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Sample records for continuously tunable all-in-fiber

  1. Continuously tunable nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lucia R; Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Fang, John Z; Evans, Emily R; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-12-01

    In silico-designed nucleic acid probes and primers often do not achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. We present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity by adjusting the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, which allows for independent and decoupled adjustment of the hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieved near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy. To demonstrate our approach, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content, 0-100%), maximized the signal difference for 11 pairs of single-nucleotide variants and performed tunable hybrid capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

  2. Continuously Tunable Nucleic Acid Hybridization Probes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lucia R.; Wang, J. Sherry; Fang, John Z.; Reiser, Emily; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J.; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-01-01

    In silico designed nucleic acid probes and primers often fail to achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. Here, we present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity via the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, allowing independent and decoupled adjustment of hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieve near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy (0.03 kcal·mol−1 granularity). As applications, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content 0% – 100%), maximized signal difference for 11 pairs of single nucleotide variants, and performed tunable hybrid-capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (FFPE). PMID:26480474

  3. A Continuously Tunable Erbium-Doped Fibre Laser Using Tunable Fibre Bragg Gratings and Optical Circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Yan, Feng-Ping; Li, Jian; Wang, Lin; Ning, Ti-Gang; Gong, Tao-Rong; Jian, Shui-Sheng

    2008-12-01

    A continuously tunable erbium-doped fibre laser (TEDFL) based on tunable fibre Bragger grating (TFBG) and a three-port optical circulator (OC) is proposed and demonstrated. The OC acts as a 100%-reflective mirror. A strain-induced uniform fibre Bragger grating (FBG) which functions as a partial-reflecting mirror is implemented in the linear cavity. By applying axial strain onto the TFBG, a continuously tunable lasing output can be realized. The wavelength tuning range covers approximately 7.00nm in C band (from 1543.6161 to 1550.3307nm). The side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) is better than 50 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is less than 0.01 nm. Moreover, an array waveguide grating (AWG) is inserted into the cavity for wavelength preselecting, and a 50 km transmission experiment was performed using our TEDFL at a 10Gb/s modulation rate.

  4. Continuously tunable wideband semiconductor fiber-ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhao, Shiwei; Yuan, Suzhen; Wang, Xiaofa; Zheng, Peichao

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a wideband tunable semiconductor fiber-ring laser that can be continuously tuned from 1498 nm to 1623 nm. The proposed laser uses a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) as a gain medium and a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter as a selective wavelength filter. The optimized drive current of the SOA and the output coupling ratio are obtained by experimental research. This laser has a simple configuration, low threshold, flat laser output power and high optical signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. Colloids with continuously tunable surface charge.

    PubMed

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-09-09

    In this paper, we present a robust way to tune the surface potential of polystyrene colloids without changing the pH, ionic strength, etc. The colloids are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene core and a cross-linked vinylbenzyl chloride layer. Besides the chlorine groups, the particle surface contains sulfate/sulfonate groups (arising from the polymerization initiators) that provide a negative surface potential. Performing a Menschutkin reaction on the surface chlorine groups with tertiary amines allows us to introduce quaternary, positively charged amines. The overall charge on the particles is then determined by the ratio between the sulfate/sulfonate moieties and the quaternary amines. Using this process, we were able to invert the charge in a continuous manner without losing colloidal stability upon passing the isoelectric point. The straightforward reaction mechanism together with the fact that the reaction could be quenched rapidly resulted in a colloidal system in which the ζ potential can be tuned between -80 and 45 mV. As proof of principle, the positively charged particles were used in heterocoagulation experiments with nanometer- and micrometer-sized negatively charged silica particles to create geometrically well-defined colloidal (nano) clusters.

  6. Ultralong continuously tunable parametric delays via a cascading discrete stage.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yitang; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Turner-Foster, Amy C; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L; Xu, Chris

    2010-01-04

    We report experimental demonstration of an all-optical continuously tunable delay line based on parametric mixing with a total delay range of 7.34 mus. The bit-error rate performance of the delay line was characterized for a 10-Gb/s NRZ data channel. This result is enabled by cascading a discrete delay line that consists of 16 wavelength-dependent delays and a continuously tunable delay stage. Four wavelength conversion stages based on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides were performed in order to achieve wavelength-preserving operation. The wavelength-optimized optical phase conjugation scheme employed in the delay line is capable of minimizing the residual dispersion for the entire tuning range.

  7. Continuously tunable terahertz metamaterial employing magnetically actuated cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Ozbey, Burak; Aktas, Ozgur

    2011-03-28

    Terahertz metamaterial structures that employ flexing microelectromechanical cantilevers for tuning the resonance frequency of an electric split-ring resonator are presented. The tuning cantilevers are coated with a magnetic thin-film and are actuated by an external magnetic field. The use of cantilevers enables continuous tuning of the resonance frequency over a large frequency range. The use of an externally applied magnetic field for actuation simplifies the metamaterial structure and its use for sensor or filter applications. A structure for minimizing the actuating field is derived. The dependence of the tunable bandwidth on frequency is discussed.

  8. Continuously tunable delay line based on SOI tapered Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Giuntoni, Ivano; Stolarek, David; Kroushkov, Dimitar I; Bruns, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Lars; Tillack, Bernd; Petermann, Klaus

    2012-05-07

    The realization of an integrated delay line using tapered Bragg gratings in a drop-filter configuration is presented. The device is fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) rib waveguides using a Deep-UV 248 nm lithography. The continuous delay tunability is achieved using the thermo-optical effect, showing experimentally that a tuning range of 450 ps can be obtained with a tuning coefficient of -51 ps/°C. Furthermore the system performance is considered, showing that an operation at a bit rate of 25 Gbit/s can be achieved, and could be extended to 80 Gbit/s with the addition of a proper dispersion compensation.

  9. Continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy system with stably tunable beat source using optical switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Joo Beom; Kim, Chihoon; Ahn, Jaesung

    2017-01-01

    A tunable beat source has been made using an optical switch module. A stably-tunable beat source for continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy system was implemented by simply connecting 16 coaxial distributed feedback laser diodes to an optical switch. The terahertz frequency was rapidly changed without frequency drifts by changing the optical path. The continuous wave terahertz frequency was tuned from 0.05 to 0.8 THz in steps of 50 GHz or 0.4 nm. We measured continuous wave terahertz waveforms emitted from the photomixers using the switched optical beat source. We also calculated the terahertz frequency peaks by taking fast Fourier transforms of the measured terahertz waveforms. By equipping the implemented tunable beat source with an optical switch, a continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy system was constructed and used to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for nondestructive tests using the spectra of two type of Si wafers with different resistivity.

  10. Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode.

    PubMed

    Klinkhammer, Sönke; Liu, Xin; Huska, Klaus; Shen, Yuxin; Vanderheiden, Sylvia; Valouch, Sebastian; Vannahme, Christoph; Bräse, Stefan; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli

    2012-03-12

    The fabrication and characterization of continuously tunable, solution-processed distributed feedback (DFB) lasers in the visible regime is reported. Continuous thin film thickness gradients were achieved by means of horizontal dipping of several conjugated polymer and blended small molecule solutions on cm-scale surface gratings of different periods. We report optically pumped continuously tunable laser emission of 13 nm in the blue, 16 nm in the green and 19 nm in the red spectral region on a single chip respectively. Tuning behavior can be described with the Bragg-equation and the measured thickness profile. The laser threshold is low enough that inexpensive laser diodes can be used as pump sources.

  11. Balancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source-tunable linear optics cloning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Lv, Geli; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-11-01

    We show that the tolerable excess noise can be dynamically balanced in source preparation while inserting a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) for balancing the secret key rate and the maximal transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). The intensities of source noise are sensitive to the tunable LOCM and can be stabilized to the suitable values to eliminate the impact of channel noise and defeat the potential attacks even in the case of the degenerated linear optics amplifier (LOA). The LOCM-additional noise can be elegantly employed by the reference partner of reconciliation to regulate the secret key rate and the transmission distance. Simulation results show that there is a considerable improvement in the secret key rate of the LOCM-based CVQKD while providing a tunable LOCM for source preparation with the specified parameters in suitable ranges.

  12. Laser-induced transient grating setup with continuously tunable period

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Flick, A.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Khanolkar, A.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Boechler, N.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2015-12-15

    We present a modification of the laser-induced transient grating setup enabling continuous tuning of the transient grating period. The fine control of the period is accomplished by varying the angle of the diffraction grating used to split excitation and probe beams. The setup has been tested by measuring dispersion of bulk and surface acoustic waves in both transmission and reflection geometries. The presented modification is fully compatible with optical heterodyne detection and can be easily implemented in any transient grating setup.

  13. Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanowires with tunable properties.

    PubMed

    Heurlin, Magnus; Magnusson, Martin H; Lindgren, David; Ek, Martin; Wallenberg, L Reine; Deppert, Knut; Samuelson, Lars

    2012-12-06

    Semiconductor nanowires are key building blocks for the next generation of light-emitting diodes, solar cells and batteries. To fabricate functional nanowire-based devices on an industrial scale requires an efficient methodology that enables the mass production of nanowires with perfect crystallinity, reproducible and controlled dimensions and material composition, and low cost. So far there have been no reports of reliable methods that can satisfy all of these requirements. Here we show how aerotaxy, an aerosol-based growth method, can be used to grow nanowires continuously with controlled nanoscale dimensions, a high degree of crystallinity and at a remarkable growth rate. In our aerotaxy approach, catalytic size-selected Au aerosol particles induce nucleation and growth of GaAs nanowires with a growth rate of about 1 micrometre per second, which is 20 to 1,000 times higher than previously reported for traditional, substrate-based growth of nanowires made of group III-V materials. We demonstrate that the method allows sensitive and reproducible control of the nanowire dimensions and shape--and, thus, controlled optical and electronic properties--through the variation of growth temperature, time and Au particle size. Photoluminescence measurements reveal that even as-grown nanowires have good optical properties and excellent spectral uniformity. Detailed transmission electron microscopy investigations show that our aerotaxy-grown nanowires form along one of the four equivalent〈111〉B crystallographic directions in the zincblende unit cell, which is also the preferred growth direction for III-V nanowires seeded by Au particles on a single-crystal substrate. The reported continuous and potentially high-throughput method can be expected substantially to reduce the cost of producing high-quality nanowires and may enable the low-cost fabrication of nanowire-based devices on an industrial scale.

  14. Tunable, continuous-wave Terahertz photomixer sources and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preu, S.; Döhler, G. H.; Malzer, S.; Wang, L. J.; Gossard, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    This review is focused on the latest developments in continuous-wave (CW) photomixing for Terahertz (THz) generation. The first part of the paper explains the limiting factors for operation at high frequencies ˜ 1 THz, namely transit time or lifetime roll-off, antenna (R)-device (C) RC roll-off, current screening and blocking, and heat dissipation. We will present various realizations of both photoconductive and p-i-n diode-based photomixers to overcome these limitations, including perspectives on novel materials for high-power photomixers operating at telecom wavelengths (1550 nm). In addition to the classical approach of feeding current originating from a small semiconductor photomixer device to an antenna (antenna-based emitter, AE), an antennaless approach in which the active area itself radiates (large area emitter, LAE) is discussed in detail. Although we focus on CW photomixing, we briefly discuss recent results for LAEs under pulsed conditions. Record power levels of 1.5 mW average power and conversion efficiencies as high as 2 × 10-3 have been reached, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than those obtained with CW antenna-based emitters. The second part of the paper is devoted to applications for CW photomixers. We begin with a discussion of the development of novel THz optics. Special attention is paid to experiments exploiting the long coherence length of CW photomixers for coherent emission and detection of THz arrays. The long coherence length comes with an unprecedented narrow linewidth. This is of particular interest for spectroscopic applications, the field in which THz research has perhaps the highest impact. We point out that CW spectroscopy systems may potentially be more compact, cheaper, and more accurate than conventional pulsed systems. These features are attributed to telecom-wavelength compatibility, to excellent frequency resolution, and to their huge spectral density. The paper concludes with prototype experiments of THz wireless LAN

  15. Generation of picosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm with gigahertz range continuously tunable repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Aubourg, Adrien; Lhermite, Jérôme; Hocquet, Steve; Cormier, Eric; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    We report on a watt range laser system generating picosecond pulses using electro-optical modulation of a 1030 nm single frequency low noise laser diode. Its repetition rate is continuously tunable between 11 and 18 GHz. Over this range, output spectra and pulse characteristics are measured and compared with a numerical simulation. Finally, amplitude and residual phase noise measurements of the source are also presented.

  16. Diode-pumped continuous wave tunable and graphene Q-switched Tm:LSO lasers.

    PubMed

    Feng, T L; Zhao, S Z; Yang, K J; Li, G Q; Li, D C; Zhao, J; Qiao, W C; Hou, J; Yang, Y; He, J L; Zheng, L H; Wang, Q G; Xu, X D; Su, L B; Xu, J

    2013-10-21

    We have investigated the lasing characteristics of Tm:LSO crystal in three operation regimes: continuous wave (CW), wavelength tunable and passive Q-switching based on graphene. In CW regime, a maximum output power of 0.65 W at 2054.9 nm with a slope efficiency of 21% was achieved. With a quartz plate, a broad wavelength tunable range of 145 nm was obtained, corresponding to a FWHM of 100 nm. By using a graphene saturable absorber mirror, the passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser produced pulses with duration of 7.8 μs at 2030.8 nm under a repetition rate of 7.6 kHz, corresponding to pulse energy of 14.0 μJ.

  17. Continuous glucose determination using fiber-based tunable mid-infrared laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Songlin; Li, Dachao; Chong, Hao; Sun, Changyue; Xu, Kexin

    2014-04-01

    Wavelength-tunable laser spectroscopy in combination with a small-sized fiber-optic attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor (fiber-based evanescent field analysis, FEFA) is reported for the continuous measurement of the glucose level. We propose a method of controlling and stabilizing the wavelength and power of laser emission and present a newly developed mid-infrared wavelength-tunable laser with a broad emission spectrum band of 9.19-9.77 μm (1024-1088 cm-1). The novel small-sized flow-through fiber-optic ATR sensor with long optical sensing length was used for glucose level determination. The experimental results indicate that the noise-equivalent concentration of this laser measurement system is as low as 3.8 mg/dL, which is among the most precise glucose measurements using mid-infrared spectroscopy. The sensitivity, which is three times that of conventional Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, was acquired because of the higher laser power and higher spectral resolution. The best prediction of the glucose concentration in phosphate buffered saline solution was achieved using the five-variable partial least-squares model, yielding a root-mean-square error of prediction as small as 3.5 mg/dL. The high sensitivity, multiple tunable wavelengths and small fiber-based sensor with long optical sensing length make glucose determination possible in blood or interstitial fluid in vivo.

  18. Tunable continuous wave single-mode dye laser directly pumped by a diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanska, D.; Suski, M.; Furmann, B.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a tunable continuous wave single-mode ring dye laser (a modified version of Coherent model CR 699-21), directly optically pumped by an economy-class diode laser, has been set up. The laser was operated on Coumarin 498, and its generation profile covered part of the green spectral region not easily accessible in single-mode operation. The performance of the laser in both broad-band and single-mode operation regimes was studied. It was proved that optical pumping by diode lasers allows one to obtain single-mode operation of dye lasers that is sufficiently stable for high-resolution spectroscopy applications.

  19. High power continuous operation of a widely tunable quantum cascade laser with an integrated amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Slivken, S.; Sengupta, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2015-12-21

    Wide electrical tuning and high continuous output power is demonstrated from a single mode quantum cascade laser emitting at a wavelength near 4.8 μm. This is achieved in a space efficient manner by integrating an asymmetric sampled grating distributed feedback tunable laser with an optical amplifier. An initial demonstration of high peak power operation in pulsed mode is demonstrated first, with >5 W output over a 270 nm (113 cm{sup −1}) spectral range. Refinement of the geometry leads to continuous operation with a single mode spectral coverage of 300 nm (120 cm{sup −1}) and a maximum continuous power of 1.25 W. The output beam is shown to be nearly diffraction-limited, even at high amplifier current.

  20. Monolithic dual-mode distributed feedback semiconductor laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz generation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namje; Shin, Jaeheon; Sim, Eundeok; Lee, Chul Wook; Yee, Dae-Su; Jeon, Min Yong; Jang, Yudong; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2009-08-03

    We report on a monolithic dual-mode semiconductor laser operating in the 1550-nm range as a compact optical beat source for tunable continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) generation. It consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser sections and one phase section between them. Each wavelength of the two modes can be independently tuned by adjusting currents in micro-heaters which are fabricated on the top of the each DFB section. The continuous tuning of the CW THz emission from Fe(+)-implanted InGaAs photomixers is successfully demonstrated using our dual-mode laser as the excitation source. The CW THz frequency is continuously tuned from 0.17 to 0.49 THz.

  1. Frequency-tunable continuous-wave terahertz sources based on GaAs plasmonic photomixers

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shang-Hua; Jarrahi, Mona

    2015-09-28

    We present frequency-tunable, continuous-wave terahertz sources based on GaAs plasmonic photomixers, which offer high terahertz radiation power levels at 50% radiation duty cycle. The use of plasmonic contact electrodes enhances photomixer quantum efficiency while maintaining its ultrafast operation by concentrating a large number of photocarriers in close proximity to the device contact electrodes. Additionally, the relatively high thermal conductivity and high resistivity of GaAs allow operation under high optical pump power levels and long duty cycles without reaching the thermal breakdown limit of the photomixer. We experimentally demonstrate continuous-wave terahertz radiation with a radiation frequency tuning range of more than 2 THz and a record-high radiation power of 17 μW at 1 THz through plasmonic photomixers fabricated on a low temperature grown GaAs substrate at 50% radiation duty cycle.

  2. A continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter with complex coefficient based on phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Cao, Ye; Tong, Zheng-rong; Yang, Jing-peng

    2017-01-01

    A continuously tunable microwave photonic notch filter with complex coefficient based on phase modulation is proposed and demonstrated. The complex coefficient is generated using a Fourier-domain optical processor (FD-OP) to control the amplitude and phase of the optical carrier and radio-frequency (RF) phase modulation sidebands. By controlling the FD-OP, the frequency response of the filter can be tuned in the full free spectral range ( FSR) without changing the shape and the FSR of the frequency response. The results show that the center frequency of the notch filter can be continuously tuned from 17.582 GHz to 29.311 GHz with FSR of 11.729 GHz. The shape of the frequency response keeps unchanged when the phase is tuned.

  3. A simplified tunable frequency interval optical frequency comb generator using a single continuous-wave laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Tie-feng; Dai, Zhen-xiang; Dai, Shi-xun; Liu, Tai-jun

    2017-03-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simplified and tunable frequency interval optical frequency comb (OFC) generator based on a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) using a single continuous-wave (CW) laser and low-power radio frequency (RF) driven signal. A mathematical model for the scheme is established. The 21- and 29-mode OFCs with frequency interval ranging from 6 GHz to 40 GHz are obtained under DD-MZM driven by a low-power RF signal within a maximum bandwidth of 1.12 THz. The generated OFCs exhibit spectral flatnesses of less than 0.5 dB and 0.8 dB within bandwidths of 160 GHz and 400 GHz, respectively.

  4. Application of a continuously tunable, cw optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gibson, G M; Dunn, M H; Padgett, M J

    1998-01-01

    We report the use of a smoothly tunable, single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for high-resolution spectroscopy. The OPO is based on potassium titanyl phosphate and is resonant for both signal and idler fields, resulting in a device with a very low pump power threshold of 30 mW. The frequency-selective nature of the doubly resonant oscillator ensures that the signal and idler modes can be tuned across the entire phase-match bandwidth without the need for additional intracavity frequency-selective components. Smooth frequency tuning of the output of the OPO is obtained by tuning of the pump laser. To demonstrate the practicality of our OPO we recorded the absorption spectrum of cesium vapor in the 1-microm spectral region.

  5. Continuously current-tunable, narrow line-width miniaturized external cavity diode laser at 633 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpf, B.; Bawamia, A.; Blume, G.; Eppich, B.; Ginolas, A.; Spießberger, S.; Thomas, M.; Erbert, G.

    2012-03-01

    Red emitting diode lasers with a narrow spectral line-width and continuous tuning are requested as light sources for interferometric measurements with nm-accuracy. Tuning ranges of about 25 GHz together with a spectral line-width smaller than 10 MHz are necessary. A current-tunable miniaturized 633 nm external cavity diode laser (ECDL) will be presented. The resonator is formed without moving parts between the front facet of a semiconductor gain medium and a reflection Bragg grating (RBG). The RBG has a high reflectivity larger than 95% in a small spectral bandwidth, which is approximately equal to the targeted tuning range. Within this bandwidth, the ECDL is tunable by changing the injection current of the gain medium. The length of the resonator is selected so short, that the distance between the laser modes is larger than the tuning range. Herewith, single mode operation should be guaranteed. The device is mounted on an aluminum nitride bench with a footprint of 5 mm x 10 mm. ECDLs using gain media with different front facet reflectivities of 30% and 70% will be compared. Moreover, results for a device encapsulated in a silicon based gel will be presented. For a device with 30% front facet reflectivity in air, a maximal output power of 10 mW was achieved. The tuning range without any mode-hops was 34 pm, i.e. 25 GHz. The line-width was smaller than 10 MHz. The emitted beam was approximately diffraction limited with a M2 ~ 1.1 in both directions.

  6. Continuously tunable photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Shahoei, Hiva; Dumais, Patrick; Yao, Jianping

    2014-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable fractional Hilbert transformer (FHT) based on a high-contrast germanium-doped silica-on-silicon (SOS) microring resonator (MRR). The propagation loss of a high-contrast germanium-doped SOS waveguide can be very small (0.02 dB/cm) while the lossless bend radius can be less than 1 mm. These characteristics lead to the fabrication of an MRR with a high Q-factor and a large free-spectral range (FSR), which is needed to implement a Hilbert transformer (HT). The SOS MRR is strongly polarization dependent. By changing the polarization direction of the input signal, the phase shift introduced at the center of the resonance spectrum is changed. The tunable phase shift at the resonance wavelength can be used to implement a tunable FHT. A germanium-doped SOS MRR with a high-index contrast of 3.8% is fabricated. The use of the fabricated MRR for the implementation of a tunable FHT with tunable orders at 1, 0.85, 0.95, 1.05, and 1.13 for a Gaussian pulse with the temporal full width at half-maximum of 80 ps is experimentally demonstrated.

  7. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Amplification of continuously tunable signals in high-pressure CO2 amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlovskiĭ, V. M.; Osipov, V. V.; Solov'ev, V. S.

    1981-02-01

    An investigation was made of the emission of high-power continuously tunable signals in a CO2 laser stage consisting of a master oscillator and an amplifier. The active medium in the oscillator and the amplifier was excited by an electric discharge sustained by an electron beam of 1 μsec duration with a current density of 3 A/cm2. The pressure of the CO2:N2 = 1:1 active medium in the master oscillator was kept at 6.5 atm and that in the amplifier was varied between 1 and 6 atm. It was found that when signals were amplified under similar conditions at frequencies corresponding to the peak of the P18 line and to the dip between the P18 and P16 lines of the 00°1-10°0 transition, the radiation energy changed no less than twofold as a result of a single passage through the amplifier. Moreover, it was found that the pressure in the amplifier could be reduced considerably compared with that of the active medium in the master oscillator whilst retaining continuous frequency tuning, which meant that the requirements on the excitation system could be reduced and the efficiency of the amplifier could be enhanced.

  8. Continuous wavelength tunable laser source with optimum positioning of pivot axis for grating

    DOEpatents

    Pushkarsky, Michael; Amone, David F.

    2010-06-08

    A laser source (10) for generating a continuously wavelength tunable light (12) includes a gain media (16), an optical output coupler (36F), a cavity collimator (38A), a diffraction grating (30), a grating beam (54), and a beam attacher (56). The diffraction grating (30) is spaced apart from the cavity collimator (38A) and the grating (30) cooperates with the optical output coupler (36F) to define an external cavity (32). The grating (30) includes a grating face surface (42A) that is in a grating plane (42B). The beam attacher (56) retains the grating beam (54) and allows the grating beam (54) and the grating (30) to effectively pivot about a pivot axis (33) that is located approximately at an intersection of a pivot plane (50) and the grating plane (42B). As provided herein, the diffraction grating (30) can be pivoted about the unique pivot axis (33) to move the diffraction grating (30) relative to the gain media (16) to continuously tune the lasing frequency of the external cavity (32) and the wavelength of the output light (12) so that the output light (12) is mode hop free.

  9. Study on characteristics of diode-pumped continuous-wave tunable and passively Q-switched Tm:SSO laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. L.; Zhao, S. Z.; Yang, K. J.; Li, G. Q.; Li, D. C.; Zhao, J.; Qiao, W. C.; Zheng, L. H.; Xu, J.; Wang, Q. G.; Xu, X. D.; Su, L. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a diode-pumped continuous-wave tunable and Q-switched Tm:SSO laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. In continuous-wave regime, a maximum output power of 340 mW at 1,980.7 nm was obtained. With a quartz plate, wavelength-tunable continuous-wave operation was achieved from 1,922 to 2,020 nm. In Q-switched regime, a maximum output pulse energy of 14.7 μJ under a repetition rate of 800 Hz and a minimum pulse width of 7.6 μs corresponding to a repetition rate of 8.8 kHz around 1,974.4 nm were obtained from the passively Q-switched Tm:SSO laser.

  10. Self-ordered anodic alumina with continuously tunable pore intervals from 410 to 530 nm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanmin; Luo, Jia; Wu, Longmin; Zhang, Junyan

    2010-05-01

    We report a "mild anodization" (MA) process using aluminum oxalate (Alox) as an additive to suppress breakdown of porous anodic alumina (PAA) in the electrolyte of phosphoric acid at high potentials and comparatively high temperatures. It is shown for the first time that continuously tunable pore intervals (D(int)) from 410 to 530 nm with ordered hexagonal pore arrangement can be controlled by varying the concentrations of phosphoric acid and Alox at anodization voltages (U(a)) from 180 to 230 V, far beyond the U(a) in the single electrolyte of phosphoric acid or oxalic acid. The fabricated PAA films are uniform without any burning spots, and the anodization temperature can be increased to 10-20 degrees C with a much higher growth rate of PAA films than that at a low temperature. Meanwhile, a typical two-step anodization process could also be performed under our conditions. Our results could not only extend the applications of PAA templates but also facilitate understanding of the effects of anions in the process of anodic oxidation.

  11. High power single-frequency continuously-tunable compact extended-cavity semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Laurain, A; Myara, M; Beaudoin, G; Sagnes, I; Garnache, A

    2009-06-08

    We demonstrate high power high efficiency (0:3 W) low noise single frequency operation of a compact extended-cavity surface-emitting-semiconductor-laser exhibiting a continuous tunability over 0:84 THz with high beam quality. We took advantage of thermal lens-based stability to develop a short (< 3 mm) plano-plano external cavity without any intracavity filter. The structure is optically pumped by a 1 W commercial 830 nm multimode diode laser. No heat management was required. We measured a low divergence circular TEM(00) beam at the diffraction limit (M(2) < 1:05) with a linear light polarization (> 37 dB). The side mode suppression ratio is 60 dB. The free running laser linewidth is 850 kHz limited by pump induced thermal fluctuations. Thanks to this high-Q external cavity approach, the frequency noise is low and the dynamics is in the relaxation-oscillation-free regime, exhibiting a low intensity noise, with a cutoff frequency approximately 250 MHz above which the shot noise level is reached. We show that pump properties define the cavity design and laser coherence.

  12. Developing a narrow-line laser spectrometer based on a tunable continuous-wave dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun; Lv, Shasha; Liu, Fang; Bi, Jin; Li, Liufeng; Chen, Lisheng

    2014-08-01

    We present the development of a dye-laser-based spectrometer operating at 550-600 nm. The spectrometer will be used to detect an ultra-narrow clock transition (1S0-3P0) in an Ytterbium optical lattice clock and perform high-resolution spectroscopy of iodine molecules trapped in the sub-nanometer channels of zeolite crystal (AlPO4-11). Two-stage Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is implemented on the tunable continuous-wave dye laser to obtain a reliable operation and provide stable laser radiations with two different spectral linewidths. In the first-stage frequency locking, a compact home-built intracavity electro-optic modulator is adopted for suppressing fast frequency noise. With an acquisition time of 0.1 s the 670-kHz linewidth of the free-running dye laser is reduced to 2 kHz when locked to a pre-stabilization optical cavity with a finesse of 1170. When the pre-stabilized laser is locked to a high-finesse optical cavity, a linewidth of 1.4 Hz (2 s) is observed and the frequency stability is 3.7 × 10-15 (3 s). We also measure and analyze the individual noise contributions such as those from residual amplitude modulation and electronic noise. The ongoing upgrades include improving long-term frequency stability at time scales from 10 to 100 s and implementing continuous frequency scan across 10 GHz with radio-frequency precision.

  13. Developing a narrow-line laser spectrometer based on a tunable continuous-wave dye laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Lv, Shasha; Liu, Fang; Bi, Jin; Li, Liufeng; Chen, Lisheng

    2014-08-01

    We present the development of a dye-laser-based spectrometer operating at 550-600 nm. The spectrometer will be used to detect an ultra-narrow clock transition ((1)S0-(3)P0) in an Ytterbium optical lattice clock and perform high-resolution spectroscopy of iodine molecules trapped in the sub-nanometer channels of zeolite crystal (AlPO4-11). Two-stage Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is implemented on the tunable continuous-wave dye laser to obtain a reliable operation and provide stable laser radiations with two different spectral linewidths. In the first-stage frequency locking, a compact home-built intracavity electro-optic modulator is adopted for suppressing fast frequency noise. With an acquisition time of 0.1 s the 670-kHz linewidth of the free-running dye laser is reduced to 2 kHz when locked to a pre-stabilization optical cavity with a finesse of 1170. When the pre-stabilized laser is locked to a high-finesse optical cavity, a linewidth of 1.4 Hz (2 s) is observed and the frequency stability is 3.7 × 10(-15) (3 s). We also measure and analyze the individual noise contributions such as those from residual amplitude modulation and electronic noise. The ongoing upgrades include improving long-term frequency stability at time scales from 10 to 100 s and implementing continuous frequency scan across 10 GHz with radio-frequency precision.

  14. Developing a narrow-line laser spectrometer based on a tunable continuous-wave dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun; Lv, Shasha; Bi, Jin; Liu, Fang; Li, Liufeng; Chen, Lisheng

    2014-08-15

    We present the development of a dye-laser-based spectrometer operating at 550–600 nm. The spectrometer will be used to detect an ultra-narrow clock transition ({sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0}) in an Ytterbium optical lattice clock and perform high-resolution spectroscopy of iodine molecules trapped in the sub-nanometer channels of zeolite crystal (AlPO{sub 4}-11). Two-stage Pound-Drever-Hall frequency stabilization is implemented on the tunable continuous-wave dye laser to obtain a reliable operation and provide stable laser radiations with two different spectral linewidths. In the first-stage frequency locking, a compact home-built intracavity electro-optic modulator is adopted for suppressing fast frequency noise. With an acquisition time of 0.1 s the 670-kHz linewidth of the free-running dye laser is reduced to 2 kHz when locked to a pre-stabilization optical cavity with a finesse of 1170. When the pre-stabilized laser is locked to a high-finesse optical cavity, a linewidth of 1.4 Hz (2 s) is observed and the frequency stability is 3.7 × 10{sup −15} (3 s). We also measure and analyze the individual noise contributions such as those from residual amplitude modulation and electronic noise. The ongoing upgrades include improving long-term frequency stability at time scales from 10 to 100 s and implementing continuous frequency scan across 10 GHz with radio-frequency precision.

  15. Single-frequency continuous-wave tunable ultraviolet sources based on BIBO and PPKTP crystals and their comparative studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadhi, A.; Chaitanya N., Apurv; M. V., Jabir; Singh, R. P.; Samanta, G. K.

    2015-06-01

    We report on development of tunable, cw, single frequency ultraviolet (UV) source based on intra-cavity frequency doubling of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The singly resonant OPO (SRO) is realized using 25 mm long MgOdoped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalite (MgO:sPPLT). The SRO, pumped in the green, is intra-cavity frequency doubled using two different crystals β-BaB2O4 (BIBO) and periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) to generate tunable UV radiation. The BIBO based source produces UV radiation with output power as much as 770 mW at 398.24 nm in elliptic (0.66) spatial beam while pumping at 8W of green power. The UV source can be tuned across 355.2-418 nm with a continuous wavelength tunability of 62.8 nm in single frequency radiation with instantaneous line-width of 14.5 MHz. On the other hand, the PPKTP based UV source generates maximum UV power of 336 mW at 398.28 nm and wavelength tunability of 18.1 nm in a TEMOO spatial mode with ellipticity of 0.93 for 5W of green pump power. The line-width of the UV radiation is measured to be 18.5 MHZ. In comparison, PPKTP based UV source provides better performance than BIBO in terms of beam quality and power stability.

  16. Atmospheric remote sensing of water vapor, HCl and CH4 using a continuously tunable Co:MgF2 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menyuk, Norman; Killinger, Dennis K.

    1987-01-01

    A differential-absorption lidar system has been developed which uses a continuously tunable (1.5-2.3 micron) cobalt-doped magnesium fluoride laser as the radiation source. Preliminary atmospheric measurements of water vapor, HCl, and CH4 have been made with this system, including both path-averaged and ranged-resolved DIAL measurements at ranges up to 6 and 3 km, respectively.

  17. High sensitivity detection of NO2 employing cavity ringdown spectroscopy and an external cavity continuously tunable quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gottipaty N; Karpf, Andreas

    2010-09-10

    A trace gas sensor for the detection of nitrogen dioxide based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) and a continuous wave external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature has been designed, and its features and performance characteristics are reported. By measuring the ringdown times of the cavity at different concentrations of NO(2), we report a sensitivity of 1.2 ppb for the detection of NO(2) in Zero Air.

  18. All-periodically poled, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency tunable UV source.

    PubMed

    Aadhi, A; Chaitanya N, Apurv; Jabir, M V; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of an all-periodically poled, continuous-wave (CW), high-power, single-frequency, ultra-violet (UV) source. Based on internal second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of a CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped in the green, the UV source provides tunable radiation across 398.94-417.08 nm. The compact source comprising of a 25-mm-long MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) crystal of period Λ(SLT)=8.5  μm for OPO and a 5-mm-long, multi-grating (Λ(KTP)=3.3, 3.4, 3.6 and 3.8 μm), periodically poled potassium titanium phosphate (PPKTP) for intra-cavity SHG, provides as much as 336 mW of UV power at 398.94 nm, corresponding to a green-to-UV conversion efficiency of ∼6.7%. In addition, the singly resonant OPO (SRO) provides 840 mW of idler at 1541.61 nm and substantial signal power of 108 mW at 812.33 nm transmitted through the high reflective cavity mirrors. UV source provides single-frequency radiation with instantaneous line-width of ∼18.3  MHz and power >100  mW in Gaussian beam profile (ellipticity >92%) across the entire tuning range. Access to lower UV wavelengths requires smaller grating periods to compensate high phase-mismatch resulting from high material dispersion in the UV wavelength range. Additionally, we have measured the normalized temperature and spectral acceptance bandwidth of PPKTP crystal in the UV wavelength range to be ∼2.25°C·cm and ∼0.15  nm·cm, respectively.

  19. Tunable diode laser-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser operated in continuous-wave and Q-switched modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, B. T.; Hemmati, H.; Menzies, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    Tunable continuous-wave and pulsed laser output was obtained from a Tm-sensitized Ho:YLiF4 crystal at subambient temperatures when longitudinally pumped with a diode laser array. A conversion efficiency of 42 percent and slope efficiency of approximately 60 percent relative to the absorbed pumped power have been achieved at a crystal temperature of 275 K. The emission spectrum was etalon tunable over a range of 16/cm centered at 2067 nm with fine tuning capability of the transition frequency with crystal temperature at measured rate of -0.03/cm/K. Output energies of 0.22 mJ per pulse and 22 ns pulse duration were recorded at Q-switch frequencies that correspond to an effective upper laser level lifetime of 6 ms, and a pulse energy extraction efficiency of 64 percent.

  20. Low power consumption and continuously tunable all-optical microwave filter based on an opto-mechanical microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yue; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Xing; Mo, Wenqin; Liu, Xing

    2017-01-23

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a continuously tunable all-optical microwave filter using a silicon opto-mechanical microring resonator (MRR). By finely adjusting the pump light with submilliwatt power level, transmission spectrum of the MRR could be continuously shifted based on the nonlinear effects, including the opto-mechanical effect and thermo-optic effect. Therefore, in the case of optical single sideband (OSSB) modulation, the frequency intervals between the optical carrier (near one MRR resonance) and the corresponding resonance could be flexibly manipulated, which is the critical factor to achieve continuously tunable microwave photonic filter (MPF). In the experiment, the central frequency of the MPF could be continuously tuned from 6 GHz to 19 GHz with the pump power lower than -2.5 dBm. The proposed opto-mechanical device is competent to process microwave signals with dominant advantages, such as compact footprint, all-optical control and low power consumption. In the future, using light to control light, the opto-mechanical structure on silicon platforms might have many other potential applications in microwave systems, such as microwave switch.

  1. Application of a continuous-wave tunable erbium-doped fiber laser to molecular spectroscopy in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, J.; Masselin, P.; Chen, W.; Boucher, D.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.; Szriftgiser, P.

    2006-05-01

    Development of a continuous-wave tunable fiber laser-based spectrometer for applied spectroscopy is reported. Wide wavelength tunability of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) was investigated in the near-infrared region of 1543-1601 nm. Continuous mode-hop free fine frequency tuning has been accomplished by temperature tuning in conjunction with mechanical tuning. The overall spectroscopic performance of the EDFL was evaluated in terms of frequency tunability along with its suitability for molecular spectroscopy. High-resolution absorption spectra of acetylene (C2H2) were recorded near 1544 nm with a minimum measurable absorption coefficient of about 3.5×10-7 cm-1/Hz1/2 for direct absorption spectroscopy associated with a 100-m long multipass cell. Detections of C2H2 at different concentration levels were performed as well with high dynamic detection range varying from 100% purity to sub ppmv using cavity ring down spectroscopy. A 3σ-detection-limited minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of 400 ppbv has been obtained by using the transition line Pe(22) of the ν1+ν3+ν5 1(Πg)-ν5 1(Πu) hot band near 1543.92 nm with a detection bandwidth of 2.3 Hz. This corresponds to a minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 6.6×10-11 cm-1/Hz1/2. The sensitivity limit could be further improved by almost one order of magnitude (down to ˜60 ppbv) by use of the Pe(27) line of the ν1+ν3(Σu +)-0(Σg +)combination band near 1543.68 nm.

  2. Tunable, high-power, continuous-wave dual-polarization Yb-fiber oscillator.

    PubMed

    Zeil, Peter; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate a high-power, dual-polarization Yb-fiber oscillator, by separately locking the two linear polarization states defined by slow and fast axis of a polarization-maintaining gain fiber with volume Bragg gratings. Dual-line lasing is achieved with a tunable wavelength separation from 0.03 to 2 THz, while exceeding output powers of 78 W over the entire tuning range, maintaining a high beam-quality with M(2)<1.2. With this laser configuration we achieve a peak-to-peak power variation of <1% for the dual-line signal and <3% for the individual signals.

  3. Diode-end-pumped continuously tunable single frequency Tm, Ho:LLF laser at 2.06 μm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinlu; Zhang, Su; Xiao, Nana; Cui, Jinhui; Zhao, Jiaqun; Li, Li

    2014-03-10

    We report on a laser diode-end-pumped continuously tunable single frequency Tm, Ho:LLF laser near room temperature. For transmission of 5%, the maximum single frequency output power of 221 mW at 2064.4 nm was obtained by using two uncoated etalons. The single frequency Tm, Ho:LLF laser operated on the fundamental transverse mode with an M2 factor of 1.13, and the output frequency could be tuned continuously near 1.5 GHz by angle tuning only of the 1 mm thick etalon. Furthermore, the influence of output coupler transmission on the laser performance was also investigated. The single frequency laser can be used as a seed laser for coherent Doppler lidar and differential absorption lidar systems.

  4. Continuous-wave VECSEL Raman laser with tunable lime-yellow-orange output.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jipeng; Pask, Helen M; Spence, David J; Hamilton, Craig J; Malcolm, Graeme P A

    2012-02-27

    We report a compact CW KGW Raman laser with intracavity nonlinear mixing, pumped by the intracavity field of a VECSEL. By temperature tuning an intracavity LBO crystal, we obtained two separate tunable emissions bands, namely 548.5 - 566 nm for sum-frequency-generation (SFG) of the fundamental and Stokes wavelengths, and 577.5 - 596 nm for second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of the Stokes wavelength. The maximum output powers for SFG and SHG were 0.8 W @ 560 nm and 0.52 W @ 592.5 nm, with corresponding diode-to-visible optical conversion efficiencies of 4.2% and 2.9%. These preliminary results show strong potential for expanding the spectral coverage of VECSEL lasers.

  5. A tunable continuous wave (CW) and short-pulse optical source for THz brain imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulos, P.; Karanasiou, I.; Pleros, N.; Zakynthinos, P.; Uzunoglu, N.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate recent advances toward the development of a novel 2D THz imaging system for brain imaging applications both at the macroscopic and at the bimolecular level. A frequency-synthesized THz source based on difference frequency generation between optical wavelengths is presented, utilizing supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear optical fiber with subsequent spectral carving by means of a fiber Fabry-Perot filter. Experimental results confirm the successful generation of THz radiation in the range of 0.2-2 THz, verifying the enhanced frequency tunability properties of the proposed system. Finally, the roadmap toward capturing functional brain information by exploiting THz imaging technologies is discussed, outlining the unique advantages offered by THz frequencies and their complementarity with existing brain imaging techniques.

  6. Absorption and wavelength modulation spectroscopy of NO2 using a tunable, external cavity continuous wave quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2009-01-10

    The absorption spectra and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) of NO(2) using a tunable, external cavity CW quantum cascade laser operating at room temperature in the region of 1625 to 1645 cm(-1) are reported. The external cavity quantum cascade laser enabled us to record continuous absorption spectra of low concentrations of NO(2) over a broad range (approximately 16 cm(-1)), demonstrating the potential for simultaneously recording the complex spectra of multiple species. This capability allows the identification of a particular species of interest with high sensitivity and selectivity. The measured spectra are in excellent agreement with the spectra from the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database [J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005)]. We also conduct WMS for the first time using an external cavity quantum cascade laser, a technique that enhances the sensitivity of detection. By employing WMS, we could detect low-intensity absorption lines, which are not visible in the simple absorption spectra, and demonstrate a minimum detection limit at the 100 ppb level with a short-path absorption cell. Details of the tunable, external cavity quantum cascade laser system and its performance are discussed.

  7. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Entanglement in the Middle Using Tunable Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao Dong; Chen, Feng; Wu, Xiang Hua; Guo, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) can provide detection efficiency, as compared to discrete-variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD). In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable CVQKD with the entangled source in the middle, contrast to the traditional point-to-point CVQKD where the entanglement source is usually created by one honest party and the Gaussian noise added on the reference partner of the reconciliation is uncontrollable. In order to harmonize the additive noise that originates in the middle to resist the effect of malicious eavesdropper, we propose a controllable CVQKD protocol by performing a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) at one participant's side, say Alice. Simulation results show that we can achieve the optimal secret key rates by selecting the parameters of the tuned LOCM in the derived regions.

  8. Controlling Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Entanglement in the Middle Using Tunable Linear Optics Cloning Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao Dong; Chen, Feng; Wu, Xiang Hua; Guo, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) can provide detection efficiency, as compared to discrete-variable quantum key distribution (DVQKD). In this paper, we demonstrate a controllable CVQKD with the entangled source in the middle, contrast to the traditional point-to-point CVQKD where the entanglement source is usually created by one honest party and the Gaussian noise added on the reference partner of the reconciliation is uncontrollable. In order to harmonize the additive noise that originates in the middle to resist the effect of malicious eavesdropper, we propose a controllable CVQKD protocol by performing a tunable linear optics cloning machine (LOCM) at one participant's side, say Alice. Simulation results show that we can achieve the optimal secret key rates by selecting the parameters of the tuned LOCM in the derived regions.

  9. Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas; Riishede, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders; Hermann, David; Anawati, Anawati; Nielsen, Martin; Bassi, Paolo

    2005-09-19

    We present an electrically controlled photonic bandgap fiber device obtained by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a dual-frequency liquid crystal (LC) with pre-tilted molecules. Compared to previously demonstrated devices of this kind, the main new feature of this one is its continuous tunability due to the fact that the used LC does not exhibit reverse tilt domain defects and threshold effects. Furthermore, the dual-frequency features of the LC enables electrical control of the spectral position of the bandgaps towards both shorter and longer wavelengths in the same device. We investigate the dynamics of this device and demonstrate a birefringence controller based on this principle.

  10. Continuous-wave optical parametric source for terahertz waves tunable from 1 to 4.5 THz frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kießling, Jens; Buse, Karsten; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L.; Breunig, Ingo

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the continuous-wave operation of a cascade that has been successfully applied so far only for picosecond systems: A doubly-resonant optical-parametric oscillator (OPO) based on lithium niobate generates signal and idler waves close to degeneracy. Subsequently, these two light fields are converted to a terahertz wave via difference frequency mixing in an orientation-patterned gallium arsenide crystal placed inside the OPO cavity. Using this scheme, we achieved tunability from 1 to 4:5 THz frequency, a linewidth smaller than 10 MHz, and a Gaussian beam profile. The output power is of the order of tens of μW, with a scalability into the milliwatt regime.

  11. Continuously tunable narrowband pulses in the THz gap from laser-modulated electron bunches in a storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungelenk, P.; Höner, M.; Huck, H.; Khan, S.; Mai, C.; Meyer auf der Heide, A.; Evain, C.; Szwaj, C.; Bielawski, S.

    2017-02-01

    This article reports on the generation of narrowband coherent synchrotron radiation from an electron storage ring. For the first time, this kind of radiation was now produced with continuously tunable frequencies in the so-called "THz gap" (between 1.2 and 5.6 THz), whereas previous experiments were limited to below 750 GHz. The experiment was performed at the DELTA storage ring in Dortmund, Germany, employing the interaction of external intensity-modulated laser pulses with an electron bunch, which causes a periodic longitudinal modulation of the charge density on a sub-millimeter scale. Furthermore, a strong influence of third-order dispersion in the laser pulses on the bandwidth and peak intensity of the THz radiation was observed. This effect is discussed in detail based on numerical simulations of the laser pulse generation and laser-electron interaction, and a modification of the laser system for compensating third-order dispersion is proposed.

  12. Broadly continuously tunable slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Zeng, Yong Quan; Liang, Guozhen; Hu, Xiao Nan; Rodriguez, Etienne; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-09-14

    We report our progress in the development of broadly tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers based on a continuum-to-continuum active region design. The electroluminescence spectrum of the continuum-to-continuum active region design has a full width at half maximum of 440 cm{sup −1} at center wavelength ∼10 μm at room temperature (300 K). Devices using the optimized slot waveguide structure and the continuum-to-continuum design can be tuned continuously with a lasing emission over 42 cm{sup −1}, from 9.74 to 10.16 μm, at room temperature by using only current tuning scheme, together with a side mode suppression ratio of above 15 dB within the whole tuning range.

