaving space for vast non-glaciated permafrost terrain. Numerous tourist facilities provide excellent logistics and easy access to permafrost sites, and the region is thus especially suitable for permafrost research. The infrastructure erected on permafrost consists of hotels, restaurants and mountain huts, station buildings of railways, funiculars, ski lifts and installations for artificial snowing the ski-runs. Some problems at these constructions due to permafrost degradation are shown. At the Matterhorn Glacier Paradise station at an altitude of 3820 meters, todays MAAT ranges between -6 °C and -8°C. During the construction of a tunnel in 1981 bedrock temperatures were at -12°C. Over the past 30 years, these bedrock temperatures have risen to -3 to -2°C, due to the heat brought into the tunnel by facilities and more than 490,000 visitors per year. In an elevator shaft, the temperature temporarily even rose above freezing point. Several new construction sites in continuous permafrost are described and new research data is presented. Another interesting site for permafrost and ice studies at Matterhorn

  12. Continuous-Time Semi-Markov Models in Health Economic Decision Making: An Illustrative Example in Heart Failure Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillege, Hans; Postmus, Douwe

    2016-01-01

    Continuous-time state transition models may end up having large unwieldy structures when trying to represent all relevant stages of clinical disease processes by means of a standard Markov model. In such situations, a more parsimonious, and therefore easier-to-grasp, model of a patient's disease progression can often be obtained by assuming that the future state transitions do not depend only on the present state (Markov assumption) but also on the past through time since entry in the present state. Despite that these so-called semi-Markov models are still relatively straightforward to specify and implement, they are not yet routinely applied in health economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions. To facilitate a better understanding of this type of model among applied health economic analysts, the first part of this article provides a detailed discussion of what the semi-Markov model entails and how such models can be specified in an intuitive way by adopting an approach called vertical modeling. In the second part of the article, we use this approach to construct a semi-Markov model for assessing the long-term cost-effectiveness of 3 disease management programs for heart failure. Compared with a standard Markov model with the same disease states, our proposed semi-Markov model fitted the observed data much better. When subsequently extrapolating beyond the clinical trial period, these relatively large differences in goodness-of-fit translated into almost a doubling in mean total cost and a 60-d decrease in mean survival time when using the Markov model instead of the semi-Markov model. For the disease process considered in our case study, the semi-Markov model thus provided a sensible balance between model parsimoniousness and computational complexity.

  13. DCS: A Case Study of Identification of Knowledge and Disposition Gaps Using Principles of Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2011-01-01

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is formulated around the program architecture of Evidence-Risk-Gap-Task-Deliverable. Review of accumulated evidence forms the basis for identification of high priority risks to human health and performance in space exploration. Gaps in knowledge or disposition are identified for each risk, and a portfolio of research tasks is developed to fill them. Deliverables from the tasks inform the evidence base with the ultimate goal of defining the level of risk and reducing it to an acceptable level. A comprehensive framework for gap identification, focus, and metrics has been developed based on principles of continuous risk management and clinical care. Research towards knowledge gaps improves understanding of the likelihood, consequence or timeframe of the risk. Disposition gaps include development of standards or requirements for risk acceptance, development of countermeasures or technology to mitigate the risk, and yearly technology assessment related to watching developments related to the risk. Standard concepts from clinical care: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and surveillance, can be used to focus gaps dealing with risk mitigation. The research plan for the new HRP Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) used the framework to identify one disposition gap related to establishment of a DCS standard for acceptable risk, two knowledge gaps related to DCS phenomenon and mission attributes, and three mitigation gaps focused on prediction, prevention, and new technology watch. These gaps were organized in this manner primarily based on target for closure and ease of organizing interim metrics so that gap status could be quantified. Additional considerations for the knowledge gaps were that one was highly design reference mission specific and the other gap was focused on DCS phenomenon.

  14. Medical Management of Pediatric Malignant Bowel Obstruction in a Patient with Burkitt's Lymphoma and Ataxia Telangiectasia Using Continuous Ambulatory Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, M A

    2016-01-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is commonly seen in patients with advanced abdominal cancers. The incidence of pediatric MBO in a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma and ataxia telangiectasia is rare, with no published case reports till now. Conservative management of inoperable MBO results in relief of symptoms and improves quality of life. An 11-year-old boy with Burkitt's lymphoma and ataxia telangiectasia was referred to pediatric palliative care with MBO. The objective of this report is to demonstrate conservative management of pediatric MBO using continuous ambulatory drug delivery system. The patient was initiated on continuous ambulatory drug delivery (CADD) system for symptom relief. MBO was reversed with conservative management and the child was discharged on self-collapsible portable elastomeric continuous infusion pump under the supervision of a local family physician. The child remained comfortable at home for 4 weeks until his death. His parents were satisfied with the child's symptom control, quality of life, and were able to care for the child at home. In a resource-limited setting, managing patients at home using elastomeric continuous infusion pumps instead of expensive automated CADD is a practical pharmacoeconomic approach. PMID:26862790

  15. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems.

  16. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems. PMID:24073897

  17. Use of 137Cs measurements to estimate changes in soil erosion rates associated with changes in soil management practices on cultivated land.

    PubMed

    Schuller, P; Walling, D E; Sepúlveda, A; Trumper, R E; Rouanet, J L; Pino, I; Castillo, A

    2004-05-01

    Intensification of agricultural production in south-central Chile since the 1970s has caused problems of increased soil erosion and associated soil degradation. These problems have prompted a shift from conventional tillage to no-till management practices. Faced with the need to establish the impact of this shift in soil management on rates of soil loss, the use of caesium-137 (137Cs) measurements has been explored. A novel procedure for using measurements of the 137Cs depth distribution to estimate rates of soil loss at a sampling point under the original conventional tillage and after the shift to no-till management has been developed. This procedure has been successfully applied to a study site at Buenos Aires farm near Carahue in the 9th region of Chile. The results obtained indicate that the shift from conventional tillage to no-till management has caused net rates of soil loss to decrease to about 40% of those existing under conventional tillage. This assessment of the impact of introducing no-till management at the study site must, however, be seen as provisional, since only a limited number of sampling points were used. A simplified procedure aimed at documenting the reduction in erosion rates at additional sampling points, based solely on measurements of the 137Cs inventory of bulk cores and the 137Cs activity in the upper part of the soil has been developed and successfully tested at the study site. Previous application of 137Cs measurements to estimate erosion rates has been limited to estimation of medium-term erosion rates during the period extending from the beginning of fallout receipt to the time of sampling. The procedures described in this paper, which permits estimation of the change in erosion rates associated with a shift in land management practices, must be seen as representing a novel application of 137Cs measurements in soil erosion investigations.

  18. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Motion Management in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Lung: A Controlled Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Jeffrey D.; Lawrence, Yaacov R.; Appel, Sarit; Landau, Efrat; Ben-David, Merav A.; Rabin, Tatiana; Benayun, Maoz; Dubinski, Sergey; Weizman, Noam; Alezra, Dror; Gnessin, Hila; Goldstein, Adam M.; Baidun, Khader; Segel, Michael J.; Peled, Nir; Symon, Zvi

    2015-10-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on tumor motion, lung volume, and dose to critical organs in patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval in December 2013, patients with primary or secondary lung tumors referred for SBRT underwent 4-dimensional computed tomographic simulation twice: with free breathing and with CPAP. Tumor excursion was calculated by subtracting the vector of the greatest dimension of the gross tumor volume (GTV) from the internal target volume (ITV). Volumetric and dosimetric determinations were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. CPAP was used during treatment if judged beneficial. Results: CPAP was tolerated well in 10 of the 11 patients enrolled. Ten patients with 18 lesions were evaluated. The use of CPAP decreased tumor excursion by 0.5 ± 0.8 cm, 0.4 ± 0.7 cm, and 0.6 ± 0.8 cm in the superior–inferior, right–left, and anterior–posterior planes, respectively (P≤.02). Relative to free breathing, the mean ITV reduction was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16%-39%, P<.001). CPAP significantly augmented lung volume, with a mean absolute increase of 915 ± 432 cm{sup 3} and a relative increase of 32% (95% CI 21%-42%, P=.003), contributing to a 22% relative reduction (95% CI 13%-32%, P=.001) in mean lung dose. The use of CPAP was also associated with a relative reduction in mean heart dose by 29% (95% CI 23%-36%, P=.001). Conclusion: In this pilot study, CPAP significantly reduced lung tumor motion compared with free breathing. The smaller ITV, the planning target volume (PTV), and the increase in total lung volume associated with CPAP contributed to a reduction in lung and heart dose. CPAP was well tolerated, reproducible, and simple to implement in the treatment room and should be evaluated further as a novel strategy for motion management in radiation therapy.

  19. Continuous insulin therapy versus multiple insulin injections in the management of type 1 diabetes: a longitutinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Liberatore, Raphael Del Roio; Custodio, Rodrigo; Martinelli, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy as treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 40 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (21 female) with ages between 10 and 20 years (mean=14.2) and mean duration of diabetes of 7 years used multiple doses of insulin for at least 6 months and after that, continuous insulin infusion therapy for at least 6 months. Each one of the patients has used multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy. For analysis of HbA1c, mean glycated hemoglobin levels (mHbA1c) were obtained during each treatment period (multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy period). Results: Although mHbA1c levels were lower during continuous insulin infusion therapy the difference was not statistically significant. During multiple doses of insulin, 14.2% had mHbA1c values below 7.5% vs. 35.71% while on continuous insulin infusion therapy; demonstrating better glycemic control with the use of continuous insulin infusion therapy. During multiple doses of insulin, 15–40 patients have severe hypoglycemic events versus 5–40 continuous insulin infusion therapy. No episodes of ketoacidosis events were recorded. Conclusions: This is the first study with this design comparing multiple doses of insulin and continuous insulin infusion therapy in Brazil showing no significant difference in HbA1c; hypoglycemic events were less frequent during continuous insulin infusion therapy than during multiple doses of insulin and the percentage of patients who achieved a HbA1c less than 7.5% was greater during continuous insulin infusion therapy than multiple doses of insulin therapy. PMID:26826879

  20. Management of severely brittle diabetes by continuous subcutaneous and intramuscular insulin infusions: evidence for a defect in subcutaneous insulin absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Pickup, J C; Home, P D; Bilous, R W; Keen, H; Alberti, K G

    1981-01-01

    Severely brittle diabetes is defined as a rare subtype of insulin-dependent diabetes with wide, fast, unpredictable, and inexplicable swings in blood glucose concentration, often culminating in ketoacidosis or hypoglycaemic coma. To assess the role of inappropriate type, amount, or timing of insulin treatment and the route of administration as a cause of severe brittleness six patients with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, which provides a high degree of optimisation of dosage with exogenous insulin in stable diabetics. The glycaemic control achieved during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion was compared with that during continuous intramuscular insulin infusion. Six patients with non-brittle diabetes were also treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. These patients achieved the expected improvement in glycaemic control (mean +/- SD plasma glucose concentration 5.1 +/- 2.3 mmol/l (92 +/- 41 mg/100 ml)), but not the patients with brittle diabetes remained uncontrolled with continuous subcutaneous infusion (13.6 +/- 5.8 mmol/1 (245 +/- 105 mg/100 ml) compared with 10.3 +/- 4.1 mmol/l (186 +/- 74 mg/100 ml) during treatment with optimised conventional subcutaneous injections). During continuous intramuscular infusion, however, glycaemic control in five of the patients with brittle diabetes was significantly improved (7.7 +/- 2.6 mmol/l (139 +/- 47 mg/100 ml). The remaining patient with brittle diabetes, previously safely controlled only with continuous intravenous insulin, did not respond to continuous intramuscular infusion. It is concluded that in five of the six patients with brittle diabetes studied here impaired or irregular absorption of insulin from the subcutaneous site played a more important part in their hyperlability than inappropriate injection strategies. This absorption defect was presumably bypassed by the intramuscular route. PMID:6780019

  1. Carbon and Phosphorus in soil particulate fraction: effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, N.; Echeverrıa, H. E.; Vidaurreta, A.; Picone, L. I.; Divito, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    In Argentinean Pampas region, the practice of intensive agriculture has diminished total organic carbon (TOC) content in soil. This degradation process can impact over phosphorus (P) organic fractions associated to it, and therefore limit soil capacity to provide P through mineralization. Along this line, P content in soil particulate fraction (PF) has been proposed as an index to estimate this capacity. The aims of this work were to evaluate (1) the effect of continuous agriculture, tillage and P fertilization over TOC and P fractions content in soil and PF, and (2) the stability of P-PF as a mineralization index. To this end, a long term experiment initiated in 2001 in Balcarce, Argentina, under continuous agriculture, was analyzed. There, two tillage systems - conventional till (CT) and no till (NT) - and two fertilization treatments - nitrogen (N) and N + P (NP) - were evaluated. Phosphorus rate was 30 kg ha-1 year-1. In each plot, the following parameters were determined in 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011: TOC, P Bray, total P (Pt), inorganic P (Pi), and organic P (Po) content in the whole soil and in the PF. Also, C supply by residues and P soil balance during the experiment were calculated, and the P sorption capacity was determined in samples from 2011. C supply was greater in CT (7% relative to NT) and in NP (14% relative to N). However, TOC in soil was not modified neither by tillage or fertilization. Even though, C in the PF decreased (3% annually) by the use of continuous agriculture. This reduction was positively associated to the one observed in other soil properties as Pt, Pi and Po in the PF. P fertilization lessened this reduction in Pt (18,9 mg kg-1 in N and 23,1 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011) and Pi (4,2 mg kg-1 in N and 6,2 mg kg-1 in NP in 2011), but not in Po. This indicates that, Po is affected by management practices and, contrary to Pt, is stable to fertilization. Therefore Po can be studied as a potential P mineralization index. The difference among P

  2. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of

  3. Continuing Education for the Health Professions. Developing, Managing, and Evaluating Programs for Maximum Impact on Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Joseph S., Ed.; And Others

    Advice on making continuing education (CE) responsive to the practice needs of professionals in medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and public health is provided in 16 chapters. Attention is directed to: establishing realistic goals, tailoring programs to specific needs, recruiting subject matter experts, evaluating programs and…

  4. Automated, wireless, continuous, intelligent, and noninvasive systems for risk management and performance improvement in vital signs monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Few health professionals need to stay up-to-date on as many different problems and solutions as risk managers do. Consequently, a single solution that resolves several problems at once is really helpful for job performance, especially when it doesn't require duplicating effort in multiple areas. This article summarizes current literature about one such technology that helps risk managers address 3 of today's biggest challenges for healthcare delivery organizations: reducing costs, improving quality, and preventing harm across the continuum of clinical care; ensuring valid and reliable data for healthcare clinical and managerial decision makers; and adopting technologies that improve the medical marketplace.

  5. 76 FR 12081 - Notice of Two-Year Continuation of Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE Standard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... quality for beneficiaries with targeted chronic illness, regardless of TRICARE classification. Furthermore... demonstration notice was published on June 13, 2007 (72 FR 32628-32629) and described a demonstration project to... provide uniform policies and practices on disease and chronic care management throughout the...

  6. Inputs and losses by surface runoff and subsurface leaching for pastures managed by continuous or rotational stocking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management practices can affect forage quality and production, and animal health and production as well as impacting surface and ground water quality. In a 5-yr study, conducted at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed near Coshocton, Ohio, we compared the effects of two contrasting g...

  7. A Study of the Continuing Education Needs and Interests of Managers and Professional People in South-Central Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Edison E.

    Questionnaires were sent rendomly to 980 individuals to determine educational needs and interests of supervisors, managers, administrators, and professional people in south-central Oregon. The object was to determine the desired subject matter, time, place, approach, and instructor, and the influence of age, education, location, size of…

  8. 12 CFR 225.83 - What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831o). See 12 CFR 6.3(b)-(c), 208.42(b)-(c), and 325.102(b)-(c). (ii) Well managed. A company... conducted only under section 4(k), (n), or (o) of the BHC Act (12 U.S.C. 1843(k), (n), or (o)). The... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the consequences of failing...

  9. 12 CFR 225.83 - What are the consequences of failing to continue to meet applicable capital and management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831o). See 12 CFR 6.3(b)-(c), 208.42(b)-(c), and 325.102(b)-(c). (ii) Well managed. A company... conducted only under section 4(k), (n), or (o) of the BHC Act (12 U.S.C. 1843(k), (n), or (o)). The... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the consequences of failing...

