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Sample records for contra mosquitos propaganda

  1. Teaching Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosterman, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines ideas for teaching an introductory course in propaganda, including an historical perspective and review of the etymology of the word and an examination of those characteristics that separate propaganda from other communication arts. (JMF)

  2. Propaganda Posters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaney, Darlene C.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson that utilizes propaganda posters in order to teacher students about the U.S. homefront and war effort during World War II. Provides background information and posters for the teacher's use and explains that the students can use this information when creating their own propaganda posters. (CMK)

  3. Channels of Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from numerous…

  4. Management Textbooks as Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.; Ireland, R. Duane; Lussier, Robert N.; New, J. Randolph; Robbins, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    Four management textbook authors react to the metaphor of textbooks as propaganda. All write to support managerial ideology and are aware of the market, but believe their role in shaping the field is limited. Includes two responses: "Propaganda, Trusteeship, and Artifact" (Daniel R. Gilbert) and "The Hegemonic Discourse of Management Texts" (Ali…

  5. Cold War Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  6. Sorting Out the Ethics of Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Stanley B.

    1992-01-01

    Adduces a number of considerations that challenge the neutralist thesis of propaganda and which, at the same time, serve to substantiate the belief that propaganda is something wrong. Argues that a theory of propaganda, adequately considered, can and should include a broad ethical determination of propaganda. (NH)

  7. Linguistic Propaganda Against Perceived Irredentism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestly, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Contrasts propaganda about language at different periods during the last 150 years in five localities: southern Austria; western Hungary, Karelia, Moldavia, and northwestern Greece. The study comes out of the little-known field of political linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  8. Cartoon Analysis of Peace Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Mary, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A cartoon for analysis and other learning activities is provided to help students study about peace propaganda, the nuclear freeze, and disarmament. A cartoon analysis worksheet, designed to help students analyze almost any political cartoon, is included. (RM)

  9. How to make an efficient propaganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carletti, T.; Fanelli, D.; Grolli, S.; Guarino, A.

    2006-04-01

    The effects of propaganda are analyzed in an opinion dynamics model in which, under certain conditions, individuals adjust their opinion as a result of random binary encounters. The aim of this paper is to study under what conditions propaganda changes the opinion dynamics of a social system. Four different scenarios are found, characterized by different sensitivities to the propaganda. For each scenario the maximum efficiency of propaganda is attained following a given strategy that is here outlined.

  10. [Anticancer propaganda: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Demin, E V; Merabishvili, V M

    2014-01-01

    The authors raise a very important problem of anticancer propaganda aimed at the early detection of cancer to be solved nowadays by means of screening and constructive interaction between oncologists and the public. To increase the level of knowledge of the population in this area it is necessary to expand the range of its adequate awareness of tumor diseases. Only joint efforts can limit the destructive effect of cancer on people's minds, so that every person would be responsible for his own health, clearly understanding the advantages of early visit to a doctor. This once again highlights the need of educational work with the public, motivational nature of which allows strengthening the value of screening in the whole complex of measures to fight cancer.

  11. The Propaganda Analysis Movement since World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    To recount the development of the propaganda analysis movement before and since World War I, this paper reviews the precursors of the movement, traces the propaganda conciousness produced by wartime campaigns and subsequent domestic campaigns, and looks at major obstacles to propaganda analysis produced by social and academic conditions after…

  12. A Pragmatic Study of Barak Obama's Political Propaganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ameedi, Riyadh Tariq Kadhim; Khudhier, Zina Abdul Hussein

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates, pragmatically, the language of five electoral political propaganda texts delivered by Barak Obama. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) identifying the speech acts used in political propaganda, (2) showing how politicians utilize Grice's maxims and the politeness principle in issuing their propaganda, (3)…

  13. Critically Reading for Propaganda Techniques in Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bonnie

    This study was devised to determine whether teaching a unit on propaganda analysis to sixth graders would improve their ability to detect propaganda devices in literature and the mass media. An experimental group of students participated in a four week unit on propaganda techniques while a control group completed reading comprehension exercises. A…

  14. Whither Propaganda? Agonism and "The Engineering of Consent"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this paper is domestic propaganda. The author presents comprehensive reviews of four books: (1) "Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic" by Randall L. Bytwerk (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2004); (2) "Radio Goes to War: The Cultural Politics of Propaganda During World…

  15. [Mosquito allergy].

    PubMed

    Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki; Reunala, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all Finns are sensitized to mosquito bites already during childhood. Skin reactions caused by mosquito bites vary from rapidly appearing urticarial wheals to persistent itching papules. Allergic shock is fortunately extremely rare. The symptoms are strongest in early summer. Immediate symptoms result from proteins that get into the skin along with mosquito saliva and induce the production of IgE class antibodies by the body. The originating mechanism of delayed symptoms is unclear. Both immediate and delayed symptoms of mosquito allergy can be relieved with antihistamine drugs.

  16. [Mosquito allergy].

    PubMed

    Haas, H; Tran, A

    2014-08-01

    Althought serious illnesses can be transmitted by mosquitoes, the most frequent manifestations are due to the contact with saliva of mosquitoes during the blood meal. Culex and Aedes are meeting in countries with moderate climates. Clinical signs vary according to the immunoallergical response, from simple pruritic wheals to immediate and/or delayed allergic reactions. Some reactions can provoke confusion with an infectious cellulitis and an inappropriate antibiotherapy. The natural history of insect bite reactions in an individual tends to progress through 5 stages until immunizing tolerance settles down. Skin prick testing or Serum specific IgE of whole body extracts are lacking sensibility and specificity. Actually, they must be reserved for the most invalidating or severe cases. The recombinant allergens of the saliva of mosquitoes should allow to improve diagnosis and to envisage immunotherapy.

  17. The Applicability of Herman's and Chomsky's Propaganda Model Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, David

    2005-01-01

    Since the early twentieth century, there have been numerous warnings about the dangers of the growing concentration of corporate ownership of the mass media. As early as 1920, Walter Lippmann claimed that propaganda was already "...a regular organ of popular government." He referred to the propaganda in the media as the "manufacturing of consent."…

  18. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  19. The Captivity Narrative as Propaganda in the Black Hawk War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darlene E.

    1987-01-01

    Shows how captivity stories acted as propaganda against the American Indians in the nineteenth century. Gives excerpts from a captivity narrative portraying Indians in a negative way and demonstrates its use as propaganda during the time of the Black Hawk War. (AEM)

  20. Legal Aspects of Propaganda and Incitement via Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilleas, P.

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of space broadcasting, the use of satellite for propaganda was feared by most countries. Several studies have shown the potential threat of propaganda via satellite. For these reasons, some delegations tried unsuccessfully to include in the 1967 Outer Space Treaty an article prohibiting space propaganda. Finally, under pressure from the Soviet Union and Brazil, the preamble of the 1967 Treaty refers to the 1947 Resolution 110 (II) of the United Nations General Assembly, which condemns propaganda. International law complements the Outer Space Treaty by expressly condemning certain types of propaganda. International law, through several texts condemns war propaganda aimed at provoking armed conflict as well as subversive propaganda aimed at provoking a Coup d'Etat. With the recent war in Afghanistan, the question of war incitement via satellite was invoked in regard to the channel Al Jazzera which was reproached for encouraging conflict and diffusing the words of Osama Ben Laden calling for holy war against the United States. Here again, international law prohibits war incitement. However, the notion of propaganda and war incitement does not lead to an automatic restriction of information since communication via satellite is also protected by freedom of information. Therefore, in all democratic societies, a balance should be made between freedom of information and protection of public order, national security and international peace. Several examples will be taken in order to illustrate this paper, for example of Al Jazzera accused of war and terrorist incitement, Med TV accused by Turkey of subversive Kurdish propaganda and CNN accused by China of defamatory propaganda.

  1. Sludge, biosolids, and the propaganda model of communication.

    PubMed

    Rampton, Sheldon

    2002-01-01

    The Water Environment Federation's elaborate effort to rename sewage sludge as "biosolids" is an example in practice of the "propaganda model" of communications, which sees its task as indoctrinating target audiences with ideas favorable to the interests of the communicators. The propaganda model assumes that members of the public are irrational and focuses therefore on symbolic and emotional aspects of communication. This approach to communicating arouses public resentment rather than trust. In place of a "propaganda model," public officials should adopt a "democratic model," which assumes that audiences are rational and intellectually capable of meaningful participation in decision-making.

  2. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  3. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  4. Mosquito management: Ecological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses organism use for management of mosquitoes included are considerations of the introduction and/or manipulation of plants, animals, and microorganisms into breeding habitats in which they act to make conditions less suitable for mosquito production. The importance of foresight and careful planning is stressed with regard to developing mosquito management strategies

  5. MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO…

  6. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  7. Performance of mosquito's pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    The flow of human blood in Mosquito's proboscis on Hagen-Poiseuille flow is investigated by using micro PIV system to apply mosquito's sucking system for micro-TAS devises. We want to know how high the power of Mosquito's pump is and how small the resistance in a proboscis is, a structure of Mosquito's sucking pump, and its characteristics as mechanical pump. We made the mosquito suck blood of our arm to obtain the average value, made many slices of a mosquito with 2μm thickness after fixed by wax. We anatomized the mosquito's head and picked up the sucking pump under the microscope to know its volume. Mosquito's pump shows high performance compared with the artificial pumps. The surfaces of proboscis were taken by using SEM, AFM because it is important factor for interaction between flow and its wall. Visualization of the blood flows near the tip of and inside proboscis are taken by micro PIV system to know the flow rate. We estimate the power of pump and the friction drag of proboscis by using these data.

  8. How Mosquitoes Detect People

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquito-borne diseases are endemic,” Ray says. — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Targeting the Mosquito's ... Assistant Editors: Vicki Contie, Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D., Carol Torgan, Ph.D. NIH Research Matters is a ...

  9. Mosquito immunity against arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-19

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector.

  10. A fertile mother Russia: pronatalist propaganda in revolutionary Russia.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tricia

    2003-07-01

    The Soviet consultation with its attendant propaganda, visiting nurses, and vacation homes attempted to set science and the doctor as the ultimate authority in matters of child rearing in place of old authorities, deny the contention that motherhood was a natural ability of women, and take over the father's place in the home. Soviet health care policy bridges pre- and postrevolutionary thought, blurred the boundaries between public and private, and mirrored international natalist policies. However, the application of these policies conformed to Soviet concepts of citizens' duties and state imperatives.

  11. Integrating International Education and Public Diplomacy: Creative Partnerships or Ingenious Propaganda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Disputes claims that international scholarly exchanges are largely instruments of propaganda. Focuses on historical and contemporary concepts of diplomacy, and considers differing perspectives of international educational and cultural exchange programs as autonomous entities, part of public diplomacy, or components of propaganda. Uses…

  12. The Decroly School in Documentaries (1930s-1950s): Contextualising Propaganda from within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gorp, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Propaganda is conspicuous for what it conceals and always cautious about what it reveals. Starting from the assumption that all documentaries on the Decroly School in Uccle (Brussels), the school Ovide Decroly (1871-1932) founded in 1907, are propaganda, this article tackles the question as to how to "read" this particular set of Decrolyan…

  13. Evidence-Informed Practice: Antidote to Propaganda in the Helping Professions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The most concerning issue affecting the quality of practices and policies in the helping professions is the play of propaganda, which misleads us regarding what is a problem, how (or if) it can be detected, its causes, and how (or if) it can be remedied. Propaganda is defined as encouraging beliefs and actions with the least thought possible.…

  14. Teaching about Propaganda: An Examination of the Historical Roots of Media Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; McGee, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary propaganda is ubiquitous in our culture today as public relations and marketing efforts have become core dimensions of the contemporary communication system, affecting all forms of personal, social and public expression. To examine the origins of teaching and learning about propaganda, we examine some instructional materials produced…

  15. "Camouflaged" Propaganda: The Truman and Eisenhower Administrations' Covert Manipulation of News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Giles, Shawn J.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that the domestic news media became part of the United States Government's propaganda scheme during the Truman and Eisenhower presidencies. Suggests that the strategizing of both administrations and the employee interchange between America's propaganda program and the private news arena created a press that became outspoken advocates of…

  16. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  17. Pedigrees, propaganda, and paranoia: family studies in a historical context.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, P A

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the uses of family studies carried out in the early 20th century under the banner of eugenics, a companion discipline to early genetics. It explores how, in an attempt to analyze and quantify purportedly biologic bases of social problems, the eugenicists constructed pedigree charts of notoriously "defective" families. Investigation of individuals with suspect traits formed the basis for instruction of field workers who linked those traits to larger groups. The resulting eugenic family studies provided a "scientific" face for a popular hereditarian mythology that claimed to explain all social failure in systematic terms. The eugenicists were successful in fueling public fear about the growing "army of idiots and imbeciles" graphically depicted in their pedigree charts. Their success was the result of a finely crafted educational program--propaganda that reduced science to simplistic terms. The tendency to oversimplify concepts of genetic causation and the rush to amplify the significance of research findings through the popular media is also apparent today. What begins as publicity has the potential to be transformed into propaganda. Although many in the scientific community are understandably reluctant to revisit the abuses of the past, that community must confront the history of eugenics as a necessary antidote to the genetic hype that surrounds us. PMID:11803769

  18. Pedigrees, propaganda, and paranoia: family studies in a historical context.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, P A

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the uses of family studies carried out in the early 20th century under the banner of eugenics, a companion discipline to early genetics. It explores how, in an attempt to analyze and quantify purportedly biologic bases of social problems, the eugenicists constructed pedigree charts of notoriously "defective" families. Investigation of individuals with suspect traits formed the basis for instruction of field workers who linked those traits to larger groups. The resulting eugenic family studies provided a "scientific" face for a popular hereditarian mythology that claimed to explain all social failure in systematic terms. The eugenicists were successful in fueling public fear about the growing "army of idiots and imbeciles" graphically depicted in their pedigree charts. Their success was the result of a finely crafted educational program--propaganda that reduced science to simplistic terms. The tendency to oversimplify concepts of genetic causation and the rush to amplify the significance of research findings through the popular media is also apparent today. What begins as publicity has the potential to be transformed into propaganda. Although many in the scientific community are understandably reluctant to revisit the abuses of the past, that community must confront the history of eugenics as a necessary antidote to the genetic hype that surrounds us.

  19. Mosquitoes, models, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Lifson, A R

    1996-05-01

    In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong

  20. Flavivirus-mosquito interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2014-11-01

    The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  1. Vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano

    Cancer.gov

    Una hoja informativa acerca de las vacunas contra los virus del papiloma humano (VPH) para prevenir infecciones con ciertos tipos de VPH, los cuales son la causa principal del cáncer de cuello del útero o cérvix.

  2. Genetics of Mosquito Vector Competence

    PubMed Central

    Beerntsen, Brenda T.; James, Anthony A.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2000-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality. PMID:10704476

  3. Propaganda Analysis and Public Education: A Study of the Goal of Teaching American Youth an Awareness and an Understanding of Political Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Joseph Gerard

    In order to make a case for the study of political propaganda in the secondary English curriculum, this study details the history of previous attempts to incorporate the issue into the structure of formal education and presents a model unit for use in the contemporary educational system. Designed to move the student through the study of…

  4. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  5. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  6. Genetic Control Of Malaria Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kyle Jarrod; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of genetically modifying mosquito vectors to impair their ability to transmit the malaria parasite have been known for well over a decade. However, means to spread resistance or population control genes into wild mosquito populations remains an unsolved challenge. Two recent reports give hope that CRISPR technology may allow such challenge to be overcome. PMID:26809567

  7. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: This de Havilland F-8 Mosquito was flown at Langley by NACA pilot Bill Gray during longitudinal stability and control studies of the aircraft. This fast twin engine design was noteworthy for its wooden construction and its versatility.

  8. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: Not a Royal Air Force de Havilland DH-98, but an Air Force de Havilland F-8 Mosquito. A pair of these Canadian built, U. S. Army Air Force procured aircraft were flown at Langley. The Americans used these aircraft as photo-reconnaissance and meteorological aircraft.

  9. Rhetorical Experimentation and the Cold War, 1947-1953: The Development of an Internationalist Approach to Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry-Giles, Shawn J.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes congressional deliberations over America's first peacetime propaganda program from 1947-53. Finds three distinct periods: naivete, hysteria, psychological strategy. Argues that the Truman administration produced an ethnocentric approach to propaganda whereas the Eisenhower administration adopted a more internationalist perspective which…

  10. Mosquito genomics: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Severson, David W; Behura, Susanta K

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequencing of mosquitoes has facilitated our understanding of fundamental biological processes at their basic molecular levels and holds potential for application to mosquito control and prevention of mosquito-borne disease transmission. Draft genome sequences are available for Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Collectively, these represent the major vectors of African malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever viruses, and lymphatic filariasis, respectively. Rapid advances in genome technologies have revealed detailed information on genome architecture as well as phenotype-specific transcriptomics and proteomics. These resources allow for detailed comparative analyses within and across populations as well as species. Next-generation sequencing technologies will likely promote a proliferation of genome sequences for additional mosquito species as well as for individual insects. Here we review the current status of genome research in mosquitoes and identify potential areas for further investigations.

  11. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    PubMed

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity.

  12. Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,…

  13. World Wars at Home: U.S. Response to World War II Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Alex

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on how the United States Post Office reacted to the massive influx of political propaganda, primarily from the Soviet Union, immediately prior to and during World War II. Describes how the Post Office played an active role in stopping and burning some 50 tons of incoming material. (RS)

  14. Inducing Resistance to Conspiracy Theory Propaganda: Testing Inoculation and Metainoculation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banas, John A.; Miller, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined the boundaries of inoculation theory by examining how inoculation can be applied to conspiracy theory propaganda as well as inoculation itself (called metainoculation). A 3-phase experiment with 312 participants compared 3 main groups: no-treatment control, inoculation, and metainoculation. Research questions explored…

  15. Damned Lies. And Statistics. Otto Neurath and Soviet Propaganda in the 1930s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chizlett, Clive

    1992-01-01

    Examines the philosophical and historical context in which Otto Neurath (1882-1945) worked. Examines critically (in the light of descriptive statistics) the principles of his Isotype Picture Language. Tests Neurath's personal credibility and scientific integrity by looking at his contributions to Soviet propaganda in the early 1930s. (SR)

  16. Mosquitoes in Moose Country: A Mosquito Survey of Northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, A C; Moon, R D; Johnson, K; Carstensen, M; Neitzel, D; Craft, M E

    2016-06-01

    An adult mosquito survey was conducted at 12 sites using carbon dioxide traps in northern Minnesota throughout the summer of 2012. Specimens were counted, identified to species, sorted into pools, and tested for eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Our findings extend the known range of Culiseta melanura, Anopheles barberi, and An. quadrimaculatus and document the presence and abundance of 27 other mosquito taxa in the region. None of the pools tested positive for EEEV or WNV. PMID:27280346

  17. Mosquitoes in Moose Country: A Mosquito Survey of Northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, A C; Moon, R D; Johnson, K; Carstensen, M; Neitzel, D; Craft, M E

    2016-06-01

    An adult mosquito survey was conducted at 12 sites using carbon dioxide traps in northern Minnesota throughout the summer of 2012. Specimens were counted, identified to species, sorted into pools, and tested for eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Our findings extend the known range of Culiseta melanura, Anopheles barberi, and An. quadrimaculatus and document the presence and abundance of 27 other mosquito taxa in the region. None of the pools tested positive for EEEV or WNV.

  18. [Put the planned birth propaganda and education in number 1 place: a summary of a conference].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, F

    1981-04-01

    The Planned Birth Office of the Chinese State Council convened a National Planned Birth Propaganda Symposium in Beijing from January 10 to 14, 1981. There were over 50 representatives from various provincial, municipal, autonomous regional planned birth offices, Shanghai, Beijing, and Chengdu's Planned Birth Propaganda and Education Centers, the Central Cultural, Education and Public Health Ministries, and various population research centers, and journalists. The Vice-premier of the Chinese State Council, Chen Muhua made the following points in an address to the delegates: planned birth is a longterm project; the 2-fold character of production, i.e., material production and human reproduction, must be properly understood; the goal of limiting China's population to 1,200,000,000 is difficult, so everyone must plan for their families by understanding the work of birth planning early, carefully, and securely, and further that late marriage, late births, few births, and superior births must be advocated the attitude that families without sons will have no heirs must be abolished because girls are heirs too; the fear that China will become an aged society must be ameliorated because China's age structure is a young one. Wang Renchong, Chairman of the Central Propaganda Ministry, also addressed the Symposium. He remarked that with a population approaching 1 billion, 80% of whom are peasants, population control is crucial to the nation's health and survival and is an important part of the Four Modernizations. Birth planning propaganda and education must be given top priority, especially in rural areas. The chairman of the Planned Birth Office of the Chinese State Council closed the meetings by saying that birth planning work must rely on the Party and governmental policies, and especially on propaganda.

  19. Gene Expression Studies in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xlao-Guang; Mathur, Geetika; James, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on gene expression in mosquitoes is motivated by both basic and applied interests. Studies of genes involved in hematophagy, reproduction, olfaction, and immune responses reveal an exquisite confluence of biological adaptations that result in these highly-successful life forms. The requirement of female mosquitoes for a bloodmeal for propagation has been exploited by a wide diversity of viral, protozoan and metazoan pathogens as part of their life cycles. Identifying genes involved in host-seeking, blood feeding and digestion, reproduction, insecticide resistance and susceptibility/refractoriness to pathogen development is expected to provide the bases for the development of novel methods to control mosquito-borne diseases. Advances in mosquito transgenesis technologies, the availability of whole genome sequence information, mass sequencing and analyses of transcriptomes and RNAi techniques will assist development of these tools as well as deepen the understanding of the underlying genetic components for biological phenomena characteristic of these insect species. PMID:19161831

  20. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  1. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  2. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  3. Mosquito Defense Strategies against Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to nonpathogenic levels. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues.

  4. Chikungunya Virus Infection of Aedes Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hui Vern; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sam, I-Ching; Sulaiman, Wan Yusof Wan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2016-01-01

    In vivo infection of mosquitoes is an important method to study and characterize arthropod-borne viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for infection of CHIKV in two species of Aedes mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, together with the isolation of CHIKV in different parts of the infected mosquito such as midgut, legs, wings, salivary gland, head, and saliva. This allows the study of viral infection, replication and dissemination within the mosquito vector. PMID:27233266

  5. Inside Flow of Mosquito's Proboscis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Terada, Nobuyuki; Mochizuki, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Mosquito has a magnificent pump mechanism which has been never achieved by technology. We want to apply this high performance mechanism to a micro-TAS system which is designed for a daily check of blood to keep a human health. We need a high powered pump similar to a mosquito's sucking blood mechanism and a low-resistance micro channel mimicked a surface of proboscis. The details of mosquito's pump mechanism, however, have not been ascertained yet. Therefore we tried to investigate the mosquito's pump mechanism by measuring the flow due to suction. A visualization of flow was done by a confocal micro-PIV system. We could analyze the velocity vector profile in the proboscis. The velocity distribution in the proboscis is necessary to estimate the friction drag. In the experiment, a live mosquito was fixed on the glass plate and fed nano-particles near the tip of proboscis. We found that the inside flow of proboscis deviate from Hargen-Poisueuille Flow. It indicates that the surface of inside proboscis has unknown fact for the friction drag reduction.

  6. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... an immune response that would protect against the mosquito-borne virus, according to a statement from the ... American neighborhood for fear of an infectious disease. Mosquito-control efforts in Wynwood have been difficult because ...

  7. Cyberspace as a new arena for terroristic propaganda: an updated examination.

    PubMed

    Minei, Elizabeth; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes the role of propaganda use in cyberterrorism. The main premise is that cyberterrorists display various semiotic gestures (e.g., the use of images and Internet videos) to communicate their intents to the public at large. In doing so, they communicate themes-these themes range from hate to anger. Cyberterrorism, then, is a form of theater or spectacle in which terrorists exploit cyberspace to trigger feelings of panic and overreaction in the target population. In many cases, this form of propaganda is the primary means of communication for various cyberterrorist groups to convey their intents. Internet sites also produce numerous opportunities for in-group communication and publicity. PMID:23205002

  8. Protocol for mosquito rearing (A. gambiae).

    PubMed

    Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Dimopoulos, George

    2007-01-01

    This protocol describes mosquito rearing in the insectary. The insectary rooms are maintained at 28 degrees C and approximately 80% humidity, with a 12 hr. day/night cycle. For this procedure, you'll need mosquito cages, 10% sterile sucrose solution, paper towels, beaker, whatman filter paper, glass feeders, human blood and serum, water bath, parafilm, distilled water, clean plastic trays, mosquito food (described below), mosquito net to cover the trays, vacuum, and a collection chamber to collect adults. PMID:18979019

  9. Pro and contra IBR-eradication.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Mathias; Engels, Monika

    2006-03-31

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections such as infectious rhinotracheitis (IBR), infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV, balanoposthitis (IBP), and abortion. Despite of a pronounced immune response, the virus is never eliminated from an infected host but establishes life-long latency and may be reactivated at intervals. Europe has a long history of fighting against BoHV-1 infections, yet, only a small number of countries has achieved IBR-eradication. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to review the reasoning pro and contra such a task. Clearly, the goal can indeed be achieved as has been demonstrated by a number of European countries. However, detection and stamping out of seemingly healthy virus carriers is inevitable in the process. Unfortunately, the use of vaccines is only of temporary and limited value. Therefore, there are numerous considerations to be put forward against such plans, including the high costs, the great risks, and the unsatisfactory quality of tools. If either control or eradication of IBR is nonetheless a goal, then better vaccines are needed as well as better companion tests. Moreover, better tools for the characterization of viral isolates are required. Collaborative actions to gather viral strains from as many countries as possible for inclusion into a newly created clustering library would be most advantageous. PMID:16337098

  10. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle EH; Parker, Andrew G; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators. PMID:19917076

  11. The urban mosquito hazard today

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, P. F.