  13. Continuously tunable polarization-independent zeroth-order fiber comb filter based on polarization-diversity loop structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Lee, Yong Wook

    2017-04-01

    By selecting some optimal wave retarder combination (WRC) groups, we propose and experimentally implement a continuously tunable polarization-independent zeroth-order fiber comb filter based on a polarization-diversity loop structure. The selected WRC groups contain a set of two quarter-wave retarders (QWRs), a set of a QWR and a half-wave retarder (HWR), and a set of an HWR and a QWR. The filter was formed using a polarization beam splitter (PBS), one of the three selected WRC groups, and high birefringence fiber (HBF). One end of HBF was butt-coupled to the PBS so that its slow axis should be oriented at 45° for the horizontal axis of the PBS, and the other end was connected to the WRC group. Three kinds of comb filters were fabricated with the three selected WRC groups. Through theoretical analysis on light polarization conditions for continuous spectral tuning and filter transmittances, eight special azimuth angle sets of two wave retarders, which gave the transmittance function eight different phase shifts of 0 to -7 π/4 with a -π/4 step, were found for each WRC group. Theoretical prediction was verified by experimental demonstration. It was also confirmed that the filter could be continuously tuned by the appropriate control of wave retarders.

  14. Widely tunable, narrow line width and low optical noise continuous-wave all fiber Er:Yb co-doped double-clad ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesmi, Khmaies; Bahloul, Faouzi; Semaan, Georges; Meng, Yichang; Salhi, Mohamed; Sanchez, François

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report a widely tunable, narrow linewidth, low noise continuous-wave double-clad Er:Yb doped fiber ring laser. Tunability is demonstrated in wide range spanning from 1520 to almost 1620 nm covering the C and L spectral bands. The cavity design is optimized in order to achieve the largest tuning range with very high optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The output coupling ratio greatly influences the tuning range of the laser while the position of the spectral filter determines the SNR. The obtained laser exhibits a tuning range over 98 nm with a nearly constant SNR of about 58.5 dB.

  15. Tunable continuous-wave dual-wavelength laser by external-cavity superluminescent diode with a volume Bragg grating and a diffraction grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yujin; Kurita, Takashi; Sekine, Takashi; Kato, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate the tunable continuous-wave dual-wavelength laser based on a double external-cavity superluminescent diode (SLD). The double external cavity consisted of a volume Bragg grating (VBG) and a diffraction grating bracketing the SLD's two facets. The VBG was used as an output coupler to enable the external-cavity SLD to achieve a stable wavelength. A narrow bandwidth of 0.25 nm was achieved in single-wavelength operation. The diffraction grating served as an end mirror to create another tunable wavelength external cavity for the SLD. A wavelength tuning range of 23 nm was achieved. The laser output of the double external-cavity SLD had a tunable spectral separation with dual-wavelengths from +6.42 to -16.94 nm. An output power of up to 37.7 mW was achieved with a frequency difference of 7.1 THz.

  16. High-power, continuous-wave, solid-state, single-frequency, tunable source for the ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Aadhi, A; Apurv Chaitanya, N; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K

    2014-06-15

    We report the development of a compact, high-power, continuous-wave, single-frequency, ultraviolet (UV) source with extended wavelength tunability. The device is based on single-pass, intracavity, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) of the signal radiation of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) working in the visible and near-IR wavelength range. The SRO is pumped in the green with a 25-mm-long, multigrating, MgO doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:sPPLT) as nonlinear crystal. Using three grating periods, 8.5, 9.0, and 9.5 μm of the MgO:sPPLT crystal and a single set of cavity mirrors, the SRO can be tuned continuously across 710.7-836.3 nm in the signal and corresponding idler across 2115.8-1462.1 nm with maximum idler power of 1.9 W and maximum out-coupled signal power of 254 mW. By frequency-doubling the intracavity signal with a 5-mm-long bismuth borate (BIBO) crystal, we can further tune the SRO continuously over 62.8 nm across 355.4-418.2 nm in the UV with maximum single-frequency UV power, as much as 770 mW at 398.28 nm in a Gaussian beam profile. The UV radiation has an instantaneous line-width of ∼14.5  MHz and peak-peak frequency stability of 151 MHz over 100 s. More than 95% of the tuning range provides UV power >260  mW. Access to lower UV wavelengths can in principle be realized by operating the SRO in the visible using shorter grating periods.

  17. Tunable continuous wave emission via phase-matched second harmonic generation in a ZnSe microcylindrical resonator.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, N; Healy, N; Sparks, J R; Badding, J V; Horak, P; Peacock, A C

    2015-07-02

    Whispering gallery mode microresonators made from crystalline materials are of great interest for studies of low threshold nonlinear phenomena. Compared to amorphous materials, crystalline structures often exhibit desirable properties such as high indices of refraction, high nonlinearities, and large windows of transparency, making them ideal for use in frequency comb generation, microlasing and all-optical processing. In particular, crystalline materials can also possess a non-centrosymmetric structure which gives rise to the second order nonlinearity, necessary for three photon processes such as frequency doubling and parametric down-conversion. Here we report a novel route to fabricating crystalline zinc selenide microcylindrical resonators from our semiconductor fibre platform and demonstrate their use for tunable, low power continuous wave second harmonic generation. Visible red light is observed when pumped with a telecommunications band source by a process that is phase-matched between different higher order radial modes, possible due to the good spatial overlap between the pump and signal in the small volume resonator. By exploiting the geometrical flexibility offered by the fibre platform together with the ultra-wide 500-22000 nm transmission window of the ZnSe material, we expect these resonators to find use in applications ranging from spectroscopy to quantum information systems.

  18. Tunable continuous wave emission via phase-matched second harmonic generation in a ZnSe microcylindrical resonator

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, N.; Healy, N.; Sparks, J. R.; Badding, J. V.; Horak, P.; Peacock, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode microresonators made from crystalline materials are of great interest for studies of low threshold nonlinear phenomena. Compared to amorphous materials, crystalline structures often exhibit desirable properties such as high indices of refraction, high nonlinearities, and large windows of transparency, making them ideal for use in frequency comb generation, microlasing and all-optical processing. In particular, crystalline materials can also possess a non-centrosymmetric structure which gives rise to the second order nonlinearity, necessary for three photon processes such as frequency doubling and parametric down-conversion. Here we report a novel route to fabricating crystalline zinc selenide microcylindrical resonators from our semiconductor fibre platform and demonstrate their use for tunable, low power continuous wave second harmonic generation. Visible red light is observed when pumped with a telecommunications band source by a process that is phase-matched between different higher order radial modes, possible due to the good spatial overlap between the pump and signal in the small volume resonator. By exploiting the geometrical flexibility offered by the fibre platform together with the ultra-wide 500–22000 nm transmission window of the ZnSe material, we expect these resonators to find use in applications ranging from spectroscopy to quantum information systems. PMID:26135636

  19. Tunable continuous wave emission via phase-matched second harmonic generation in a ZnSe microcylindrical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukovic, N.; Healy, N.; Sparks, J. R.; Badding, J. V.; Horak, P.; Peacock, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Whispering gallery mode microresonators made from crystalline materials are of great interest for studies of low threshold nonlinear phenomena. Compared to amorphous materials, crystalline structures often exhibit desirable properties such as high indices of refraction, high nonlinearities, and large windows of transparency, making them ideal for use in frequency comb generation, microlasing and all-optical processing. In particular, crystalline materials can also possess a non-centrosymmetric structure which gives rise to the second order nonlinearity, necessary for three photon processes such as frequency doubling and parametric down-conversion. Here we report a novel route to fabricating crystalline zinc selenide microcylindrical resonators from our semiconductor fibre platform and demonstrate their use for tunable, low power continuous wave second harmonic generation. Visible red light is observed when pumped with a telecommunications band source by a process that is phase-matched between different higher order radial modes, possible due to the good spatial overlap between the pump and signal in the small volume resonator. By exploiting the geometrical flexibility offered by the fibre platform together with the ultra-wide 500-22000 nm transmission window of the ZnSe material, we expect these resonators to find use in applications ranging from spectroscopy to quantum information systems.

  20. Direct and continuous strain control of catalysts with tunable battery electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haotian; Xu, Shicheng; Tsai, Charlie; Li, Yuzhang; Liu, Chong; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Yayuan; Yuan, Hongyuan; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Prinz, Fritz B.; Nørskov, Jens K.; Cui, Yi

    2016-11-24

    We report a method for using battery electrode materials to directly and continuously control the lattice strain of platinum (Pt) catalyst and thus tune its catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Whereas the common approach of using metal overlayers introduces ligand effects in addition to strain, by electrochemically switching between the charging and discharging status of battery electrodes the change in volume can be precisely controlled to induce either compressive or tensile strain on supported catalysts. Lattice compression and tension induced by the lithium cobalt oxide substrate of ~5% were directly observed in individual Pt nanoparticles with aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. As a result, we observed 90% enhancement or 40% suppression in Pt ORR activity under compression or tension, respectively, which is consistent with theoretical predictions.

  1. Direct and continuous strain control of catalysts with tunable battery electrode materials

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Haotian; Xu, Shicheng; Tsai, Charlie; ...

    2016-11-24

    We report a method for using battery electrode materials to directly and continuously control the lattice strain of platinum (Pt) catalyst and thus tune its catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Whereas the common approach of using metal overlayers introduces ligand effects in addition to strain, by electrochemically switching between the charging and discharging status of battery electrodes the change in volume can be precisely controlled to induce either compressive or tensile strain on supported catalysts. Lattice compression and tension induced by the lithium cobalt oxide substrate of ~5% were directly observed in individual Pt nanoparticles with aberration-correctedmore » transmission electron microscopy. As a result, we observed 90% enhancement or 40% suppression in Pt ORR activity under compression or tension, respectively, which is consistent with theoretical predictions.« less

  2. Continuously tunable fibre attenuator operating in the wavelength range near 1.5 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Ol'ga I; Mishakov, Gennadii V; Sokolov, Viktor I; Varlamova, Nina V; Zapadinskii, Boris I

    2004-09-30

    A fibre attenuator is fabricated for the telecommunication wavelength range near 1.5 {mu}m in which a single-mode silica fibre with side polishing is used. The fibre surface is covered by a layer of fluorine-containing polymer with a large thermooptic coefficient. The principle of attenuator operation is based on a change in the conditions of total internal reflection for a guided mode in the polished region due to thermally induced variation in the refractive index of the fluoropolymer layer. The attenuator is insensitive to light polarisation, it has a continuously variable attenuation coefficient in the range 0.2-27 dB, and can be easily incorporated into fibreoptic links. (fibre optics)

  3. Continuous-wave generation and tunability of eye-safe resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Michal; Indra, Lukás.; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Laser sources generating radiation in the spectral range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm are very attractive for many applications such as satellite communication, range finding, spectroscopy, and atmospheric sensing. The goal of our research was an investigation of continuous-wave generation and wavelength tuning possibility of diode pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser emitting radiation around 1645 nm. We used two 0.5 at. % doped Er:YAG active media with lengths of 10 mm and 25 mm (diameter 5 mm). As a pumping source, a fibre-coupled 1452 nm laser-diode was utilized, which giving possibility of the in-band pumping with a small quantum defect and low thermal stress of the active bulk laser material. The 150 mm long resonator was formed by a pump mirror (HT @ 1450 nm, HR @ 1610 - 1660 nm) and output coupler with 96 % reflectivity at 1610 - 1660 nm. For continuous-wave generation, the maximal output powers were 0.7 W and 1 W for 10 mm and 25 mm long laser crystals, respectively. The corresponding slope efficiencies with respect to absorbed pump power for these Er:YAG lasers were 26.5 % and 37.8 %, respectively. The beam spatial structure was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. A wavelength tunability was realized by a birefringent plate and four local spectral maxima at 1616, 1633, 1645, and 1657 nm were reached. The output characteristics of the designed and realized resonantly diode-pumped eye-safe Er:YAG laser show that this compact system has a potential for usage mainly in spectroscopic fields.

  4. A stabilized laser continuously tunable over a range of 1.5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, B. L.; Xiong, W.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, L. J.

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a method to stabilize laser frequency which can be continuously tuned over a range of 1.5 GHz. It is based on saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) generated by an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) which is modulated by an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EO-AM). The spectra consist of not only the original peaks corresponding to resonant and crossover lines of 133Cs D2 line, but also signals introduced by sidebands from an EO-AM. Thus, the laser frequency can be locked to any point within the range of the spectra. Furthermore, the tuning range of the laser can be doubled compared to the coverage of common SAS by fixing the frequency of the pumping laser. The best stability of the locked laser induced by the EO-AM is 1.27 × 10-11 over an integrating time of 125 s. This method may be applied for more precise and flexible manipulation of atoms and molecules.

  5. A stabilized laser continuously tunable over a range of 1.5 GHz.

    PubMed

    Fan, B L; Xiong, W; Wang, S G; Wang, L J

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a method to stabilize laser frequency which can be continuously tuned over a range of 1.5 GHz. It is based on saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) generated by an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) which is modulated by an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EO-AM). The spectra consist of not only the original peaks corresponding to resonant and crossover lines of (133)Cs D2 line, but also signals introduced by sidebands from an EO-AM. Thus, the laser frequency can be locked to any point within the range of the spectra. Furthermore, the tuning range of the laser can be doubled compared to the coverage of common SAS by fixing the frequency of the pumping laser. The best stability of the locked laser induced by the EO-AM is 1.27 × 10(-11) over an integrating time of 125 s. This method may be applied for more precise and flexible manipulation of atoms and molecules.

  6. Tunable Ultrafast Thermal Relaxation in Graphene Measured by Continuous-Wave Photomixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadidi, M. Mehdi; Suess, Ryan J.; Tan, Cheng; Cai, Xinghan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Sushkov, Andrei B.; Mittendorff, Martin; Hone, James; Drew, H. Dennis; Fuhrer, Michael S.; Murphy, Thomas E.

    2016-12-01

    Hot electron effects in graphene are significant because of graphene's small electronic heat capacity and weak electron-phonon coupling, yet the dynamics and cooling mechanisms of hot electrons in graphene are not completely understood. We describe a novel photocurrent spectroscopy method that uses the mixing of continuous-wave lasers in a graphene photothermal detector to measure the frequency dependence and nonlinearity of hot-electron cooling in graphene as a function of the carrier concentration and temperature. The method offers unparalleled sensitivity to the nonlinearity, and probes the ultrafast cooling of hot carriers with an optical fluence that is orders of magnitude smaller than in conventional time-domain methods, allowing for accurate characterization of electron-phonon cooling near charge neutrality. Our measurements reveal that near the charge neutral point the nonlinear power dependence of the electron cooling is dominated by disorder-assisted collisions, while at higher carrier concentrations conventional momentum-conserving cooling prevails in the nonlinear dependence. The relative contribution of these competing mechanisms can be electrostatically tuned through the application of a gate voltage—an effect that is unique to graphene.

  7. Continuous-flow synthesis of CdSe quantum dots: a size-tunable and scalable approach.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini Moghaddam, Mojtaba; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Sadeghpour, Amin; Glatter, Otto; Kappe, C Oliver

    2013-08-26

    In recent years, continuous-flow/microreactor processing for the preparation of colloidal nanocrystals has received considerable attention. The intrinsic advantages of microfluidic reactors have opened new opportunities for the size-controlled synthesis of nanocrystals either in the laboratory or on a large scale. Herein, an experimentally simple protocol for the size-tunable continuous-flow synthesis of rather monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) is presented. CdSe QDs are manufactured by using cadmium oleate as cadmium source, selenium dioxide as selenium precursor, and 1-octadecene as solvent. Exploiting selenium dioxide as selenium source and 1-octadecene as solvent allows execution of the complete process in open air without any requirement for air-free manipulations using a glove box or Schlenk line. Continuous-flow processing is performed with a stainless steel coil of 1.0 mm inner diameter pumping the combined precursor solution through the reactor by applying a standard HPLC pump. The effect of different reaction parameters, such as temperature, residence time, and flow rate, on the properties of the resulting CdSe QDs was investigated. A temperature increase from 240 to 260 °C or an extension of the residence time from 2 to 20 min affords larger nanocrystals (range 3-6 nm) whereas the size distribution does not change significantly. Longer reaction times and higher temperatures result in QDs with lower quantum yields (range 11-28 %). The quality of the synthesized CdSe QDs was confirmed by UV/Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the potential of this protocol for large-scale manufacturing was evaluated and by operating the continuous-flow process for 87 min it was possible to produce 167 mg of CdSe QDs (with a mean diameter of 4 nm) with a quantum yield of 28 %.

  8. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Barnes, Alexander B.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:21243088

  9. Continuous-Wave Operation of a Frequency-Tunable 460-GHz Second-Harmonic Gyrotron for Enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Torrezan, Antonio C.; Han, Seong-Tae; Mastovsky, Ivan; Shapiro, Michael A.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Temkin, Richard J.; Griffin, Robert G.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2012-01-01

    The design, operation, and characterization of a continuous-wave (CW) tunable second-harmonic 460-GHz gyrotron are reported. The gyrotron is intended to be used as a submillimeter-wave source for 700-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with sensitivity enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. The gyrotron operates in the whispering-gallery mode TE11,2 and has generated 16 W of output power with a 13-kV 100-mA electron beam. The start oscillation current measured over a range of magnetic field values is in good agreement with theoretical start currents obtained from linear theory for successive high-order axial modes TE11,2,q. The minimum start current is 27 mA. Power and frequency tuning measurements as a function of the electron cyclotron frequency have also been carried out. A smooth frequency tuning range of 1 GHz was obtained for the operating second-harmonic mode either by magnetic field tuning or beam voltage tuning. Long-term CW operation was evaluated during an uninterrupted period of 48 h, where the gyrotron output power and frequency were kept stable to within ±0.7% and ±6 ppm, respectively, by a computerized control system. Proper operation of an internal quasi-optical mode converter implemented to transform the operating whispering-gallery mode to a Gaussian-like beam was also verified. Based on the images of the gyrotron output beam taken with a pyroelectric camera, the Gaussian-like mode content of the output beam was computed to be 92% with an ellipticity of 12%. PMID:23761938

  10. Microelectromechanical tunable inductor

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-05-04

    A microelectromechanical tunable inductor is formed from a pair of substantially-identically-sized coils arranged side by side and coiled up about a central axis which is parallel to a supporting substrate. An in-plane stress gradient is responsible for coiling up the coils which. The inductance provided by the tunable inductor can be electrostatically changed either continuously or in discrete steps using electrodes on the substrate and on each coil. The tunable inductor can be formed with processes which are compatible with conventional IC fabrication so that, in some cases, the tunable inductor can be formed on a semiconductor substrate alongside or on top of an IC.

  11. Continuously tunable, 6{endash}14 {mu}m silver-gallium selenide optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1.57 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Allik, T.H.; Catella, G.; Utano, R.; Hutchinson, J.A.

    1997-08-01

    An angle tuned silver gallium selenide (AgGaSe{sub 2}) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), pumped by the fixed wavelength 1.57 {mu}m output of a noncritically phase-matched KTiOPO{sub 4} OPO, yielded radiation continuously tunable from 6 to 14 {mu}m. Energies of up to 1.2 mJ/pulse with bandwidths of {approximately}5cm{sup {minus}1} (full width at half-maximum) were obtained using a 6.5{times}6.5{times}35.3mm long, type I AgGaSe{sub 2} crystal. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Continuously tunable 1.16 micros optical delay of 100 Gbit/s DQPSK and 50 Gbit/s DPSK signals using wavelength conversion and chromatic dispersion.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, S R; Yilmaz, O F; Wang, X; Wang, J; Wu, X; Willner, A E

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a variable optical delay element that uses tunable wavelength conversion and phase conjugation in highly nonlinear fiber and uses chromatic dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber. A continuous delay of up to 1.16mus, equaling a >110,000 time-delay bit-rate product for 100 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift-keying (NRZ-DQSPK) and >55,000 for 50 Gbit/s NRZ differential phase-shift-keying (NRZ-DPSK) modulation formats, is demonstrated. Bit error rates <10(-9) are demonstrated for each waveform at various delay settings.

  13. High-power continuous-wave tunable 544- and 272-nm beams based on a diode-oscillator fiber-amplifier for calcium spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kwang-Hoon; Kim, Yonghee; Park, Hyunmin; Cha, Yong-Ho; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Lim, Gwon; Han, Jaemin; Ko, Kwang-Hee; Jeong, Do-Young

    2015-08-01

    Continuous-wave single-frequency tunable 544- and 272-nm beams have been demonstrated by the second- and fourth-harmonic conversions of a 1088-nm fundamental beam from a diode-oscillator fiber-amplifier. The single-pass second-harmonic generation with a MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal and the external-cavity frequency-doubling technique with a bulk BBO crystal were employed to achieve an approximately 6-W 544-nm beam and a 1.5-W 272-nm beam, respectively. We characterized the second- and fourth-harmonic generations and discussed their applications to calcium spectroscopy.

  14. Tunable circuit for tunable capacitor devices

    DOEpatents

    Rivkina, Tatiana; Ginley, David S.

    2006-09-19

    A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided.

  15. Widely tunable continuous-wave Raman laser in diatomic hydrogen pumped by an external-cavity diode laser.

    PubMed

    Meng, L S; Repasky, K S; Roos, P A; Carlsten, J L

    2000-04-01

    What is to the authors' knowledge the first experimental demonstration of a nonresonant cw Raman laser pumped by a tunable external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) is presented. The ECDL is phase-frequency locked to a high-finesse Raman laser cavity containing diatomic hydrogen (H(2)) by the Pound-Drever-Hall locking technique. The Stokes lasing threshold occurs at a pump power of 400 +/- 30 muW, and a maximum photon conversion efficiency of 12.0 +/- 1.3% is achieved at 1.6 mW of pump power. A 40-nm tuning range of the cw Stokes emission, 1174-1214 nm, is obtained by tuning of the wavelength of the ECDL pump source.

  16. High power and spectral purity continuous-wave photonic THz source tunable from 1 to 4.5 THz for nonlinear molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiessling, J.; Breunig, I.; Schunemann, P. G.; Buse, K.; Vodopyanov, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report a diffraction-limited photonic terahertz (THz) source with linewidth <10 MHz that can be used for nonlinear THz studies in the continuous wave (CW) regime with uninterrupted tunability in a broad range of THz frequencies. THz output is produced in orientation-patterned (OP) gallium arsenide (GaAs) via intracavity frequency mixing between the two closely spaced resonating signal and idler waves of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) operating near λ = 2 μm. The doubly resonant type II OPO is based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) pumped by a single-frequency Yb:YAG disc laser at 1030 nm. We take advantage of the enhancement of both optical fields inside a high-finesse OPO cavity: with 10 W of 1030 nm pump, 100 W of intracavity power near 2 μm was attained with GaAs inside cavity. This allows dramatic improvement in terms of generated THz power, as compared to the state-of-the art CW methods. We achieved >25 μW of single-frequency tunable CW THz output power scalable to >1 mW with proper choice of pump laser wavelength.

  17. A 1550-nm linearly tunable continuous wave single-mode external cavity diode laser based on a single-cavity all-dielectric thin-film Fabry—Pérot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiao; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Yu, Feng-Qi; Jin, Lei

    2013-07-01

    A 1550-nm linearly tunable continuous wave (CW) single-mode external cavity diode laser (ECDL) based on a single-cavity all-dielectric thin-film Fabry—Pérot filter (s-AFPF) is proposed and realized in this paper. Its internal optical components as well as their operation mechanisms are introduced first, and then its longitudinal mode output characteristic is theoretically analyzed. Afterwards, we set up the experimental platform for the output characteristic measurement of this tunable ECDL; under different experimental conditions, we execute accurate and real-time measurements for the output central wavelength, output optical power, output longitudinal mode distribution, and the line-width of the tunable ECDL in its tuning process. By summing up the optimal experimental condition from the measured data, we obtain the optimal tunable ECDL relevant parameters: the tunable ECDL has a linear mode-hop-free wavelength tuning region of 1547.203 nm-1552.426 nm, a stable output optical power in the range of 40 μW-50 μW, and a stable output longitudinal mode distribution of a single longitudinal mode with a line-width in the range of 100 MHz-150 MHz. This tunable ECDL can be used in environmental gas monitoring, atomic and molecular laser spectroscopy research, precise measurements, and so on.

  18. Bismuth-doped fibre laser continuously tunable within the range from 1.36 to 1.51\\ \\unicode{956} {\\text{m}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, V. M.; Belovolov, M. I.; Khopin, V. F.; Gur'yanov, A. N.; Vasil'ev, S. A.; Medvedkov, O. I.; Mel'kumov, M. A.; Dianov, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    A single-mode bismuth-doped fibre laser continuously tunable within the wavelength range from 1366 to 1507 {\\text{nm}} with the help of an external diffraction grating has been developed. Such a wide wavelength tuning range is achieved by inserting a long-period fibre grating in the laser cavity. The grating smoothes the gain spectrum and thus ensures stable lasing at the edges of the above-mentioned spectral range. The output laser power varies from 25 {\\text{mW}} at the tuning range edges to 50 {\\text{mW}} in the centre upon pumping at 1.34 \\unicode{956} {\\text{m}} with a power of 300 {\\text{mW}}.

  19. Temperature and field-dependent transport measurements in continuously tunable tantalum oxide memristors expose the dominant state variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Catherine E.; Dávila, Noraica; Merced-Grafals, Emmanuelle J.; Lam, Si-Ty; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley

    2017-03-01

    Applications of memristor devices are quickly moving beyond computer memory to areas of analog and neuromorphic computation. These applications require the design of devices with different characteristics from binary memory, such as a large tunable range of conductance. A complete understanding of the conduction mechanisms and their corresponding state variable(s) is crucial for optimizing performance and designs in these applications. Here we present measurements of low bias I-V characteristics of 6 states in a Ta/ tantalum-oxide (TaOx)/Pt memristor spanning over 2 orders of magnitude in conductance and temperatures from 100 K to 500 K. Our measurements show that the 300 K device conduction is dominated by a temperature-insensitive current that varies with non-volatile memristor state, with an additional leakage contribution from a thermally-activated current channel that is nearly independent of the memristor state. We interpret these results with a parallel conduction model of Mott hopping and Schottky emission channels, fitting the voltage and temperature dependent experimental data for all memristor states with only two free parameters. The memristor conductance is linearly correlated with N, the density of electrons near EF participating in the Mott hopping conduction, revealing N to be the dominant state variable for low bias conduction in this system. Finally, we show that the Mott hopping sites can be ascribed to oxygen vacancies, where the local oxygen vacancy density responsible for critical hopping pathways controls the memristor conductance.

  20. Intersubband Rabi oscillations in asymmetric nanoheterostructures: implications for a tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, V A

    2012-06-01

    A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications.

  1. Continuous Flow Atmospheric Pressure Laser Desorption/Ionization Using a 6–7-µm-Band Mid-Infrared Tunable Laser for Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hiraguchi, Ryuji; Hazama, Hisanao; Senoo, Kenichirou; Yahata, Yukinori; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    A continuous flow atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization technique using a porous stainless steel probe and a 6–7-µm-band mid-infrared tunable laser was developed. This ion source is capable of direct ionization from a continuous flow with a high temporal stability. The 6–7-µm wavelength region corresponds to the characteristic absorption bands of various molecular vibration modes, including O–H, C=O, CH3 and C–N bonds. Consequently, many organic compounds and solvents, including water, have characteristic absorption peaks in this region. This ion source requires no additional matrix, and utilizes water or acetonitrile as the solvent matrix at several absorption peak wavelengths (6.05 and 7.27 µm, respectively). The distribution of multiply-charged peptide ions is extremely sensitive to the temperature of the heated capillary, which is the inlet of the mass spectrometer. This ionization technique has potential for the interface of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). PMID:24937686

  2. Room temperature continuous wave, monolithic tunable THz sources based on highly efficient mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Sengupta, Saumya; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    A compact, high power, room temperature continuous wave terahertz source emitting in a wide frequency range (ν ~ 1–5 THz) is of great importance to terahertz system development for applications in spectroscopy, communication, sensing, and imaging. Here, we present a strong-coupled strain-balanced quantum cascade laser design for efficient THz generation based on intracavity difference frequency generation. Room temperature continuous wave emission at 3.41 THz with a side-mode suppression ratio of 30 dB and output power up to 14 μW is achieved with a wall-plug efficiency about one order of magnitude higher than previous demonstrations. With this highly efficient design, continuous wave, single mode THz emissions with a wide frequency tuning range of 2.06–4.35 THz and an output power up to 4.2 μW are demonstrated at room temperature from two monolithic three-section sampled grating distributed feedback-distributed Bragg reflector lasers. PMID:27009375

  3. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 via absorption spectroscopy using tunable mid-infrared continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Wood, E. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Herndon, S. C.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.

    2011-02-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is important as a significant source of hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere and as a potent indoor air pollutant. It is thought to be generated in both environments via heterogeneous reactions involving nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In order to enable fast-response HONO detection suitable for eddy-covariance flux measurements and to provide a direct method that avoids interferences associated with derivatization, we have developed a 2-channel tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (TILDAS) capable of simultaneous high-frequency measurements of HONO and NO2. Beams from two mid-infrared continuous-wave mode quantum cascade lasers (cw-QCLs) traverse separate 210 m paths through a multi-pass astigmatic sampling cell at reduced pressure for the direct detection of HONO (1660 cm-1) and NO2 (1604 cm-1). The resulting one-second detection limits (S/N=3) are 300 and 30 ppt (pmol/mol) for HONO and NO2, respectively. Our HONO quantification is based on revised line-strengths and peak positions for cis-HONO in the 6-micron spectral region that were derived from laboratory measurements. An essential component of ambient HONO measurements is the inlet system and we demonstrate that heated surfaces and reduced pressure minimize sampling artifacts.

  4. Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior and Continuously Tunable Resistivity Exponents in the Anderson-Hubbard Model at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mukherjee, Anamitra; Kaushal, Nitin; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio

    2017-08-01

    We employ a recently developed computational many-body technique to study for the first time the half-filled Anderson-Hubbard model at finite temperature and arbitrary correlation U and disorder V strengths. Interestingly, the narrow zero temperature metallic range induced by disorder from the Mott insulator expands with increasing temperature in a manner resembling a quantum critical point. Our study of the resistivity temperature scaling Tα for this metal reveals non-Fermi liquid characteristics. Moreover, a continuous dependence of α on U and V from linear to nearly quadratic is observed. We argue that these exotic results arise from a systematic change with U and V of the "effective" disorder, a combination of quenched disorder and intrinsic localized spins.

  5. Mid-infrared 333 MHz frequency comb continuously tunable from 1.95 to 4.0 μm.

    PubMed

    Balskus, Karolis; Zhang, Zhaowei; McCracken, Richard A; Reid, Derryck T

    2015-09-01

    We report a 333 MHz femtosecond optical parametric oscillator in which carrier-envelope offset stabilization was implemented by using a versatile locking technique that allowed the idler comb to be tuned continuously over the mid-infrared range from 1.95 to 4.0 μm. A specially designed multi-section, multi-grating, periodically poled KTP crystal provided simultaneously phase-matched parametric down-conversion and pump + idler sum-frequency generation, enabling strong heterodyne signals with the pump supercontinuum (employed for locking) to be obtained across the tuning range of the device. The idler comb offset was stabilized to a 10 MHz reference frequency with a cumulative phase noise from 1 Hz-64 kHz of <1.3  rad maintained across the entire operating range, and average idler output powers up to 50 mW.

  6. 2 nm continuously tunable 488nm micro-integrated diode-laser-based SHG light source for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braune, M.; Maiwald, M.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy in the visible spectral range is of great interest due to resonant Raman effects. Nevertheless, fluorescence and ambient light can mask the weak Raman lines. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy is a demonstrated tool to overcome this drawback. To apply this method, a light source with two alternating wavelengths is necessary. The spectral distance between these two wavelengths has to be adapted to the width of the Raman signal. According to the sample under investigation the width of the Raman signal could be in the range of 3 cm-1 - 12 cm-1. In this work, a micro-integrated light source emitting at 488 nm with a continuous wavelength tuning range up to 2 nm (83 cm-1) is presented. The pump source, a DFB laser emitting at 976 nm, and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide crystal is used for the second harmonic generation (SHG). Both components are mounted on a μ-Peltier-element for temperature control. Here, a common wavelength tuning of the pump wavelength and the acceptance bandwidth of the SHG crystal via temperature is achieved. With the results the light source is suitable for portable Raman and SERDS experiments with a flexible spectral distance between both excitation wavelengths for SERDS with respect to the sample under investigation.

  7. Tunable pulsed carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megie, G. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transverse electrically-excited-atmosphere (TEA) laser is continuously tunable over several hundred megahertz about centers of spectral lines of carbon dioxide. It is operated in single longitudinal mode (SLM) by injection of beam from continuous-wave, tunable-waveguide carbon dioxide laser, which serves as master frequency-control oscillator. Device measures absorption line of ozone; with adjustments, it is applicable to monitoring of atmospheric trace species.

  8. Tunable lasers- an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, B.D.; Buser, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    This overview of tunable lasers describes their applicability to spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and middle infrared ranges; to rapid on-line diagnostics by ultrashort cavity lasers; to exploration, by the free electron laser, for its wide tuning in the far infrared to submillimeter region; to remote detection, in areas such as portable pollution monitors, on-line chemical analyzers, auto exhaust analyzers, and production line controls; to photochemistry; and to other potential areas in diagnostics, communications, and medical and biological sciences. The following lasers are characterized by their tunability: solid state lasers, primarily alexandrite, with a tuning range of ca 1000 Angstroms; color center lasers; semiconductor lasers; dye lasers; gas lasers, where high-pressure CO/sub 2/ discharges are the best known example for a wide tunability range, and research is continuing in systems such as the alkali dimers; and, at wavelengths beyond 10 micrometers, the possibilities beyond Cerenkov and free electron lasers.

  9. A widely tunable (5-12.5 μm) continuous-wave mid-infrared laser spectrometer based on difference frequency generation in AgGaS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liusan; Cao, Zhensong; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Hui; Gao, Wei; Yuan, Yiqian; Chen, Weidong; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Yingjian; Gao, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    A widely tunable (5-12.5 μm) continuous-wave (cw) mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) by mixing an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) with a Ti:Sapphire laser in an AgGaS 2 crystal is described. The wide tunability was achieved by tuning laser wavelength associated with crystal angle tuning under type II phase matching condition. A maximum output power of about 66 nW was obtained at 8.06 μm. High resolution spectrum of methane (CH 4) over more than 10 cm -1 near 7.7 μm has been recorded to evaluate the performance of the developed DFG-based mid-IR laser spectrometer.

  10. Bright tunable ultraviolet squeezed light.

    PubMed

    Bell, A S; Riis, E; Ferguson, A I

    1997-04-15

    We have produced bright tunable squeezed light by second-harmonic generation in a singly resonant cavity. We have investigated the effect of input coupling and fundamental power on the squeezing. Up to 400 mW of continuous-wave mode-locked tunable squeezed light was produced at wavelengths as short as 389 nm, and more than 1.5 dB of squeezing was inferred.

  11. Tunable beam displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  12. Tunable Optical Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    tunable source science and technology. Research into methods of improving laser sources continued during the past year. We invented a new.ortical...number of groups have proposed and analyzed lower-state energies, E - E. Once the temperature methods of making remote temperature measurements, is...measuring ture profiling: performance simulations of Mason’s and humidity simultaneously by using a method ," Appl. Opt. 18,3539-3541 (1979

  13. Switchable dual-wavelength SOA-based fiber laser with continuous tunability over the C-band at room-temperature.

    PubMed

    Ummy, M A; Madamopoulos, N; Razani, M; Hossain, A; Dorsinville, R

    2012-10-08

    We propose and demonstrate a simple compact, inexpensive, SOA-based, dual-wavelength tunable fiber laser, that can potentially be used for photoconductive mixing and generation of waves in the microwave and THz regions. A C-band semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is placed inside a linear cavity with two Sagnac loop mirrors at its either ends, which act as both reflectors and output ports. The selectivity of dual wavelengths and the tunability of the wavelength difference (Δλ) between them is accomplished by placing a narrow bandwidth (e.g., 0.3 nm) tunable thin film-based filter and a fiber Bragg grating (with bandwidth 0.28 nm) inside the loop mirror that operates as the output port. A total output power of + 6.9 dBm for the two wavelengths is measured and the potential for higher output powers is discussed. Optical power and wavelength stability are measured at 0.33 dB and 0.014 nm, respectively.

  14. Generation of continuously tunable 5 µm coherent radiation by second harmonic conversion of the emission of a multi-atmosphere TE CO2 laser in AgGaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma Nilaya, J.; Saiprasad, M. B.; Biswas, D. J.

    2014-08-01

    Operation of a continuously tunable coherent source in the 5 micron region of the mid-infrared by frequency doubling of the continuously tunable emission of a multi-atmosphere TE CO2 laser in an AgGaSe2 crystal is reported. The performance has been characterized with regard to energy and power conversion efficiency as well as the threshold pump intensities at which the onset and termination of the second harmonic (S H) conversion process occurs. The absence of a gain switched peak in the emission of the pump laser that stemmed from its operation with a lean CO2 gas mixture enabled error-free threshold measurement for the onset of the S H generation process. Further, the excellent phase and amplitude synchronization of the SH emission with the pump pulse, that could be established by taking advantage of the rich modulation in the emission of the multimode pump laser in nanosecond time scale, bore experimental testimony to the instantaneous nature of the SH generation process.

  15. Continuously tunable wavelength output from an Er-doped fiber femtosecond optical frequency comb with single-point frequency-doubling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Cao, S. Y.; Meng, F.; Lin, B. K.; Fang, Z. J.

    2015-07-01

    Femtosecond optical frequency combs (FOFCs) with wavelengths covering the visible range have potential applications in the absolute frequency measurement of iodine-stabilized lasers and optical clock lasers. In this paper, an Er-FOFC with a tunable wavelength output from 689 to 813 nm based on the single-point frequency-doubling technique is demonstrated. Meanwhile, a beat frequency signal between the Er-FOFC and a tested laser at 729 nm with a signal-to-noise ratio of 30 dB at a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz is obtained.

  16. Impulse voltage control of continuously tunable bipolar resistive switching in Pt/Bi0.9Eu0.1FeO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Maocai; Liu, Meifeng; Wang, Xiuzhang; Li, Meiya; Zhu, Yongdan; Zhao, Meng; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Shuai; Hu, Zhongqiang; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Epitaxial Bi0.9Eu0.1FeO3 (BEFO) thin films are deposited on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition to fabricate the Pt/BEFO/NSTO (001) heterostructures. These heterostructures possess bipolar resistive switching, where the resistances versus writing voltage exhibits a distinct hysteresis loop and a memristive behavior with good retention and anti-fatigue characteristics. The local resistive switching is confirmed by the conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM), suggesting the possibility to scale down the memory cell size. The observed memristive behavior could be attributed to the ferroelectric polarization effect, which modulates the height of potential barrier and width of depletion region at the BEFO/NSTO interface. The continuously tunable resistive switching behavior could be useful to achieve non-volatile, high-density, multilevel random access memory with low energy consumption.

  17. Frequency tunability of solid-core photonic crystal fibers filled with nanoparticle-doped liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Lara; Gauza, Sebastian; Xianyu, Haiqing; Zhai, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Wu, Shin-Tson; Bjarklev, Anders

    2009-03-02

    We infiltrate liquid crystals doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a photonic crystal fiber and compare the measured transmission spectrum with the one achieved without dopant. New interesting features, such as frequency modulation response of the device and a transmission spectrum with tunable attenuation on the short wavelength side of the widest bandgap, suggest a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber gain equalization filter with an adjustable slope. The tunability of the device is achieved by varying the amplitude and the frequency of the applied external electric field. The threshold voltage for doped and undoped liquid crystals in a silica capillary and in a glass cell are also measured as a function of the frequency of the external electric field and the achieved results are compared.

  18. Tunable Optical Polymer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Background and MURI Program Objectives Chromogenic phenomena (for example: electrochromism, photochromism , thermochromism, piezochromism, and...achieving real time tunability of optical properties of materials. Photochromism and electrochromism in polymeric and organic materials have been...chromogenic phenomena, especially electrochromism, photochromism , photoelectrochromism, thermochromism, tunable luminescence, and tunable reflection, in

  19. Widely Tunable Continuous-Wave Mid-Infrared Laser Source Based on Difference-Frequency Generation in AgGaS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valentin; Rempel, Christian; Stolberg, Klaus-Peter; Schade, Wolfgang

    1998-07-01

    We demonstrate difference-frequency generation in the 6.8 12.5- m range by mixing two high-power single-frequency laser diodes in a type II AgGaS 2 crystal. This compact all-solid-state scheme provides maximum output powers that exceed 1 W and permits continuous adjustment-free scans larger than 2 cm 1 across the entire tuning range.

  20. Continuously Frequency Tunable High Power Sub-THz Radiation Source—Gyrotron FU CW VI for 600 MHz DNP-NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idehara, Toshitaka; Kosuga, Kosuke; Agusu, La; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Ogawa, Isamu; Saito, Teruo; Matsuki, Yoh; Ueda, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2010-07-01

    A high frequency gyrotron with a 15 T superconducting magnet named Gyrotron FU CW VI has achieved continuous frequency tuning through the relatively wide range of 1.5 GHz near 400 GHz. The operation is at the fundamental cyclotron resonance of the TE06 cavity mode with many higher order axial modes. The output power measured at the end of the circular waveguide system ranges from 10 to 50 watts at the low acceleration voltage of 12 kV for beam electrons. The beam current is also low. It is around 250 mA. This gyrotron is designed as a demountable radiation source for the 600 MHz DNP-NMR spectroscopy. The design and operation results of the gyrotron FU CW VI are presented.

  1. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  2. Continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength and power-ratio-tunable operation at 1064 and 1342 nm in an Nd:LuVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, C.-C.; Wu, S.-S.; Chou, C.-C.; Wei, M.-D.

    2011-11-01

    This study demonstrates continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength emission at 1064 and 1342 nm in an Nd:LuVO4 laser by using a T-type cavity configuration. The output powers indicating a function of pump power had two evolutions depending on the strength of the completion of two wavelength emissions. One is that the output power increased linearly with the pump power in weak competition, and the output power and slope efficiency of 1064 and 1342 nm were 1.17 W and 13%, and 0.213 W and 2.8%, respectively. The other is that the extracting-energy capabilities of two wavelength emissions were close, and the evolution was not linear and the variations demonstrated multiple stages depending on the pump power. Moreover, the ratio of output power, defined as the output power at 1064 nm divided by that at 1342 nm, is tuned from 0 to 5.5 by varying the 1064 nm cavity, and equal output powers of 1064 and 1342 nm can be obtained at each pump power.

  3. A tunable single-monochromator Raman system based on the supercontinuum laser and tunable filters for resonant Raman profile measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.-L.; Liu, H.-N.; Tan, P.-H.

    2017-08-01

    Resonant Raman spectroscopy requires that the wavelength of the laser used is close to that of an electronic transition. A tunable laser source and a triple spectrometer are usually necessary for resonant Raman profile measurements. However, such a system is complex with low signal throughput, which limits its wide application by scientific community. Here, a tunable micro-Raman spectroscopy system based on the supercontinuum laser, transmission grating, tunable filters, and single-stage spectrometer is introduced to measure the resonant Raman profile. The supercontinuum laser in combination with transmission grating makes a tunable excitation source with a bandwidth of sub-nanometer. Such a system exhibits continuous excitation tunability and high signal throughput. Its good performance and flexible tunability are verified by resonant Raman profile measurement of twisted bilayer graphene, which demonstrates its potential application prospect for resonant Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Tunable Microfluidic Microlasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    particularly convenient material for microfluidic experiments with LC. Figure 7: A droplet of E7 nematic liquid crystal on a PDMS...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0039 TUNABLE MICROFLUIDIC MICROLASERS Francesco Simoni Universita Politecnica delle Marche...DATES COVERED (From – To) 15 June 2010 – 15 June 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE MICROFLUIDIC MICROLASERS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655

  5. Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yuri; Pauzauskie, Peter J.; Radenovic, Aleksandra; Onorato, Robert M.; Saykally, Richard J.; Liphardt, Jan; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    One crucial challenge for subwavelength optics has been thedevelopment of a tunable source of coherent laser radiation for use inthe physical, information, and biological sciences that is stable at roomtemperature and physiological conditions. Current advanced near-fieldimaging techniques using fiber-optic scattering probes1,2 have alreadyachieved spatial resolution down to the 20-nm range. Recently reportedfar-field approaches for optical microscopy, including stimulatedemission depletion (STED)3, structured illumination4, and photoactivatedlocalization microscopy (PALM)5, have also enabled impressive,theoretically-unlimited spatial resolution of fluorescent biomolecularcomplexes. Previous work with laser tweezers6-8 has suggested the promiseof using optical traps to create novel spatial probes and sensors.Inorganic nanowires have diameters substantially below the wavelength ofvisible light and have unique electronic and optical properties9,10 thatmake them prime candidates for subwavelength laser and imagingtechnology. Here we report the development of an electrode-free,continuously-tunable coherent visible light source compatible withphysiological environments, from individual potassium niobate (KNbO3)nanowires. These wires exhibit efficient second harmonic generation(SHG), and act as frequency converters, allowing the local synthesis of awide range of colors via sum and difference frequency generation (SFG,DFG). We use this tunable nanometric light source to implement a novelform of subwavelength microscopy, in which an infrared (IR) laser is usedto optically trap and scan a nanowire over a sample, suggesting a widerange of potential applications in physics, chemistry, materials science,and biology.

  6. Continuously tunable, split-cavity gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, G. F.; Gross, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a gyrotron cavity configuration which is split in halves longitudinally, to allow any frequency lying between the fixed cavity resonance to be assessed by mechanically changing the separation of the two halves. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the rate-of-change in resonant frequency with separation is greatest if the minor axis of the cavity cross section is the one undergoing change. Excellent agreement with theory is noted for these results.

  7. Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yinping; Wu, Jixuan; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Kailiang; Yuan, Yujie; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan

    2013-12-02

    Optical microfiber taper has unique propagation properties, which provides versatile waveguide structure to design the tunable photonic devices. In this paper, the S-tapered microfiber is fabricated by using simple fusion spicing. The spectral characteristics of microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid under different magnetic-field intensities have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum are both found to become highly magnetic-field-dependent. The results indicate the transmission and wavelength of the dips are adjustable by changing magnetic field intensity. The response of this device to the magnetic field intensity exhibits a Langvin function. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the transmission loss and magnetic field intensity for a magnetic field intensity range of 25 to 200Oe, and the sensitivities as high as 0.13056dB/Oe and 0.056nm/Oe have been achieved, respectively. This suggests a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber photonic device, such as magneto-optic modulator, filter, and sensing element.

  8. Tunable structural colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2009-10-01

    Strain gauges that change colour when stressed, bright backlight-free displays and highly sensitive biological sensors are all potential applications of tunable photonic crystal materials, reports Duncan Graham-Rowe.

  9. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  10. Experimental demonstration of a magnetically tunable ferrite based metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongjun; Wen, Guangjun; Zhu, Weiren; Li, Jian; Si, Li-Ming; Premaratne, Malin

    2014-06-30

    We synthesize and systematically characterize a novel type of magnetically tunable metamaterial absorber (MA) by integrating ferrite as a substrate or superstrate into a conventional passive MA. The nearly perfect absorption and tunability of this device is studied both numerically and experimentally within X-band (8-12 GHz) in a rectangular waveguide setup. Our measurements clearly show that the resonant frequency of the MA can be shifted across a wide frequency band by continuous adjustment of a magnetic field acting on the ferrite. Moreover, the effects of substrate/superstrate's thickness on the MA's tunability are discussed. The insight gained from the generic analysis enabled us to design an optimized tunable MA with relative frequency tuning range as larger as 11.5% while keeping the absorptivity higher than 98.5%. Our results pave a path towards applications with tunable devices, such as selective thermal emitters, sensors, and bolometers.