  10. Continuity and change?: Exploring reactions to a guided self-management intervention in a randomised controlled trial for IBS with reference to prior experience of managing a long term condition

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Anne; Lee, Victoria; Kennedy, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Self-care interventions are promoted as effective strategies for improving the quality of life and health outcomes for individuals with long-term health conditions. Outcome measures used in evaluations using Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) are not designed to consider patients' prior management strategies and experience of illness. Yet the experience of illness literature suggests that adjusting to living with chronic illness, together with broader contextual influences, are likely to be relevant to understanding responses to self-management initiatives. Using group and individual interview data we attempt to illuminate the transposition of IBS from a condition unsatisfactorily managed by medicine to one successfully managed within the life worlds of individuals. If routine embedding of complex interventions depends on the accomplishment of integration and workability in patients' everyday lives then the design and evaluation of such interventions should view participation as part of a process of continuity as well as change. Responses to formal self-management can be extended beyond psychological and other quantitatively measured outcomes. A useful addendum to trial outcomes for self-management education is an understanding of change as being inextricably linked to people's previous attempts to, and experience of, managing long-term conditions. We suggest that the benefits of understanding the prior experience of managing illness and contact with health services include the acceptability and workability of complex interventions in patients' everyday lives. PMID:17316438

  11. Continuing Professional Education of Insurance and Risk Management Practitioners: A Comparative Case Study of Customer Service Representatives, Insurance Agents and Risk Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, George E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how selected insurance practitioners learn and developed in their practices setting. The selected insurance practitioners (collectively customer service representatives, insurance agents, and risk managers) are responsible for the counseling and placement of insurance products and the implementation of…

  12. Effects of Crop Rotation, N Management, Tillage, and Controlled Drainage on nitrate-N Loss in Drain Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Malone, R.; Ahuja, L.; Kanwar, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate simulation of agricultural management effects on N loss in tile drainage is vitally important for understanding hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. An experimental study was initiated in 1978 at Nashua, Iowa of the USA to study long-term effects of tillage, crop rotation, and N management practices on subsurface drainage flow and associated N losses. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) was applied to evaluate management effects (tillage, crop rotation, N application, and controlled drainage) on N loss in drain flow. RZWQM simulated the observed increase in N concentration in drain flow with increasing tillage intensity from NT (no-till) to RT (ridge till) to CP (chisel plow) and to MP (moldboard plow). It also adequately simulated tillage effects on yearly drain flow and yearly N loss in drain flow. On the other hand, RZWQM adequately simulated lower yearly drain flow and lower flow-weighted N concentration in drain flow under CS (corn-soybean) and SC (soybean-corn) than under CC (continuous corn). The model also simulated higher N loss from fertilizer-N applications than from manure-N applications. Applying the newly suggested N management practice for the Midwest of controlled drainage, the model simulated a 30% reduction in drain flow and a 29% decrease in N losses in drain flow under controlled drainage (CD) compared to free drainage (FD). With most of the simulations in reasonably close agreement with observations, we concluded that RZWQM is a promising tool for quantifying the relative effects of tillage, crop rotation, N application, and controlled drainage on N loss in drainage flow. Further improvements on simulated management effects on N mineralization and plant N uptake are needed, however.

  13. Engineering youth service system infrastructure: Hawaii's continued efforts at large-scale implementation through knowledge management strategies.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Brad J; Mueller, Charles W; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Okamura, Kelsie H; Chang, Jaime P; Slavin, Lesley; Shimabukuro, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Hawaii's Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division provides a unique illustration of a youth public mental health system with a long and successful history of large-scale quality improvement initiatives. Many advances are linked to flexibly organizing and applying knowledge gained from the scientific literature and move beyond installing a limited number of brand-named treatment approaches that might be directly relevant only to a small handful of system youth. This article takes a knowledge-to-action perspective and outlines five knowledge management strategies currently under way in Hawaii. Each strategy represents one component of a larger coordinated effort at engineering a service system focused on delivering both brand-named treatment approaches and complimentary strategies informed by the evidence base. The five knowledge management examples are (a) a set of modular-based professional training activities for currently practicing therapists, (b) an outreach initiative for supporting youth evidence-based practices training at Hawaii's mental health-related professional programs, (c) an effort to increase consumer knowledge of and demand for youth evidence-based practices, (d) a practice and progress agency performance feedback system, and (e) a sampling of system-level research studies focused on understanding treatment as usual. We end by outlining a small set of lessons learned and a longer term vision for embedding these efforts into the system's infrastructure.

  14. Engineering youth service system infrastructure: Hawaii's continued efforts at large-scale implementation through knowledge management strategies.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Brad J; Mueller, Charles W; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Okamura, Kelsie H; Chang, Jaime P; Slavin, Lesley; Shimabukuro, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Hawaii's Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division provides a unique illustration of a youth public mental health system with a long and successful history of large-scale quality improvement initiatives. Many advances are linked to flexibly organizing and applying knowledge gained from the scientific literature and move beyond installing a limited number of brand-named treatment approaches that might be directly relevant only to a small handful of system youth. This article takes a knowledge-to-action perspective and outlines five knowledge management strategies currently under way in Hawaii. Each strategy represents one component of a larger coordinated effort at engineering a service system focused on delivering both brand-named treatment approaches and complimentary strategies informed by the evidence base. The five knowledge management examples are (a) a set of modular-based professional training activities for currently practicing therapists, (b) an outreach initiative for supporting youth evidence-based practices training at Hawaii's mental health-related professional programs, (c) an effort to increase consumer knowledge of and demand for youth evidence-based practices, (d) a practice and progress agency performance feedback system, and (e) a sampling of system-level research studies focused on understanding treatment as usual. We end by outlining a small set of lessons learned and a longer term vision for embedding these efforts into the system's infrastructure. PMID:23819869

  15. Retrospective evaluation of continuous rate infusion of regular insulin intravenously for the management of feline diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Pamela N; Moore, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    The use and efficacy of continuous rate infusion (CRI) of regular insulin intravenously for the treatment of feline diabetic ketoacidosis was retrospectively evaluated. The study focused on the rate of glucose decline, time to resolution of inappetence, time to long-term injectable insulin, and length of hospital stay. Review of medical records from 2009 to 2011 identified 10 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Six cats were existing diabetics, 3 of whom had recent insulin changes. Five cats had concurrent diseases. The mean time to long-term injectable insulin was 55 hours. The mean length of hospitalization was 3.8 days. Five cats survived to discharge. In 5 patients, an insulin CRI permitted a short hospital stay and transition to long-term injectable insulin. Many cats with diabetic ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis are prior diabetics with concurrent disease and/or a history of recent insulin changes.

  16. Identifying professional education gaps and barriers in multiple myeloma patient care: findings of the Managing Myeloma Continuing Educational Initiative Advisory Committee.

    PubMed

    Raje, Noopur; Faiman, Beth; Harvey, R Donald; Kurtin, Sandra E; Lonial, Sagar; Kumar, Shaji K; Cohen, Adam D; Conde, Miguel A; Giralt, Sergio A; Recine, Marie Sabo; Tombler, Eugene R; Stadtmauer, Edward; Jagannath, Sundar; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2014-10-01

    Advances in the past decade and a half have led to unprecedented improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), and this disease appears to be transitioning to one more characteristic of a chronic disease in large part due to rapid translation of clinical insights into practice at the community level. Although evidence-based guidelines and consensus recommendations remain an important resource for managing cancer patients, they do not fill the gap between the principles of disease management today and the translation of tailoring treatment for individual patient needs. Thus, there is a continuing need for concise, focused educational activities and resources that facilitate improved knowledge and understanding of appropriate, individualized therapeutic strategies for assessing and caring for patients with MM. The next several years will truly be a time of shifting paradigms in the treatment of MM in which new agents will be approved, response criteria will be updated, and new approaches to risk assessment and monitoring minimal residual disease will evolve and enter practice. New groundbreaking therapeutic approaches, such as immunotherapy, might result in significant changes in how MM is treated and managed over the entire life cycle of the disease. Even the definition of the disease might be further amended as insights grow regarding who should be treated and who might benefit more from observation. As such, oncology clinicians will have to carefully review and update their management approaches accordingly even as they begin to focus even more on the survivorship needs of their MM patients.

  17. Do PTSD Symptoms and Course Predict Continued Substance Use for Homeless Individuals in Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Lehman, Kenneth A.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Schumacher, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Homeless individuals (n = 187) entering contingency management (CM) for cocaine dependence were assessed for PTSD diagnosis, and a subset of 102 participants reporting traumatic exposure also periodically completed a self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD in full remission at 6 months (end of active treatment) and 12 months (end of aftercare) used substances much less frequently during aftercare than those with no PTSD diagnosis. Those whose PTSD diagnosis improved to full remission status during active treatment, and remained in full remission at 12 months, also had superior substance use outcomes. Severity of PTSD symptoms at 6 months, but not baseline or 2 months, was associated with substance use across treatment phases. Substance use during aftercare, however, was better predicted by changes in PTSD symptom severity. Patients whose PTSD symptoms improved more during active treatment fared better during aftercare than those with less improvement. Findings suggest homeless individuals with comorbid PTSD entering CM for cocaine dependence are not necessarily at increased risk for substance use compared to those without the comorbidity. However, course of PTSD does predict substance use, with the potential for CM to be unusually effective for those who respond with substantial, lasting improvements in PTSD. PMID:20363465

  18. Residue harvest effects on irrigated, no-till corn yield and nitrogen response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue harvest is common in Nebraska, primarily for feeding of beef cattle. Applied N immobilization is expected to be less with residue harvest due to reduced microbial activity for digestion of high CN organic material. Residue reduction may affect subsequent crop yield and res...

  19. Effects of Subsurface Applying Poultry Litter in Pasture and No-Till Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia-N escapes into the atmosphere. We developed and tested a knifin...

  20. Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From 1999 through 2008, stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye-cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1) zero-grazing from 1999; ...

  1. Response of carbon dioxide emissions to warming under no-till and conventional till systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-tillage (NT) tends to have greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in the surface soil layer relative to (conventional tillage) CT but few studies have addressed the stability of the SOC under conditions of global warming. An open warming experiment was conducted in situ by infrared heating of l...

  2. Soil carbon sequestration by switchgrass and no-till maize grown for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Net environmental benefits of bioenergy crops including maize and perennial grasses such as switchgrass, are a function of several factors including the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered by these crops. In 1998, a long-term SOC study was established in eastern Nebraska for switchgrass and maize ...

  3. Comparisons of annual no-till spring cereal cropping systems in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow (WWF) has been the prevalent rotation in the low rainfall zone of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) for more than 130 years; however this rotation is characterized by poor soil health, poor environmental sustainability, and high pest incidence. A 6-year ...

  4. Developing Technology for Subsurface Application of Poultry Litter in No-Till Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich source of crop nutrients, but applying litter on the soil surface can lead to water-quality degradation, odor problems, and significant nutrient losses. Because surface-applied litter is completely exposed to the atmosphere, rainfall runoff can transport phosphorus and...

  5. Development of a Prototype Continuity of Care Record with Context-Specific Links to Meet the Information Needs of Case Managers for Persons Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives (1) To develop a prototype Continuity of Care Record (CCR) with context-specific links to electronic HIV information resources; and (2) to assess case managers’ perceptions regarding the usability of the prototype. Methods We integrated context-specific links to HIV case management information resources into a prototype CCR using the Infobutton Manager and Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment (LITE). Case managers (N=9) completed a think-aloud protocol and the Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ) to evaluate the usability of the prototype. Verbalizations from the think-aloud protocol were summarized using thematic analysis. CSUQ data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results Although participants expressed positive comments regarding the usability of the prototype, the think-aloud protocol also identified the need for improvement in resource labels and for additional resources. On a scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree), the average CSUQ overall satisfaction was 2.25 indicating that users (n=9) were generally satisfied with the system. Mean CSUQ factor scores were: System Usefulness (M=2.13), Information Quality (M=2.46), and Interface Quality (M=2.26). Conclusion Our novel application of the Infobutton Manager and LITE in the context of case management for persons living with HIV in community-based settings resulted in a prototype CCR with infobuttons that met the majority of case managers’ information needs and received relatively positive usability ratings. Findings from this study inform future integration of context-specific links into CCRs and electronic health records and support their use for meeting end-users information needs. PMID:22632821

  6. Monthly continuous erythropoietin receptor activator treatment maintains stable hemoglobin levels in routine clinical management of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Thomas; Leistikow, Frank; Hartmann, Hagen-Georg; Vollgraf, Günter; Dellanna, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Once-monthly administration of CERA, a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, has shown equivalent efficacy to shorter-acting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) that require more frequent dosing, but data on routine use of once-monthly CERA in hemodialysis patients are lacking. Study on Efficacy, Safety and Applicability of Mircera (SESAM) was a prospective, multicenter, noninterventional trial with a duration of up to 9 months (month 0-5 "titration phase"; month 6-8 "evaluation phase") to test the stability of Hb control in hemodialysis patients under routine conditions. Patient selection, Hb targets and CERA dosing were at the discretion of the local nephrologist. 918 patients from 92 German nephrology centers were included. Ninety-three percent were on ESA treatment prior to study entry. The mean number of CERA dose changes during the study was 1.9 ± 1.9 per patient. Mean Hb level was 11.4 ± 1.2 g/dL at baseline and 11.7 ± 1.4 g/dL at the end of the 8-month study. During the evaluation phase (months 6-8), 15.6%, 40.3%, and 66.0% of patients had stable Hb (i.e., at least two values) in the ranges 11-12, 10-12, and 10-13 g/dL, respectively. The mean intra-individual fluctuation in Hb was 1.4 ± 0.7 g/dL during the study (0.5 ± 0.4 g/dL during the 3-month evaluation phase). More than 90% of patients, and > 80% of physicians, rated CERA therapy as "very good" or "good" throughout the study. Four patients (0.4%) discontinued prematurely due to adverse drug reactions. Once-monthly CERA therapy maintains stable Hb values with low intra-individual variability and few dose adaptations in hemodialysis patients when administered entirely according to local practice, and the regimen was well-tolerated.

  7. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P management of cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.

  8. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  9. Safety Management of a Clinical Process Using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Molano-Alvarez, Esteban; Saez-de la Fuente, Ignacio; Maynar-Moliner, Javier; Marín-Mateos, Helena; Chacón-Alves, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) may improve the safety of the continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit. We use this tool in three phases: 1) Retrospective observational study. 2) A process FMEA, with implementation of the improvement measures identified. 3) Cohort study after FMEA. We included 54 patients in the pre-FMEA group and 72 patients in the post-FMEA group. Comparing the risks frequencies per patient in both groups, we got less cases of under 24 hours of filter survival time in the post-FMEA group (31 patients 57.4% vs. 21 patients 29.6%; p < 0.05); less patients suffered circuit coagulation with inability to return the blood to the patient (25 patients [46.3%] vs. 16 patients [22.2%]; p < 0.05); 54 patients (100%) versus 5 (6.94%) did not get phosphorus levels monitoring (p < 0.05); in 14 patients (25.9%) versus 0 (0%), the CRRT prescription did not appear on medical orders. As a measure of improvement, we adopt a dynamic dosage management. After the process FMEA, there were several improvements in the management of intensive care unit patients receiving CRRT, and we consider it a useful tool for improving the safety of critically ill patients.

  10. Modeling the CO2 and N2O Emissions From Stover Removal for Biofuel Production From Continuous Corn Production in Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paustian, K.; Killian, K.; Brenner, J.