    1963-01-01

    Of all the main types of mosquito living to a greater or lesser extent in association with man—urban invaders, infiltrators and colonizers—the most formidable and successful is probably Culex fatigans. Able to use man-made breeding-places, breeding freely in highly contaminated water and possessing the genetical and physiological plasticity to resist insecticides, this mosquito has increased extensively in urban environments in recent years. Considering that it merits greater study than it has hitherto received, the author discusses its principal characteristics in relation to those of other man-associated mosquitos and suggests a number of lines of research which should be followed for the development of effective control methods. PMID:20604163

  12. Update on the American Mosquito Control Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Mosquito Control Association in a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to promoting the highest standard in professional mosquito control. It is comprised of more than 1300 members representing students, scientists, regulators, industry, mosquito control employees and many other...

  13. New Innovations in Biological Control of Mosquitoes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of mosquitoes is a component of an integrated pest management strategy and includes general predators, parasites and pathogens. Pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists. The most successful group for applied mosquito control include the bacteria Baci...

  14. Artificial natural selection: can supplemental feeding domesticate mosquitoes and control mosquito-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2012-08-29

    A new method is proposed for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. In particular, instead of trying to kill mosquitoes, we suggest provisioning them with food from artificial feeders. Because mosquito populations are frequently limited by ecological factors other than blood meals, such as the availability of egg-laying sites, feeding mosquitoes would not necessarily increase the total number of mosquitoes, but could reduce the number of human-drawn mosquito meals. Like mosquito traps, feeders could divert biting mosquitoes away from people by means of lures, but, after diversion, prevent subsequent human bites by satiating the mosquitoes instead of killing them. Mosquito feeders might reduce the problem of the evolution of resistance to control: in an ecology with mosquito feeders, which provide safe and abundant calories for adult female mosquitoes, there could be selection for preferring (rather than avoiding) feeders, which could eventually lead to a population of feeder-preferring mosquitoes. Artificial feeders also offer the chance to introduce novel elements into the mosquito diet, such as anti- malarial or other anti-parasitic agents. Feeders might directly reduce human bites and harnesses the power of natural selection by selectively favoring feeder-preferring (rather than trap-resistant) mosquitoes.

  15. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  16. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Nyasembe, Vincent O; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-05-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant-insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector-plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito-plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  17. Are mosquitoes gourmet or gourmand?

    PubMed

    Edman, J D

    1989-12-01

    The scientific contributions of Professor Brian Hocking are summarized, especially his writings on the specificity of blood feeding. Mosquito host-seeking behavior and feeding success are discussed within the context of human pest and vector species and in light of anticipated social and environmental changes.

  18. Mosquitoes feeding on insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Harris, P; Riordan, D F; Cooke, D

    1969-04-11

    Caged Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis are attracted to insect larvae, engorge on their body fluids, and produce viable eggs. Attractiveness of the larvae is related to their size, shape, and color but not to their movement. The possibility that wild mosquitoes substitute insect hemolymph for vertebrate blood is discussed. PMID:5774191

  19. Dying the right-way? Interest in and perceived persuasiveness of parochial extremist propaganda increases after mortality salience

    PubMed Central

    Frischlich, Lena; Rieger, Diana; Hein, Maia; Bente, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Research on parochial altruism demonstrated that hostility toward out-groups (parochialism) represents the dark side of the willingness to benefit one’s in-group even at own costs (altruism). Parochial aggression thereby emerged mainly under conditions of threat. Extremist propaganda videos, for instance by right-wing extremists, try to capitalize on parochial altruistic mechanism by telling recipients sharing their national identity that this nation is under threat wherefore they for have to join the extremist’s cause to prevent the extinction of their nation. Most of the time, propaganda videos are rated as uninteresting and non-persuasive by the target audience. Yet, evolutionary media psychology posits that the interest in and effectiveness of media increases when evolutionarily relevant problems are addressed. Consequently, interest in parochial altruistic right-wing extremist messages should increase under conditions of threat. The current study tested this assumption by randomly assigning German non-Muslims (N = 109) to either an existential threat (here: mortality salience) or a control condition and asking them to evaluate extremist propaganda that addressed them as either in-group members (right-wing extremists) or as out-group members (Islamic extremists). In support of the hypotheses, subjects under conditions of threat reported a higher interest in the right-wing extremist propaganda and perceived it as more persuasive. We discuss the results concerning the implications for evolutionary media psychology and the transmission of parochial altruism in propaganda videos. PMID:26322011

  20. Dying the right-way? Interest in and perceived persuasiveness of parochial extremist propaganda increases after mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Frischlich, Lena; Rieger, Diana; Hein, Maia; Bente, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Research on parochial altruism demonstrated that hostility toward out-groups (parochialism) represents the dark side of the willingness to benefit one's in-group even at own costs (altruism). Parochial aggression thereby emerged mainly under conditions of threat. Extremist propaganda videos, for instance by right-wing extremists, try to capitalize on parochial altruistic mechanism by telling recipients sharing their national identity that this nation is under threat wherefore they for have to join the extremist's cause to prevent the extinction of their nation. Most of the time, propaganda videos are rated as uninteresting and non-persuasive by the target audience. Yet, evolutionary media psychology posits that the interest in and effectiveness of media increases when evolutionarily relevant problems are addressed. Consequently, interest in parochial altruistic right-wing extremist messages should increase under conditions of threat. The current study tested this assumption by randomly assigning German non-Muslims (N = 109) to either an existential threat (here: mortality salience) or a control condition and asking them to evaluate extremist propaganda that addressed them as either in-group members (right-wing extremists) or as out-group members (Islamic extremists). In support of the hypotheses, subjects under conditions of threat reported a higher interest in the right-wing extremist propaganda and perceived it as more persuasive. We discuss the results concerning the implications for evolutionary media psychology and the transmission of parochial altruism in propaganda videos.

  1. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  2. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences. PMID:27058247

  3. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model--an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information--we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences.

  4. Institutions and Cultural Diversity: Effects of Democratic and Propaganda Processes on Local Convergence and Global Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Roberto; Kacperski, Celina; Sancho, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In a connected world where people influence each other, what can cause a globalized monoculture, and which measures help to preserve the coexistence of cultures? Previous research has shown that factors such as homophily, population size, geography, mass media, and type of social influence play important roles. In the present paper, we investigate for the first time the impact that institutions have on cultural diversity. In our first three studies, we extend existing agent-based models and explore the effects of institutional influence and agent loyalty. We find that higher institutional influence increases cultural diversity, while individuals' loyalty to their institutions has a small, preserving effect. In three further studies, we test how bottom-up and top-down processes of institutional influence impact our model. We find that bottom-up democratic practices, such as referenda, tend to produce convergence towards homogeneity, while top-down information dissemination practices, such as propaganda, further increase diversity. In our last model—an integration of bottom-up and top-down processes into a feedback loop of information—we find that when democratic processes are rare, the effects of propaganda are amplified, i.e., more diversity emerges; however, when democratic processes are common, they are able to neutralize or reverse this propaganda effect. Importantly, our models allow for control over the full spectrum of diversity, so that a manipulation of our parameters can result in preferred levels of diversity, which will be useful for the study of other factors in the future. We discuss possible mechanisms behind our results, applications, and implications for political and social sciences. PMID:27058247

  5. Dengue virus-mosquito interactions.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2008-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is more widely dispersed now than at any time in the past, placing billions of humans at risk of infection with one or more of the four dengue viruses. This review presents and discusses information on mosquito-dengue infection dynamics and describes the prominent role that temperature and rainfall play in controlling dengue viral transmission including discussions of the effect of interannual climate variations and the predicted effect of global warming. Complementary human determinants of dengue epidemiology include viremia titer, variation in viremic period, enhanced viremias, and threshold viremia. Topics covered include epidemiological phenomena such as traveling waves, the generation of genetic diversity of dengue viruses following virgin soil introductions and in hyperendemic settings, and evidence for and against viral virulence as a determinant of the severity of dengue infections. Also described is the crucial role of monotypic and heterotypic herd immunity in shaping dengue epidemic behavior.

  6. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant–insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector–plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito–plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  7. Recombinant bacteria for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Federici, B A; Park, H-W; Bideshi, D K; Wirth, M C; Johnson, J J

    2003-11-01

    Bacterial insecticides have been used for the control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes for more than two decades. Nevertheless, due primarily to their high cost and often only moderate efficacy, these insecticides remain of limited use in tropical countries where mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent. Recently, however, recombinant DNA techniques have been used to improve bacterial insecticide efficacy by markedly increasing the synthesis of mosquitocidal proteins and by enabling new endotoxin combinations from different bacteria to be produced within single strains. These new strains combine mosquitocidal Cry and Cyt proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis with the binary toxin of Bacillus sphaericus, improving efficacy against Culex species by 10-fold and greatly reducing the potential for resistance through the presence of Cyt1A. Moreover, although intensive use of B. sphaericus against Culex populations in the field can result in high levels of resistance, most of this can be suppressed by combining this bacterial species with Cyt1A; the latter enables the binary toxin of this species to enter midgut epithelial cells via the microvillar membrane in the absence of a midgut receptor. The availability of these novel strains and newly discovered mosquitocidal proteins, such as the Mtx toxins of B. sphaericus, offers the potential for constructing a range of recombinant bacterial insecticides for more effective control of the mosquito vectors of filariasis, Dengue fever and malaria. PMID:14506223

  8. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  9. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-10

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  10. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Mosquito Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.

    2011-11-01

    We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.

  11. Modeling Mosquito Distribution. Impact of the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.

    2011-09-01

    In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide mosquito density estimate and mosquito distribution, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. Mosquito dispersal modeling, together with a compartmental approach, leads to a quasilinear parabolic system. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering various landscapes, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and, thus, in the efficiency or not of vector control.

  12. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G.J.; Samson, Robert A.; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  14. First 5 Contra Costa Report on Parent Involvement. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sarah; Induni, Marta; Moiduddin, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Parental Involvement in Pre-School Telephone Interview study completed by Mathematica Policy Research for the First 5 Contra Costa Children and Families Commission. Parent involvement in children's preschool programs and learning experiences is proven to be positively associated with cognitive, academic,…

  15. Contra Costa Community College District Vocational Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contra Costa Community Coll. District, Martinez, CA. Office of District Research.

    This report provides an overview of the legislative and administrative context of Vocational Education and profiles Vocational Education nationally, statewide, and at Contra Costa Community College District (CCCCD). Certain national trends, economic trends, and labor market trends have created implications for vocational and technical education in…

  16. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para ev

  17. Misión contra el Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    La Misión contra el Cáncer, dirigida por el vicepresidente Joe Biden, alineará recursos del gobierno federal para acelerar el progreso en investigación de cáncer y conducirá a una mejor prevención, detección y tratamiento del cáncer.

  18. Internal-external stimulus competition in a system of interacting moving particles: Persuasion versus propaganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementi, N. C.; Revelli, J. A.; Sibona, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a general nonlinear analytical framework to study the effect of an external stimulus in the internal state of a population of moving particles. This novel scheme allows us to study a broad range of excitation transport phenomena. In particular, considering social systems, it gives insight of the spatial dynamics influence in the competition between propaganda (mass media) and convincement. By extending the framework presented by Terranova et al. [Europhys. Lett. 105, 30007 (2014), 10.1209/0295-5075/105/30007], we now allow changes in individual's opinions due to a reflection induced by mass media. The equations of the model could be solved numerically, and, for some special cases, it is possible to derive analytical solutions for the steady states. We implement computational simulations for different social and dynamical systems to check the accuracy of our scheme and to study a broader variety of scenarios. In particular, we compare the numerical outcome with the analytical results for two possible real cases, finding a good agreement. From the results, we observe that mass media dominates the opinion state in slow dynamics communities; whereas, for higher agent active speeds, the rate of interactions increases and the opinion state is determined by a competition between propaganda and persuasion. This difference suggests that kinetics can not be neglected in the study of transport of any excitation over a particle system.

  19. The West's dismissal of the Khabarovsk trial as 'communist propaganda': ideology, evidence and international bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2004-01-01

    In late 1949 the former Soviet Union conducted an open trial of eight Japanese physicians and researchers and four other military servicemen in Khabarovsk, a city in eastern Siberia. Despite its strong ideological tone and many obvious shortcomings such as the lack of international participation, the trial established beyond a reasonable doubt that the Japanese army had prepared and deployed bacteriological weapons and that Japanese researchers had conducted cruel experiments on living human beings. However, the trial, together with the evidence presented to the court and its major findings--which have proved remarkably accurate--was dismissed as communist propaganda and totally ignored in the West until the 1980s. This paper reviews the 1949 Khabarovsk trial, examines the West's dismissal of the proceedings as mere propaganda and draws some moral lessons for bioethics today. As an important historical case, set in the unique socio-political context of the Cold War, the West's dismissal of the trial powerfully illustrates some perennial ethical issues such as the ambivalence of evidence and power of ideology in making (or failing to make) cross-national and cross-cultural factual and moral judgments.

  20. Internal-external stimulus competition in a system of interacting moving particles: Persuasion versus propaganda.

    PubMed

    Clementi, N C; Revelli, J A; Sibona, G J

    2015-07-01

    We propose a general nonlinear analytical framework to study the effect of an external stimulus in the internal state of a population of moving particles. This novel scheme allows us to study a broad range of excitation transport phenomena. In particular, considering social systems, it gives insight of the spatial dynamics influence in the competition between propaganda (mass media) and convincement. By extending the framework presented by Terranova et al. [Europhys. Lett. 105, 30007 (2014)], we now allow changes in individual's opinions due to a reflection induced by mass media. The equations of the model could be solved numerically, and, for some special cases, it is possible to derive analytical solutions for the steady states. We implement computational simulations for different social and dynamical systems to check the accuracy of our scheme and to study a broader variety of scenarios. In particular, we compare the numerical outcome with the analytical results for two possible real cases, finding a good agreement. From the results, we observe that mass media dominates the opinion state in slow dynamics communities; whereas, for higher agent active speeds, the rate of interactions increases and the opinion state is determined by a competition between propaganda and persuasion. This difference suggests that kinetics can not be neglected in the study of transport of any excitation over a particle system.

  1. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008–2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008–2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0–2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008–2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008–2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0–2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  2. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs.

  3. An innovative mosquito trap for testing attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a simple trap modification for testing or using attractants to collect flying mosquitoes. The trap also can test the effectiveness of spatial repellents. The proposed design may facilitate standardized testing of mosquito attractants and repellents. The trap uses a standard Centers f...

  4. Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

  5. Art or Propaganda? Pedagogy and Politics in Illustrated African-American Children's Literature since the Harlem Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Audrey

    This paper explores assumptions about children's political thinking as reflected in African American children's literature, with particular attention to picture books and illustrated magazine stories. Framed in terms of the "art or propaganda" distinction that the Harlem Renaissance philosopher Alain Locke used to clarify the role of art in social…

  6. Mosquito larvicidal activity of botanical-based mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; O'Neal, Megan; Schultz, Gretchen; Tucker, Brad; Coats, Joel; Bartholomay, Lyric; Xue, Rui-De

    2008-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of 4 plant essential oils--innamon oil, lemon eucalyptus oil, sandalwood oil, and turmeric oil--previously reported as insect repellents was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens. Sandalwood oil appeared to be the most effective of the larvicides, killing larvae of all 3 mosquito species in relatively short times. The values of LT50 and LT90 at the application dosage (0.2 mg/ml) were 1.06 +/- 0.11 and 3.24 +/- 0.14 h for Ae. aegypti, 1.82 +/- 0.06 and 3.33 +/- 0.48 h for Ae. albopictus, and 1.55 +/- 0.07 and 3.91 +/- 0.44 h for Cx. pipiens, respectively. Chemical compositions of these essential oils were also studied, and the lavicidal activity of their major ingredient compounds was compared with that of each of the essential oils. The acute toxicity of the 4 essential oils to fathead minnows was also evaluated. The safe use of these natural plant essential oils in future applications of mosquito control was discussed. PMID:18437833

  7. Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

  8. Flow in the proboscis of a mosquito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Mochizuki, Osamu

    2004-11-01

    A flow of human blood in mosquito's proboscis is investigated by using a micro PIV system to apply mosquito's sucking system to a micro-TAS device. A live mosquito is glued on a prepared specimen for microscopic observation. The inner diameter of the proboscis is 21 micro meters and the length is 1620 micro meters. The proboscis is immersed in dilute blood with a physiological salt solution, because sipping is caused by stimulation of blood. A converging flow into the tip of the proboscis and inner flow in the proboscis are measured and analyzed to understand mechanical characteristics of mosquito's pump system. The inner surface of the proboscis is observed by a SEM and TEM. The protein structure of the proboscis is analyzed to throw light on a correlation between fluid and surface molecules. We discuss comprehensively the micro flow and surface friction in the proboscis, and indicate the mosquito's pump performance to design a micro pump for a micro-TAS.

  9. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized. PMID:26553981

  10. Mosquito flight failure in heavy fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Telljohann, Luke; Thornton, Lee-Ellen; Moyer, Caitlin; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. We previously found that mosquitoes are successful fliers through rainfall. Heavy fog, consisting of drops three orders of magnitude smaller in mass than raindrops, presents an environment in which mosquitoes cannot maintain flight. Through high-speed videography, we observe mosquitoes reduce wingbeat frequency in heavy fog, but retain the ability to generate sufficient force to lift their bodies, even after significant dew deposition. They are unable, however, to maintain an upright position required for sustainable flight. A mosquito's primary flight control mechanism is its halteres, small knobbed structures evolved from the hind wings, which flap anti-phase with the wings and provide gyroscopic feedback through Coriolis forces. Though the halteres are hydrophobic, repeated collisions with 10-micron fog particles hinders flight control, leading to flight failure.

  11. Reception of odors and repellents in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anandasankar

    2015-10-01

    Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to find hosts, nectar, and oviposition sites, and to avoid repellents. A small number of mosquito species are adapted to feed on humans and have a major impact on public health by transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. The application of odorants for behavioral control has not been fully realized yet due to complexity of the mosquito olfactory system. Recent progress in molecular and computational tools has enabled rigorous investigations of the mosquito olfactory system function and has started to reveal how specific receptors contribute to attractive and aversive behaviors. Here we discuss recent advances in linking odors to receptors and in exploiting this knowledge in finding attractants and repellents for mosquitoes. PMID:26202080

  12. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  13. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-11-24

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized.

  14. Tests of a Contra-propeller for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, William M

    1938-01-01

    Tests of an 8-blade contra-propeller of 32-inch diameter in combination with a 4-inch, 36-inch diameter adjustable pitch, metal propeller at pitch setting of 15, 25, 35, and 45 degrees at 0.75 R were made. The tests showed a significant increase in effective thrust of the combination over that of the propeller alone for value V/nD somewhat below those for maximum efficiency and without a corresponding increase of power absorbed. From 1/2 percent to 2-1/2 percent in propulsive efficiency was thus gained in this range. In all but one case, however, the peak propulsive efficiency of the combination was found to be from 1 to 2 percent less than that of the propeller alone. Counter torque on the contra-propeller amounted to about 50 percent of the propeller torque.

  15. Interplay between social debate and propaganda in an opinion formation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, M. C.; Revelli, J. A.; Lama, M. S. de la; Lopez, J. M.; Wio, H. S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a simple model of opinion dynamics in which a two-state agent modified Sznajd model evolves due to the simultaneous action of stochastic driving and a periodic signal. The stochastic effect mimics a social temperature, so the agents may adopt decisions in support for or against some opinion or position, according to a modified Sznajd rule with a varying probability. The external force represents a simplified picture by which society feels the influence of the external effects of propaganda. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we have shown the dynamical interplay between the social condition or mood and the external influence, finding a stochastic resonance-like phenomenon when we depict the noise-to-signal ratio as a function of the social temperature. In addition, we have also studied the effects of the system size and the external signal strength on the opinion formation dynamics.

  16. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  17. La crisis de vacunación contra el VPH

    Cancer.gov

    A raíz de la publicación de una declaración de consenso de los Centros Oncológicos designados por NCI sobre la vacunación contra el VPH en el país, el doctor Noel Brewer trata de los bajos indices de vacunación y de cómo el personal clínico puede ayudar.

  18. Politics or Economics? International Migration during the Nicaraguan Contra War.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Jennifer H; Massey, Douglas S

    2005-02-01

    The issue of whether Central Americans in the United States are 'political' or 'economic' migrants has been widely debated, yet little empirical research has informed the controversy. Earlier studies have relied primarily on cross-sectional aggregate data. In order to overcome these limitations we draw on recent surveys conducted in five Nicaraguan communities by the Latin American Migration Project. Using retrospective data, we reconstruct a history of a family's migration to the United States and Costa Rica from the date of household formation to the survey date and link these data to national-level data on GDP and Contra War violence. While out migration to both Costa Rica and the United States is predicted by economic trends, US-bound migration was more strongly linked to the level of Contra War violence independent of economic motivations, especially in an interactive model that allows for a higher wartime effect of social networks. We conclude that elevated rates of Nicaraguan migration to the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s were a direct result of the US-Contra intervention. The approach deployed here - which relates to the timing of migration decisions to macro-level country trends - enables us to address the issue of political versus economic motivations for migration with more precision than prior work.

  19. Mosquito age and susceptibility to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Rajatileka, Shavanthi; Burhani, Joseph; Ranson, Hilary

    2011-05-01

    Insecticides play a crucial role in controlling the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases and the development and spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable control. Guidelines developed by the WHO to monitor for insecticide resistance recommend using 1-3 day old, non blood fed female mosquitoes. This standardisation facilitates comparison between different tests, which is important when monitoring for spatial or longitudinal variations in resistance in the field. However, mosquitoes of this age cannot transmit human pathogens. In order to transmit disease, the mosquito must live long enough to pick up the pathogen via a blood meal, survive the extrinsic incubation period and then pass on the pathogen during a subsequent blood meal. Previous studies have reported declines in insecticide resistance with mosquito age. If widely applicable this would have important implications for predictions of the impact of resistance that are based on results from WHO bioassays. This study investigated the impact of senescence and blood feeding on insecticide induced mortality in six different mosquito populations and found higher mortality after insecticide exposure in older mosquitoes in three populations of Aedes aegypti and two Anopheles gambiae populations. Age dependent changes in the expression of a known insecticide detoxification gene, GSTe2, and in the frequency of a target site mutation (kdr 1014F) were investigated in an attempt to explain the results. PMID:21353689

  20. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  1. Culex Species Mosquitoes and Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Ayers, Victoria B; Lyons, Amy C; Unlu, Isik; Alto, Barry W; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-10-01

    Recent reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates from Culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for ZIKV transmission in the new world. Although observations in the field have demonstrated that ZIKV isolation can be made from Culex species mosquitoes, the detection of ZIKV in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a ZIKV transmission cycle. Detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, and is not indicative of replication in the mosquito. In this study, susceptibility of recently colonized Culex species mosquitoes was investigated. The results showed a high degree of refractoriness among members of Culex pipiens complex to ZIKV even when exposed to high-titer bloodmeals. Our finding suggests that the likelihood of Culex species mosquitoes serving as secondary vectors for ZIKV is very low, therefore vector control strategies for ZIKV should remain focused on Aedes species mosquitoes. Our demonstration that Culex quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, is refractory to infection with ZIKV is especially important and timely. Based on our data, we would conclude that the autochthonous cases of Zika in Florida are not due to transmission by C. quinquefasciatus, and so control efforts should focus on other species, logically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

  2. Culex Species Mosquitoes and Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Ayers, Victoria B; Lyons, Amy C; Unlu, Isik; Alto, Barry W; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-10-01

    Recent reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates from Culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for ZIKV transmission in the new world. Although observations in the field have demonstrated that ZIKV isolation can be made from Culex species mosquitoes, the detection of ZIKV in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a ZIKV transmission cycle. Detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, and is not indicative of replication in the mosquito. In this study, susceptibility of recently colonized Culex species mosquitoes was investigated. The results showed a high degree of refractoriness among members of Culex pipiens complex to ZIKV even when exposed to high-titer bloodmeals. Our finding suggests that the likelihood of Culex species mosquitoes serving as secondary vectors for ZIKV is very low, therefore vector control strategies for ZIKV should remain focused on Aedes species mosquitoes. Our demonstration that Culex quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, is refractory to infection with ZIKV is especially important and timely. Based on our data, we would conclude that the autochthonous cases of Zika in Florida are not due to transmission by C. quinquefasciatus, and so control efforts should focus on other species, logically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. PMID:27556838

  3. Nest Mosquito Trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Caillouët, Kevin A.; Riggan, Anna E.; Rider, Mark; Bulluck, Lesley P.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. We designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. In the laboratory, the NMT collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. We then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-collected bird-seeking mosquitoes collected over 66 trap nights. We estimated that 7.5 mosquitoes per trap night attempted to feed on nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. Presence of the NMT did not have a negative effect on avian nest success when compared to occupied nest boxes that were not sampled with the trap. Future studies using the NMT may elucidate the role of nestlings in arbovirus transmission and further refine estimates of nesting bird and vector contact rates. PMID:22548555

  4. Malaria Parasites Produce Volatile Mosquito Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Megan; Su, Chih-Ying; Schaber, Chad; Crowley, Jan R.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Carlson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a nonphotosynthetic plastid organelle that possesses plant-like metabolic pathways. Plants use the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway to produce volatile odorants, known as terpenes. In this work, we describe the volatile chemical profile of cultured malaria parasites. Among the identified compounds are several plant-like terpenes and terpene derivatives, including known mosquito attractants. We establish the molecular identity of the odorant receptors of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae, which responds to these compounds. The malaria parasite produces volatile signals that are recognized by mosquitoes and may thereby mediate host attraction and facilitate transmission. PMID:25805727

  5. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions.