  11. Widely tunable edge emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlet, Gert; Wesstrom, Jan-Olof; Rigole, Pierre-Jean; Broberg, Bjoern

    2001-11-01

    We will present the current state-of-the-art in widely tunable edge emitting lasers for WDM applications. Typical applications for a tunable laser will be discussed, and the different types of tunable lasers available today will be compared with respect to the requirements posed by these applications. We will focus on the DBR-type tunable lasers - DBR, SG-DBR and GCSR - which at present seem to be the only tunable lasers mature enough for real-life applications. Their main advantages are that they are all monolithic, with no moving parts, and can be switched from one frequency to the other very rapidly since the tuning is based on carrier injection and not on thermal or mechanical changes. We will briefly discuss the working principle of each of these devices, and present typical performance characteristics. From a manufacturing point of view, rapid characterization of the lasers is crucial; therefore an overview will be given of different characterization schemes that have recently been proposed. For the end user, reliability is the prime issue. We will show results of degradation studies on these lasers and outline how the control electronics that drive the laser can compensate for any frequency drift. Finally, we will also discuss the impact of the requirement for rapid frequency switching on the design of the control electronics.

  12. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Su; Ren, Hongwen; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-12-01

    Tunable optofluidic devices exhibit some unique characteristics that are not achievable in conventional solid-state photonic devices. They provide exciting opportunities for emerging applications in imaging, information processing, sensing, optical communication, lab-on-a-chip and biomedical engineering. A dielectrophoresis effect is an important physical mechanism to realize tunable optofluidic devices. Via balancing the voltage-induced dielectric force and interfacial tension, the liquid interface can be dynamically manipulated and the optical output reconfigured or adaptively tuned in real time. Dielectrophoretically tunable optofluidic devices offer several attractive features, such as rapid prototyping, miniaturization, easy integration and low power consumption. In this review paper, we first explain the underlying operation principles and then review some recent progress in this field, covering the topics of adaptive lens, beam steering, iris, grating, optical switch/attenuator and single pixel display. Finally, the future perspectives are discussed.

  13. Tunable metasurfaces (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-09-01

    Metasurfaces composed of sub-wavelength artificial structures show promise for extraordinary light-manipulation and development of ultrathin optical components such as lenses, wave plates, orbital angular detection, and holograms over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. However structures developed to date do not allow for post-fabrication control of antenna properties. We have investigated the integration of the transparent conductor indium tin oxide (ITO) active elements to realize gate-tunable phased arrays of subwavelength patch antenna in a metasurface configuration to enable gate tunable permittivity. The magnetic dipole resonance of each patch antenna interacts with the carrier density-dependent permittivity resonance of the ITO to enable phase and amplitude tunability. Operation of patch antennas and beam steering phased arrays will be discussed.

  14. Tunable and Memory Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0402 TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS Dimitri Basov UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/02/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2010 to 14-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550...the area of the metamaterial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS MEMORY , MATAMATERIALS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  15. Tunable optical delay line for optical time-division multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhihua; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jingjing; Selviah, David R.

    2017-07-01

    A novel three-stage all-pass filter (APF) is proposed as a tunable optical delay line to construct an optical time division multiplexer (OTDM), with which, we can get ultrahigh bit rates with several low-speed channels. The proposed design mitigates the deleterious effects of group delay dispersion and provides wide bandwidth with small ripples and continuously tunable long delays achieved with small variations in the effective refraction index, making it suitable for high-speed optical networks on chip.

  16. Tunable dysprosium laser.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Matthew R; Jackson, Stuart D

    2016-10-01

    We report the demonstration of a tunable dysprosium laser. The experiment employed in-band pumping of a Dy3+-doped fluoride fiber and a simple resonator design involving a ruled diffraction grating. The laser produced tuning between 2.95 and 3.35 μm, limited by the availability of optics.

  17. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  18. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.

  19. Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, M.; Šulc, J.; Indra, L.; Fibrich, M.; Jelínková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications.

  20. Type tunable asymmetric interleaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiheng; Liu, Bing; Sun, Xin; Chen, Lixiang; Liu, Zhe; Wu, Xingxing

    2016-11-01

    A type of an interleaver with tunable bandwidth ratio for a dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is proposed, which integrates a nested ring resonator with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The merits of the interleaver are its structure simplicity and the ultralarge tunability on bandwidth ratio. Based on the coupled-mode theory, the effects of essential parameter changes on the output waveforms have been analyzed. According to the theoretical analysis and simulation results, the bandwidth ratio is more determined by the coupling efficiency while the bandwidth is controlled by the optical length of the ring resonator. It was found that the bandwidth ratio is adjustable and varies between 1.5 and 10.5. Therefore, the interleaver can provide important implications for the DWDM system.

  1. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, Eric A [Rio Rancho, NM; Wasserman, Daniel [Lowell, MA

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  2. Tunable Polymer Lens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    Sylgard® 184). Poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) was provided by Atofina Chemicals, Inc. (Plexiglas V920). The SEBS copolymer and PMMA resins...convex poly ( methyl methacrylate ) (PMMA) lens, R=25.8 mm, with a tunable elastomeric lens membrane, R=38.6 mm. The PMMA is rigid; the variable focal...using a combination of deformable and rigid polymeric materials. An elastomeric styrene- ethylene /butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer was

  3. Tunable Resonant Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagu, Jean I.

    1987-01-01

    The most attractive features of resonant scanners are high reliability and eternal life as well as extremely low wobble and jitter. Power consumption is also low, electronic drive is simple, and the device is capable of handling large beams. All of these features are delivered at a low cost in a small package. The resonant scanner's use in numerous high precision applications, however, has been limited because of the difficulty in controlling its phase and resonant frequency. This paper introduces the concept of tunable/controllable resonant scanners, discusses their features, and offers a number of tuning techniques. It describes two angular scanner designs and presents data on tunable range and life tests. It also reviews applications for these new tunable resonant scanners that preserve the desirable features of earlier models while removing the old problems with synchronization or time base flexibility. The three major types of raster scanning applications where the tunable resonant scanner may be of benefit are: 1. In systems with multiple time bases such as multiple scanner networks or with scanners keyed to a common clock (the line frequency or data source) or a machine with multiple resonant scanners. A typical application is image and text transmission, also a printer with a large data base where a buffer is uneconomical. 2. In systems sharing data processing or laser equipment for reasons of cost or capacity, typically multiple work station manufacturing processes or graphic processes. 3. In systems with extremely precise time bases where the frequency stability of conventional scanners cannot be relied upon.

  4. Tunable Mechanical Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    Mechanical Metamaterials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0709 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Siavouche Nemat...creating mechanical metamaterials over a broad range of frequencies. We have shown that it is possible to have stress waves with negative dynamic...scattering can be controlled, and energy can be focused or dissipated. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mechanical Metamaterials , Tunability 16. SECURITY

  5. Tunable Microwave Transversal Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AFOSR-TR. 84-0977 S4. TI TLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYP ?FE&T&PEO OEE U!NABLE MICROWAVE TRANSVERSAL FILTERS...this goal through magnetostatic waves MSW propagating at microwave frequency in magnetically biased, liquid phase epitaxial films of yttrium iron...garnet (YIG) grown on gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG). This technology has a number of advantages; low loss (greater than 30db/usec at xband), tunable by

  6. An origami tunable metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchi, Kazuko; Diaz, Alejandro R.; Rothwell, Edward J.; Ouedraogo, Raoul O.; Tang, Junyan

    2012-04-01

    The transmission characteristics of a folded surface decorated with a periodic arrangement of split-ring resonators is investigated. The folding pattern has one displacement degree of freedom, allowing motion that can be used to adjust the separation between the rings. When the geometry of the folded surface is varied by mechanical means, the change in spacing between the rings causes a shift in resonance frequency, making the surface mechanically tunable.

  7. Tunable Snapshot Spectrometer Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-30

    tunable snapshot imaging spectrometer has been demonstrated. A liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) has been integrated into a...integrate a liquid crystal spatial light modulator into a CTIS instrument and characterize its performance as a tunable CTIS disperser, and (2) to...Spectrometer Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator Computer Generated Hologram 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 138

  8. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R [Williamsburg, VA

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  9. Tunable Molecular Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Lett. 2, 64-66 (1978). 13. R. Burnham, "Discharge pumped mercuric halide dissociation lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 156-159 (1978). 14. W. L. Nighan...University of Illinois. The goal of this research program was two-fold: 1) to develop new sources of tunable coherent radiation in the visible and...efficiency for converting XeF radiation (X - 351 nm) into blue-green output is 23% which corresponds to a photon conversion efficiency of approximately 1/3

  10. Frequency Tunable Wire Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides frequency tunable solid-state radiation-generating devices, such as lasers and amplifiers, whose active medium has a size in at least one transverse dimension (e.g., its width) that is much smaller than the wavelength of radiation generated and/or amplified within the active medium. In such devices, a fraction of radiation travels as an evanescent propagating mode outside the active medium. It has been discovered that in such devices the radiation frequency can be tuned by the interaction of a tuning mechanism with the propagating evanescent mode.

  11. Tunable random fiber laser

    SciTech Connect

    Babin, S. A.; Podivilov, E. V.; El-Taher, A. E.; Harper, P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2011-08-15

    An optical fiber is treated as a natural one-dimensional random system where lasing is possible due to a combination of Rayleigh scattering by refractive index inhomogeneities and distributed amplification through the Raman effect. We present such a random fiber laser that is tunable over a broad wavelength range with uniquely flat output power and high efficiency, which outperforms traditional lasers of the same category. Outstanding characteristics defined by deep underlying physics and the simplicity of the scheme make the demonstrated laser a very attractive light source both for fundamental science and practical applications.

  12. Tunable chromium lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, L.L.; Payne, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    During the decade that has passed since the discovery of the alexandrite laser, many other tunable vibronic sideband lasers based on Cr/sup 3 +/ have been developed. These lasers span the wavelength range from 700 nm to at least 1235 nm. Experimental and theoretical research has provided an understanding of the important factors that influence the performance of these Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers and other solid state vibronic lasers. The intrinsic performance levels of some of the most promising Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers are evaluated from extrapolated slope efficiency measurements. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Tunable resistance coatings

    DOEpatents

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2015-08-11

    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  14. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-05

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  15. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex K [Kensington, CA; Jensen, Kenneth J [Berkeley, CA; Girit, Caglar [Albany, CA; Mickelson, William E [San Francisco, CA; Grossman, Jeffrey C [Berkeley, CA

    2011-03-29

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  16. Uncooled Tunable LWIR Microbolometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-05

    with the thermal isolation of the uncooled detector itself. Integrating a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity above a detector will create three air gaps, or 2...resonance with respect to wavelength. The bottom mirror is a modified quarter-wave distributed Bragg reflector ( DBR ), composed of Ge and zinc sulfide (ZnS...the top plate near the bottom mirror, creating a very small gap (<< λ/10). The top mirror itself does not touch the DBR mirror but instead the beam

  17. Tunable Helical Origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Dai, Eric; Zheng, Huang

    2014-03-01

    Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding, is traditionally viewed as an amusing pastime and medium of artistic expression. However, in recent years, origami has begun to inspire innovations in science and engineering. For example, K. Miura led the study of a paper folding pattern in regards to deployment of solar panels to outer space, resulting in more efficient packing and unpacking of the solar panels into tightly constrained spaces. In this work, we study the geometric and mechanical properties of a twisting origami pattern. The pattern created by the fold exhibits several interesting properties, including rigid foldibility, and finely tunable helical coiling, with control over pitch, radius, and handedness of the helix. In addition, the pattern closely mimics the twist buckling patterns shown by thin materials, for example, a mobius strip. In our work, we relate the six parameters of the twisting origami pattern to generate a fully tunable graphical model of the fold. In addition, we demonstrate that the morphogenesis of such folding pattern can be modeled through finite element analysis. We hope our research into the diagonal fold brings insight into the potential scientific and engineering applications of origami and spark further research into how the traditional paper art can be applied as a simple, inexpensive model for complex problems.

  18. Tunable filters for JWST Fine Guidance Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Neil; Evans, Clinton; Greenberg, Elliot; Gregory, Phil; Scott, Alan; Thibault, Simon; Poirier, Michel; Doyon, Rene; Hutchings, John B.; Alexander, Russ

    2004-10-01

    The Canadian contribution to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission will be the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), incorporating a science-observing mode using tunable filters. We describe here the requirements, the opto-mechanical design concept and bread-board test results for the JWST FGS tunable filters. The FGS requires two continuously tunable filters over the wavelength ranges 1.2 - 2.4 microns and 2.4 - 4.8 microns each having a spectral resolution in the range of R~70 to 200. The selected implementation uses dielectric coated Fabry-Perot etalon plates with a small air gaps. The design finesse is ~30 and the filters are used in 3rd order. The operating temperature is ~35K. Current coating designs provide implementations that require only five blocking filters in each wavelength range to suppress unwanted orders. The filters will be scanned via the use of low voltage piezo-electric transducers. We present results from cryogenic tests of coating samples, PZT actuators and a structural model. The PZT actuators were found have a displacement of ~3.3 microns at 30K with an applied voltage of 125V, more than sufficient for the required scan of the Fabry-Perot plate spacing. The prototype etalon coating was found to be very stable cryogenically, having a measured change of transmission of only ~1% at 77K. The same coating on a 12.7 mm thick substrate, similar to that planned for the filter, was found to have a 18 nm peak-to-valley surface figure change when cooled to 30K. These results demonstrate that the development of tunable filters for the JWST FGS is on track to meet the technology readiness requirements of the program.

  19. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  20. Fibonacci optical lattices for tunable quantum quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K.; Saha, K.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Weld, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a quasiperiodic optical lattice, created by a physical realization of the abstract cut-and-project construction underlying all quasicrystals. The resulting potential is a generalization of the Fibonacci tiling. Calculation of the energies and wave functions of ultracold atoms loaded into such a lattice demonstrate a multifractal energy spectrum, a singular continuous momentum-space structure, and the existence of controllable edge states. These results open the door to cold atom quantum simulation experiments in tunable or dynamic quasicrystalline potentials, including topological pumping of edge states and phasonic spectroscopy.

  1. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A.; Passmore, Brandon Scott

    2017-07-11

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  2. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  3. Tunable-Bandwidth Filter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A tunable-bandwidth filter system (TBFS), now undergoing development, is intended to be part of a remote sensing multispectral imaging system that will operate in the visible and near infrared spectral region (wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm). Attributes of the TBFS include rapid tunability of the pass band over a wide wavelength range and high transmission efficiency. The TBFS is based on a unique integration of two pairs of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters with two rotating spherical lenses. In experiments, a prototype of the TBFS, was shown to be capable of spectral sampling of images in the visible range over a 200 nm spectral range with a spectral resolution of 30 nm. The figure depicts the optical layout of a prototype of the TBFS as part of a laboratory multispectral imaging system for the spectral sampling of color test images in two orthogonal polarizations. Each pair of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters is mounted at an equatorial plane between two halves of a spherical lens. The two filters in each pair are characterized by steep spectral slopes (equivalently, narrow spectral edges), no ripple or side lobes in their pass bands, and a few nanometers of non-overlapping wavelength range between their pass bands. Each spherical lens and thus the filter pair within it is rotated in order to rapidly tune its pass band. The rotations of are effected by electronically controlled, programmable, high-precision rotation stages. The rotations are coordinated by electronic circuits operating under overall supervision of a personal computer in order to obtain the desired variation of the overall pass bands with time. Embedding the filters inside the spherical lenses increases the range of the hologram incidence angles, making it possible to continuously tune the pass and stop bands of the filters over a wider wavelength range. In addition, each spherical lens also serves as part of the imaging optics: The telephoto lens focuses incoming light

  4. Tunable-Bandwidth Filter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aye, Tin; Yu, Kevin; Dimov, Fedor; Savant, Gajendra

    2006-01-01

    A tunable-bandwidth filter system (TBFS), now undergoing development, is intended to be part of a remote-sensing multispectral imaging system that will operate in the visible and near infrared spectral region (wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm). Attributes of the TBFS include rapid tunability of the pass band over a wide wavelength range and high transmission efficiency. The TBFS is based on a unique integration of two pairs of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters with two rotating spherical lenses. In experiments, a prototype of the TBFS was shown to be capable of spectral sampling of images in the visible range over a 200-nm spectral range with a spectral resolution of .30 nm. The figure depicts the optical layout of a prototype of the TBFS as part of a laboratory multispectral imaging system for the spectral sampling of color test images in two orthogonal polarizations. Each pair of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters is mounted at an equatorial plane between two halves of a spherical lens. The two filters in each pair are characterized by steep spectral slopes (equivalently, narrow spectral edges), no ripple or side lobes in their pass bands, and a few nanometers of non-overlapping wavelength range between their pass bands. Each spherical lens and thus the filter pair within it is rotated in order to rapidly tune its pass band. The rotations of the lenses are effected by electronically controlled, programmable, high-precision rotation stages. The rotations are coordinated by electronic circuits operating under overall supervision of a personal computer in order to obtain the desired variation of the overall pass bands with time. Embedding the filters inside the spherical lenses increases the range of the hologram incidence angles, making it possible to continuously tune the pass and stop bands of the filters over a wider wavelength range. In addition, each spherical lens also serves as part of the imaging optics: The telephoto lens focuses

  5. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  6. 80 nm tunable DBR-free semiconductor disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Albrecht, A. R.; Cederberg, J. G.; Sheik-Bahae, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report a widely tunable optically pumped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-free semiconductor disk laser with 6 W continuous wave output power near 1055 nm when using a 2% output coupler. Using only high reflecting mirrors, the lasing wavelength is centered at 1034 nm and can be tuned up to a record 80 nm by using a birefringent filter. We attribute such wide tunability to the unique broad effective gain bandwidth of DBR-free semiconductor disk lasers achieved by eliminating the active mirror geometry.

  7. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, A.; Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Jamme, F.; Rouam, V.; Wien, F.; Laprévote, O.; Réfrégiers, M.

    2012-05-01

    We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  8. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Bockstiegel, C.

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  9. Tunable resonance-domain diffraction gratings based on electrostrictive polymers.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Ramon; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Golub, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Critical combination of high diffraction efficiency and large diffraction angles can be delivered by resonance-domain diffractive optics with high aspect ratio and wavelength-scale grating periods. To advance from static to electrically tunable resonance-domain diffraction grating, we resorted to its replication onto 2-5 μm thick P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) electrostrictive ter-polymer membranes. Electromechanical and optical computer simulations provided higher than 90% diffraction efficiency, a large continuous deflection range exceeding 20°, and capabilities for adiabatic spatial modulation of the grating period and slant. A prototype of the tunable resonance-domain diffraction grating was fabricated in a soft-stamp thermal nanoimprinting process, characterized, optically tested, and provided experimental feasibility proof for the tunable sub-micron-period gratings on electrostrictive polymers.

  10. Spectral and Radiometric Calibration Using Tunable Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCorkel, Joel (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A tunable laser system includes a tunable laser, an adjustable laser cavity for producing one or more modes of laser light emitted from the tunable laser, a first optical parametric oscillator positioned in a light path of the adjustable laser cavity, and a controller operable to simultaneously control parameters of at least the tunable laser, the first optical parametric oscillator, and the adjustable laser cavity to produce a range of wavelengths emitted from the tunable laser system. A method of operating a tunable laser system includes using a controller to simultaneously control parameters of a tunable laser, an adjustable laser cavity for producing one or more modes of laser light emitted from the tunable laser, and a first optical parametric oscillator positioned in a light path of the adjustable laser cavity, to produce a range of wavelengths emitted from the tunable laser system.

  11. Mechanically Tunable Slippery Behavior on Soft Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Anisotropic Wrinkles Infused with Lubricating Fluid.

    PubMed

    Roy, Pritam Kumar; Pant, Reeta; Nagarajan, Arun Kumar; Khare, Krishnacharya

    2016-06-14

    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces using one-dimensional (anisotropic) elastic wrinkles. Such wrinkles show tunable topography (amplitude) on the application of mechanical strain. Following Nepenthes pitcher plants, lubricating fluid infused solid surfaces show excellent slippery behavior for test liquid drops. Therefore, combining the above two, that is, infusing suitable lubricating fluid on elastic wrinkles, would enable us to fabricate mechanically tunable slippery surfaces. Completely stretched (flat) wrinkles have uniform coating of lubricating fluid, whereas completely relaxed (full amplitude) wrinkles have most of the lubricating oil in the wrinkle grooves. Therefore, water drops on completely stretched surface show excellent slippery behavior, whereas on completely relaxed surface they show reduced slippery behavior. Therefore, continuous variation of wrinkle stretching provides reversibly tunable slippery behavior on such a system. Because the wrinkles are one-dimensional, they show anisotropic tunability of slippery behavior depending upon whether test liquid drops slip parallel or perpendicular to the wrinkles.

  12. Electrically tunable hot-silicon terahertz attenuator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Minjie; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Kono, Junichiro

    2014-10-06

    We have developed a continuously tunable, broadband terahertz attenuator with a transmission tuning range greater than 10{sup 3}. Attenuation tuning is achieved electrically, by simply changing the DC voltage applied to a heating wire attached to a bulk silicon wafer, which controls its temperature between room temperature and ∼550 K, with the corresponding free-carrier density adjusted between ∼10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} and ∼10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. This “hot-silicon”-based terahertz attenuator works most effectively at 450–550 K (corresponding to a DC voltage variation of only ∼7 V) and completely shields terahertz radiation above 550 K in a frequency range of 0.1–2.5 THz. Both intrinsic and doped silicon wafers were tested and demonstrated to work well as a continuously tunable attenuator. All behaviors can be understood quantitatively via the free-carrier Drude model taking into account thermally activated intrinsic carriers.

  13. Tunable superconducting microstrip resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamyan, A. A.; Kubatkin, S. E.; Danilov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We report on a simple yet versatile design for a tunable superconducting microstrip resonator. Niobium nitride is employed as the superconducting material and aluminum oxide, produced by atomic layer deposition, as the dielectric layer. We show that the high quality of the dielectric material allows to reach the internal quality factors in the order of Qi˜104 in the single photon regime. Qi rapidly increases with the number of photons in the resonator N and exceeds 105 for N ˜10 -50 . A straightforward modification of the basic microstrip design allows to pass a current bias through the strip and to control its kinetic inductance. We achieve a frequency tuning δf =62 MHz around f0=2.4 GHz for a fundamental mode and δf =164 MHz for a third harmonic. This translates into a tuning parameter Qiδf /f0=150 . The presented design can be incorporated into essentially any superconducting circuitry operating at temperatures below 2.5 K.

  14. Tunable perovskite microdisk lasers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenzhao; Wang, Kaiyang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2016-04-28

    Perovskite microdisk lasers have been intensively studied recently. But their lasing properties are usually fixed once the devices are synthesized. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated the switchable and tunable perovskite microdisk lasers by surrounding them with 5CB liquid crystals. With the increase of the environmental temperature from 24 °C to 34 °C, the lasing wavelength slightly changed from 552.91 nm to 552.11 nm at the beginning and suddenly shifted to around 552.54 nm at T = 32 °C, where the phase transition of liquid crystals occurs. Our numerical calculation shows that the wavelength shift is caused by the changes of the refractive index of liquid crystals. More than tuning of the wavelength, a more dramatic wavelength transition from ∼554 nm to 550 nm has also been observed. This sudden transition is mainly induced by the reduction of scattering rather than the change in the refractive index when the liquid crystals are changed from the nematic phase to the isotropic phase. We believe that our research can shed light on the applications of perovskite optoelectronics.

  15. Electrothermally tunable MEMS filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A. V. S. S.; K. P., Venkatesh; Bhat, Navakanta; Pratap, Rudra

    2014-03-01

    MEMS resonators have potential application in the area of frequency selective devices (e.g., gyroscopes, mass sensors, etc.). In this paper, design of electro thermally tunable resonators is presented. SOIMUMPs process is used to fabricate resonators with springs (beams) and a central mass. When voltage is applied, due to joule heating, temperature of the conducting beams goes up. This results in increase of electrical resistance due to mobility degradation. Due to increase in the temperature, springs start softening and therefore the fundamental frequency decreases. So for a given structure, one can modify the original fundamental frequency by changing the applied voltage. Coupled thermal effects result in non-uniform heating. It is observed from measurements and simulations that some parts of the beam become very hot and therefore soften more. Consequently, at higher voltages, the structure (equivalent to a single resonator) behaves like coupled resonators and exhibits peak splitting. In this mode, the given resonator can be used as a band rejection filter. This process is reversible and repeatable. For the designed structure, it is experimentally shown that by varying the voltage from 1 to 16V, the resonant frequency could be changed by 28%.

  16. Tunable Soft X-Ray Oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan; Gandhi, Punut; Gu, X-W; Fawley, William M; Reinsch, Matthia; Penn, Gregory; Kim, K-J; Lindberg, Ryan; Zholents, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    A concept for a tunable soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) photon source is presented and studied numerically. The concept is based on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), wherein two modulator-chicane sections impose high harmonic structure with much greater efficacy as compared to conventional high harmonic FELs that use only one modulator-chicane section. The idea proposed here is to replace the external laser power sources in the EEHG modulators with FEL oscillators, and to combine the bunching of the beam with the production of radiation. Tunability is accomplished by adjusting the magnetic chicanes while the two oscillators remain at a fixed frequency. This scheme eliminates the need to develop coherent sources with the requisite power, pulse length, and stability requirements by exploiting the MHz bunch repetition rates of FEL continuous wave (CW) sources driven by superconducting (SC) linacs. We present time-dependent GINGER simulation results for an EEHG scheme with an oscillator modulator at 43 nm employing 50percent reflective dielectric mirrors and a second modulator employing an external, 215-nm drive laser. Peak output of order 300 MW is obtained at 2.7 nm, corresponding to the 80th harmonic of 215 nm. An alternative single-cavity echo-oscillator scheme based on a 13.4 nm oscillator is investigated with time-independent simulations that a 180-MW peak power at final wavelength of 1.12 nm. Three alternate configurations that use separate bunches to produce the radiation for EEHG microbunching are also presented. Our results show that oscillator-based soft x-ray FELs driven by CWSC linacs are extremely attractive because of their potential to produce tunable radiation at high average power together with excellent longitudinal coherence and narrow spectral bandwidth.

  17. Investigation of Electronically Tunable Optical Filters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    aperture characteristics, and the investigation of possibilities of its use to construct an electronically tunable laser. A separate paper is included, titled: CaMoO4 Electronically Tunable Optical Filter.

  18. Tunable external-cavity diode laser at 650 nm based on a transmission diffraction grating.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Toni; Joutsenoja, Timo; Hernberg, Rolf; Kuittinen, Markku

    2002-09-20

    A tunable external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) based on a transmission diffraction grating in a Littrow mount has been developed and characterized. A single-transverse-mode diode laser at 650 nm is used in an external-cavity configuration in which the transmission grating is used as a dispersive element to select the single longitudinal mode. The transmission diffraction grating is made with electron-beam lithography. A tunable true single-mode cw output power of >20 mW is obtained from the ECDL. The total wavelength tuning range is 12 nm, and the mode-hop-free continuous tunability is >20 GHz.

  19. Parametric infrared tunable laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.; Sutter, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric tunable infrared laser system was built to serve as transmitter for the remote detection and density measurement of pollutant, poisonous, or trace gases in the atmosphere. The system operates with a YAG:Nd laser oscillator amplifier chain which pumps a parametric tunable frequency converter. The completed system produced pulse energies of up to 30 mJ. The output is tunable from 1.5 to 3.6 micrometers at linewidths of 0.2-0.5 /cm (FWHM), although the limits of the tuning range and the narrower line crystals presently in the parametric converter by samples of the higher quality already demonstrated is expected to improve the system performance further.

  20. An electrically tunable imaging system with separable focus and zoom functions using composite liquid crystal lenses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Syuan; Chen, Po-Ju; Chen, Michael; Lin, Yi-Hsin

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrated an electrically tunable optical image system with separable focus function and zoom function based on three tunable focusing composite liquid crystal (LC) lenses. One LC lens in charge of the focus function helps to maintain the formed image at the same position and the other two LC lenses in charge of zoom function assist to continuously form an image at image sensor with tunable magnification of image size. The detail optical mechanism is investigated and the concept is demonstrated experimentally. The magnifications of the images can be switched continuously for the target in a range between 10 cm and 100 cm. The optical zoom ratio of this system maintains a constant~6.5:1 independent of the object distance. This study provides not only a guideline to design the image system with an electrically optical zoom, but also provide an experimental process to show how to operate the tunable focusing lenses in such an image system.

  1. Tunable plasmonic emission of radiation in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Materials at finite temperatures emit electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. The radiated power is dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Recent experiments have shown, however, that the emissivity of a material may be modified through surface patterning to allow for thermal radiation that is coherent, unidirectional and spectrally narrow. We show that electronically tunable, dynamic control of emissivity can be achieved in blackbody radiators whose surface is coated with a thin layer of variable emissivity. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate at temperatures up to 250° C. We show that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, manifest as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-IR. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. We describe these phenomena as plasmonically enhanced radiative emission originating from loss channels associated with both plasmon decay in the graphene sheet and from vibrational modes in the SiNx. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  2. A thermally tunable phononic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Alireza; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2016-04-01

    A thermally tunable periodic structure is proposed and studied through analytical and finite element methods to investigate the effect of thermomechanical coupling in dynamic regime. Bimaterial ligaments composed of two strips with contrast in their thermal expansion coefficients are employed to design local resonators inside a periodic structure. The thermally induced large deformations are utilized to exploit pattern change in the structure to control elastic wave propagation. Geometric and material nonlinearities are taken into account to study the dynamic response of the deformed structure. Once the temperature gradient is removed the structure tends to return to the initial state providing opportunities to be used as thermally tunable acoustic switches and filters.

  3. Coherent tunable far infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Tunable, CW, FIR radiation has been generated by nonlinear mixing of radiation from two CO2 lasers in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode. The FIR difference-frequency power was radiated from the MIM diode antenna to a calibrated InSb bolometer. FIR power of 200 nW was generated by 250 mW from each of the CO2 lasers. Using the combination of lines from a waveguide CO2 laser, with its larger tuning range, with lines from CO2, N2O, and CO2-isotope lasers promises complete coverage of the entire FIR band with stepwise-tunable CW radiation.

  4. Magnetically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Feng, Ningyue; Wang, Qingmin; Hao, Yanan; Huang, Shanguo; Bi, Ke

    2016-06-01

    A magnetically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) based on ferromagnetic resonance is experimentally and numerically demonstrated. The ferrite-based MPA is composed of an array of ferrite rods and a metallic ground plane. Frequency dependent absorption of the ferrite-based MPA under a series of applied magnetic fields is discussed. An absorption peak induced by ferromagnetic resonance appears in the range of 8-12 GHz under a certain magnetic field. Both the simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the absorption frequency of the ferrite-based MPA can be tuned by the applied magnetic field. This work provides an effective way to fabricate the magnetically tunable metamaterial perfect absorber.

  5. Luciferases with tunable emission wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Kai; Hiblot, Julien; Yu, Qiluiyang; Sabbadini, Marina; Reymond, Luc; Xue, Lin; Sallin, Olivier; Schena, Alberto; Griss, Rudolf; Hill, Nicholas

    2017-09-22

    We introduce luciferases whose emission maxima can be tuned to different wavelengths by chemical labeling. These tunable luciferases are generated by inserting the small luciferase NanoLuc into the structures of the self-labeling proteins SNAP-tag or HaloTag7 near their active sites. Labeling of the tags with a fluorophore shifts the emission maximum of NanoLuc to that of the fluorophore. Luciferases with tunable colors have applications as reporter genes, for the construction of biosensors and in bioimaging. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Tunable single-mode slot waveguide quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Bo; Tao, Jin; Quan Zeng, Yong; Wu, Sheng; Jie Wang, Qi

    2014-05-19

    We report experimental demonstration of tunable, monolithic, single-mode quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) at ∼10 μm with a two-section etched slot structure. A single-mode tuning range of 77 cm{sup −1} (785 nm), corresponding to ∼7.8% of the relative tuning range, was realized with a ∼20 dB side mode suppression ratio within the whole tuning range. Compared with integrated distributed feedback QCLs, our devices have the advantages of easy fabrication and a broader tuning range. Further theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that it is possible to achieve a broad continuous tuning range by optimizing the slot structures. The proposed slot-waveguide design could provide an alternative but simple approach to the existing tuning schemes for realizing broadly continuous tunable single-mode QCLs.

  7. Optical Determination of Gate--Tunable Bandgap in Bilayer Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanbo; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Girit, Caglar; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Zettl, Alex; Crommie, Michael F.; Shen, Y. Ron; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-11

    The electronic bandgap is an intrinsic property of semiconductors and insulators that largely determines their transport and optical properties. As such, it has a central role in modern device physics and technology and governs the operation of semiconductor devices such as p-n junctions, transistors, photodiodes and lasers. A tunable bandgap would be highly desirable because it would allow great flexibility in design and optimization of such devices, in particular if it could be tuned by applying a variable external electric field. However, in conventional materials, the bandgap is fixed by their crystalline structure, preventing such bandgap control. Here we demonstrate the realization of a widely tunable electronic bandgap in electrically gated bilayer graphene. Using a dual-gate bilayer graphene field-effect transistor (FET) and infrared microspectroscopy, we demonstrate a gate-controlled, continuously tunable bandgap of up to 250 meV. Our technique avoids uncontrolled chemical doping and provides direct evidence of a widely tunable bandgap -- spanning a spectral range from zero to mid-infrared -- that has eluded previous attempts. Combined with the remarkable electrical transport properties of such systems, this electrostatic bandgap control suggests novel nanoelectronic and nanophotonic device applications based on graphene.

  8. Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2013-08-01

    Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels.

  9. Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Kim, Seong Jin; Seong, Won-Kyeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Kim, Ho-Young; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with high specific surface areas and superhydrophobicity have attracted much research interest due to their potential application in the areas of water filtration, water/oil separation, and oil-spill cleanup. Most reported superhydrophobic porous carbon materials are fabricated by complex processes involving the use of catalysts and high temperatures but with low throughput. Here, we present a facile single-step method for fabricating porous carbon nanoparticle (CNP) networks with selective absorbability for water and oils via the glow discharge of hydrocarbon plasma without a catalyst at room temperature. Porous CNP networks were grown by the continuous deposition of CNPs at a relatively high deposition pressure. By varying the fluorine content, the porous CNP networks exhibited tunable repellence against liquids with various degrees of surface tension. These porous CNP networks could be applied for the separation of not only water/oil mixtures but also mixtures of liquids with different surface tension levels. PMID:23982181

  10. Widely tunable coupled-cavity semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ferdous K; Cassidy, Daniel T

    2009-07-01

    We describe a widely tunable coupled-cavity semiconductor laser with a nearly continuous tuning capability of approximately 100 nm. A below threshold model for coupled-cavity devices using a transfer matrix approach that takes into account the tilt of the facets forming the gap between the coupled sections was developed and is presented. Nonlinear fits of the below-threshold spectra to the model were used to extract device parameters. These fits and parameters were then used to understand the operation of the devices and the direction to take to improve the performance of the devices. It is observed that for facet angles > or = 7 degrees, a two-section coupled-cavity device works like an injection-locked laser, while for angles < or = 4 degrees, the sections work as a truly-coupled system.

  11. Integrating Nano-patterned Ferromagnetic and Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electrically Tunable RF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tengxing; Peng, Yujia; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yong Mao; Rahman, B.M. Farid; Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Wang, Guoan

    2016-10-31

    Tunable radio frequency (RF) components are pivotal elements in frequency-agile and multifunctional systems. However, there is a technical barrier to achieve miniaturized fully electrically tunable RF components. This paper provides and demonstrates the efficacy of a first unique design methodology in developing fully electrically tunable RF components by integrating ferromagnetic (e.g., Permalloy) and ferroelectric (e.g., Lead Zirconate Titanate: PZT) thin films patterns. Permalloy thin film has been patterned in nanometer scale to improve its ferromagnetic resonance frequency (FMR) for RF applications. Tunable inductors are developed with the utilization of different thickness of Permalloy thin film, which show over 50% increment in inductance and over 4% in tunability with DC current. More tunability can be achieved with multiple layers of Permalloy thin film and optimized thickness. A fully electrically tunable slow wave RF transmission line with simultaneously variable inductance and capacitance density has been implemented and thoroughly investigated for the first time. Measured results show that a fixed phase shift of 90° can be achieved from 1.5 GHz to 1.85 GHz continuously by applying external DC current from 0 to 200 mA and external DC voltage from 0 to 15 Volts, respectively.

  12. Integrating Nano-patterned Ferromagnetic and Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electrically Tunable RF Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Tengxing; Peng, Yujia; Jiang, Wei; ...

    2016-10-31

    Tunable radio frequency (RF) components are pivotal elements in frequency-agile and multifunctional systems. However, there is a technical barrier to achieve miniaturized fully electrically tunable RF components. This paper provides and demonstrates the efficacy of a first unique design methodology in developing fully electrically tunable RF components by integrating ferromagnetic (e.g., Permalloy) and ferroelectric (e.g., Lead Zirconate Titanate: PZT) thin films patterns. Permalloy thin film has been patterned in nanometer scale to improve its ferromagnetic resonance frequency (FMR) for RF applications. Tunable inductors are developed with the utilization of different thickness of Permalloy thin film, which show over 50% incrementmore » in inductance and over 4% in tunability with DC current. More tunability can be achieved with multiple layers of Permalloy thin film and optimized thickness. A fully electrically tunable slow wave RF transmission line with simultaneously variable inductance and capacitance density has been implemented and thoroughly investigated for the first time. Measured results show that a fixed phase shift of 90° can be achieved from 1.5 GHz to 1.85 GHz continuously by applying external DC current from 0 to 200 mA and external DC voltage from 0 to 15 Volts, respectively.« less

  13. Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Drevinskas, Rokas Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G.

    2014-06-09

    We propose a single beam method for generating optical vortices with tunable optical angular momentum without altering the intensity distribution. With the initial polarization state varying from linear to circular, we gradually control the torque transferred to the trapped non-absorbing and non-birefringent silica beads. The continuous transition from the maximum rotation speed to zero without changing the trapping potential gives a way to study the complex tribological interactions.

  14. Tunable Mechanical Behavior of Synthetic Organogels as Biofidelic Tissue Simulants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Tissue simulants, Rheology , Impact...Continuation for Block 13 ARO Report Number Tunable mechanical behavior of synthetic organ Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2013 . Published in Journal of...Keywords: Tissue simulants Rheology Impact indentation PDMS Soft tissues Energy dissipation a b s t r a c t Solvent-swollen polymer gels can be utilized as

  15. Nearly-octave wavelength tuning of a continuous wave fiber laser

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Yang, Xuezong; Pan, Weiwei; Cui, Shuzhen; Feng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The wavelength tunability of conventional fiber lasers are limited by the bandwidth of gain spectrum and the tunability of feedback mechanism. Here a fiber laser which is continuously tunable from 1 to 1.9 μm is reported. It is a random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser, pumped by a tunable Yb doped fiber laser. The ultra-wide wavelength tunability is enabled by the unique property of random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser that both stimulated Raman scattering gain and Rayleigh scattering feedback are available at any wavelength. The dispersion property of the gain fiber is used to control the spectral purity of the laser output. PMID:28198414

  16. Analysis of adaptive laser scanning optical system with focus-tunable components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, P.; Mikš, A.; Novák, J.; Novák, P.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a primary analysis of an adaptive laser scanner based on two-mirror beam-steering device and focustunable components (lenses with tunable focal length). It is proposed an optical scheme of an adaptive laser scanner, which can focus the laser beam in a continuous way to a required spatial position using the lens with tunable focal length. This work focuses on a detailed analysis of the active optical or opto-mechanical components (e.g. focus-tunable lenses) mounted in the optical systems of laser scanners. The algebraic formulas are derived for ray tracing through different configurations of the scanning optical system and one can calculate angles of scanner mirrors and required focal length of the tunable-focus component provided that the position of the focused beam in 3D space is given with a required tolerance. Computer simulations of the proposed system are performed using MATLAB.

  17. Tunable superconductivity in decorated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zheng; Allain, Adrien; Marty, Laetitia; Bendiab, Nedjma; Toulemonde, Pierre; Strobel, Pierre; Coraux, Johann; Bouchiat, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Graphene offers an exposed bidimensional gas of high mobility charge carriers with gate tunable density. Its chemical inertness offers an outstanding platform to explore exotic 2D superconductivity. Superconductivity can be induced in graphene by means of proximity effect (by depositing a set of superconducting metal clusters such as lead or tin nanoparticles). The influence of decoration material, density or particles and disorder of graphene will be discussed. In the case of disordered graphene, Tin decoration leads to a gate-tunable superconducting-to-insulator quantum phase transition. Superconductivity in graphene is also expected to occur under strong charge doping (induced either by gating or under chemical decoration, in analogy with graphite intercalated compounds). I will also show preliminary results showing the influence of Calcium intercalation of few layer graphene and progress toward the demonstration of intrinsic superconductivity in such systems. Work supported by EU GRANT FP7-NMP GRENADA.

  18. Tunable models in measuring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, V. P. L.; Parparov, Y. G.; Sulman, L. A.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Polyak, A. V.

    The inclusion of tunable models in technological measuring systems, including those used in the iron and steel industry is considered. A method is proposed for the stable estimation of process parameters that consists of the anti-interference tuning of partial models of signal sources by means of robust isolation and smoothing of the informative regions of data with explicit allowance for the criteria of variability of residues and the estimates themselves.

  19. Electrically Tunable Optical Delay Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    conjointly pursued for improved monolithic ODL device design was attempts to shed the simple DBR approach, and investigate other novel, perhaps aperiodic...tunable optical delay lines. Our approach focuses on monolithic semiconductor multilayer heterostructures (Distributed Bragg Reflector) to produce true...time delays for incident transmitted optical pulses. Quantum wells are grown in every other layer of the DBR stack. When a field is applied across

  20. A tunable dendritic molecular actuator.

    PubMed

    Welch, Paul M

    2005-07-01

    I present an electroresponsive molecular actuator based upon a diblock copolymer of a positively charged dendrimer and a negatively charged linear chain. Brownian dynamics simulations demonstrate the hybrid polyampholyte's ability to apply a force or assume an equilibrium molecular strain tunable with an applied electric field. The free energy as a function of molecular strain at differing electric field strengths, as obtained via the Jarzynski identity, suggests a phase transition in the hybrid.

  1. Tunable φ Josephson junction ratchet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menditto, R.; Sickinger, H.; Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Goldobin, E.

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the operation of a deterministic Josephson ratchet with tunable asymmetry. The ratchet is based on a φ Josephson junction with a ferromagnetic barrier operating in the underdamped regime. The system is probed also under the action of an additional dc current, which acts as a counterforce trying to stop the ratchet. Under these conditions the ratchet works against the counterforce, thus producing a nonzero output power. Finally, we estimate the efficiency of the φ Josephson junction ratchet.

  2. Highly tunable elastomeric silk biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Partlow, Benjamin P.; Hanna, Craig W.; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Moreau, Jodie E.; Applegate, Matthew B.; Burke, Kelly A.; Marelli, Benedetto; Mitropoulos, Alexander N.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2014-01-01

    Elastomeric, fully degradable and biocompatible biomaterials are rare, with current options presenting significant limitations in terms of ease of functionalization and tunable mechanical and degradation properties. We report a new method for covalently crosslinking tyrosine residues in silk proteins, via horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide, to generate highly elastic hydrogels with tunable properties. The tunable mechanical properties, gelation kinetics and swelling properties of these new protein polymers, in addition to their ability to withstand shear strains on the order of 100%, compressive strains greater than 70% and display stiffness between 200 – 10,000 Pa, covering a significant portion of the properties of native soft tissues. Molecular weight and solvent composition allowed control of material mechanical properties over several orders of magnitude while maintaining high resilience and resistance to fatigue. Encapsulation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) showed long term survival and exhibited cell-matrix interactions reflective of both silk concentration and gelation conditions. Further biocompatibility of these materials were demonstrated with in vivo evaluation. These new protein-based elastomeric and degradable hydrogels represent an exciting new biomaterials option, with a unique combination of properties, for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25395921

  3. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  4. Remotely Tunable Nonlinear Metamaterial at Microwave Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shelby; Silva, Sinhara; Zhou, Jiangfeng

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a remotely tunable metamaterial at microwave frequency. The metamaterial consists of a two-gap split ring resonator with varactor diodes integrated in to one of the gaps. By varying a microwave pump signal remotely, the capacitance of the varactor diodes can be controlled. Thus we can tune the working frequency of the metamaterial. Our metamaterials enable an easily-applicable approach to realize tunable frequency without an external bias circuit compared to other tunable metamaterials.

  5. 1550-nm wavelength-tunable HCG VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable VCSELs using high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the top output mirror on VCSELs, operating at 1550 nm. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range as well as VCSELs with 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for WDM communications systems.

  6. Liquid Tunable Microlenses based on MEMS techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xuefeng; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-01-01

    The recent rapid development in microlens technology has provided many opportunities for miniaturized optical systems, and has found a wide range of applications. Of these microlenses, tunable-focus microlenses are of special interest as their focal lengths can be tuned using micro-scale actuators integrated with the lens structure. Realization of such tunable microlens generally relies on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in tunable liquid microlenses. The underlying physics relevant to these microlenses are first discussed, followed by description of three main categories of tunable microlenses involving MEMS techniques, mechanically driven, electrically driven, and those integrated within microfluidic systems. PMID:24163480

  7. Tunable transportable spectroradiometer based on an acousto-optical tunable filter: Development and optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, O.; Sadouni, A.; Truong, D.; Briaudeau, S.; Himbert, M.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a high-performance, transportable, versatile spectroradiometer based on an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The instrument was developed for temperature metrology, namely, to determine the thermodynamic temperature of black bodies above the Ag freezing point (961.78 °C). Its main design feature is the attenuation of the diffraction side lobes (and, thus, out-of-band stray light) thanks to the use of a double-pass configuration. The radiofrequency tuning of the AOTF allows continuous, fine, and rapid wavelength control over a wide spectral range (650 nm-1000 nm). The instrument tunability can be easily calibrated with an Ar spectral lamp with reproducibility within 10 pm over one week. The instrument was characterised in terms of relative signal stability (few 10-4) and wavelength stability (1 pm) over several hours. The spectral responsivity of the instrument was calibrated with two complementary methods: tuning of the wavelength of the optical source or tuning the radiofrequency of the AOTF. Besides the application for thermodynamic temperature determination at the lowest uncertainty level, this instrument can also be used for multispectral non-contact thermometry of processed materials of non-grey and non-unitary emissivity (in the glass or metallurgical industries).

  8. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L. G.; Withford, Michael J.; Steel, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements. PMID:25915830

  9. Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Oliver D; Wittwer, Valentin J; Mangold, Mario; Hoffmann, Martin; Golling, Matthias; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

    2011-11-07

    We present a femtosecond vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) that is continuously tunable in repetition rate from 6.5 GHz up to 11.3 GHz. The use of a low-saturation fluence semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) enables stable cw modelocking with a simple cavity design, for which the laser mode area on SESAM and VECSEL are similar and do not significantly change for a variation in cavity length. Without any realignment of the cavity for the full tuning range, the pulse duration remained nearly constant around 625 fs with less than 3.5% standard deviation. The center wavelength only changed ±0.2 nm around 963.8 nm, while the output power was 169 mW with less than 6% standard deviation. Such a tunable repetition rate is interesting for various metrology applications such as optical sampling by laser cavity tuning (OSCAT).