    2003-12-01

    Corn stover, an agricultural residue, can be used as feedstock for near term bioethanol production and is available today at levels that can significantly impact energy supply. We evaluated the environmental impact of such a large-scale change in agricultural practices on green house gas production, soil erosion and soil carbon using the Century model. Estimates of soil C changes and GHG emissions were performed for the 99 counties in Iowa where previous environmental, management and erosion data was available. We employed climate, soil and historical management databases from a separate USDA-funded project as input to Century. RUSLE estimates of the residue requirements for acceptable soil loss rates under continuous corn agriculture were available from a previous study done Dr. Richard Nelson (Enersol Resources). Two mulch tillage and a no-till systems, where erosion estimates were available, were used as the basis for the simulations. Century simulations of these systems were run under a variety of stover removal rates. For each soil type within each county the model was run for 15 years (1980-1995) under continuous corn with convention tillage, and full residue return. Model simulation of crop yields and residue production were then calibrated to match those used by the Polysys model team at Oak Ridge and the simulation was repeated with the addition of the three corn tillage regimes, and several residue removal rates. County-average soil C changes (and net CO2 emissions) were calculated as area-weighted averages of the individual soil types in each county. For this study, we have utilized the IPCC approach to estimate annual N2O emissions. At low or zero residue removal rates, county-averaged soil C stocks were predicted to increase (i.e. net CO2 emissions are negative). Where the allowable residue removal rates (based on erosion tolerance) for mulch-tillage are on the order of 40-50% or more, the reduced input of C is such that the soils no longer sequester C

  11. Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-02-27

    This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National

  12. Applications of a simulation model to decisions in mallard management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.; Shaffer, T.L.; Sparling, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    A system comprising simulation models and data bases for habitat availability and nest success rates was used to predict results from a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management plan and to compare six management methods with a control. Individual treatments in the applications included land purchase for waterfowl production, wetland easement purchase, lease of uplands for waterfowl management, cropland retirement, use of no-till winter wheat, delayed cutting of alfalfa, installation of nest baskets, nesting island construction, and use of predator-resistant fencing.The simulations predicted that implementation of the management plan would increase recruits by 24%. Nest baskets were the most effective treatment, accounting for 20.4% of the recruits. No-till winter wheat was the second most effective, accounting for 5.9% of the recruits. Wetland loss due to drainage would cause an 11% loss of breeding population in 10 years.The models were modified to account for migrational homing. The modification indicated that migrational homing would enhance the effects of management. Nest success rates were critical contributions to individual management methods. The most effective treatments, such as nest baskets, had high success rates and affected a large portion of the breeding population.Economic analyses indicated that nest baskets would be the most economical of the three techniques tested. The applications indicated that the system is a useful tool to aid management decisions, but data are scarce for several important variables. Basic research will be required to adequately model the effect of migrational homing and density dependence on production. The comprehensive nature of predictions desired by managers will also require that production models like the one described here be extended to encompass the entire annual cycle of waterfowl.

  13. Claim and Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulová, Iveta; Meravá, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    The claim will always represent the kind of information that is annoying to recipients. Systematic work with claims has a positive value for the company. Addressing the complaint has a positive effect on continuous improvement. This paper was worked out with the support of VEGA No.1/0229/08 Perspectives of quality management development in coherence with requirements of Slovak republic market.

  14. Should I stay or should I go? Understanding families’ decisions regarding initiating, continuing, and terminating health services for managing pediatric obesity: the protocol for a multi-center, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At least two million Canadian children meet established criteria for weight management. Due to the adverse health consequences of obesity, most pediatric weight management research has examined the efficacy and effectiveness of interventions to improve lifestyle behaviors, reduce co-morbidities, and enable weight management. However, little information is available on families’ decisions to initiate, continue, and terminate weight management care. This is an important knowledge gap since a substantial number of families fail to initiate care after being referred for weight management while many families who initiate care discontinue it after a brief period of time. This research aims to understand the interplay between individual, family, environmental, and systemic factors that influence families’ decisions regarding the management of pediatric obesity. Methods/Design Individual interviews will be conducted with children and youth with obesity (n = 100) and their parents (n = 100) for a total number of 200 interviews with 100 families. Families will be recruited from four Canadian multi-disciplinary pediatric weight management centers in Vancouver, Edmonton, Hamilton, and Montreal. Participants will be purposefully-sampled into the following groups: (i) Non-Initiators (5 families/site): referred for weight management within the past 6 months and did not follow-up the referral; (ii) Initiators (10 families/site): referred for weight management within the past 6 months and did follow-up the referral with at least one clinic appointment; and (iii) Continuers (10 families/site): participated in a formal weight management intervention within the past 12 months and did continue with follow-up care for at least 6 months. Interviews will be digitally recorded and analyzed using an ecological framework, which will enable a multi-level evaluation of proximal and distal factors that underlie families’ decisions regarding initiation

  15. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  16. Satellite and ground-based analysis of the effects on vegetation of continuous SO2 degassing at Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica) and its application to hazard management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortini, R.; van Manen, S. M.; Burson, B.; Carn, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Turrialba is an active stratovolcano located 35 km northeast of San Jose, Costa Rica's capital city and socioeconomic hub. After over 100 years of quiescence Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 progressively increasing its degassing and seismic activity, showing continuous gas emissions since 2007. Intermittent phreatic explosions with ash emissions that have reached the capital have occurred since 2010. This activity has resulted in the temporary evacuation of two villages, closure of the National Park that comprises the summit region of the volcano and devastation of the local ecosystem. We combined a variety of satellite-based time series with ground-based measurements of ambient gas concentrations, element deposition and surveys of species richness to enable a comprehensive assessment of SO2 emissions and changes in vegetation. Satellite-based time-series were obtained from Landsat ETM+, Terra ASTER, Terra/Aqua MODIS and Aura OMI, with some of the data dating back to 2000. From 2007-2010 we observed emissions of SO2 and loss of vegetation healthiness (i.e. decrease of EVI2) downwind of the vents. From 2010 onwards these stabilized, but we observe an apparent decrease in agriculture. Other multi-temporal products, such as the ALOS PALSAR FNF data, confirm our observations. The exposure to the volcanic plume resulted in high soil acidity and significant uptake of certain heavy metals by vegetation; in contrast other elements are leached from the soil as a result of the acid deposition. These factors are likely to be responsible for decreased species richness and physiological damage observed at Turrialba. Our study shows ecological impacts, in terms of soil characteristics, vegetation composition and diversity and physiological damage of vegetation, which all correlate to fumigation by Turrialba's plume. Analyzing and relating the remote observations to conditions and impacts on the ground provides a better understanding of volcanic degassing, its impacts on

  17. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, Jagadamma; Lal, Dr. Rattan

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration

  18. How does soil management affect carbon losses from soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klik, A.; Trümper, G.

    2009-04-01

    Agricultural soils are a major source as well as a sink of organic carbon (OC). Amount and distribution of OC within the soil and within the landscape are driven by land management but also by erosion and deposition processes. At the other hand the type of soil management influences mineralization and atmospheric carbon dioxide losses by soil respiration. In a long-term field experiment the impacts of soil tillage systems on soil erosion processes were investigated. Following treatments were compared: 1) conventional tillage (CT), 2) conservation tillage with cover crop during the winter period (CS), and 3) no-till with cover crop during winter period (NT). The studies were carried out at three sites in the Eastern part of Austria with annual precipitation amounts from 650 to 900 mm. The soil texture ranged from silt loam to loam. Since 2007 soil CO2 emissions are measured with a portable soil respiration system in intervals of about one week, but also in relation to management events. Concurrent soil temperature and soil water content are measured and soil samples are taken for chemical and microbiological analyses. An overall 14-yr. average soil loss between 1.0 t.ha-1.yr-1 for NT and 6.1 t.ha-1.yr-1 for CT resulted in on-site OC losses from 18 to 79 kg ha-1.yr-1. The measurements of the carbon dioxide emissions from the different treatments indicate a high spatial variation even within one plot. Referred to CT plots calculated carbon losses amounted to 65-94% for NT plots while for the different RT plots they ranged between 84 and 128%. Nevertheless site specific considerations have to be taken into account. Preliminary results show that the adaptation of reduced or no-till management strategies has enormous potential in reducing organic carbon losses from agricultural used soils.

  19. Can Novel Management Practice Improve Soil and Environmental Quality and Sustain Crop Yield Simultaneously?

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effects of novel and traditional management practices that included a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley (Hordeum vulgarie L.) yield and quality were examined under non-irrigated and irrigated cropping systems from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, USA. In loamy soil under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana, novel and traditional management practices were no-till malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) with 80 kg N ha(-1) and conventional till malt barley-fallow with 80 kg N ha(-1), respectively. In sandy loam soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota, novel and traditional management practices included no-till malt barley-pea with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated) and conventional till malt barley with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated), respectively. Compared with the traditional management practice, soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at 0-120 cm were 5% greater with the novel management practice under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana and under irrigated condition in western North Dakota, but were not different under non-irrigated condition in western North Dakota. In both places under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, total applied N rate, residual soil NO3-N content at 0-120 cm, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were 15 to 70% lower with the novel than the traditional management practice. Malt barley yield and quality were not different between the two practices in both places. Novel management practices, such as no-till malt barley-pea with reduced N rate, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality, reduce N input, and sustain crop yield compared with

  20. Can Novel Management Practice Improve Soil and Environmental Quality and Sustain Crop Yield Simultaneously?

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effects of novel and traditional management practices that included a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley (Hordeum vulgarie L.) yield and quality were examined under non-irrigated and irrigated cropping systems from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, USA. In loamy soil under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana, novel and traditional management practices were no-till malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) with 80 kg N ha(-1) and conventional till malt barley-fallow with 80 kg N ha(-1), respectively. In sandy loam soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota, novel and traditional management practices included no-till malt barley-pea with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated) and conventional till malt barley with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha(-1) (irrigated), respectively. Compared with the traditional management practice, soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at 0-120 cm were 5% greater with the novel management practice under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana and under irrigated condition in western North Dakota, but were not different under non-irrigated condition in western North Dakota. In both places under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, total applied N rate, residual soil NO3-N content at 0-120 cm, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were 15 to 70% lower with the novel than the traditional management practice. Malt barley yield and quality were not different between the two practices in both places. Novel management practices, such as no-till malt barley-pea with reduced N rate, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality, reduce N input, and sustain crop yield compared with

  1. Can Novel Management Practice Improve Soil and Environmental Quality and Sustain Crop Yield Simultaneously?

    PubMed Central

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about management practices that can simultaneously improve soil and environmental quality and sustain crop yields. The effects of novel and traditional management practices that included a combination of tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization on soil C and N, global warming potential (GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), and malt barley (Hordeum vulgarie L.) yield and quality were examined under non-irrigated and irrigated cropping systems from 2008 to 2011 in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, USA. In loamy soil under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana, novel and traditional management practices were no-till malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) with 80 kg N ha-1 and conventional till malt barley-fallow with 80 kg N ha-1, respectively. In sandy loam soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in western North Dakota, novel and traditional management practices included no-till malt barley-pea with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha-1 (irrigated) and conventional till malt barley with 67 (non-irrigated) to 134 kg N ha-1 (irrigated), respectively. Compared with the traditional management practice, soil organic C (SOC) and total N (STN) at 0–120 cm were 5% greater with the novel management practice under non-irrigated condition in eastern Montana and under irrigated condition in western North Dakota, but were not different under non-irrigated condition in western North Dakota. In both places under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, total applied N rate, residual soil NO3-N content at 0–120 cm, global warming potential (GWP), and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were 15 to 70% lower with the novel than the traditional management practice. Malt barley yield and quality were not different between the two practices in both places. Novel management practices, such as no-till malt barley-pea with reduced N rate, can simultaneously enhance soil and environmental quality, reduce N input, and sustain crop yield compared with

  2. Health-care district management information system plan: Review of operations analysis activities during calendar year 1975 and plan for continued research and analysis activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, G. J.; Stevenson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Operations research activities developed to identify the information required to manage both the efficiency and effectiveness of the Veterans Administration (VA) health services as these services relate to individual patient care are reported. The clinical concerns and management functions that determine this information requirement are discussed conceptually. Investigations of existing VA data for useful management information are recorded, and a diagnostic index is provided. The age-specific characteristics of diseases and lengths of stay are explored, and recommendations for future analysis activities are articulated. The effect of the introduction of new technology to health care is also discussed.

  3. Effects of Soil Management on N Mineralization and Nitrification Rates in Soybean Fields of the Amazon, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, M.; Mitsuya, M.; Moura, J. M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) promoted by the cultivation of soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merrill], consists in a significant input of reactive nitrogen (N) in the system. The availability of this nutrient to plants occurs through the mineralization of organic-N of the soil, conducted by soil organic matter and / or crop residues. Thus, understanding the fate of this increased supply, as well as changes in the dynamics of N in the system is essential in the context of the recent expansion of soybean in the Amazon. This work aims to understand the dynamics of N in the soil cultivated with soybean, through the determination of ammonium and nitrate concentrations, as well as, mineralization and nitrification rates in soybean fields under till and no-till systems in the municipality of Santarém, Brazil. We collected 12 soil samples (0-10cm depth) in each crop and the extractions were done in 2M KCl solution using 10 g of soil. The samples were incubated for 7 days when new extractions were done to determine the rates of mineralization and nitrification. The till system showed higher concentrations of nitrate (0.82 ± 0.13 mg kg-1) and ammonium (8.15 ± 0.54 mg kg-1) compared to the results found in no-till system (0.59 ± 0.09 mg kg-1 and 5.25 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for nitrate and ammonium respectively). The mineralization rates were negative in the till system, indicating possible immobilization of N in the soil during that period. In contrast, no-till system showed higher rates of mineralization in the soil. Although there is a great removal of N by grain harvest, it is possible to infer that no-till system has higher nitrogen availability to soybean and that this management could contribute to an increased productivity mainly due to deposition of crop residues enriched in N on the soil.

  4. Containment of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica v.virgifera: continued successful management 2008 in southern Switzerland by monitoring and crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Bertossa, M

    2009-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Col.: Chrysomelidae), known as western corn rootworm (WCR) and endemic in North America, invaded Europe about two decades ago. Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to eradicate it from the Old World. Management with a variety of strategies is the option now remaining. WCR management in Southern Switzerland by a unique containment approach has been practiced successfully since 2003 using biotechnical means. Without any chemical pesticides or GMO input, the Swiss government mandated adherence to strict crop rotation. In addition to the economic benefits of this relatively simple approach, the environment was saved a considerable burden of pesticide applications. Other countries are invited to follow this example of sustainable pest management. PMID:20222583

  5. Containment of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica v.virgifera: continued successful management 2008 in southern Switzerland by monitoring and crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Bertossa, M

    2009-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Col.: Chrysomelidae), known as western corn rootworm (WCR) and endemic in North America, invaded Europe about two decades ago. Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to eradicate it from the Old World. Management with a variety of strategies is the option now remaining. WCR management in Southern Switzerland by a unique containment approach has been practiced successfully since 2003 using biotechnical means. Without any chemical pesticides or GMO input, the Swiss government mandated adherence to strict crop rotation. In addition to the economic benefits of this relatively simple approach, the environment was saved a considerable burden of pesticide applications. Other countries are invited to follow this example of sustainable pest management.

  6. The Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Continuing Care in the Clinical Management of Alcohol and Cocaine Use Disorders: 12-Month Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, James R.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Shepard, Donald S.; Ratichek, Sara; Morrison, Rebecca; Koppenhaver, Janelle; Pettinati, Helen M.

    2004-01-01

    This study of continuing care for substance dependent patients compared a telephone-based monitoring and brief counseling intervention (TEL) with 2 face-to-face interventions, relapse prevention (RP) and standard 12-step group counseling (STND). The participants were graduates of intensive outpatient programs who had current dependence on alcohol…

  7. Management and land use implications of continuous nitrogen and phosphorus monitoring in a small non-karst catchment in southeastern PA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term climate and water quality monitoring data provide some of the most essential and informative information to the scientific community. These datasets however, are often incomplete and do not have frequent enough sampling to provide full explanations of trends. With the advent of continuous ...

  8. Handbook of Institutional Advancement. A Practical Guide to College and University Relations, Fund Raising, Alumni Relations, Government Relations, Publications, and Executive Management for Continued Advancement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, A. Westley, Ed.