    PubMed

    Zwiebel, L J; Takken, W

    2004-07-01

    Mosquitoes that act as disease vectors rely upon olfactory cues to direct several important behaviors that are fundamentally involved in establishing their overall vectorial capacity. Of these, the propensity to select humans for blood feeding is arguably the most important of these olfactory driven behaviors in so far as it significantly contributes to the ability of these mosquitoes to transmit pathogens that cause diseases such as dengue, yellow fever and most significantly human malaria. Here, we review significant advances in behavioral, physiological and molecular investigations into mosquito host preference, with a particular emphasis on studies that have emerged in the post-genomic era that seek to combine these approaches.

  6. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  7. Ecological immunology of mosquito-malaria interactions.

    PubMed

    Tripet, Frédéric; Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Hurd, Hilary

    2008-05-01

    More than a century after the discovery of the complex life cycle of its causative agent, malaria remains a major health problem. Understanding mosquito-malaria interactions could lead to breakthroughs in malaria control. Novel strategies, such as the design of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to Plasmodium, or design of human vaccines emulating mosquito resistance to the parasite, require extensive knowledge of processes involved in immune responses and of microevolutionary mechanisms that create and maintain variation in immune responses in wild vector populations. The recent realization of how intimately and specifically mosquitoes and Plasmodium co-evolve in Nature is driving vector molecular biologists and evolutionary ecologists to move closer to the natural setting under the common umbrella of 'Ecological immunology'.

  8. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  9. Promising new tools to fight Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Two new tools for suppressing Aedes aegypti mosquito populations have been recommended for pilot testing. Carefully designed trials will be needed to see whether they actually reduce disease as well. Andréia Azevedo Soares reports. PMID:27516632

  10. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

  11. Filarial infection influences mosquito behaviour and fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Gleave, Katherine; Cook, Darren; Taylor, Mark J.; Reimer, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding vector-parasite interactions is increasingly important as we move towards the endpoint goals set by the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF), as interaction dynamics may change with reduced transmission pressure. Elimination models used to predict programmatic endpoints include parameters for vector-specific transmission dynamics, despite the fact that our knowledge of the host-seeking behaviour of filariasis infected mosquitoes is lacking. We observed a dynamic, stage-specific and density dependent change in Aedes aegypti behaviour towards host cues when exposed to Brugia malayi filarial parasites. Infected mosquitoes exhibited reduced activation and flight towards a host during the period of larval development (L1/L2), transitioning to a 5 fold increase in activation and flight towards a host when infective stage larvae (L3) were present (p < 0.001). In uninfected control mosquitoes, we observed a reduction in convergence towards a host during the same period. Furthermore, this behaviour was density dependent with non-activated mosquitoes harbouring a greater burden of L1 and L2 larvae while activated mosquitoes harboured a greater number of L3 (p < 0.001). Reductions in fecundity were also density-dependent, and extended to mosquitoes that were exposed to microfilariae but did not support larval development. PMID:27796352

  12. Nationalism, racism and propaganda in early Weimar Germany: contradictions in the campaign against the "black horror on the Rhine".

    PubMed

    Roos, Julia

    2012-01-01

    During the early 1920s, an average of 25,000 colonial soldiers from North Africa, Senegal and Madagascar formed part of the French army of occupation in the Rhineland. The campaign against these troops, which used the racist epithet ‘black horror on the Rhine’ (schwarze Schmach am Rhein), was one of the most important propaganda efforts of the Weimar period. In black horror propaganda, images of alleged sexual violence against Rhenish women and children by African French soldiers served as metaphors for Germany’s ‘victimization’ through the Versailles Treaty. Because the campaign initially gained broad popular and official support, historians have tended to consider the black horror a successful nationalist movement bridging political divides and strengthening the German nation state. In contrast, this essay points to some of the contradictions within the campaign, which often crystallized around conflicts over the nature of effective propaganda. Extreme racist claims about the Rhineland’s alleged ‘mulattoization’ (Mulattisierung) increasingly alienated Rhinelanders and threatened to exacerbate traditional tensions between the predominantly Catholic Rhineland and the central state at a time when Germany’s western borders seemed rather precarious in the light of recent territorial losses and separatist agitation. There was a growing concern that radical strands within the black horror movement were detrimental to the cohesion of the German nation state and to Germany’s positive image abroad, and this was a major reason behind the campaign’s decline after 1921/22. The conflicts within the campaign also point to some hitherto neglected affinities between the black horror and subsequent Nazi propaganda.

  13. Nationalism, racism and propaganda in early Weimar Germany: contradictions in the campaign against the "black horror on the Rhine".

    PubMed

    Roos, Julia

    2012-01-01

    During the early 1920s, an average of 25,000 colonial soldiers from North Africa, Senegal and Madagascar formed part of the French army of occupation in the Rhineland. The campaign against these troops, which used the racist epithet ‘black horror on the Rhine’ (schwarze Schmach am Rhein), was one of the most important propaganda efforts of the Weimar period. In black horror propaganda, images of alleged sexual violence against Rhenish women and children by African French soldiers served as metaphors for Germany’s ‘victimization’ through the Versailles Treaty. Because the campaign initially gained broad popular and official support, historians have tended to consider the black horror a successful nationalist movement bridging political divides and strengthening the German nation state. In contrast, this essay points to some of the contradictions within the campaign, which often crystallized around conflicts over the nature of effective propaganda. Extreme racist claims about the Rhineland’s alleged ‘mulattoization’ (Mulattisierung) increasingly alienated Rhinelanders and threatened to exacerbate traditional tensions between the predominantly Catholic Rhineland and the central state at a time when Germany’s western borders seemed rather precarious in the light of recent territorial losses and separatist agitation. There was a growing concern that radical strands within the black horror movement were detrimental to the cohesion of the German nation state and to Germany’s positive image abroad, and this was a major reason behind the campaign’s decline after 1921/22. The conflicts within the campaign also point to some hitherto neglected affinities between the black horror and subsequent Nazi propaganda. PMID:22454974

  14. Popular health education and propaganda in times of peace and war in Mexico city, 1890s-1920s.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Health education and propaganda acquired importance during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Mexico City, as physicians, hygienists, and schoolteachers attempted to teach the principles of public health to a culturally and socially heterogeneous urban population.I explore the organization of the Popular Hygiene Exhibition of 1910 and the importance of health education before and after the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution, and why children and the indigenous populations became the main recipients of health education programs.

  15. The discerning predator: decision rules underlying prey classification by a mosquito-eating jumping spider.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ximena J; Jackson, Robert R

    2012-07-01

    Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification. PMID:22675186

  16. International forum for surveillance and control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript provides highlights of presentations given at the 1st International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Disease in Beijing, China. Topics covered in this 4-day forum included: diseases, surveillance, insecticides, physiology and ecology, behavior, inv...

  17. 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of China (ESC) and Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology (BIME) hosted the 2nd International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Mosquito-borne Diseases in Beijing, China, May 23-27, 2011. The theme of the Forum was “Impact of global climate ch...

  18. Engineered mosquitoes to fight mosquito borne diseases: not a merely technical issue

    PubMed Central

    Favia, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Malaria, dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases pose dramatic problems of public health, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Historically, vector control has been one of the most successfully strategies to eradicate some mosquito-borne diseases, as witnessed by malaria eradication in Mediterranean regions such as Italy and Greece. Vector control through insecticides has been used worldwide; unfortunately, it is losing effectiveness due to spread of resistances. Control of mosquito-borne diseases through field-releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes is an innovative and now feasible approach. Genetically modified mosquitoes have already been released into the wild in some regions, and protocols for this release are on hand in others. Local authorities are vigilant that transgenic insects in the field are safe for human and animal populations, and the public engagement in every control program is assuming a central role. PMID:25495663

  19. Science or propaganda?an examination of rind, tromovitch and bauserman (1998).

    PubMed

    Dallam, S J

    2000-01-01

    An article, “A Meta-analytic Examination of Assumed Properties of Child Sexual Abuse Using College Samples,” published in the July 1998 edition of the Psychological Bulletin resulted in an unprecedented amount of media attention and became the first scientific article to be formally denounced by the United States House of Representatives. The study's authors analyzed the findings of 59 earlier studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) and concluded that mental health researchers have greatly overstated CSA's harmful potential. They recommended that a willing encounter with positive reactions would no longer be considered to be sexual abuse; instead, it would simply be labeled adult-child sex. The study's conclusions and recommendations spawned a debate in both the popular and scholarly press. A number of commentators suggested that the study is pedophile propaganda masquerading as science. Others claimed that the authors are victims of a moralistic witch-hunt and that scientific freedom is being threatened. After a careful examination of the evidence, it is concluded that Rind et al. can best be described as an advocacy article that inappropriately uses science in an attempt to legitimize its findings.

  20. Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  1. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Environmental Policy Act Federal lead agency, and the Contra Costa Water District, as the...

  2. Un compromiso compartido para la Misión contra el Cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    En la reunión anual de la AACR, el vicepresidente Biden habló acerca de la Iniciativa Nacional de la Misión contra el Cáncer y del papel crítico que tendrá toda la comunidad investigadora en acelerar el progreso contra el cáncer.

  3. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  4. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  5. 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160740.html 3 Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Found in Florida A first for continental U.S.; 95 other tested mosquitoes Zika-free, officials say To use the sharing features ...

  6. Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Just Spraying Adult Mosquitoes Won't Curb Zika: Study Lab work suggests larvicide also needed to ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Female mosquitoes can transmit the Zika virus to their eggs and offspring, and this ...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of mosquito cecropin peptides against Francisella.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Akanksha; Gupta, Kajal; Shah, Ruhee; van Hoek, Monique L

    2016-10-01

    Francisella tularensis is the cause of the zoonotic disease tularemia. In Sweden and Scandinavia, epidemiological studies have implicated mosquitoes as a vector. Prior research has demonstrated the presence of Francisella DNA in infected mosquitoes but has not shown definitive transmission of tularemia from a mosquito to a mammalian host. We hypothesized that antimicrobial peptides, an important component of the innate immune system of higher organisms, may play a role in mosquito host-defense to Francisella. We established that Francisella sp. are susceptible to two cecropin antimicrobial peptides derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus as well as Culex pipiens. We also demonstrated induced expression of Aedes albopictus antimicrobial peptide genes by Francisella infection C6/36 mosquito cell line. We demonstrate that mosquito antimicrobial peptides act against Francisella by disrupting the cellular membrane of the bacteria. Thus, it is possible that antimicrobial peptides may play a role in the inability of mosquitoes to establish an effective natural transmission of tularemia. PMID:27235883

  8. Zika's Delivery Via Mosquito Bite May Boost Its Effect

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159484.html Zika's Delivery Via Mosquito Bite May Boost Its Effect ... The inflammation caused by a mosquito bite helps Zika and other viruses spread through the body more ...

  9. Traps and trapping techniques for adult mosquito control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is presented of the recent advancements in research activities conducted to evaluate mosquito traps, insecticide-impregnated targets baited with combinations of attractants, and strategies for using mass trapping techniques for adult mosquito population management. Technologies that use...

  10. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Das, N G; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

    2003-01-01

    Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

  11. Disruption of dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Alexander W.E.; Balaraman, Velmurugan; Fraser, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Current control efforts for mosquito-borne arboviruses focus on mosquito control involving insecticide applications, which are becoming increasingly ineffective and unsustainable in urban areas. Mosquito population replacement is an alternative arbovirus control concept aiming at replacing virus-competent vector populations with laboratory-engineered incompetent vectors. A prerequisite for this strategy is the design of robust anti-pathogen effectors that can ultimately be genetically driven through a wild-type population. Several anti-pathogen effector concepts have been developed that target the RNA genomes of arboviruses such as dengue virus in a highly sequence-specific manner. Design principles are based on long inverted-repeat RNA triggered RNA interference, catalytic hammerhead ribozymes, and trans-splicing Group I Introns that are able to induce apoptosis in virus-infected cells following splicing with target viral RNA. PMID:26120563

  12. Human to Mosquito Transmission of Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Lauren B.; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2014-01-01

    The successful transmission of dengue virus from a human host to a mosquito vector requires a complex set of factors to align. It is becoming increasingly important to improve our understanding of the parameters that shape the human to mosquito component of the transmission cycle so that vaccines and therapeutic antivirals can be fully evaluated and epidemiological models refined. Here we describe these factors, and discuss the biological and environmental impacts and demographic changes that are influencing these dynamics. Specifically, we examine features of the human infection required for the mosquito to acquire the virus via natural blood feeding, as well as the biological and environmental factors that influence a mosquito’s susceptibility to infection, up to the point that they are capable of transmitting the virus to a new host. PMID:24987394

  13. Integrated vector management guidelines for adult mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Kenneth W; Brown, David A

    2003-12-01

    A written document was developed to clarify the District's adult mosquito-management tactics to other interested individuals and agencies. The program described consists of 7 discrete components: 1) initiation criteria, 2) treatment area delineation, 3) agricultural and land-use practices, 4) meteorological conditions, 5) continuance criteria, 6) termination criteria, and 7) factors influencing implementation. The guidelines were adopted as policy by the District's Board of Trustees in 1998 and have been implemented in each of the last 5 years. The adult mosquito population is monitored with 6 Mosquito Magnets traps strategically located in the rice culture areas. Samples are collected daily and laboratory technicians notify the Adulticide/Airplane Coordinator of collection results before 1:00 p.m. PMID:14710754

  14. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Das, N G; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

    2003-01-01

    Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil. PMID:15119071

  15. Culex flavivirus isolates from mosquitoes in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales-Betoulle, M E; Monzón Pineda, M L; Sosa, S M; Panella, N; López, M R B; Cordón-Rosales, C; Komar, N; Powers, A; Johnson, B W

    2008-11-01

    A new strain of Culex flavivirus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, CxFV), an insect virus first described in Japan, was isolated from adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in 2006 from Izabal Department on the Caribbean coast of Guatemala. Mosquito pools were assayed for flavivirus RNA by using flavivirus group-specific primers that amplified a 720-bp region of the nonstructural (NS) 5 gene by standard reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. From 210 pools (1,699 mosquitoes), eight tested positive, and six of these mosquito pools produced virus isolates in Aedes albopictus Skuse C6/36 cells. Nucleotide sequence comparison of the eight flavivirus RNA-positive pools showed that there was 100% identity among them, and phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 and envelope gene regions indicated that they represent a strain of the recently described CxFV from Japan. This is the first report of an insect flavivirus from Central America.

  16. Effect of collection method on estimates of adult mosquito density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We made simultaneous comparison of the number of female mosquitoes captured by suction traps and portable light traps (augmented with CO2) in a Florida swamp with the landing rate of female mosquitoes on a human subject. Depending on the mosquito species, capture rates in light traps ranged between...

  17. The Collection of Mosquito Eggs for Classroom and Field Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinly, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    A method for the collection of Aedes mosquito eggs is described whereby collection of mosquito eggs is used to monitor the intensity of egg deposition in urban and rural areas. The data is used to increase public awareness of the effect of human habitation and cultural practices on mosquito abundance.

  18. Effectiveness of mosquito traps in measuring species abundance and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito species abundance and composition estimates provided by trapping devices are commonly used to guide control efforts, but knowledge of trap biases is necessary for accurately interpreting results. We compared the Mosquito Magnet – Pro, the Mosquito Magnet – X and the CDC Miniature Light Trap...

  19. Measurement, analysis, and depiction of activity in adult mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globalization, open trading practices, and climate change increase the likelihood of introduction of exotic mosquito species. These mosquitoes may harbor disease agents that threaten public and animal health. Successful containment and eradication of exotic mosquito species and (in the case of exo...

  20. Mosquito Infection Responses to Developing Filarial Worms

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Sara M.; Xi, Zhiyong; Mayhew, George F.; Ramirez, Jose L.; Aliota, Matthew T.; Christensen, Bruce M.; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8). The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed), including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (∼13% of genes with predicted functions). To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar) during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed. PMID:19823571

  1. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sara M; Xi, Zhiyong; Mayhew, George F; Ramirez, Jose L; Aliota, Matthew T; Christensen, Bruce M; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8). The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed), including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions). To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar) during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed. PMID:19823571

  2. Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  3. Genetically Modified (GM) Mosquito Use to Reduce Mosquito-Transmitted Disease in the US: A Community Opinion Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adalja, Amesh; Sell, Tara Kirk; McGinty, Meghan; Boddie, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mosquito-borne infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and now Zika, pose a public health threat to the US, particularly Florida, the Gulf Coast states, and Hawaii. Recent autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya in Florida, the recent dengue outbreak in Hawaii, and the potential for future local spread of Zika in the US, has led to the consideration of novel approaches to mosquito management. One such novel approach, the release of sterile genetically modified mosquitoes, has been proposed as a possible intervention, and a trial release of GM mosquitoes is being considered in one Florida community. However, this proposal has been controversial. The objective of this research was to increase understanding of community knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding mosquito control and GM mosquitoes.   Methods: An 18-question self-administered survey was mailed to all households in the identified Key West, Florida neighborhood where a GM mosquito trial has been proposed. This survey was fielded between July 20, 2015 and November 1, 2015. The main outcome variable was opposition to the use of GM mosquitoes. Measures included demographic information and opinions on mosquitoes, mosquito control, and vector-borne diseases.   Results: A majority of survey respondents did not support use of GM mosquitoes as a mosquito control method. Discussion: Reasons for opposition included general fears about possible harmful impacts of this intervention, specific worries about human and animal health impacts from the GM mosquitoes, and environmental concerns about potential negative effects on the ecosystem. Residents were more likely to oppose GM mosquito use if they had a low perception of the potential risks posed by diseases like dengue and chikungunya, if they were female, and if they were less concerned about the need to control mosquitoes in general. These findings suggest a need for new approaches to risk communication, including

  4. Can transgenic mosquitoes afford the fitness cost?

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, Louis; Koella, Jacob C; Boëte, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In a recent study, SM1-transgenic Anopheles stephensi, which are resistant partially to Plasmodium berghei, had higher fitness than non-transgenic mosquitoes when they were maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. This result should be interpreted cautiously with respect to malaria control using transgenic mosquitoes because, despite the evolutionary advantage conferred by the transgene, a concomitant cost prevents it from invading the entire population. Indeed, for the spread of a resistance transgene in a natural situation, the transgene's fitness cost and the efficacy of the gene drive will be more crucial than any evolutionary advantage.

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF CDC AND MOSQUITO MAGNET® X TRAPS BAITED WITH DRY ICE, CO2 SACHET, AND OCTENOL AGAINST MOSQUITOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnet® X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation of CO2 (granular) were evaluated against mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes, compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%...

  6. Individual experience affects host choice in malaria vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite epidemiological importance, few studies have explored whether individual experience and learning could affect the vertebrate host choice of mosquito disease vectors. Here, we investigated whether a first successful blood meal can modulate mosquito preference during a second blood meal. Methods In no-choice situations, females of the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, one of the primary African malaria vectors, were first allowed to feed on either human, rabbit or guinea pig. Four days later in dual-choice situations, the same mosquitoes were allowed to choose between the two uncommon hosts, rabbit and guinea pig, as a source of blood. ELISA assays were then used to determine which host mosquitoes fed on. Results Our results indicate that, overall, mosquitoes preferred to feed on rabbit over guinea pig and that the nature of the first blood meal had a significant impact on the mosquito host choice during the second blood meal. Compared to mosquitoes that previously fed on guinea pigs or humans, mosquitoes that fed on rabbits were less likely to choose this host species during a second exposition. The decreased preference for rabbit was observed four days after mosquitoes were first exposed to this host, suggesting that the effect lasts at least the duration of a gonotrophic cycle. Furthermore, this effect was observed after only one successful blood meal. Fitness measurements on mosquitoes fed on the three different vertebrate hosts showed that the origin of the blood meal affected mosquito longevity but not fecundity. In particular, human-fed mosquitoes lived longer than guinea pig-fed or rabbit-fed mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that individual experience affects host choice in this mosquito species and might have strong repercussions on biting patterns in natural conditions and hence on malaria transmission. PMID:24885668

  7. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bartumeus, Frederic; Oltra, Aitana; Sousa, Carla A; Chouin, Sébastien; Werner, Doreen

    2015-01-08

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order to assess the current species occurrence, distribution and, when possible, abundance, in order to permit the early detection of invasive species and the spread of competent vectors. As active mosquito collection, e.g. by trapping adults, dipping preimaginal developmental stages or ovitrapping, is usually cost-, time- and labour-intensive and can cover only small parts of a country, passive data collection approaches are gradually being integrated into monitoring programmes. Thus, scientists in several EU member states have recently initiated programmes for mosquito data collection and analysis that make use of sources other than targeted mosquito collection. While some of them extract mosquito distribution data from zoological databases established in other contexts, community-based approaches built upon the recognition, reporting, collection and submission of mosquito specimens by citizens are becoming more and more popular and increasingly support scientific research. Based on such reports and submissions, new populations, extended or new distribution areas and temporal activity patterns of invasive and native mosquito species were found. In all cases, extensive media work and communication with the participating individuals or groups was fundamental for success. The presented projects demonstrate that passive approaches are powerful tools to survey the mosquito fauna in order to supplement active mosquito surveillance strategies and render them more focused. Their ability to continuously produce biological data permits the early recognition of changes in the mosquito fauna that may have an impact on biting nuisance and the risk of pathogen transmission associated

  8. Spatial model for transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a generic model which takes into account spatial heterogeneity for the dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases is proposed. The dissemination of the disease is described by a system of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Host human and vector mosquito populations are divided into susceptible and infectious classes. Diffusion is considered to occur in all classes of both populations. Susceptible humans are infected when bitten by infectious mosquitoes. Susceptible mosquitoes bite infectious humans and become infected. The biting rate of mosquitoes is considered to be density dependent on the total human population in different locations. The system is solved numerically and results are shown.

  9. Popular Health Education and Propaganda in Times of Peace and War in Mexico City, 1890s–1920s

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    Health education and propaganda acquired importance during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Mexico City, as physicians, hygienists, and schoolteachers attempted to teach the principles of public health to a culturally and socially heterogeneous urban population. I explore the organization of the Popular Hygiene Exhibition of 1910 and the importance of health education before and after the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution, and why children and the indigenous populations became the main recipients of health education programs. PMID:16322465

  10. Basophil activation by mosquito extracts in patients with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Yasuhisa; Wada, Taizo; Muraoka, Masahiro; Matsuda, Yusuke; Toma, Tomoko; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) is a cutaneous disorder belonging to the group of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, and is primarily mediated by EBV-infected NK cells. It is characterized by intense local skin reactions accompanied by general symptoms after mosquito bites, and infiltration of EBV-infected NK cells into the bite sites. However, the mechanisms underlying these reactions have not been fully examined. We recently described the activation of circulating basophils by mosquito extracts in vitro in a patient with HMB. To further investigate this finding, we studied four additional patients with HMB. All patients showed typical clinical features of HMB after mosquito bites and they had NK lymphocytosis and high peripheral blood EBV DNA loads. We found evidence of EBV infection in NK cells through in situ hybridization that detected EBV-encoded small RNA-1, and flow cytometry showed HLA-DR expression on almost all NK cells. Basophil activation tests with the extracts of epidemic mosquitoes Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus showed positive responses to one or both extracts in all samples from patients with HMB, suggesting the presence of mosquito antigen-specific IgE and its binding to basophils. In particular, the extract of Aedes albopictus was able to activate basophils in all available patient samples. These results indicate that basophils and/or mast cells activated by mosquito bites may be involved in initiation and development of severe skin reactions to mosquito bites in HMB.