  10. Broadband all-electronically tunable MEMS terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Han, Ningren; de Geofroy, Alexander; Burghoff, David P; Chan, Chun Wang I; Lee, Alan Wei Min; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2014-06-15

    In this work, we demonstrate all-electronically tunable terahertz quantum cascade lasers (THz QCLs) with MEMS tuner structures. A two-stage MEMS tuner device is fabricated by a commercial open-foundry process performed by the company MEMSCAP. This provides an inexpensive, rapid, and reliable approach for MEMS tuner fabrication for THz QCLs with a high-precision alignment scheme. In order to electronically actuate the MEMS tuner device, an open-loop cryogenic piezo nanopositioning stage is integrated with the device chip. Our experimental result shows that at least 240 GHz of single-mode continuous electronic tuning can be achieved in cryogenic environments (∼4  K) without mode hopping. This provides an important step toward realizing turn-key bench-top tunable THz coherent sources for spectroscopic and coherent tomography applications.

  11. Tunable quantum interference in a 3D integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Zachary; Meany, Thomas; Helt, L G; Withford, Michael J; Steel, M J

    2015-04-27

    Integrated photonics promises solutions to questions of stability, complexity, and size in quantum optics. Advances in tunable and non-planar integrated platforms, such as laser-inscribed photonics, continue to bring the realisation of quantum advantages in computation and metrology ever closer, perhaps most easily seen in multi-path interferometry. Here we demonstrate control of two-photon interference in a chip-scale 3D multi-path interferometer, showing a reduced periodicity and enhanced visibility compared to single photon measurements. Observed non-classical visibilities are widely tunable, and explained well by theoretical predictions based on classical measurements. With these predictions we extract Fisher information approaching a theoretical maximum. Our results open a path to quantum enhanced phase measurements.

  12. Mode-locked tunable thulium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wenyan; Park, Eric D.

    2017-02-01

    We report on an all-fiber, actively mode-locked, tunable, Thulium-doped, fiber laser based on a 20-GHz bandwidth electro-optic intensity modulator (EOM) and a voltage driven 2-μm, intra-cavity, fiber-coupled, Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF). The repetition rate of output pulses was 47 MHz and the shortest measured output pulse width was 445 ps. A continuous tuning range of 88 nm has been achieved from 1954 to 2042 nm with a spectral linewidth <=0.14 nm and an optical signal-to-noise ratio <55 dB. The fiber laser offers an amplitude stability of +/-0.2 dB and a wavelength stability of +/-0.02 nm over 2 hours.

  13. Tunable hollow waveguide Bragg grating with low-temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yasuki; Yokota, Yasushi; Matsutani, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2005-02-01

    We demonstrate a tunable hollow waveguide Bragg grating with low-temperature dependence. We fabricated a distributed Bragg reflector consisting of a grating loaded slab semiconductor hollow waveguide with a variable air-core. A change in an air-core thickness enables us to achieve a tunable propagation constant of several percents resulting in a large shift of several tens of nanometers in Bragg wavelength. We demonstrate 10nm continuous wavelength tuning of a peak reflectivity. This value corresponds to a propagation constant change of 0.64%, which is larger than that of thermo-optic effects or electro-optic effects. The measured temperature sensitivity of the peak wavelength is as low as 0.016nm/K, which is seven times smaller than that of conventional semiconductor waveguide devices.

  14. Remote sensing with a tunable alexandrite laser transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Kagann, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution, tunable alexandrite laser system is described. Two alexandrite lasers are continuously tunable from 725-790 nm and have a bandwidth of 0.02/cm. The stability of the two lasers is evaluated. The line shape of the laser emission and spectral purity of the system were measured. The data reveal that the output consists of three axial modes with an overall width of 0.026/cm, and the spectral impurity of the alexandrite laser output is less than 0.01 percent. The ground-based lidar system is utilized for measuring atmospheric pressure profiles; the integrated absorption in the wings of lines in the O2 A band is studied to produce the profiles. An example of lidar-collected atmospheric pressure data is presented and compared with radiosonde data; only a 0.3 percent deviation between the data is observed.

  15. Wideband tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on a phase modulator and a tunable optical filter.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Tao; Guo, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Lixin; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2013-03-01

    A widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on a broadband phase modulator and a tunable optical bandpass filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A tunable range from 4.74 to 38.38 GHz is realized by directly tuning the bandwidth of the optical bandpass filter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the widest fundamental frequency tunable range ever achieved by an OEO. The phase noise performance of the generated signal is also investigated. The single-sideband phase noise is below -120 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 KHz within the whole tunable range.

  16. Carriers for the Tunable Release of Therapeutics: Etymological Classification and Examples

    PubMed Central

    Uskoković, Vuk; Ghosh, Shreya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physiological processes at the molecular level take place at precise spatiotemporal scales, which vary from tissue to tissue and from one patient to another, implying the need for the carriers that enable tunable release of therapeutics. Areas Covered Classification of all drug release to intrinsic and extrinsic is proposed, followed by the etymological clarification of the term “tunable” and its distinction from the term “tailorable”. Tunability is defined as analogous to tuning a guitar string or a radio receiver to the right frequency using a single knob. It implies changing a structural parameter along a continuous quantitative scale and correlating it numerically with the release kinetics. Examples of tunable, tailorable and environmentally responsive carriers are given, along with the parameters used to achieve these levels of control. Expert Opinion Interdependence of multiple variables defining the carrier microstructure obstructs the attempts to elucidate parameters that allow for the independent tuning of release kinetics. Learning from the tunability of nanostructured materials and superstructured metamaterials can be a fruitful source of inspiration in the quest for the new generation of tunable release carriers. The greater intersection of traditional materials sciences and pharmacokinetic perspectives could foster the development of more sophisticated mechanisms for tunable release. PMID:27322661

  17. Tunable Transmission Line with Nanopatterned Thin Films for Smart RF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, B.M. Farid; Divan, Ralu; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Wang, Guoan

    2014-11-01

    A concept of tunable transmission line (TL) enabled with nanopatterned ferromagnetic permalloy (Py) and ferroelectric lead zirconium titanate (PZT) thin films is presented. The permittivity (εr) of PZT is electrical tunable with dc voltage, and the permeability (μr) of Py is electrical tunable with dc current, thus simultaneous electric tunable capacitance and inductance capability are provided for the proposed TL. The proposed TL has been fabricated and compared with a regular line without nanofilm patterns. Py is patterned with the dimensions of 10 μm × 150 nm and thickness of 100 nm for high built-in anisotropy field. The ferromagnetic resonant frequency is measured to be 6.3 GHz. Compared with the regular TL, the implemented TL has only generated 0.05 dB additional insertion loss at 4 GHz. The electrical tunability of both the capacitance and the inductance has been demonstrated for the first time. By applying the varied dc current (0–150 mA) and the dc voltage (0–20 V), measured results have shown that the proposed line can provide 90° phase shift from 3.75 to 4 GHz with the fixed characteristic impedance. The continuous tuning of the characteristics impedance from 59 to 61 under suitable bias conditions shows its promise as an impedance matching network. Tunable range of both the phase shifter and the impedance matching network can be further increased with thicker and multilayer films.

  18. Patchy polymer colloids with tunable anisotropy dimensions.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Daniela J; Hilhorst, Jan; Heinen, Maria A P; Hoogenraad, Mathijs J; Luigjes, Bob; Kegel, Willem K

    2011-06-09

    We present the synthesis of polymer colloids with continuously tunable anisotropy dimensions: patchiness, roughness, and branching. Our method makes use of controlled fusion of multiple protrusions on highly cross-linked polymer particles produced by seeded emulsion polymerization. Carefully changing the synthesis conditions, we can tune the number of protrusions, or branching, of the obtained particles from spheres with one to three patches to raspberry-like particles with multiple protrusions. In addition to that, roughness is generated on the seed particles by adsorption of secondary nucleated particles during synthesis. The size of the roughness relative to the smooth patches can be continuously tuned by the initiator, surfactant, and styrene concentrations. Seed colloids chemically different from the protrusions induce patches of different chemical nature. The underlying generality of the synthesis procedure allows for application to a variety of seed particle sizes and materials. We demonstrate the use of differently sized polyNIPAM (poly-N-isopropylacrylamide), as well as polystyrene and magnetite filled polyNIPAM seed particles, the latter giving rise to magnetically anisotropic colloids. The high yield together with the uniform, anisotropic shape make them interesting candidates for use as smart building blocks in self-assembling systems.

  19. Wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a distributed feedback semiconductor laser as mode locker and tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenping; Chan, K. T.

    1999-07-01

    A wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser was demonstrated using a distributed feedback semiconductor laser as an intensity mode locker and a tunable optical filter. Very stable optical pulse trains at gigabit repetition rates were generated using harmonica mode locking. The supermode noise was suppressed to 60 dB below the signal level and the root-mean-square timing jitter (0.45 kHz-1 MHz) was found to be about 1% of the pulse duration. A continuous wavelength tuning range of 1.8 nm was achieved by changing the semiconductor laser temperature from 11.4 to 30 °C.

  20. Multiple-wavelength tunable laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tunable laser includes dispersion optics for separating generated laser pulses into first and second wavelength pulses directed along first and second optical paths. First and second reflective mirrors are disposed in the first and second optical paths, respectively. The laser's output mirror is partially reflective and partially transmissive with respect to the first wavelength and the second wavelength in accordance with provided criteria. A first resonator length is defined between the output mirror and the first mirror, while a second resonator length is defined between the output mirror and the second mirror. The second resonator length is a function of the first resonator length.

  1. Tunable quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

  2. Wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, D.J.; Bado, P.

    1988-11-01

    We describe a wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier which is used to amplify nanosecond slices from a single-frequency cw dye laser or 50-ps pulses emitted by a diode laser to energies in the 10-mJ range. The amplified 5-ns slices generated by the cw-pumped line narrowed dye laser are Fourier transform limited. The 50-ps pulses emitted by a gain-switched diode laser are amplified by more than 10 orders of magnitude in a single stage.

  3. Tunable Far Infrared Semiconductor Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    tunable emission from spin-flip transitions in u i±~xially _ stressed InSb was observed. Linewidths in the order of 0.2 m are found which opens the...source aspect GaAs turns out to be the more favourable candidate since linewidths below 1 cm 1 and intensities comparable with those in InSb in the...with a GaAs de- tained with a narro -band tector. GaAs Landau source and a Fourier Spectrometer. InSb N 13 4 P-.2kbor+ _jDetector: GaAs 2 p.8.5 kbot 2

  4. Tunable all electric spin polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, J.; Bhandari, N.; Wan, J.; Cahay, M.; Newrock, R. S.

    2013-02-01

    We propose a tunable all-electric spin polarizer made of a quantum point contact (QPC) with four gates—two in-plane side gates in series. The pair of gates near the source is asymmetrically biased to create spin polarization in the QPC channel, the second pair near the drain is symmetrically biased and this bias is varied to maximize the QPC spin polarization. The range of common mode bias on the first set of gates over which maximum spin polarization is achieved is much broader for the four gate structure compared to a QPC with a single pair of gates.

  5. Elastomer based electrically tunable, optical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, Irma; Kronenberg, Nils M.; Franke, Markus; Fischer, Axel; Richter, Andreas; Gather, Malte C.; Leo, Karl

    2016-10-01

    Tunable optical elements are mostly realized by microelectromechanical systems, which require expensive and complex lithography during processing. We demonstrate an alternative device based on an electrically tunable microcavity employing a dielectric soft elastomer actuator. The cavity resonance is varied by changing the physical cavity thickness due to electrostriction of the soft elastomer. We realize a tunable metal-elastomer-distributed Bragg reflector multi-half wavelength microcavity with a cavity layer thickness around 12 μm and quality factors up to 700. Applying a voltage up to 60 V between bottom ITO and top metal electrode tunes the wavelength of the cavity modes up to Δ λ = 14 nm, which relates to a cavity thickness change of about 200 nm. This concept allows the implementation of tunable optical elements like tunable filters or resonators with low cost and simple processing.

  6. Tunable Optical Filters for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, Charles; Clark, Natalie; Davis, Patricia P.

    2007-01-01

    Spectrally tunable liquid crystal filters provide numerous advantages and several challenges in space applications. We discuss the tradeoffs in design elements for tunable liquid crystal birefringent filters with special consideration required for space exploration applications. In this paper we present a summary of our development of tunable filters for NASA space exploration. In particular we discuss the application of tunable liquid crystals in guidance navigation and control in space exploration programs. We present a summary of design considerations for improving speed, field of view, transmission of liquid crystal tunable filters for space exploration. In conclusion, the current state of the art of several NASA LaRC assembled filters is presented and their performance compared to the predicted spectra using our PolarTools modeling software.

  7. Plasma Tunable LC Resonator for High-Power Electromagnetic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semnani, Abbas; Macheret, Sergey; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    High-power tunable filters are in high demand in transmitters found in radars and many communication systems such as satellite and broadcasting stations. Limited power handling renders most semiconductor technologies inherently suboptimal options for these systems. Therefore, mechanically-tunable cavity-based filters are often employed in such cases, resulting in bulky, slow, and heavy systems. In this work, we study the application of plasma as an alternative frequency tuning mechanism for high-power applications even in environmentally and/or mechanically harsh conditions. For a given gas type and pressure, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric permittivity of a plasma can be varied by changing the electron density, which, depending on the discharge regime, can be implemented by changing the discharge current, voltage, or the magnitude of an auxiliary electric field. In this work, a simple LC resonator tuned to several hundred MHz was fabricated and tested. The tunable capacitor of the resonator was implemented by a commercially available gas discharge tube (GDT), a mm-scale plasma device with gas pressure of 100s of mTorr. Measurement results reveal a continuous tuning range of more than 50% when the applied discharge current is increased from zero to 90 mA.

  8. Ultrahigh magnetically responsive microplatelets with tunable fluorescence emission.

    PubMed

    Libanori, Rafael; Reusch, Frieder B; Erb, Randall M; Studart, André R

    2013-11-26

    Tuning the optical properties of suspensions by controlling the orientation and spatial distribution of suspended particles with magnetic fields is an interesting approach to creating magnetically controlled displays, microrheology sensors, and materials with tunable light emission. However, the relatively high concentration of magnetic material required to manipulate these particles very often reduces the optical transmittance of the system. In this study, we describe a simple method of generating particles with magnetically tunable optical properties via sol-gel deposition and functionalization of a continuous layer of silica on ultrahigh magnetically responsive (UHMR) alumina microplatelets. UHMR microplatelets with tunable magnetic response in the range of 15-36 G are obtained by the electrostatic adsorption of 2 to 13% of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on the alumina surface. The magnetized platelets are coated with a 20-50 nm layer of SiO2 through the controlled hydrolysis and condensation reactions of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in an NH3/ethanol mixture. Finally, the silica surface is covalently modified with an organic fluorescent dye by conventional silane chemistry. Because of the anisotropic shape of the particles, control of their orientation and distribution using magnetic fields and field gradients enables easy tuning of the optical properties of the suspension. This strategy allows us to gain both spatial and temporal control over the fluorescence emission from the particle surface, making the multifunctional platelets interesting building blocks for the manipulation of light in colloid-based smart optical devices and sensors.

  9. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1980-04-23

    A picosecond traveling-wave parametric device capable of controlled spectral bandwidth and wavelength in the infrared is reported. Intense 1.064 ..mu..m picosecond pulses (1) pass through a 4.5 cm long LiNbO/sub 3/ optical parametric oscillator crystal (2) set at its degeneracy angle. A broad band emerges, and a simple grating (3) and mirror (4) arrangement is used to inject a selected narrow-band into a 2 cm long LiNbO/sub 3/ optical parametric amplifier crystal (5) along a second pump line. Typical input energies at 1.064 ..mu..m along both pump lines are 6 to 8 mJ for the oscillator and 10 mJ for the amplifier. This yields 1 mJ of tunable output in the range 1.98 to 2.38 ..mu..m which when down-converted in a 1 cm long CdSe crystal mixer (6) gives 2 ..mu..J of tunable radiation over the 14.8 to 18.5 ..mu..m region. The bandwidth and wavelength of both the 2 and 16 ..mu..m radiation output are controlled solely by the diffraction grating.

  10. Mechanically tunable photonic crystal lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Tamma, V. A.; Lee, J.-B.; Park, W.

    2010-08-01

    We designed, fabricated and characterized MEMS-enabled mechanically-tunable photonic crystal lens comprised of 2D photonic crystal and symmetrical electro-thermal actuators. The 2D photonic crystal was made of a honeycomb-lattice of 340 nm thick, 260 nm diameter high-index silicon rods embedded in low-index 10 μm thick SU-8 cladding. Silicon input waveguide and deflection block were also fabricated for light in-coupling and monitoring of focused spot size, respectively. When actuated, the electro-thermal actuators induced mechanical strain which changed the lattice constant of the photonic crystal and consequently modified the photonic band structure. This in turn modified the focal-length of the photonic crystal lens. The fabricated device was characterized using a tunable laser (1400~1602 nm) and an infrared camera during actuation. At the wavelength of 1450 nm, the lateral light spot size observed at the deflection block gradually decreased 40%, as applied current increased from 0 to 0.7 A, indicating changes in focal length in response to the mechanical stretching.

  11. Broadly tunable picosecond IR source

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Hyer, Ronald C.; Shapiro, Stanley J.

    1982-01-01

    A picosecond traveling-wave parametric device capable of controlled spectral bandwidth and wavelength in the infrared is reported. Intense 1.064 .mu.m picosecond pulses (1) pass through a 4.5 cm long LiNbO.sub.3 optical parametric oscillator crystal (2) set at its degeneracy angle. A broad band emerges, and a simple grating (3) and mirror (4) arrangement is used to inject a selected narrow-band into a 2 cm long LiNbO.sub.3 optical parametric amplifier crystal (5) along a second pump line. Typical input energies at 1.064 .mu.m along both pump lines are 6-8 mJ for the oscillator and 10 mJ for the amplifier. This yields 1 mJ of tunable output in the range 1.98 to 2.38 .mu.m which when down-converted in a 1 cm long CdSe crystal mixer (6) gives 2 .mu.J of tunable radiation over the 14.8 to 18.5 .mu.m region. The bandwidth and wavelength of both the 2 and 16 .mu.m radiation output are controlled solely by the diffraction grating.

  12. Pump efficiency improvement of a C-band tunable fiber laser using optical circulator and tunable fiber gratings.

    PubMed

    Liaw, S-K; Jang, W Y; Wang, C-J; Hung, K L

    2007-04-20

    We propose and demonstrate a tunable fiber laser based on an optical circulator (OC) and two tunable fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs). The OC acts as a pump power router to improve the pumping efficiency, and a 4% increase in overall conversion efficiency has been observed. The combined tuning spectra range of two TFBGs could cover the entire C-band spectrum from 1530 to 1560 nm. Stable laser output power above 10 dBm is obtained using 1.9 m of erbium-doped fiber and TFBGs with 50% reflectivity. With power equalization by using variable optical attenuators, the power variation is less than 0.1 dB in the whole C band with narrow linewidth of 0.05 nm. A signal-to-noise ratio of 60 dB and a continuous tuning resolution of 0.5 nm have been achieved. The TFBG-based tunable fiber laser can be a promising light source for WDM transmission and fiber sensor applications.

  13. Tunable focusing by a flexible metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate, Yair; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.

    2017-09-01

    An efficient reflective metasurface with elastically tunable focal length is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The metasurface consists of electric resonators embedded in a stretchable elastic substrate which allows continuous elongation of the system. Our theory and numerical simulations predict how the focal length is controlled by means of the stretching, which we experimentally verify. By performing phase-sensitive measurements of the scattered field, we are able to differentiate the true focus, where all scattered waves are in phase, from the point of maximum amplitude. These phase measurements further enable us to characterise an axial aberration in the stretched structure, due to rays projected from distinct parts of the structure converging at different focal lengths. Additionally, we characterise the efficiency of our structure, showing that 78-95% of the incident power is reflected, depending on the degree of tuning. We also quantify the fraction of incident power which is directed into the beam waist. Our results demonstrate that metamaterials integrated with engineered elastic structures are an effective platform for functional devices.

  14. Tunable repetitively pulsed flashlamp-pumped dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dzyubenko, M I; Maslov, V V; Pelipenko, V P; Shevchenko, V V

    1998-12-31

    An experimental investigation was made of the spatioangular and spectral-energy characteristics of high-power tunable repetitively pulsed flashlamp-pumped dye lasers. A high directionality of the output radiation was attained in a wide range of the concentrations of the active molecules when aqueous solutions of dyes, in particular an inclusion complex of coumarin-120 and {beta}-cyclodextrin, were used. Such high directionality was obtained for alcohol and water-alcohol solutions only when the concentrations of these molecules were low. Continuous variation of the tuning range of lasers of this class should be possible by the use of suitable mixtures of efficient donor and acceptor dyes. (lasers)

  15. Passive mode locking of lasers with a tunable dye cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, G. Z.; Goldstein, R. L.

    1982-11-01

    A laminar-flow dye cell with continuously variable thickness (tunable without removal of the dye solution) provides an excellent way of optimizing passively mode-locked lasers. Varying the cell thickness adjusts low-light-level transmittance to match the total cavity and excitation energy conditions and also varies pulse duration. Acceptable cell thicknesses and dye concentrations can be calculated theoretically using well-known parameters. The cell can be conveniently returned to compensate for dye degradation or to provide conditions for Q switching. Experimental evidence is presented for a Nd:YAG laser.

  16. Compact single mode tunable laser using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Havermeyer, Frank; Ho, Lawrence; Moser, Christophe

    2011-07-18

    The wavelength tuning properties of a tunable external cavity laser based on multiplexed volume holographic gratings and a commercial micromirror device are reported. The 3x3x3 cm(3) laser exhibits single mode operation in single or multi colors between 776 nm and 783 nm with less than 7.5 MHz linewidth, 37 mW output power, 50 μs rise/fall time constant and a maximum switching rate of 0.66 KHz per wavelength. The unique discrete-wavelength-switching features of this laser are also well suited as a source for continuous wave Terahertz generation and three-dimensional metrology.

  17. Controlled synthesis of bulk polymer nanocomposites with tunable second order nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianmin; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2012-05-02

    The transparent bulk polymer nanocomposites blended with rare earth nanoparticles are prepared through the radical polymerization of trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate (TMPTMA). These materials produce continuously tunable second harmonic (SH) radiation under illumination of a wide spectral range of fundamental waves (750-850 nm). The SHG efficiency can be controlled well by altering the Tb(3+) doping content in the nanoparticles.

  18. Tunable RF photonic phase shifter based on optical DSB modulation and FBG filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yongfeng; Huang, Shanguo; Sun, Kai; Gao, Xinlu; Gu, Wanyi

    2016-01-01

    A broadband RF photonic phase shifter that can achieve the tunable phase shift with little RF amplitude variation is presented. It is based on homodyne mixing technique. The beating between phase-modulated optical carrier and the sidebands can generate RF signal with desired phase shift. Results show the RF phase shifter can achieve a continuous phase shift with low amplitude variation.

  19. Holographic Structuring of Elastomer Actuator: First True Monolithic Tunable Elastomer Optics.

    PubMed

    Ryabchun, Alexander; Kollosche, Matthias; Wegener, Michael; Sakhno, Oksana

    2016-12-01

    Volume diffraction gratings (VDGs) are inscribed selectively by diffusive introduction of benzophenone and subsequent UV-holographic structuring into an electroactive dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA), to afford a continuous voltage-controlled grating shift of 17%. The internal stress coupling of DEA and optical domain allows for a new generation of true monolithic tunable elastomer optics with voltage controlled properties.

  20. High-power, widely-tunable Cr(2+):ZnSemaster oscillator power amplifier systems.

    PubMed

    Berry, P A; Schepler, K L

    2010-07-05

    We demonstrate high-power Cr(2+):ZnSe master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) pure continuous wave (CW) laser systems with output power of 14 W and amplifier gain greater than 2X. In addition, we develop a theoretical model for this type of amplification and show single-knob tunability at high powers over 400 nm.

  1. Tunable multimode-interference bandpass fiber filter.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; Castillo-Guzman, A; May-Arrioja, D A; Selvas-Aguilar, R; Likamwa, P

    2010-02-01

    We report on a wavelength-tunable filter based on multimode interference (MMI) effects. A typical MMI filter consists of a multimode fiber (MMF) spliced between two single-mode fibers (SMF). The peak wavelength response of the filter exhibits a linear dependence when the length of the MMF is modified. Therefore a capillary tube filled with refractive-index-matching liquid is used to effectively increase the length of the MMF, and thus wavelength tuning is achieved. Using this filter a ring-based tunable erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated with a tunability of 30 nm, covering the full C-band.

  2. A one-dimensional tunable magnetic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Butz, S; Jung, P; Filippenko, L V; Koshelets, V P; Ustinov, A V

    2013-09-23

    We present experimental data on a one-dimensional super-conducting metamaterial that is tunable over a broad frequency band. The basic building block of this magnetic thin-film medium is a single-junction (rf-) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Due to the nonlinear inductance of such an element, its resonance frequency is tunable in situ by applying a dc magnetic field. We demonstrate that this results in tunable effective parameters of our metamaterial consisting of 54 rf-SQUIDs. In order to obtain the effective magnetic permeability μr,eff from the measured data, we employ a technique that uses only the complex transmission coefficient S₂₁.

  3. Graphene cardboard: From ripples to tunable metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    2014-03-01

    Recently, graphene was introduced with tunable ripple texturing, a nanofabric enabled by graphene's remarkable elastic properties. However, one can further envision sandwiching the ripples, thus constructing composite nanomaterial, graphene cardboard. Here, the basic mechanical properties of such structures are investigated computationally. It turns out that graphene cardboard is highly tunable material, for its elastic figures of merit vary orders of magnitude, with Poisson ratio tunable from 10 to -0.5 as one example. These trends set a foundation to guide the design and usage of metamaterials made of rippled van der Waals solids.

  4. Excess noise in tunable diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The method and the apparatus for identifying excess-noise regions in tunable diode lasers are described. These diode lasers exhibit regions of excess noise as their wavelength is tuned. If a tunable diode laser is to be used as a local oscillator in a superheterodyne optical receiver, these excess-noise regions severely degrade the performance of the receiver. Measurement results for several tunable diode lasers are given. These results indicate that excess noise is not necessarily associated with a particular wavelength, and that it is possible to select temperature and injection current such that the most ideal performance is achieved.

  5. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    SciTech Connect

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  6. Liquid crystal tunable metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Shrekenhamer, David; Chen, Wen-Chen; Padilla, Willie J

    2013-04-26

    We present an experimental demonstration of electronically tunable metamaterial absorbers in the terahertz regime. By incorporation of active liquid crystal into strategic locations within the metamaterial unit cell, we are able to modify the absorption by 30% at 2.62 THz, as well as tune the resonant absorption over 4% in bandwidth. Numerical full-wave simulations match well to experiments and clarify the underlying mechanism, i.e., a simultaneous tuning of both the electric and magnetic response that allows for the preservation of the resonant absorption. These results show that fundamental light interactions of surfaces can be dynamically controlled by all-electronic means and provide a path forward for realization of novel applications.

  7. Diode pumped tunable dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdukova, O.; Gorbunkov, M.; Petukhov, V.; Semenov, M.

    2017-03-01

    A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by blue laser diodes (λ =445 nm) in a 200 ns pulsed mode has been developed. We used a 3-mirror cavity with transverse excitation and total internal reflection of laser beam in the active element. Tuning curves for 8 dyes in benzyl alcohol were measured in the range of 506-700 nm. Four dyes have their tuning range more than 60 nm, which is comparable to the tuning ranges of other dye lasers pumped by more expensive sources. The output energy obtained at the generation maximum of both DCM and coumarin 540A dyes was approximately 130 nJ while the pump energy was 2400 nJ.

  8. Tunable Coherent X-rays.

    PubMed

    Attwood, D; Halbach, K; Kim, K J

    1985-06-14

    A modern 1- to 2-billion-electron-volt synchrotron radiation facility (based on high-brightness electron beams and magnetic undulators) would generate coherent (laser-like) soft x-rays of wavelengths as short as 10 angstroms. The radiation would also be broadly tunable and subject to full polarization control. Radiation with these properties could be used for phase- and element-sensitive microprobing of biological assemblies and material interfaces as well as reserch on the production of electronic microstructures with features smaller than 1000 angstroms. These short wavelength capabilities, which extend to the K-absorption edges of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, are neither available nor projected for laboratory XUV lasers. Higher energy storage rings (5 to 6 billion electron volts) would generate significantly less coherent radiation and would be further compromised by additional x-ray thermal loading of optical components.

  9. Tunable Vapor-Condensed Nanolenses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured optical components, such as nanolenses, direct light at subwavelength scales to enable, among others, high-resolution lithography, miniaturization of photonic circuits, and nanoscopic imaging of biostructures. A major challenge in fabricating nanolenses is the appropriate positioning of the lens with respect to the sample while simultaneously ensuring it adopts the optimal size and shape for the intended use. One application of particular interest is the enhancement of contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in the imaging of nanoscale objects, especially over wide fields-of-view (FOVs), which typically come with limited resolution and sensitivity for imaging nano-objects. Here we present a self-assembly method for fabricating time- and temperature-tunable nanolenses based on the condensation of a polymeric liquid around a nanoparticle, which we apply to the high-throughput on-chip detection of spheroids smaller than 40 nm, rod-shaped particles with diameter smaller than 20 nm, and biofunctionalized nanoparticles, all across an ultralarge FOV of >20 mm2. Previous nanoparticle imaging efforts across similar FOVs have detected spheroids no smaller than 100 nm, and therefore our results demonstrate the detection of particles >15-fold smaller in volume, which in free space have >240 times weaker Rayleigh scattering compared to the particle sizes detected in earlier wide-field imaging work. This entire platform, with its tunable nanolens condensation and wide-field imaging functions, is also miniaturized into a cost-effective and portable device, which might be especially important for field use, mobile sensing, and diagnostics applications, including, for example, the measurement of viral load in bodily fluids. PMID:24979060

  10. Preparation and measurement of tunable high-power sub-Poissonian light using twin beams.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hongxin; Zhai, Shuqin; Guo, Juan; Yang, Rongguo; Gao, Jiangrui

    2006-06-01

    Widely frequency tunable bright sub-Poissonian field preparation has been experimentally achieved with quantum-correlated twin beams in the continuously variable regime. The noise of the sub-Poissonian field is reduced to more than 2 dB below the shot-noise level throughout the entire wavelength-tunable range of 7.4 nm. A maximum noise reduction of 45% (2.6 dB) is observed. The statistical distribution of a sub-Poissonian field is also obtained.

  11. Optical coherent tomography with electrically tunable semiconductor laser using FMCW techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, Udo; Blazek, Vladimir; Schmitt, Hans J.

    1996-12-01

    Imaging of highly scattering objects in scattering media can play an important part in assessing melanoma in human skin. The technique to be presented is based on frequency modulated continuous waves using a coherent tunable semiconductor laser irradiating a Michelson interferometer. The electrically tunable laser is characterized and the procedure to linearize the instantaneous frequency with time is described. The temporal point spread function of dilute milk is measured. Finally the performance of our imaging system is demonstrated on 2D-images of solid scattering phantoms and of an eye of a pig.

  12. Ferrite-based magnetically tunable left-handed metamaterial composed of SRRs and wires.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Hongjie; Zhou, Ji

    2008-10-27

    We experimentally demonstrate a magnetically tunable left-handed metamaterial by introducing yttrium iron garnet rods into SRRs/wires array. It shows that the left-handed passband of the metamaterial can be continuously and reversibly adjusted by external dc applied magnetic fields. Retrieved effective parameters based on simulated scattering parameters show that tunable effective refraction index can be conveniently realized in a broad frequency range by changing the applied magnetic field. Different from those tuned by controlling the capacitance of equivalent LC circuit of SRR, this metamaterial is based on a mechanism of magnetically tuning the inductance via the active ambient effective permeability.

  13. Tunable repetition rate VECSEL for resonant acoustic-excitation of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen Sverre, T.; Head, C. R.; Turnbull, A. P.; Shaw, E. A.; Tropper, A. C.; Muskens, O. L.

    2016-03-01

    We report a passively mode-locked InGaAs-quantum well VECSEL, emitting a constant pulse train at an average output power of 18 mW and emission wavelength of 1035 nm, with a continuously tunable pulse repetitionfrequency (PRF) between 0.88 - 1.88 GHz. Pulse duration was 230 fs over 80% of that range. Here we propose a technique making use of the demonstrated VECSEL PRF tunability for a resonant frequency-domain pumpprobe spectroscopic technique for acoustic interrogation of nanostructures. Simulation of suitable GHz acoustic resonators to demonstrate this technique is described.

  14. Widely tunable terahertz source based on intra-cavity frequency mixing in quantum cascade laser arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Jiang, Yifan; Kim, Jae Hyun; Belkin, Mikhail A.; Vijayraghavan, Karun

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate a compact monolithic terahertz source continuously tunable from 1.9 THz to 3.9 THz with the maximum peak power output of 106 μW at 3.46 THz at room temperature. The source consists of an array of 10 electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers with intra-cavity terahertz difference-frequency generation. To increase fabrication yield and achieve high THz peak power output in our devices, a dual-section current pumping scheme is implemented using two electrically isolated grating sections to independently control gain for the two mid-IR pumps.

  15. Wavelength tunable, linearly polarized mode-locked fiber laser using chirped fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Yan, Yaxi; Qi, Tao; Hu, Chengzhi; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a wavelength-tunable, linearly polarized mode-locked fiber laser using carbon nanotube and chirped fiber Bragg grating. The chirped fiber Bragg grating is mounted on a plastic cantilever and serves as a tunable spectral filter. Linearly polarized mode-locked pulses are obtained with typical pulse duration of ~7.89 ps and repetition rate of 8 MHz, respectively. The high polarization extinction ratio is maintained over 30 dB for a long period of time. The central wavelength of the mode-locked laser is tuned continuously by adjusting the cantilever, while maintaining the polarization state.

  16. Quasi-phase-matched high-order harmonic generation using tunable pulse trains.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Kevin; Lloyd, David T; Hooker, Simon M

    2014-04-07

    A simple technique for generating trains of ultrafast pulses is demonstrated in which the linear separation between pulses can be varied continuously over a wide range. These pulse trains are used to achieve tunable quasi-phase-matching of high harmonic generation over a range of harmonic orders up to the harmonic cut-off, resulting in enhancements of the harmonic intensity in excess of an order of magnitude. The peak enhancement of the harmonics is clearly shown to depend on the separation between pulses, as well as the number of pulses in the train, representing an easily tunable source of quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation.

  17. Electrically tunable materials for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Aftab; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Khandani, Amir K.

    2015-03-01

    Microwave devices based on tunable materials are of vigorous current interest. Typical applications include phase shifters, antenna beam steering, filters, voltage controlled oscillators, matching networks, and tunable power splitters. The objective of this review is to assist in the material selection process for various applications in the microwave regime considering response time, required level of tunability, operating temperature, and loss tangent. The performance of a variety of material types are compared, including ferroelectric ceramics, polymers, and liquid crystals. Particular attention is given to ferroelectric materials as they are the most promising candidates when response time, dielectric loss, and tunability are important. However, polymers and liquid crystals are emerging as potential candidates for a number of new applications, offering mechanical flexibility, lower weight, and lower tuning voltages.

  18. Tunable permeability of magnetic wires at microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panina, L. V.; Makhnovskiy, D. P.; Morchenko, A. T.; Kostishin, V. G.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the analysis into microwave magnetic properties of magnetic microwires and their composites in the context of applications in wireless sensors and tunable microwave materials. It is demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of wires has a wide frequency dispersion with relatively large values in the GHz band. In the case of a specific magnetic anisotropy this results in a tunable microwave impedance which could be used for distributed wireless sensing networks in functional composites. The other range of applications is related with developing the artificial magnetic dielectrics with large and tunable permeability. The composites with magnetic wires with a circumferential anisotropy have the effective permeability which differs substantially from unity for a relatively low concentration (less than 10%). This can make it possible to design the wire media with a negative and tunable index of refraction utilising natural magnetic properties of wires.

  19. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  20. Electrically tunable materials for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Aftab Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Khandani, Amir K.

    2015-03-15

    Microwave devices based on tunable materials are of vigorous current interest. Typical applications include phase shifters, antenna beam steering, filters, voltage controlled oscillators, matching networks, and tunable power splitters. The objective of this review is to assist in the material selection process for various applications in the microwave regime considering response time, required level of tunability, operating temperature, and loss tangent. The performance of a variety of material types are compared, including ferroelectric ceramics, polymers, and liquid crystals. Particular attention is given to ferroelectric materials as they are the most promising candidates when response time, dielectric loss, and tunability are important. However, polymers and liquid crystals are emerging as potential candidates for a number of new applications, offering mechanical flexibility, lower weight, and lower tuning voltages.

  1. Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Orazbayev, B; Beruete, M; Khromova, I

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate tunable mid-infrared (MIR) beam steering devices based on multilayer graphene-dielectric metamaterials. The effective refractive index of such metamaterials can be manipulated by changing the chemical potential of each graphene layer. This can arbitrarily tailor the spatial distribution of the phase of the transmitted beam, providing mechanisms for active beam steering. Three different beam steerer (BS) designs are discussed: a graded-index (GRIN) graphene-based metamaterial block, an array of metallic waveguides filled with graphene-dielectric metamaterial and an array of planar waveguides created in a graphene-dielectric metamaterial block with a specific spatial profile of graphene sheets doping. The performances of the BSs are numerically analyzed, showing the tunability of the proposed designs for a wide range of output angles (up to approximately 70°). The proposed graphene-based tunable beam steering can be used in tunable transmitter/receiver modules for infrared imaging and sensing.

  2. Tunable Laser Spectrometers for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G. J.; Forouhar, S.; Christensen, L. E.; Briggs, R.; Keymeulen, D.; Blacksberg, J.; Alerstam, E.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-10-01

    Tunable laser spectrometers enjoy a wide range of applications in scientific research, medicine, industry, Earth and planetary space missions. We will describe instruments for planetary probes, aircraft, balloon, landers and CubeSats.

  3. Arbitrarily tunable orbital angular momentum of photons.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-05

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons, as a new fundamental degree of freedom, has excited a great diversity of interest, because of a variety of emerging applications. Arbitrarily tunable OAM has gained much attention, but its creation remains still a tremendous challenge. We demonstrate the realization of well-controlled arbitrarily tunable OAM in both theory and experiment. We present the concept of general OAM, which extends the OAM carried by the scalar vortex field to the OAM carried by the azimuthally varying polarized vector field. The arbitrarily tunable OAM we presented has the same characteristics as the well-defined integer OAM: intrinsic OAM, uniform local OAM and intensity ring, and propagation stability. The arbitrarily tunable OAM has unique natures: it is allowed to be flexibly tailored and the radius of the focusing ring can have various choices for a desired OAM, which are of great significance to the benefit of surprising applications of the arbitrary OAM.

  4. Arbitrarily tunable orbital angular momentum of photons

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Ren, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Xi-Lin; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons, as a new fundamental degree of freedom, has excited a great diversity of interest, because of a variety of emerging applications. Arbitrarily tunable OAM has gained much attention, but its creation remains still a tremendous challenge. We demonstrate the realization of well-controlled arbitrarily tunable OAM in both theory and experiment. We present the concept of general OAM, which extends the OAM carried by the scalar vortex field to the OAM carried by the azimuthally varying polarized vector field. The arbitrarily tunable OAM we presented has the same characteristics as the well-defined integer OAM: intrinsic OAM, uniform local OAM and intensity ring, and propagation stability. The arbitrarily tunable OAM has unique natures: it is allowed to be flexibly tailored and the radius of the focusing ring can have various choices for a desired OAM, which are of great significance to the benefit of surprising applications of the arbitrary OAM. PMID:27378234

  5. Tunable VO2/Au Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    United States Government.   Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial S. Prayakarao1, B. Mendoza2,3, A. Devine2,3, C. Kyaw2, R. B. Van Dover2, V...can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial . The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au...Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in the electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection

  6. The Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is presented for a tunable far infrared laser spectrometer based on frequency mixing of an optically pumped molecular gas laser with tunable microwave radiation in a Schottky point contact diode. The system has been operated on over 30 laser lines in the range 10-100/cm and exhibits a maximum absorption sensitivity near one part in a million. Each laser line can be tuned by + or - 110 GHz with first-order sidebands.

  7. Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Chengkuo; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Huang, Chia-Yi

    2014-04-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optical performance by increasing the number of movable cantilevers in the symmetrical split ring resonator metamaterial unit cell. Simulations were carried out to understand the interaction of the incident terahertz radiation with out-of-plane deforming metamaterial resonator. In order to improve the overall device performance, the number of released cantilever in a unit cell was increased from one to two, and it was seen that the tunable range was doubled and the switching contrast improved by a factor of around five at 0.7 THz. This simple design approach can be adopted for a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches to enable future photonic circuit applications.

  8. Wideband tunable graphene-based passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenjie; Li, Diao; Bai, Yang; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the characteristics of a graphene Q-switched Tm:YAP laser operating in a wavelength tunable regime. By using a volume Bragg grating (VBG) as the intra-cavity wavelength selection element, and graphene as the saturable absorber (SA), a tunable Q-switched Tm:YAP laser was realized with a continuous tunable wavelength range from 1965.2 to 2000.7 nm. Through careful alignment of the VBG and the graphene SA in coordination, stable pulsed laser operations were achieved at this wavelength range. A maximum output power of 920 mW was obtained at a wavelength of 1989.3 nm, corresponding to a pulse duration of 2.1 μs, a repetition rate of 91.6 kHz and a single pulse energy of 10.1 μJ.

  9. Adaptive optics correction of a tunable fluidic lens for ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Lin, Ming-Xin

    2013-11-01

    Tunable fluidic lenses are utilizing curvature change via continuously adjusting injected liquid volumes to achieve variable-focusing properties. Nevertheless, the nature of curvature change and refractive index mismatch causes inherent spatial aberrations that severely degrade image quality. Here we present the experimental study of the aberrations in tunable fluidic lenses and use of adaptive optics to compensate for the wavefront errors. Adaptive optics based scheme is demonstrated for three injected liquid volumes, resulting in a substantial reduction of the wavefront errors from 0.42, 1.05, 1.49 to 0.20, 0.21, 0.23 μm, respectively, corresponding to the focal length tunability of 100-200 mm.

  10. Tunable photonic cavities for in-situ spectroscopic trace gas detection

    DOEpatents

    Bond, Tiziana; Cole, Garrett; Goddard, Lynford

    2012-11-13

    Compact tunable optical cavities are provided for in-situ NIR spectroscopy. MEMS-tunable VCSEL platforms represents a solid foundation for a new class of compact, sensitive and fiber compatible sensors for fieldable, real-time, multiplexed gas detection systems. Detection limits for gases with NIR cross-sections such as O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO.sub.x and NO.sub.x have been predicted to approximately span from 10.sup.ths to 10s of parts per million. Exemplary oxygen detection design and a process for 760 nm continuously tunable VCSELS is provided. This technology enables in-situ self-calibrating platforms with adaptive monitoring by exploiting Photonic FPGAs.

  11. Polarization-selective dynamically tunable multispectral Fano resonances: decomposing of subgroup plasmonic resonances.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jietao; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Gong, Rui; Wu, Tengfei; Gong, Changmei; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2015-10-19

    We analyze the design of near infrared all-optical controllable and dynamically tunable multispectral Fano resonances based on subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid nanoslits antenna plasmonic system. The theoretical investigation complemented with numerical simulations show that the Fano resonance lines shape can be tailored efficiently and continuously with the nanoslits geometry and the variation of the polarization states of the incident light. The subgroup decomposition of the spectral profile and the modification of plasmonic resonances lineshape that leads to the Fano-type profile of transmission is investigated and revealed. The separate contribution from individual spectral of single-slit array subgroup is attributed to the resulting overall multispectral Fano lineshape of the proposed T-shaped slits array at their corresponding spectral peaks zone. The polarization-selective tunability of the multispectral Fano resonances in the planar hybrid plasmonic system creates new avenues for designing multi-channel multi-wavelength tunable Fano effect.

  12. Electrically tunable-focusing and polarizer-free liquid crystal lenses for ophthalmic applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hung-Shan

    2013-04-22

    An electrically tunable-focusing and polarizer-free liquid crystal (LC) lens for ophthalmic applications is demonstrated. The optical mechanism of a LC lens used in human eye system is introduced. The polarizer-free LC lens for myopia-presbyopia based on artificial accommodation is demonstrated. The continuously tunable-focusing properties of the LC lenses are more practical in applications for different visional conditions of people. The concept we proposed can also be applied to another types of lenses as long as the focusing properties are tunable. The concept in this paper can also be extensively applied to imaging systems, and projection systems, such as cameras in cell phones, pico projectors, and endoscopes.

  13. Widely tunable mode-locked fiber laser using carbon nanotube and LPG W-shaped filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, A Ping; Shen, Yong Hang; Tam, Hwa-yaw; Wai, P K A

    2015-09-15

    A widely tunable mode-locked fiber laser using a carbon nanotube absorber and a fiber-optic W-shaped spectral filter is presented. The W-shaped filter is constructed by sandwiching a phase-shifted long-period grating between two LPGs of different periods. By adjusting the temperature of the W-shaped filter from 23°C to 100°C, the central wavelength of the mode-locked fiber laser can be continuously tuned from 1597 to 1553 nm. The tuning range is further extended to 1531.6 nm when a shorter erbium-doped fiber is used in the fiber oscillator. The experimental results reveal that the large thermal tunability of the proposed LPG filter provides an effective approach to achieve compact widely tunable mode-locked fiber lasers covering both C and L bands.

  14. Underwater tunable organ-pipe sound source.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Andrey K; Webb, Douglas C

    2007-08-01

    A highly efficient frequency-controlled sound source based on a tunable high-Q underwater acoustic resonator is described. The required spectrum width was achieved by transmitting a linear frequency-modulated signal and simultaneously tuning the resonance frequency, keeping the sound source in resonance at the instantaneous frequency of the signal transmitted. Such sound sources have applications in ocean-acoustic tomography and deep-penetration seismic tomography. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation show the Helmholtz resonator's ability for instant resonant frequency switching and quick adjustment of its resonant frequency to the instantaneous frequency signal. The concept of a quick frequency adjustment filter is considered. The discussion includes the simplest lumped resonant source as well as the complicated distributed system of a tunable organ pipe. A numerical model of the tunable organ pipe is shown to have a form similar to a transmission line segment. This provides a general form for the principal results, which can be applied to tunable resonators of a different physical nature. The numerical simulation shows that the "state-switched" concept also works in the high-Q tunable organ pipe, and the speed of frequency sweeping in a high-Q tunable organ pipe is analyzed. The simulation results were applied to a projector design for ocean-acoustic tomography.