    The guide's purpose is to provide administrators with essential information that will maintain public confidence in higher education and ensure continued financial support. Six major aspects of institutional advancement are considered: (1) institutional relation (programs to improve communication and understanding among students, administrators,…

  9. We Are All Adult Educators Now: The Implications of Adult Learning Theory for the Continuing Professional Development of Educational Leaders and Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This article was written, but never published, by Dr. Valerie Hall, who died in 2002. Its existence was brought to my attention by Professor Ron Glatter at the memorial event for her held at the University of Bristol. It was presented at a seminar in Milton Keynes in 1998 as part of an ESRC series on "Redefining Educational Management"--a field in…

  10. Same Planet, Different Worlds: Why Projects Continue to Fail. A Generalist Review of Project Management with Special Reference to Electronic Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of IT "solutions" in the context of changes to business processes and efficiency is a common trigger for using formalised project management techniques. The trigger may include topical activities such as job evaluation schemes or quality assurance accreditation. This has led to a blurring of the boundary between projects and…

  11. Novice Couples Coping with Network Trouble in Personal Videoconferencing: Managing the Intersection of Interaction and Technology in the Collaborative Achievement of Conversational Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rintel, E. Sean

    2010-01-01

    The limitations of home Internet connections make Personal Videoconferencing (PV) interaction vulnerable to network trouble. This dissertation explores how novice couples collaboratively manage PV network trouble so as to carry on their conversation. It is found that transmission/reception and their perturbations are material frames for…

  12. The Energy Crisis: A Continuing Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, David

    1976-01-01

    To school business managers, the energy crisis is a continuing economic disaster as energy costs continue to climb and schools are without money to make necessary renovations to reduce energy consumption. (Author/IRT)

  13. Continuation of research into software for space operations support: Conversion of the display manager to X Windows/Motif, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Mark D.; Killough, Ronnie; Martin, Nancy L.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently using a set of applications called the Display Builder and Display Manager. They run on Concurrent systems and heavily depend on the Graphic Kernel System (GKS). At this time however, these two applications would more appropriately be developed in X Windows, in which a low X is used for all actual text and graphics display and a standard widget set (such as Motif) is used for the user interface. Use of the X Windows will increase performance, improve the user interface, enhance portability, and improve reliability. Prototype of X Window/Motif based Display Manager provides the following advantages over a GKS based application: improved performance by using a low level X Windows, display of graphic and text will be more efficient; improved user interface by using Motif; Improved portability by operating on both Concurrent and Sun workstations; and Improved reliability.

  14. Continued implementation and testing of a Neighborhood Office Center (NOC) and integration of the NOC with an administrative correspondence management information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concept of decentralized (remote) neighborhood offices, linked together through a self-sustaining communications network for exchanging voice messages, video images, and digital data was quantitatively evaluated. Hardware and procedures for the integrated multifunctional system were developed. The configuration of the neighborhood office center (NOC) is explained, its production statistics given, and an experiment for NOC network integration via satellite is described. The hardware selected for the integration NOC/management information system is discussed, and the NASA teleconferencing network is evaluated.

  15. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  16. Managing the pharmacy manager.

    PubMed

    White, S J

    1984-03-01

    Methods of self-assessment, self-development, and coping with stress in the role of hospital pharmacy manager are described. Personal development and career growth should be systematically appraised; goals and priorities should be continually re-evaluated; and time management, response to change, and impact on others should be examined. Questions for assessment in each of these areas are provided. Advice for reducing stress and avoiding burnout is given. Managers' attitudes affect employee productivity; positive attitudes and related actions that are applicable to hospital pharmacy management are described. Managers' personal and professional goals and priorities and their methods of using time and coping with stress affect management of their departments.

  17. Carbon Balance of No-Till Soybean with Winter Wheat Cover Crop in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremedhin, M. T.; Loescher, H.; Tsegaye, T.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast is an important agricultural region in the U.S. and key component of the continental carbon budget. Croplands in the region store a substantial amount of soil organic carbon (C). However, their C sink status may be altered under the projected changes in precipitation pattern for the region. The study was conducted at Winfred Thomas Agricultural Research Station, Hazel Green, Alabama (2007-2009). We investigated the seasonal and interannual variation in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) of winter wheat (Tricticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max) using the eddy covariance method. Annual C balance ranged from the highest source in 2007 (NEE = 100 g C m-2 y-1) to sink (-20 g C m-2 y-1) in 2009. Annual ecosystem respiration (Re) ranged between 750 and 1013 g C m-2 y-1, while gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was 650-1034 g C m-2 y-1. Seasonal NEE for soybean ranged between 42 and -66 g C m-2. Stronger winter wheat NEE (-80.0, -80.4, -40.0 g C m-2 for 2007, 2008 and 2009) than soybean suggested the importance of winter C uptakes offsetting summer C losses. Re was controlled by air temperature, and it varied between 286 and 542 g C m-2 for soybean, and between 160 and 313 g C m-2 for winter wheat. Precipitation was key determinant of C balance implying larger C release during drought periods. During fallow months, the site was C source. If we include removal of grain off site, this system could become a C source under all conditions.

  18. Regional Study of No-Till Impacts on Near-Surface Aggregate Properties that Influence Soil Erodibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which tillage systems modify the near-surface soil aggregate properties affecting soil’s susceptibility to erosion by water and wind is not well understood. We hypothesized that an increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) content with conservation tillage systems, particularly NT, may imp...

  19. Curve numbers from conventional and no-till cropping: A 39-yr dataset from a small Georgia Piedmont watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its inception in the 1950s, acceptance, use and adaptation of the curve number (CN) method for estimating direct runoff from a rainfall event has increased worldwide receiving critical reviews. There have been calls for development of locally defined CNs to address concerns with regional and s...

  20. Effects of terminating cover crops with rolling/crimping and herbicides in a cotton no-till system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fall of 2008, a field experiment was initiated in central Alabama to study the effects of rolling/crimping and different herbicides with different application rates on cover crops termination rates, cotton population and yield. Results from 2009 and 2010 growing seasons are presented. A roller/cr...

  1. Fecal bacterial losses in runoff from conventional and no-till pearl millet fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Georgia farmers are increasing preemergence applications of soil residual herbicides to control glyphosate resistant weeds. To be effective these herbicides must be activated by post-application irrigation. Broiler litter is often applied to fields before these herbicides. This wetting-in practice ...

  2. Rye cover crop effects on soil quality in no-till corn silage-soybean cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn and soybean farmers in the upper Midwest are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion prevention, and weed suppression; however, the effects of winter cover crops on soil quality in this region have ...

  3. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come: Europés ZT/CA area is 1.35 million hectares, while the world area is now some 125 million and growing at a rate of 7 million hectares per year. More scientific measurements of the benefits of this system are required, both to assist adoption and to trigger policy measures. In the EEC, CAP reform (greening) needs to consider making environmental services payments for these social benefits since a reduction in single farm payments is ineluctable and carbon footprint reduction is of the essence, in the face of constantly-rising fuel prices and the need to cut GHG emissions. Therefore, as the principal farm tool which offers an effective and immediate solution towards positive changes in soil quality, productivity and sustainability, ZT/CA adoption needs financial incentives, which have high economic and environmental returns to society.

  4. Comparison of mineral element cycling under till and no-till practices: an experimental approach to agroecosystems analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stinner, B R; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    In this paper we give an overview of a research project which is attempting to integrate the approaches of agronomy and ecosystem ecology. We are attempting to apply methodologies and approaches of ecosystem study, in particular nutrient cycling, as a means of evaluating performance of agronomic systems. Specifically, we are comparing structure, function, and nutrient dynamics in a set of no-tillage and conventional plots.

  5. Research achievements and adoption of no-till, dryland cropping in the semi-arid US Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Plains region of the United States and Canada is an area of widespread dryland crop production, with wheat being the dominant crop. Precipitation in the region ranges from 300 to 500 mm annually, with the majority of precipitatioCPRLn falling during hot summer months. The prevailing croppi...

  6. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  7. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  8. A Global Meta-Analysis on the Impact of Management Practices on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from Cropland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Sainju, Upendra M.

    2016-01-01

    Management practices, such as tillage, crop rotation, and N fertilization, may affect net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI), but their global impact on cropland soils under different soil and climatic conditions need further evaluation. Available global data from 57 experiments and 225 treatments were evaluated for individual and combined effects of tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization rates on GWP and GHGI which accounted for CO2 equivalents from N2O and CH4 emissions with or without equivalents from soil C sequestration rate (ΔSOC), farm operations, and N fertilization. The GWP and GHGI were 66 to 71% lower with no-till than conventional till and 168 to 215% lower with perennial than annual cropping systems, but 41 to 46% greater with crop rotation than monocroppping. With no-till vs. conventional till, GWP and GHGI were 2.6- to 7.4-fold lower when partial than full accounting of all sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) were considered. With 100 kg N ha-1, GWP and GHGI were 3.2 to 11.4 times greater with partial than full accounting. Both GWP and GHGI increased curvilinearly with increased N fertilization rate. Net GWP and GHGI were 70 to 87% lower in the improved combined management that included no-till, crop rotation/perennial crop, and reduced N rate than the traditional combined management that included conventional till, monocopping/annual crop, and recommended N rate. An alternative soil respiration method, which replaces ΔSOC by soil respiration and crop residue returned to soil in the previous year, similarly reduced GWP and GHGI by 133 to 158% in the improved vs. the traditional combined management. Changes in GWP and GHGI due to improved vs. traditional management varied with the duration of the experiment and inclusion of soil and climatic factors in multiple linear regressions improved their relationships. Improved management practices reduced GWP and GHGI compared with traditional management

  9. Geographic variations of soil phosphorus induced by long-term land and manure nutrient management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Thanh

    2014-05-01

    Most natural and agricultural ecosystems are deficient in phosphorus (P), and supplemental P must be provided to attain optimal levels of agronomic production. Animal manure is often used to supply needed plant nutrients to enhance production of feed and fiber crops for human and livestock consumption. Soils have been treated with large amounts of P-enriched manure, and have shown elevated P levels in watersheds where there is a high density of intensive confined animal agriculture. Long-term additions can have lasting effects on the geographic distribution of soil microbes associated with the turnover of major soil nutrients, in particular non-mobile one such as P. We determined the distribution of soil P forms in a 10-ha no-till field that received annual additions of dairy manure at 0, 15, and 30 kg P ha-1 at the field scale for 16 consecutive years. Spectroscopic analyses of the near-surface zone were performed by X-ray fluorescence in soil cores taken to a depth of 0.2 m. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the spatial structure of the soil compositional data. Soil X-ray fluorescence spectral attributes were obtained based on a set of five parallel transects established across five experimental blocks, i.e., a 5 × 5 rectangular grid pattern. Three subsets of each soil attribute were identified for the three rates of manure addition. Long-term manure addition, albeit liquid manure, resulted in significant variability in soil P distribution in the near surface zone. The heterogeneity persisted over years of continuous no-tillage management. Therefore, a high density of geo-referenced soil measurements must be made to estimate the status of a required plant nutrient, especially a non-mobile nutrient in soil. A large number of timely measurements would require a rapid geo-referenced soil sensing spectroscopic method such as X-ray fluorescence to manage in near real-time the observed spatial variability of manure-treated fields.

  10. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  11. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  12. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    steep (>5%, with measured slopes of more than 22%) and soil textures were predominantly sandy loam and sandy silt loam with medium topsoil permeability. Subsurface traffic pans were observed in almost all tested fields from 20 to 40 cm depth. Where VSA scores were low, runoff potential scores were high, which shows a positive relation between both diagnostic tools. Lessons taken from field diagnosis are that farm managers cannot always implement "good" soil, water and input management practices. For example, grape quality may be adversely impacted which creates a reluctance to change (White 2003). In our paper, we review current advisory practices to mitigate runoff in Sicilian vineyards, such as residue management, continuous soil cover and no-till (Novara et al. 2011, 2013, Leys et al. 2010, Arneaz et al. 2007), against our observations and discussions with farm managers. Our findings, especially in the Regaleali vineyards, indicate that the focus for change should not only be at the edge of the field, but also in the field (Sabbagh et al. 2009). Runoff should be stopped at source first and discussion with farm managers is critical before advising on BMP plans for runoff mitigation, especially in viticulture since wine production is a multidisciplinary profession. References Arneaz, J., Lasanta, T., Ruiz-Flaño, Ortigosa, L. Factors affecting runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall in Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research 93 (2007) 324-334. ARPA, Water Incore, Sustainable water management through common responsibility enhancement in Mediterranean River Basins, 2010. Diodato, N., Bellocchi, G. Storminess and environmental changes in the Mediterranean Central Area, Earth Interactions (2010), 14, Paper No. 4. Leys, A. Govers, G., Gillijns K., Berckmoes E., Takken I. Scale effects on runoff and erosion losses from arable land under conservation and conventional tillage: the role of residue cover, Journal of Hydrology (2010), 390, 143-154. Novara, A

  13. A comparison of continuous renal replacement therapy to intermittent dialysis in the management of renal insufficiency in the acutely III surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Jimmy; Ciraulo, David L; Milner, Timothy P; Gregori, Douglas; Kendrick, Aaron S; Richart, Charles M; Maxwell, Robert A; Barker, Donald E

    2005-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs in 10 per cent to 23 per cent of intensive care unit patients with mortality ranging from 50 per cent to 90 per cent. ARF is characterized by an acute decline in renal function as measured by urine output (UOP), serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Causes may be prerenal, intrarenal, or postrenal. Treatment consists of renal replacement therapy (RRT), either intermittent (ID) or continuous (CRRT). Indications for initiation of dialysis include oliguria, acidemia, azotemia, hyperkalemia, uremic complications, or significant edema. Overall, the literature comparing CRRT to ID is poor. No studies of only surgical/trauma patients have been published. We hypothesize that renal function and hemodynamic stability in trauma/ surgical critical care patients are better preserved by CRRT than by ID. We performed a retrospective review of trauma/surgical critical care patients requiring renal supportive therapy. Thirty patients received CRRT and 27 patients received ID. The study was controlled for severity of illness and demographics. Outcomes assessed were survival, renal function, acid-base balance, hemodynamic stability, and oxygenation/ventilation parameters. Populations were similar across demographics and severity of illness. Renal function, measured by creatinine clearance, was statistically greater with CRRT (P = 0.035). There was better control of azotemia with CRRT: BUN was lower (P = 0.000) and creatinine was lower (P = 0.000). Mean arterial blood pressure was greater (P = 0.021) with CRRT. No difference in oxygenation/ventilation parameters or pH was found between groups. CRRT results in an enhancement of renal function with improved creatinine clearance at the time of dialysis discontinuation. CRRT provides better control of azotemia while preserving hemodynamic stability in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. Prospective randomized controlled studies and larger sample sizes are needed to further evaluate

  14. The Cost-Effectiveness of Continuous Erythropoiesis Receptor Activator Once Monthly versus Epoetin Thrice Weekly for Anaemia Management in Chronic Haemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maoujoud, Omar; Ahid, Samir; Dkhissi, Hocein; Oualim, Zouhair; Cherrah, Yahia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) once monthly to epoetin beta (EpoB) thrice weekly to maintain haemoglobin (Hb) within the range 10.5–12 g/dL. Methods. Prospective cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis. Chronic haemodialysis patients (CHP), being treated with EpoB, were selected for two periods of follow-up: period 1, maintaining prior treatment with EpoB, and period 2, conversion to CERA once monthly. Hb concentrations and costs were measured monthly. Health care payer perspective for one year was adopted. Results. 75 CHP completed the study, with a mean age of 52.9 ± 14.3 years. Baseline Hb was 11.14 ± 1.18 g/dL in EpoB phase and 11.46 ± 0.79 g/dL in CERA phase; we observed a significant increase in the proportion of patients successfully treated (Hb within the recommended range), 65.3% versus 70.7%, p: 0.008, and in the average effectiveness by 4% (0.55 versus 0.59). Average cost-effectiveness ratios were 6013.86 and 5173.64$, with an ICER CERA to EpoB at −6457.5$. Conclusion. Our health economic evaluation of ESA use in haemodialysis patients suggests that the use of CERA is cost-effective compared with EpoB. PMID:26843983

  15. Management of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Employing ACoRN Respiratory Sequence Protocol versus Early Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Niknafs, Pedram; Faghani, Asadallah; Afjeh, Seyed-Abolfazl; Moradinazer, Mehdi; Bahman-Bijari, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common cause of respiratory distress in premature infants. This study was designed to evaluate two different RDS treatment protocols by comparing the outcomes. Methods: This study was a double center cross sectional study performed from June to December 2012. During that period, 386 neonates with RDS were hospitalized and treated according to two different therapeutic protocols so-called Acute Care of at-Risk Newborns (ACoRN) respiratory sequence protocol (group I) and Early Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (E-NCPAP) protocol (group II). The variables and main outcomes of this study were gestational age, birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), pulmonary hemorrhage (PH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), air leak and mortality rate (MR). Findings : Out of 386 infants, 202 infants were in group I (male 60.4%, female 39.6%, mean gestational age 316/7 weeks, mean birth weight=1688 grams) and group II included 184 infants (male 61.4%, female 38.6%, mean gestational age 32 weeks, mean birth weight 1787 grams), P= 0.07. The ratios of BPD of group I to group II and PH of group I to group two were not significant (P=0.63 and P=0.84, respectively). Air leak ratio in group I was higher than in group II (P=0.001). Although IVH ratio in group II was higher than in group I (P=0.01), grade III and IV IVH was higher in group I (30% vs. 4.6%). In case of MR, it was higher in group I than in group II (P=0.001). Conclusion: According to the findings the incidence of air leak, grade III and IV IVH and MR was less common in E-NCPAP protocol, so it may show the effectiveness of this protocol. The authors suggest that more researches are needed for more accurate results. PMID:25793046

  16. [Continuous monitoring systems of glucose].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Mercè; Jansà, Margarida

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of obtaining a continuous reading of glucose may represent a breakthrough and a useful tool for the management of diabetes. Technological advances can improve the quality of life and people with diabetes metabolic control, even if this means having to learn and incorporate new technical concepts, new algorithms for pattern modification and new challenges in Therapeutic Education.