  11. Mosquitoes of Guam and the Northern Marianas: distribution, checklists, and notes on mosquito-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pecor, James E; Reeves, Will K; Wolf, Stephen P; Nunn, Peter V; Rabago, Rosanna Y; Gutierrez, Teresa L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records and updated checklists of the mosquitoes known to occur in Guam and nearby selected islands (ie, Saipan, Tinian, Rota), based on our field collections from various localities during 2010, published reports, and accessioned specimens deposited in the US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors and their borne-pathogens are also noted.

  12. Mosquito proboscis: An elegant biomicroelectromechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X. Q.; Wu, C. W.

    2010-07-01

    The mouthparts of female mosquitoes have evolved to form a special proboscis, a natural biomicroelectromechanical system (BMEMS), which is used for painlessly penetrating human skin and sucking blood. Scanning electron microscope observations show that the mosquito proboscis consists of a small bundle of long, tapering, and feeding stylets that are collectively called the fascicle, and a large scaly outer lower lip called the labium. During blood feeding, only the fascicle penetrates into the skin while the labium buckles back to remain on the surface of the skin. Here, we measured the dynamic force of penetration of the fascicle into human skin to reveal the mechanical principle underlying the painless process of penetration. High-speed video observations of movements associated with insertion of the fascicle indicate that the “smart” mosquito does not directly pierce its victim’s skin with the fascicle. Instead, it uses the two maxillas as variable frequency microsaws with nanosharp teeth to advance into the skin tissue. This elegant BMEMS enables the mosquito to insert its feeding fascicle into human skin using an exceedingly small force (average of 16.5μN ).

  13. Mosquito proboscis: an elegant biomicroelectromechanical system.

    PubMed

    Kong, X Q; Wu, C W

    2010-07-01

    The mouthparts of female mosquitoes have evolved to form a special proboscis, a natural biomicroelectromechanical system (BMEMS), which is used for painlessly penetrating human skin and sucking blood. Scanning electron microscope observations show that the mosquito proboscis consists of a small bundle of long, tapering, and feeding stylets that are collectively called the fascicle, and a large scaly outer lower lip called the labium. During blood feeding, only the fascicle penetrates into the skin while the labium buckles back to remain on the surface of the skin. Here, we measured the dynamic force of penetration of the fascicle into human skin to reveal the mechanical principle underlying the painless process of penetration. High-speed video observations of movements associated with insertion of the fascicle indicate that the "smart" mosquito does not directly pierce its victim's skin with the fascicle. Instead, it uses the two maxillas as variable frequency microsaws with nanosharp teeth to advance into the skin tissue. This elegant BMEMS enables the mosquito to insert its feeding fascicle into human skin using an exceedingly small force (average of 16.5 μN). PMID:20866651

  14. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  15. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  16. Mosquito repellency of novel Trifluoromethylphenyl amides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human diseases caused by mosquito-transmitted pathogens include malaria, dengue and yellow fever and are responsible for several million human deaths every year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Our current research projects focus on the development of new insecticides and repellent...

  17. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  18. Mosquito Population Regulation and Larval Source Management in Heterogeneous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Tusting, Lucy S.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lindsay, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM). We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats’ carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%). Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools) gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides. PMID:23951118

  19. Dynamics of Bacterial Community Composition in the Malaria Mosquito's Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Boissière, Anne; Abate, Luc; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Bayibéki, Albert N.; Awono-Ambéné, Parfait H.; Christen, Richard; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Morlais, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to the breeding site, indicating that some bacteria are acquired from the environment. Our results revealed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure, possibly as a result of the mosquito physiological changes. The abundance of Serratia significantly correlated with P. falciparum infection both in the midgut and salivary glands of malaria challenged mosquitoes, which suggests that interactions occur between microbes and parasites. These bacteria may represent promising targets for vector control strategies. Overall, this study points out the importance of characterizing bacterial communities in malaria mosquito vectors. PMID:26779155

  20. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  1. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-06-24

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  2. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  3. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra exhibit a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone content. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data have been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the nearfield noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, tone noise spectra have been predicted and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant tones and for the overall sound pressure level of tones. The results also indicate that, whereas the individual rotor tones are well predicted by the combination of the thickness and loading sources, for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole source is also included in the analysis.

  4. Detection of West Nile virus RNA in mosquitoes and identification of mosquito blood meals collected at alligator farms in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Isik; Kramer, Wayne L; Roy, Alma F; Foil, Lane D

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, alligator farms in the United States have sustained substantial economic losses because of West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Once an initial infection is introduced into captive alligators, WNV can spread among animals by contaminative transmission. Some outbreaks have been linked to feeding on infected meat or the introduction of infected hatchlings, but the initial source of WNV infection has been uncertain in other outbreaks. We conducted a study to identify species composition and presence of WNV in mosquito populations associated with alligator farms in Louisiana. A second objective of this study was to identify the origin of mosquito blood meals collected at commercial alligator farms. Mosquitoes were collected from 2004 to 2006, using Centers for Disease Control light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and resting boxes. We collected a total of 58,975 mosquitoes representing 24 species. WNV was detected in 41 pools of females from 11 mosquito species: Anopheles crucians, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex coronator, Culex erraticus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia titillans, Aedes sollicitans, Psorophora columbiae, and Uranotaenia lowii. The blood meal origins of 213 field-collected mosquitoes were identified based on cytochrome B sequence identity. Alligator blood was detected in 21 mosquitoes representing six species of mosquitoes, including Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. Our results showed that mosquitoes of species that are known to be competent vectors of WNV fed regularly on captive alligators. Therefore, mosquitoes probably are important in the role of transmission of WNV at alligator farms.

  5. Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

    2008-12-01

    For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa. PMID:19181075

  6. Public perception of mosquito annoyance measured by a survey and simultaneous mosquito sampling.

    PubMed

    Read, N R; Rooker, J R; Gathman, J P

    1994-03-01

    For randomly chosen residents of the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, metropolitan area, survey responses, reported bites, and observed defensive behaviors (e.g., brushing, swatting) for a 5-min period in their yard were compared with simultaneous mosquito counts from a human-baited drop-net trap 6 m from the resident. When mosquitoes trapped, reported bites, or observed behaviors per 5 min were 3 or more, the majority of respondents described the mosquito levels as greater than "moderate" and anticipated reduced outdoor time and/or possible repellent use. At 25 or more mosquitoes trapped, 11 or more reported bites, or 16 or more observed behaviors per 5 min, response was "bad", with most people anticipating a major reduction in outdoor time (without repellent), "probably" or "definitely" planning to use repellent, and anticipating some outdoor time loss even if using repellent. Levels of less than 3 mosquitoes trapped per 5 min were related to moderate annoyance in 20-45% of the population. Individual response was highly variable, and the personal and environmental covariates measured did not account for more than half the variability.

  7. Arbovirus-mosquito interactions: RNAi pathway.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ken E; Blair, Carol D

    2015-12-01

    Arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses infect hematophagous arthropods (vectors) to maintain virus transmission between vertebrate hosts. The mosquito vector actively controls arbovirus infection to minimize its fitness costs. The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is the major antiviral response vectors use to restrict arbovirus infections. We know this because depleting RNAi gene products profoundly impacts arbovirus replication, the antiviral RNAi pathway genes undergo positive, diversifying selection and arboviruses have evolved strategies to evade the vector's RNAi responses. The vector's RNAi defense and arbovirus countermeasures lead to an arms race that prevents potential virus-induced fitness costs yet maintains arbovirus infections needed for transmission. This review will discuss the latest findings in RNAi-arbovirus interactions in the model insect (Drosophila melanogaster) and in specific mosquito vectors.

  8. Bacterial associations reveal spatial population dynamics in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Moritz; Nilsson, Louise K. J.; Brunius, Carl; Dabiré, Roch K.; Hopkins, Richard; Terenius, Olle

    2016-01-01

    The intolerable burden of malaria has for too long plagued humanity and the prospect of eradicating malaria is an optimistic, but reachable, target in the 21st century. However, extensive knowledge is needed about the spatial structure of mosquito populations in order to develop effective interventions against malaria transmission. We hypothesized that the microbiota associated with a mosquito reflects acquisition of bacteria in different environments. By analyzing the whole-body bacterial flora of An. gambiae mosquitoes from Burkina Faso by 16 S amplicon sequencing, we found that the different environments gave each mosquito a specific bacterial profile. In addition, the bacterial profiles provided precise and predicting information on the spatial dynamics of the mosquito population as a whole and showed that the mosquitoes formed clear local populations within a meta-population network. We believe that using microbiotas as proxies for population structures will greatly aid improving the performance of vector interventions around the world. PMID:26960555

  9. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-01

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  10. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. PMID:26556361

  11. Dissecting vectorial capacity for mosquito-borne viruses.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Laura D; Ciota, Alexander T

    2015-12-01

    The inter-relationship between mosquitoes and the viruses they transmit is complex. While previously understood barriers to infection and transmission remain valid, additional factors have been uncovered that suggest an 'arms race' between mosquito and virus. These include the mosquito microbiota and interplay between mosquito and viral genetics. Following an infectious blood meal, the mosquito mounts an immune and transcriptional response, leading to altered expression of multiple genes. These complex interactions, specific to vector and virus genotypes, combine with external influences, particularly temperature, to determine vector competence. The mosquito's response to the infecting agent may have consequences in terms of longevity, feeding behavior and/or fecundity. These factors, together with population density and the frequency of host contact determine vectorial capacity.

  12. Spectral and spatial characterization of rice field mosquito habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Byron L.; Beck, Louisa R.; Washino, Robert K.; Palchick, Susan M.; Sebesta, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    Irrigated rice provides an ideal breeding habitat for Anopheles free-borni, the western malaria mosquito, throughout California. In a 1985 study, it was determined that early-season rice canopy development, as monitored using remotely sensed data, could be used to distinguish between high and low mosquito producing rice fields. This distinction could be made over two months prior to peak mosquito production. It was found that high-producing fields were located in an area characterized by a diversity of land use, including livestock pastures, whereas the low-producing fields were in an area devoted almost exclusively to the cultivation of rice. The ability to distinguish between high and low mosquito producing fields prior to peak mosquito production is important in terms of mosquito habitat surveillance and control.

  13. Mosquitoes survive raindrop collisions by virtue of their low mass.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Andrew K; Shankles, Peter G; Madhavan, Nihar M; Hu, David L

    2012-06-19

    In the study of insect flight, adaptations to complex flight conditions such as wind and rain are poorly understood. Mosquitoes thrive in areas of high humidity and rainfall, in which raindrops can weigh more than 50 times a mosquito. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we here show that free-flying mosquitoes can survive the high-speed impact of falling raindrops. High-speed videography of those impacts reveals a mechanism for survival: A mosquito's strong exoskeleton and low mass renders it impervious to falling drops. The mosquito's low mass causes raindrops to lose little momentum upon impact and so impart correspondingly low forces to the mosquitoes. Our findings demonstrate that small fliers are robust to in-flight perturbations.

  14. Intense iodine activity caused by mosquito bite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Tilak, Gauri; Edwards, Kevin; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-11-01

    A 12-year-old girl with a history of papillary thyroid cancer underwent radioiodine remnant ablation using (131)I. Posttherapy whole-body (131)I scintigraphy revealed not only the known activity in the neck but also increased activity in the superficial posterior right upper thigh. On further clinical evaluation, the patient was found to have a mosquito bite with surrounding hyperemia at the site of the abnormal activity.

  15. [The mosquito-borne viruses in Europe].

    PubMed

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiologic changes of vector-borne diseases in recent years have multiple causes, including climate change. There are about 3500 species of mosquitoes worldwide, three-quarters of which live in tropical and subtropical wetlands. Main viruses transmitted by mosquitoes in Europe belong to the genus Flavivirus; some of them have been recently reported in Italy (Usutu and Japanese encephalitis virus), while others have been circulating for years and autochthonous transmission has been documented (West Nile virus). Mosquito-borne viruses can be classified according to the vector (Aedes or Culex), which, in turn, is associated with different vertebrate host and pathology. The Flavivirus transmitted by Culex have birds as a reservoir and can cause meningoencephalitis, while viruses transmitted by Aedes have primates as reservoir, do not have neurotropism and mainly cause hemorrhagic diseases. Other arbovirus, potentially responsible of epidemics, are the Chikungunya virus (Alphavirus family), introduced for the first time in Europe in 2007, and the virus of Rift Valley fever (Phlebovirus family). The spread in non-endemic areas of vector-born diseases have highlighted the importance of surveillance systems and vector control strategies. PMID:25805223

  16. Wolbachia and cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Sinkins, Steven P

    2004-07-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited bacteria that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes, and are able to use these patterns of sterility to spread themselves through populations. For this reason they have been proposed as a gene drive system for mosquito genetic replacement, as well as for the reduction of population size or for modulating population age structure in order to reduce disease transmission. Here, recent progress in the study of mosquito Wolbachia is reviewed. We now have much more comprehensive estimates of the parameters that can affect the spread of Wolbachia through natural populations from low starting frequencies, and for waves of spread to be maintained in the face of partial barriers to gene flow. In Aedes albopictus these dynamics are extremely favourable, with very high maternal transmission fidelity and levels of incompatibility recorded. Correspondence between measurements taken in the lab and field is much better than in the Drosophila simulans model system. Important research goals are also discussed, including Wolbachia transformation, interspecific transfer and the elucidation of the mechanisms of incompatibility and rescue; all will be aided by a wealth of new Wolbachia genome information.

  17. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  18. Chemosensory Cues for Mosquito Oviposition Site Selection.

    PubMed

    Afify, Ali; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Gravid mosquitoes use chemosensory (olfactory, gustatory, or both) cues to select oviposition sites suitable for their offspring. In nature, these cues originate from plant infusions, microbes, mosquito immature stages, and predators. While attractants and stimulants are cues that could show the availability of food (plant infusions and microbes) and suitable conditions (the presence of conspecifics), repellents and deterrents show the risk of predation, infection with pathogens, or strong competition. Many studies have addressed the question of which substances can act as positive or negative cues in different mosquito species, with sometimes apparently contradicting results. These studies often differ in species, substance concentration, and other experimental details, making it difficult to compare the results. In this review, we compiled the available information for a wide range of species and substances, with particular attention to cues originating from larval food, immature stages, predators, and to synthetic compounds. We note that the effect of many substances differs between species, and that many substances have been tested in few species only, revealing that the information is scattered across species, substances, and experimental conditions. PMID:26336295

  19. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strategies for mosquito control. PMID:11266290

  20. Conditioning Individual Mosquitoes to an Odor: Sex, Source, and Time

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Michelle R.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory conditioning of mosquitoes may have important implications for vector-pathogen-host dynamics. If mosquitoes learn about specific host attributes associated with pathogen infection, it may help to explain the heterogeneity of biting and disease patterns observed in the field. Sugar-feeding is a requirement for survival in both male and female mosquitoes. It provides a starting point for learning research in mosquitoes that avoids the confounding factors associated with the observer being a potential blood-host and has the capability to address certain areas of close-range mosquito learning behavior that have not previously been described. This study was designed to investigate the ability of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say to associate odor with a sugar-meal with emphasis on important experimental considerations of mosquito age (1.2 d old and 3–5 d old), sex (male and female), source (laboratory and wild), and the time between conditioning and testing (<5 min, 1 hr, 2.5 hr, 5 hr, 10 hr, and 24 hr). Mosquitoes were individually conditioned to an odor across these different experimental conditions. Details of the conditioning protocol are presented as well as the use of binary logistic regression to analyze the complex dataset generated from this experimental design. The results suggest that each of the experimental factors may be important in different ways. Both the source of the mosquitoes and sex of the mosquitoes had significant effects on conditioned responses. The largest effect on conditioning was observed in the lack of positive response following conditioning for females aged 3–5 d derived from a long established colony. Overall, this study provides a method for conditioning experiments involving individual mosquitoes at close range and provides for future discussion of the relevance and broader questions that can be asked of olfactory conditioning in mosquitoes. PMID:21887384

  1. [The sleeping disease drug Germanine as an instrument for propaganda: reception in literature and film during National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Eva Anne

    2010-01-01

    As European colonization spread widely over the African continent the health and physical welfare of the African population gained more and more importance to European colonists who concentrated on capitalizing on African human resources for an improved financial and economic outcome of their colonies. This brought tropical medicine to the top of the European colonial agenda and raised the awareness of the threat of infectious diseases, such as the African Trypanosomiasis or so-called sleeping disease. In 1916 a group of scientists from the pharmaceutical company Bayer AG discovered a substance on the base of dye rather than arsenic. The drug was called Bayer 205 and showed outstanding therapeutic effects. It also reduced adverse reactions in people infected with sleeping disease. As Germany had already lost its colonies, the Bayer company--supported by the German government--negotiated with the English and Belgian governments and was allowed to send an expedition to East Africa. During 1921 and 1923 the new drug was tested in English Rhodesia and Belgian Congo and proved revolutionary, especially in comparison with conventional substances. In due course, the drug Bayer 205 was named Germanin and it was subsequently proposed to use it for political leverage: knowledge and use of the new drug was to be given only in exchange for parts of the former German colonies. However, the reactions of the international media put an end to Germany's neo-colonial-dreams, even before the proposal had reached governmental level. Even so, the incident never disappeared from the mind of those who wished to revive German colonialism. Thus, it is no surprise, that the tale of the discovery and perceived "injustice" of a thwarted scientific success regained an important place in National Socialist propaganda. This article will examine two sources to exemplify the role Germanin attained in National Socialist propaganda: Hellmuth Unger's popular science novel Germanin. Geschichte einer

  2. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported.

  3. Mathematical model in controlling dengue transmission with sterile mosquito strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose a mathematical model for controlling dengue disease transmission with sterile mosquito techniques (SIT). Sterile male introduced from lab in to habitat to compete with wild male mosquito for mating with female mosquito. Our aim is to displace gradually the natural mosquito from the habitat. Mathematical model analysis for steady states and the basic reproductive ratio are performed analytically. Numerical simulation are shown in some different scenarios. We find that SIT intervention is potential to controlling dengue spread among humans population

  4. Multiple dengue virus types harbored by individual mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Angel, Bennet; Angel, Annette; Joshi, Vinod

    2015-10-01

    The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types.

  5. Immunological aspects of the immune response induced by mosquito allergens.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, José Fernando; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals.

  6. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Relation to Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Disease in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Abbey; Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    On average, more than 1,000 individuals will acquire a mosquito-borne disease in Western Australia (WA) each year. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease have not yet been investigated within Australia. A randomized telephone survey of 2,500 households across 12 regions in WA was undertaken between February and May 2014. The aim of the survey was to obtain baseline KAP data surrounding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in different regions of WA, across a range of age groups and between males and females. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of respondents are aware of the potential for mosquitoes in WA to transmit Ross River virus, while awareness of other endemic mosquito-borne diseases remains limited. Common misconceptions exist in relation to exotic mosquito-borne diseases, with respondents incorrectly identifying malaria and dengue as endemic diseases in WA. The survey also highlighted a range of important issues, such as limited awareness of the potential for backyard breeding in domestic containers, occupational exposure to mosquitoes in regions with a large employment base in the mining and resources sector, increased exposure to mosquitoes as a result of participation in outdoor recreational activities in the north of the State, and reduced awareness of mosquito-borne disease in individuals aged 18–34 years. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of a new communication strategy by the Department of Health, to further raise awareness of mosquito-borne disease in WA. The data will then provide a baseline against which to compare future survey results, facilitating the rigorous evaluation of new communication efforts. PMID:26973827

  7. State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it. By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation. While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings.

  8. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  9. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  10. Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne pathogens pose major public health challenges worldwide. With vaccines or effective drugs still unavailable for most such pathogens, disease prevention heavily relies on vector control. To date, however, mosquito control has proven difficult, with low breeding-site coverage during control campaigns identified as a major drawback. A novel tactic exploits the egg-laying behavior of mosquitoes to have them disseminate tiny particles of a potent larvicide, pyriproxyfen (PPF), from resting to breeding sites, thus improving coverage. This approach has yielded promising results at small spatial scales, but its wider applicability remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a four-month trial within a 20-month study to investigate mosquito-driven dissemination of PPF dust-particles from 100 ‘dissemination stations’ (DSs) deployed in a 7-ha sub-area to surveillance dwellings and sentinel breeding sites (SBSs) distributed over an urban neighborhood of about 50 ha. We assessed the impact of the trial by measuring juvenile mosquito mortality and adult mosquito emergence in each SBS-month. Using data from 1,075 dwelling-months, 2,988 SBS-months, and 29,922 individual mosquitoes, we show that mosquito-disseminated PPF yielded high coverage of dwellings (up to 100%) and SBSs (up to 94.3%). Juvenile mosquito mortality in SBSs (about 4% at baseline) increased by over one order of magnitude during PPF dissemination (about 75%). This led to a >10-fold decrease of adult mosquito emergence from SBSs, from approximately 1,000–3,000 adults/month before to about 100 adults/month during PPF dissemination. Conclusions/Significance By expanding breeding-site coverage and boosting juvenile mosquito mortality, a strategy based on mosquito-disseminated PPF has potential to substantially enhance mosquito control. Sharp declines in adult mosquito emergence can lower vector/host ratios, reducing the risk of disease outbreaks. This approach is a very

  11. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  12. Quantifying impact of mosquitoes on quality of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Jersey, like many eastern states, has a persistent problem of the Asian tiger mosquito. This and other mosquitoes reduce residents’ quality of life from discomfort and possible risk of disease. To guide a comprehensive area-wide pest management project to control Aedes albopictus in two counties...

  13. Insect Repellents: Modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes vector numerous pathogens that cause diseases including malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever and chikungunya. DEET, IR3535, Picaridin and 2-undecanone are insect repellents that are used to prevent interactions between humans and a broad array of disease vectors including mosquitoes. While...

  14. Stop the biting: targeting a mosquito's sense of smell.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christopher J

    2014-02-27

    Mosquitoes are a great threat to human health. Fortunately, they have a weakness: they utilize their sense of smell to target a human host. Recent studies examine the effectiveness of protecting humans from attack by ablating or odorant targeting mosquito olfactory receptors. The results are both promising and alarming.

  15. Do capture data from mosquito traps represent reality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collectively, the effects of mechanical trap style, the method of trap placement in the field, mosquito activity phase, and other biological phenomena are manifest as sample bias that leads to vector detection failure(s) and/or erroneous predictions of mosquito activity. The goal of this research i...

  16. Mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, Plasmodium hermani.

    PubMed

    Young, M D; Nayar, J K; Forrester, D J

    1977-04-01

    Culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted Plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Florida. The mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. The resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.

  17. Methionine: a new biopesticide for use in mosquito management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito larvicides are an effective means of source reduction, controlling the population size so that the number of adult females that are present to bite and potentially spread pathogenic organisms is decreased. Currently utilized mosquito larvicides include insect growth regulators, organophosph...

  18. Isolation and molecular characterization of Banna virus from mosquitoes, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Takeshi; Thi Nga, Phan; Guillermo, Posadas; Parquet, Maria del Carmen; Yu, Fuxun; Thanh Thuy, Nguyen; Minh Trang, Bui; Tran Hien, Nguyen; Sinh Nam, Vu; Inoue, Shingo; Hasebe, Futoshi; Morita, Kouichi

    2008-08-01

    We isolated and characterized a Banna virus from mosquitoes in Vietnam; 5 strains were isolated from field-caught mosquitoes at various locations; Banna virus was previously isolated from encephalitis patients in Yunnan, China, in 1987. Together, these findings suggest widespread distribution of this virus throughout Southeast Asia.

  19. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Banna Virus from Mosquitoes, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, Takeshi; Nga, Phan Thi; Guillermo, Posadas; del Carmen Parquet, Maria; Yu, Fuxun; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Trang, Bui Minh; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Nam, Vu Sinh; Inoue, Shingo; Hasebe, Futoshi

    2008-01-01

    We isolated and characterized a Banna virus from mosquitoes in Vietnam; 5 strains were isolated from field-caught mosquitoes at various locations; Banna virus was previously isolated from encephalitis patients in Yunnan, China, in 1987. Together, these findings suggest widespread distribution of this virus throughout Southeast Asia. PMID:18680655

  20. Field evaluation of herbal mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Das, N G; Nath, D R; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

    1999-12-01

    Repellent properties of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Syn. Z. alatum Roxb. (Timur), Curcuma aromatica (Jungli haldi) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) oils were evaluated against mosquitoes in mustard (Brassica sp.) and coconut (Cocos sp.) oil base and compared with synthetic repellent. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) as standard. Timur and jungli haldi afforded better protection in the both the base at all the concentrations. Tepellents in mustard oil gave longer protection time than those in coconut oil. At 0.57 mg/cm2 concentration timur oil gave significantly higher protection both in mustard (445 min) as well as coconut oil (404 min) than the other repellents and DMP.