  15. Macroscopic and tunable nanoparticle superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Honghu; Wang, Wenjie; Mallapragada, Surya; Travesset, Alex; Vaknin, David

    2016-10-24

    In this paper, we describe a robust method to assemble nanoparticles into highly ordered superlattices by inducing aqueous phase separation of neutral capping polymers. Here we demonstrate the approach with thiolated polyethylene-glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) in the presence of salts (for example, K2CO3) in solutions that spontaneously migrate to the liquid–vapor interface to form a Gibbs monolayer. We show that by increasing salt concentration, PEG-AuNP monolayers transform from two-dimensional (2D) gas-like to liquid-like phase and eventually, beyond a threshold concentration, to a highly ordered hexagonal structure, as characterized by surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the method allows control of the inplane packing in the crystalline phase by varying the K2CO3 and PEG-AuNPs concentrations and the length of PEG. Using polymer-brush theory, we argue that the assembly and crystallization is driven by the need to reduce surface tension between PEG and the salt solution. Our approach of taking advantage of the phase separation of PEG in salt solutions is general (i.e., can be used with any nanoparticles) leads to high-quality macroscopic and tunable crystals. In conclusion, we discuss how the method can also be applied to the design of orderly 3D structures.

  16. Fabrication of tunable superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Jau-Ye; Kuo, Chun-Wen; Chen, Peilin

    2004-02-01

    Inspired by the water-repellent behavior of the micro- and nano-structured plant surfaces, superhydrophobic materials, with a water contact larger than 150 degree, have received a lot of research attentions recently. It has been suggested that contamination, oxidation and current conduction can be inhibited on such superhydrophobic surfaces, and the flow resistance in the microfluidic channels can also be reduced using super water-repellent materials. In order to prepare superhydrophobic materials, we have developed two simple approaches for fabricating tunable superhydrophobic surfaces using nanosphere lithography and plasma etching. In the first case, the polystyrene nanospheres were employed to create well-ordered rough surfaces covered by gold and alkylthiols. Using oxygen plasma treatment, the topmost surface area can be modified systematically, as the result the water contact angle on such surfaces can be tuned from 132 to 170 degree. The water contact angles measured on these surfaces can be modeled by the Cassie"s formulation without any adjustable parameter. In the second approach, thin films of Teflon were spin-coated on the substrate surfaces and treated by oxygen plasma. Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angle up to 170 degree were obtained by this approach. If the ITO glasses were used as the substrates, the hydrophobicity of the surface can be tuned by applying DC voltage. Water contact angle can be adjusted from 158 degree to 38 degree.

  17. Piezoelectric tunable microwave superconducting cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, N. C.; Fan, Y.; Tobar, M. E.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of engineered quantum systems, there is a demand for superconducting tunable devices, able to operate with high-quality factors at power levels equivalent to only a few photons. In this work, we developed a 3D microwave re-entrant cavity with such characteristics ready to provide a very fine-tuning of a high-Q resonant mode over a large dynamic range. This system has an electronic tuning mechanism based on a mechanically amplified piezoelectric actuator, which controls the resonator dominant mode frequency by changing the cavity narrow gap by very small displacements. Experiments were conducted at room and dilution refrigerator temperatures showing a large dynamic range up to 4 GHz and 1 GHz, respectively, and were compared to a finite element method model simulated data. At elevated microwave power input, nonlinear thermal effects were observed to destroy the superconductivity of the cavity due to the large electric fields generated in the small gap of the re-entrant cavity.

  18. Macroscopic and tunable nanoparticle superlattices

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Honghu; Wang, Wenjie; Mallapragada, Surya; ...

    2016-10-24

    In this paper, we describe a robust method to assemble nanoparticles into highly ordered superlattices by inducing aqueous phase separation of neutral capping polymers. Here we demonstrate the approach with thiolated polyethylene-glycol-functionalized gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) in the presence of salts (for example, K2CO3) in solutions that spontaneously migrate to the liquid–vapor interface to form a Gibbs monolayer. We show that by increasing salt concentration, PEG-AuNP monolayers transform from two-dimensional (2D) gas-like to liquid-like phase and eventually, beyond a threshold concentration, to a highly ordered hexagonal structure, as characterized by surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Furthermore,more » the method allows control of the inplane packing in the crystalline phase by varying the K2CO3 and PEG-AuNPs concentrations and the length of PEG. Using polymer-brush theory, we argue that the assembly and crystallization is driven by the need to reduce surface tension between PEG and the salt solution. Our approach of taking advantage of the phase separation of PEG in salt solutions is general (i.e., can be used with any nanoparticles) leads to high-quality macroscopic and tunable crystals. In conclusion, we discuss how the method can also be applied to the design of orderly 3D structures.« less

  19. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators. PMID:26501294

  20. Multiplexed gas spectroscopy using tunable VCSELs

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, T; Bond, S; McCarrick, J; Zumstein, J; Chang, A; Moran, B; Benett, W J

    2012-04-10

    Detection and identification of gas species using tunable laser diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been performed using vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Two detection methods are compared: direct absorbance and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In the first, the output of a DC-based laser is directly monitored to detect for any quench at the targeted specie wavelength. In the latter, the emission wavelength of the laser is modulated by applying a sinusoidal component on the drive current of frequency {omega}, and measuring the harmonics component (2{omega}) of the photo-detected current. This method shows a better sensitivity measured as signal to noise ratio, and is less susceptible to interference effects such as scattering or fouling. Gas detection was initially performed at room temperature and atmospheric conditions using VCSELs of emission wavelength 763 nm for oxygen and 1392 nm for water, scanning over a range of approximately 10 nm, sufficient to cover 5-10 gas specific absorption lines that enable identification and quantization of gas composition. The amplitude and frequency modulation parameters were optimized for each detected gas species, by performing two dimensional sweeps for both tuning current and either amplitude or frequency, respectively. We found that the highest detected signal is observed for a wavelength modulation amplitude equal to the width of the gas absorbance lines, in good agreement with theoretical calculations, and for modulation frequencies below the time response of the lasers (<50KHz). In conclusion, we will discuss limit of detection studies and further implementation and packaging of VCSELs in diode arrays for continuous and simultaneous monitoring of multiple species in gaseous mixtures.

  1. Monolithic single mode interband cascade lasers with wide wavelength tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Scheuermann, J.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2016-11-01

    Monolithic two-section interband cascade lasers offering a wide wavelength tunability in the wavelength range around 3.7 μm are presented. Stable single mode emission in several wavelength channels was realized using the concept of binary superimposed gratings and two-segment Vernier-tuning. The wavelength selective elements in the two segments were based on specially designed lateral metal grating structures defined by electron beam lithography. A dual-step dry etch process provided electrical separation between the segments. Individual current control of the segments allowed wavelength channel selection as well as continuous wavelength tuning within channels. A discontinuous tuning range extending over 158 nm in up to six discrete wavelength channels was achieved. Mode hop free wavelength tuning up to 14 nm was observed within one channel. The devices can be operated in continuous wave mode up to 30 °C with the output powers of 3.5 mW around room temperature.

  2. CMOS-controlled rapidly tunable photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray

    With rapidly increasing data bandwidth demands, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical access networks seem unavoidable in the near future. To operate WDM optical networks in an efficient scheme, wavelength reconfigurability and scalability of the network are crucial. Unfortunately, most of the existing wavelength tunable technologies are neither rapidly tunable nor spectrally programmable. This dissertation presents a tunable photodetector that is designed for dynamic-wavelength allocation WDM network environments. The wavelength tuning mechanism is completely different from existing technologies. The spectrum of this detector is programmable through low-voltage digital patterns. Since the wavelength selection is achieved by electronic means, the device wavelength reconfiguration time is as fast as the electronic switching time. In this dissertation work, we have demonstrated a tunable detector that is hybridly integrated with its customized CMOS driver and receiver with nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time. In addition to its nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time, the spectrum of this detector is digitally programmable, which means that it can adapt to system changes without re-fabrication. We have theoretically developed and experimentally demonstrated two device operating algorithms based on the same orthogonal device-optics basis. Both the rapid wavelength tuning time and the scalability make this novel device very viable for new reconfigurable WDM networks. By taking advantage of CMOS circuit design, this detector concept can be further extended for simultaneous multiple wavelength detection. We have developed one possible chip architecture and have designed a CMOS tunable optical demux for simultaneous controllable two-wavelength detection.

  3. Infrared frequency-tunable coherent thermal sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we numerically demonstrate an infrared (IR) frequency-tunable selective thermal emitter made of graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) gratings. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis shows temporally-coherent emission peaks associated with magnetic polariton (MP), whose resonance frequency can be dynamically tuned within the phonon absorption band of SiC by varying graphene chemical potential. An analytical inductor-capacitor circuit model is introduced to quantitatively predict the resonance frequency and further elucidate the mechanism for the tunable emission peak. The effects of grating geometric parameters, such as grating height, groove width and grating period, on the selective emission peak are explored. The direction-independent behavior of MP and associated coherent emission are also demonstrated. Moreover, by depositing four layers of graphene sheets onto the SiC gratings, a large tunability of 8.5% in peak frequency can be obtained to yield the coherent emission covering a broad frequency range from 820 to 890 cm-1. The novel tunable metamaterial could pave the way to a new class of tunable thermal sources in the IR region.

  4. A tunable optofluidic circular liquid fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wu, Wei; Shi, Yang; Gong, Enze; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tunable optofluidic circular liquid fiber through the numerical simulation. Fiber is a significant optical device and has been widely applied on optical fiber communication. But the fiber based solid has limited tunability. Compared to solid fiber, the fiber based liquid material is relatively infrequent. Cause for the liquid optical device has more freedom tunable properties than solid counterpart, it has attracted more interest. The traditional optofluidic waveguide is designed like a sandwich in planar channel. This two-dimensional (2D) structure liquid waveguide will face huge transmission loss in the perpendicular direction of the flow streams. In this paper, a curving microchannel is designed inside the microchip to produce centrifugal effect. Two different liquids are injected into the chip by external pumps. In a particular situation, the core flow will be totally surrounded by the cladding flow. So the liquid can form an optical waveguide. Its structure is similar to an optical fiber which high refractive index (RI) liquid is core of the waveguide and the low RI liquid is cladding of the waveguide. Profit from the reconfigurability of liquid material, this liquid fiber has excellent tunability. The diameter of the core flow can be tuned in a wider range by changing the volume ratio of the flows through the finite element analysis. It is predictable that such a tunable liquid fiber may find wider applications in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated optical devices.

  5. Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Wei; Lee, Ho Wai Howard; Sokhoyan, Ruzan; Pala, Ragip A; Thyagarajan, Krishnan; Han, Seunghoon; Tsai, Din Ping; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-09-14

    Metasurfaces composed of planar arrays of subwavelength artificial structures show promise for extraordinary light manipulation. They have yielded novel ultrathin optical components such as flat lenses, wave plates, holographic surfaces, and orbital angular momentum manipulation and detection over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, the optical properties of metasurfaces developed to date do not allow for versatile tunability of reflected or transmitted wave amplitude and phase after their fabrication, thus limiting their use in a wide range of applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable metasurface that enables dynamic electrical control of the phase and amplitude of the plane wave reflected from the metasurface. Tunability arises from field-effect modulation of the complex refractive index of conducting oxide layers incorporated into metasurface antenna elements which are configured in reflectarray geometry. We measure a phase shift of 180° and ∼30% change in the reflectance by applying 2.5 V gate bias. Additionally, we demonstrate modulation at frequencies exceeding 10 MHz and electrical switching of ±1 order diffracted beams by electrical control over subgroups of metasurface elements, a basic requirement for electrically tunable beam-steering phased array metasurfaces. In principle, electrically gated phase and amplitude control allows for electrical addressability of individual metasurface elements and opens the path to applications in ultrathin optical components for imaging and sensing technologies, such as reconfigurable beam steering devices, dynamic holograms, tunable ultrathin lenses, nanoprojectors, and nanoscale spatial light modulators.

  6. Narrow linewidth broadband tunable semiconductor laser at 840 nm with dual acousto-optic tunable configuration for OCT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorovskiy, Alexander; Shramenko, Mikhail V.; Lobintsov, Andrei A.; Yakubovich, Sergei D.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a tunable narrow linewidth semiconductor laser for the 840 nm spectral range. The laser has a linear cavity comprised of polarization maintaining (PM) fiber. A broadband semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in in-line fiber-coupled configuration acts as a gain element. It is based on InGaAs quantum-well (QW) active layer. SOA allows for tuning bandwidth exceeding 25 nm around 840 nm. Small-signal fiber-to-fiber gain of SOA is around 30 dB. A pair of acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) with a quasi-collinear interaction of optical and acoustic waves are utilized as spectrally selective elements. AOTF technology benefits in continuous tuning, broadband operation, excellent reproducibility and stability of the signal, as well as a high accuracy of wavelength selectivity due to the absence of mechanically moving components. A single AOTF configuration has typical linewidth in 0.05-0.15 nm range due to a frequency shift obtained during each roundtrip. A sequential AOTF arrangement enables instantaneous linewidth generation of <0.01 nm by compensating for this shift. Linewidth as narrow as 0.0036 nm is observed at 846 nm wavelength using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer with 50 MHz spectral resolution. Output power is in the range of 1 mW. While the majority of commercial tunable sources operate in 1060-1550 nm spectral ranges, the 840 nm spectral range is beneficial for optical coherence tomography (OCT). The developed narrow linewidth laser can be relevant for OCT with extended imaging depth, as well as spectroscopy, non-destructive testing and other applications.

  7. Tunable random lasing behavior in plasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ashish; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Jun; Jiang, Lin; Cheng, Gary J.; Chi, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    Random lasing is desired in plasmonics nanostructures through surface plasmon amplification. In this study, tunable random lasing behavior was observed in dye molecules attached with Au nanorods (NRs), Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Au@Ag nanorods (NRs) respectively. Our experimental investigations showed that all nanostructures i.e., Au@AgNRs, AuNRs & AuNPs have intensive tunable spectral effects. The random lasing has been observed at excitation wavelength 532 nm and varying pump powers. The best random lasing properties were noticed in Au@AgNRs structure, which exhibits broad absorption spectrum, sufficiently overlapping with that of dye Rhodamine B (RhB). Au@AgNRs significantly enhance the tunable spectral behavior through localized electromagnetic field and scattering. The random lasing in Au@AgNRs provides an efficient coherent feedback for random lasers.

  8. Bandwidth tunable amplifier for recording biopotential signals.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungkil; Aninakwa, Kofi; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low noise, low power, bandwidth tunable amplifier for bio-potential signal recording applications. By employing depletion-mode pMOS transistor in diode configuration as a tunable sub pA current source to adjust the resistivity of MOS-Bipolar pseudo-resistor, the bandwidth is adjusted without any need for a separate band-pass filter stage. For high CMRR, PSRR and dynamic range, a fully differential structure is used in the design of the amplifier. The amplifier achieves a midband gain of 39.8dB with a tunable high-pass cutoff frequency ranging from 0.1Hz to 300Hz. The amplifier is fabricated in 0.18εm CMOS process and occupies 0.14mm(2) of chip area. A three electrode ECG measurement is performed using the proposed amplifier to show its feasibility for low power, compact wearable ECG monitoring application.

  9. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  10. Monolithic widely tunable quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascola, Kevin M.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Bruno, John D.; Bradshaw, John L.; Pham, John T.; Towner, Frederick J.

    2012-06-01

    Maxion Technologies has designed a monolithic, widely tunable Quantum Cascade (QC) laser for use in chemical sensing applications. This multi-section QC laser is a monolithically tunable device, similar to those demonstrated in the near IR for telecommunications. Wideband tuning is achieved through grating assisted coupling of the optical mode between lateral waveguides, allowing ~10 times the tuning range normally achieved by distributed feedback lasers without incorporation of external optical elements. Compared to implementations in the near IR, the use of lateral waveguides (rather than vertically stacked waveguides) allows the optical mode to maintain the high overlap with the active region necessary for room temperature lasing in the mid-IR. Due to its monolithic design, this laser is expected to be rapidly tunable and usable in field environments due to its insensitivity to shock and vibration, while the wide tuning range of the device will allow for an enhanced ability to discriminate against background chemicals.

  11. Tunable-cavity QED with phase qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Jed D.; da Silva, Fabio; Allman, Michael Shane; Lecocq, Florent; Cicak, Katarina; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We describe a tunable-cavity QED architecture with an rf SQUID phase qubit inductively coupled to a single-mode, resonant cavity with a tunable frequency that allows for both tunneling and dispersive measurements. Dispersive measurement is well characterized by a three-level model, strongly dependent on qubit anharmonicity, qubit-cavity coupling and detuning. The tunable cavity frequency provides dynamic control over the coupling strength and qubit-cavity detuning helping to minimize Purcell losses and cavity-induced dephasing during qubit operation. The maximum decay time T1 = 1 . 5 μs is limited by dielectric losses from a design geometry similar to planar transmon qubits. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  12. Research on imaging spectrometer using LC-based tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhixue; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Lixian; Luo, Fei; Luo, Yongquan; Zhang, Dayong; Long, Yan

    2012-09-01

    A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) with large aperture is developed using PDLC liquid crystal. A small scale imaging spectrometer is established based on this tunable filter. This spectrometer can continuously tuning, or random-access selection of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) band synchronized with the imaging processes. Notable characteristics of this spectrometer include the high flexibility control of its operating channels, the image cubes with high spatial resolution and spectral resolution and the strong ability of acclimation to environmental temperature. The image spatial resolution of each tuning channel is almost near the one of the same camera without the LCTF. The spectral resolution is about 20 nm at 550 nm. This spectrometer works normally under 0-50°C with a maximum power consumption of 10 Watts (with exclusion of the storage module). Due to the optimization of the electrode structure and the driving mode of the Liquid Crystal cell, the switch time between adjacent selected channels can be reduced to 20 ms or even shorter. Spectral imaging experiments in laboratory are accomplished to verify the performance of this spectrometer, which indicate that this compact imaging spectrometer works reliably, and functionally. Possible applications of this imaging spectrometer include medical science, protection of historical relics, criminal investigation, disaster monitoring and mineral detection by remote sensing.

  13. MEMS tunable terahertz metamaterials using out-of-plane mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-03-01

    The tunable terahertz metamaterial (TTM) has attracted intense research interest, since the electromagnetic response of the metamaterial can be actively controlled through external stimulus, which is of great significance in real time applications. The active control of metamaterial characteristics is crucial in order to provide a flexible and versatile platform for mimicking fundamental physical effects. To realize the electromagnetic tunability, various approaches have been demonstrated to increase the flexibility in applications, such as changing the effective electromagnetic properties. Alternatively, MEMS-based techniques are well developed. The structural reconfiguration is a straightforward way to control the electromagnetic properties. The metamaterial properties can be directly modified by reconfiguring the unit cell which is the fundamental building block of metamaterials. Currently, our research works are focusing on MEMS-based TTM adopting stress-induced curved actuators (SICA) to adjust the resonant frequency of devices. Herein, the proposed TTM designs are double split-ring resonator (DSRR), electric split-ring resonator (eSRR), Omega-ring metamaterial (ORM), symmetric and asymmetric T-shape metamaterial (STM and ATM), respectively. We demonstrated these TTM can be active, continuous, and recoverable control the resonant frequency by using electrostatic or electrothermal actuation mechanism. Therefore, the TTM devices can be effectively used for sensors, optical switches, and filters applications.

  14. Temperature control and measurement with tunable femtosecond optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Dipankar; Goswami, Debabrata

    2016-09-01

    We present the effects of wavelength dependent temperature rise in a femtosecond optical tweezers. Our experiments involve the femtosecond trapping laser tunable from 740-820 nm at low power 25 mW to cause heating in the trapped volume within a homogeneous solution of sub micro-molar concentration of IR dye. The 780 nm high repetition rate laser acts as a resonant excitation source which helps to create the local heating effortlessly within the trapping volume. We have used both position autocorrelation and equipartion theorem to evaluate temperature at different wavelength having different absorption coefficient. Fixing the pulse width in the temporal domain gives constant bandwidth at spatial domain, which makes our system behave as a tunable temperature rise device with high precision. This observation leads us to calculate temperature as well as viscosity within the vicinity of the trapping zone. A mutual energy transfer occurs between the trapped bead and solvents that leads to transfer the thermal energy of solvents into the kinetic energy of the trap bead and vice-versa. Thus hot solvated molecules resulting from resonant and near resonant excitation of trapping wavelength can continuously dissipate heat to the trapped bead which will be reflected on frequency spectrum of Brownian noise exhibited by the bead. Temperature rise near the trapping zone can significantly change the viscosity of the medium. We observe temperature rise profile according to its Gaussian shaped absorption spectrum with different wavelength.

  15. Size-tunable Lateral Confinement in Monolayer Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guohua; Czaplewski, David A; Lenferink, Erik J; Stanev, Teodor K; Jung, Il Woong; Stern, Nathaniel P

    2017-06-12

    Three-dimensional confinement allows semiconductor quantum dots to exhibit size-tunable electronic and optical properties that enable a wide range of opto-electronic applications from displays, solar cells and bio-medical imaging to single-electron devices. Additional modalities such as spin and valley properties in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides provide further degrees of freedom requisite for information processing and spintronics. In nanostructures, however, spatial confinement can cause hybridization that inhibits the robustness of these emergent properties. Here, we show that laterally-confined excitons in monolayer MoS2 nanodots can be created through top-down nanopatterning with controlled size tunability. Unlike chemically-exfoliated monolayer nanoparticles, the lithographically patterned monolayer semiconductor nanodots down to a radius of 15 nm exhibit the same valley polarization as in a continuous monolayer sheet. The inherited bulk spin and valley properties, the size dependence of excitonic energies, and the ability to fabricate MoS2 nanostructures using semiconductor-compatible processing suggest that monolayer semiconductor nanodots have potential to be multimodal building blocks of integrated optoelectronics and spintronics systems.

  16. A tunable crystal diffraction telescope for the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Ballmoos, P. von; Kohnle, A.; Olive, J.F.; Vedrenne, G.; Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.

    1997-02-01

    Even though technically innovative, a tunable crystal diffraction telescope for use in nuclear astrophysics has become feasible today. The focusing gamma-ray telescope the authors intended to propose for the space station consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens, focusing gamma-rays onto a small array of Germanium detectors perched on an extendible boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 inches, an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 {sigma} sensitivity of a few times 10{sup {minus}7} photons{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} (10{sup 6} sec observation) for any individual narrow line at energies between 200--1,300 keV. This experience would greatly profit from the continuous presence of man on the station. Besides of the infrastructure for maintenance and servicing of the various innovative techniques used for the first time in space, the available extra-vehicular robotics will facilitate deployment of the required boom structure.

  17. Tunable reflector with active magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tianwei; Huang, Ruifeng; Tang, Ming-Chun; Tan, Peng Khiang

    2014-03-24

    We placed active magnetic metamaterials on metallic surface to implement a tunable reflector with excellent agile performance. By incorporating active elements into the unit cells of the magnetic metamaterial, this active magnetic metamaterial can be tuned to switch function of the reflector among a perfect absorber, a perfect reflector and a gain reflector. This brings about DC control lines to electrically tune the active magnetic metamaterial with positive loss, zero loss and even negative loss. The design, analytical and numerical simulation methods, and experimental results of the tunable reflector are presented.

  18. Widely tunable room temperature semiconductor terahertz source

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q. Y.; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Razeghi, M.

    2014-11-17

    We present a widely tunable, monolithic terahertz source based on intracavity difference frequency generation within a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at room temperature. A three-section ridge waveguide laser design with two sampled grating sections and a distributed-Bragg section is used to achieve the terahertz (THz) frequency tuning. Room temperature single mode THz emission with a wide tunable frequency range of 2.6–4.2 THz (∼47% of the central frequency) and THz power up to 0.1 mW is demonstrated, making such device an ideal candidate for THz spectroscopy and sensing.

  19. Tunable Terahertz Hybrid Metal-Graphene Plasmons.

    PubMed

    Jadidi, Mohammad M; Sushkov, Andrei B; Myers-Ward, Rachael L; Boyd, Anthony K; Daniels, Kevin M; Gaskill, D Kurt; Fuhrer, Michael S; Drew, H Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E

    2015-10-14

    We report here a new type of plasmon resonance that occurs when graphene is connected to a metal. These new plasmon modes offer the potential to incorporate a tunable plasmonic channel into a device with electrical contacts, a critical step toward practical graphene terahertz optoelectronics. Through theory and experiments, we demonstrate, for example, anomalously high resonant absorption or transmission when subwavelength graphene-filled apertures are introduced into an otherwise conductive layer. These tunable plasmon resonances are essential yet missing ingredients needed for terahertz filters, oscillators, detectors, and modulators.

  20. Photo-roll lithography (PRL) for continuous and scalable patterning with application in flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Ok, Jong G; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Huard, Chad M; Youn, Hong Seok; Guo, L Jay

    2013-12-03

    A novel nanofabrication methodology for continuous, scalable, and geometry-tunable lithography is developed, named photo-roll lithography (PRL), by integrating photolithography with rollable processing. As a flexible mask attached to a quartz cylinder containing a UV source rolls over a photoresistcoated substrate, PRL realizes continuous photolithographic fabrication of various micro/nanoscale patterns with geometry that is tunable by controlling mask-substrate motions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A tunable electromechanical Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei

    Acoustic liners are used in turbofan engine nacelles for the suppression of engine noise. For a given engine, there are different optimum impedance distributions associated with take-off, cut-back, and approach flight conditions. The impedance of conventional acoustic liners is fixed for a given geometry, and conventional active liner approaches are impractical. This project addresses the need for a tunable impedance through the development of an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The device consists of a Helmholtz resonator with the standard rigid backplate replaced by a compliant piezoelectric composite. Analytical models (i.e., a lumped element model (LEM) and a transfer matrix (TM) representation of the EMHR) are developed to predict the acoustic behavior of the EMHR. The EMHR is experimentally investigated using the standard two-microphone method (TMM). The measurement results validate both the LEM and the TM of the EMHR. Good agreement between predicted and measured impedance is obtained. Short- and open-circuit loads define the limits of the tuning range using resistive and capacitive loads. There is approximately a 9% tuning limit under these conditions for the non-optimized resonator configuration studied. Inductive shunt loads result in a 3 degree-of-freedom (DOF) system and an enhanced tuning range of over 47% that is not restricted by the short- and open-circuit limits. Damping coefficient measurements for a piezoelectric backplate in a vacuum chamber are performed and indicate that the damping is dominated by structural damping losses. A Pareto optimization design based on models of the EMHR is performed with non-inductive loads. The EMHR with non-inductive loads has 2DOF and two resonant frequencies. The tuning ranges of the two resonant frequencies of the EMHR with non-inductive loads cannot be optimized simultaneously, so a trade-off (Pareto solution) must be reached. The Pareto solution shows how design trade-offs can be used to satisfy

  2. Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Jinghua; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2014-11-11

    Electromagnetic materials with tunable permeability and permittivity are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. However, the tunability of electromagnetic parameters is an immense challenge for conventional materials and metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. The magnetically tunable property is derived from the coupling of the Mie resonance of dielectric cube and ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboid. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the effective permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. This mechanism offers a promising means of constructing microwave devices with large tunable ranges and considerable potential for tailoring via a metamaterial route.

  3. Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Jinghua; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic materials with tunable permeability and permittivity are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. However, the tunability of electromagnetic parameters is an immense challenge for conventional materials and metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. The magnetically tunable property is derived from the coupling of the Mie resonance of dielectric cube and ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboid. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the effective permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. This mechanism offers a promising means of constructing microwave devices with large tunable ranges and considerable potential for tailoring via a metamaterial route.

  4. Demonstration of optical interference filters utilizing tunable refractive index layers.

    PubMed

    Poxson, David J; Mont, Frank W; Schubert, Martin F; Kim, Jong Kyu; Cho, Jaehee; Schubert, E Fred

    2010-11-08

    Optical interference filters utilizing tunable refractive index layers are shown to have higher spectral fidelity as compared to conventional filters consisting of non-tunable refractive index layers. To demonstrate this increase in spectral fidelity, we design and compare a variety of optical interference filters employing both tunable and non-tunable refractive index layers. Additionally, a five-layer optical interference filter utilizing tunable refractive index layers is designed and fabricated for use with a Xenon lamp to replicate the Air Mass 0 solar irradiance spectrum and is shown to have excellent spectral fidelity.

  5. Tunability of the NLC Final Focus System

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei

    2001-07-23

    The performance of the new NLC Final Focus system has been investigated as a function of the incoming beam characteristics, such as energy, emittances, energy spread. A preliminary study of the tolerances and the tunability of the system is presented in this paper.

  6. Phosphate functionalized graphene with tunable mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Goods, John B; Sydlik, Stefanie A; Walish, Joseph J; Swager, Timothy M

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis of a covalently modified graphene oxide derivative with exceptional and tunable compressive strength is reported. Treatment of graphene oxide with triethyl phosphite in the presence of LiBr produces monolithic structures comprised of lithium phosphate oligomers tethered to graphene through covalent phosphonate linkages. Variation of the both phosphate content and associated cation produces materials of various compressive strengths and elasticity.

  7. Electrically Tunable Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Soidel, Alexander; Mansour, Kamjou

    2006-01-01

    Improved quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) are being developed as electrically tunable sources of radiation in the far infrared spectral region, especially in the frequency range of 2 to 5 THz. The structures of QCLs and the processes used to fabricate them have much in common with those of multiple- quantum-well infrared photodetectors.

  8. Bio-Gyros: Tunable Compliant Gryscopic Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-10

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...encode three dimensional rotational motions and furthermore, how tunable compliance of vibrating structure gyroscopes ( VSGs ) may be utilized to precisely

  9. Tunable metamaterial dual-band terahertz absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C. Y.; Li, Z. Z.; Guo, Z. H.; Yue, J.; Luo, Q.; Yao, G.; Ji, J.; Rao, Y. K.; Li, R. K.; Li, D.; Wang, H. X.; Yao, J. Q.; Ling, F. R.

    2015-11-01

    We report a design of a temperature controlled tunable dual band terahertz absorber. The compact single unit cell consists of two nested closed square ring resonators and a layer metallic separated by a substrate strontium titanate (STO) dielectric layer. It is found that the absorber has two distinctive absorption peaks at frequencies 0.096 THz and 0.137 THz, whose peaks are attained 97% and 75%. Cooling the absorber from 400 K to 250 K causes about 25% and 27% shift compared to the resonance frequency of room temperature, when we cooling the temperature to 150 K, we could attained both the two tunabilities exceeding 53%. The frequency tunability is owing to the variation of the dielectric constant of the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate. The mechanism of the dual band absorber is attributed to the overlapping of dual resonance frequencies, and could be demonstrated by the distributions of the electric field. The method opens up avenues for designing tunable terahertz devices in detection, imaging, and stealth technology.

  10. Electronically Tunable Filter and Dye Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CaMoO4 filter was constructed, evaluated, and used to tune a flashlamp pumped dye laser. A total electronic tuning range of 6800 to 4735 was achieved...theoretical study of an electronically tunable CaMoO4 filter for use in the near infrared portion of the spectrum. (Author)

  11. Tunability of InGaN/GaN quantum well light emitting diodes through current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Dipankar; Panda, Siddhartha

    2013-07-01

    In the recent years, InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) have gathered much importance through the introduction of white LEDs and dual wavelength LEDs. However, the continuous tunability of InGaN/GaN QW LEDs has not been well addressed or discussed. In this paper, we introduce the tunability of an InGaN/GaN QW LED having a well width of 4 nm and In mole fraction of 0.3. The results, obtained from self-consistent solutions of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations, show that the transition energy of the LED may be continuously tuned by the device current. A prominent nonlinearity of the transition energy with the device current is generated, which should be of interest to the research workers in the field of optoelectronics.

  12. Proposal of Tunable Hollow Waveguide Distributed Bragg Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yasuki; Koyama, Fumio

    2004-05-01

    We propose a novel tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) consisting of a grating loaded slab hollow waveguide with a variable air core. A change in an air core thickness of the tunable hollow waveguide gives us a large shift of over 100 nm in Bragg wavelength due to a change of several percents in a propagation constant. In order to obtain the high reflectivity and wide tunability of the tunable hollow waveguide DBR, the optimisation of the grating depth and grating length is carried out with minimizing radiation loss and distortion of reflection spectra induced by the corrugation. The modelling result shows a possibility of wide tunability of several tens nm with maintaining a high reflectivity of more than 90% without noticeable radiation loss and distortion of reflection spectra. We expect various device applications of the proposed tunable hollow waveguide DBR, which may include tunable band-pass filters, gain equalizers and dispersion compensators.

  13. Monolithically, widely tunable quantum cascade lasers based on a heterogeneous active region design

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenjia; Bandyopadhyay, Neelanjan; Wu, Donghai; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become important laser sources for accessing the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, achieving watt-level continuous wave operation in a compact package at room temperature. However, up to now, wavelength tuning, which is desirable for most applications, has relied on external cavity feedback or exhibited a limited monolithic tuning range. Here we demonstrate a widely tunable QCL source over the 6.2 to 9.1 μm wavelength range with a single emitting aperture by integrating an eight-laser sampled grating distributed feedback laser array with an on-chip beam combiner. The laser gain medium is based on a five-core heterogeneous QCL wafer. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and produce any desired wavelength within the available spectral range. A rapid, broadband spectral measurement (520 cm−1) of methane using the tunable laser source shows excellent agreement to a measurement made using a standard low-speed infrared spectrometer. This monolithic, widely tunable laser technology is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for MIR spectroscopy and chemical sensing. PMID:27270634

  14. Monolithically, widely tunable quantum cascade lasers based on a heterogeneous active region design.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjia; Bandyopadhyay, Neelanjan; Wu, Donghai; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-06-08

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become important laser sources for accessing the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, achieving watt-level continuous wave operation in a compact package at room temperature. However, up to now, wavelength tuning, which is desirable for most applications, has relied on external cavity feedback or exhibited a limited monolithic tuning range. Here we demonstrate a widely tunable QCL source over the 6.2 to 9.1 μm wavelength range with a single emitting aperture by integrating an eight-laser sampled grating distributed feedback laser array with an on-chip beam combiner. The laser gain medium is based on a five-core heterogeneous QCL wafer. A compact tunable laser system was built to drive the individual lasers within the array and produce any desired wavelength within the available spectral range. A rapid, broadband spectral measurement (520 cm(-1)) of methane using the tunable laser source shows excellent agreement to a measurement made using a standard low-speed infrared spectrometer. This monolithic, widely tunable laser technology is compact, with no moving parts, and will open new opportunities for MIR spectroscopy and chemical sensing.

  15. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Glownia, James H.; Sander, Robert K.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but to higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  16. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

    1982-06-29

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but no higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  17. A High Power, Frequency Tunable Colloidal Quantum Dot (CdSe/ZnS) Laser

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Saradh; Saleh AlHesseny, Hanan; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Devaraj, Durairaj; Masilamai, Vadivel

    2017-01-01

    Tunable lasers are essential for medical, engineering and basic science research studies. Most conventional solid-state lasers are capable of producing a few million laser shots, but limited to specific wavelengths, which are bulky and very expensive. Dye lasers are continuously tunable, but exhibit very poor chemical stability. As new tunable, efficient lasers are always in demand, one such laser is designed with various sized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. They were used as a colloid in tetrahydrofuran to produce a fluorescent broadband emission from 520 nm to 630 nm. The second (532 nm) and/or third harmonic (355 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser (10 ns, 10 Hz) were used together as the pump source. In this study, different sized quantum dots were independently optically pumped to produce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with 4 nm to 7 nm of full width at half-maximum (FWHM), when the pump power and focusing were carefully optimized. The beam was directional with a 7 mrad divergence. Subsequently, these quantum dots were combined together, and the solution was placed in a resonator cavity to obtain a laser with a spectral width of 1 nm and tunable from 510 to 630 nm, with a conversion efficiency of about 0.1%. PMID:28336863

  18. A High Power, Frequency Tunable Colloidal Quantum Dot (CdSe/ZnS) Laser.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saradh; AlHesseny, Hanan Saleh; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Devaraj, Durairaj; Masilamai, Vadivel

    2017-01-30

    Tunable lasers are essential for medical, engineering and basic science research studies. Most conventional solid-state lasers are capable of producing a few million laser shots, but limited to specific wavelengths, which are bulky and very expensive. Dye lasers are continuously tunable, but exhibit very poor chemical stability. As new tunable, efficient lasers are always in demand, one such laser is designed with various sized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. They were used as a colloid in tetrahydrofuran to produce a fluorescent broadband emission from 520 nm to 630 nm. The second (532 nm) and/or third harmonic (355 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser (10 ns, 10 Hz) were used together as the pump source. In this study, different sized quantum dots were independently optically pumped to produce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with 4 nm to 7 nm of full width at half-maximum (FWHM), when the pump power and focusing were carefully optimized. The beam was directional with a 7 mrad divergence. Subsequently, these quantum dots were combined together, and the solution was placed in a resonator cavity to obtain a laser with a spectral width of 1 nm and tunable from 510 to 630 nm, with a conversion efficiency of about 0.1%.

  19. Widely tunable laser frequency offset lock with 30 GHz range and 5 THz offset.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, J; Noom, D W E; Salumbides, E J; Sheridan, K T; Ubachs, W; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile method to greatly extend the tuning range of optical frequency shifting devices, such as acousto-optic modulators (AOMs). We use this method to stabilize the frequency of a tunable narrow-band continuous-wave (CW) laser to a transmission maximum of an external Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a tunable frequency offset. This is achieved through a servo loop which contains an in-loop AOM for simple radiofrequency (RF) tuning of the optical frequency over the full 30 GHz mode-hop-free tuning range of the CW laser. By stabilizing the length of the FPI to a stabilized helium-neon (HeNe) laser (at 5 THz offset from the tunable laser) we simultaneously transfer the ~ 1 MHz absolute frequency stability of the HeNe laser to the entire 30 GHz range of the tunable laser. Thus, our method allows simple, wide-range, fast and reproducible optical frequency tuning and absolute optical frequency measurements through RF electronics, which is here demonstrated by repeatedly recording a 27-GHz-wide molecular iodine spectrum at scan rates up to 500 MHz/s. General technical aspects that determine the performance of the method are discussed in detail.

  20. Electrically tunable window based on microwrinkled ZnO/Ag thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Milan; Asundi, Anand; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2017-04-01

    Micro-winkling can turn a transparent thin-film of zinc oxide (ZnO) to be `opaque' that can be reversed by unfolding to restore back to the clear state. This principle was previously used to make a mechanically tunable window device. However, ZnO thin film cannot make a compliant electrode to enable electrical unfolding due to its insulator nature. This paper reports the use of multilayer thin films of 10nm silver (Ag) and 30nm thick ZnO to form a compliant electrode with electrically tunable transmittance. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) with a pair of such compliant Ag/ZnO thin films on both sides of a polyacrylate elastomeric membrane (3M VHB 4910) makes an electrically tunable window device. The DEA without radial compression of the elastomer has wrinkle-free electrode. Hence, it is clear with a 47% in-line transmittance (for 550nm wavelength light). In the wrinkled form, under 10% radial compression, it becomes opaque (with less than 1% transmittance). A voltage induced areal expansion of 10% radial strain enables the electrical unfolding of the initial wrinkles. In addition, this device continues to work after 4000 cycles of unfolding and microwrinkling of Ag/ZnO. The performance of electrically tunable window device is comparable to the existing smart window technologies.

  1. Composition-tunable alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Regulacio, Michelle D; Han, Ming-Yong

    2010-05-18

    The ability to engineer the band gap energy of semiconductor nanocrystals has led to the development of nanomaterials with many new exciting properties and applications. Band gap engineering has thus proven to be an effective tool in the design of new nanocrystal-based semiconductor devices. As reported in numerous publications over the last three decades, tuning the size of nanocrystalline semiconductors is one way of adjusting the band gap energy. On the other hand, research on band gap engineering via control of nanocrystal composition, which is achieved by adjusting the constituent stoichiometries of alloyed semiconductors, is still in its infancy. In this Account, we summarize recent research on colloidal alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit novel composition-tunable properties. Alloying of two semiconductors at the nanometer scale produces materials that display properties distinct not only from the properties of their bulk counterparts but also from those of their parent semiconductors. As a result, alloyed nanocrystals possess additional properties that are composition-dependent aside from the properties that emerge due to quantum confinement effects. For example, although the size-dependent emission wavelength of the widely studied CdSe nanocrystals can be continuously tuned to cover almost the entire visible spectrum, the near-infrared (NIR) region is far outside its spectral range. By contrast, certain alloy compositions of nanocrystalline CdSe(x)Te(1-x), an alloy of CdSe and CdTe, can efficiently emit light in the NIR spectral window. These NIR-emitting nanocrystals are potentially useful in several biomedical applications. In addition, highly stable nanocrystals formed by alloying CdSe with ZnSe (i.e., Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se) emit blue light with excellent efficiency, a property seldom achieved by the parent binary systems. As a result, these materials can be used in short-wavelength optoelectronic devices. In the future, we foresee new discoveries

  2. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with tunable structural color.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Anaya, Miguel; Lozano, Gabriel; Calvo, Mauricio E; Johnston, Michael B; Míguez, Hernán; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-03-11

    The performance of perovskite solar cells has been progressing over the past few years and efficiency is likely to continue to increase. However, a negative aspect for the integration of perovskite solar cells in the built environment is that the color gamut available in these materials is very limited and does not cover the green-to-blue region of the visible spectrum, which has been a big selling point for organic photovoltaics. Here, we integrate a porous photonic crystal (PC) scaffold within the photoactive layer of an opaque perovskite solar cell following a bottom-up approach employing inexpensive and scalable liquid processing techniques. The photovoltaic devices presented herein show high efficiency with tunable color across the visible spectrum. This now imbues the perovskite solar cells with highly desirable properties for cladding in the built environment and encourages design of sustainable colorful buildings and iridescent electric vehicles as future power generation sources.

  3. Nondegenerate Parametric Resonance in a Tunable Superconducting Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wustmann, Waltraut; Shumeiko, Vitaly

    2017-08-01

    We develop a theory for nondegenerate parametric resonance in a tunable superconducting cavity. We focus on nonlinear effects that are caused by nonlinear Josephson elements connected to the cavity. We analyze parametric amplification in a strong nonlinear regime at the parametric-instability threshold, and we calculate maximum gain values. Above the threshold, in the parametric-oscillator regime, the cavity linear response diverges at the oscillator frequency at all pump strengths. We show that this divergence is related to the continuous degeneracy of the free oscillator state with respect to the phase. Applying on-resonance input lifts the degeneracy and removes the divergence. We also investigate quantum noise squeezing. It is shown that in the strong amplification regime, the noise undergoes four-mode squeezing, and that, in this regime, the output signal-to-noise ratio can significantly exceed the input value. We also analyze the intermode frequency conversion and identify the parameters at which full conversion is achieved.

  4. A microstrip tunable negative refractive index metamaterial and phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, P.; Gao, J.; Marinis, C. T.; Parimi, P. V.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.

    2008-11-01

    A tunable negative refractive index metamaterial and miniature phase shifter have been designed and fabricated in a microstrip configuration for applications in radio frequency integrated circuits. The metamaterial consists of plasmonic copper wires and yttrium iron garnet slabs having a low insertion loss of 5dB at the center of the transmission band. The yttrium iron garnet material enables the magnetic field tuning of the negative refractive index in a dynamic frequency band from 7.0to11.0GHz. The insertion phase can be tuned by 45° continuously by varying the bias field from 3.8to4.6kOe at 9.0GHz.

  5. The 1.083 micron tunable CW semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C. S.; Chen, Jan-Shin; Lu, Ken-Gen; Ouyang, Keng

    1991-01-01

    A tunable CW laser is desired to produce light equivalent to the helium spectral line at 1.08 microns. This laser will serve as an optical pumping source for He-3 and He-4 atoms used in space magnetometers. This light source can be fabricated either as a semiconductor laser diode or a pumped solid state laser. Continuous output power of greater than 10 mW is desired. Semiconductor lasers can be thermally tuned, but must be capable of locking onto the helium resonance lines. Solid state lasers must have efficient pumping sources suitable for space configuration. Additional requirements are as follows: space magnetometer applications will include low mass (less than 0.5 kg), low power consumption (less than 0.75 W), and high stability/reliability for long missions (5-10 years).

  6. Tunable interdigital transducers made of piezoelectric macro-fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mańka, Michał; Martowicz, Adam; Rosiek, Mateusz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2016-11-01

    The number of applications of Lamb waves (LWs) based structural health monitoring (SHM) has significantly increased in recent decades. The growth of interest results from several advantages of this diagnostic technique, that is, considerable mode selectivity and directivity that allow for the assessment of the technical condition of a monitored structure. Successful applications of LWs in the field of SHM stimulate continuous improvement of the transducers’ design to enable capturing more reliable diagnostic data. The paper introduces a new type of transducer that may be used in the LWs based SHM systems, namely tunable-interdigital transducer (T-IDT) based on macro-fiber composites (MFC). The authors provide a short overview on different types of transducers that may be used in SHM applications, followed by a detailed description of the structure of proposed T-IDT. Finally, the results of numerical and experimental tests carried out employing the proposed transducer are discussed and compared to those obtained with a traditional IDT.

  7. Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Tunable Structural Color

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The performance of perovskite solar cells has been progressing over the past few years and efficiency is likely to continue to increase. However, a negative aspect for the integration of perovskite solar cells in the built environment is that the color gamut available in these materials is very limited and does not cover the green-to-blue region of the visible spectrum, which has been a big selling point for organic photovoltaics. Here, we integrate a porous photonic crystal (PC) scaffold within the photoactive layer of an opaque perovskite solar cell following a bottom-up approach employing inexpensive and scalable liquid processing techniques. The photovoltaic devices presented herein show high efficiency with tunable color across the visible spectrum. This now imbues the perovskite solar cells with highly desirable properties for cladding in the built environment and encourages design of sustainable colorful buildings and iridescent electric vehicles as future power generation sources. PMID:25650872

  8. Electrically Tunable Nd:YAG waveguide laser based on Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Linan; Tan, Yang; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunable hybrid Graphene-Nd:YAG cladding waveguide laser exploiting the electro-optic and the Joule heating effects of Graphene. A cladding Nd:YAG waveguide was fabricated by the ion irradiation. The multi-layer graphene were transferred onto the waveguide surface as the saturable absorber to get the Q-switched pulsed laser oscillation in the waveguide. Composing with appropriate electrodes, graphene based capacitance and heater were formed on the surface of the Nd:YAG waveguide. Through electrical control of graphene, the state of the hybrid waveguide laser was turned on or off. And the laser operation of the hybrid waveguide was electrically tuned between the continuous wave laser and the nanosecond pulsed laser. PMID:27833114

  9. Electrically Tunable Nd:YAG waveguide laser based on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Linan; Tan, Yang; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a tunable hybrid Graphene-Nd:YAG cladding waveguide laser exploiting the electro-optic and the Joule heating effects of Graphene. A cladding Nd:YAG waveguide was fabricated by the ion irradiation. The multi-layer graphene were transferred onto the waveguide surface as the saturable absorber to get the Q-switched pulsed laser oscillation in the waveguide. Composing with appropriate electrodes, graphene based capacitance and heater were formed on the surface of the Nd:YAG waveguide. Through electrical control of graphene, the state of the hybrid waveguide laser was turned on or off. And the laser operation of the hybrid waveguide was electrically tuned between the continuous wave laser and the nanosecond pulsed laser.