  17. Environmental and management impacts on temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, G.; Scholl, P.; Loiskandl, W.; Kaul, H.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties underlie temporal changes caused by different natural and management factors. Rainfall intensity, wet-dry cycles, freeze-thaw cycles, tillage and plant effects are potential drivers of the temporal variability. For agricultural purposes it is important to determine the possibility of targeted influence via management. In no-till systems e.g. root induced soil loosening (biopores) is essential to counteract natural soil densification by settling. The present work studies two years of temporal evolution of soil hydraulic properties in a no-till crop rotation (durum wheat-field pea) with two cover crops (mustard and rye) having different root systems (taproot vs. fibrous roots) as well as a bare soil control. Soil hydraulic properties such as near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, flow weighted pore radius, pore number and macroporosity are derived from measurements using a tension infiltrometer. The temporal dynamics are then analysed in terms of potential driving forces. Our results revealed significant temporal changes of hydraulic conductivity. When approaching saturation, spatial variability tended to dominate over the temporal evolution. Changes in near-saturated hydraulic conductivity were mainly a result of changing pore number, while the flow weighted mean pore radius showed less temporal dynamic in the no-till system. Macroporosity in the measured range of 0 to -10 cm pressure head ranged from 1.99e-4 to 8.96e-6 m3m-3. The different plant coverage revealed only minor influences on the observed system dynamics. Mustard increased slightly the flow weighted mean pore radius, being 0.090 mm in mustard compared to 0.085 mm in bare soil and 0.084 mm in rye. Still pore radius changes were of minor importance for the overall temporal dynamics. Rainfall was detected as major driving force of the temporal evolution of structural soil hydraulic properties at the site. Soil hydraulic conductivity in the slightly unsaturated range (-7 cm to -10

  18. Assessing manure management strategies through small-plot research and whole-farm modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, A.M.; Veith, T.L.; Kleinman, P.J.A.; Rotz, C.A.; Saporito, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Plot-scale experimentation can provide valuable insight into the effects of manure management practices on phosphorus (P) runoff, but whole-farm evaluation is needed for complete assessment of potential trade offs. Artificially-applied rainfall experimentation on small field plots and event-based and long-term simulation modeling were used to compare P loss in runoff related to two dairy manure application methods (surface application with and without incorporation by tillage) on contrasting Pennsylvania soils previously under no-till management. Results of single-event rainfall experiments indicated that average dissolved reactive P losses in runoff from manured plots decreased by up to 90% with manure incorporation while total P losses did not change significantly. Longer-term whole farm simulation modeling indicated that average dissolved reactive P losses would decrease by 8% with manure incorporation while total P losses would increase by 77% due to greater erosion from fields previously under no-till. Differences in the two methods of inference point to the need for caution in extrapolating research findings. Single-event rainfall experiments conducted shortly after manure application simulate incidental transfers of dissolved P in manure to runoff, resulting in greater losses of dissolved reactive P. However, the transfer of dissolved P in applied manure diminishes with time. Over the annual time frame simulated by whole farm modeling, erosion processes become more important to runoff P losses. Results of this study highlight the need to consider the potential for increased erosion and total P losses caused by soil disturbance during incorporation. This study emphasizes the ability of modeling to estimate management practice effectiveness at the larger scales when experimental data is not available.

  19. Performance assessment through pre- and post-training evaluation of continuing medical education courses in prevention and management of cardio-vascular diseases in primary health care facilities of Armenia.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, Lilit; Balalian, Arin

    2013-12-01

    To assess the difference of pre- and post-training performance evaluation of continuing medical education (CME) courses in cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) management among physicians at primary health care facilities of Armenian regions we conducted an evaluation survey. 212 medical records were surveyed on assessment of performance before and after the training courses through a self-employed structured questionnaire. Analysis of survey revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in a number of variables: threefold increased recording of lipids and body mass index (p = 0.001); moderate increased recording of comorbidities and aspirin prescription (p < 0.012); eightfold increased recording of dyslipidemia management plan, twofold increased recording for CVD management plan and fivefold increased recording for CVD absolute risk (p = 0.000). Missing records of electrocardiography and urine/creatinine analyses decreased statistically significantly (p < 0.05). Statistically significant decrease was observed in prescription of thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers/angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (p < 0.005), while prescription of statins and statins with diet for dyslipidemia management showed increased recording (p < 0.05). Similarly, we observed increased records for counseling of rehabilitation physical activity (p = 0.006). In this survey most differences in pre- and post-evaluation of performance assessment may be explained by improved and interactive training modes, more advanced methods of demonstration of modeling. Current findings may serve a basis for future planning of CME courses for physicians of remote areas facing challenges in upgrading their knowledge, as well as expand the experience of performance assessment along with evaluation of knowledge scores.

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-93) - Couse/Tenmile Creeks Six-Year Direct Seed Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Kelly

    2002-10-16

    BPA proposes to fund a six-year direct seed program consistent with the ongoing improvement project within the Asotin Creek watershed. This portion of the ongoing restoration program within the Asotin Creek watershed is comprised of converting from traditional farming methods to no till/direct seeding in an effort to decrease erosion and in-stream sediment levels in Couse and Tenmile Creeks. These creeks are important tributaries to the Snake River for the spawning and rearing of steelhead. The project consists of direct seeding measures on six different private properties located within a mile of either Couse or Tenmile Creeks. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and ACCD will manage the operation and maintenance of the projects. The total land area of the six properties involved in the direct seeding is 1315.7 acres. Most of the sediment delivered to the Snake River and its tributaries comes from the upland agricultural areas. 1.7 million tons of sediment moves from upland areas to steams each year, severely damaging water quality and fish habitat (S.E. WA Cooperative River Basin Study). In most instances, no-till/direct seed farming can reduce erosion by 95 percent. BPA will fund $27.00 per acre for each of the first five years of the project.

  1. STOCK AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL AND CORN-DERIVED SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN AGGREGATE AND PRIMARY PARTICLE FRACTIONS FOR DIFFERENT LAND USE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    SciTech Connect

    Puget, P; Lal, Rattan; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, M; Owens, Lloyd

    2005-04-01

    Land use, soil management, and cropping systems affect stock, distribution, and residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, SOC stock and its depth distribution and association with primary and secondary particles were assessed in long-term experiments at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds near Coshocton, Ohio, through *13C techniques. These measurements were made for five land use and soil management treatments: (1) secondary forest, (2) meadow converted from no-till (NT) corn since 1988, (3) continuous NT corn since 1970, (4) continuous NT corn-soybean in rotation with ryegrass since 1984, and (5) conventional plow till (PT) corn since 1984. Soil samples to 70-cm depth were obtained in 2002 in all treatments. Significant differences in soil properties were observed among land use treatments for 0 to 5-cm depth. The SOC concentration (g C kg*1 of soil) in the 0 to 5-cm layer was 44.0 in forest, 24.0 in meadow, 26.1 in NT corn, 19.5 in NT corn-soybean, and 11.1 i n PT corn. The fraction of total C in corn residue converted to SOC was 11.9% for NT corn, 10.6% for NT corn-soybean, and 8.3% for PT corn. The proportion of SOC derived from corn residue was 96% for NT corn in the 0 to 5-cm layer, and it decreased gradually with depth and was 50% in PT corn. The mean SOC sequestration rate on conversion from PT to NT was 280 kg C ha*1 y*1. The SOC concentration decreased with reduction in aggregate size, and macro-aggregates contained 15 to 35% more SOC concentration than microaggregates. In comparison with forest, the magnitude of SOC depletion in the 0 to 30-cm layer was 15.5 Mg C/ha (24.0%) in meadow, 12.7 Mg C/ha (19.8%) in NT corn, 17.3 Mg C/ha (26.8%) in NT corn-soybean, and 23.3 Mg C/ha (35.1%) in PT corn. The SOC had a long turnover time when located deeper in the subsoil.

  2. 15 CFR 923.57 - Continuing consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest... establish an effective mechanism for continuing consultation and coordination between the management agency... of those local governments and agencies in carrying out the purposes of this Act. (b) The...

  3. 43 CFR 3107.2-1 - Continuation by production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Continuation by production. 3107.2-1 Section 3107.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-1 Continuation...

  4. Continuous multi-plot measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O in a managed boreal forest - The importance of accounting for all greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestin, P.; Mölder, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Båth, A.; Lehner, I.; Weslien, P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Lindroth, A.

    2015-12-01

    In order to assess the effects of different management practices on the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), it is desirable to perform repeated and parallel measurements on both experimental and control plots. Here we demonstrate how a system system combining eddy covariance and gradient techniques can be used to perform this assessment in a managed forest ecosystem.The net effects of clear-cutting and stump harvesting on GHG fluxes were studied at the ICOS site Norunda, Sweden. Micrometeorological measurements (i.e., flux-gradient measurements in 3 m tall towers) allowed for quantification of CO2, CH4 and H2O fluxes (from May 2010) as well as N2O and H2O fluxes (from June 2011) at two stump harvested plots and two control plots. There was one wetter and one drier plot of each treatment. Air was continuously sampled at two heights in the towers and gas concentrations were analyzed for CH4, CO2, H2O (LGR DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) and N2O, H2O (QCL Mini Monitor, Aerodyne Research). Friction velocities and sensible heat fluxes were measured by sonic anemometers (Gill Windmaster, Gill Instruments Ltd). Automatic chamber measurements (CO2, CH4, H2O) were carried out in the adjacent forest stand and at the clear-cut during 2010.Average CO2 emissions for the first year ranged between 14.4-20.2 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1. The clear-cut became waterlogged after harvest and a comparison of flux-gradient data and chamber data (from the adjacent forest stand) indicated a switch from a weak CH4 sink to a significant source at all plots. The CH4 emissions ranged between 0.8-4.5 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. N2O emissions ranged between 0.4-2.6 ton CO2-eq. ha-1 yr-1. Enhanced N2O emission on the drier stump harvested plot was the only clear treatment effect on GHG fluxes that was observed. Mean CH4 and N2O emissions for the first year of measurements amounted up to 29% and 20% of the mean annual CO2 emissions, respectively. This highlights the importance of including all GHGs

  5. Multifaceted Roles of Management on Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldocchi, D. D.; Knox, S. H.; Oikawa, P. Y.; Dronova, I.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J.

    2015-12-01

    To the first degree the exchange of mass and energy between vegetated canopies and the atmosphere are driven by environmental factors. But when one compares fluxes of a mesoscale network of flux towers in a common climate area, the impacts of management emerge. In this talk we will develop a vocabulary for evaluating the roles of management on fluxes, as it remains lacking in the assessment of data in the literature. Examples, will be drawn from our work across a network of agricultural and wetland sites in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta and from examples drawn from the AmeriFlux and FluxNet networks. Planting date, type of irrigation, burning, grazing, plowing/discing/no till, herbicide application and harvesting will be some of the management practices discussed. In sum, different management practices affect timing of phenology, the state of leaf area index and the activity of soil reservoirs. These factors modulate photosynthesis, and in turn can perturb ecosystem respiration and methane production. With regards of mass and energy exchange, different management practices can affect the state of the atmosphere and its feedback on surface fluxes.

  6. Overview of Continuing Education Financing and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Travis

    1982-01-01

    Continuing education agencies have cycles of financial activities that are all parts of financial management, including obtaining funding and venture capital, setting fees, and controlling costs for cost recovery. (Author/SSH)

  7. A Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children Aged 4 to <10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mauras, Nelly; Beck, Roy; Xing, Dongyuan; Ruedy, Katrina; Buckingham, Bruce; Tansey, Michael; White, Neil H.; Weinzimer, Stuart A.; Tamborlane, William; Kollman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been demonstrated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes but less so in children. We designed a study to assess CGM benefit in young children aged 4 to 9 years with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS After a run-in phase, 146 children with type 1 diabetes (mean age 7.5 ± 1.7 years, 64% on pumps, median diabetes duration 3.5 years) were randomly assigned to CGM or to usual care. The primary outcome was reduction in HbA1c at 26 weeks by ≥0.5% without the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS The primary outcome was achieved by 19% in the CGM group and 28% in the control group (P = 0.17). Mean change in HbA1c was −0.1% in each group (P = 0.79). Severe hypoglycemia rates were similarly low in both groups. CGM wear decreased over time, with only 41% averaging at least 6 days/week at 26 weeks. There was no correlation between CGM use and change in HbA1c (rs = −0.09, P = 0.44). CGM wear was well tolerated, and parental satisfaction with CGM was high. However, parental fear of hypoglycemia was not reduced. CONCLUSIONS CGM in 4- to 9-year-olds did not improve glycemic control despite a high degree of parental satisfaction with CGM. We postulate that this finding may be related in part to limited use of the CGM glucose data in day-to-day management and to an unremitting fear of hypoglycemia. Overcoming the barriers that prevent integration of these critical glucose data into day-to-day management remains a challenge. PMID:22210571

  8. Finance issue brief: continuity of care.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, M

    2000-06-01

    When a health care provider disenrolls or is terminated by a managed care plan, how long can that provider's patients continue to receive covered treatment for a life-threatening condition, pregnancy, disability or other circumstance that requires continuous medical care? Lawmakers in twenty-seven states have answered that question. PMID:11073421

  9. 43 CFR 3107.2-1 - Continuation by production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Continuation by production. 3107.2-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-1 Continuation by production. A lease shall be extended so long as oil or gas...

  10. 43 CFR 3107.2-1 - Continuation by production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Continuation by production. 3107.2-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-1 Continuation by production. A lease shall be extended so long as oil or gas...

  11. 43 CFR 3107.2-1 - Continuation by production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Continuation by production. 3107.2-1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-1 Continuation by production. A lease shall be extended so long as oil or gas...