  1. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2001-03-01

    Global atmospheric temperatures are presently in a warming phase that began 250--300 years ago. Speculations on the potential impact of continued warming on human health often focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Elementary models suggest that higher global temperatures will enhance their transmission rates and extend their geographic ranges. However, the histories of three such diseases--malaria, yellow fever, and dengue--reveal that climate has rarely been the principal determinant of their prevalence or range; human activities and their impact on local ecology have generally been much more significant. It is therefore inappropriate to use climate-based models to predict future prevalence.

  2. Climate change and mosquito-borne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, P

    2001-01-01

    Global atmospheric temperatures are presently in a warming phase that began 250--300 years ago. Speculations on the potential impact of continued warming on human health often focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Elementary models suggest that higher global temperatures will enhance their transmission rates and extend their geographic ranges. However, the histories of three such diseases--malaria, yellow fever, and dengue--reveal that climate has rarely been the principal determinant of their prevalence or range; human activities and their impact on local ecology have generally been much more significant. It is therefore inappropriate to use climate-based models to predict future prevalence. PMID:11250812

  3. Treatment and prevention of insect bites: mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Williams, LaVonn A; Allen, Loyd V

    2012-01-01

    Insect bites are a common complaint of patients during the summer months, when more time is spent enjoying the warm weather. While most reactions to insect bites are mild, in rare cases, a severe allergic reaction may occur. In addition, certain insects may transmit potentially serious diseases. Counseling patients on the proper use of insect repellants and good first aid techniques can significantly reduce the risks posed by the presence of summertime pests. This article focuses on mosquitoes, the diseases they spread, and suggested treatments.

  4. Effects of rice straw and water management on riceland mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Sharon P; Dritz, Deborah A

    2006-09-01

    Rice fields are important sources of mosquitoes in many regions, and rice (Oryza spp.) growing practices can affect mosquito populations. Rice straw incorporation and winter flooding have become common methods to prepare seedbeds, largely replacing burning of straw. These methods increase nutrients during the growing season. We sampled mosquito larvae during 1999-2001 in 16 0.72-ha plots where straw was either burned or incorporated into soil after the previous growing season; these treatments were crossed with either winter flooding or no winter flooding. In 2000, all fields were drained mid-season for an application of herbicide, and then they were reflooded. Mosquitoes responded positively to straw incorporation and winter flooding, especially in combination. The mid-season reflood in year 2 was associated with an order of magnitude increase in Culex tarsalis Coquillett larvae. Results confirm that rice straw and water management can strongly influence mosquito populations. PMID:17017215

  5. Microscopic Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytemia and Infectivity to Mosquitoes in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jessica T; Ubalee, Ratawan; Lon, Chanthap; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Rahman, Rifat; Saingam, Piyaporn; Heng, Thay Kheang; Vy, Dav; San, Savoeun; Nuom, Sarath; Burkly, Hana; Chanarat, Nitima; Ponsa, Chanudom; Levitz, Lauren; Parobek, Christian; Chuor, Char Meng; Somethy, Sok; Spring, Michele; Lanteri, Charlotte; Gosi, Panita; Meshnick, Steven R; Saunders, David L

    2016-05-01

    Although gametocytes are essential for malaria transmission, in Africa many falciparum-infected persons without smear-detectable gametocytes still infect mosquitoes. To see whether the same is true in Southeast Asia, we determined the infectiousness of 119 falciparum-infected Cambodian adults to Anopheles dirus mosquitoes by membrane feeding. Just 5.9% of subjects infected mosquitoes. The 8.4% of patients with smear-detectable gametocytes were >20 times more likely to infect mosquitoes than those without and were the source of 96% of all mosquito infections. In low-transmission settings, targeting transmission-blocking interventions to those with microscopic gametocytemia may have an outsized effect on malaria control and elimination.

  6. Does the monomolecular film aquatain mosquito formula provide effective control of container-breeding mosquitoes in Australia?

    PubMed

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2012-03-01

    The mosquito control potential of the silicone-based monomolecular film Aquatain Mosquito Formula (AMF) was investigated in field tests against the backyard mosquitoes Aedes notoscriptus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Plastic tubs, with and without emergent aquatic vegetation (Cyperus alternifolius), were sampled weekly for 2 wk prior to an application of Aquatain and up to 6 wk postapplication. The mean abundance of mosquito larvae and pupae was compared between pre- and postapplication periods as well as between treatment and control tubs. There was a significant reduction in the abundance of immature stages of both Ae. notoscriptus and Cx. quinquefasciatus within 48 h of application, and the mean weekly abundance of larvae of both species was significantly lower in treatment tubs compared with control tubs for up to 6 wk postapplication. Egg rafts, larvae, and pupae were not detected in treatment tubs until 5 wk postapplication. The results indicate that AMF holds great potential for mosquito control in backyard habitats.

  7. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  8. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander W E; Kantor, Asher M; Passarelli, A Lorena; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-07-08

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts.

  9. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  10. Romanomermis culicivorax: penetration of larval mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Shamseldean, M M; Platzer, E G

    1989-09-01

    In the presence of second larval instars of three mosquito species the preparasites of Romanomermis culicivorax swam near the water surface in an orthokinetic manner. When the preparasites were ca. 1 mm from the host, they stopped and swam klinotactically toward the host. During this phase, the preparasites secreted a small amount of a putative adhesive material from the anterior region and host contact was completed. The adhesive appeared to aid in attachment of the preparasites to the host and initiation of the search-boring phase. The preparasites glided over the host until a suitable penetration site was found. The penetration phase was initiated by probing with the odontostyle. This was followed by partial paralysis, decreased intestinal peristaltic movement, and temporary cardiac arrest in all host mosquitoes which was probably related to injection of esophageal secretions. SEM observations showed that the abdominal walls were the most frequent site for penetration. As the preparasites entered through the penetration hole, microorganisms adhering to the cuticle of the preparasites were retained by the adhesive which accumulated around the penetration site. Thus, microbial contamination of the host was avoided by a mechanical cleansing mechanism. Penetration was usually completed in less than 10 min.

  11. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew D; Leahy, David J; Norton, Bryan J; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  12. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  13. Selective and irreversible inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Ekström, Fredrik; Polsinelli, Gregory A; Gao, Yang; Rana, Sandeep; Hua, Duy H; Andersson, Björn; Andersson, Per Ola; Peng, Lei; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Zhu, Kun Yan; Fallon, Ann M; Ragsdale, David W; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    New insecticides are urgently needed because resistance to current insecticides allows resurgence of disease-transmitting mosquitoes while concerns for human toxicity from current compounds are growing. We previously reported the finding of a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in some insects but not in mammals, birds, and fish. These insects have two AChE genes (AP and AO), and only AP-AChE carries the Cys residue. Most of these insects are disease vectors such as the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) or crop pests such as aphids. Recently we reported a Cys-targeting small molecule that irreversibly inhibited all AChE activity extracted from aphids while an identical exposure caused no effect on the human AChE. Full inhibition of AChE in aphids indicates that AP-AChE contributes most of the enzymatic activity and suggests that the Cys residue might serve as a target for developing better aphicides. It is therefore worth investigating whether the Cys-targeting strategy is applicable to mosquitocides. Herein, we report that, under conditions that spare the human AChE, a methanethiosulfonate-containing molecule at 6 microM irreversibly inhibited 95% of the AChE activity extracted from An. gambiae s. str. and >80% of the activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.) or the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens L.) that is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis. This type of inhibition is fast ( approximately 30 min) and due to conjugation of the inhibitor to the active-site Cys of mosquito AP-AChE, according to our observed reactivation of the methanethiosulfonate-inhibited AChE by 2-mercaptoethanol. We also note that our sulfhydryl agents partially and irreversibly inhibited the human AChE after prolonged exposure (>4 hr). This slow inhibition is due to partial enzyme denaturation by the inhibitor and/or micelles of the inhibitor, according to our studies using atomic force

  14. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-04

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  15. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  16. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-α-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. Conclusions The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts. PMID:21936953

  17. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  18. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  19. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  20. Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Fiette, Laurence; Jouvion, Grégory; Ave, Patrick; Misse, Dorothee; Bouloy, Michèle; Choumet, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. Objective Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. Methods C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. Findings After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. Interpretation Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV. PMID:23785528

  1. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  2. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification

    PubMed Central

    Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  3. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  4. Sediment transport and deposition, Walnut and Pacheco Creeks, Contra Costa County, California, August 1965-April 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porterfield, George

    1972-01-01

    Average annual sediment discharge in Pacheco Creek basin, Contra Costa County, Calif., was larger during August 1965-April 1970 than the historical annual sediment discharge (1909-62) by a factor of about 1.3. This increas in sediment discharge is attributed primarily to an increased frequency of peak streamflows and to a larger average annual streamflow during the 1965-70 period.

  5. Enhancing Ethos: The Role of Epideictic at the Iran-Contra Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, David

    A critique predicated primarily on aesthetic considerations can show the potential a speech has to move an audience, but gauging a speech's actual effects on the audience is more difficult. A case in point is the United States Congressional investigation of the Iran-Contra scandal. Government officials and businessmen sold arms to Iran in exchange…

  6. Hunger in the Midst of Affluence: Task Force Combats Hunger in Contra Costa County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Mary Lavender

    1994-01-01

    Research conducted by the Hunger Task Force in Contra Costa County (California) revealed a significant increase in the number of families, especially with young children, who live in poverty and who are going hungry. A food stamp outreach program, a countywide school breakfast program, and food distribution programs have been initiated. (LP)

  7. West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of…

  8. Annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Ion K; Toderas, Lidia G

    2013-06-01

    The mosquito fauna of the Republic of Moldova is poorly known. In an effort to understand the Culicidae fauna better, mosquito collections have been conducted between early April and middle November from 2008 to 2012. A total of 10,923 larval specimens and 8,246 adults were collected from 20 regions of Moldova. Altogether 36 species have been recorded during the recent study, bringing the total Moldovan mosquito fauna to 40 species in 9 genera and 11 subgenera. New state records include the following 7 species: Anopheles pseudopictus, An. melanoon, Aedes geminus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta longiareolata, Coquillettidia buxtoni, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.

  9. Novel Selective and Irreversible Mosquito Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Controlling Malaria and Other Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Dengfeng; Park, Jewn Giew; Rana, Sandeep; Madden, Benjamin J.; Jiang, Haobo; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    We reported previously that insect acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) could be selectively and irreversibly inhibited by methanethiosulfonates presumably through conjugation to an insect-specific cysteine in these enzymes. However, no direct proof for the conjugation has been published to date, and doubts remain about whether such cysteine-targeting inhibitors have desirable kinetic properties for insecticide use. Here we report mass spectrometric proof of the conjugation and new chemicals that irreversibly inhibited African malaria mosquito AChE with bimolecular inhibition rate constants (kinact/KI) of 3,604-458,597 M-1sec-1 but spared human AChE. In comparison, the insecticide paraoxon irreversibly inhibited mosquito and human AChEs with kinact/KI values of 1,915 and 1,507 M-1sec-1, respectively, under the same assay conditions. These results further support our hypothesis that the insect-specific AChE cysteine is a unique and unexplored target to develop new insecticides with reduced insecticide resistance and low toxicity to mammals, fish, and birds for the control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  10. A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Beitzel, Brett; Auguste, Albert J; Dupuis, Alan P; Lindquist, Michael E; Sibley, Samuel D; Kota, Krishna P; Fetterer, David; Eastwood, Gillian; Kimmel, David; Prieto, Karla; Guzman, Hilda; Aliota, Matthew T; Reyes, Daniel; Brueggemann, Ernst E; St John, Lena; Hyeroba, David; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Gestole, Marie C; Cazares, Lisa H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Kenny, Tara; White, Bailey; Ward, Michael D; Loaiza, Jose R; Goldberg, Tony L; Weaver, Scott C; Kramer, Laura D; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-09-14

    RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health.

  11. A Multicomponent Animal Virus Isolated from Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Jason T; Wiley, Michael R; Beitzel, Brett; Auguste, Albert J; Dupuis, Alan P; Lindquist, Michael E; Sibley, Samuel D; Kota, Krishna P; Fetterer, David; Eastwood, Gillian; Kimmel, David; Prieto, Karla; Guzman, Hilda; Aliota, Matthew T; Reyes, Daniel; Brueggemann, Ernst E; St John, Lena; Hyeroba, David; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Gestole, Marie C; Cazares, Lisa H; Popov, Vsevolod L; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Kenny, Tara; White, Bailey; Ward, Michael D; Loaiza, Jose R; Goldberg, Tony L; Weaver, Scott C; Kramer, Laura D; Tesh, Robert B; Palacios, Gustavo

    2016-09-14

    RNA viruses exhibit a variety of genome organization strategies, including multicomponent genomes in which each segment is packaged separately. Although multicomponent genomes are common among viruses infecting plants and fungi, their prevalence among those infecting animals remains unclear. We characterize a multicomponent RNA virus isolated from mosquitoes, designated Guaico Culex virus (GCXV). GCXV belongs to a diverse clade of segmented viruses (Jingmenvirus) related to the prototypically unsegmented Flaviviridae. The GCXV genome comprises five segments, each of which appears to be separately packaged. The smallest segment is not required for replication, and its presence is variable in natural infections. We also describe a variant of Jingmen tick virus, another Jingmenvirus, sequenced from a Ugandan red colobus monkey, thus expanding the host range of this segmented and likely multicomponent virus group. Collectively, this study provides evidence for the existence of multicomponent animal viruses and their potential relevance for animal and human health. PMID:27569558

  12. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  13. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  14. Buoyancy and diving behavior in mosquito pupae.

    PubMed

    Romoser, W S; Lucas, E A

    1999-06-01

    Mosquito pupal diving behavior has been studied mostly in Aedes aegypti and in this species pupal buoyancy varies relative to several factors. The research reported herein addresses the 2 following questions. Does diving behavior vary among different mosquito genera and species? How is diving behavior influenced by variation in buoyancy? Depth and duration of dive, and dive pattern, were compared among Ae. aegypti, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes albopictus, and Aedes triseriatus. In response to the stimulation associated with transferring pupae between containers, diving behavior varied dramatically among the different genera studied. Culex pipiens and An. stephensi make short-duration, shallow dives and remain positively buoyant. The 3 aedine species studied make longer-duration dives, typically to a depth at which they become neutrally or negatively buoyant. Buoyancy reduction effects were studied in the 3 aedine species. Normally buoyant pupae tend to dive to greater depths and for longer periods of time than reduced-buoyancy pupae. Aedine pupal diving behavior clearly is closely regulated relative to buoyancy variation. To the earlier hypotheses that pupal behavior may help avoid predation and be energy-conserving, we add the suggestion that the diving behavior displayed by the container-breeding aedine pupae we studied represents an adaptation that helps keep them from being washed from their container habitat by overflowing water during rainfall. We also suggest that the diving behavior of all the species studied may help pupae survive heavy, pelting rainfall by enabling them to avoid the mechanical shock of a direct hit by a raindrop, which could cause disruption of the gas in the ventral air space, thereby causing the loss of hydrostatic balance and drowning.

  15. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito. PMID:16041723

  16. Common Culex Mosquitoes Don't Transmit Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 161186.html Common Culex Mosquitoes Don't Transmit Zika Virus: Study These widespread insects do spread West ... t appear to be able to transmit the Zika virus to people, researchers report. The researchers at ...

  17. Pesticide-Free Device a Fatal Attraction for Mosquitoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Are those pesky mosquitoes getting more entertainment out of your family picnic than you are? If the answer is yes, then it is time to reclaim your backyard with assistance from an unlikely partner. Nowadays, NASA is developing tools to track and predict the spread of the West Nile Virus on a global scale, but several years ago, the Space Agency carved out some time to collaborate with an outdoor products manufacturer in order to help control mosquito populations on a local level. The technology resulting from this union leveraged a space-age heat blanket to attract mosquitoes, which would then be eliminated without the use of harmful pesticides or chemicals. technical assistance from NASA and is an environmentally safe way to reduce the mosquito population.

  18. Marking adult mosquitoes using an aerially applied fluorescent pigment.

    PubMed

    Meek, C L; Broussard, B B; Andis, M D

    1987-09-01

    A water soluble, fluorescent pigment was aerially applied to caged Culex quinquefasciatus adults in a south Louisiana marshland pasture. Mosquitoes held in cages on 1 m stakes were greater than 90% marked. This number was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than the number of marked mosquitoes held in cages that were placed in dense vegetation (greater than or equal to 0.5 m high) near the ground surface (70% marked). In a second aerial test with caged Aedes sollicitans in an open, grassy area of the marshland pasture, the pigment marked 100% of the adult mosquitoes held in cages 1 m above the ground and 98% of the caged mosquitoes on the ground surface. Greater than 96% of the adults collected from an emerging population of Ae. sollicitans within the test area were marked as well as 100% of wild caught deer fly adults, Chrysops flavidus complex, in the test area. PMID:2904958

  19. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham

    2011-07-01

    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  20. Oviposition and olfaction responses of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Canyon, D V; Muller, R

    2013-12-01

    Insecticide applications are not particularly effective on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes which has been attributed to their 'closet' behaviour, or ability to rest in places that remain unexposed to insecticides. Some researchers have suggested that insecticides repel mosquitoes, which would result in less exposure and increased dispersal. If repellence due to insecticides is a fact, acquiring a vector-borne disease, such as dengue, could legitimately be attributed to local vector control efforts and this would lead to restitution claims. This study thus investigated the effect of insecticide presence on mosquito behaviour indirectly via oviposition and directly via olfactory response. In all experiments, oviposition in each insecticide compared to its water and ethanol controls was not significantly different. This indicates that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are not affected by insecticide presence and that increased dispersal is unlikely to be caused by vector control spraying.

  1. Mosquitoes survive raindrop collisions by virtue of their low mass

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Shankles, Peter G.; Madhavan, Nihar M.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of insect flight, adaptations to complex flight conditions such as wind and rain are poorly understood. Mosquitoes thrive in areas of high humidity and rainfall, in which raindrops can weigh more than 50 times a mosquito. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we here show that free-flying mosquitoes can survive the high-speed impact of falling raindrops. High-speed videography of those impacts reveals a mechanism for survival: A mosquito’s strong exoskeleton and low mass renders it impervious to falling drops. The mosquito’s low mass causes raindrops to lose little momentum upon impact and so impart correspondingly low forces to the mosquitoes. Our findings demonstrate that small fliers are robust to in-flight perturbations. PMID:22665779

  2. Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M; Oliver, J

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City Metropolitan Area during the recent (1999) WN outbreak were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that had died during this outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Culex pipiens mosquitoes were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection did transmit WN virus by bite. In contrast, Aedes vexans were only moderately susceptible to oral infection; however, those individuals inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite.

  3. Detection of Orthobunyavirus in mosquitoes collected in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, L B; Batallan, G P; Rivarola, M E; Visintin, A; Berrón, C I; Sousa, E C; Diaz, L A; Almiron, W R; Nunes, M R; Contigiani, M S

    2015-09-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) (Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Bunyamwera) is considered an emerging pathogen for humans and animals in American countries. The CbaAr-426 strain of BUNV was recovered from mosquitoes Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Córdoba province (Argentina), where serological studies detected high seroprevalences in humans and animals. Molecular detection of Orthobunyavirus was performed in mosquitoes collected in Córdoba province. Seventeen mosquito pools of Oc. albifasciatus, Ochlerotatus scapularis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) showed positive results; four of these positive pools, all of Oc. scapularis, were sequenced. All amplicons grouped with BUNV in the Bunyamwera serogroup. The findings highlight the circulation of BUNV in Córdoba province and represent the first report of BUNV-infected Oc. scapularis mosquitoes in Argentina.

  4. Detection of Orthobunyavirus in mosquitoes collected in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, L B; Batallan, G P; Rivarola, M E; Visintin, A; Berrón, C I; Sousa, E C; Diaz, L A; Almiron, W R; Nunes, M R; Contigiani, M S

    2015-09-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) (Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Bunyamwera) is considered an emerging pathogen for humans and animals in American countries. The CbaAr-426 strain of BUNV was recovered from mosquitoes Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in Córdoba province (Argentina), where serological studies detected high seroprevalences in humans and animals. Molecular detection of Orthobunyavirus was performed in mosquitoes collected in Córdoba province. Seventeen mosquito pools of Oc. albifasciatus, Ochlerotatus scapularis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) showed positive results; four of these positive pools, all of Oc. scapularis, were sequenced. All amplicons grouped with BUNV in the Bunyamwera serogroup. The findings highlight the circulation of BUNV in Córdoba province and represent the first report of BUNV-infected Oc. scapularis mosquitoes in Argentina. PMID:25991544

  5. Microinjection of A. aegypti embryos to obtain transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Jasinskiene, Nijole; Juhn, Jennifer; James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this video, Nijole Jasinskiene demonstrates the methodology employed to generate transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which are vectors for dengue fever. The techniques for correctly preparing microinjection needles, desiccating embryos, and performing microinjection are demonstrated.

  6. Mosquito-borne viral infections and the traveller.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Jane

    This article reviews the mosquito-borne infections yellow fever, Chikungunya virus, West Nile virus, dengue fever and eastern equine encephalitis. It provides advice on symptoms, diagnosis and preventive strategies to inform nursing practice during pre-travel consultations.

  7. Public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F; Medlock, J M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-08-01

    There are currently five invasive Aedes mosquito species known to be established in Europe, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes japonicus, Aedes atropalpus and Aedes koreicus. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the incriminated vectors in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue fever in Europe. However, both laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that these invasive mosquitoes have a potential to also transmit other pathogens of public health importance. Increasing travel and pathogen introduction, expansion of vector distribution, and both environmental and climatic changes are likely to raise the risk of pathogen transmission by these invasive Aedes mosquitoes. Their vector status and their involvement in pathogen transmission are dynamic processes that shape the future of mosquito-borne disease epidemiology in Europe. Beside vector surveillance, enhanced disease surveillance will enable the early detection of cases and the prompt implementation of control measures.

  8. Juvenile turtles for mosquito control in water storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G; Marten, G G; Fernandez, E; Portillo, H

    1993-09-01

    Juvenile turtles, Trachemys scripta, provided highly effective control of mosquito larvae in cement tanks (pilas) where water was stored for household cleaning. When single turtles were introduced to tanks with histories of high mosquito production, nearly all turtles remained in good health and no mosquito larvae survived to the pupal stage. Families welcome turtles in their water storage containers in Honduras. Humane conditions for turtles can be assured by providing small quantities of table scraps to supplement their diet and by placing a small floating platform in the tank for basking. Although turtles can serve as alternate hosts for Salmonella, available evidence suggests that turtles in tanks should not be a source of human infection. Further confirmation that there is no Salmonella hazard should precede routine use of turtles for mosquito control. PMID:7902872

  9. Novel Flaviviruses Detected in Different Species of Mosquitoes in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Palacios, Gustavo; Molero, Francisca; Reyes, Noelia; Ruiz, Santiago; Aranda, Carles; Marqués, Eduard; Escosa, Raul; Moreno, Juana; Figuerola, Jordi; Tenorio, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report the characterization of three novel flaviviruses isolated in Spain. Marisma Mosquito virus, a novel mosquito borne virus, was isolated from Ochlerotatus caspius mosquitoes; Spanish Ochlerotatus flavivirus and Spanish Culex flavivirus, two novel insect flaviviruses, were isolated from Oc. caspius and Culex pipiens, respectively. During this investigation, we designed a sensitive RT-nested polymerase chain reaction method that amplifies a 1019bp fragment of the flavivirus NS5 gene and could be directly used in clinical or environmental samples for flavivirus characterization and surveillance. Analysis of the sequence generated from that amplicon contains enough phylogenetic information for proper taxonomic studies. Moreover, the use of this tool allowed the detection of additional flavivirus DNA forms in Culex, Culiseta, and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes. PMID:22022811

  10. Factors affecting transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti by anopheline mosquitoes. 2. Damage to ingested microfilariae by mosquito foregut armatures and development of filarial larvae in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J H; Southgate, B A

    1988-01-01

    Microfilariae (mf) of Wuchereria bancrofti from the midgut of 639 Anopheles gambiae, 557 An. arabiensis, 117 An. melas and 9 An. funestus were examined immediately after the mosquitoes had fed on carriers with different densities of mf. The percentages of mf damaged during ingestion were 57.1-60.0 in An. gambiae, 33.3-50.6 in An. arabiensis and 38.7-55.7 in An. melas. In each species the percentage of mf damaged was independent of mf density in the human host. A further 3657 An. gambiae, 2875 An. arabiensis, 347 An. melas and 32 An. funestus were examined 7 d or more after feeding on mf carriers. In An. gambiae and An. arabiensis, mean numbers of larvae per mosquito were strongly correlated to mf blood density, with similar regression slopes to those obtained from the regression of mf blood density on mean uptake of mf/mosquito. The ratio of mean numbers of larvae per mosquito to mean numbers of intact mf ingested per mosquito increased as the density of mf in the human host increased in An. gambiae and An. arabiensis, but decreased in An. melas as host mf density increased.