  10. Tunable Circularly Polarized Terahertz Radiation from Magnetized Gas Plasma.

    PubMed

    Wang, W-M; Gibbon, P; Sheng, Z-M; Li, Y-T

    2015-06-26

    It is shown, by simulation and theory, that circularly or elliptically polarized terahertz radiation can be generated when a static magnetic (B) field is imposed on a gas target along the propagation direction of a two-color laser driver. The radiation frequency is determined by √[ω(p)(2)+ω(c)(2)/4]+ω(c)/2, where ω(p) is the plasma frequency and ω(c) is the electron cyclotron frequency. With the increase of the B field, the radiation changes from a single-cycle broadband waveform to a continuous narrow-band emission. In high-B-field cases, the radiation strength is proportional to ω(p)(2)/ω(c). The B field provides a tunability in the radiation frequency, spectrum width, and field strength.

  11. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  12. Optically Tunable Long Wavelength Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser Operated at Room Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-09

    dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4774267] Rapidly tunable quantum cascade lasers ( QCLs ) is a key element for the recently proposed long-wavelength infrared (LWIR...is the signal data bandwidth.1,2 QCLs are the only semiconductor lasers that can operate continuous-wave (CW) at room temperature in LWIR. Cur- rently...frequency-tuning of the distributed feedback (DFB) QCLs is typically achieved by temperature control over effective refractive index using pump

  13. Terahertz metamaterials with semiconductor split-ring resonators for magnetostatic tunability.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiaguang; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2008-09-15

    We studied a metasurface constituted as a periodic array of semiconductor split-ring resonators. The resonance frequencies of the metasurface excited by normally incident light were found to be continuously tunable in the terahertz regime through an external magnetostatic field of suitable orientation. As such metasurfaces can be assembled into 3D metamaterials, the foregoing conclusion also applies to metamaterials comprising semiconductor split-ring resonators.

  14. Tunable all electric spin polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Nikhil K.

    To realize the full potential of spin-based devices, ways must be found to inject, manipulate, and detect the spin of the electron by purely electrical means. Previously, our group has shown that a quantum point contact (QPC) with lateral spin orbit coupling (LSOC) can be used to create a strongly spin-polarized current by purely electrical means. The LSOC results from the lateral in-plane electric field created by the confining potential in QPCs with in-plane side gates (SGs). Strongly spin-polarized currents can be generated by tuning the asymmetric bias voltages on the side gates. A conductance anomaly in the form of a plateau at conductance G ≅ 0.5G0 (where G 0 = 2e2/h) was observed in the ballistic conductance of a QPC based in the absence of magnetic field - which was established to be a signature of complete spin polarization. A Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) analysis was used to model a small QPC and three ingredients were found to be essential to generate a strong spin polarization: (1) LSOC, (2) an asymmetric lateral confinement, and (3) a strong electron-electron (e-e) interaction. We have also shown that all-electric control of spin polarization can be achieved for different materials, electron mobility, heterostructure design, QPC dimensions and strength of LSOC. Our previous experimental and theoretical results have also found the presence of other conductance anomalies (i.e., at values different from 0.5 G0 ) and the main reason for these occurrences was shown to be due to the influence of surface roughness scattering. In this thesis, we address the important technological challenge to better control the location of the conductance anomalies in QPCs and create a tunable all-electric spin polarizer based on a QPC with four gates, i.e., with two in-plane SGs in series. Here, the first pair of SGs, near the source, is asymmetrically biased to create spin polarization in the QPC channel. The second set of gates, near the drain, is

  15. Tunable frequency stabilized diode-laser-pumped Tm,Ho:YLiF4 laser at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, Brendan T.; Menzies, Robert T.; Esproles, Carlos

    1993-01-01

    A diode-laser-pumped single-frequency thulium holmium yttrium lithium fluoride laser that exhibits a closed-loop stability of a few megahertz and a continuous single-mode tuning range of 800 MHz is described. The laser output power is 25 mW, and is tunable over about 8/cm at 25 C.

  16. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  17. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  18. Tunable bead-on-string microstructures fabricated by mechano-electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ningbin; Huang, YongAn; Deng, Huixu; Yin, Zhouping

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, bead-on-string microstructures are fabricated by the mechano-electrospinning (MES) process in a continuously tunable manner. The thin jet is pulled onto the substrate by the stable electric field force and tunable mechanical drawing force, and then the bead-on-string structures are generated by means of the force exerted on the jet, which changes from capillary force and resisting viscosity force to friction force at the contact point in the horizontal direction. In a stable bead-on-string formation process, one cycle can be divided into three stages from the point of view of the jet behaviour: being anchored, being stretched, and skipping. The bead size and the bead gap are continuously tunable through the MES process. The fabrication mechanisms of the bead-on-string microstructure are uncovered through theoretical analysis and experimental characterization. When a critical velocity is achieved, the jet directly falls on the substrate without accumulation since the mechanical drawing force in the horizontal direction overtakes the capillary force, which leads the bead-on-string microstructures to a continuous fibre line. It is a flexible and highly controllable method to fabricate bead-on-string microstructures.

  19. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application.

  20. Broadly tunable high-power operation of an all-solid-state titanium-doped sapphire laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, T. R.; Gerstenberger, D. C.; Drobshoff, A.; Wallace, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Broadly tunable and high-power operation of a Ti-doped sapphire laser is obtained with a diode-laser-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser as the pump source. A maximum broadband (FWHM = 25 nm) output pulse energy of 720 microJ at 795 nm in a TEM00 mode is obtained for 1850 microJ of energy of 532-nm pump light. A minimum pulse duration of 7 nsec is obtained from a 40-mm-long cavity. With the use of an intracavity prism, the Ti:sapphire laser is tunable continuously over the 696-1000-nm spectral range (with three different mirror sets).

  1. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application.

  2. An electrically tunable optical zoom system using two composite liquid crystal lenses with a large zoom ratio.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Hung-Chun

    2011-02-28

    An electrically tunable-focusing optical zoom system using two composite LC lenses with a large zoom ratio is demonstrated. The optical principle is investigated. To enhance the electrically tunable focusing range of the negative lens power of the LC lens for a large zoom ratio, we adopted two composite LC lenses. Each composite LC lens consists of a sub-LC lens and a planar polymeric lens. The zoom ratio of the optical zooming system reaches ~7.9:1 and the object can be zoomed in or zoomed out continuously at the objective distance of infinity to 10 cm. The potential applications are cell phones, cameras, telescope and pico projectors.

  3. Electronic sideband locking of a broadly tunable 318.6 nm ultraviolet laser to an ultra-stable optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jiandong; Wang, Jieying; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate frequency stabilization of a tunable 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser system using electronic sideband locking. By indirectly changing the frequency of a broadband electro-optic phase modulator, the laser can be continuously tuned over 4 GHz, while a 637.2 nm laser is directly stabilized to a high-finesse ultra-stable optical cavity. The doubling cavity also remains locked to the 637.2 nm light. We show that the tuning range depends mainly on the gain-flattening region of the modulator and the piezo-tunable range of the seed laser. The frequency-stabilized tunable UV laser system is able to compensate for the offset between reference and target frequencies, and has potential applications in precision spectroscopy of cold atoms.

  4. Continuation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont Unified School District, CA.

    The Fremont, California Unified School District organized a continuing education program through a workshop held in the summer of 1968. This paper presents the results of that workshop. Following a statement of philosophy, an outline of the characteristics of the continuation student, and an outline of the functions of the program, an overview of…

  5. Electrically tunable nonlinear plasmonics in graphene nanoislands.

    PubMed

    Cox, Joel D; Javier García de Abajo, F

    2014-12-11

    Nonlinear optical processes rely on the intrinsically weak interactions between photons enabled by their coupling with matter. Unfortunately, many applications in nonlinear optics are severely hindered by the small response of conventional materials. Metallic nanostructures partially alleviate this situation, as the large light enhancement associated with their localized plasmons amplifies their nonlinear response to record high levels. Graphene hosts long-lived, electrically tunable plasmons that also interact strongly with light. Here we show that the nonlinear polarizabilities of graphene nanoislands can be electrically tuned to surpass by several orders of magnitude those of metal nanoparticles of similar size. This extraordinary behaviour extends over the visible and near-infrared spectrum for islands consisting of hundreds of carbon atoms doped with moderate carrier densities. Our quantum-mechanical simulations of the plasmon-enhanced optical response of nanographene reveal this material as an ideal platform for the development of electrically tunable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  6. Tunable nano dispersed LC based patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Afaque; Yadav, Harsh; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents Patch antenna based on pure and Nano dispersed liquid crystals (LCs) for earth and space applications. Patch antenna are one of the most attractive antennas designed for RF frequency. To fulfill the demand of modern antenna i.e. tunability, a design of LC based patch antenna with optimum frequency of 15 GHz is investigated. In this design, NLC and ZnO doped NLC were used as a dielectric substrate. Its dielectric permittivity was controlled by biasing voltage. The dielectric properties of the 4-Cyano-4' -pentylbiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and NLC doped with Zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles was studied at room temperature. The concentration of doping material was 0.5% by w.t. in ZnO. Results shows that dielectric parameters are strong function of frequency and applied bias voltage. Moreover, Using doped NLC as dielectric substrate one gets more tunability or shift in resonant frequency in the proposed geometry.

  7. Thermally tunable quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Robert; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A F

    2013-07-15

    The spectral responses of series-coupled racetrack resonators exhibiting the Vernier effect have many attractive features as compared to the spectral responses of identical series-coupled racetrack resonators, such as free spectral range (FSR) extension and enhanced wavelength tunability. Here we present experimental results of a thermally tunable quadruple series-coupled silicon racetrack resonator exhibiting the Vernier effect. We thermally tune two of the four racetrack resonators to enable discrete switching of the major peak by 15.54 nm. Also, our device has an interstitial peak suppression of 35.4 dB, a 3 dB bandwidth of 0.45 nm, and an extended FSR of 37.66 nm.

  8. Heterodyne applications of tunable semiconductor diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidney, B. D.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared tunable diode lasers were developed in the 1960s and have been a valuable radiation source for high resolution laboratory and in situ spectroscopy. Use of Pb-salt Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL) in heterodyne applications impose stringent requirements on the TDL not normally required for laboratory spectroscopy. A review will be made of progress associated with TDLs in such heterodyne applications. Areas addressed will include such items as lifetime, operating temperature, and factors affecting excess noise. The review will emphasize the experience at Langley Research Center, but will include material from other users. The Langley information will include a description and current status of the Laser Heterodyne Spectrometer experiment and atmospheric solar absorption data obtained from a groundbased heterodyne system.

  9. Optically tunable chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hsiao, V K S; Tang, Jie-Yuan; Zhao, Fuli; Jiang, Shao-Ji

    2012-05-07

    This work presents an optically tunable chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG). The CFBG is obtained by a side-polished fiber Bragg grating (SPFBG) whose thickness of the residual cladding layer in the polished area (D(RC)) varies with position along the length of the grating, which is coated with a photoresponsive liquid crystal (LC) overlay. The reflection spectrum of the CFBG is tuned by refractive index (RI) modulation, which comes from the phase transition of the overlaid photoresponsive LC under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. The broadening in the reflection spectrum and corresponding shift in the central wavelength are observed with UV light irradiation density of 0.64mW/mm. During the phase transition of the photoresponsive LC, the RI increase of the overlaid LC leads to the change of the CFBG reflection spectrum and the change is reversible and repeatable. The optically tunable CFBGs have potential use in optical DWDM system and an all-fiber telecommunication system.

  10. Composite Supraparticles with Tunable Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Montanarella, Federico; Altantzis, Thomas; Zanaga, Daniele; Rabouw, Freddy T; Bals, Sara; Baesjou, Patrick; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2017-09-26

    Robust luminophores emitting light with broadly tunable colors are desirable in many applications such as light-emitting diode (LED)-based lighting, displays, integrated optoelectronics and biology. Nanocrystalline quantum dots with multicolor emission, from core- and shell-localized excitons, as well as solid layers of mixed quantum dots that emit different colors have been proposed. Here, we report on colloidal supraparticles that are composed of three types of Cd(Se,ZnS) core/(Cd,Zn)S shell nanocrystals with emission in the red, green, and blue. The emission of the supraparticles can be varied from pure to composite colors over the entire visible region and fine-tuned into variable shades of white light by mixing the nanocrystals in controlled proportions. Our approach results in supraparticles with sizes spanning the colloidal domain and beyond that combine versatility and processability with a broad, stable, and tunable emission, promising applications in lighting devices and biological research.

  11. A tunable wavelength-conversion laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kentaro; Kuno, Masaaki; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Wakao, Kiyohide

    1992-05-01

    A novel wavelength-conversion laser was fabricated using monolithic integration of a bistable laser diode and a wavelength-tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser. This device converts an input light signal with a certain wavelength to output light with a tunable wavelength over 3.5 nm. Input power required for switching is investigated, and its resonant dependence on input wavelength is revealed. Input polarization is also discussed, and suppression of crosstalk is demonstrated. This device's turn-off switching response is greatly influenced by the light power of the input signal as well as bias current, and the first 1 Gb/s operation is achieved in optimum conditions for fast turn-off and stable turn-on.

  12. On-chip tunable optofluidic dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zengyan; Shen, Zhenhua; Liu, Haigang; Yue, Huan; Zou, Yun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a chip-scale tunable optofluidic dye laser with Au-coated fibers as microcavity. The chip is fabricated by soft lithography. When the active region is pumped, a relatively low threshold of 6.7 μJ/mm2 is realized with multimode emission due to good confinement of the cavity mirrors, long active region, as well as total reflectivity. It is easy to tune the lasing emission wavelength by changing the solvent of laser dye. In addition, the various intensity ratios of multicolor lasing can be achieved by controlling flow rates of two fluid streams carried with different dye molecules. Furthermore, the convenience in fabrication and directional lasing emission outcoupled by the fiber make the tunable optofluidic dye laser a promising underlying coherent light source in the integrated optofluidic systems.

  13. Tunable coupling between two superconducting resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, F.; Wulschner, F.; Baust, A.; Hoffmann, E.; Menzel, E. P.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; Solano, E.; Zueco, D.; Garcia Ripoll, J.-J.

    2014-03-01

    During the last decade, tremendous progress has been made towards quantum computation and quantum simulation with superconducting circuits. In such architectures, the controlled exchange of information between two superconducting transmission line resonators via a tunable coupling is a useful tool. Here, we present experimental progress on such devices. Specifically, the coupling is mediated either by a superconducting flux qubit or by an RF SQUID. Our results allow us to analyze the tunable coupling in frequency and time domain. We acknowledge support from: the DFG via SFB 631; the German excellence initiative via NIM; the EU projects CCQED, PROMISCE, SCALEQIT; Spanish MINECO FIS2009-12773-C02-01, FIS2011-25167, FIS2012-36673-C03-02; UPV/EHU UFI 11/55; Basque Government IT472-10.

  14. A tunable magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Yu; He, Liang; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De

    2015-03-01

    A tunable magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is put forward and simulated. When the MILO is driven by a 430 kV, 40.6 kA electron beam, high-power microwave is generated with a peak output power of 3.0 GW and frequency of 1.51 GHz, and the relevant power conversion efficiency is 17.2%. The 3-dB tunable frequency range (the relative output power is above half of the peak output power) is 2.25-0.825 GHz when the outer radius of the slow-wave structure (SWS) vanes ranges from 77 mm to 155 mm, and the 3-dB tuning bandwidth is 92%, which is sufficient for the aim of large-scale tuning and high power output. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11075210) and the Special Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 201104761).

  15. Electronic and thermally tunable infrared metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrekenhamer, David; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Brinkley, Matthew; Fan, Kebin; Peng, Fenglin; Montoya, John A.; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson; Padilla, Willie J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report a computational and experimental study using tunable infrared (IR) metamaterial absorbers (MMAs) to demonstrate frequency tunable (7%) and amplitude modulation (61%) designs. The dynamic tuning of each structure was achieved through the addition of an active material—liquid crystals (LC) or vanadium dioxide (VO2)-within the unit cell of the MMA architecture. In both systems, an applied stimulus (electric field or temperature) induced a dielectric change in the active material and subsequent variation in the absorption and reflection properties of the MMA in the mid- to long-wavelength region of the IR (MWIR and LWIR, respectively). These changes were observed to be reversible for both systems and dynamic in the LC-based structure.

  16. Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser in a PPKTP waveguide Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, K. A.; Sokolovskii, G. S.; Battle, P. R.; Livshits, D. A.; Rafailov, E. U.

    2012-11-01

    Quasi-phase-matching is an important and widely-used technique in nonlinear optics enabling efficient frequency up-conversion. However, since its introduction almost half a century ago, this technique is well developed for near infrared (IR) but is intrinsically limited in spectral tunability in the visible range by the strict conditions set by the spatial modulation which compensates the momentum mismatch imposed by the dispersion. Here, we provide a fundamental generalization of quasi-phase-matching based on the utilization of a significant difference in the effective refractive indices of the high- and low-order modes in multimode waveguides. This concept enables to match the period of poling in a very broad wavelength range and opens up a new avenue for an order-of-magnitude increase in wavelength range for frequency conversion from a single crystal. Using this approach, we demonstrate an all-room-temperature continuous-wave (CW) second harmonic generation (SHG) with over 60 nm tunability from green to red in a periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) waveguide pumped by a single broadly-tunable quantum-dot laser diode.

  17. Array Plate Apparatus Having Tunable Isolation Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-26

    832-4230. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited ARRAY PLATE APPARATUS HAVING TUNABLE ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS...The present invention generally relates to an array plate for use on underwater vehicles. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0003] Presently, underwater...arrays that have acoustic transducers or other sensing elements attached to an array plate or baffle. The performance of these sonar arrays is often

  18. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOEpatents

    Byer, Robert L.; Herbst, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  19. Efficient phase-tunable Josephson thermal rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pérez, M. J.; Giazotto, F.

    2013-05-01

    Josephson tunnel junctions are proposed as efficient phase-tunable thermal rectifiers. The latter exploit the strong temperature dependence of the superconducting density of states and phase-dependence of heat currents flowing through Josephson junctions to operate. Remarkably, large heat rectification coefficients up to ˜800% can potentially be achieved using conventional materials and standard fabrication methods. In addition, these devices allow for the in situ fine tuning of the thermal rectification magnitude and direction.

  20. Tunable-focus lens for adaptive eyeglasses.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nazmul; Banerjee, Aishwaryadev; Kim, Hanseup; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

    2017-01-23

    We demonstrate the implementation of a compact tunable-focus liquid lens suitable for adaptive eyeglass application. The lens has an aperture diameter of 32 mm, optical power range of 5.6 diopter, and electrical power consumption less than 20 mW. The lens inclusive of its piezoelectric actuation mechanism is 8.4 mm thick and weighs 14.4 gm. The measured lens RMS wavefront aberration error was between 0.73 µm and 0.956 µm.

  1. Self-Tuning Tunable Mass Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F. (Inventor); Niedermaier, Daniel (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A tunable mass damper incorporates a frame and a voice coil supported in the frame. A magnet concentric with the voice coil is movable relative to the housing via the voice coil. A plurality of flexures having a first end extending from the magnet and an arm releasably coupled to the frame are adjustable to an effective length for a desired frequency of reciprocation of the magnet.

  2. Rugged, Tunable Extended-Cavity Diode Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Donald; Brinza, David; Seidel, David; Klipstein, William; Choi, Dong Ho; Le, Lam; Zhang, Guangzhi; Iniguez, Roberto; Tang, Wade

    2007-01-01

    A rugged, tunable extended-cavity diode laser (ECDL) has been developed to satisfy stringent requirements for frequency stability, notably including low sensitivity to vibration. This laser is designed specifically for use in an atomic-clock experiment to be performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Lasers of similar design would be suitable for use in terrestrial laboratories engaged in atomic-clock and atomic-physics research.

  3. Tunable impedance matching network fundamental limits and practical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Wesley N.

    As wireless devices continue to increase in utility while decreasing in dimension, design of the RF front-end becomes more complex. It is common for a single handheld device to operate on a plethora of frequency bands, utilize multiple antennae, and be subjected to a variety of environments. One complexity in particular which arises from these factors is that of impedance mismatch. Recently, tunable impedance matching networks have begun to be implemented to address this problem. This dissertation presents the first in-depth study on the frequency tuning range of tunable impedance matching networks. Both the fundamental limitations of ideal networks as well as practical considerations for design and implementation are addressed. Specifically, distributed matching networks with a single tuning element are investigated for use with parallel resistor-capacitor and series resistor-inductor loads. Analytical formulas are developed to directly calculate the frequency tuning range TR of ideal topologies. The theoretical limit of TR for these topologies is presented and discussed. Additional formulas are developed which address limitations in transmission line characteristic impedance and varactor range. Equations to predict loss due to varactor quality factor are demonstrated and the ability of parasitics to both increase and decrease TR are shown. Measured results exemplify i) the potential to develop matching networks with a small impact from parasitics, ii) the need for accurate knowledge of parasitics when designing near transition points in optimal parameters, iii) the importance of using a transmission line with the right characteristic impedance, and iv) the ability to achieve extremely low loss at the design frequency with a lossy varactor under the right conditions (measured loss of -0.07 dB). In the area of application, tunable matching networks are designed and measured for mobile handset antennas, demonstrating up to a 3 dB improvement in power delivered to a

  4. LTCC Phase Shifters Based on Tunable Ferroelectric Composite Thick Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikfalazar, M.; Kohler, C.; Heunisch, A.; Wiens, A.; Zheng, Y.; Schulz, B.; Mikolajek, M.; Sohrabi, M.; Rabe, T.; Binder, J. R.; Jakoby, R.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents, the investigation of tunable components based on LTCC technology, implementing ferroelectric tunable thick-film dielectric. The tunable loaded line phase shifters are fabricated with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) varactors to demonstrate the capabilities of this method for packaging of the tunable components. The MIM varactors consist of one tunable dielectric paste layer that is printed between two silver layers. The tunable ferroelectric paste is optimized for LTCC sintering temperature around 850°C. The phase shifters are fabricated in two different process. They were achieved a figure of merit of 24°/dB (phase shift 192°) at 3 GHz and 18°/dB (phase shift 98°) at 4.4 GHz by using seven unit cells that each unit cell consisting of two MIM varactors.

  5. Tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source

    DOEpatents

    Powers, Peter E.; Kulp, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    A tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source and a method of operating a light source are provided. The light source includes a pump laser, first and second non-linear optical crystals, a tunable filter, and light pulse directing optics. The method includes the steps of operating the pump laser to generate a pulsed pump beam characterized by a nanosecond pulse duration and arranging the light pulse directing optics so as to (i) split the pulsed pump beam into primary and secondary pump beams; (ii) direct the primary pump beam through an input face of the first non-linear optical crystal such that a primary output beam exits from an output face of the first non-linear optical crystal; (iii) direct the primary output beam through the tunable filter to generate a sculpted seed beam; and direct the sculpted seed beam and the secondary pump beam through an input face of the second non-linear optical crystal such that a secondary output beam characterized by at least one spectral bandwidth on the order of about 0.1 cm.sup.-1 and below exits from an output face of the second non-linear optical crystal.

  6. Tunable nanoparticle arrays at charged interfaces.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sunita; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Fukuto, Masafumi; Gang, Oleg

    2014-10-28

    Structurally tunable two-dimensional (2D) arrays of nanoscale objects are important for modulating functional responses of thin films. We demonstrate that such tunable and ordered nanoparticles (NP) arrays can be assembled at charged air-water interfaces from nanoparticles coated with polyelectrolyte chains, DNA. The electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged nonhybridizing DNA-coated gold NPs and a positively charged lipid layer at the interface facilitates the formation of a 2D hexagonally closed packed (HCP) nanoparticle lattice. We observed about 4-fold change of the monolayer nanoparticle density by varying the ionic strength of the subphase. The tunable NP arrays retain their structure reasonably well when transferred to a solid support. The influence of particle's DNA corona and lipid layer composition on the salt-induced in-plane and normal structural evolution of NP arrays was studied in detail using a combination of synchrotron-based in situ surface scattering methods, grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Comparative analysis of the interparticle distances as a function of ionic strength reveals the difference between the studied 2D nanoparticle arrays and analogous bulk polyelectrolyte star polymers systems, typically described by Daoud-Cotton model and power law scaling. The observed behavior of the 2D nanoparticle array manifests a nonuniform deformation of the nanoparticle DNA corona due to its electrostatically induced confinement at the lipid interface. The present study provides insight on the interfacial properties of the NPs coated with charged soft shells.

  7. Phononic Crystal Tunable via Ferroelectric Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaowei; Cai, Feiyan; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Fei; Sun, Rong; Fu, Xianzhu; Xiong, Rengen; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-09-01

    Phononic crystals (PCs) consisting of periodic materials with different acoustic properties have potential applications in functional devices. To realize more smart functions, it is desirable to actively control the properties of PCs on demand, ideally within the same fabricated system. Here, we report a tunable PC made of Ba0.7Sr0.3Ti O3 (BST) ceramics, wherein a 20-K temperature change near room temperature results in a 20% frequency shift in the transmission spectra induced by a ferroelectric phase transition. The tunability phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of A0 and A1 Lamb modes that exist intrinsically in the uniform BST plate, while these Lamb modes are sensitive to the elastic properties of the plate and can be modulated by temperature in a BST plate around the Curie temperature. The study finds opportunities for creating tunable PCs and enables smart temperature-tuned devices such as the Lamb wave filter or sensor.

  8. The MVACS tunable diode laser spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Randy D.; Forouhar, Siamak; Crisp, David; Woodward, W. Stephen; Paige, David A.; Pathare, Asmin; Boynton, William V.

    2001-08-01

    Two independent tunable diode laser spectrometers are resident aboard the Mars Polar Lander as part of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload. One spectrometer is located on the meteorological mast for measurements of H2O and CO2 in the free atmosphere, and the other serves as the H2O and CO2 analyzer for the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer. Water vapor is measured using a tunable diode laser operating at 1.37 μm, while CO2 is measured using a second laser operating near 2.05 μm. The 2.05 μm laser also has isotopic analysis capability. In addition to the major CO2 isotopomer (12C16O16O), analyses of 13C16O16O and 12C18O16O in the atmosphere and in the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer are possible under certain conditions. The spectrometers were designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and have their heritage in a series of tunable diode laser spectrometers developed for Earth atmospheric studies using high-altitude aircraft and balloon platforms. The 1.37 μm diode laser on the meteorological mast will provide the first in situ measurements of water vapor in the Martian boundary layer, with a detection sensitivity an order of magnitude greater than the water vapor abundances inferred from the remote-sensing observations by the Viking Orbiters.

  9. Extended Tunability in a Two-Chip VECSEL (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2008-1173 EXTENDED TUNABILITY IN A TWO-CHIP VECSEL (POSTPRINT) Li Fan, Mahmoud Fallahi, Aramais R. Zakharian, Jörg Hader...Article Postprint 01 November 2006 – 14 April 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXTENDED TUNABILITY IN A TWO-CHIP VECSEL (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...12 Oct 2006. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT We demonstrate a widely tunable vertical-external cavity surface-emitting laser ( VECSEL ) with a W

  10. Wavelength tunable dual channel solid state laser for terahertz difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Evan; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Venus, George; Divliansky, Ivan; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L.; Glebov, Leonid

    2017-02-01

    The generation of tunable narrowband terahertz (THz) radiation has shown much interest in recent years. THz systems are used for rotational-vibrational spectroscopy, nondestructive inspection, security screening and others. Monochromatic THz emission has been generated by means of THz parametric oscillation, nonlinear difference frequency generation, and quantum cascade lasers. Intracavity difference frequency generation (DFG) in the nonlinear crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) is known as an efficient way to generate a continuous wave THz radiation. A novel high power solid state resonator is presented with the use of volume Bragg grating (VBG) technology to create a dual channel system by spectral beam combination. The system consists of two separate Tm:YLF crystals and two VBGs for narrowband wavelength selection. At the end of the resonator both channels share common spherical mirrors, which provide feedback and focuses the beam for nonlinear purposes. This allows each channel to be independent in power and wavelength, eliminating gain competition and allowing individual wavelength tunability. The VBGs are recorded in photo-thermo-refractive glass, which has a high laser induced damage threshold and can withstand the high intracavity power present in the resonator. Tunability of the system has shown spectral spacing from 5 to 20 nm, 0.4 - 1.7 THz, and intracavity continuous wave power levels from 80 to 100 W. By placing the GaAs crystal near the waist, THz radiation can be extracted from the cavity.

  11. Optical Tunable-Based Transmitter for Multiple Radio Frequency Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung (Inventor); Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor); Freeman, Jon C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical tunable transmitter is used to transmit multiple radio frequency bands on a single beam. More specifically, a tunable laser is configured to generate a plurality of optical wavelengths, and an optical tunable transmitter is configured to modulate each of the plurality of optical wavelengths with a corresponding radio frequency band. The optical tunable transmitter is also configured to encode each of the plurality of modulated optical wavelengths onto a single laser beam for transmission of a plurality of radio frequency bands using the single laser beam.

  12. Tunable hollow optical waveguides for photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2004-10-01

    We propose a tunable hollow optical waveguide with a variable air core toward a new class of photonic integrated circuits. We present various unique features in hollow waveguides and the combination with microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) will gives us widely tunable waveguide devices. We presente the design and fabrication of a tunable hollow waveguide with a variable air core. We describe the full-vectorial modeling of 3D and slab hollow waveguides with a variable air core, which is also supported by experiments. We demonstrated low loss and polarization insensitive waveguiding in an air core with optimized multilayer coating. The result shows a possibility of a large change of ~3% in propagation constant with a variable air core. We will present a wide variety of device applications based on hollow waveguides, which include tunable grating demultiplexers, variable attenuators, optical switches, tunable Bragg reflectors, tunable dispersion compensators and tunable lasers. The device structure can be formed by fully planar fabrication processes based on lithography and etching. The proposed concept may open up a new class of various tunable optical devices, which give us unique features of wide tunability, compact size and temperature insensitivity.

  13. Tunable Bragg filters with a phase transition material defect layer

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xi; Gong, Zilun; Dong, Kaichen; ...

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-solid-state tunable Bragg filter with a phase transition material as the defect layer. Bragg filters based on a vanadium dioxide defect layer sandwiched between silicon dioxide/titanium dioxide Bragg gratings are experimentally demonstrated. Temperature dependent reflection spectroscopy shows the dynamic tunability and hysteresis properties of the Bragg filter. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy reveals the connection between the tunability and the phase transition of the vanadium dioxide defect layer. This work paves a new avenue in tunable Bragg filter designs and promises more applications by combining phase transition materials and optical cavities.

  14. Tunable nonlinear superconducting metamaterials: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepanier, Melissa

    I present experimental and numerical simulation results for two types of nonlinear tunable superconducting metamaterials: 2D arrays of rf SQUIDs (radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices) as magnetic metamaterials and arrays of Josephson junction-loaded wires as electric metamaterials. The effective inductance of a Josephson junction is sensitive to dc current, temperature, and rf current. I took advantage of this property to design arrays of Josephson junction-loaded wires that present a tunable cutoff frequency and thus a tunable effective permittivity for propagating electromagnetic waves in a one-conductor waveguide. I measured the response of the metamaterial to each tuning parameter and found agreement with numerical simulations that employ the RCSJ (resistively and capacitively shunted junction) model. An rf SQUID is an analogue of an SRR (split ring resonator) with the gap capacitance replaced with a Josephson junction. Like the SRR the SQUID is a resonant structure with a frequency-dependent effective permeability. The difference between the SQUID and the SRR is that the effective inductance and thus effective permeability of the SQUID can be tuned with dc and rf flux, and temperature. Individual rf SQUID meta-atoms and two-dimensional arrays were designed and measured as a function of each tuning parameter and I have found excellent agreement with numerical simulations. There is also an interesting transparency feature that occurs for intermediate rf flux values. The tuning of SQUID arrays has a similar character to the tuning of individual rf SQUID meta-atoms. However, I found that the coupling between the SQUIDs increases the resonant frequency, decreases dc flux tuning, and introduces additional resonant modes. Another feature of arrays is disorder which suppresses the coherence of the response and negatively impacts the emergent properties of the metamaterial. The disorder was experimentally found to be mainly due to a dc flux

  15. Tetravalent chromium (Cr(4+)) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    Generation of femtosecond pulses from a continuous-wave mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite (Cr(4+):Mg2SiO4) laser has been accomplished. The forsterite laser was actively mode-locked using an acousto-optic modulator operating at 78 MHz with two Brewster high-dispersion glass prisms for intra-cavity chirp compensation. Transform-limited sub-100-fs pulses were routinely generated in the TEM(sub 00) mode with 85 mW of continuous power (with 1 percent output coupler), tunable over 1230-1280 nm. The shortest pulses of 60-fs pulsewidth were measured.

  16. Tunable Metasurface and Flat Optical Zoom Lens on a Stretchable Substrate.

    PubMed

    Ee, Ho-Seok; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-04-13

    A mechanically reconfigurable metasurface that can continuously tune the wavefront is demonstrated in the visible frequency range by changing the lattice constant of a complex Au nanorod array fabricated on a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane substrate. It is shown that the anomalous refraction angle of visible light at 632.8 nm interacting with the tunable metasurface can be adjusted from 11.4° to 14.9° by stretching the substrate by ∼30%. An ultrathin flat 1.7× zoom lens whose focal length can continuously be changed from 150 to 250 μm is realized, which also demonstrates the potential of utilizing metasurfaces for reconfigurable flat optics.

  17. Single linearly polarized, widely and freely tunable two wavelengths Yb3+-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongfeng; Wang, Chinhua

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel single linearly polarized, widely, freely and continuously tunable two wavelengths Yb3+-doped fiber laser. The laser generates stable arbitrary two wavelengths output between 1003.1 and 1080.7 nm peak wavelengths simultaneously with a 346.0 mW CW power by using polarization beam splitting (PBS) for separation of two wavelengths. Each lasing line shows a single polarization with a polarization extinction ratio of >20 dB under different pump levels. The central and the interval of the two wavelengths can be tuned smoothly and independently in the entire gain region of >70 nm of PM Yb3+-doped single mode fiber. Strongly enhanced polarization-hole burning (PHB) phenomena in polarization maintain (PM) Yb3+-doped fiber was observed in the tunable two wavelengths Yb3+-doped fiber laser.

  18. Experimental demonstration of a low-cost tunable semiconductor DFB laser for access networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lianyan; Tang, Song; Huang, Long; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Simin; Shi, Yuechun; Chen, Xiangfei

    2014-09-01

    A low-cost tunable semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) laser design in access networks is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It covers 9 nm continuous tuning range by changing the temperature. The side mode suppression ratios are above 42 dB over the tuning range. The current and temperature coefficients of wavelength tuning are 0.0124 nm mA-1 and 0.0875 nm °C, respectively. The results indicate that the reconstruction-equivalent-chirp (REC) technique is promising to fabricate low-cost tunable DFB lasers meeting the requirement of wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical networks (WDM-PONs). It should be also noted that the tuning range can be easily extended by using more sections.

  19. Development of hierarchical, tunable pore size polymer foams for ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Christopher E.; Lee, Matthew Nicholson; Parra-Vasquez, A. Nicholas Gerardo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, one of the great challenges of inertial confinement fusion experiments is poor understanding of the effects of reactant heterogeneity on fusion reactions. The Marble campaign, conceived at Los Alamos National Laboratory, aims to gather new insights into this issue by utilizing target capsules containing polymer foams of variable pore sizes, tunable over an order of magnitude. Here, we describe recent and ongoing progress in the development of CH and CH/CD polymer foams in support of Marble. Hierarchical and tunable pore sizes have been achieved by utilizing a sacrificial porogen template within an open-celled poly(divinylbenzene) or poly(divinylbenzene-co-styrene) aerogel matrix, resulting in low-density foams (~30 mg/ml) with continuous multimodal pore networks.

  20. Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, C.; Guilhabert, B.; Laurand, N.; Dawson, M. D.

    2014-04-07

    A mechanically flexible and wavelength-tunable laser with an ultra-thin glass membrane as substrate is demonstrated. The optically pumped hybrid device has a distributed feedback cavity that combines a colloidal quantum dot gain film with a grating-patterned polymeric underlayer, all on a 30-μm thick glass sheet. The total thickness of the structure is only 75 μm. The hybrid laser has an average threshold fluence of 450 ± 80 μJ/cm{sup 2} (for 5-ns excitation pulses) at an emitting wavelength of 607 nm. Mechanically bending the thin-glass substrate enables continuous tuning of the laser emission wavelength over an 18-nm range, from 600 nm to 618 nm. The correlation between the wavelength tunability and the mechanical properties of the thin laser structure is verified theoretically and experimentally.

  1. Tunable nanojet-induced mode achieved by coupled core-shell microcylinders with nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The tunable nanojet-induced mode achieved by coupled core-shell microcylinders with nematic liquid crystals is reported. The optical transmission properties of touching core-shell microcylinders with nematic liquid crystals are studied by using high resolution finite-difference time-domain simulation. We identify two rotation mechanisms of liquid crystal in terms of the coupling efficiency between neighboring core-shell microcylinders. The nanojet-induced guided modes depend strongly on the directors of liquid crystals. The optical transport can be continuously tuned in the core-shell microcylinder by controlling the directors of liquid crystals. The coupled core-shell microcylinders can be assembled inside hollow structures to build tunable optical waveguides for effective and low-loss guiding of photons.

  2. Widely tunable all-fiber SESAM mode-locked Ytterbium laser with a linear cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Feng; Wang, Zhaokun; Wang, Ziwei; Bai, Yang; Li, Qiurui; Zhou, Jun

    2017-07-01

    We present a widely tunable all-fiber mode-locked laser based on semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) with a linear cavity design. An easy-to-use tunable bandpass filter based on thin film cavity technology is employed to tune the wavelength. By tuning the filter and adjusting the polarization controller, mode-locked operation can be achieved over the range of 1023 nm-1060 nm. With the polarization controller settled, mode-locked operation can be preserved and the wavelength can be continuously tuned from 1030 nm to 1053 nm. At 1030 nm, the laser delivers 9.6 mw average output power with 15.4 ps 10.96 MHz pulses at fundamental mode-locked operation.

  3. Tunable dual-band ferrite-based metamaterials with dual negative refractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. J.; Wen, G. J.; Yang, Y. J.; Xie, K.

    2012-01-01

    We report on three types of tunable dual-band metamaterial with dual negative refraction in this paper. The three types of metamaterial are composed of ferrite slabs and three different metallic resonators, including split-ring resonators (SRR), Ω-like resonators, and short wire pairs. The ferrite slabs under an applied magnetic bias provide one magnetic resonance frequency band and the three metallic resonators provide another magnetic resonance frequency band, respectively. The continuous wires within the metamaterials provide the negative permittivity in a wide frequency band covering the two magnetic resonance bands. We give the design, analysis and numerical demonstrations of three such types of metamaterial in detail. The effective electromagnetic parameters obtained from the simulated S-parameters indicate that the three types of metamaterial indeed exhibit two negative refraction passbands and the two passbands can also be shifted by changing the magnetic bias. Our results open the way to fabricate tunable dual-band metamaterial cloaks, absorbers, and antennas.

  4. Tunable dielectric properties and excellent microwave absorbing properties of elliptical Fe3O4 nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Guoxiu; Liu, Yun; Cui, Tingting; Li, Yana; Zhao, Yanting; Guan, Jianguo

    2016-02-01

    Elliptical Fe3O4 nanorings (NRs) with continuously tunable axes that range from 40 nm to 145 nm in length were prepared through a precursor-directed synthetic route to determine the electromagnetic responses generated at 2-18 GHz. The tunability of the dielectric properties of Fe3O4 NRs depends on the long axis rather than on the specific surface area, internal stress, and grain size. Elliptical Fe3O4 NRs exhibit the excellent microwave absorbing properties due to the unique ring-like configuration, which significantly enhances permittivity, multiple scattering, oscillation resonance absorption, microantenna radiation, and interference. These findings indicate that ring-like nanostructures are promising for devising effective microwave absorbers.

  5. Electrically Tunable Energy Bandgap in Dual-Gated Ultra-Thin Black Phosphorus Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shi-Li; Xie, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Jian-Hao; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    The energy bandgap is an intrinsic character of semiconductors, which largely determines their properties. The ability to continuously and reversibly tune the bandgap of a single device during real time operation is of great importance not only to device physics but also to technological applications. Here we demonstrate a widely tunable bandgap of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) by the application of vertical electric field in dual-gated BP field-effect transistors. A total bandgap reduction of 124 meV is observed when the electrical displacement field is increased from 0.10V/nm to 0.83V/nm. Our results suggest appealing potential for few-layer BP as a tunable bandgap material in infrared optoelectronics, thermoelectric power generation and thermal imaging.

  6. Injection-seeded tunable mid-infrared pulses generated by difference frequency mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Masuda, Takahiko; Hiraki, Takahiro; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    We report on the generation of nanosecond mid-infrared pulses having frequency tunability, a narrow linewidth, and a high pulse energy. These pulses are obtained by frequency mixing between injection-seeded near-infrared pulses in potassium titanyl arsenate crystals. A continuous-wave external cavity laser diode or a Ti:sapphire ring laser is used as a tunable seeding source for the near-infrared pulses. The typical energy of the generated mid-infrared pulses is in the range of 0.4–1 mJ/pulse. The tuning wavelength ranges from 3142 to 4806 nm. A narrow linewidth of 1.4 GHz and good frequency reproducibility of the mid-infrared pulses are confirmed by observing a rovibrational absorption line of gaseous carbon monoxide at 4587 nm.

  7. Rotatable high-resolution ARPES system for tunable linear-polarization geometry

    PubMed Central

    Iwasawa, H.; Schwier, E. F.; Zheng, M.; Kojima, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Jiang, J.; Higashiguchi, M.; Aiura, Y.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2017-01-01

    A rotatable high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) system has been developed to utilize tunable linear-polarization geometries on the linear undulator beamline (BL-1) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. By rotating the whole ARPES measurement system, the photoelectron detection plane can be continuously changed from parallel to normal against the electric field vector of linearly polarized undulator radiation. This polarization tunability enables us to identify the symmetry of the initial electronic states with respect to the mirror planes, and to selectively observe the electronic states based on the dipole selection rule in the photoemission process. Specifications of the rotatable high-resolution ARPES system are described, as well as its capabilities with some representative experimental results. PMID:28664891

  8. Magnetically tunable negative permeability metamaterial composed by split ring resonators and ferrite rods.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Hongjie; Zhou, Ji

    2008-06-09

    We experimentally demonstrate a tunable negative permeability metamaterial (NPM) at microwave frequencies by introducing yttrium iron garnet (YIG) rods into a periodic array of split ring resonators (SRRs). Different from those tuned by controlling the capacitance of equivalent LC circuit of SRR, this metamaterial is based on a mechanism of magnetically tuning the inductance via the active ambient effective permeability. For magnetic fields from 0 to 2000 Oe and from 3200 to 6000 Oe, the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial can blueshift about 350 MHz and redshift about 315 MHz, respectively. Both shifts are completely continuous and reversible. Correspondingly, the tunable negative permeabilities are widened by about 360 MHz and 200 MHz compared to that without YIG rods.

  9. Development of hierarchical, tunable pore size polymer foams for ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Christopher E.; Lee, Matthew Nicholson; Parra-Vasquez, A. Nicholas Gerardo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, one of the great challenges of inertial confinement fusion experiments is poor understanding of the effects of reactant heterogeneity on fusion reactions. The Marble campaign, conceived at Los Alamos National Laboratory, aims to gather new insights into this issue by utilizing target capsules containing polymer foams of variable pore sizes, tunable over an order of magnitude. Here, we describe recent and ongoing progress in the development of CH and CH/CD polymer foams in support of Marble. Hierarchical and tunable pore sizes have been achieved by utilizing a sacrificial porogen template within an open-celled poly(divinylbenzene) or poly(divinylbenzene-co-styrene) aerogel matrix, resulting in low-density foams (~30 mg/ml) with continuous multimodal pore networks.

  10. A wide range tunable fiber Bragg grating using fast changeable electromagnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayed, Heba A.; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Aboul Seoud, A. K.; Aly, Moustafa H.

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate a silica-based tunable fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) filter with a wavelength tuning range over 60 nm. A magnetically TFBG package is employed to obtain a wide wavelength tuning range from 1540 to 1602 nm which covers the entire C band and most of the L-band. TFBG is achieved by varying an input current to a solenoid, resulting in an electromagnetic force, used as a strain (tension and compression) on the FBG. This approach is fast, has a broad band of tuning wavelengths and achieves a power reduction as no continuous supply of power is needed to maintain the set shift, due to the latch system used. This novel TFBG device can have a variety of applications in optical fiber communication systems such as programmable optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs), dispersion compensators and tunable lasers.

  11. Development of hierarchical, tunable pore size polymer foams for ICF targets

    DOE PAGES

    Hamilton, Christopher E.; Lee, Matthew Nicholson; Parra-Vasquez, A. Nicholas Gerardo

    2016-08-01

    In this study, one of the great challenges of inertial confinement fusion experiments is poor understanding of the effects of reactant heterogeneity on fusion reactions. The Marble campaign, conceived at Los Alamos National Laboratory, aims to gather new insights into this issue by utilizing target capsules containing polymer foams of variable pore sizes, tunable over an order of magnitude. Here, we describe recent and ongoing progress in the development of CH and CH/CD polymer foams in support of Marble. Hierarchical and tunable pore sizes have been achieved by utilizing a sacrificial porogen template within an open-celled poly(divinylbenzene) or poly(divinylbenzene-co-styrene) aerogelmore » matrix, resulting in low-density foams (~30 mg/ml) with continuous multimodal pore networks.« less

  12. Cross-Interface Emulsification for Generating Size-Tunable Droplets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Zheng, Xu; Tao, Yi; Du, Wenbin

    2016-03-15

    We report cross-interface emulsification (XiE), a simple method for the generation of monodisperse droplets of controllable volumes from picoliter to nanoliter. A device is set up in which a fused-silica capillary is vibrating across the surface of the continuous phase (mineral oil) in a reservoir, and the flow of the dispersed phase (aqueous solution) in the capillary is segmented into monodisperse droplets at the air/oil interface. We find that the volume of droplets is mainly dominated by the flow rate and vibrating frequency and not significantly influenced by other factors, such as the viscosity of the continuous phase and dispersed phase, the inner diameter of the capillary (20-100 μm), or the shape of the tip (tapered or flat). These features reflect high robustness, flexibility, and precision of XiE for on-demand volume control of droplets. The droplets automatically assemble into planar monolayer droplet arrays (PMDA) in flat-bottomed microwells of 96-well plates, offering excellent convenience for imaging of droplets. As a representative application, we carry out digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification using PMDAs with multivolume droplets for the absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Our results demonstrate that XiE is simple and controllable for the production of monodisperse size-tunable droplets, and it offers opportunities for common laboratories, even without microfabrication facilities, to perform digital quantification, single cell analysis, and other biochemical assays with high throughput.

  13. Mechanically tunable terahertz graphene plasmonics using soft metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Xin; Zang, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    This letter presents a new approach to continuously tune the resonances of graphene plasmons in terahertz soft metasurface. The continuous tunability of plasmon resonance is either unachievable in conventional plasmonic materials like noble metals or requires gate voltage regulation in graphene. Here we investigate a simplest form of terahertz metasurface, graphene nanoribbon arrays (GNRAs), and demonstrate the graphene plasmon resonance modes can be tailored by mechanical deformation of the elastomeric substrate using finite element method (FEM). By integrating the electric doping with substrate deformation, we have managed to tune the resonance wavelength from 13.7 to 50.6 μm. The 36.9 μm tuning range is nearly doubled compared with that by electric doping regulation only. Moreover, we observe the plasmon coupling effect in GNRAs on waved substrate and its evolution with substrate curvature. A new decoupling mechanism enabled by the out-of-plane separation of the adjacent ribbons is revealed. The out-of-plane setup of plasmonic components extends the fabrication of plasmonic devices into three-dimensional space, which simultaneously increases the nanoribbon density and decreases the coupling strength. Our findings provide an additional degree of freedom to design reconfigurable metasurfaces and metadevices.