  12. Continuing Liberal Education. Continuing Higher Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, David B.

    This book investigates the key areas of nontraditional education program planning and development by examining the ways that liberal arts programs at various institutions have been academically and administratively established, developed, and maintained. Areas examined are the following: (1) the history of continuing liberal education and the…

  13. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  14. Appendicitis: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Pal, K M; Khan, A

    1998-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency in urban setting, of a developing country. The computerised hospital patient database at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, was utilised to obtain records of all adults with a histologically proven diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A review of patients treated over a 18 month period was undertaken. One hundred and three appendicectomies were performed for acute appendicitis during this period. The diagnosis was clinical in all cases. Investigations like leucocyte count and lower abdominal ultrasound scan were used to improve diagnostic accuracy without a clear advantage. A number of routine investigations like, haemoglobin estimation and urea, creatinine, electrolyte measurements, did not provide additional information. The duration of antibiotic treatment in acute simple appendicitis was empiric and could be reduced to a single preoperative dose. Peritoneal fluid culture studies had a poor yield (26%) and results were not found to effect management in acute simple appendicitis. The routine use of Ampicillin in all cases of bacterial peritonitis needs re-evaluation, as a high incidence (73%) of resistance was seen. Studies to define the role and duration of treatment, with a single antibiotic, in acute simple appendicitis should be undertaken. Acute appendicitis is probably the most frequently considered surgical differential diagnosis at any hospital dealing with acute surgical conditions. The established treatment continues to be surgical removal of the inflamed organ. The diagnosis and decision to operate both are accepted to be based on clinical judgement, though a number of investigative manoeuvres have been described to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. Other areas of debate are the number and length of antibiotic treatment and use of bacterial culture studies in cases of simple acute appendicitis. To analyse present practice and identify areas for study and change, a retrospective study was

  15. Continuity of Care

    PubMed Central

    Alazri, Mohammed; Heywood, Philip; Neal, Richard D; Leese, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Continuity of care is widely regarded as a core value of primary care. The objective of this article is to explore the literature about the concept of continuity of care focusing on factors that influence continuity; advantages and disadvantages of continuity and the effect of continuity on outcomes, hence on the quality of care. Electronic databases and other websites were searched for relevant literature. The results of this review showed that continuity of care is influenced by demographic factors, factors related to patients and healthcare professionals, patient-healthcare professional relationship, inter-professional factors, role of receptionists and organisational factors. Several advantages were found to be associated with most types of continuity in various medical disciplines preventive medicine, general health, maternity and child health, mental and psychosocial health, chronic diseases and costs of care.Various factors influenced different types of continuity. Most types of continuity were associated with good outcomes, hence indirectly affecting the quality of care. Health care professionals and policy makers should be aware of the effect of continuity on quality of care and of the factors that influence continuity if they wish to preserve it as a core value of primary care. PMID:21748104

  16. Continuous spinal analgesia with levobupivacaine for postoperative pain management: Comparison of 0.125% versus 0.0625% in elective total knee and hip replacement: A double-blind randomized study

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosio, Alessandro; Spadaro, Savino; Natale, Chiara; Cotoia, Antonella; Dambrosio, Michele; Cinnella, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) has not been widely used for postoperative analgesia, mainly to avoid complications from the subarachnoid injection. Recently, the introduction of low caliber CSA catheters (Spinocath®), has allowed to decrease anesthetics doses and volumes with good analgesia and reduced complications. The aim of this present study was to compare two concentrations of levobupivacaine administered through CSA for postoperative pain management after major orthopedic surgery. Secondary outcomes were adverse events associated with CSA. Material and Methods: Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive sufentanil 1 mcg/h plus levobupivacaine 0.125%-1 ml/h (Group A0.125) or 0.0625%-2 ml/h (Group B0.0625) for postoperative analgesia through CSA catheter, connected to the elastomeric pump over 48 h. The quality of analgesia was assessed based on pain intensity by Visual Analogic Scale (VAS). Sensory and motor function, hemodynamic, and respiratory parameters were recorded for 96 h after surgery, after which the catheter was removed. In addition, joint mobility was assessed, and any side effects were noted. Results: VAS score was ≤30 mm in 25 patients. Three patients in Group A0.125 and 4 in Group B0.0625 (NS), received a rescue dose of levobupivacaine. Median VAS in Group A0.125 was lower than in Group B0.0625 on T1h (8 ± 11 vs 16 ± 11; P < 0.05), and on T4h (11 ± 8 vs 18 ± 1; P < 0.05). All patients remained hemodynamically stable. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative joints mobility. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine at a dose of 1.25 mg/h administered by CSA provides good quality analgesia independent of concentration and solution volume in patients undergoing total knee and hip replacement. PMID:26702204

  17. SURVEY ON THE DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND BUSINESS CONTINUITY OF COMPANIES BASED ON THE HEARING ETC. INVESTIGATION TO CRO IN THE GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND CONSIDERATION OF ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT IN FUTURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiruma, Yoshiki; Noda, Kentaro

    In light of the recent disaster, a major theme for corporations is now how to go about disaster preparedness and business continuity undertakings. This survey examines the effectiveness of existing disaster preparedness and business continuity efforts, while also paying consideration to issues that must be overcome or improved in the future. This paper will present a path (requirements) for improving business continuity capacity, and endeavors to link that path to future assistance for recovery and business continuity for corporations by having the path utilized in developing various tools that ameliorate disaster preparedness and business continuity capacity.

  18. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work. PMID:25193458

  19. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    PubMed

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work.

  20. Salinity and eutrophication management by in situ continuous real-time monitoring and 3D modelling (hydrodynamics coupled with water quality): the case of the Berre lagoon (Mediterranean, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Laurent; Emma, Gouze

    2010-05-01

    The Berre lagoon is one of the biggest Mediterranean lagoon. It is located in the South East of France. It's a shallow semi-confined ecosystem (mean depth 6.5 m, depths greater than 8 m being restricted in the central and South parts). Its only connection to the Mediterranean Sea is the Caronte channel in the South West which allows tidal-driven water exchanges. The lagoon receives fresh water and nutrients from natural tributaries (Arc and Touloubre rivers) that drain high anthropised catchment basins. Moreover, a hydroelectric power plant became the main tributary of the lagoon since 1966: it discharged a mean of 3.3 x109 m3 of fresh water per year (equivalent to 3.4 times the volume of the lagoon) and a mean of 525 000 tons of suspended matter per year, during the period 1966 - 1993. As a consequence, the Berre lagoon became particularly unstable, showing considerable salinity drop and variations (2 to 30) depending on seasonal electricity needs. Nutrients loads by both anthropised rivers and power plant led to frequent colored waters and development of macroalgae. Haline stratification favored anoxia and led to benthos disappearance. Changes were observed in Zostera sp. meadows too. In 2004, the European Court of Justice condemned the French State for not respecting the Athens Protocol (advocating Mediterranean protection against telluric pollution) and requested managing strategies. The hydroelectric power plant (Electricité de France EDF) is not allowed from now on to discharge more than 1.2 x109 m3 of fresh water per year. Besides, EDF has to respect severe salinity constraints favorable to the establishment of a balanced ecosystem. In this context, EDF started an in situ continuous monitoring of the lagoon: CTD probes have been installed at 10 stations and currents have been measured in the Caronte channel. Moreover, the three central buoys have been real time remote transmitting to control instantaneously the impact of fresh water discharge on salinity

  1. Continual Improvement in Shuttle Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Jean; Schafer, Loraine

    1995-01-01

    It has been said that Continual Improvement (CI) is difficult to apply to service oriented functions, especially in a government agency such as NASA. However, a constrained budget and increasing requirements are a way of life at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), making it a natural environment for the application of CI tools and techniques. This paper describes how KSC, and specifically the Space Shuttle Logistics Project, a key contributor to KSC's mission, has embraced the CI management approach as a means of achieving its strategic goals and objectives. An overview of how the KSC Space Shuttle Logistics Project has structured its CI effort and examples of some of the initiatives are provided.

  2. Planning for Project Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Grant, Jr.

    Designed to help colleges plan for the successful continuation of educational improvement projects beyond the end of their original funding period, this report presents a case study of Pennsylvania College of Technology's (PCT's) efforts to ensure the continuation of a Title III faculty development program. After describing the the Title III…

  3. Library of Continuation Algorithms

    2005-03-01

    LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms) is scientific software written in C++ that provides advanced analysis tools for nonlinear systems. In particular, it provides parameter continuation algorithms. bifurcation tracking algorithms, and drivers for linear stability analysis. The algorithms are aimed at large-scale applications that use Newton’s method for their nonlinear solve.

  4. Continuing Vocational Training (CVT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drogosz-Zablocka, Elzbieta; Izycka, Halina; Trzeciak, Wlodzimierz

    Polish continuing education (CE) includes education, further education, and professional development in and out of school; in day, evening, or weekend courses; and distance education. The state, workplaces, grants, and foreign assistance provide financing. A variety of organizations cooperate to provide continuing education. High-risk groups…

  5. The Tactile Continuity Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Norimichi; Igarashi, Yuka; Kashino, Makio

    2009-01-01

    We can perceive the continuity of an object or event by integrating spatially/temporally discrete sensory inputs. The mechanism underlying this perception of continuity has intrigued many researchers and has been well documented in both the visual and auditory modalities. The present study shows for the first time to our knowledge that an illusion…

  6. Residential Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  7. Portfolio Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise Business Information Services Division (EBIS) supports the Laboratory and its functions through the implementation and support of business information systems on behalf of its business community. EBIS Five Strategic Focus Areas: (1) Improve project estimating, planning and delivery capability (2) Improve maintainability and sustainability of EBIS Application Portfolio (3) Leap forward in IT Leadership (4) Comprehensive Talent Management (5) Continuous IT Security Program. Portfolio Management is a strategy in which software applications are managed as assets

  8. Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in Argentinian Humid Pampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. L.; Aparicio, V. C.; Cerda, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Argentinian Humid Pampa extends over about 60 million ha, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampa (1 206 162 ha). The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The management systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP causes decreases in the soil organic carbon content (SOC). Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, the soil compaction under NT causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. We evaluated the evolution of the soil physical parameters in three management systems. After 10 years of experiments in four farmers' fields, we found that: soil bulk density was significantly higher under NT. The change in mean weight diameter (CMWD) of aggregates increased as the management system became more intensive. We did not find significant differences in time and management systems in hydraulic conductivity at tension (h)0 cm and h=20 cm. The reduction in total porosity under NT is mainly a product of a reduction in the percentage of mesopores in the soil. Time had no statistically significant effect on the SOC content. The management system did not affect the yields of crop. In this work, the results indicate a modification of some soil physical parameters (porosity, near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil structure) due to uninterrupted agricultural production.

  9. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Aderholt, Robert B. [R-AL-4

    2011-05-26

    09/30/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-33. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 10/4/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Graves, Sam [R-MO-6

    2011-07-21

    10/05/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-36. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 11/18/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Locating Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Emphasizes program location as an important component of the marketing plan for continuing education. Also discusses relations among program location and quality, costs, supportive services, and economies of scale. (CH)

  12. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lowey, Nita M. [D-NY-18

    2009-06-26

    09/30/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-242. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 12/3/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2015

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2014-09-09

    09/19/2014 Became Public Law No: 113-164. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 12/11/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Adaptive continuous twisting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jaime A.; Negrete, Daniel Y.; Torres-González, Victor; Fridman, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive continuous twisting algorithm (ACTA) is presented. For double integrator, ACTA produces a continuous control signal ensuring finite time convergence of the states to zero. Moreover, the control signal generated by ACTA compensates the Lipschitz perturbation in finite time, i.e. its value converges to the opposite value of the perturbation. ACTA also keeps its convergence properties, even in the case that the upper bound of the derivative of the perturbation exists, but it is unknown.

  15. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  16. 5 CFR 412.401 - Continuing executive development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing executive development. 412.401 Section 412.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS SUPERVISORY, MANAGEMENT, AND EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT Executive Development § 412.401 Continuing executive development. (a) Each agency must establish...

  17. Reasoning about continuous processes

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, C.S.; Thielscher, M.

    1996-12-31

    Overcoming the disadvantages of equidistant discretization of continuous actions, we introduce an approach that separates time into slices of varying length bordered by certain events. Such events are points in time at which the equations describing the system`s behavior that is, the equations which specify the ongoing processes-change. Between two events the system`s parameters stay continuous. A high-level semantics for drawing logical conclusions about dynamic systems with continuous processes is presented, and we have developed an adequate calculus to automate this reasoning process. In doing this, we have combined deduction and numerical calculus, offering logical reasoning about precise, quantitative system information. The scenario of multiple balls moving in 1-dimensional space interacting with a pendulum serves as demonstration example of our method.

  18. Pressurized continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, R.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph has been developed for preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam column, but a larger model is being designed and constructed. The separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution has been studied in detail. This solution simulates the leach liquor from the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Use of continuous gradient elution has been demonstrated. Recent studies have investigated several separations, including that of zirconium and hafnium (necessary for the production of zirconium for use in nuclear reactors), on a preparative scale. This system, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to large-scale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

  19. AOA continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Delores J

    2009-03-01

    The current continuing medical education (CME) cycle began on January 1, 2007, and will end on December 31, 2009. The author provides an update on trends in osteopathic CME programs, details minor changes to the requirements for Category 1 CME sponsors accredited by the American Osteopathic Association, and describes new online CME opportunities. The current article also explains changes regarding the American Osteopathic Association's awarding and recording of CME credit hours for osteopathic physicians who have specialty board certification. In addition, the article includes information to assist osteopathic specialists and subspecialists in requesting American Osteopathic Association Category 1-A credit for courses accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. PMID:19336769

  20. What's new in medical management strategies for raised intra-abdominal pressure: evacuating intra-abdominal contents, improving abdominal wall compliance, pharmacotherapy, and continuous negative extra-abdominal pressure.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Bart; Regli, Adrian; De Laet, Inneke; Roberts, Derek; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    In the future, medical management may play an increasingly important role in the prevention and management of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). A review of different databases was used (PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE) with the search terms 'Intra-abdominal Pressure' (IAP), 'IAH', ' Abdominal Compartment Syndrome' (ACS), 'medical management' and 'non-surgical management'. We also reviewed all papers with the search terms 'IAH', 'IAP' and 'ACS' over the last three years, only extracting those papers which showed a novel approach in the non-surgical management of IAH and ACS.IAH and ACS are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Non-surgical management is an important treatment option in critically ill patients with raised IAP. There are five medical treatment options to be considered to reduce IAP: 1) improvement of abdominal wall compliance; 2) evacuation of intra-luminal contents; 3) evacuation of abdominal fluid collections; 4) optimisation of fluid administration; and 5) optimisation of systemic and regional perfusion. This paper will review the first three treatment arms of the WSACS algorithm: abdominal wall compliance; evacuation of intra-luminal contents and evacuation of abdominal fluid collections. Emerging medical treatments will be analysed and finally some alternative specific treatments will be assessed. Other treatment options with regard to optimising fluid administration and systemic and regional perfusion will be described elsewhere, and are beyond the scope of this review. Medical management of critically ill patients with raised IAP should be instigated early to prevent further organ dysfunction and to avoid progression to ACS. Many treatment options are available and are often part of routine daily management in the ICU (nasogastric, rectal tube, prokinetics, enema, sedation, body position). Some of the newer treatments are very promising options in specific patient populations with raised IAP. Future studies are warranted to confirm

  1. Legitimacy and Program Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Rene F.

    This paper examines the extent to which legitimacy affects program continuation, and focuses on the process by which programs attempt to maintain legitimate status through conformity with the larger environment. Legitimacy is defined as cultural support from a program's larger environment, such as the school district or community. An innovative…

  2. Continuing Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatt, Virginia; Seybert, Jeff

    An in-class survey of 683 continuing education students was conducted at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) to obtain information on: (1) student characteristics, including age, sex, family characteristics, income, educational background, occupation, area of residence, distance to class, sources of information about JCCC, and method of…

  3. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Black, Diane [R-TN-6

    2013-07-22

    10/17/2013 Became Public Law No: 113-46. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: The final version of the bill makes continuing appropriations through January 15, 2014, thus ending the government shutdown, and increases the debt limit through February 7, 2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Clausal Continuations in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krekoski, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate cases of turn continuations that are not necessarily criterially dependent on clausal syntax (Couper-Kuhlen & Ono, 2007; Ford, Fox, & Thompson, 2002), advancing a more multidimensional construal of turn expansions, in general, which, as Auer (2007) put it, "is not a syntactic issue alone" (p. 651). This study further…

  5. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and disadvantages of…

  6. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  7. To Be Continued...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Professional growth, like personal growth, comes only through an investment of effort, but it can provide significant returns. Music educators--indeed, most serious musicians--are naturally curious and intensely interested in opportunities for continuing education. If music educators are looking for ways to increase the level of knowledge they…

  8. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, H.E.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

  9. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  10. 5 CFR 892.302 - Will the Government contribution continue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Government contribution continue? 892.302 Section 892.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. 5 CFR 892.302 - Will the Government contribution continue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Will the Government contribution continue? 892.302 Section 892.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FLEXIBLE BENEFITS PLAN: PRE-TAX PAYMENT OF HEALTH...