  11. Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model. Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 μg of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication. IMPORTANCE Mosquito-borne viruses are a significant class of agents causing emerging infectious diseases. WNV has caused over 18,000 cases of neuroinvasive disease in the United States since its emergence. We have shown that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and SGE enhance the replication of WNV. We now demonstrate that saliva and SGE have potent, long

  12. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Amraoui, Fadila; Atyame-Nten, Célestine; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-01-01

    We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV. PMID:27605159

  13. Factors influencing stakeholders attitudes toward genetically modified aedes mosquito.

    PubMed

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul

    2015-06-01

    Dengue fever is a debilitating and infectious disease that could be life-threatening. It is caused by the dengue virus which affects millions of people in the tropical area. Currently, there is no cure for the disease as there is no vaccine available. Thus, prevention of the vector population using conventional methods is by far the main strategy but has been found ineffective. A genetically modified (GM) mosquito is among the favoured alternatives to curb dengue fever in Malaysia. Past studies have shown that development and diffusion of gene technology products depends heavily upon public acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes toward the GM Aedes mosquito and to analyse the relationships between all the factors using the structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 509 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the survey have confirmed that public perception towards complex issues such as gene technology should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The perceived benefit-perceived risk balance is very important in determining the most predominant predictor of attitudes toward a GM mosquito. In this study the stakeholders perceived the benefit of the GM mosquito as outweighing its risk, translating perceived benefit as the most important direct predictor of attitudes toward the GM mosquito. Trust in key players has a direct influence on attitudes toward the GM mosquito while moral concern exhibited an indirect influence through perceived benefits. Other factors such as attitudes toward technology and nature were also indirect predictors of attitudes toward the GM mosquito while religiosity and engagement did not exhibited any significant roles. The research findings serve as a useful database to understand public acceptance and the social construct of public attitudes towards the GM mosquito to combat dengue. PMID:24906652

  14. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Fadila; Atyame-Nten, Célestine; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-09-01

    We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV. PMID:27605159

  15. Mosquito vectors and the spread of cancer: an overlooked connection?

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, vectoring important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, filariasis, and Zika virus. Besides mosquito-borne diseases, cancers figure among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Notably, there are few contrasting evidences of the relationship between cancer and mosquito-borne diseases, with special reference to malaria. However, analogies at the cellular level for the two diseases were reported. Recently, a significant association of malaria incidence with all cancer mortality in 50 USA states was highlighted and may be explained by the ability of Plasmodium to induce suppression of the immune system. However, it was hypothesized that Anopheles vectors may transmit obscure viruses linked with cancer development. The possible activation of cancer pathways by mosquito feeding events is not rare. For instance, the hamster reticulum cell sarcoma can be transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti by a transfer of tumor cells. Furthermore, mosquito bites may influence human metabolic pathways following different mechanisms, leading to other viral infections and/or oncogenesis. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is routed by a unique pathogenic mechanism linking Epstein-Barr virus infection, allergy, and oncogenesis. During dengue virus infection, high viral titers, macrophage infiltration, and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in the local tissues are the three key important events that lead to hemorrhage. Overall, basic epidemiological knowledge on the relationships occurring between mosquito vector activity and the spread of cancer is urgently needed, as well as detailed information about the ability of Culicidae to transfer viruses or tumor cells among hosts over time. Current evidences on nanodrugs with multipotency against

  16. Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Fadila; Atyame-Nten, Célestine; Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna Bella

    2016-09-01

    We report that two laboratory colonies of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely that Culex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV.

  17. Mosquito vectors and the spread of cancer: an overlooked connection?

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Lo Iacono, Annalisa; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide, vectoring important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, filariasis, and Zika virus. Besides mosquito-borne diseases, cancers figure among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. It is expected that annual cancer cases will rise from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million within the next two decades. Notably, there are few contrasting evidences of the relationship between cancer and mosquito-borne diseases, with special reference to malaria. However, analogies at the cellular level for the two diseases were reported. Recently, a significant association of malaria incidence with all cancer mortality in 50 USA states was highlighted and may be explained by the ability of Plasmodium to induce suppression of the immune system. However, it was hypothesized that Anopheles vectors may transmit obscure viruses linked with cancer development. The possible activation of cancer pathways by mosquito feeding events is not rare. For instance, the hamster reticulum cell sarcoma can be transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti by a transfer of tumor cells. Furthermore, mosquito bites may influence human metabolic pathways following different mechanisms, leading to other viral infections and/or oncogenesis. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is routed by a unique pathogenic mechanism linking Epstein-Barr virus infection, allergy, and oncogenesis. During dengue virus infection, high viral titers, macrophage infiltration, and tumor necrosis factor alpha production in the local tissues are the three key important events that lead to hemorrhage. Overall, basic epidemiological knowledge on the relationships occurring between mosquito vector activity and the spread of cancer is urgently needed, as well as detailed information about the ability of Culicidae to transfer viruses or tumor cells among hosts over time. Current evidences on nanodrugs with multipotency against

  18. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity.

  19. Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Payal D; Widen, Steven G; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host.

  20. Discovery of Mosquito Saliva MicroRNAs during CHIKV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18–24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

  1. Toxic Effect of Blood Feeding in Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R.; Buss, Garrison K.; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood- and sugar feeding of female mosquitoes has been frequently observed in the laboratory and in the field, but only sugar feeding of males has been reported. Here, we describe for the first time that Culex quinquefasciatus males feed on blood as well. Blood feeding easily happened on a blood-soaked cotton roll and, to a lesser extent, through a thin artificial layer. Mating history of a male specimen does not affect his blood feeding behavior. Male mosquitoes feed on blood even when they have a readily available sugar source. Nevertheless, feeding on blood reduces the survival rate of males to just a few days, as compared to more than a month for mosquitoes fed only on sugar. Comparing survival of male mosquitoes fed on blood only, sugar only, and a combination of both clearly demonstrated that mortality is not affected by malnutrition (reduced sugar levels), but rather due to ingested blood. On average male mosquitoes ingested ca. 0.5 μl of blood, i.e., about 10% of the amount of blood ingested by an engorged female. Although this unexpected observation of blood feeding in the laboratory by male mosquitoes is interesting, structural impairment prevents male feeding on vertebrate blood. In agreement with the literature, male and female proboscises and stylets were in general of similar size, but male mandibles were significantly shorter than female counterparts, thus explaining their inability to pierce through skin layers. PMID:26858651

  2. Transmission potential of Rickettsia felis infection by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Bechah, Yassina; Socolovschi, Cristina; Audoly, Gilles; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Faye, Ousmane; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of recent reports have implicated Rickettsia felis as a human pathogen, paralleling the increasing detection of R. felis in arthropod hosts across the globe, primarily in fleas. Here Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary malarial vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, were fed with either blood meal infected with R. felis or infected cellular media administered in membrane feeding systems. In addition, a group of mosquitoes was fed on R. felis-infected BALB/c mice. The acquisition and persistence of R. felis in mosquitoes was demonstrated by quantitative PCR detection of the bacteria up to day 15 postinfection. R. felis was detected in mosquito feces up to day 14. Furthermore, R. felis was visualized by immunofluorescence in salivary glands, in and around the gut, and in the ovaries, although no vertical transmission was observed. R. felis was also found in the cotton used for sucrose feeding after the mosquitoes were fed infected blood. Natural bites from R. felis-infected An. gambiae were able to cause transient rickettsemias in mice, indicating that this mosquito species has the potential to be a vector of R. felis infection. This is particularly important given the recent report of high prevalence of R. felis infection in patients with “fever of unknown origin” in malaria-endemic areas. PMID:26056256

  3. Blood-feeding ecology of mosquitoes in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tuten, H C; Bridges, W C; Paul, K S; Adler, P H

    2012-12-01

    To determine if the unique host assemblages in zoos influence blood-feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), a sampling programme was conducted in Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos, South Carolina, U.S.A., from April 2009 to October 2010. A total of 4355 female mosquitoes of 14 species were collected, of which 106 individuals of nine species were blood-fed. The most common taxa were Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex erraticus (Dyar & Knab), Culex pipiens complex (L.) and Culex restuans (Theobald). Molecular analyses (cytochrome b) of bloodmeals revealed that mosquitoes fed on captive animals, humans and wildlife, and took mixed bloodmeals. Host species included one amphibian, 16 birds, 10 mammals (including humans) and two reptiles. Minimum dispersal distances after feeding on captive hosts ranged from 15.5 m to 327.0 m. Mosquito-host associations generally conformed to previous accounts, indicating that mosquito behaviour inside zoos reflects that outside zoos. However, novel variation in host use, including new, exotic host records, warrants further investigation. Zoos, thus, can be used as experiment environments in which to study mosquito behaviour, and the findings extrapolated to non-zoo areas, while providing medical and veterinary benefits to zoo animals, employees and patrons.

  4. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities. PMID:24968669

  5. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired primarily from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with Ge. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  6. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  7. New technique to count mosquito adults: using ImageJ software to estimate number of mosquito adults in a trap.

    PubMed

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Dickson, Sammie

    2012-12-01

    A new technique is described here to count mosquitoes using open-source software. We wanted to develop a protocol that would estimate the total number of mosquitoes from a picture using ImageJ. Adult mosquitoes from CO2-baited traps were spread on a tray and photographed. The total number of mosquitoes in a picture was estimated using various calibrations on ImageJ, and results were compared with manual counting to identify the ideal calibration. The average trap count was 1,541, and the average difference between the manual count and the best calibration was 174.11 +/- 21.59, with 93% correlation. Subsequently, contents of a trap were photographed 5 different times after they were shuffled between each picture to alter the picture pattern of adult mosquitoes. The standard error among variations stayed below 50, indicating limited variation for total count between pictures of the same trap when the pictures were processed through ImageJ. These results indicate the software could be utilized efficiently to estimate total number of mosquitoes from traps.

  8. Mosquitoes and the Environment in Nile Delta Villages with Previous Rift Valley Fever Activity.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Abdelbaset B; Britch, Seth C; Soliman, Mohamed I; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Egypt is affected by serious human and animal mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF). We investigated how potential RVF virus mosquito vector populations are affected by environmental conditions in the Nile Delta region of Egypt by collecting mosquitoes and environmental data from 3 key governorates before and after 2012 seasonal flooding. We found that environmental effects varied among species, life stages, pre- and postflood groupings, and geographic populations of the same species, and that mosquito community composition could change after flooding. Our study provides preliminary data for modeling mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the Nile Delta region.

  9. Mosquitoes and the Environment in Nile Delta Villages with Previous Rift Valley Fever Activity.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Abdelbaset B; Britch, Seth C; Soliman, Mohamed I; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Egypt is affected by serious human and animal mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF). We investigated how potential RVF virus mosquito vector populations are affected by environmental conditions in the Nile Delta region of Egypt by collecting mosquitoes and environmental data from 3 key governorates before and after 2012 seasonal flooding. We found that environmental effects varied among species, life stages, pre- and postflood groupings, and geographic populations of the same species, and that mosquito community composition could change after flooding. Our study provides preliminary data for modeling mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the Nile Delta region. PMID:26181689

  10. Mosquito Host Selection Varies Seasonally with Host Availability and Mosquito Density

    PubMed Central

    Thiemann, Tara C.; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV) that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes a variety of avian and mammalian hosts and tends to feed more frequently on mammals in the late summer than during the rest of the year. To further explore this and other temporal changes in host selection, bloodfed females were collected at a rural farmstead and heron nesting site in Northern California from May 2008 through May 2009, and bloodmeal hosts identified using either a microsphere-based array or by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Host composition during summer was dominated by four species of nesting Ardeidae. In addition, the site was populated with various passerine species as well as domestic farm animals and humans. When present, Cx. tarsalis fed predominantly (>80%) upon the ardeids, with Black-crowned Night-Herons, a highly competent WNV host, the most prevalent summer host. As the ardeids fledged and left the area and mosquito abundance increased in late summer, Cx. tarsalis feeding shifted to include more mammals, primarily cattle, and a high diversity of avian species. In the winter, Yellow-billed Magpies and House Sparrows were the predominant hosts, and Yellow-billed Magpies and American Robins were fed upon more frequently than expected given their relative abundance. These data demonstrated that host selection was likely based both on host availability and differences in utilization, that the shift of bloodfeeding to include more mammalian hosts was likely the result of both host availability and increased mosquito abundance, and that WNV-competent hosts were fed upon by Cx. tarsalis throughout the year. PMID:22206038

  11. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  12. Final report of the independent counsel for Iran/Contra matters. Volume 1: Investigations and prosecutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, L.E.

    1993-08-04

    In October and November 1986, two secret U.S. Government operations were publicly exposed, potentially implicating Reagan Administration officials in illegal activities. These operations were the provision of assistance to the military activities of the Nicaraguan contra rebels during an October 1984 to October 1986 prohibition on such aid, and the sale of U.S. arms to Iran in contravention of stated U.S. policy and in possible violation of arms-export controls. In late November 1986, Reagan Administration officials announced that some of the proceeds from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran had been diverted to the contras. As a result of the exposure of these operations, Attorney General Edwin Meese III sought the appointment of an independent counsel to investigate and, if necessary, prosecute possible crimes arising from them. This is the final report of that investigation.

  13. Chemical quality of ground water in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical water-quality conditions were investigated in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties by canvassing available wells and sampling water from 324 representative wells. Chemical water types varied, with 73 percent of the wells sampled containing either calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, or calcium-sodium bicarbonate type water. Substantial areas contain ground water exceeding water-quality standards for boron, manganese, and nitrate. Trace elements, with the exception of boron and manganese, were present in negligible amounts. (USGS)

  14. Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18∶00 to 21∶00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment. PMID

  15. Wolbachia Modulates Lipid Metabolism in Aedes albopictus Mosquito Cells

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sommer, Ulf; Viant, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain strains of the intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia can strongly inhibit or block the transmission of viruses such as dengue virus (DENV) by Aedes mosquitoes, and the mechanisms responsible are still not well understood. Direct infusion and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry-based lipidomics analyses were conducted using Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells that were infected with the wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia in comparison to uninfected Aa23-T cells. Substantial shifts in the cellular lipid profile were apparent in the presence of Wolbachia. Most significantly, almost all sphingolipid classes were depleted, and some reductions in diacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines were also observed. These lipid classes have previously been shown to be selectively enriched in DENV-infected mosquito cells, suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that is antagonistic to viral replication. The data improve our understanding of the intracellular interactions between Wolbachia and mosquitoes. IMPORTANCE Mosquitoes transmit a variety of important viruses to humans, such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Certain strains of the intracellular bacterial genus called Wolbachia found in or introduced into mosquitoes can block the transmission of viruses, including dengue virus, but the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. We found substantial shifts in the cellular lipid profiles in the presence of these bacteria. Some lipid classes previously shown to be enriched in dengue virus-infected mosquito cells were depleted in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting that Wolbachia may produce a cellular lipid environment that inhibits mosquito-borne viruses. PMID:26994075

  16. Elizabethkingia anophelis: Molecular Manipulation and Interactions with Mosquito Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Bagdasarian, Michael; Walker, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacteria (members of the family Flavobacteriaceae) dominate the bacterial community in the Anopheles mosquito midgut. One such commensal, Elizabethkingia anophelis, is closely associated with Anopheles mosquitoes through transstadial persistence (i.e., from one life stage to the next); these and other properties favor its development for paratransgenic applications in control of malaria parasite transmission. However, the physiological requirements of E. anophelis have not been investigated, nor has its capacity to perpetuate despite digestion pressure in the gut been quantified. To this end, we first developed techniques for genetic manipulation of E. anophelis, including selectable markers, reporter systems (green fluorescent protein [GFP] and NanoLuc), and transposons that function in E. anophelis. A flavobacterial expression system based on the promoter PompA was integrated into the E. anophelis chromosome and showed strong promoter activity to drive GFP and NanoLuc reporter production. Introduced, GFP-tagged E. anophelis associated with mosquitoes at successive developmental stages and propagated in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi but not in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes. Feeding NanoLuc-tagged cells to A. gambiae and A. stephensi in the larval stage led to infection rates of 71% and 82%, respectively. In contrast, a very low infection rate (3%) was detected in Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes under the same conditions. Of the initial E. anophelis cells provided to larvae, 23%, 71%, and 85% were digested in A. stephensi, A. gambiae, and Aedes triseriatus, respectively, demonstrating that E. anophelis adapted to various mosquito midgut environments differently. Bacterial cell growth increased up to 3-fold when arginine was supplemented in the defined medium. Furthermore, the number of NanoLuc-tagged cells in A. stephensi significantly increased when arginine was added to a sugar diet, showing it to be an important amino acid for E. anophelis. Animal

  17. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003–2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011–2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency

  18. A Spatial Model of Mosquito Host-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Bree; Cortez, Ricardo; Foppa, Ivo M.; Walbeck, Justin; Hyman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lévy distributions. PMID:22615546

  19. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  20. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E.; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically. PMID:27171170

  1. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection (< LOD). Only at the "postspray 6" time period, which corresponds to a time greater than 5 half-lives (> 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (< or = 0.05) in some participants that may have resulted in pesticide exposure by means other than the mosquito control operations. These data suggest that aerial spraying of naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  2. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically.

  3. Mosquito-borne infections in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Mataika, J. U.; Dando, B. C.; Spears, G. F. S.; Macnamara, F. N.

    1971-01-01

    A survey of microfilaraemia among the population of Vanua Levu, Taveuni and Koro islands in northern Fiji was conducted in 1968 and 1969 as a prelude to a campaign of mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine. The prevalences of microfilaraemia were found in the more moist conditions of Taveuni and Koro and on the windward southern side of Vanua Levu to be higher than on the drier northern side of Vanua Levu. On both sides of Vanua Levu prevalences were lower inland than near the coast. Under apparently similar environmental conditions those of Fijian ethnic origin exhibited a higher prevalence of microfilaraemia than that shown by Indians. This ethnic difference and a difference between the prevalences in male and female Fijians are considered to be due more to higher rates of recovery from microfilaraemia in Indians and Fijian women than to diminished exposure to mosquitoes. Mathematical models have been used as an aid to the interpretation of the data, and, where appropriate, comparison has been made with the prevalence of antibodies to dengue, an arbovirus having the same vectors. Household infections were analysed by computer techniques. Infections in large households were not proportionately higher than in small households, indicating that transmission was not intrafamilial. The clustering of infections within households, though present, was not marked. Among the occupants of outlying settlements the prevalence of microfilaraemia was relatively low indicating a lower risk of infection due to isolation. PMID:4397424

  4. EVALUATING THE COSTS OF MOSQUITO RESISTANCE TO MALARIA PARASITES

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, H.; Taylor, P. J.; Adams, D.; Underhill, A.; Eggleston, P.

    2006-01-01

    Costly resistance mechanisms have been cited as an explanation for the widespread occurrence of parasitic infections, yet few studies have examined these costs in detail. A malaria-mosquito model has been used to test this concept by making a comparison of the fitness of highly susceptible lines of mosquitoes with lines that are resistant to infection. Malaria infection is known to cause a decrease in fecundity and fertility of mosquitoes; resistant mosquitoes were thus predicted to be fitter than susceptible ones. Anopheles gambiae were selected for refractoriness/resistance or for increased susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. Additional lines that acted as controls for inbreeding depression were raised in parallel but not exposed to selection pressure. Selections were made in triplicate so that founder effects could be detected. Resistance mechanisms that were selected included melanotic encapsulation of parasites within 24 h postinfection and the complete disappearance of parasites from the gut. Costs of immune surveillance were assessed after an uninfected feed, and costs of immune deployment were assessed after exposure to infection and to infection and additional stresses. Mosquito survivorship was unaffected by either resistance to infection or by an increased burden of infection when compared with low levels of infection. In most cases reproductive fitness was equally affected by refractoriness or by infection. Resistant mosquitoes did not gain a fitness advantage by eliminating the parasites. Costs were consistently associated with larval production and egg hatch rate but rarely attributed to changes in blood feeding and never to changes in mosquito size. No advantages appeared to be gained by the offspring of resistant mosquitoes. Furthermore, we were unable to select for refractoriness in groups of mosquitoes in which 100% or 50% of the population were exposed to infection every generation for 22 generations. Under these

  5. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease. PMID:26565610

  6. Malaria mosquitoes host-locate and feed upon caterpillars.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts.

  7. Spatial Heterogeneity, Host Movement and Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Miguel A.; Prosper, Olivia; Lopiano, Kenneth; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Caughlin, T. Trevor; Martcheva, Maia; Osenberg, Craig W.; Smith, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are a global health priority disproportionately affecting low-income populations in tropical and sub-tropical countries. These pathogens live in mosquitoes and hosts that interact in spatially heterogeneous environments where hosts move between regions of varying transmission intensity. Although there is increasing interest in the implications of spatial processes for mosquito-borne disease dynamics, most of our understanding derives from models that assume spatially homogeneous transmission. Spatial variation in contact rates can influence transmission and the risk of epidemics, yet the interaction between spatial heterogeneity and movement of hosts remains relatively unexplored. Here we explore, analytically and through numerical simulations, how human mobility connects spatially heterogeneous mosquito populations, thereby influencing disease persistence (determined by the basic reproduction number R0), prevalence and their relationship. We show that, when local transmission rates are highly heterogeneous, R0 declines asymptotically as human mobility increases, but infection prevalence peaks at low to intermediate rates of movement and decreases asymptotically after this peak. Movement can reduce heterogeneity in exposure to mosquito biting. As a result, if biting intensity is high but uneven, infection prevalence increases with mobility despite reductions in R0. This increase in prevalence decreases with further increase in mobility because individuals do not spend enough time in high transmission patches, hence decreasing the number of new infections and overall prevalence. These results provide a better basis for understanding the interplay between spatial transmission heterogeneity and human mobility, and their combined influence on prevalence and R0. PMID:26030769

  8. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

    PubMed

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  9. Mosquitoes cool down during blood feeding to avoid overheating.

    PubMed

    Lahondère, Chloé; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2012-01-10

    Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting the life of insects [1]. For instance, high temperatures can have deleterious effects on insects' physiology. Therefore, many of them have developed various strategies to avoid the risk of thermal stress [2]. They can seek a fresher environment or adjust their water loss, but hematophagous insects, such as mosquitoes, must confront the issue of thermal stress at each feeding event on a warm-blooded host [3]. To better understand to what extent mosquitoes are exposed to thermal stress while feeding, we conducted a real-time infrared thermographic analysis of mosquitoes' body temperature during feeding on both warm blood and sugar solution. First, our results highlighted differences in temperature between the body parts of the mosquito (i.e., heterothermy) during blood intake, but not during sugar meals. We also found that anopheline mosquitoes can decrease their body temperature during blood feeding thanks to evaporative cooling of fluid droplets, which are excreted and maintained at the end of the abdomen. This mechanism protects the insect itself, probably as well as the sheltered microorganisms, both symbionts and parasites, from thermal stress. These findings constitute the first evidence of thermoregulation among hematophagous insects and explain the paradox of fresh blood excretion during feeding.

  10. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562

  11. Complex environmental drivers of immunity and resistance in malaria mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Courtney C; Moller-Jacobs, Lillian L; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-11-01

    Considerable research effort has been directed at understanding the genetic and molecular basis of mosquito innate immune mechanisms. Whether environmental factors interact with these mechanisms to shape overall resistance remains largely unexplored. Here, we examine how changes in mean ambient temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection affected the immunity and resistance of Anopheles stephensi to infection with Escherichia coli. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the gene expression of three immune genes in response to challenge with heat-killed E. coli. We also infected mosquitoes with live E. coli and ran bacterial growth assays to quantify host resistance. Both mosquito immune parameters and resistance were directly affected by mean temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection. Furthermore, there was a suite of complex two- and three-way interactions yielding idiosyncratic phenotypic variation under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrate mosquito immunity and resistance to be strongly influenced by a complex interplay of environmental variables, challenging the interpretation of the very many mosquito immune studies conducted under standard laboratory conditions.