  14. Continuously variable, electrically addressed beam splitter based on vanadium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Allogho, Guy-Germain; Hamam, Habib; Beydaghyan, Gisia; Alloul, Sofiane; Haché, Alain

    2013-01-10

    Vanadium dioxide (VO(2)) is used to implement an electrically addressable beam splitter with continuously variable splitting ratios. The electrical control of temperature in a thin VO(2) layer is used to vary its transmission/reflection behavior. The technique is characterized for various incidence angles, s- and p-polarizations, and the wavelength range of 400-2000 nm. Splitting ratios continuously tunable over four orders of magnitude are reported.

  15. Wavelength-tunable filter utilizing non-cyclic arrayed waveguide grating to create colorless, directionless, contentionless ROADMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Masaki; Takashina, Shoichi; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous increase in Internet traffic, reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) have been widely adopted in the core and metro core networks. Current ROADMs, however, allow only static operation. To realize future dynamic optical-network services, and to minimize any human intervention in network operation, the optical signal add/drop part should have colorless/directionless/contentionless (C/D/C) capabilities. This is possible with matrix switches or a combination of splitter-switches and optical tunable filters. The scale of the matrix switch increases with the square of the number of supported channels, and hence, the matrix-switch-based architecture is not suitable for creating future large-scale ROADMs. In contrast, the numbers of splitter ports, switches, and tunable filters increase linearly with the number of supported channels, and hence the tunable-filter-based architecture will support all future traffic. So far, we have succeeded in fabricating a compact tunable filter that consists of multi-stage cyclic arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) and switches by using planar-lightwave-circuit (PLC) technologies. However, this multistage configuration suffers from large insertion loss and filter narrowing. Moreover, power-consuming temperature control is necessary since it is difficult to make cyclic AWGs athermal. We propose here novel tunable-filter architecture that sandwiches a single-stage non-cyclic athermal AWG having flatter-topped passbands between small-scale switches. With this configuration, the optical tunable filter attains low insertion loss, large passband bandwidths, low power consumption, compactness, and high cost-effectiveness. A prototype is monolithically fabricated with PLC technologies and its excellent performance is experimentally confirmed utilizing 80-channel 30-GBaud dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signals.

  16. Imaging Spectrometer Using a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Tomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design.

  17. Reversibly tunable coupled and decoupled super absorbing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Dong, Ziye; Ji, Dengxin; Song, Haomin; Zeng, Xie; Liu, Zhejun; Jiang, Suhua; Xu, Yun; Bernussi, Ayrton; Li, Wei; Gan, Qiaoqiang

    2016-02-01

    We differentiate the spacer-dependent peak shift in coupled and decoupled super absorbing structures based on magnetic resonance and interference mechanism, respectively, which is experimentally validated by low-cost and large-area structures fabricated using lithography-free processes. The reversible real-time spectral tunability is then demonstrated by incorporating a thermally tunable polymeric spacer layer.

  18. Imaging Spectrometer Using a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Tomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design.

  19. Narrow-Band WGM Optical Filters With Tunable FSRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    Optical resonators of the whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) type featuring DC-tunable free spectral ranges (FSRs) have been demonstrated. By making the FSR tunable, one makes it possible to adjust, during operation, the frequency of a microwave signal generated by an optoelectronic oscillator in which an WGM optical resonator is utilized as a narrow-band filter.

  20. Industrial integration of high coherence tunable VECSEL in the NIR and MIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denet, Stéphane; Chomet, Baptiste; Lecocq, Vincent; Ferrières, Laurence; Myara, Mikhaël.; Cerutti, Laurent; Sagnes, Isabelle; Garnache, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Laser technology is finding applications in areas such as high resolution spectroscopy, radar-lidar, velocimetry, or atomic clock where highly coherent tunable high power light sources are required. The Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) technology [1] has been identified for years as a good candidate to reach high power, high coherence and broad tunability while covering a wide emission wavelength range exploiting III-V semiconductor technologies. Offering such performances in the Near- and Middle-IR range, GaAs- and Sb-based VECSEL technologies seem to be a well suited path to meet the required specifications of demanding applications. Built up in this field, our expertise allows the realization of compact and low power consumption marketable products, with performances that do not exist on the market today in the 0.8- 1.1 μm and 2-2.5 μm spectral range. Here we demonstrate highly coherent broadly tunable single frequency micro-chip, intracavity element free, patented VECSEL technology, integrated into a compact module with driving electronics. VECSEL devices emitting in the Near and Middle-IR developed in the frame of this work [2] exhibit exciting features compared to diode-pumped solid-state lasers and DFB diode lasers; they combine high power (>100mW) high coherence with a low divergence diffraction limited TEM00 beam, class A dynamics with Relative Intensity Noise as low as -140dB/Hz and at shot noise level above 200MHz RF frequency (up to 160GHz), free running narrow linewidth at sub MHz level (fundamental limit at Hz level) with high spectral purity (SMSR >55dB), linear polarization (50dB suppression ratio), and broadband continuous tunability greater than 400GHz (< 30V piezo voltage, 6kHz cut off frequency) with total tunability up to 3THz. Those performances can all be reached thanks to the high finesse cavity of VECSEL technology, associated to ideal homogeneous QW gain behaviour [3]. In addition, the compact design without any

  1. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOEpatents

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2010-05-11

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  2. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOEpatents

    Welp, Ulrich [Lisle, IL; Koshelev, Alexei E [Bolingbrook, IL; Gray, Kenneth E [Evanston, IL; Kwok, Wai-Kwong [Evanston, IL; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-10-27

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  3. Tunable dielectric liquid lens on flexible substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yen-Sheng; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Jiang, Hongrui

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a tunable-focus dielectric liquid lens (DLL) on a flexible substrate made of polydimethylsiloxane, which was wrapped onto a goggle surface to show its functionality. As a positive meniscus converging lens, the DLL has the focal length variable from 14.2 to 6.3 mm in 1.3 s when the driving voltage increases to 125 Vrms. The resolving power of the DLL is 17.95 line pairs per mm. The DLL on a flexible, curvilinear surface is promising for expanded field of view covered as well as in reconfigurable optical systems. PMID:24493877

  4. 600-GHz Electronically Tunable Vector Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, Robert; Maiwald, Frank; Siegel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A compact, high-dynamic-range, electronically tunable vector measurement system that operates in the frequency range from approximately 560 to approximately 635 GHz has been developed as a prototype of vector measurement systems that would be suitable for use in nearly-real-time active submillimeter-wave imaging. As used here, 'vector measurement system" signifies an instrumentation system that applies a radio-frequency (RF) excitation to an object of interest and measures the resulting amplitude and phase response, relative to either the applied excitatory signal or another reference signal related in a known way to applied excitatory signal.

  5. Tunable superconducting qudit mediated by microwave photons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sung Un; Bae, Myung-Ho; Kim, Nam; Kang, Kicheon

    2015-08-15

    We have investigated the time-domain characteristics of the Autler-Townes doublet in a superconducting circuit. The transition probabilities between the ground state and the Autler-Townes doublet states are shown to be controlled in a phase-coherent manner using a well-known microwave pulse pattern technique. The experimental results are well explained by a numerical simulation based on the Markovian master equation. Our result indicates that the Autler-Townes doublet states might be useful as a tunable qudit for implementation of quantum information processing, in particular as a multivalued quantum logic element.

  6. Optically Tunable Gratings for Optical Interconnects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-30

    OPTICALLY TUNABLE GRATINGS FOR OPTICAL INTERCONNECTS Final Report SELECTED JAN 2 31990 D ~ Submitted...such as acousto - optic or electro- optic deflectors . Using the strengths of our research program, we investigated optically tuneable gratings in...are those ~!,f~~ a~Sh~;~~L~~ d ~~9~H ~~t.:~~!-r~~~’~IU! 2 ~’h!~ ~H~~!~g:rtment of the Army position, 17. COSATI CODES 1 I. SUBJECT TERMS (Continut on

  7. Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrophotometry of Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (less than 0.0005/ cm) solar spectra in the 9.6 micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 : 1 (35% of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 second can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0005 wavenumbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that. measured at the nearby National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado.

  8. Computer processing of tunable diode laser spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Randy D.

    1989-01-01

    A computer-controlled tunable diode laser spectrometer and spectral analysis software are described. The three-channel system records simultaneously the transmission of a subject gas, a temperature-stabilized etalon, and a calibration gas. The software routines are applied to diode laser spectra of HNO3 and NO2 to illustrate the procedures adopted for conversion of raw spectral data to useful transmission and harmonic spectra. Extraction of line positions, absorption intensities, collisional broadening coefficients, and gas concentrations from recorded spectra is also described.

  9. Electrically tunable absorber based on nonstructured graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Caiyan; Zhu, Zhihong; Xu, Wei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate numerically that a tunable absorber with absorption of 99.94% in the far infrared range can be obtained using a nonstructured graphene. The mechanism originates from a nonstructured graphene film supported on a periodical dielectric array that can show Fermi level modulation periodically and produce plasmonic resonances in the far infrared range. The nonstructured graphene can avoid the unexpected edge effects and does not influence the unique properties of graphene, which will be helpful in practice to achieve the unity absorption and facilitate the development of many related applications.

  10. Tunable hybrid metasurfaces for MRI applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelokova, Alena V.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Melchakova, Irina V.; Glybovski, Stanislav B.; Webb, Andrew G.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Belov, Pavel A.

    2017-09-01

    One of many exciting application of metasurfaces is in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally how to improve substantially the MRI sensitivity by employing the concept of hybrid metasurfaces. We design a novel hybrid metasurface as an array of nonmagnetic metallic wires with high-permittivity dielectric blocks at the edges. We demonstrate that tunability of this metasurface can be achieved via a change of the effective permittivity of blocks near the edges. Moreover, altering the coupling strength between the dielectric and metallic elements allows to obtain nearly homogeneous shapes of the near-field magnetic modes.

  11. Experimental demonstration of a tunable microwave undulator.

    PubMed

    Tantawi, Sami; Shumail, Muhammad; Neilson, Jeffery; Bowden, Gordon; Chang, Chao; Hemsing, Erik; Dunning, Michael

    2014-04-25

    Static magnetic undulators used by x-ray light sources are fundamentally too limited to achieve shorter undulator periods and dynamic control. To overcome these limitations, we report experimental demonstration of a novel short-period microwave undulator, essentially a Thomson scattering device, that has yielded tunable spontaneous emission and seeded coherent radiation. Its equivalent undulator period (λu) is 13.9 mm while it has achieved an equivalent magnetic field of 0.65 T. For future-generation light sources, this device promises a shorter undulator period, a large aperture, and fast dynamic control.

  12. Short-wavelength MEMS-tunable VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Cole, Garrett D; Behymer, Elaine; Bond, Tiziana C; Goddard, Lynford L

    2008-09-29

    We present electrically-injected MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with emission wavelengths below 800 nm. Operation in this wavelength range, near the oxygen A-band from 760-780 nm, is attractive for absorption-based optical gas sensing. These fully-monolithic devices are based on an oxide-aperture AlGaAs epitaxial structure and incorporate a suspended dielectric Bragg mirror for wavelength tuning. By implementing electrostatic actuation, we demonstrate the potential for tuning rates up to 1 MHz, as well as a wide wavelength tuning range of 30 nm (767-737 nm).

  13. Tunable anisotropic thermal conduction in graphane nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengfeng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Bolin; Duan, Wenhui

    2014-04-01

    Graphane and graphene are both two-dimensional materials but of different bonding configurations, which can result in distinct thermal conduction properties. We simulate thermal conduction in graphane nanoribbons (GANRs) using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We find anisotropic thermal conduction in GANRs, with zigzag GANRs giving higher thermal conductance than armchair ones. Compared to the graphene counterparts, GANRs show lower ballistic thermal conductance and stronger thermal conductance anisotropy. Furthermore, hydrogen vacancies of GANRs considerably suppress thermal conduction, accompanied by enhanced thermal conductance anisotropy. The tunable thermal conduction, realized by controlling the ribbon width, edge shape, and hydrogen vacancy concentration of GANRs, could be useful for thermal management and thermoelectric applications.

  14. Electronically Tunable Fractional Order All Pass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Rakesh; Pandey, Neeta; Pandey, Rajeshwari

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an electronically tunable fractional order all pass filter (FOAPF) based on operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is presented. It uses two OTAs and single fractional order capacitor (FC) of non-integer order α to provide FOAPF of α order. Two different values of α, in particular 0.5 and 0.9, for FC are taken for investigation. The functionality of the proposal is verified through SPICE simulations using TSMC 0.18 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process parameters. Simulated and theoretical frequency and time domain responses are found to be in close agreement.

  15. Experimental Demonstration of a Tunable Microwave Undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawi, Sami; Shumail, Muhammad; Neilson, Jeffery; Bowden, Gordon; Chang, Chao; Hemsing, Erik; Dunning, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Static magnetic undulators used by x-ray light sources are fundamentally too limited to achieve shorter undulator periods and dynamic control. To overcome these limitations, we report experimental demonstration of a novel short-period microwave undulator, essentially a Thomson scattering device, that has yielded tunable spontaneous emission and seeded coherent radiation. Its equivalent undulator period (λu) is 13.9 mm while it has achieved an equivalent magnetic field of 0.65 T. For future-generation light sources, this device promises a shorter undulator period, a large aperture, and fast dynamic control.

  16. Concave nanomagnets with widely tunable anisotropy

    DOEpatents

    Lambson, Brian; Gu, Zheng; Carlton, David; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-07-01

    A nanomagnet having widely tunable anisotropy is disclosed. The disclosed nanomagnet is a magnetic particle with a convex shape having a first magnetically easy axis. The convex shape is modified to include at least one concavity to urge a second magnetically easy axis to form substantially offset from the first magnetically easy axis. In at least one embodiment, the convex shape is also modified to include at least one concavity to urge a second magnetically easy axis to form with a magnetic strength substantially different from the first magnetically easy axis.

  17. Acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey; Reyes, George; Rider, David; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1991-01-01

    A remote sensing multispectral imaging instrument is being developed that uses a high resolution, fast programmable acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF) as the spectral bandpass filter. A compact and fully computer controllable AOTF-based imaging spectrometer that operates in the visible wavelength range (0.5-0.8 microns) has been built and tested with success. A second imaging spectrometer operating in the near-infrared wavelength range (1.2-2.4 microns) is also under experimental investigation. The design criteria meeting various system issues, such as imaging quality, spectral response, and field of view (FOV), are discussed. An experiment using this AOTF imaging spectrometer breadboard is described.

  18. Tunable photonic filters: a digital signal processing design approach.

    PubMed

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2009-05-20

    Digital signal processing techniques are used for synthesizing tunable optical filters with variable bandwidth and centered reference frequency including the tunability of the low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop optical filters. Potential applications of such filters are discussed, and the design techniques and properties of recursive digital filters are outlined. The basic filter structures, namely, the first-order all-pole optical filter (FOAPOF) and the first-order all-zero optical filter (FOAZOF), are described, and finally the design process of tunable optical filters and the designs of the second-order Butterworth low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop tunable optical filters are presented. Indeed, we identify that the all-zero and all-pole networks are equivalent with well known principles of optics of interference and resonance, respectively. It is thus very straightforward to implement tunable optical filters, which is a unique feature.

  19. Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Jinghua; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic materials with tunable permeability and permittivity are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. However, the tunability of electromagnetic parameters is an immense challenge for conventional materials and metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. The magnetically tunable property is derived from the coupling of the Mie resonance of dielectric cube and ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboid. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the effective permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. This mechanism offers a promising means of constructing microwave devices with large tunable ranges and considerable potential for tailoring via a metamaterial route. PMID:25384397

  20. Tunable and Broadband Differential Phase Sections in Terahertz Frequency Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosiak, O. S.; Bezborodov, V. I.; Kuleshov, Ye. M.; Nesterov, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Studying the quasioptical tunable and broadband differential phase section (DPS) consisting of several birefringent elements (BE) on the basis of form birefringence effect. Design/methodology/approach: Using the polarization scattering matrix method, the impact of the mutual rotation axis of anisotropy of several BE by the amount of phase shift and the position of the plane of anisotropy of resulting DPS is considered. Findings: The DPS tunable in a wide range are shown to be possibly implemented in the case of quarter- wave DPS of two, and in the case of half-wave DPS of three, identical non-tunable BE. The analysis has shown to the possibility of creating a broadband quarter-wave and half-wave DPS. Conclusions: Experimental research has confirmed the possibility of constructing a tunable and broadband DPS. On this basis, tunable and broadband polarization converters, rotators of polarization plane, polarization phase shifters and frequency shifters in the terahertz frequency range can be created.

  1. Sampled grating tunable twin-guide laser diodes with wide tuning range (40 nm) and large output power (10 mW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todt, R.; Jacke, T.; Meyer, R.; Adler, J.; Laroy, R.; Morthier, G.; Amann, M.-C.

    2006-03-01

    The sampled grating tunable twin-guide (SG-TTG) laser diode is a DFB-like tunable laser that employs Vernier-effect tuning to achieve wide wavelength tuning. In contrast to most other monolithic widely tunable lasers (which are usually DBR-type lasers), a phase tuning section is not needed and, hence, the SG-TTG laser requires at least one tuning current less than comparable devices.The devices provide full wavelength coverage over a 40 nm-broad tuning range that is centered at 1.54 μm. Its tuning behavior is quasi-continuous with up to 8.2 nm broad continuous tuning regions. High side-mode suppression (SMSR 35 dB) as well as large output power (P 10 mW) are obtained over the whole wavelength range from 1520.5 to 1561.5 nm.

  2. tCRISPRi: tunable and reversible, one-step control of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-tian; Jun, Yonggun; Erickstad, Michael J.; Brown, Steven D.; Parks, Adam; Court, Donald L.; Jun, Suckjoon

    2016-01-01

    The ability to control the level of gene expression is a major quest in biology. A widely used approach employs deletion of a nonessential gene of interest (knockout), or multi-step recombineering to move a gene of interest under a repressible promoter (knockdown). However, these genetic methods are laborious, and limited for quantitative study. Here, we report a tunable CRISPR-cas system, “tCRISPRi”, for precise and continuous titration of gene expression by more than 30-fold. Our tCRISPRi system employs various previous advancements into a single strain: (1) We constructed a new strain containing a tunable arabinose operon promoter PBAD to quantitatively control the expression of CRISPR-(d)Cas protein over two orders of magnitude in a plasmid-free system. (2) tCRISPRi is reversible, and gene expression is repressed under knockdown conditions. (3) tCRISPRi shows significantly less than 10% leaky expression. (4) Most important from a practical perspective, construction of tCRISPRi to target a new gene requires only one-step of oligo recombineering. Our results show that tCRISPRi, in combination with recombineering, provides a simple and easy-to-implement tool for gene expression control, and is ideally suited for construction of both individual strains and high-throughput tunable knockdown libraries. PMID:27996021

  3. Widely-tunable interband cascade lasers for the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Edlinger, M.; Scheuermann, J.; Weih, R.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Höfling, S.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.

    2015-01-01

    Distributed feedback (DFB) laser sources are key components of modern gas analyzers based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy. While the current induced tuning range of DFB lasers is usually limited to a few nanometers, there are a number of applications which will benefit from lasers with a wider tunability, e.g. multi-gas sensing or spectroscopy of liquids. In this paper, we present monolithic widely tunable laser devices in the 3.6 μm wavelength region based on interband cascade laser material. Using the concept of binary superimposed (BSG) grating structures and two-segment Vernier-tuning, stable single-mode emission is realized at discrete wavelength channels in the 3560 nm to 3620 nm region. A total tuning range around 60 nm in three channels is demonstrated. Within a single channel, the emission wavelength can be tuned mode hop free over up to 5 nm. The wavelength channels can be arbitrarily placed in the range of the material gain, allowing BSG lasers to sweep over several gas absorption lines. The number of channels can be chosen as well. Within a wavelength channel, the lasers show DFB like spectral performance with setup limited sidemode suppressino ratios around 25 dB and milliwatt levels of continuous wave output powers around room temperature. This paper will present an overview of the laser concept, simulations, performance data and applications.

  4. Membrane invaginations facilitate reversible water flux driving tunable iridescence in a dynamic biophotonic system

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Daniel G.; Krogstad, Daniel V.; Morse, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Squids have used their tunable iridescence for camouflage and communication for millions of years; materials scientists have more recently looked to them for inspiration to develop new “biologically inspired” adaptive optics. Iridocyte cells produce iridescence through constructive interference of light with intracellular Bragg reflectors. The cell’s dynamic control over the apparent lattice constant and dielectric contrast of these multilayer stacks yields the corresponding optical control of brightness and color across the visible spectrum. Here, we resolve remaining uncertainties in iridocyte cell structure and determine how this unusual morphology enables the cell’s tunable reflectance. We show that the plasma membrane periodically invaginates deep into the iridocyte to form a potential Bragg reflector consisting of an array of narrow, parallel channels that segregate the resulting high refractive index, cytoplasmic protein-containing lamellae from the low-index channels that are continuous with the extracellular space. In response to control by a neurotransmitter, the iridocytes reversibly imbibe or expel water commensurate with changes in reflection intensity and wavelength. These results allow us to propose a comprehensive mechanism of adaptive iridescence in these cells from stimulation to color production. Applications of these findings may contribute to the development of unique classes of tunable photonic materials. PMID:23359694

  5. Membrane invaginations facilitate reversible water flux driving tunable iridescence in a dynamic biophotonic system.

    PubMed

    DeMartini, Daniel G; Krogstad, Daniel V; Morse, Daniel E

    2013-02-12

    Squids have used their tunable iridescence for camouflage and communication for millions of years; materials scientists have more recently looked to them for inspiration to develop new "biologically inspired" adaptive optics. Iridocyte cells produce iridescence through constructive interference of light with intracellular Bragg reflectors. The cell's dynamic control over the apparent lattice constant and dielectric contrast of these multilayer stacks yields the corresponding optical control of brightness and color across the visible spectrum. Here, we resolve remaining uncertainties in iridocyte cell structure and determine how this unusual morphology enables the cell's tunable reflectance. We show that the plasma membrane periodically invaginates deep into the iridocyte to form a potential Bragg reflector consisting of an array of narrow, parallel channels that segregate the resulting high refractive index, cytoplasmic protein-containing lamellae from the low-index channels that are continuous with the extracellular space. In response to control by a neurotransmitter, the iridocytes reversibly imbibe or expel water commensurate with changes in reflection intensity and wavelength. These results allow us to propose a comprehensive mechanism of adaptive iridescence in these cells from stimulation to color production. Applications of these findings may contribute to the development of unique classes of tunable photonic materials.

  6. Wavelength tunable CW red laser generated based on an intracavity-SFG composite cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. N.; Bai, Y.; Lei, G. Z.; Bai, B.; Sun, Y. X.; Hu, M. X.; Wang, C.; Bai, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    We report a wavelength-tunable watt-level continuous wave (CW) red laser that uses a composite cavity based on an intracavity sum-frequency generation (SFG). The composite cavity is composed of a LD side-pumped Nd: GdVO4 p-polarized 1062.9 nm resonant cavity and a resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) of s-polarized signal light using a periodically poled crystal MgO: PPLN. Based on the temperature tuning from 30 °C to 200 °C, the CW red laser beams are obtained in a tunable waveband from 634.4 nm to 649.1 nm, corresponding to a tunable output waveband from 3278.0 nm to 2940.2 nm of the mid-infrared idler lights. The maximum CW output power of the red laser at 634.4 nm and the idler light at 3278.0 nm reach 3.03 W and 4.13 W under 30 °C, respectively.

  7. Tunable High Harmonic Generation driven by a Visible Optical Parametric Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirmi, G.; Lai, C.-J.; Huang, S.-W.; Granados, E.; Sell, A.; Moses, J.; Hong, K.-H.; Keathley, P.; Kärtner, F. X.

    2013-03-01

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 μJ energy at 1-kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping energy, duration and beam size constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of conversion efficiency and cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in argon and helium respectively. Our measurements show a λ-5.9±0.9 wavelength dependence of the conversion efficiency and a λ1.7±0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source and changing the gas, the high order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ~25 eV and ~100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  8. A spectrally tunable all-graphene-based flexible field-effect light-emitting device

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaomu; Tian, He; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Li, Cheng; Wu, Can; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The continuous tuning of the emission spectrum of a single light-emitting diode (LED) by an external electrical bias is of great technological significance as a crucial property in high-quality displays, yet this capability has not been demonstrated in existing LEDs. Graphene, a tunable optical platform, is a promising medium to achieve this goal. Here we demonstrate a bright spectrally tunable electroluminescence from blue (∼450 nm) to red (∼750 nm) at the graphene oxide/reduced-graphene oxide interface. We explain the electroluminescence results from the recombination of Poole–Frenkel emission ionized electrons at the localized energy levels arising from semi-reduced graphene oxide, and holes from the top of the π band. Tuning of the emission wavelength is achieved by gate modulation of the participating localized energy levels. Our demonstration of current-driven tunable LEDs not only represents a method for emission wavelength tuning but also may find applications in high-quality displays. PMID:26178323

  9. High-sensitivity high-selectivity detection of CWAs and TICs using tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkarsky, Michael; Webber, Michael; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2005-03-01

    We provide a general technique for evaluating the performance of an optical sensor for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in realistic environments and present data from a simulation model based on a field deployed discretely tunable 13CO2 laser photoacoustic spectrometer (L-PAS). Results of our calculations show the sensor performance in terms of usable sensor sensitivity as a function of probability of false positives (PFP). The false positives arise from the presence of many other gases in the ambient air that could be interferents. Using the L-PAS as it exists today, we can achieve a detection threshold of about 4 ppb for the CWAs while maintaining a PFP of less than 1:106. Our simulation permits us to vary a number of parameters in the model to provide guidance for performance improvement. We find that by using a larger density of laser lines (such as those obtained through the use of tunable semiconductor lasers), improving the detector noise and maintaining the accuracy of laser frequency determination, optical detection schemes can make possible CWA sensors having sub-ppb detection capability with <1:108 PFP. We also describe the results of a preliminary experiment that verifies the results of the simulation model. Finally, we discuss the use of continuously tunable quantum cascade lasers in L-PAS for CWA and TIC detection.

  10. Abnormal glow discharge as a variable capacitor for tunable RF systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macheret, Sergey; Semnani, Abbas; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    For frequency-tunable resonators and filters in high-power applications, conventional semiconductor devices are easily damaged, while mechanically-tunable systems are bulky and slow. In this regard, weakly ionized plasmas can offer an attractive solution. In this work, an LC resonator circuit where a commercial gas discharge tube (GDT) serves as a variable capacitor was studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments show continuous decrease of the resonant frequency by up to 50 percent with increase in the DC current through the GDT. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristic and the breakdown parameters, combined with lumped-parameter equivalent-circuit RF simulations, allowed us to determine the gas pressure, the electrode coating material and the secondary emission coefficient, and to achieve a very good agreement between the calculated and measured transmittance values. The analysis reveals that reduction in the cathode sheath thickness with increase in the DC current in the abnormal glow discharge regime is the key factor responsible for the experimentally observed tunability.

  11. A compact frequency tunable radio frequency phase shifter with patterned Py enabled transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, B.M. Farid; Divan, Ralu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Wang, Tengxing; Peng, Yujia; Wang, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    A well designed frequency tunable phase shifter using patterned Py with different thickness has been demonstrated. Phase shifter is implemented with a slow wave coplanar wave guide (CPW)transmission line, where the signal line has alternate short narrow and wide sections. Py is patterned on the top of narrow section for high inductance density, and inter-digital capacitor is implemented in wide section for high capacitance density. Compared with phase shifter using regular CPW, the dimension of the developed phase shifter has been reduced from 14.86 mm to4.70 mm at 2 GHz. Phase shifter based on 100 nm and 200 nm thick patterned Py with the same dimensions (14lm10lm) are implemented and investigated comprehensively. FMR frequency of 3.2 GHz and 3.6 GHz without any external magnetic field has been achieved for100 nm and 200 nm thick Py film, respectively. Thicker Py has increased inductance density from 1067.2 nH/m to 1193.2 nH/m while the center frequency of the phase shifter has been shifted to 1.80 GHz. Frequency tunability of the phase shifter has been also demonstrated withDC current. The phase shifter can provide 90phase shift continuously from 2 GHz to 1.80 GHz with DC current from 0 mA to 150 mA. The design concept has great potential in design arbitrary tunable RF components such as filters and couplers.

  12. tCRISPRi: tunable and reversible, one-step control of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Tian; Jun, Yonggun; Erickstad, Michael J.; Brown, Steven D.; Parks, Adam; Court, Donald L.; Jun, Suckjoon

    2016-12-01

    The ability to control the level of gene expression is a major quest in biology. A widely used approach employs deletion of a nonessential gene of interest (knockout), or multi-step recombineering to move a gene of interest under a repressible promoter (knockdown). However, these genetic methods are laborious, and limited for quantitative study. Here, we report a tunable CRISPR-cas system, “tCRISPRi”, for precise and continuous titration of gene expression by more than 30-fold. Our tCRISPRi system employs various previous advancements into a single strain: (1) We constructed a new strain containing a tunable arabinose operon promoter PBAD to quantitatively control the expression of CRISPR-(d)Cas protein over two orders of magnitude in a plasmid-free system. (2) tCRISPRi is reversible, and gene expression is repressed under knockdown conditions. (3) tCRISPRi shows significantly less than 10% leaky expression. (4) Most important from a practical perspective, construction of tCRISPRi to target a new gene requires only one-step of oligo recombineering. Our results show that tCRISPRi, in combination with recombineering, provides a simple and easy-to-implement tool for gene expression control, and is ideally suited for construction of both individual strains and high-throughput tunable knockdown libraries.

  13. Fiber Bragg grating based tunable sensitivity goniometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, Srivani; Umesh, Sharath; Pant, Shweta; Srinivas, Talabattula; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2016-03-01

    Goniometer has found extensive usage in diverse applications, primary being medical field in which it is employed for obtaining the range of motion of joints during physical therapy. It is imperative to have a dynamic system to measure the range of motion which will aid for a progressive therapeutic treatment. Hence in the present study, a novel goniometer for real time dynamic angle measurement between two surfaces with the aid of a Fiber Bragg Grating sensor is proposed. The angular rotation between the two surfaces will be identified by the two arms of the Fiber Bragg Grating Goniometer (FBGG), which is translated to the rotation of the shaft which holds these arms together. A cantilever beam is fixed onto the base plate whose free end is connected to the rotating shaft. The rotating shaft will actuate a mechanism which will pull the free end of the cantilever resulting in strain variation over the cantilever beam. The strain variation on the cantilever beam is measured by the Fiber Bragg Grating sensor bonded over it. Further, the proposed FBGG facilitates tunable sensitivity by the discs of varying diameters on the rotating shaft. Tunable sensitivity of the FBGG is realised by the movement of these discs by varying circumferential arc lengths for the same angular movement, which will actuate the pull on the cantilever beam. As per the requirement of the application in terms of resolution and range of angular measurement, individual mode of sensitivity may be selected.

  14. Silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pangpang; Tanaka, Daisuke; Ryuzaki, Sou; Araki, Shohei; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru

    2015-10-12

    To improve the efficiencies of electronic devices, materials with variable work functions are required to decrease the energy level differences at the interfaces between working layers. Here, we report a method to obtain silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions, which have the same silver core of 5 nm in diameter and are capped by myristates and 1-octanethoilates self-assembled monolayers, respectively. The silver nanoparticles capped by organic molecules can form a uniform two-dimensional sheet at air-water interface, and the sheet can be transferred on various hydrophobic substrates. The surface potential of the two-dimensional nanoparticle sheet was measured in terms of Kelvin probe force microscopy, and the work function of the sheet was then calculated from the surface potential value by comparing with a reference material. The exchange of the capping molecules results in a work function change of approximately 150–250 meV without affecting their hydrophobicity. We systematically discussed the origin of the work function difference and found it should come mainly from the anchor groups of the ligand molecules. The organic molecule capped nanoparticles with tunable work functions have a potential for the applications in organic electronic devices.

  15. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  16. Tunable Antireflection Layers for Planar Bolometer Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari-David; Chuss, David; Woolack, Edward; Chervenak, James; Henry, Ross; Wray, James

    2007-01-01

    It remains a challenge to obtain high-efficiency coupling of far-infrared through millimeter radiation to large-format detector arrays. The conventional approach of increasing detector coupling is to use reflective backshorts. However, this approach often results in excessive systematic errors resulting from reflections off the backshort edge. An alternate approach to both increasing quantum efficiency and reducing systematics associated with stray light is to place an antireflective coating near the front surface of the array. When incorporated with a resistive layer and placed behind the detector focal plane, the AR coating can serve to prevent optical ghosting by capturing radiation transmitted through the detector. By etching a hexagonal pattern in silicon, in which the sizes of the hexes are smaller than the wavelength of incident radiation, it is possible to fabricate a material that has a controllable dielectric constant, thereby allowing for simple tunable optical device fabrication. To this end, we have fabricated and tested tunable silicon "honeycomb" AR layers and AR/resistive layer devices. These devices were fabricated entirely out of silicon in order to eliminate problems associated with differential contraction upon detector cooling.

  17. Wavelength-tunable duplex integrated light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Yasaka, Hiroshi; Oe, Kunishige

    1996-04-01

    A monolithically integrated opto-electronic device is proposed as a fast wavelength-switching light source. This tunable duplex integrated light source comprises two wavelength-tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diodes (LDs), two MQW-electro-absorption optical switches, a Y-shaped waveguide coupler, a MQW-electro-absorption modulator, and two thermal drift compensators (TDCs). The wavelength-switching time of the optical switches was estimated to be 60 ps including a 50-ps rise time for the electrical-pulse generator. The wavelength of a 10-Gbit/s NRZ-modulated optical signal can be switched without bit loss. The function of the TDCs is to keep the device-chip temperature constant. Thermal-transient- induced wavelength drift with a millisecond-order time constant, which has been reported for DBR-LDs, and thermal crosstalk between the tuning regions of the integrated LDs, which causes wavelength fluctuation, are effectively suppressed by thermal-drift-compensation operation using the TDCs.

  18. Multicomponent Superlattices with Dynamically Tunable Optical Responses

    SciTech Connect

    H Xiong

    2011-12-31

    We report the successful fabrication of optically active three-dimensional (3D) superlattices that incorporate DNA-encoded components, metallic nanoparticles, and molecular chromophores in well-defined positions. A DNA linker with three distinct binding sites serves as an assembly agent and dynamically tunable structural element for the superlattice. Using small angle X-ray scattering we have revealed the organization of particle-chromophore 3D arrays and monitored their reversible contractions and expansions that were modulated by ionic strength changes. As the distance between the molecular chromophores and plasmonic nanoparticles in the superlattice was regulated in situ, we were able to uncover the relationship between experimentally determined structure and optical response of the system. This dynamical tunability of superlattice results in a dramatic optical response: nearly a three times change of emission rate of the chromophore. The evolution of lifetime with structural changes reasonably agrees with the calculations based on a cumulitative coupling of chromophores with metallic nanoparticles in different coordination shells.

  19. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  20. Imaging spectroscopy using tunable filters: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2000-04-01

    Major spin-offs from NASA's multi- and hyper spectral imaging remote sensing technology developed for Earth resources monitoring, are creative techniques that combine and integrate spectral with spatial methods. Such techniques are finding use in medicine, agriculture, manufacturing, forensics, and an e er expanding list of other applications. Many such applications are easier to implement using a sensor design different from the pushbroom or whiskbroom air- or space-borne counterparts. This need is met by using a variety of electronically tunable filters that are mounted in front of a monochrome camera to produce a stack of images at a sequence of wavelengths, forming the familiar 'image cube'. The combined spectral/spatial analysis offered by such image cubes takes advantage of tools borrowed form spatial image processing, chemometrics and specifically spectroscopy, and new custom exploitation tools developed specifically for these applications. Imaging spectroscopy is particularly useful for non homogeneous samples or scenes. examples include spatial classification based on spectral signatures, use of spectral libraries for material identification, mixture composition analysis, plume detection, etc. This paper reviews available tunable filters ,system design considerations, general analysis techniques for retrieving the intrinsic scene properties from the measurements, and applications and examples.

  1. Broadband Tunable Transparency in rf SQUID Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ustinov, Alexey; Anlage, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a metamaterial with broadband tunable transparency in microwave electromagnetic fields. This metamaterial is made of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf SQUIDs). We show both experimentally and theoretically that the resonance of this metamaterial totally disappears when illuminated with electromagnetic waves of certain power ranges, so that waves can propagate through the metamaterial with little dissipation in a wide frequency spectrum. Unlike traditional electromagnetically induced transparency, high transmission through this metamaterial is due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the rf SQUID. Transparency occurs when the metamaterial enters its bistability regime. We can control the metamaterial to be transparent or opaque by switching between the two states depending on the initial conditions and signal scanning directions. We also show that the degree of transparency can be tuned by temperature, power of the incident wave, and dc magnetic field and discuss analytical and numerical models that reveal how to systematically control the transparency regime. The metamaterial has potential application in fast tunable digital filter, power limiter and auto-cloaking. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  2. Highly tunable colloidal perovskite nanoplatelets through variable cation, metal, and halide composition

    DOE PAGES

    Weidman, Mark C.; Seitz, Michael; Stranks, Samuel D.; ...

    2016-07-29

    Here, colloidal perovskite nanoplatelets are a promising class of semiconductor nanomaterials-exhibiting bright luminescence, tunable and spectrally narrow absorption and emission features, strongly confined excitonic states, and facile colloidal synthesis. Here, we demonstrate the high degree of spectral tunability achievable through variation of the cation, metal, and halide composition as well as nanoplatelet thickness. We synthesize nanoplatelets of the form L2[ABX3]n-1BX4, where L is an organic ligand (octylammonium, butylammonium), A is a monovalent metal or organic molecular cation (cesium, methylammonium, formamidinium), B is a divalent metal cation (lead, tin), X is a halide anion (chloride, bromide, iodide), and n-1 is themore » number of unit cells in thickness. We show that variation of n, B, and X leads to large changes in the absorption and emission energy, while variation of the A cation leads to only subtle changes but can significantly impact the nanoplatelet stability and photoluminescence quantum yield (with values over 20%). Furthermore, mixed halide nanoplatelets exhibit continuous spectral tunability over a 1.5 eV spectral range, from 2.2 to 3.7 eV. The nanoplatelets have relatively large lateral dimensions (100 nm to 1 μm), which promote self-assembly into stacked superlattice structures-the periodicity of which can be adjusted based on the nanoplatelet surface ligand length. These results demonstrate the versatility of colloidal perovskite nanoplatelets as a material platform, with tunability extending from the deep-UV, across the visible, into the near-IR. In particular, the tin-containing nanoplatelets represent a significant addition to the small but increasingly important family of lead- and cadmium-free colloidal semiconductors.« less

  3. Highly Tunable Colloidal Perovskite Nanoplatelets through Variable Cation, Metal, and Halide Composition.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Mark C; Seitz, Michael; Stranks, Samuel D; Tisdale, William A

    2016-08-23

    Colloidal perovskite nanoplatelets are a promising class of semiconductor nanomaterials-exhibiting bright luminescence, tunable and spectrally narrow absorption and emission features, strongly confined excitonic states, and facile colloidal synthesis. Here, we demonstrate the high degree of spectral tunability achievable through variation of the cation, metal, and halide composition as well as nanoplatelet thickness. We synthesize nanoplatelets of the form L2[ABX3]n-1BX4, where L is an organic ligand (octylammonium, butylammonium), A is a monovalent metal or organic molecular cation (cesium, methylammonium, formamidinium), B is a divalent metal cation (lead, tin), X is a halide anion (chloride, bromide, iodide), and n-1 is the number of unit cells in thickness. We show that variation of n, B, and X leads to large changes in the absorption and emission energy, while variation of the A cation leads to only subtle changes but can significantly impact the nanoplatelet stability and photoluminescence quantum yield (with values over 20%). Furthermore, mixed halide nanoplatelets exhibit continuous spectral tunability over a 1.5 eV spectral range, from 2.2 to 3.7 eV. The nanoplatelets have relatively large lateral dimensions (100 nm to 1 μm), which promote self-assembly into stacked superlattice structures-the periodicity of which can be adjusted based on the nanoplatelet surface ligand length. These results demonstrate the versatility of colloidal perovskite nanoplatelets as a material platform, with tunability extending from the deep-UV, across the visible, into the near-IR. In particular, the tin-containing nanoplatelets represent a significant addition to the small but increasingly important family of lead- and cadmium-free colloidal semiconductors.

  4. Note: real time control of a tunable vibration absorber based on magnetorheological elastomer for suppressing tonal vibrations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Keun; Bae, Hyo-In; Koo, Jeong-Hoi; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2012-04-01

    An adaptive tunable vibration absober based on magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is designed as an intelligent device for auto-tuning itself to the time-varying harmonic disturbance force to reduce the unwanted vibration of the primary system in the steady state. The objectives of this note are to develop and implement a continuous control method for a MRE tunable vibration absorber (TVA) and to evaluate its performance in suppressing time-varying tonal vibrations. In the proposed control, the stiffness of MREs is continuously varied based on a nonlinear tuning function that relates the response of the system to the input magnetic field density. Through experiments, it will be shown that the proposed MRE TVA reduces in real time the transmission of a time-varying excited vibration of 48-55 Hz, which shows the potential applicability of the MRE in reducing unwanted vibration to precision devices.

  5. Widely tunable erbium-doped fiber laser based on multimode interference effect.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Guzman, A; Antonio-Lopez, J E; Selvas-Aguilar, R; May-Arrioja, D A; Estudillo-Ayala, J; LiKamWa, P

    2010-01-18

    A widely tunable erbium-doped all-fiber laser has been demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on a novel tunable filter using multimode interference effects (MMI). The tunable MMI filter was applied to fabricate a tunable erbium-doped fiber laser via a standard ring cavity. A tuning range of 60 nm was obtained, ranging from 1549 nm to 1609 nm, with a signal to noise ratio of 40 dB. The tunable MMI filter mechanism is very simple and inexpensive, but also quite efficient as a wavelength tunable filter.

  6. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo

    2011-02-01

    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  7. Tunable thermoelectric transport in nanomeshes via elastic strain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Piccione, Brian; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2015-03-16

    Recent experimental explorations of silicon nanomeshes have shown that the unique metastructures exhibit reduced thermal conductivity while preserving bulk electrical conductivity via feature sizes between relevant phonon and electron mean free paths, aiding in the continued promise that nanometer-scale engineering may further enhance thermoelectric behavior. Here, we introduce a strategy for tuning thermoelectric transport phenomena in semiconductor nanomeshes via heterogeneous elastic strain engineering, using silicon as a model material for demonstration of the concept. By combining analytical models for electron mobility in uniformly stressed silicon with finite element analysis of strained silicon nanomeshes in a lumped physical model, we show that the nonuniform and multiaxial strain fields defined by the nanomesh geometry give rise to spatially varying band shifts and warping, which in aggregate accelerate electron transport along directions of applied stress. This allows for global electrical conductivity and Seebeck enhancements beyond those of homogenous samples under equivalent far-field stresses, ultimately increasing thermoelectric power factor nearly 50% over unstrained samples. The proposed concept and structures—generic to a wide class of materials with large dynamic ranges of elastic strain in nanoscale volumes—may enable a new pathway for active and tunable control of transport properties relevant to waste heat scavenging and thermal management.

  8. Addressable and Color-Tunable Piezophotonic Light-Emitting Stripes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Chen, Li; Hao, Jianhua; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-03-15

    Piezophotonic light-emitting devices have great potential for future microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) due to the added functionality provided by the electromechanical transduction coupled with the ability of light emission. Piezophotonic light-emitting source based on Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3 )O3 -PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) bulk is severely restricted by many challenges, such as high voltage burden, low integration density, and micromanufacturing complexity. Developing chip-integrated devices or incorporating such photonic components onto a Si platform is highly sought after in this field. In this work, the authors overcome the abovementioned problems by introducing single-crystal PMN-PT thin films on Si as central active elements. Taking advantage of mature microfabrication techniques, arrays of PMN-PT actuators with small footprints and low operation voltages have been implemented. Each actuator can be individually addressed, generating local deformation to trigger piezophotonic luminescence from ZnS:Mn thin films. Moreover, the authors have realized continuous and reversible color manipulation of piezophotonic luminescence on a bilayer film of ZnS:Cu,Al/ZnS:Mn. The color tunability promises an extra degree of freedom and distinctly suggests its great potential in developing a more compact and colorful piezophotonic light sources and displays related applications together with the "single pixel" addressability.

  9. Chiral THz metamaterial with tunable optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John; Chowdhury, Roy; Zhao, Rongkuo; Soukoullis, Costas M

    2010-01-01

    Optical activity in chiral metamaterials is demonstrated in simulation and shows actively tunable giant polarization rotation at THz frequencies. Electric current distributions show that pure chirality is achieved by our bi-Iayer chiral metamaterial design. The chirality can be optically controlled by illumination with near-infrared light. Optical activity, occurring in chiral materials such as DNA, sugar and many other bio-molecules, is a phenomenon of great importance to many areas of science including molecular biology, analytical chemistry, optoelectronics and display applications. This phenomenon is well understood at an effective medium level as a magnetic/electric moment excited by the electric/magnetic field of the incident electromagnetic (EM) wave. Usually, natural chiral materials exhibit very weak optical activity e.g. a gyrotropic quartz crystal. The optical activity of chiral metamaterials, however, can be five orders of magnitude stronger. Chiral metamaterials are made of sub-wavelength resonators lacking symmetry planes. The asymmetry allows magnetic moments to be excited by the electric field of the incident EM wave and vice versa. Recently, chiral metamaterials have been demonstrated and lead to prospects in giant optical activity, circular dichroism, negative refraction and reversing the Casmir force. These fascinating optical properties require strong chirality, which may be designed through the microscopic structure of chiral metamaterials. However, these metamaterials have a fixed response function, defined by the geometric structuring, which limits their ability to manipulate EM waves. Active metamaterials realize dynamic control of response functions and have produced many influential applications such as ultra-fast switching devices, frequency and phase modulation and memory devices. Introducing active designs to chiral metamaterials will give additional freedom in controlling the optical activity, and therefore enable dynamic manipulation

  10. Tunable nano-pattern generation and photolithography using hybrid Kretschmann and Otto structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fuyang; Wang, Chinhua; Hu, Jingpei

    2016-10-01

    We propose a continuous tuning SPPs interference photolithography using hybrid Kretschmann and Otto structures. The patterns are formed by the interference of two kinds of SPPs excited by Kretschmann structure and Otto structure respectively, and the tuning capability is implemented by changing the angle between the two kinds of SPPs beams and varying the amplitude and phase of corresponding incident beams. Numerical results show the flexibility and convenience in tuning of interference patterns and resolutions with high contrast, both one and two dimension periodic patterns can be generated and tuned easily. This proposed method is possible to develop a new tunable SPPs photolithography technique for fabrication of periodic nanostructures.