  12. Continuous Enrolment: Heresies, Headaches and Heartaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Lynda

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I report on a research project designed to address the question of how the policy of continuous enrolment has been working in practice in the AMEP (Adult Migrant English Program), the national English language program offered to newly-arrived migrants to Australia. Managers, teachers and learners from around Australia were…

  13. The Continuing Professional Education Needs of Midwives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 45% of 696 British midwives and interviews with 17 indicated that they identify their continuing education needs most frequently through interaction with colleagues. Their greatest needs were for professional issues and management topics; there is a demand for part-time and distance learning. (SK)

  14. Continue Service Improvement at CERN Computing Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso Lopez, M.; Everaerts, L.; Meinhard, H.; Baehler, P.; Haimyr, N.; Guijarro, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Using the framework of ITIL best practises, the service managers within CERN-IT have engaged into a continuous improvement process, mainly focusing on service operation. This implies an explicit effort to understand and improve all service management aspects in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness. We will present the requirements, how they were addressed and share our experiences. We will describe how we measure, report and use the data to continually improve both the processes and the services being provided. The focus is not the tool or the process, but the results of the continuous improvement effort from a large team of IT experts providing services to thousands of users, supported by the tool and its local team. This is not an initiative to address user concerns in the way the services are managed but rather an on-going working habit of continually reviewing, analysing and improving the service management processes and the services themselves, having in mind the currently agreed service levels and whose results also improve the experience of the users about the current services.

  15. Continuing Trust Education in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blech, Scott A.

    1980-01-01

    The need for continuing professional education in the trust industry is noted and emphasis is placed on need for new or additional training in management, taxation, employee benefits, marketing, and investments. The pros and cons of residential schools are outlined, and the use of regional and state seminars is discussed. Available from 6285…

  16. Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

  17. Continuing Dental Education in Troubled Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    The author states that for continuing education programs to be in a position to influence the needed transformation within dentistry, attention must be given to three broad areas. These are governance, management, and programming. These areas are examined in detail. (CT)

  18. Continuing professional development: best practices.

    PubMed

    Filipe, Helena P; Silva, Eduardo D; Stulting, Andries A; Golnik, Karl C

    2014-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) involves not only educational activities to enhance medical competence in medical knowledge and skills, but also in management, team building, professionalism, interpersonal communication, technology, teaching, and accountability. This paper aims at reviewing best practices to promote effective CPD. Principles and guidelines, as already defined by some professional societies and world organizations, are emphasized as core actions to best enhance an effective lifelong learning after residency. The personal learning plan (PLP) is discussed as the core of a well-structured CPD and we describe how it should be created. Fundamental CPD principles and how they are integrated in the framework of every physician's professional life will be described. The value of systematic and comprehensive CPD documentation and assessment is emphasized. Accreditation requirements and professional relationships with commercial sponsors are discussed.

  19. Continuing Professional Development: Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Filipe, Helena P.; Silva, Eduardo D.; Stulting, Andries A.; Golnik, Karl C.

    2014-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) involves not only educational activities to enhance medical competence in medical knowledge and skills, but also in management, team building, professionalism, interpersonal communication, technology, teaching, and accountability. This paper aims at reviewing best practices to promote effective CPD. Principles and guidelines, as already defined by some professional societies and world organizations, are emphasized as core actions to best enhance an effective lifelong learning after residency. The personal learning plan (PLP) is discussed as the core of a well-structured CPD and we describe how it should be created. Fundamental CPD principles and how they are integrated in the framework of every physician's professional life will be described. The value of systematic and comprehensive CPD documentation and assessment is emphasized. Accreditation requirements and professional relationships with commercial sponsors are discussed. PMID:24791104

  20. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must establish and maintain a system for the... program manager or by another person. (b) Whenever the Administrator finds that the programs described...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must establish and maintain a system for the... program manager or by another person. (b) Whenever the Administrator finds that the programs described...

  2. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    There have been continuous advances in the field of glucose monitoring during the last four decades, which have led to the development of highly evolved blood glucose meters, non-invasive glucose monitoring (NGM) devices and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS). Glucose monitoring is an integral part of diabetes management, and the maintenance of physiological blood glucose concentration is the only way for a diabetic to avoid life-threatening diabetic complications. CGMS have led to tremendous improvements in diabetic management, as shown by the significant lowering of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in adults with type I diabetes. Most of the CGMS have been minimally-invasive, although the more recent ones are based on NGM techniques. This manuscript reviews the advances in CGMS for diabetes management along with the future prospects and the challenges involved. PMID:26824930

  3. Educating todays engineering manager

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, N.H. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    The issues addressed in this paper are: needed management skills/knowledge in concert with the definitions of management and leadership; suggested timing for behavioral management training, that is, undergraduate, graduate, or continuing education programs; and adequacy of management courses typically offered in traditional undergraduate/graduate engineering curricula.

  4. AOA continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Delores J

    2010-03-01

    The previous continuing medical education (CME) cycle began on January 1, 2007, and ended on December 31, 2009. All members of the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), other than those exempted, were required to participate in the CME program and to meet specified CME credit hour requirements for that CME cycle. The author provides an update on the new CME cycle, which began on January 1, 2010, and will end on December 31, 2012. The author also details minor changes to the requirements for Category 1 CME sponsors accredited by the AOA and describes new online CME opportunities. The current article also explains changes regarding the AOA's awarding and recording of specialty CME credit hours for AOA board-certified osteopathic physicians. In addition, the article includes information to assist osteopathic specialists and subspecialists in requesting AOA Category 1-A credit for courses accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. PMID:20386026

  5. High throughput continuous cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cryocondensation pump with a unique regeneration mechanism that allows continuous operation has been constructed and tested. The pump features a device referred to as the ''Snail'' which removes the cryofrost layer as it is moved over the pumping surfaces. A forepump pumps the sublimed gas generated inside the Snail. The compression ratio of the pump is the ratio of the cryopump speed to the leakage conductance of the Snail. Deuterium had been pumped continuously at 30 torr.L/s at a speed of 2000 L/s and a compression ratio of 100. The pump, being all metal sealed and free of lubricating fluids, has many potential applications where untraclean high throughput pumping is desirable. Since the pump regenerates on a time scale of 60 seconds, the inventory in the pump is minimized - an important consideration when pumping radioactive materials such as tritium. Test data and a videotape of the Snail removing the cryofrost will be shown.

  6. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  7. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  8. Energy efficiency of conventional, organic, and alternative cropping systems for food and fuel at a site in the U.S. Midwest.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Ilya; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2010-05-15

    The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.

  9. Continuous cost movement models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limp, W. Fredrick

    1991-01-01

    Use of current space imaging systems and airborne platforms has direct use in survey design and site location when used in concert with a comprehensive GIS environment. Local conditions and site physical and chemical properties are key factors in successful applications. Conjoining of environmental constraints and site properties are present for the later prehistoric occupations in the Arkansas and Mississippi River areas. Direct linkages between comprehensive site databases and satellite images can be used to evaluate site distributions for research and management.

  10. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  11. Ensuring IT service continuity in the face of increasing threats.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    How is IT service continuity related to business continuity management? Is it just a glorified disaster recovery procedure? Will IT service continuity help increase the assurance of IT services from the business owner to the customer? This paper is an attempt at answering these and many such questions. It is presented as a case study of IT service continuity management implementation at Emirates Group IT, Dubai. It takes the reader through the need for the process as felt by the business, through the learning acquired during implementation, to the practices deployed for managing the process on an ongoing basis. It provides a detailed view of the kind of pitfalls that could be encountered during implementation of the IT service continuity management process in a large-scale enterprise.

  12. Ensuring IT service continuity in the face of increasing threats.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    How is IT service continuity related to business continuity management? Is it just a glorified disaster recovery procedure? Will IT service continuity help increase the assurance of IT services from the business owner to the customer? This paper is an attempt at answering these and many such questions. It is presented as a case study of IT service continuity management implementation at Emirates Group IT, Dubai. It takes the reader through the need for the process as felt by the business, through the learning acquired during implementation, to the practices deployed for managing the process on an ongoing basis. It provides a detailed view of the kind of pitfalls that could be encountered during implementation of the IT service continuity management process in a large-scale enterprise. PMID:24854729

  13. Pilot Pattern for Home Management Instruction in Area Vocational School Curricula Based on Problems of Young Homemakers Employed Full-Time in Clerical and Sales Occupations. (Continuation of No. 28 and 51). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Virginia F.; Newman, Ann

    A total of 107 students from a comprehensive vocational facility, a community college, and high school day and night classes participated in a 6-week pilot project to test curriculum materials and implement an instructional method consisting of nine audiovisual instructional packets on management supplemented by correspondence with a master…

  14. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in

  15. Strategic continuity planning: the first critical step.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Many companies (and business continuity professionals) believe a company needs a comprehensive, all-inclusive business continuity plan. Often they reach this conclusion after other companies or potential clients have requested to see their business continuity plan as a precondition of doing business. Companies without 'a plan' are then tempted to go out and hire a business continuity person and tell them to 'Create a plan!' This makes perfect sense to the executive team, but this approach will probably not work in a real event. This paper addresses the shortcomings of producing tactical documentation and calling it 'The Plan', and discusses ways to engage management in the development of a corporate strategy to be used during and after an event.

  16. Strategic continuity planning: the first critical step.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Many companies (and business continuity professionals) believe a company needs a comprehensive, all-inclusive business continuity plan. Often they reach this conclusion after other companies or potential clients have requested to see their business continuity plan as a precondition of doing business. Companies without 'a plan' are then tempted to go out and hire a business continuity person and tell them to 'Create a plan!' This makes perfect sense to the executive team, but this approach will probably not work in a real event. This paper addresses the shortcomings of producing tactical documentation and calling it 'The Plan', and discusses ways to engage management in the development of a corporate strategy to be used during and after an event. PMID:24113632

  17. The effects of a winter cover crop on Diabrotica virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations and beneficial arthropod communities in no-till maize.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jonathan G; Fergen, Janet K

    2010-12-01

    The effects of an autumn-planted, spring-killed, grass cover crop (Elymus trachycaulus [Link] Gould ex Shinners) on populations of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte and its predator community were evaluated in South Dakota maize fields over two seasons. Abundance and size of D. virgifera larvae and adults and sex ratio of adults were measured in maize produced under two treatments (i.e., a winter cover crop or bare soil), as were maize root damage and the abundance and diversity of the predator communities collected on the soil surface and in the soil column. First and second instars and adults of D. virgifera were similarly abundant in the two treatments, but third instars were significantly fewer in maize planted after a winter cover crop. Larvae developed at different rates in the two treatments, and second instars were significantly smaller (head capsule width and body length) in the maize planted after a cover crop. First and third instars and adults were of similar size in the two treatments, and adult sex ratios were also similar. Although initially similar, predator populations increased steadily in the cover-cropped maize, which led to a significantly greater predator population by the time D. virgifera pupated. There was significantly less root damage in the cover-cropped maize. Predator communities were similarly diverse in both treatments. Predator abundance per plot was significantly and negatively correlated with the abundance of third instars per plot. Clearly, winter cover crops reduce D. virgifera performance and their damage to the crop, and we suspect that this reduction is caused by both environmental effects of the treatment on D. virgifera size and development, and of increased predation on the third instars of the pest. Additional data on the impact of cover crops on actual predation levels, grain yield and quality, and farmer profitability, and correlations among pest performance, crop characteristics, and predator populations and behaviors are key components of this system that remain to be addressed.

  18. Soil microbial community response to corn stover harvesting under rain-fed, no-till conditions at multiple U.S. locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting of corn stover for cellulosic ethanol production must be balanced with the requirement for returning plant residues to agricultural fields to maintain soil structure, fertility, crop protection, and other ecosystem services. High rates of corn stover removal can be associated with decrea...

  19. Nitrogen and harvest effects on soil properties under rain-fed switchgrass and no-till corn over 9 years: implications for soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate, harvest timing and residue removal remain relatively unknown under bioenergy crop production but do alter soil properties. Although few explicit field comparisons exist, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is predicted to improve soil properties s...

  20. Impacts of crop sequence and minimum and no-till cropping systems on soil carbon stocks in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased emphasis has been placed on developing agroecosystems that are inherently resistant and resilient to external stressors, yet are highly productive, economically competitive, and environmentally benign. As part of a long-term study to evaluate effects of crop sequence and tillage on crop yi...

  1. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Del Ponte, Emerson M; Spolti, Piérri; Ward, Todd J; Gomes, Larissa B; Nicolli, Camila P; Kuhnem, Paulo R; Silva, Cleiltan N; Tessmann, Dauri J

    2015-02-01

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were found among 671 FGSC isolates from Fusarium head blight (FHB)-infected wheat heads: F. graminearum (83%) of the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) genotype, F. meridionale (12.8%) and F. asiaticum (0.4%) of the nivalenol (NIV) genotype, and F. cortaderiae (2.5%) and F. austroamericanum (0.9%) with either the NIV or the 3-ADON genotype. Regional differences in FGSC composition were observed, with F. meridionale and the NIV type being significantly (P<0.001) more prevalent in PR (>28%) than in RS (≤9%). Within RS, F. graminearum was overrepresented in fields below 600 m in elevation and in fields with higher levels of FHB incidence (P<0.05). Species composition was not significantly influenced by previous crop or the stage of grain development at sampling. Habitat-specific differences in FGSC composition were evaluated in three fields by characterizing a total of 189 isolates collected from corn stubble, air above the wheat canopy, and symptomatic wheat kernels. Significant differences in FGSC composition were observed among these habitats (P<0.001). Most strikingly, F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae of the NIV genotype accounted for the vast majority (>96%) of isolates from corn stubble, whereas F. graminearum with the 15-ADON genotype was dominant (>84%) among isolates from diseased wheat kernels. Potential differences in pathogenic fitness on wheat were also suggested by a greenhouse competitiveness assay in which F. graminearum was recovered at much higher frequency (>90%) than F. meridionale from four wheat varieties inoculated with an equal mixture of F. graminearum and F. meridionale isolates. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that FGSC composition and, consequently, the trichothecene contamination in wheat grown in southern Brazil is influenced by host adaptation and pathogenic fitness. Evidence that F. meridionale and F. cortaderiae with the NIV genotype are regionally significant contributors to FHB may have significant implications for food safety and the economics of cereal production.

  2. AOA Continuing Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Delores J

    2011-04-01

    The author provides an update on the current CME cycle, which began on January 1, 2010, and will end on December 31, 2012. The author also details minor changes to the requirements for Category 1 CME sponsors accredited by the AOA and describes new online CME opportunities. The current article also explains changes regarding the AOA's awarding and recording of specialty CME credit hours for AOA board-certified osteopathic physicians. In addition, the article includes information to assist osteopathic specialists and subspecialists in requesting AOA Category 1-A credit for courses accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. PMID:21562297

  3. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  4. Multiclass Continuous Correspondence Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D,; Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Structural Correspondence Learning (SCL) domain adaptation algorithm of Blitzer er al. to the realm of continuous signals. Given a set of labeled examples belonging to a 'source' domain, we select a set of unlabeled examples in a related 'target' domain that play similar roles in both domains. Using these 'pivot samples, we map both domains into a common feature space, allowing us to adapt a classifier trained on source examples to classify target examples. We show that when between-class distances are relatively preserved across domains, we can automatically select target pivots to bring the domains into correspondence.

  5. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  6. Continuous ring furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    De Stefani, G.; Genevois, J.L.; Paolo, P.

    1981-01-06

    A smoke conducting apparatus for use particularly with continuous ring furnaces (e.g., Hoffman furnaces) wherein each furnace chamber is connected to the smoke channel, the latter being a metal pipe inclined slightly from horizontal and provided with one or more traps along the length of its bottom surface, each trap containing a removable receptacle, and heating means being disposed along the bottom of the channel to fluidize tarry deposits of combustion products so that such deposits will flow by gravity into the removable receptacle.

  7. Continuous Variable Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkinghorne, R. E. S.; Ralph, T. C.

    1999-09-01

    We investigate the efficacy with which polarization entanglement can be teleported using a continuous measurement scheme. We show that by using the correct gain for the classical channel the degree of violation of locality that can be demonstrated (using a CH-type inequality) is not a function of the level of entanglement squeezing used in the teleportation. This is possible because a gain condition can always be chosen such that passage through the teleporter is equivalent to pure attenuation of the input field.

  8. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  9. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  10. Continuous Thermophilic Composting12

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, K. L.