  12. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  13. Malaria Mosquitoes Host-Locate and Feed upon Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts. PMID:25372720

  14. Accelerated evolution of constraint elements for hematophagic adaptation in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Wu, Dong-Dong

    2015-11-18

    Comparative genomics is a powerful approach that comprehensively interprets the genome. Herein, we performed whole genome comparative analysis of 16 Diptera genomes, including four mosquitoes and 12 Drosophilae. We found more than 540 000 constraint elements (CEs) in the Diptera genome, with the majority found in the intergenic, coding and intronic regions. Accelerated elements (AEs) identified in mosquitoes were mostly in the protein-coding regions (>93%), which differs from vertebrates in genomic distribution. Some genes functionally enriched in blood digestion, body temperature regulation and insecticide resistance showed rapid evolution not only in the lineage of the recent common ancestor of mosquitoes (RCAM), but also in some mosquito lineages. This may be associated with lineage-specific traits and/or adaptations in comparison with other insects. Our findings revealed that although universally fast evolution acted on biological systems in RCAM, such as hematophagy, same adaptations also appear to have occurred through distinct degrees of evolution in different mosquito species, enabling them to be successful blood feeders in different environments.

  15. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  16. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies.

  17. Nonlinear auditory mechanism enhances female sounds for male mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joseph C; Robert, Daniel

    2006-11-01

    Sound plays an important role in the life history of mosquitoes. Male mosquitoes detect females by the sound generated by their wingbeat. Because female wings are weak acoustic radiators, males have been driven by sexual selection to evolve sensitive acoustic sensors. Mosquito antennae are very sensitive acoustic receivers, featuring up to 16,000 sensory cells, a number comparable with that contained in the human cochlea. The antennal sound receiver exhibits frequency selectivity, input amplification, and self-generated oscillations, features that parallel the functional sophistication of the cochlear amplifier. Although arguably the male antenna is well suited to receiving weak female sounds, the role of active mechanisms in mosquito hearing is far from understood. Previous mechanical studies on mosquito hearing largely focused on the steady-state antennal response to harmonic sounds, mostly evaluating the data through conventional Fourier transforms. Here, we report on the time-resolved mechanical behavior of the male antenna in response to female sounds. Crucially, stimuli were designed to reflect the temporal acoustic profile of a female flying by. With these stimuli, several previously unreported nonlinear features were unveiled, involving amplification, compression, and hysteresis. The time-resolved analysis reveals that, through the active participation of the sensory neurons, the antenna mechanically responds to enlarge its own range of detection. This behavior augments the capacity of the antennal receiver to detect female sounds, enhancing the male's chance to successfully pursue a passing female.

  18. Recent entomological enquiry on mosquito fauna in Circeo National Park.

    PubMed

    De Liberato, Claudio; Magliano, Adele; Farina, Flavia; Toma, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Circeo National Park (Lazio region, Central Italy), in order to collect data about mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) fauna in a protected area for biodiversity. From 2003 to 2004 seasonal surveys allowed to collect and to identify 380 larvae and 713 adult mosquitoes in 6 sites. A total of 15 mosquito species belonging to 6 genera were recorded; the most abundant species were Culex pipens Linnaeus, 1758 known as the main West Nile virus vector, Ochlerotatus detritus (Haliday, 1933) and Culiseta annulata (Dhrank, 1776). Present data show a noteworthy number of other mosquito species, even if less abundant, reflecting the considerable environmental richness. Respect to the past collections of Anophelinae mosquitoes carried out in the same area once affected by malaria, the present research represents the first monitoring of the whole Culicidae Family in Circeo National Park, up to now. This paper reports the collected data as a first base for a future checklist in this protected area. PMID:26428047

  19. Two cases of eruptive pseudoangiomatosis induced by mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Oka, Keiko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Kasai, Shinji; Takayama, Kaoru; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2012-03-01

    Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis is a skin eruption characterized by millet-sized erythema with an anemic halo appearing on exposed body areas. Insect bites, particularly mosquito bites, have been reported as one of the causes of eruptive pseudoangiomatosis. We experienced two cases of eruptive pseudoangiomatosis and the eruption was seen on the face and upper extremities of two women aged 48 and 77 years old. The two cases consented to be experimentally bitten by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus to determine if eruptive pseudoangiomatosis could be experimentally elicited by these mosquitoes. Our results showed that several minutes after a C. pipiens mosquito bite, an erythematous spot appeared on the bite site, followed by the formation of an anemic halo surrounding the erythema in 30 min; a successful reproduction of eruptive pseudoangiomatosis. The erythema lasted for more than a week and was not accompanied by any pruritus. With A. albopictus, we were able to reproduce a milder eruptive pseudoangiomatosis eruption: in case 1, a smaller erythematous spot with an ill-defined halo which disappeared within 1 week; and in case 2, an immediate response consisting of a wheal and erythema but not eruptive pseudoangiomatosis. We demonstrated that eruptive pseudoangiomatosis was the response manifested in individuals who normally did not demonstrate any immediate or delayed reaction to insect bites; and the typical eruptive pseudoangiomatosis eruption was elicited by C. pipiens mosquito bites. However, the mechanism resulting in the manifestation of eruptive pseudoangiomatosis is still unknown.

  20. Virus-derived DNA drives mosquito vector tolerance to arboviral infection

    PubMed Central

    Goic, Bertsy; Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Frangeul, Lionel; Doucet, Aurélien J.; Gausson, Valérie; Blanc, Hervé; Schemmel-Jofre, Nidia; Cristofari, Gael; Lambrechts, Louis; Vignuzzi, Marco; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes develop long-lasting viral infections without substantial deleterious effects, despite high viral loads. This makes mosquitoes efficient vectors for emerging viral diseases with enormous burden on public health. How mosquitoes resist and/or tolerate these viruses is poorly understood. Here we show that two species of Aedes mosquitoes infected with two arboviruses from distinct families (dengue or chikungunya) generate a viral-derived DNA (vDNA) that is essential for mosquito survival and viral tolerance. Inhibition of vDNA formation leads to extreme susceptibility to viral infections, reduction of viral small RNAs due to an impaired immune response, and loss of viral tolerance. Our results highlight an essential role of vDNA in viral tolerance that allows mosquito survival and thus may be important for arbovirus dissemination and transmission. Elucidating the mechanisms of mosquito tolerance to arbovirus infection paves the way to conceptualize new antivectorial strategies to selectively eliminate arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. PMID:27580708

  1. Virus-derived DNA drives mosquito vector tolerance to arboviral infection.

    PubMed

    Goic, Bertsy; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Frangeul, Lionel; Doucet, Aurélien J; Gausson, Valérie; Blanc, Hervé; Schemmel-Jofre, Nidia; Cristofari, Gael; Lambrechts, Louis; Vignuzzi, Marco; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes develop long-lasting viral infections without substantial deleterious effects, despite high viral loads. This makes mosquitoes efficient vectors for emerging viral diseases with enormous burden on public health. How mosquitoes resist and/or tolerate these viruses is poorly understood. Here we show that two species of Aedes mosquitoes infected with two arboviruses from distinct families (dengue or chikungunya) generate a viral-derived DNA (vDNA) that is essential for mosquito survival and viral tolerance. Inhibition of vDNA formation leads to extreme susceptibility to viral infections, reduction of viral small RNAs due to an impaired immune response, and loss of viral tolerance. Our results highlight an essential role of vDNA in viral tolerance that allows mosquito survival and thus may be important for arbovirus dissemination and transmission. Elucidating the mechanisms of mosquito tolerance to arbovirus infection paves the way to conceptualize new antivectorial strategies to selectively eliminate arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. PMID:27580708

  2. Insights into host-finding by Culex mosquitoes: New tools for surveillance?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens and parasites causing diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and bancroftian filariasis. Surveillance of these species is based on traps using conventional mosquito attractan...

  3. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  4. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, D; Ponmariappan, S; Sharma, Atul K; Jha, Hemendra K; Wasu, Yogesh H; Sharma, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    Surveillance is a prime requisite for controlling arthropod vectors like mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the main cues from vertebrate breath that attracts mosquitoes towards the host. Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps. In the present study, the biogenic carbon dioxide production was optimized with different carbon sources such as glucose, simple sugar and jaggery with and without yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) media using commercial baker's yeast. The results showed that yeast produced more biogenic CO2 with simple sugar as compared to other carbon sources. Further substrate concentration was optimized for the continuous production of biogenic CO2 for a minimum of 12 h by using 10 g of baker's yeast with 50 g of simple sugar added to 1.5 l distilled water (without YPD media) in a 2-l plastic bottle. This setup was applied in field condition along with two different mosquito traps namely Mosquito Killing System (MKS) and Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap. Biogenic CO2 from this setup has increased the trapping efficiency of MKS by 6.48-fold for Culex quinquefasciatus, 2.62-fold for Aedes albopictus and 1.5-fold for Anopheles stephensi. In the case of BGS, the efficiency was found to be increased by 3.54-fold for Ae. albopictus, 4.33-fold for An. stephensi and 1.3-fold for Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes. On the whole, plastic bottle setup releasing biogenic CO2 from sugar and yeast has increased the efficiency of MKS traps by 6.38-fold and 2.74-fold for BGS traps as compared to traps without biogenic CO2. The present study reveals that, among different carbon sources used, simple sugar as a substance (which is economical and readily available across the world) yielded maximum biogenic CO2 with yeast. This setup can be used as an alternative to CO2 cylinder and dry ice in any adult mosquito traps to

  5. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  6. Gene drive systems in mosquitoes: rules of the road.

    PubMed

    James, Anthony A

    2005-02-01

    Population replacement strategies for controlling transmission of mosquito-borne diseases call for the introgression of antipathogen effector genes into vector populations. It is anticipated that these genes, if present at high enough frequencies, will impede transmission of the target pathogens and result in reduced human morbidity and mortality. Recent laboratory successes in the development of virus- and protozoan-resistant mosquito strains make urgent research of gene drive systems capable of moving effector genes into wild populations. A systematic approach to developing safe and effective gene drive systems that includes defining the requirements of the system, identifying naturally occurring or synthetic genetic mechanisms for gene spread upon which drive systems can be based and the successful adaptation of a mechanism to a drive system, should mitigate concerns about using genetically engineered mosquitoes for disease control.

  7. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    PubMed

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication. PMID:17067048

  8. Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Benito, Juan Santiago; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. However, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through Aedes and Culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. This establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the antiviral host response. Viral interference is a phenomenon whereby one virus inhibits the replication of other viruses, and this condition is frequently associated with persistent infections. Viral interference and persistent infection are determined by several factors, such as defective interfering particles, competition for cellular factors required for translation/replication, and the host antiviral response. The interaction between two flaviviruses typically results in viral interference, indicating that these viruses share common features during the replicative cycle in the vector. The potential mechanisms involved in these processes are reviewed here. PMID:26583158

  9. Viral Interference and Persistence in Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Salas-Benito, Juan Santiago; De Nova-Ocampo, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans, and the detection of two or more flaviviruses cocirculating in the same geographic area has often been reported. However, the epidemiological impact remains to be determined. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are primarily transmitted through Aedes and Culex mosquitoes; these viruses establish a life-long or persistent infection without apparent pathological effects. This establishment requires a balance between virus replication and the antiviral host response. Viral interference is a phenomenon whereby one virus inhibits the replication of other viruses, and this condition is frequently associated with persistent infections. Viral interference and persistent infection are determined by several factors, such as defective interfering particles, competition for cellular factors required for translation/replication, and the host antiviral response. The interaction between two flaviviruses typically results in viral interference, indicating that these viruses share common features during the replicative cycle in the vector. The potential mechanisms involved in these processes are reviewed here.

  10. Organization of olfactory centres in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Riabinina, Olena; Task, Darya; Marr, Elizabeth; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Alford, Robert; O'Brochta, David A.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for multiple infectious human diseases and use a variety of sensory cues (olfactory, temperature, humidity and visual) to locate a human host. A comprehensive understanding of the circuitry underlying sensory signalling in the mosquito brain is lacking. Here we used the Q-system of binary gene expression to develop transgenic lines of Anopheles gambiae in which olfactory receptor neurons expressing the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) gene are labelled with GFP. These neurons project from the antennae and maxillary palps to the antennal lobe (AL) and from the labella on the proboscis to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ), suggesting integration of olfactory and gustatory signals occurs in this brain region. We present detailed anatomical maps of olfactory innervations in the AL and the SEZ, identifying glomeruli that may respond to human body odours or carbon dioxide. Our results pave the way for anatomical and functional neurogenetic studies of sensory processing in mosquitoes. PMID:27694947

  11. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Dotseth, Eric J.; Jackson, Bryan T.; Zink, Steven D.; Marek, Paul E.; Kramer, Laura D.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics. PMID:25811131

  12. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  13. Detection, monitoring, and evaluation of spatio-temporal change in mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS scientists seek to implement a sampling and global information technology based system that can be used for mosquito detection and trap deployment, to estimate mosquito species composition and distribution in space and time, and for targeting and evaluation of mosquito controls. Knowledge ...

  14. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Camille; Dotseth, Eric J; Jackson, Bryan T; Zink, Steven D; Marek, Paul E; Kramer, Laura D; Paulson, Sally L; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-04-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics.

  15. Biosynthesis of 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicide in the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6.

    PubMed

    Angsuthanasombat, C; Panyim, S

    1989-09-01

    The 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicidal gene, cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, was introduced into the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 by plasmid transformation. Transformed cells synthesized 130-kilodalton delta-endotoxin protein and showed mosquito larvicidal activity. Results demonstrate a potential use of a cyanobacterium for biological control of mosquitoes.

  16. Inhibition of Malaria Infection in Transgenic Anopheline Mosquitoes Lacking Salivary Gland Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Sumitani, Megumi; Kasashima, Katsumi; Sezutsu, Hideki; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:27598328

  17. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult mosquito traps of four types that are marketed for homeowner use in residential settings were compared with a standard CDC light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies. We evaluated the Mosquito MagnetTM Pro (MMP), the SentinelTM 360 mosquito trap (S360), the BG-SentinelTM mo...

  18. Public Health Response to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes Invading California, USA.

    PubMed

    Porse, Charsey Cole; Kramer, Vicki; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco; Hu, Renjie; Padgett, Kerry; Vugia, Duc J

    2015-10-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in California, USA. The threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. Public health response has included enhanced human and mosquito surveillance, education, and intensive mosquito control.

  19. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

  20. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  1. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Homer, Martin; Robert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the 'harmonic convergence' phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male-female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male-male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  2. Native microbiome impedes vertical transmission of Wolbachia in Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Grant L.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Johnson, Rebecca M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Patt, Alyssa A.; Cui, Long; Nossa, Carlos W.; Barry, Rhiannon M.; Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Hornett, Emily A.; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, Wolbachia has been repeatedly transferred between host species contributing to the widespread distribution of the symbiont in arthropods. For novel infections to be maintained, Wolbachia must infect the female germ line after being acquired by horizontal transfer. Although mechanistic examples of horizontal transfer exist, there is a poor understanding of factors that lead to successful vertical maintenance of the acquired infection. Using Anopheles mosquitoes (which are naturally uninfected by Wolbachia) we demonstrate that the native mosquito microbiota is a major barrier to vertical transmission of a horizontally acquired Wolbachia infection. After injection into adult Anopheles gambiae, some strains of Wolbachia invade the germ line, but are poorly transmitted to the next generation. In Anopheles stephensi, Wolbachia infection elicited massive blood meal-induced mortality, preventing development of progeny. Manipulation of the mosquito microbiota by antibiotic treatment resulted in perfect maternal transmission at significantly elevated titers of the wAlbB Wolbachia strain in A. gambiae, and alleviated blood meal-induced mortality in A. stephensi enabling production of Wolbachia-infected offspring. Microbiome analysis using high-throughput sequencing identified that the bacterium Asaia was significantly reduced by antibiotic treatment in both mosquito species. Supplementation of an antibiotic-resistant mutant of Asaia to antibiotic-treated mosquitoes completely inhibited Wolbachia transmission and partly contributed to blood meal-induced mortality. These data suggest that the components of the native mosquito microbiota can impede Wolbachia transmission in Anopheles. Incompatibility between the microbiota and Wolbachia may in part explain why some hosts are uninfected by this endosymbiont in nature. PMID:25114252

  3. Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M.; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  4. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  5. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera.

  6. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the ‘harmonic convergence’ phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male–female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male–male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  7. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. PMID:15228722

  8. Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host. PMID:27233267

  9. Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding.

    PubMed

    Choo, Young-Moo; Buss, Garrison K; Tan, Kaiming; Leal, Walter S

    2015-01-01

    Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects' survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional "antenna" has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum toward a blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR) from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol), CquiOR99, and a receptorf for the insect repellent DEET, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated) laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEET-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated with 4EP, i

  10. Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species).

  11. Multitasking roles of mosquito labrum in oviposition and blood feeding

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Young-Moo; Buss, Garrison K.; Tan, Kaiming; Leal, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Reception of odorants by two main head appendages, antennae and maxillary palps, is essential for insects' survival and reproduction. There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting that the proboscis is also an olfactory appendage and its function as an additional “antenna” has been previously proposed. We surmised that movements of the labrum toward a blood vessel might be chemically oriented and, if so, there should be odorant receptors expressed in the labrum. To test this hypothesis, we first compared by quantitative PCR expression of odorant receptors (OR) from the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus in antennae and proboscis and, subsequently compared OR expression in various proboscis parts. Our data suggested that a receptor for the oviposition attractant, skatole, CquiOR21, was not expressed in proboscis, whereas a receptor for another oviposition attractant, 4EP (4-ethylphenol), CquiOR99, and a receptorf for the insect repellent DEET, CquiOR136, were expressed in the stylet of the proboscis, particularly in the tip of the labrum. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes having the stylet coated with nail polish were attracted to 4EP in the same manner as the untreated mosquitoes. By contrast, in an oviposition assay, the stylet-treated mosquitoes did not discriminate 4EP from control oviposition cups, whereas the untreated mosquitoes (as well as mosquitoes having the labella coated) laid significantly more egg rafts in cups treated with 4EP. Ablation experiments confirmed that 4EP was sensed by the labrum where CquiOR99 is highly expressed. Stylet-coated, labella-coated, and untreated mosquitoes laid significantly more egg rafts in skatole-treated cups than in control cups. Likewise, coating of proboscis structures with nail polish had no effect on DEET-mediated oviposition deterrence. In a behavioral arena designed to mimic a human arm, mosquitoes showed significantly reduced probing time when blood was impregnated with 4EP, i

  12. Evaluation of selected South African ethnomedicinal plants as mosquito repellents against the Anopheles arabiensis mosquito in a rodent model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito repellent properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of South African taxa were tested for repellency properties in an applicable mosquito feeding-probing assay using unfed female Anopheles arabiensis. Results Although a water extract of the roots of Chenopodium opulifolium was found to be 97% as effective as DEET after 2 mins, time lag studies revealed a substantial reduction in efficacy (to 30%) within two hours. Conclusions None of the plant extracts investigated exhibited residual repellencies >60% after three hours. PMID:21029442

  13. Separating science from propaganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepfish, Elyakum; Sugrue, Mark; Sloan, Terry; Wolfendale, Arnold

    2010-03-01

    In the old Soviet Union there was a periodical called The Propagandist's Notepad devoted to those whose path to happiness lay in "getting the message across". The demise of the socialist model of wealth creation brought an end to this magazine. In many ways, however, Liz Kalaugher's opinion article "Communicating climate change" (January pp16-17) is a tribute to the need for such a specialized publication today. The article describes ways in which climate scientists can improve how they transmit their message to the public. Unfortunately, physicists tend to be guided by Descartes's ubiquitous principle of the virtue of doubt, and are inclined to regard "the public becoming increasingly sceptical" as commendable. Indeed, I wish there were more examples of public scepticism.

  14. Propaganda and pretext.

    PubMed

    Holt, Sidney

    2006-04-01

    This Viewpoint describes and analyses the history and current features of the strategy of the Government of Japan, and the associated Institute for Cetacean Research in Tokyo, to regain control of the International Whaling Commission (IWC), to legitimise renewed unsustainable commercial whaling and to dismantle conservation measures taken by the IWC over the past three decades. A key element in that strategy now is to promote and nourish the false idea that the present crisis in world fisheries is significantly caused by the consumption of valuable fish by increasing whale populations.

  15. Is seeking bad mood cognitively demanding? Contra-hedonic orientation and working-memory capacity in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-06-01

    Hedonism, or wanting to feel good, is central to human motivation. At times, however, people also seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect, and this can be instrumental for the later attainment of their goals. Here, we investigate the assumption that such contra-hedonic orientation is cognitively more demanding than prohedonic orientation, above and beyond the effects of momentary affective experience. We provided 378 participants with mobile phones that they carried with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants at least 54 times to report their current affect-regulation orientation and to work on two trials of a cognitively demanding working memory task. As expected, contra-hedonic orientation was substantially less prevalent than prohedonic orientation. It was reported in 15% of the measurement occasions. Participants who reported on average more contra-hedonic orientation showed lower average working memory performance throughout the study interval. Further, controlling for the effects of accompanying affective experiences, momentary occurrences of contra-hedonic orientation were associated with temporary declines in working memory performance within individuals, and this could neither be explained by lacking task compliance nor by other characteristics of the individual or the situation. Prohedonic orientation showed a considerably smaller association with working memory performance. These findings are consistent with the view that contra-hedonic orientation is accompanied by momentarily more diminished cognitive resources than is prohedonic orientation.

  16. Chemical analyses for selected wells in San Joaquin County and part of Contra Costa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeter, Gail L.

    1980-01-01

    The study area of this report includes the eastern valley area of Contra Costa County and all of San Joaquin County, an area of approximately 1,600 square miles in the northern part of the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. Between December 1977 and December 1978, 1,489 wells were selectively canvassed. During May and June in 1978 and 1979, water samples were collected for chemical analysis from 321 of these wells. Field determinations of alkalinity, conductance, pH, and temperature were made, and individual constituents were analyzed. This report is the fourth in a series of baseline data reports on wells in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. (USGS)

  17. A Neuron-Specific Antiviral Mechanism Prevents Lethal Flaviviral Infection of Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature. PMID:25915054

  18. Allethrin-Based Mosquito Control Device Causing Knockdown, Morbidity, and Mortality in Four Species of Field-Caught Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Fulcher, Ali; Xue, Rui-De

    2015-07-01

    A mosquito control device marketed for spatial repellency, the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance, was evaluated in semifield trials against multiple field-caught species of mosquito. Using paper and mesh cages, mosquito test groups of at least 30 mosquitoes were suspended in a 2,337 cubic foot outdoor space while two ThermaCELL repellent devices were active. After 30 min of treatment, cages were moved to the laboratory to observe knockdown, morbidity, and mortality for 24 h. Species tested included Aedes atlanticus Dyar and Knab (98% average mortality), Psorophora ferox Humboldt (97% average mortality), Psorophora columbiae Dyar and Knab (96% average mortality), and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann (84% average mortality). The repellent devices showed effectiveness with high knockdown and mortality across all species tested. Mosquito control devices like the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance may have further practical applications to help combat viral exposures by limiting host mosquitoes. Such devices may provide a functional alternative to DEET dependence in the current state of mosquito management.

  19. Allethrin-Based Mosquito Control Device Causing Knockdown, Morbidity, and Mortality in Four Species of Field-Caught Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Fulcher, Ali; Xue, Rui-De

    2015-07-01

    A mosquito control device marketed for spatial repellency, the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance, was evaluated in semifield trials against multiple field-caught species of mosquito. Using paper and mesh cages, mosquito test groups of at least 30 mosquitoes were suspended in a 2,337 cubic foot outdoor space while two ThermaCELL repellent devices were active. After 30 min of treatment, cages were moved to the laboratory to observe knockdown, morbidity, and mortality for 24 h. Species tested included Aedes atlanticus Dyar and Knab (98% average mortality), Psorophora ferox Humboldt (97% average mortality), Psorophora columbiae Dyar and Knab (96% average mortality), and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann (84% average mortality). The repellent devices showed effectiveness with high knockdown and mortality across all species tested. Mosquito control devices like the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance may have further practical applications to help combat viral exposures by limiting host mosquitoes. Such devices may provide a functional alternative to DEET dependence in the current state of mosquito management. PMID:26335485

  20. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet. PMID:26181697

  1. Isolation and titration of dengue viruses by the mosquito inoculation technique.

    PubMed

    Choy, Milly M; Gubler, Duane J

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito inoculation is a highly sensitive technique for isolation and titration of dengue virus (DENV) from sera, human tissues, wild animals, or mosquitoes. It has been under utilized since it was described 40 years ago because most dengue laboratories do not have access to an insectary to rear mosquitoes. This technique requires good eye-hand coordination while doing manipulation under a stereoscopic microscope, and extensive practice is needed to become proficient at inoculating mosquitoes. Following inoculation, mosquitoes are held for 10 days to allow dengue virus to replicate and disseminate to tissues throughout the mosquitoes. They are then harvested and examined for the presence of viral antigens in head tissue by either immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The mosquito infectious dose 50 (MID50) is calculated using the method of Reed and Muench to quantitate the virus. This method can be used for other arboviruses as well as for dengue.