  11. Tunable microwave signal generator with an optically-injected 1310 nm QD-DFB laser.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Antonio; Mee, Jesse; Nami, Mohsen; Henning, Ian D; Adams, Michael J; Lester, Luke F

    2013-05-06

    Tunable microwave signal generation with frequencies ranging from below 1 GHz to values over 40 GHz is demonstrated experimentally with a 1310 nm Quantum Dot (QD) Distributed-Feedback (DFB) laser. Microwave signal generation is achieved using the period 1 dynamics induced in the QD DFB under optical injection. Continuous tuning in the positive detuning frequency range of the quantum dot's unique stability map is demonstrated. The simplicity of the experimental configuration offers promise for novel uses of these nanostructure lasers in Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) applications and future mobile networks.

  12. Fast axial-scanning photoacoustic microscopy using tunable acoustic gradient lens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoquan; Jiang, Bowen; Song, Xianlin; Wei, Jianshuang; Luo, Qingming

    2017-04-03

    An optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM) with capability of fast axial-scanning was developed by using a tunable acoustic gradient (TAG) lens. The TAG lens was designed to continuously changing the focal plane of OR-PAM by modulating its refractive power with fast-changing ultrasonic standing wave. The performance was shown by imaging a carbon fiber. We achieved a DoF of about 750 μm. The head of a zebrafish was also imaged to further demonstrate the feasibility of our method.

  13. Sequential microfluidic flow synthesis of CePO4 nanorods decorated with emission tunable quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Evans, Cameron W; Willis, Glen J; Sherwood, David; Guo, Yanglong; Lu, Guanzhong; Raston, Colin L; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2010-10-07

    CePO(4) nanorods decorated with QDs (QDs@CePO(4)) can be prepared in a sequential, aqueous procedure under continuous flow using a rotating tube processor and a narrow channel reactor. The emission from the QD@CePO(4) is tunable from green to red by simply adjusting the feeding rate, which in turn regulates the particle size of the QDs. The Ce(3+) ions in the QDs@CePO(4) serve as an efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor, effectively enlarging the Stokes shift of the QDs.

  14. Influence of Reflections on Frequency Tunability and Mode Competition in the Second-Harmonic THz Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, Eduard M.; Idehara, Toshitaka; Melnikova, Maria M.; Ryskin, Nikita M.; Dumbrajs, Olgierd

    2017-07-01

    Effect of delayed reflection on operation of a second-harmonic terahertz (THz)-band gyrotron is studied. Theoretical analyses, numerical calculations, and experimental observations for the 0.394-THz Fukui University (FU) and continuous wave (CW) IIB gyrotron are presented. The reflections decrease starting current and expand frequency tunability range owing to excitation of high-order axial modes. They also increase frequency stability, i.e., reduce frequency change due to variation of the magnetic field. In addition, the reflections strongly affect mode competition causing suppress of the second-harmonic mode by the fundamental one and vice versa or, in the case of cooperative mode interaction, mutual power increase.

  15. Connecting the dots: Time-reversal symmetric Weyl semimetals with tunable Fermi arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Vatsal; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a one-parameter family of noninteracting lattice models for Weyl semimetals with four Weyl nodes and tunable Fermi arcs. These two-band model Hamiltonians are time-reversal symmetric with T2=+1 , and tuning the parameter changes the connectivity of the Fermi arcs continuously without affecting the location and chiralities of the Weyl nodes in the bulk Brillouin zone. The bulk polarization and magnetization are shown to vary with this parameter, a dependence inaccessible to the low energy effective field theory.

  16. Influence of Reflections on Frequency Tunability and Mode Competition in the Second-Harmonic THz Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutoryan, Eduard M.; Idehara, Toshitaka; Melnikova, Maria M.; Ryskin, Nikita M.; Dumbrajs, Olgierd

    2017-03-01

    Effect of delayed reflection on operation of a second-harmonic terahertz (THz)-band gyrotron is studied. Theoretical analyses, numerical calculations, and experimental observations for the 0.394-THz Fukui University (FU) and continuous wave (CW) IIB gyrotron are presented. The reflections decrease starting current and expand frequency tunability range owing to excitation of high-order axial modes. They also increase frequency stability, i.e., reduce frequency change due to variation of the magnetic field. In addition, the reflections strongly affect mode competition causing suppress of the second-harmonic mode by the fundamental one and vice versa or, in the case of cooperative mode interaction, mutual power increase.

  17. [Infrared tunable difference frequency laser source]. Final technical report, September 15, 1990--September 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Purpose of grant was to purchase equipment necessary to construct an infrared laser source based on difference frequency generation in AgGaS[sub 2]. This continuous wave, single frequency, tunable infrared source has been assembled and is being used for infrared kinetic spectroscopy of small free radicals important in combustion. Infrared spectra are given for the Q-branch of a combination band (11[sup 1]1) of N[sub 2]O, and for the transient in CO produced by flash photolysis of acetone in various vibrational states.

  18. [Infrared tunable difference frequency laser source]. Final technical report, September 15, 1990--September 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curl, R.F.

    1992-12-31

    Purpose of grant was to purchase equipment necessary to construct an infrared laser source based on difference frequency generation in AgGaS{sub 2}. This continuous wave, single frequency, tunable infrared source has been assembled and is being used for infrared kinetic spectroscopy of small free radicals important in combustion. Infrared spectra are given for the Q-branch of a combination band (11{sup 1}1) of N{sub 2}O, and for the transient in CO produced by flash photolysis of acetone in various vibrational states.

  19. Tunable semiconductor laser with an acousto-optic filter in an external fibre cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, E V; Mamedov, D S; Ruenkov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Magdich, L N; Yakubovich, S D

    2006-04-30

    A tunable semiconductor laser with a laser amplifier based on a double-pass superluminescent diode as an active element and an acousto-optic filter in an external fibre cavity as a selective element is investigated. A continuous spectral tuning is achieved in a band of width 60 nm centered at a wavelength of 845 nm and the 'instant' linewidth below 0.05 nm is obtained. The sweep frequency within the tuning range achieves 200 Hz. The cw power at the output of a single-mode fibre was automatically maintained constant at the level up to 1.5 mW. (lasers and amplifiers)

  20. High-Power, Widely-Tunable Cr2+:ZnSe Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996). 2. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. DeLoach, G. D. Wilke, F. D...infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997). 3. I. T. Sorokina, E. Sorokin, S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, V. Badikov, V. Panyutin, and K. I...Schaffers, “Broadly tunable compact continuous-wave Cr2+: ZnS laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(12), 1040–1042 (2002). 4. U. Hömmerich, X. Wu, V. R. Davis, S. B

  1. Type II InAs/GaAsSb quantum dots: Highly tunable exciton geometry and topology

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, J. M.; Wewior, L.; Cardozo de Oliveira, E. R.; Alén, B.; Ulloa, J. M.; Utrilla, A. D.; Guzmán, A.; Hierro, A.

    2015-11-02

    External control over the electron and hole wavefunctions geometry and topology is investigated in a p-i-n diode embedding a dot-in-a-well InAs/GaAsSb quantum structure with type II band alignment. We find highly tunable exciton dipole moments and largely decoupled exciton recombination and ionization dynamics. We also predicted a bias regime where the hole wavefunction topology changes continuously from quantum dot-like to quantum ring-like as a function of the external bias. All these properties have great potential in advanced electro-optical applications and in the investigation of fundamental spin-orbit phenomena.

  2. Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ganikhanov, Feruz; Carrasco, Silvia; Sunney Xie, X; Katz, Mordechai; Seitz, Wolfgang; Kopf, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    The signal and idler beams from a picosecond, synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) provide the two colors necessary for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The OPO provides a continuously tunable frequency difference between the two beams over a broad range of Raman shifts (100-3700 cm(-1)) by varying the temperature of a single nonlinear crystal. The near-infrared output (900-1300 nm) allows for deep penetration into thick samples and reduced nonlinear photodamage. Applications of this light source to in vivo cell and ex vivo tissue imaging are demonstrated.

  3. Width and amplitude tunable square-wave pulse in dual-pump passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Mei, Li; Chen, Guoliang; Xu, Lixin; Zhang, Xianming; Gu, Chun; Sun, Biao; Wang, Anting

    2014-06-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a figure-8 dual-pump passively mode-locked fiber laser to generate square-wave pulse tunable by both width and amplitude. Just by simply adjusting the power of the pumps, both the amplitude and width of the output square-wave pulse can be tuned independently and continuously. One pump is used to tune the output pulsewidth while the other is used to tune amplitude.

  4. Thermally tunable slot-coupled dielectric resonator antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ke; Chen, Cong; Wang, Qingmin; Liu, Wenjun; Hao, Yanan; Gao, Xinlu; Huang, Shanguo; Lei, Ming

    2017-02-01

    A thermally tunable slot-coupled dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) has been designed and prepared by placing a thermosensitive ceramic resonator onto the slot. Typical magnetic resonance occurs in the resonator, which is closely related to its dielectric constant. Because the dielectric constant of the ceramic resonator decreases as the temperature increases, the resonance frequency of the proposed DRA increases as the temperature increases. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured ones, which confirms the thermally tunable behavior. This approach provides a way for designing the frequency tunable antennas.

  5. Permanent magnetic ferrite based power-tunable metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanqiao; Lan, Chuwen; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Ji

    2017-08-01

    Power-tunable metamaterials based on barium permanent magnetic ferrite have been proposed and fabricated in this research. Scattering parameter measurements confirm a shift in resonant frequency in correlation to changes in incident electromagnetic power within microwave frequency band. The tunable phenomenon represented by a blue-shift in transmission spectra in the metamaterials array can be attributed to a decrease in saturation magnetization resulting from FMR-induced temperature elevation upon resonant conditions. This power-dependent behavior offers a simple and practical route towards dynamically fine-tunable ferrite metamaterials.

  6. Magnetically tunable wideband microwave filter using ferrite-based metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ke; Zhu, Wenting; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2015-04-01

    Magnetically tunable wideband microwave filters have been designed and prepared by using ferrite-based metamaterial structures. The microwave properties of the filters have been investigated by experiments and simulations. The negative permeability appears around the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, which leads to a remarkable stopband for the bandstop filter. The bandpass filter is composed of two kinds of ferrite rods with different saturation magnetization. The bandwidth of the passband can be tuned by adjusting the saturation magnetization of the ferrite rods. Both the experimental and the simulated results show that those filters possess magnetically tunable property. This approach opens a way for designing tunable wideband microwave filters.

  7. A Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; /SLAC

    2012-05-17

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  8. Tunable Microwave Component Technologies for SatCom-Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maune, Holger; Jost, Matthias; Wiens, Alex; Weickhmann, Christian; Reese, Roland; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Schuster, Christian; Franke, Tobias; Hu, Wenjuan; Nickel, Matthias; Kienemund, Daniel; Prasetiadi, Ananto Eka; Jakoby, Rolf

    2017-03-01

    Modern communication platforms require a huge amount of switched RF component banks especially made of different filters and antennas to cover all operating frequencies and bandwidth for the targeted services and application scenarios. In contrast, reconfigurable devices made of tunable components lead to a considerable reduction in complexity, size, weight, power consumption, and cost. This paper gives an overview of suitable technologies for tunable microwave components especially for SatCom applications. Special attention is given to tunable components based on functional materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST) and liquid crystal (LC).

  9. Widely tunable lasers enabling efficient and intelligent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Rang-Chen

    2002-08-01

    Widely tunable laser has been recognized as one of the key enabling technologies for more efficient and intelligent optical networks. We present recent advanced development of a monolithic full band tunable laser device based on sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) technology at Agility Communications. We will discuss key performance parameters, as well as long term reliability of a widely tunable laser with high power (> 20mW), wide tuning range (the whole C-band, or L-band), monolithically integrated electro-absorption (EA) modulator and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Optical network applications will also be discussed.

  10. Widely tunable telecom MEMS-VCSEL for terahertz photomixing.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Mohammad Tanvir; Preu, Sascha; Paul, Sujoy; Gierl, Christian; Cesar, Julijan; Emsia, Ali; Küppers, Franko

    2015-10-01

    We report frequency-tunable terahertz (THz) generation with a photomixer driven by an ultra-broadband tunable micro-electro-mechanical system vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (MEMS-VCSEL) and a fixed-wavelength VCSEL, as well as a tunable MEMS-VCSEL mixed with a distributed feedback (DFB) diode. A total frequency span of 3.4 THz is covered in direct detection mode and 3.23 THz in the homodyne mode. The tuning range is solely limited by the dynamic range of the photomixers and the Schottky diode/photoconductor used in the experiment.

  11. All-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber surface grating for in-fiber devices: a wideband tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianhui; Han, Yuqi; Huang, Hankai; Li, Haozi; Hsiao, Vincent K S; Liu, Weiping; Tang, Jieyuan; Lu, Huihui; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Yunhan; Zhong, Yongchun; Zang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhe

    2014-03-10

    A fiber surface grating (FSG) formed from a photosensitive liquid crystal hybrid (PLCH) film overlaid on a side-polished fiber (SPF) is studied and has been experimentally shown to be able to function as an all-optically reconfigurable and tunable fiber device. The device is all-optically configured to be a short period fiber surface grating (SPFSG) when a phase mask is used, and then reconfigured to be a long period FSG (LPFSG) when an amplitude mask is used. Experimental results show that both the short and long period FSGs can function as an optically tunable band-rejection filter and have different performances with different pump power and different configured period of the FSG. When configured as a SPFSG, the device can achieve a high extinction ratio (ER) of 21.5dB and a wideband tunability of 31nm are achieved. When configured as a LPFSG, the device can achieve an even higher ER of 23.4dB and a wider tunable bandwidth of 60nm. Besides these tunable performances of the device, its full width at half maximum (FWHM) can also be optically tuned. The reconfigurability and tunability of the fiber device open up possibilities for other all-optically programmable and tunable fiber devices.

  12. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonicmaterials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially usefuloptical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct opticalscattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures thatcouple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, whichis mediated by surface plasmons, depends on their shape and arrangement.Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silvernanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using theLangmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticlespacing, density, and packing symmetry allows for tunability of theoptical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategyoffers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials forapplication in spectroscopic sensors, sub-wavelength optics, andintegrated devices that utilize field enhancement effects.

  13. Electrically tunable artificial gauge potential for polaritons.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Togan, Emre; Kroner, Martin; Miguel-Sanchez, Javier; Imamoğlu, Atac

    2017-02-23

    Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons. For verification, we perform interferometric measurements of the associated phase accumulated during coherent polariton transport. Since the gauge potential originates from the magnetoelectric Stark effect, it can be realized for photons strongly coupled to excitations in any polarizable medium. Together with strong polariton-polariton interactions and engineered polariton lattices, artificial gauge fields could play a key role in investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated photons.

  14. Design of tunable cylindrical dielectric nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Inder; Reena; Kalra, Yogita; Sinha, R. K.

    2016-09-01

    A tunable cylindrical all dielectric optical nanoantenna has been proposed. A silicon nanocylinder of radius 60 nm and height 150 nm has been considered. The azimuthally symmetric, complete forward scattering at first Kerker's condition and backward scattering with minimum forward scattering at second generalized Kerker's condition in near infra-red region has been observed for the proposed design which makes silicon nanocylinder a promising candidate for optical nanoantenna applications. The effect of the dimensions of the dielectric nanocylinder on the scattering properties of the cylindrical nanoantenna has been analyzed using finite element method. We have analyzed that the variation in diameter of nanocylinder has great influence on the strength of interference of electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. Further, we have observed tuning ability of the cylindrical nanoantenna with respect to the variation in its radius.

  15. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  16. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2015-10-26

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  17. Electrically tunable artificial gauge potential for polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Togan, Emre; Kroner, Martin; Miguel-Sanchez, Javier; Imamoğlu, Atac

    2017-01-01

    Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons. For verification, we perform interferometric measurements of the associated phase accumulated during coherent polariton transport. Since the gauge potential originates from the magnetoelectric Stark effect, it can be realized for photons strongly coupled to excitations in any polarizable medium. Together with strong polariton–polariton interactions and engineered polariton lattices, artificial gauge fields could play a key role in investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated photons. PMID:28230047

  18. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  19. Spectral tunability of realistic plasmonic nanoantennas

    SciTech Connect

    Portela, Alejandro; Matsui, Hiroaki; Tabata, Hitoshi; Yano, Takaaki; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Hara, Masahiko; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2014-09-01

    Single nanoantenna spectroscopy was carried out on realistic dipole nanoantennas with various arm lengths and gap sizes fabricated by electron-beam lithography. A significant difference in resonance wavelength between realistic and ideal nanoantennas was found by comparing their spectral response. Consequently, the spectral tunability (96 nm) of the structures was significantly lower than that of simulated ideal nanoantennas. These observations, attributed to the nanofabrication process, are related to imperfections in the geometry, added metal adhesion layer, and shape modifications, which are analyzed in this work. Our results provide important information for the design of dipole nanoantennas clarifying the role of the structural modifications on the resonance spectra, as supported by calculations.

  20. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yungsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe-based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  1. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  2. Origami Metamaterials for Tunable Thermal Expansion.

    PubMed

    Boatti, Elisa; Vasios, Nikolaos; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-07-01

    Materials with engineered thermal expansion, capable of achieving targeted area/volume changes in response to variations in temperature, are important for a number of aerospace, optical, energy, and microelectronic applications. While most of the proposed structures with engineered coefficient of thermal expansion consist of bi-material 2D or 3D lattices, here it is shown that origami metamaterials also provide a platform for the design of systems with a wide range of thermal expansion coefficients. Experiments and simulations are combined to demonstrate that by tuning the geometrical parameters of the origami structure and the arrangement of plates and creases, an extremely broad range of thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained. Differently from all previously reported systems, the proposed structure is tunable in situ and nonporous. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Tunable hybridization in metal nanoshell chains.

    PubMed

    Ling, C W; Zheng, M J; Yu, K W

    2011-03-16

    We have studied the coupled surface plasmon (SP) modes in periodic metal nanoshell chains by including long range electromagnetic interactions. The eigen-decomposition method is used to analyze the dispersion and dissipation of the SP modes. The resulting band structure can be understood as a hybridization between a hole band and a particle band with a structurally tunable band gap in the middle of the first Brillouin zone. The mode quality, which is defined as the imaginary part of the generalized polarizability, increases as the shell thickness decreases. This indicates a larger energy loss and an increasing coupling between the bands. Through the manipulation of the band structures, the propagation of the coupled SP modes in the nanoshell chain can be controlled.

  4. Protein separation using an electrically tunable membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Ining; Melnikov, Dmitriy; Gracheva, Maria

    Separation of small proteins by charge with a solid-state porous membrane requires control over the protein's movement. Semiconductor membrane has this ability due to the electrically tunable electric potential profile inside the nanopore. In this work we investigate the possibility to separate the solution of two similar sized proteins by charge. As an example, we consider two small globular proteins abundant in humans: insulin (negatively charged) and ubiquitin (neutral). We find that the localized electric field inside the pore either attracts or repels the charged protein to or from the pore wall which affects the delay time before a successful translocation of the protein through the nanopore. However, the motion of the uncharged ubiquitin is unaffected. The difference in the delay time (and hence the separation) can be further increased by the application of the electrolyte bias which induces an electroosmotic flow in the pore. NSF DMR and CBET Grant No. 1352218.

  5. High resolution tunable POF multimode power splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafiqah Mohamed-Kassim, N.; Kamil Abd-Rahman, M.

    2017-10-01

    A 1 × 2 optical polymer waveguide splitter of dynamic power tuning capability with low excess loss and high tuning resolution is presented. The device was developed based on angular misalignment technique of plastic optical fiber (POF) by allowing predetermined power to split out asymmetrically to two output ports. Non-sequential ray-tracing simulation and mathematical expression of the waveguide outputs matched well to the measured data. Excess loss of the dynamically tunable power-splitter maintains in the range of 0.58-1.85 dB, while the measured splitting-ratio resolution between adjacent power-tuning points is ±0.5% for both output ports. This dynamic power-tuning device would lead to some practical applications such as monitoring, power-controlling applications and sensor.

  6. Electrically tunable artificial gauge potential for polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Togan, Emre; Kroner, Martin; Miguel-Sanchez, Javier; Imamoğlu, Atac

    2017-02-01

    Neutral particles subject to artificial gauge potentials can behave as charged particles in magnetic fields. This fascinating premise has led to demonstrations of one-way waveguides, topologically protected edge states and Landau levels for photons. In ultracold neutral atoms, effective gauge fields have allowed the emulation of matter under strong magnetic fields leading to realization of Harper-Hofstadter and Haldane models. Here we show that application of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields effects a tunable artificial gauge potential for two-dimensional microcavity exciton polaritons. For verification, we perform interferometric measurements of the associated phase accumulated during coherent polariton transport. Since the gauge potential originates from the magnetoelectric Stark effect, it can be realized for photons strongly coupled to excitations in any polarizable medium. Together with strong polariton-polariton interactions and engineered polariton lattices, artificial gauge fields could play a key role in investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated photons.

  7. Nanostructured electrocatalysts with tunable activity and selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Hemma; Varela, Ana Sofia; Kühl, Stefanie; Strasser, Peter; Cuenya, Beatriz Roldan

    2016-04-01

    The field of electrocatalysis has undergone tremendous advancement in the past few decades, in part owing to improvements in catalyst design at the nanoscale. These developments have been crucial for the realization of and improvement in alternative energy technologies based on electrochemical reactions such as fuel cells. Through the development of novel synthesis methods, characterization techniques and theoretical methods, rationally designed nanoscale electrocatalysts with tunable activity and selectivity have been achieved. This Review explores how nanostructures can be used to control electrochemical reactivity, focusing on three model reactions: O2 electroreduction, CO2 electroreduction and ethanol electrooxidation. The mechanisms behind nanoscale control of reactivity are discussed, such as the presence of low-coordinated sites or facets, strain, ligand effects and bifunctional effects in multimetallic materials. In particular, studies of how particle size, shape and composition in nanostructures can be used to tune reactivity are highlighted.

  8. Tunable-Quantum-Well Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Proposed detector of infrared photons based on photon-assisted, resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling between adjacent energy wells in its semiconductor structure. Wavelength adjusted by changing applied voltage. Device contains alternating layers of different seminconductors which form double-quantum-well electron-energy structure. Tunable-quantum-well detectors made on single chip constitutes line imager. Many such devices stacked to form two-dimensional imaging device. Signal-processing circuitry integrated into chip at its lower end. Potential barriers and wells produced by alternating layers of different semiconductor materials. Steepness of slope proportional to applied electric field. Electric field and thicknesses and heights of barriers selected to favor photon-assisted, resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling at chosen photon frequency.

  9. Tunable lifetime multiplexing using luminescent nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiqing; Zhao, Jiangbo; Zhang, Run; Liu, Yujia; Liu, Deming; Goldys, Ewa M.; Yang, Xusan; Xi, Peng; Sunna, Anwar; Lu, Jie; Shi, Yu; Leif, Robert C.; Huo, Yujing; Shen, Jian; Piper, James A.; Robinson, J. Paul; Jin, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    Optical multiplexing plays an important role in applications such as optical data storage, document security, molecular probes and bead assays for personalized medicine. Conventional fluorescent colour coding is limited by spectral overlap and background interference, restricting the number of distinguishable identities. Here, we show that tunable luminescent lifetimes τ in the microsecond region can be exploited to code individual upconversion nanocrystals. In a single colour band, one can generate more than ten nanocrystal populations with distinct lifetimes ranging from 25.6 µs to 662.4 µs and decode their well-separated lifetime identities, which are independent of both colour and intensity. Such `τ-dots' potentially suit multichannel bioimaging, high-throughput cytometry quantification, high-density data storage, as well as security codes to combat counterfeiting. This demonstration extends the optical multiplexing capability by adding the temporal dimension of luminescent signals, opening new opportunities in the life sciences, medicine and data security.

  10. Tunable Plasma-Wave Laser Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromage, J.; Haberberger, D.; Davies, A.; Bucht, S.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Trines, R.; Bingham, R.; Sadler, J.; Norreys, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Raman amplification is a process by which a long energetic pump pulse transfers its energy to a counter-propagating short seed pulse through a resonant electron plasma wave. Since its conception, theory and simulations have shown exciting results with up to tens of percent of energy transfer from the pump to the seed pulse. However, experiments have yet to surpass transfer efficiencies of a few percent. A review of past literature shows that largely chirped pump pulses and finite temperature wave breaking could have been the two most detrimental effects. A Raman amplification platform is being developed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics where a combination of a high-intensity tunable seed laser with sophisticated plasma diagnostics (dynamic Thomson scattering) will make it possible to find the optimal parameter space for high-energy transfer. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  11. 10 kW Tunable Ultrafast Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kelley

    2003-06-01

    Since the first demonstration in 1977 that laser-like light can be made by direct interaction of an electron beam with a tailored magnet array (wiggler), more than 30 free electron lasers have come into operation world-wide. Unique among them, the JLab FEL has already reliably delivered more than 2 kW of tunable picosecond light to users. An upgrade to more than 10 kW average power is underway for start-up in Spring '03 and first results are presented. Design and performance for a successor 100 kW plus FEL is described. The JLab FEL is available to users; see www.jab.org/FEL.

  12. Tunable lenses using transparent dielectric elastomer actuators.

    PubMed

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger M; Clarke, David R

    2013-04-08

    Focus tunable, adaptive lenses provide several advantages over traditional lens assemblies in terms of compactness, cost, efficiency, and flexibility. To further improve the simplicity and compact nature of adaptive lenses, we present an elastomer-liquid lens system which makes use of an inline, transparent electroactive polymer actuator. The lens requires only a minimal number of components: a frame, a passive membrane, a dielectric elastomer actuator membrane, and a clear liquid. The focal length variation was recorded to be greater than 100% with this system, responding in less than one second. Through the analysis of membrane deformation within geometrical constraints, it is shown that by selecting appropriate lens dimensions, even larger focusing dynamic ranges can be achieved.

  13. Tunable hyperbolic metamaterials utilizing phase change heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; Menon, Vinod M.; Zhou, You; Ramanathan, Shriram; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2014-03-24

    We present a metal-free tunable anisotropic metamaterial where the iso-frequency surface is tuned from elliptical to hyperbolic dispersion by exploiting the metal-insulator phase transition in the correlated material vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). Using VO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} heterostructures, we demonstrate the transition in the effective dielectric constant parallel to the layers to undergo a sign change from positive to negative as the VO{sub 2} undergoes the phase transition. The possibility to tune the iso-frequency surface in real time using external perturbations such as temperature, voltage, or optical pulses creates new avenues for controlling light-matter interaction.

  14. Tunable focalizers: axicons, lenses, and axilenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda-Castañeda, Jorge; Gómez-Sarabia, Cristina M.; Ledesma, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    We propose the use of a pair of phase masks, which have both radial and angular variations, for implementing several varifocal devices. One mask of the proposed pair has a complex amplitude transmittance that is the complex conjugate of the other member of the pair. We show that the overall complex amplitude transmittance has only a radial variation after introducing an in-plane rotation, say by an angle β, between the members of the pair. However, we note that the optical power is proportional to the rotation angle β. As examples of the proposed method, we show that the refractive pair is useful for implementing varifocal lenses, tunable axicons, controllable axilenses, as well as annularly distributed focalizers.

  15. Tunable Gas Sensing Gels by Cooperative Assembly.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Semeano, Ana T S; Palma, Susana I C J; Pina, Ana S; Almeida, José; Medrado, Bárbara F; Pádua, Ana C C S; Carvalho, Ana L; Dionísio, Madalena; Li, Rosamaria W C; Gamboa, Hugo; Ulijn, Rein V; Gruber, Jonas; Roque, Ana C A

    2017-07-19

    The cooperative assembly of biopolymers and small molecules can yield functional materials with precisely tunable properties. Here, the fabrication, characterization, and use of multicomponent hybrid gels as selective gas sensors are reported. The gels are composed of liquid crystal droplets self-assembled in the presence of ionic liquids, which further coassemble with biopolymers to form stable matrices. Each individual component can be varied and acts cooperatively to tune gels' structure and function. The unique molecular environment in hybrid gels is explored for supramolecular recognition of volatile compounds. Gels with distinct compositions are used as optical and electrical gas sensors, yielding a combinatorial response conceptually mimicking olfactory biological systems, and tested to distinguish volatile organic compounds and to quantify ethanol in automotive fuel. The gel response is rapid, reversible, and reproducible. These robust, versatile, modular, pliant electro-optical soft materials possess new possibilities in sensing triggered by chemical and physical stimuli.

  16. Tunable plasticity in amorphous silicon carbide films.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Kim, Namjun; King, Sean W; Bielefeld, Jeff; Stebbins, Jonathan F; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2013-08-28

    Plasticity plays a crucial role in the mechanical behavior of engineering materials. For instance, energy dissipation during plastic deformation is vital to the sufficient fracture resistance of engineering materials. Thus, the lack of plasticity in brittle hybrid organic-inorganic glasses (hybrid glasses) often results in a low fracture resistance and has been a significant challenge for their integration and applications. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films, a class of hybrid glasses, can exhibit a plasticity that is even tunable by controlling their molecular structure and thereby leads to an increased and adjustable fracture resistance in the films. We decouple the plasticity contribution from the fracture resistance of the films by estimating the "work-of-fracture" using a mean-field approach, which provides some insight into a potential connection between the onset of plasticity in the films and the well-known rigidity percolation threshold.

  17. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  18. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopez Jimenez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, which are thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  19. Tunable electromagnetic environment for superconducting quantum bits

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. J.; Huhtamäki, J. A. M.; Salmilehto, J.; Tan, K. Y.; Möttönen, M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a setup which realises a tunable engineered environment for experiments in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We illustrate this concept with the specific example of a quantum bit, qubit, in a high-quality-factor cavity which is capacitively coupled to another cavity including a resistor. The temperature of the resistor, which acts as the dissipative environment, can be controlled in a well defined manner in order to provide a hot or cold environment for the qubit, as desired. Furthermore, introducing superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) into the cavity containing the resistor, provides control of the coupling strength between this artificial environment and the qubit. We demonstrate that our scheme allows us to couple strongly to the environment enabling rapid initialization of the system, and by subsequent tuning of the magnetic flux of the SQUIDs we may greatly reduce the resistor-qubit coupling, allowing the qubit to evolve unhindered. PMID:23759710

  20. Electro-optical tunable birefringent filter

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, Fred M

    2012-01-31

    An electrically tunable Lyot type filter is a Lyot that include one or more filter elements. Each filter element may have a planar, solid crystal comprised of a material that exhibits birefringence and is electro-optically active. Transparent electrodes may be coated on each face of the crystal. An input linear light polarizer may be located on one side of the crystal and oriented at 45 degrees to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. An output linear light polarizer may be located on the other side of the crystal and oriented at -45 degrees with respect to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. When an electric voltage is applied between the electrodes, the retardation of the crystal changes and so does the spectral transmission of the optical filter.

  1. Tunable Gas Sensing Gels by Cooperative Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abid; Semeano, Ana T. S.; Palma, Susana I. C. J.; Pina, Ana S.; Almeida, José; Medrado, Bárbara F.; Pádua, Ana C. C. S.; Carvalho, Ana L.; Dionísio, Madalena; Li, Rosamaria W. C.; Gamboa, Hugo; Ulijn, Rein V.; Gruber, Jonas; Roque, Ana C. A.

    2017-01-01

    The cooperative assembly of biopolymers and small molecules can yield functional materials with precisely tunable properties. Here, the fabrication, characterization, and use of multicomponent hybrid gels as selective gas sensors are reported. The gels are composed of liquid crystal droplets self-assembled in the presence of ionic liquids, which further coassemble with biopolymers to form stable matrices. Each individual component can be varied and acts cooperatively to tune gels’ structure and function. The unique molecular environment in hybrid gels is explored for supramolecular recognition of volatile compounds. Gels with distinct compositions are used as optical and electrical gas sensors, yielding a combinatorial response conceptually mimicking olfactory biological systems, and tested to distinguish volatile organic compounds and to quantify ethanol in automotive fuel. The gel response is rapid, reversible, and reproducible. These robust, versatile, modular, pliant electro-optical soft materials possess new possibilities in sensing triggered by chemical and physical stimuli. PMID:28747856

  2. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  3. Synthesis of Nickel Nanowires with Tunable Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zengzilu; Wen, Weijia

    2016-01-01

    A one-step synthesis of magnetic nickel nanowires (NiNWs) with tunable characteristics is reported. The method is simple and easy to be conducted, leading to high compatibility with scaling-up. It is discovered that the size and morphology of NiNWs can be adjusted by tuning the reaction temperature, time length, as well as surfactant concentration. It is found that the products have shown high purity which remained after being stored for several months. A remarkable enhanced saturation magnetization of the product was also observed, compared to that of bulk nickel. By providing both practical experimental details and in-depth mechanism, the work introduced in this paper may advance the mass production and further applications of NiNWs.

  4. Tunable and regenerative DNA zipper based spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, Preston; Mo, Alexander; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh

    2012-02-01

    We report a DNA zipper based actuator device termed `DNA- spring' with tunable and repeated cycles of extension and contraction ability. DNA zipper is a double-stranded DNA system engineered to open upon its specific interaction with appropriately designed single strand DNA (ssDNA), opening of the zipper is driven by binding energy differences between the DNA strands. The zipper system is incorporated with defined modifications to function like a spring, capable of delivering approximately 9 pN force over a distance of approximately 13 nm, producing approximately 116 kJ/mol of work. Time-lapse fluorescence and fluorescent DNA gel electrophoresis analysis is utilized to evaluate and confirm the spring action. A second zipper incorporated into the spring provides the ability to couple/decouple to an object/substrate. Such devices would have wide application, including for conditionally triggered molecular delivery systems and as actuators in nano-devices. zippers.

  5. Automated pressure scanning of tunable dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottscho, R. A.

    1985-04-01

    A method for the remote control of tunable laser frequency tuning is proposed in the framework of real-time monitoring of the chemistry and physics of plasma, combustion, and chemical vapor deposition reactions. The technique presented involves indirect frequency tuning and stabilization by direct control of the laser cavity pressure. The long-term drift in power, resulting from the grating and etalon misalignment is suggested to be correctable by using a second feedback circuit which would optimize laser power by finely tuning the etalon or grating. Experimental results obtained with a dye laser of Hansch type are included; a maximum variation in LIF signal of + or - 7 percent, which corresponds to a frequency drift of + or - 0.005/cm, over a 30-min interval was achieved. A block diagram of the feedback loop and the LIF apparatus are included.

  6. Tunable surface properties from bioinspired polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zoelen, Wendy; Rosales, Adrianne; Murnen, Hannah; Zuckermann, Ronald; Segalman, Rachel

    2011-03-01

    Anti-fouling properties can be derived from patterned or ``ambiguous'' surfaces displaying multiple surface properties. Biological polymers with precisely controlled chain shapes and self-assembled structures are attractive materials for these applications, in which tunability is of great importance. We have investigated the surface properties of polypeptoids, a class of non-natural biomimetic polymers based on an N-substituted glycine backbone, that combine many of the advantageous properties of bulk polymers with those of synthetically produced proteins. Polypeptoids are of particular interest as they can be made in a sequence controlled fashion with functionalities already known to impart fouling-resistance (ethers, zwitterions, hydrophobicity, and nanoscale patterning). We demonstrate their surface stability and processibility from the standpoint of coating performance and also discuss controlled self-assembly of these materials. Used strategies include mediation of crystallization by incorporating chain defects and specific interactions.

  7. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B

    2015-07-28

    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  8. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Tunable hybrid plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report resents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning Tunable Hybrid Plasma (THP) derived from a three-year program of stake holder involvement. THP destroys volatile organic compounds by directing a moderate energy electron beam into a flow of air containing organic contaminants. This report is for technology developers and for those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of THP to the remediation problems the face. In addition, this report presents data requirements for the technology`s field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on THP from stakeholders from four other sites throughout the western United States.

  9. Engineering Responsive, Tunable, and Multifunctional Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, Terry C.

    In recent years, engineering origami, inspired by paper art, is gaining traction in the study of reconfigurability because of its robustness as a mechanical system. These mechanical systems enable functional properties and can be extended to multiple length scales for a range of applications, including biomedicine, sensing, and smart materials. Here we explore two key strategies to enable new materials designs for responsiveness and tunable properties. The first deals with how we can combine desirable properties onto a single material, and the second deals with how the material is arranged spatially. In this work, we focus on a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled composite technique, which provides nanoscale control and mechanically robust composites suitable for reversible responsive systems. In the first part of the work inkjet printing is used produce these composites rapidly and to dictate spatial arrangement. We demonstrate combining LBL with inkjet printing to introduce mechanical motion in a solid nanocomposite system. Next we show using the same materials system and technique to modulate surface properties by inkjet LBL on nanopillar arrays, and propose its application in breath-activated authentication. The final part of the study focuses on an extension of the origami approach to engineer stretchability in conductive composites. Kirigami, the art of paper cutting, controls the deformation within a composite, which in turn gives us control over the strain-property relationship. The reconfigurability enabled by kirigami can also be used for tunable applications. We show that the combination of bottom-up and top-down patterning of composite materials demonstrates new opportunities in materials engineering, and suggest future directions in the field of engineering origami and kirigami.

  10. The Brazilian tunable filter imager for SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Keith; Mendes de Oliveira, Cláudia; Laporte, Rene; Guzman, Christian D.; Ramirez Fernandez, Javier; Scarano, Sergio, Jr.; Ramos, Giseli; Plana, Henri; Lourenco, Fernando E.; Gach, Jean-Luc; Fontes, Fernando L.; Ferrari, Fabricio; Cavalcanti, Luiz; Gutierrez Castañeda, Edna C.; de Calasans, Alvaro; Balard, Philippe; Amram, Philippe; Andrade, Denis

    2010-07-01

    A scientific and engineering team led by the Department of Astronomy of the IAG, at the University of São Paulo, is engaged in the development of a highly versatile, new technology, optical imaging interferometer to be used both in seeing-limited mode and at high spatial resolution using the SOAR Adaptive Optics Module (SAM: the GLAO facility for the SOAR telescope). Such an instrument opens up important new science capabilities for the SOAR astronomical community: from studies of nearby galaxies and the ISM to statistical cosmological investigations. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) concept takes advantage of two new technologies that have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory environment but have yet to be deployed in any astronomical instrument. The iBTF (imaging Bragg Tunable Filter) concept utilizes a Volume Phase Holographic Grating in double-pass configuration (Blais-Ouellette et al. 20061) while the new Fabry-Perot concept involves the use of commercially available technology allowing a single etalon to act over a very large range of interference orders. Both technologies will be used in the same instrument. The combination allows for highly versatile capabilities. Spectral resolutions spanning the full range between 5 and 35,000 can be achieved in the same instrument through the use of iBTF at low resolution and scanning Fabry-Perots beyond R ~2,000 with some overlap in the mid-range. The instrument is being developed in collaboration with several other Brazilian Institutions (Poli/USP, INPE, LNA and Unipampa) and international collaborations with the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and the University of Montreal. The reader is directed to the URL http://www.astro.iag.usp.br/~btfi/index.php for a full representation of the project and its current status. The instrument should see first light, mounted on the SOAR telescope, as a visiting instrument, on semester 2010B.

  11. Development of a Tunable Electromechanical Acoustic Liner for Engine Nacelles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Fei; Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III

    2007-01-01

    provides the information for a designer that shows how design trade-offs can be used to satisfy specific design requirements. The optimization design of the EMHR with inductive loads aims at optimal tuning of these three resonant fiequencies. The results indicate that it is possible to keep the acoustic reactance of the resonator close to a constant over a given frequency range. An effort to mimic the second layer of the NASA 2DOF liner using a piezoelectric composite diaphragm has been made. The optimal acoustic reactance of the second layer of the NASA 2DOF liner is achieved using a thin PVDF composite diaphragm, but matching the acoustic resistance requires further investigation. Acoustic energy harvesting is achieved by connecting the EMHR to an energy reclamation circuit that converts the ac voltage signal across the piezoceramic to a conditioned dc signal. Energy harvesting experiment yields 16 m W continuous power for an incident SPL of 153 dB. Such a level is sufficient to power a variety of low power electronic devices. Finally, technology transfer has been achieved by converting the original NASA ZKTL FORTRAN code to a MATLAB code while incorporating the models of the EMHR. Initial studies indicate that the EMHR is a promising technology that may enable lowpower, light weight, tunable engine nacelle liners. This technology, however, is very immature, and additional developments are required. Recommendations for future work include testing of sample EMHR liner designs in NASA Langley s normal incidence dual-waveguide and the grazing-incidence flow facility to evaluating both the impedance characteristics as well as the energy reclamation abilities. Additional design work is required for more complex tuning circuits with greater performance. Poor electromechanical coupling limited the electromechanical tuning capabilities of the proof of concept EMHR. Different materials than those studies and perhaps novel composite material systems may dramatically improvehe

  12. Tunable scalar solitons from a polarization-maintaining mode-locked fiber laser using carbon nanotube and chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Yan, Yaxi; Zhang, A Ping; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2016-10-03

    Generation of tunable scalar solitons from a polarization-maintaining (PM) mode-locked fiber laser is presented. A single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) absorber is used for self-started mode locking. A chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) mounted on a cantilever is employed as a tunable all-fiber filter. Mode-locked solitons are obtained with typical pulse duration of ~6.94 ps and repetition rate of 28.94 MHz. Linearly polarized laser emission is characterized with degree of polarization (DOP) of ~99.5%. The wavelength of the emitted scalar soliton can be continuously tuned through adjusting the CFBG, while maintaining the polarization stability.

  13. Broadly Tunable Subterahertz Emission from Internal Branches of the Current-Voltage Characteristics of Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Manabu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Delfanazari, Kaveh; Nakayama, Ryo; Kitamura, Takeo; Sawamura, Masashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Minami, Hidetoshi; Tachiki, Masashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Klemm, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Continuous, coherent subterahertz radiation arises when a dc voltage is applied across a stack of the many intrinsic Josephson junctions in a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystal. The active junctions produce an equal number of I-V characteristic branches. Each branch radiates at a slightly tunable frequency obeying the Josephson relation. The overall output is broadly tunable and nearly independent of heating effects and internal cavity frequencies. Amplification by a surrounding external cavity to allow for the development of a useful high-power source is proposed.

  14. Tunable-correlation phenomenon of single photons emitted from a self-assembled quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shang; Wang, Yi-Tao; Tang, Jian-Shun; Yu, Ying; Zha, Guo-Wei; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-02-01

    Deterministic single-photon source plays a key role in the quantum information technology. Thus, research on various properties of such kind of light source becomes a quite necessary task. In this work, we experimentally observe that the second-order correlation properties of single photons can be continuously tuned from pulsed excitation configuration to continuous-wave excitation configuration under the near resonant photoluminescence excitation. By increasing the power of pulsed excitation laser, the effective excitation time of quantum dot can be extended with assistance of the defect states, and more continuous-wave excitation characteristics will gradually appear in the second-order correlation functions. This abnormal power-induced tunable-correlation mechanism can affect the temporal property of the single-photon source but maintain its antibunching property.

  15. Tunable lasers for water vapor measurements and other lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. W.; Mcilrath, T. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    A tunable dye laser suitable for differential absorption (DIAL) measurements of water vapor in the troposphere was constructed. A multi-pass absorption cell for calibration was also constructed for use in atmospheric DIAL measurements of water vapor.

  16. Fluorescence lifetime based characterization of active and tunable plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ashry, Islam; Zhang, Baigang; Khalifa, Moataz B; Calderone, Joseph A; Santos, Webster L; Heflin, James R; Robinson, Hans D; Xu, Yong

    2014-08-25

    We report a non-contact method that utilizes fluorescence lifetime (FL) to characterize morphological changes of a tunable plasmonic nanostructure with nanoscale accuracy. The key component of the plasmonic nanostructure is pH-responsive polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs), which serve as a dynamically tunable "spacer" layer that separates the plasmonic structure and the fluorescent materials. The validity of our method is confirmed through direct comparison with ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Applying the FL-based approach, we find that a monolayer polycation film responds to pH changes with significantly less hysteresis than a thicker multilayer film with polyelectrolytes of both charges. Additionally, we characterize an active and tunable plasmonic nanostructure composed of self-assembled fluorescent dye (Texas Red), pH-sensitive PEMs, and gold nanospheres adsorbed on the PEM surface. Our results point towards the possibility of using stimulus-sensitive polymers to construct active and tunable plasmonic nanodevices.

  17. Tunable THz perfect absorber using graphene-based metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Mahboobeh; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Yousefi, Leila

    2015-11-01

    A tunable THz absorber, with absorbance more than 90% is proposed, and numerically characterized. The absorber structure is based on metamaterials with unit cells consisting of two patterned graphene layers separated by a 5-nm thick layer of Al2O3. Numerical results show that when the chemical potential of the top graphene microribbons are tuned by an external variable bias and that of the lower graphene fishnet is kept at μC=0, frequency of the absorption peaks can be tuned as desired, therefore we can have a tunable or switchable absorber. The proposed absorber can have applications in designing tunable reflective THz filters or tunable THz switches and modulators. It can also be used for cloaking objects in THz range.

  18. Linewidth-tunable laser diode array for rubidium laser pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhiyong; Tan Rongqing; Xu Cheng; Li Lin

    2013-02-28

    To optimise the pump source for a high-power diodepumped rubidium vapour laser, we have designed a laser diode array (LDA) with a narrowed and tunable linewidth and an external cavity formed by two volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). Through controlling the temperature differences between the two VBGs, the LDA linewidth, which was 1.8 nm before mounting the two VBGs, was tunable from 100 pm to 0.2 nm, while the output power changed by no more than 4 %. By changing simultaneously the temperature in both VBGs, the centre wavelength in air of the linewidth-tunable LDA was tunable from 779.40 nm to 780.05 nm. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  19. Stirling-Cycle Cooling For Tunable Diode Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durso, Santo S.; May, Randy D.; Tuchscherer, Matthew A.; Webster, Christopher R.

    1991-01-01

    Miniature Stirling-cycle cooler effective in continously cooling PbSnTe tunable diode laser to stable operating temperature near 80 K. Simplifies laboratory diode-laser spectroscopy and instruments for use aboard aircraft and balloons.

  20. Broadly tunable Cr 4+-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennaroglu, Alphan

    2002-11-01

    This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the characteristics of Cr 4+-doped solid-state lasers which produce broadly tunable coherent radiation in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum between 1.13 and 1.63 μm. Cr 4+-doped gain media have several favorable characteristics including broad absorption bands that overlap with the operating wavelengths of several commercial pump lasers, a 4-level energy structure that allows continuous-wave as well as pulsed operation with low threshold pump powers, and the presence of broad amplification bands for the generation of ultrashort optical pulses. In addition, non-linear frequency conversion schemes can be readily employed to construct broadly tunable coherent visible sources based on Cr 4+-doped gain media. These favorable features make Cr 4+-doped lasers potentially important in many applications in optical communications, eye-safe imaging, medicine, and spectroscopy. After a description of the basic physical mechanisms that lead to broad emission in tunable solid-state lasers in general and Cr 4+-doped gain media in particular, the manuscript provides a detailed description of the operational characteristics of Cr 4+-doped lasers, including rate-equation analysis of power performance, role of thermal effects, and different mode-locking techniques for the generation of ultrashort optical pulses. Later sections focus on the work performed in the development and characterization of specific examples of Cr 4+-doped lasers. Particular attention is given to Cr 4+:forsterite and Cr 4+:YAG laser systems due to their superior power performance. Gain-switched, continuous-wave, and mode-locked operations of these lasers are described with a particular emphasis on recent developments. Studies carried out with other Cr 4+-doped lasers such as Cr 4+:Y 2SiO 5, Cr 4+-doped oxyapatite, Cr 4+-doped garnets, and Cr 4+:Ca 2GeO 4 are also described. Finally, use of non-linear conversion schemes in the generation