    1962-01-01

    Under complete mixing conditions, aerobic decomposition of mixed organic waste materials has been maintained continuously in the thermophilic phase in a 55-gal rotating drum. Temperatures ranged between 53 and 70 C. Raw material was added daily or every second day in amounts up to 18 lb per 100 lb of decomposing material. The weight of material removed ranged between 42 and 60% of the raw material added. Factors influencing the operation of the composting unit were studied in detail. Images FIG. 2 PMID:13909559

  11. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  12. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  13. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  14. Continuing challenges in influenza

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory disease in mammals and domestic poultry that emerges from zoonotic reservoirs in aquatic birds and bats. Although influenza viruses are among the most intensively studied pathogens, existing control options require further improvement. Influenza vaccines must be regularly updated because of continuous antigenic drift and sporadic antigenic shifts in the viral surface glycoproteins. Currently, influenza therapeutics are limited to neuraminidase inhibitors; novel drugs and vaccine approaches are therefore urgently needed. Advances in vaccinology and structural analysis have revealed common antigenic epitopes on hemagglutinins across all influenza viruses and suggest that a universal influenza vaccine is possible. In addition, various immunomodulatory agents and signaling pathway inhibitors are undergoing preclinical development. Continuing challenges in influenza include the emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza in 2009, human infections with avian H7N9 influenza in 2013, and sporadic human cases of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza. Here, we review the challenges facing influenza scientists and veterinary and human public health officials; we also discuss the exciting possibility of achieving the ultimate goal of controlling influenza’s ability to change its antigenicity. PMID:24891213

  15. NSI directed to continue SPAN's functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, Fred

    1991-01-01

    During a series of network management retreats in June and July 1990, representatives from NASA Headquarters Codes O and S agreed on networking roles and responsibilities for their respective organizations. The representatives decided that NASA Science Internet (NSI) will assume management of both the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) and the NASA Science Network (NSN). SPAN is now known as the NSI/DECnet, and NSN is now known as the NSI/IP. Some management functions will be distributed between Ames Research Center (ARC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). NSI at ARC has the lead role for requirements generation and networking engineering. Advanced Applications and the Network Information Center is being developed at GSFC. GSFC will lead the NSI User Services, but NSI at Ames will continue to provide the User Services during the transition. The transition will be made as transparent as possible for the users. DECnet service will continue, but is now directly managed by NSI at Ames. NSI will continue to work closely with routing center managers at other NASA centers, and has formed a transition team to address the change in management. An NSI/DECnet working group had also been formed as a separate engineering group within NSI to plan the transition to Phase 5, DECnet's approach to Open System Integration (OSI). Transition is not expected for a year or more due to delays in produce releases. Plans to upgrade speeds in tail circuits and the backbone are underway. The proposed baseline service for new connections is up to 56 Kbps; 9.6 Kbps lines will gradually be upgraded as requirements dictate. NSI is in the process of consolidating protocol traffic, tail circuits, and the backbone. Currently NSI's backbone is fractional T1; NSI will go to full T1 service as soon as it is feasible.

  16. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  17. Quasi-continuous magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Naumovich, G.J.; Hoang, T.A.; Dent, P.C.

    1996-05-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is completing a quasi-continuous magnet which will sustain a constant field of 60 T for 100 ms in a 32-mm 77 K bore. This magnet consists of 9 mechanically independent, nested, liquid nitrogen-cooled coils which are individually reinforced by high-strength stainless steel outer shells. The coils were wound from rectangular large cross-section, high-strength, high-conductivity copper conductor insulated wtih polyimide and fiberglass tapes. After winding, the coils were inserted into closely fitted, stainless steel reinforcing shells and impregnated with epoxy resin. Design, analysis, material, fabrication and operational issues for this class of magnets are reviewed. Fabrication and quality assurance testing of the 60 T coil set are covered in detail. Future growth of and possible links from this technology to other magnet systems are discussed. Needed improvements in design, analysis, materials, and fabrication are outlined.

  18. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  19. CONTINUOUSLY SENSITIVE BUBBLE CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Good, R.H.

    1959-08-18

    A radiation detector of the bubble chamber class is described which is continuously sensitive and which does not require the complex pressure cycling equipment characteristic of prior forms of the chamber. The radiation sensitive element is a gas-saturated liquid and means are provided for establishing a thermal gradient across a region of the liquid. The gradient has a temperature range including both the saturation temperature of the liquid and more elevated temperatures. Thus a supersaturated zone is created in which ionizing radiations may give rise to visible gas bubbles indicative of the passage of the radiation through the liquid. Additional means are provided for replenishing the supply of gas-saturated liquid to maintaincontinuous sensitivity.

  20. [Continuous-infusion ketamine].

    PubMed

    Mancini, P G; Caggese, G; Di Fabio, A; Di Nino, G F; Cocchi, V

    1980-08-01

    An investigation was made of the employment of ketamin as the sole anaesthetic in general surgery, using continuous infusion of a 1% solution for both induction and maintenance in 118 cases. ECG was monitored and arterial pressure was measured invasively. Central venous pressure was also determined in 10 cases. Changes in serum enzyme values during and after surgery were examined in 35 patients. Blood samples were withdrawn before induction, after the return to consciousness, and 24 hr after the operation. Side-effects were common, but slight. Five patients suffered from nightmares, but these were persons with marked imaginative activity and a melancholic nature. Cardiocirculatory function was satisfactory. In particular, peripheral perfusion was excellent in all cases.

  1. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction.

  2. Continuous improvement on a research and development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), continuous improvement (CI) concepts are integrated into research and development (R D) program and project management. Major management initiatives have been established to promote cultural acceptance of CI and foster a working environment for excellence. Laboratory management are committed to CI tailored to specific R D, functional, and staff needs to ensure PNL's integrated management system provides the means to quality in performance and customer satisfaction. Continuous improvement philosophy applies to R D as well as more conventional engineering and administrative activities. It is a value-added process for excellence and success.

  3. Continuous improvement on a research and development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, F.C.

    1992-09-01

    At Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), continuous improvement (CI) concepts are integrated into research and development (R&D) program and project management. Major management initiatives have been established to promote cultural acceptance of CI and foster a working environment for excellence. Laboratory management are committed to CI tailored to specific R&D, functional, and staff needs to ensure PNL`s integrated management system provides the means to quality in performance and customer satisfaction. Continuous improvement philosophy applies to R&D as well as more conventional engineering and administrative activities. It is a value-added process for excellence and success.

  4. An Introduction to Continued Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.

    Provided is an introduction to the properties of continued fractions for the intellectually curious high school student. Among the topics included are (1) Expansion of Rational Numbers into Simple Continued Fractions, (2) Convergents, (3) Continued Fractions and Linear Diophantine Equations of the Type am + bn = c, (4) Continued Fractions and…

  5. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    steep (>5%, with measured slopes of more than 22%) and soil textures were predominantly sandy loam and sandy silt loam with medium topsoil permeability. Subsurface traffic pans were observed in almost all tested fields from 20 to 40 cm depth. Where VSA scores were low, runoff potential scores were high, which shows a positive relation between both diagnostic tools. Lessons taken from field diagnosis are that farm managers cannot always implement "good" soil, water and input management practices. For example, grape quality may be adversely impacted which creates a reluctance to change (White 2003). In our paper, we review current advisory practices to mitigate runoff in Sicilian vineyards, such as residue management, continuous soil cover and no-till (Novara et al. 2011, 2013, Leys et al. 2010, Arneaz et al. 2007), against our observations and discussions with farm managers. Our findings, especially in the Regaleali vineyards, indicate that the focus for change should not only be at the edge of the field, but also in the field (Sabbagh et al. 2009). Runoff should be stopped at source first and discussion with farm managers is critical before advising on BMP plans for runoff mitigation, especially in viticulture since wine production is a multidisciplinary profession. References Arneaz, J., Lasanta, T., Ruiz-Flaño, Ortigosa, L. Factors affecting runoff and erosion under simulated rainfall in Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research 93 (2007) 324-334. ARPA, Water Incore, Sustainable water management through common responsibility enhancement in Mediterranean River Basins, 2010. Diodato, N., Bellocchi, G. Storminess and environmental changes in the Mediterranean Central Area, Earth Interactions (2010), 14, Paper No. 4. Leys, A. Govers, G., Gillijns K., Berckmoes E., Takken I. Scale effects on runoff and erosion losses from arable land under conservation and conventional tillage: the role of residue cover, Journal of Hydrology (2010), 390, 143-154. Novara, A

  6. A ''Continuous'' Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2014-03-01

    A novel family of -1 orthogonal polynomials called the Chihara polynomials is characterized. The polynomials are obtained from a ''continuous'' limit of the complementary Bannai-Ito polynomials, which are the kernel partners of the Bannai-Ito polynomials. The three-term recurrence relation and the explicit expression in terms of Gauss hypergeometric functions are obtained through a limit process. A one-parameter family of second-order differential Dunkl operators having these polynomials as eigenfunctions is also exhibited. The quadratic algebra with involution encoding this bispectrality is obtained. The orthogonality measure is derived in two different ways: by using Chihara's method for kernel polynomials and, by obtaining the symmetry factor for the one-parameter family of Dunkl operators. It is shown that the polynomials are related to the big -1 Jacobi polynomials by a Christoffel transformation and that they can be obtained from the big q-Jacobi by a q→ -1 limit. The generalized Gegenbauer/Hermite polynomials are respectively seen to be special/limiting cases of the Chihara polynomials. A one-parameter extension of the generalized Hermite polynomials is proposed.

  7. Microscale continuous ion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Kuban, Petr; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Morris, Kavin A

    2002-11-01

    A microscale continuous ion exchanger based on two liquid streams flowing in parallel is presented. The ion exchange reaction occurs through diffusional transfer of molecules between the ion exchanger phase and the eluent phase and is applied for conductivity suppression. Two approaches are demonstrated. In the first approach, a liquid ion exchanger (i.e. a strongly basic compound, e.g., tetraoctylammonium hydroxide, or a secondary amine, e.g., Amberlite IA-2) is dissolved in an organic solvent immiscible with the aqueous eluent. The system allows for sensitive suppressed conductivity detection of various inorganic cations. When the weakly basic secondary amine is used, conductometric detection of heavy metals is possible. In the second approach, a suspension of finely ground ion-exchange resin is used as the ion exchanger phase. In this case, the suspension need not involve an organic solvent. Theoretical models and computations are presented along with experimental results. The potential of such a system as a chip-scale post-separation suppressor/reactor is evident.

  8. Continuous fiber thermoplastic prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pultrusion machine employing a corrugated impregnator vessel to immerse multiple, continuous strand, fiber tow in an impregnating material, and an adjustable metered exit orifice for the impregnator vessel to control the quantity of impregnating material retained by the impregnated fibers, is provided. An adjustable height insert retains transverse rod elements within each depression of the corrugated vessel to maintain the individual fiber tows spread and in contact with the vessel bottom. A series of elongated heating dies, transversely disposed on the pultrusion machine and having flat heating surfaces with radiused edges, ensure adequate temperature exposed dwell time and exert adequate pressure on the impregnated fiber tows, to provide the desired thickness and fiber/resin ratio in the prepreg formed. The prepreg passing through the pulling mechanism is wound on a suitable take-up spool for subsequent use. A formula is derived for determining the cross sectional area opening of the metering device. A modification in the heating die system employs a heated nip roller in lieu of one of the pressure applying flat dies.

  9. Adapting Digital Libraries to Continual Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Finch, Melinda; Ferebee, Michelle; Mackey, Calvin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe five investment streams (data storage infrastructure, knowledge management, data production control, data transport and security, and personnel skill mix) that need to be balanced against short-term operating demands in order to maximize the probability of long-term viability of a digital library. Because of the rapid pace of information technology change, a digital library cannot be a static institution. Rather, it has to become a flexible organization adapted to continuous evolution of its infrastructure.

  10. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  11. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues. PMID:27318291

  12. Continuity planning for workplace infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Welch, Nancy; Miller, Pamela Blair; Engle, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, business continuity plans prepare for worst-case scenarios; people plan for the exception rather than the common. Plans focus on infrastructure damage and recovery wrought by such disasters as hurricanes, terrorist events or tornadoes. Yet, another very real threat looms present every day, every season and can strike without warning, wreaking havoc on the major asset -- human capital. Each year, millions of dollars are lost in productivity, healthcare costs, absenteeism and services due to infectious, communicable diseases. Sound preventive risk management and recovery strategies can avert this annual decimation of staff and ensure continuous business operation. This paper will present a strong economic justification for the recognition, prevention and mitigation of communicable diseases as a routine part of continuity planning for every business. Recommendations will also be provided for environmental/engineering controls as well as personnel policies that address employee and customer protection, supply chain contacts and potential legal issues.

  13. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  14. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  15. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Irons, James; Dabney, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is currently under development and is on schedule to launch the 8th satellite in the Landsat series in December of 2012. LDCM is a joint project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). NASA is responsible for developing and launching the flight hardware and on-orbit commissioning and USGS is responsible for developing the ground system and operating the system onorbit after commissioning. Key components of the flight hardware are the Operational Land Imager (OLI), nearing completion by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp in Boulder, CO, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), being built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the spacecraft, undergoing integration at Orbital Sciences Corp in Gilbert, Arizona. The launch vehicle will be an Atlas-5 with launch services provided by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Key ground systems elements are the Mission Operations Element, being developed by the Hammers Corporation, and the Collection Activity Planning Element, Ground Network Element, and Data Processing and Archive System, being developed internally by the USGS Earth Resources Observations and Science (EROS) Center. The primary measurement goal of LDCM is to continue the global coverage of moderate spatial resolution imagery providing continuity with the existing Landsat record. The science goal for this imagery is to monitor land use and land cover, particularly as it relates to global climate change. Together the OLI and TIRS instruments on LDCM replace the ETM+ instrument on Landsat-7 with significant enhancements. The OLI is a pushbroom design instrument where the scanning mechanism of the ETM+ is effectively replaced by a long line of detectors. The OLI has 9 spectral bands with similar spatial resolution to ETM+: 7 of them similar to the reflective spectral bands on ETM+ and two new bands. The two new bands cover (1) the shorter wavelength blue part

  16. AIPRC--BIA Management Study: Personnel Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Continuing the American Indian Policy Review Commission's (AIPRC) Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Management Study, this article reviews the divisions of responsibility, Indian preference, recruitment and hiring problems, training, labor relations, and internal communication. (NQ)

  17. Keeping Communication Continuous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    General Dynamics Decision Systems employees have played a role in supplying telemetry, tracking, and control (TT&C) and other communications systems to NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense for over 40 years. Providing integrated communication systems and subsystems for nearly all manned and unmanned U.S. space flights, the heritage of this Scottsdale, Arizona-based company includes S-band transceivers that enabled millions of Americans to see Neil Armstrong and hear his prophetic words from the Moon in 1969. More recently, Decision Systems has collaborated with NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center to develop transponders, wireless communications devices that pick up and automatically respond to an incoming signal, for NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Four generations of Decision Systems TDRSS transponders have been developed under Goddard s sponsorship. The company s Fourth Generation TDRSS User Transponder (TDRSS IV) allows low-Earth-orbiting spacecraft to communicate continuously with a single ground station at White Sands, New Mexico, through a constellation of geostationary relay satellites positioned at key locations around the Earth. In addition to the communications of forward link control commands and return link telemetry data, the TDRSS IV also supports spacecraft orbit tracking through coherent turn-around of a pseudo-noise ranging code and two-way Doppler tracking.When the NSBF adopted the use of global positioning system receivers for balloon position tracking, Decision Systems concluded that a simpler, noncoherent transceiver could provide the NSBF with the necessary TDRSS communications without the additional cost and complexity of a coherent transponder. The solution was to take the core design of the TDRSS IV Transponder, but remove the extra functionality that supported coherent turn-around. This would simplify the production effort, reduce the testing required, and result in a lower cost product with smaller size, weight

  18. Leadership in Continuing and Distance Education in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Cynthia C. Jones

    This book provides a framework for leadership in the combined fields of higher education, management, and marketing. It is divided into three sections. Section 1, "Challenges and Changes in Continuing Education," has two chapters identifying some of the current challenges. Section 2, "Leadership for the 21st Century in Continuing Education," has…

  19. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  20. Finance issue brief: continuity of care: year end report-2003.

    PubMed

    MacEachern, Lillian

    2003-12-31

    When a health care provider leaves or is terminated by a managed care plan, how long can patients continue to receive covered treatment from that provider for a life-threatening condition, pregnancy, disability or other circumstance that requires continuous medical care? Lawmakers in 36 states have answered that question. PMID:14964235