  2. Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2010-12-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. Other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. To evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit EEEV, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Cs. melanura mosquitoes were the predominant source of EEEV (83 [68%] of 122 virus isolations) and the only species to support consistently high virus titers required for efficient transmission. Our findings suggest that Cs. melanura mosquitoes are primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of EEEV in this region, which may explain the relative paucity of human cases. This study emphasizes the need for evaluating virus titers from field-collected mosquitoes to help assess their role as vectors.

  3. Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida and Tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Hayden, Mary H; Haenchen, Steven; Monaghan, Andrew J; Walker, Kathleen R; Ernst, Kacey C

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both cities), education (Key West), and perceived mosquito abundance (Tucson). Concerns about environmental impacts of mosquito control were associated with lower WTP in Key West. Expanded mosquito control efforts should incorporate public opinion as they respond to evolving disease risks.

  4. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.

  5. Mosquitoes of Zika Forest, Uganda: species composition and relative abundance.

    PubMed

    Kaddumukasa, M A; Mutebi, J-P; Lutwama, J J; Masembe, C; Akol, A M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO2-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and this may suggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests ahigh potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest.

  6. Neato Mosquito: An Elementary Curriculum Guide. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasci, Roger S.; Herrington, James E.

    This curriculum guide was designed with the purpose of developing public awareness of LaCrosse (LAC) encephalitis, which is a mosquito transmitted disease. LAC cases have been increasing in large numbers in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes regions during recent years. This disease primarily affects children under the age of 15, and this guide…

  7. Spectral sensitivity of the nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...

  8. Experiments on blood-sucking mechanism of a female mosquito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Heum Kim, Bo; Yeop Lee, Jung

    2009-11-01

    The blood-sucking phenomena of a female mosquito were investigated experimentally At first, the velocity fields of blood-sucking flow inside the proboscis of a female mosquito were measured consecutively using a micro particle image velocimetry (PIV) system The velocity signals of the blood-sucking flow in the proboscis show a periodic pulsatile flow pattern and the spectral analysis of the velocity waveform exhibits a clear peak at 6.1 Hz. The blood flow inside the proboscis has a parabolic profile, similar to that of a Hagen-Poiseuille flow. In addition, the synchrotron X-ray micro-imaging technique was employed to visualize the dynamic movement of the two pumping organs (cibarial pump and pharyngeal pump) inside the head of blood-sucking using iodine solution as a contrast material. The temporal variation of the two pump organs of a female mosquito was found to be superior, compared to that of a male mosquito. In addition, we found the functional relationship of the two pumps operating in a systematic manner with a small phase difference.

  9. The effect of gene drive on containment of transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M

    2009-05-21

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever continue to be a major health problem through much of the world. Several new potential approaches to disease control utilize gene drive to spread anti-pathogen genes into the mosquito population. Prior to a release, these projects will require trials in outdoor cages from which transgenic mosquitoes may escape, albeit in small numbers. Most genes introduced in small numbers are very likely to be lost from the environment; however, gene drive mechanisms enhance the invasiveness of introduced genes. Consequently, introduced transgenes may be more likely to persist than ordinary genes following an accidental release. Here, we develop stochastic models to analyze the loss probabilities for several gene drive mechanisms, including homing endonuclease genes, transposable elements, Medea elements, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia, engineered underdominance genes, and meiotic drive. We find that Medea and Wolbachia present the best compromise between invasiveness and containment for the six gene drive systems currently being considered for the control of mosquito-borne disease.

  10. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  11. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several lines of evidence suggest that insect repellent molecules reduce mosquito-host contacts by interacting with odorants and odorant receptors (ORs) ultimately affecting olfactory-driven behaviors. We describe the molecular effects of ten insect repellents and a pyrethroid insecticide with known...

  12. The use of remote sensing in mosquito control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The technology of remote sensing, developed by the space program for identification of surface features from the vantage point of an aircraft or satellite, has substantial application in precisely locating mosquito breeding grounds. Preliminary results of the NASA technology working cooperatively with a city government agency in solving this problem are discussed.

  13. Conidiobolus macrosporus (Entomophthorales), a mosquito pathogen in Central Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fungal pathogen of Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) adults, Conidiobolus macrosporus (Ancylistaceae), was detected and isolated during a survey of mosquito pathogens close to the city of Aruanã, Goiás State of Brazil, in December 2014. The morphological characteristics of C. macrosporus are pres...

  14. A multi-detection assay for malaria transmitting mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoosook; Weakley, Allison M; Nieman, Catelyn C; Malvick, Julia; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes the major malaria transmitting mosquitoes in Africa. Because these species are of such medical importance, several traits are typically characterized using molecular assays to aid in epidemiological studies. These traits include species identification, insecticide resistance, parasite infection status, and host preference. Since populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex are morphologically indistinguishable, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is traditionally used to identify species. Once the species is known, several downstream assays are routinely performed to elucidate further characteristics. For instance, mutations known as KDR in a para gene confer resistance against DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or Plasmodium parasite DNA detection PCR assays are used to detect parasites present in mosquito tissues. Lastly, a combination of PCR and restriction enzyme digests can be used to elucidate host preference (e.g., human vs. animal blood) by screening the mosquito bloodmeal for host-specific DNA. We have developed a multi-detection assay (MDA) that combines all of the aforementioned assays into a single multiplex reaction genotyping 33SNPs for 96 or 384 samples at a time. Because the MDA includes multiple markers for species, Plasmodium detection, and host blood identification, the likelihood of generating false positives or negatives is greatly reduced from previous assays that include only one marker per trait. This robust and simple assay can detect these key mosquito traits cost-effectively and in a fraction of the time of existing assays. PMID:25867057

  15. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  16. Genomes of microsporidia in mosquitoes: status and preliminary findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The status and preliminary findings for full genome sequencing of three species of microsporidia with mosquitoes as type hosts will be presented. Vavraia culicis, the type species of the genus Vavraia, was originally described from Culex pipiens. Type material was not available and therefore Vavra...

  17. An incident of fenthion mosquito control and subsequent avian mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seabloom, R.W.; Pearson, G.L.; Oring, L.W.; Reilly, J.R.

    1973-01-01

    Mass mortality among migratory birds at Grand Forks, North Dakota, was attributed to a mosquito control operation employing the insecticide fenthion. The factors involved may have included the toxicity of the pesticide for birds, the method of application and coincidence with the peak of the spring warbler migration.

  18. Devising novel strategies against vector mosquitoes and house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1932, the United States Department of Agriculture established an entomological research laboratory in Orlando, Florida. The initial focus of the program was on investigations of mosquitoes (including malaria vectors under conditions “simulating those of South Pacific jungles”) and other insects ...

  19. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species.

  20. USDA Mosquito Control Product Research for the US Military

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New techniques that were developed at the USDA to protect deployed military troops from the threat of vector-borne diseases and are also applicable for use by civilian mosquito control program use are described. Techniques to be illustrated include: (1) novel military personal protection methods, (2...

  1. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S

    2014-11-18

    Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to detect DEET, but there are currently two hypotheses regarding its mode of action: activation of ionotropic receptor IR40a vs. odorant receptor(s). Here, we demonstrate that DEET, picaridin, insect repellent 3535, and p-menthan-3,8-diol activate the odorant receptor CquiOR136 of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that CquiIR40a knockdown had no significant effect on DEET detection and repellency. By contrast, reduction of CquiOR136 transcript levels led to a significant decrease in electroantennographic responses to DEET and a complete lack of repellency. Thus, direct activation of an odorant receptor, not an ionotropic receptor, is necessary for DEET reception and repellency in Culex mosquitoes. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate, a repellent derived from the nonvolatile jasmonic acid in the signaling pathway of plant defenses, elicited robust responses in CquiOR136•CquiOrco-expressing Xenopus oocytes, thus suggesting a possible link between natural products with long insect-plant evolutionary history and synthetic repellents. PMID:25349401

  2. New Zealand's northern mosquito survey, 1988-89.

    PubMed

    Laird, M

    1990-06-01

    The latest mosquito survey of the warmer regions of New Zealand (NZ) sampled 2,304 larval mosquito habitats of all major categories. While revealing no evidence of new establishments of exotic mosquitoes, it produced important data revealing the underutilization of types of habitats that could be invaded now or in the future (especially if the "greenhouse effect" eventually causes even quite small rises in average temperatures and sea levels). Although long feared additions of malaria vectors to a fauna still lacking any species of Anopheles, or of essentially tropical arbovirus vectors from neighboring countries to the north and northeast, may not materialize failing climatic amelioration, a new danger appeared at the beginning of the 1988-89 Northern Mosquito Survey when Aedes albopictus was reported for the first time from Fiji. This vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever and Ross River virus has since been spreading widely on the archipelago's main island, Viti Levu, whence much air and sea traffic reaches NZ. Information presented and discussed herein strongly supports the continuance and improvement of international aircraft disinsection and other insect quarantine measures.

  3. Mosquito odorant receptor for DEET and methyl jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Choo, Young-Moo; De La Rosa, Alyssa; Leal, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Insect repellents are important prophylactic tools for travelers and populations living in endemic areas of malaria, dengue, encephalitis, and other vector-borne diseases. DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is a 6-decade-old synthetic repellent, which is still considered the gold standard of mosquito repellents. Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to detect DEET, but there are currently two hypotheses regarding its mode of action: activation of ionotropic receptor IR40a vs. odorant receptor(s). Here, we demonstrate that DEET, picaridin, insect repellent 3535, and p-menthan-3,8-diol activate the odorant receptor CquiOR136 of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that CquiIR40a knockdown had no significant effect on DEET detection and repellency. By contrast, reduction of CquiOR136 transcript levels led to a significant decrease in electroantennographic responses to DEET and a complete lack of repellency. Thus, direct activation of an odorant receptor, not an ionotropic receptor, is necessary for DEET reception and repellency in Culex mosquitoes. Interestingly, methyl jasmonate, a repellent derived from the nonvolatile jasmonic acid in the signaling pathway of plant defenses, elicited robust responses in CquiOR136•CquiOrco-expressing Xenopus oocytes, thus suggesting a possible link between natural products with long insect–plant evolutionary history and synthetic repellents. PMID:25349401

  4. Nectar feeding by the early-spring mosquito Aedes provocans.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Gadawski, R M

    1994-07-01

    Nectar feeding by males and females of the mosquito Aedes provocans was studied at a site near Belleville, Ontario, Canada. Canada plum, Prunus nigra, and especially pin cherry, P. pensylvanica, bloomed contemporaneously with the emergence of Ae. provocans and were important nectar sources for adult mosquitoes during their first week of life. Blossoms of P. pensylvanica shielded for 24 h from foragers produced an average of 0.14 mg of sugar (approximately 2.3J). This nectar was avidly sought by both sexes of Ae. provocans; > 97% of the blossoms were visited by mosquitoes in the first few days of blooming. Young adult mosquitoes were found on blossoms at all hours of the day and night; feeding on P. nigra was strongly eocrepuscular, whereas on P. pensylvanica feeding was much less strongly periodic. Adults foraged for nectar in an energy-conserving, pedestrian strategy, devoting 56% (females) and 68% (males) of their time on blossoms to nectar feeding during foraging bouts that lasted a median of 5.3 min. Both sexes sought nectar soon after emergence--males before they had completed hypopygial rotation or swarmed, and females before mating or host seeking. Female Ae. provocans sought nectar in all stages of oogenesis, but primarily at the initiation of a gonotrophic cycle. Energy stores in the crop averaged 18J per female, with a distribution that depended on gonotrophic age and parity.

  5. Japanese encephalitis on Saipan: a survey of suspected mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C J; Savage, H M; Smith, G C; Flood, S P; Castro, L T; Roppul, M

    1993-04-01

    An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurred on Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, in October 1990. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected during September-October 1991 to retrospectively determine the probable mosquito vector(s). Virus was not isolated from 119 mosquito pools composed of 7,250 adult specimens as follows: Aedes vexans nocturnis (14%), Culex tritaeniorhynchus (39%), Cx. sitiens group (11%), Culex (Culex) species (35%), and < 1% each of Ae. albopictus, Ae. oakleyi, Aedes saipanensis, Cx. annulirostris marianae, and Cx. fuscanus. Three additional species were collected only as larvae: Anopheles indefinitus, Ae. neopandani, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Among the vectors of JE incriminated in other areas, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant species in our collections and the principal species feeding on swine. This is the first published record of the occurrence of this species on Saipan. Culex tritaeniorhynchus is abundant and widely distributed on the southern half of Saipan where human JE cases occurred in 1990, and where swine seroconversions were detected. Although the identity of the mosquito vector(s) responsible for the 1990 outbreak cannot be established with certainty, our results suggest that Cx. tritaeniorhychus was probably involved.

  6. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Kaul, Surinder; Sananikhom, Pany; Luthi, Ruedi; Brey, Paul T.; Lindsay, Steve W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vector incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.26, 95% CI 1.38–3.70, P = 0.001; Anopheline IRR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30–4.23, P = 0.005). Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.29–4.17, P = 0.005).Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73, P = 0.002; Anopheline IRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10–0.51, P<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance respiratory

  7. Safety and efficacy of contra-lateral breast reduction for women with mammary hypertrophy undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael; Aspinall, Sebastian; Kollias, James

    2009-10-01

    Women with mammary hypertrophy undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer suffer disability because of disproportionate asymmetry. The case notes of all women with mammary hypertrophy undergoing mastectomy and immediate contra-lateral reduction mammaplasty for primary breast cancer from February 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed. Thirty-three women were identified of whom twenty-seven underwent inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty and six inferior dermoglandular pedicle reduction with free nipple graft. The duration of surgery ranged from 75 to 146 (median 110) minutes. Between 475 and 2350 (median 1090) grams of breast tissue was excised from the contra-lateral breast. No immediate or delayed complications were observed and there were no delays in commencing adjuvant therapy. Immediate contra-lateral breast reduction in women with mammary hypertrophy undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer is safe and effective means of reducing the physical, psychological and cosmetic problems associated with unilateral mammary hypertrophy following mastectomy.

  8. Midgut Microbial Community of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Populations from India

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Kshitij; Mendki, Murlidhar J.; Parikh, Rasesh Y.; Kulkarni, Girish; Tikar, Sachin N.; Sukumaran, Devanathan; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, Brahma D.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Veer, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is a ubiquitous species that serves as a major vector for west nile virus and lymphatic filariasis. Ingestion of bloodmeal by females triggers a series of physiological processes in the midgut and also exposes them to infection by these pathogens. The bacteria normally harbored in the midgut are known to influence physiology and can also alter the response to various pathogens. The midgut bacteria in female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected over a large geographical area from India was studied. Examination of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from culturable microflora revealed the presence of 83 bacterial species belonging to 31 bacterial genera. All of these species belong to three phyla i.e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum (37 species), followed by Firmicutes (33 species) and Actinobacteria (13 species). Phylum Proteobacteria, was dominated by members of γ-proteobacteria class. The genus Staphylococcus was the largest genus represented by 11 species whereas Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and recovered from all the field stations except Leh. Highest bacterial prevalence was observed from Bhuj (22 species) followed by Nagrota (18 species), Masimpur (18 species) and Hathigarh (16 species). Whereas, least species were observed from Leh (8 species). It has been observed that individual mosquito harbor extremely diverse gut bacteria and have very small overlap bacterial taxa in their gut. This variation in midgut microbiota may be one of the factors responsible for variation in disease transmission rates or vector competence within mosquito population. The present data strongly encourage further investigations to verify the potential role of the detected bacteria in mosquito for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on midgut microbiota of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus from over a

  9. Detection of Quang Binh virus from mosquitoes in China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shuqing; Zhao, Qiumin; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhou, Hongning; Cao, Wuchun; Zhang, Jiusong

    2014-02-13

    Flaviviruses present a wide range of genetic diversity and exhibit diverse host relationships. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses have recently been isolated and characterized worldwide. Yunnan Province of China is one of the richest areas of species diversity and is the center of multi-species evolution in mainland Asia, which supports the circulation of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). In a screening program of arboviruses, mosquitoes were collected during the mosquito activity season in the Yunnan Province from 2007 to 2010. Eleven flavivirus strains, named Yunnan Culex flaviviruses (YNCxFVs), were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis specimens. Sequence analyses based on partial nonstructural protein (NS) 5 gene indicated that the YNCxFVs shared 92.8-99.6% nucleotide identity with each other and were similar to the Culex-related flaviviruses. The complete genome of one representative isolate, LSFlaviV-A20-09, was sequenced. The genome was 10,865 nucleotides long and contained a single, long open reading frame (ORF) of 10,080 nucleotides that encoded a 3360-aa polyprotein. This genome was most closely related to the Quang Binh virus (QBV) VN180 strain, an insect-specific flavivirus isolated from Culex mosquitoes in Vietnam, but only had 83.0% nucleotide and 93.8% amino acid identities for the ORF sequence. The genome has approximately 66.3%-68.5% nucleotide sequence and 69.3-73.3% amino acid sequence identities to other Culex flaviviruses, and only has 47.9-57.9% nucleotide sequence and 38.7-55.1% amino acid sequence identities to Coquillettidia-related, Mansonia-related and Aedes-related flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the LSFlaviV-A20-09 fell into the Culex-related flavivirus clade. Our discoveries provide more information regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect mosquitoes.

  10. Biodistribution and Trafficking of Hydrogel Nanoparticles in Adult Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Cynthia C. H.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Perry, Jillian L.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Airs, Paul M.; Dunphy, Brendan M.; Xu, Jing; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Luft, J. Christopher; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Beaty, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nanotechnology offers great potential for molecular genetic investigations and potential control of medically important arthropods. Major advances have been made in mammalian systems to define nanoparticle (NP) characteristics that condition trafficking and biodistribution of NPs in the host. Such information is critical for effective delivery of therapeutics and molecules to cells and organs, but little is known about biodistribution of NPs in mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings PRINT technology was used to construct a library of fluorescently labeled hydrogel NPs of defined size, shape, and surface charge. The biodistribution (organ, tissue, and cell tropisms and trafficking kinetics) of positively and negatively charged 200 nm x 200 nm, 80 nm x 320 nm, and 80 nm x 5000 nm NPs was determined in adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes as a function of the route of challenge (ingestion, injection or contact) using whole body imaging and fluorescence microscopy. Mosquitoes readily ingested NPs in sugar solution. Whole body fluorescence imaging revealed substantial NP accumulation (load) in the alimentary tracts of the adult mosquitoes, with the greatest loads in the diverticula, cardia and foregut. Positively and negatively charged NPs differed in their biodistribution and trafficking. Following oral challenge, negatively charged NPs transited the alimentary tract more rapidly than positively charged NPs. Following contact challenge, negatively charged NPs trafficked more efficiently in alimentary tract tissues. Following parenteral challenge, positively and negatively charged NPs differed in tissue tropisms and trafficking in the hemocoel. Injected NPs were also detected in cardia/foregut, suggesting trafficking of NPs from the hemocoel into the alimentary tract. Conclusions/Significance Herein we have developed a tool box of NPs with the biodistribution and tissue tropism characteristics for gene structure/function studies and for delivery of vector

  11. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, R. A.; Hayhoe, K.; Presley, S. M.; Allen, L. J. S.; Long, K. R.; Cox, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems.

  12. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    PubMed

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes. PMID:26663040

  13. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    PubMed

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes.

  14. Susceptibility of Mosquito and Lepidopteran Cell Lines to the Mosquito Iridescent Virus (IIV-3) from Aedes taeniorhynchus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito iridescent viruses (MIV) are members of the genus Chloriridovirus and currently contains only the type IIV-3 from Aedes taeniorhynchus. The complete genome of invertebrate iridescent virus -3 (IIV-3) has been sequenced and the availability of a tissue culture system would facilitate functi...

  15. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa.

  16. Does the mosquito have more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated? - The mosquito cocktail hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Ward, A; Johansson, O

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recognises five viruses, one bacterium and three parasites as having a causal relationship to cancer, and one virus, HIV, that by suppressing the immune system assists in the development of cancer. In addition numerous researchers have claimed links between cancer and other viruses and bacteria, many of which have been isolated from tumours. Excluding the non-causal HIV, 33 infectious agents linked with cancer have been identified in the literature, 27 of which have one thing in common: they are all present in mosquitoes. There are over 3000 species of mosquito and very few have been fully analysed, so the six remaining infectious agents may be present in some unexamined species. This hypothesis proposes that more cancers than are presently appreciated may arise from the long-term outcome of a mosquito bite, which by releasing a complex cocktail of up to 60 infectious agents directly into the blood stream, often results in contemporaneous immuno-suppression and a multiplicity of co-infections. These co-infections may act synergistically in whole, or in part, and in complex ways. Whether and if so which type of cancer ensues will depend on the constituent ingredients in the cocktail, determined by multiple factors such as the mosquito's drinking and feeding patterns, number of previous blood-meals and the variety of intermediate hosts from which these meals are taken. Only a few mosquito species carry malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya and the other recognised serious human ailments. This hypothesis suggests that the number of species carrying the cancer cocktail will be few in number but collectively have a worldwide presence.

  17. [The Revista médica de Hamburgo. A medical journal as an instrument of German foreign cultural propaganda during the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Wulf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    After the First World War, foreign cultural policy became one of the few fields in which Germany could act relatively free from the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles. In this context, in 1920 the Hamburg doctors Brauer, Nocht and Mühlens created a monthly medical journal in Spanish (and a bit of Portuguese) for use as an instrument of cultural propaganda, i.e. to increase German influence in Spain and, more importantly, in the countries of Latin America: the Revista médica de Hamburgo (since 1928 Revista médica germano-ibero-americana). The focus of the article is on the protagonists of the Revista project, i.e. the Hamburg doctors, the Cultural Department of the Foreign Office in Berlin, the German pharmaceutical industry, and the publishing houses involved: their conceptions and actions; their correspondence, negotiations, agreements and controversies. PMID:24844112

  18. [The Revista médica de Hamburgo. A medical journal as an instrument of German foreign cultural propaganda during the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Wulf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    After the First World War, foreign cultural policy became one of the few fields in which Germany could act relatively free from the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles. In this context, in 1920 the Hamburg doctors Brauer, Nocht and Mühlens created a monthly medical journal in Spanish (and a bit of Portuguese) for use as an instrument of cultural propaganda, i.e. to increase German influence in Spain and, more importantly, in the countries of Latin America: the Revista médica de Hamburgo (since 1928 Revista médica germano-ibero-americana). The focus of the article is on the protagonists of the Revista project, i.e. the Hamburg doctors, the Cultural Department of the Foreign Office in Berlin, the German pharmaceutical industry, and the publishing houses involved: their conceptions and actions; their correspondence, negotiations, agreements and controversies.

  19. Propaganda, Public Information, and Prospecting: Explaining the Irrational Exuberance of Central Place Foragers During a Late Nineteenth Century Colorado Silver Rush.

    PubMed

    Glover, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, models of resource extraction assume individuals act as if they form strategies based on complete information. In reality, gathering information about environmental parameters may be costly. An efficient information gathering strategy is to observe the foraging behavior of others, termed public information. However, media can exploit this strategy by appearing to supply accurate information while actually shaping information to manipulate people to behave in ways that benefit the media or their clients. Here, I use Central Place Foraging (CPF) models to investigate how newspaper propaganda shaped ore foraging strategies of late nineteenth-century Colorado silver prospectors. Data show that optimistic values of silver ore published in local newspapers led prospectors to place mines at a much greater distance than was profitable. Models assuming perfect information neglect the possibility of misinformation among investors, and may underestimate the extent and degree of human impacts on areas of resource extraction.

  20. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria revealed no West Nile virus activity

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods In order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sorted and tested in pools with real-time RT-PCR to detect WNV (or flavivirus) RNA using WNV-specific primers and probes, as well as, pan-flavivirus-specific primers in two-step real-time RT-PCR. Minimum infection rate (MIR) was used to estimate mosquito infection rate. Results Only two genera of mosquitoes were caught (Culex, 98.9% and Aedes, 1.0%) totalling 4,112 females. None of the 424 mosquito pools tested was positive for WNV RNA; consequently the MIR was zero. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of amplicons detected in pan-flavivirus primer-mediated RT-PCR gave a consensus sequence of 28S rRNA of Culex quinquefasciatus suggesting integration of flaviviral RNA into mosquito genome. Conclusion While the latter finding requires further investigation, we conclude there was little or no risk of human infection with WNV in the study areas during sampling. There was predominance of Culex mosquito, a competent WNV vector, around horse stables in the study areas. However, mosquito surveillance needs to continue for prompt detection of WNV activity in mosquitoes. PMID:27279943

  1. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections.

  2. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in 'gene-drive' technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been raised in the public domain against the use of gene-drive technologies to eradicate mosquitoes. The first objection invokes the concept of the 'sanctity of life' in order to claim that we should not drive an animal to extinction. In response, I follow Peter Singer in raising doubts about general appeals to the sanctity of life, and argue that neither individual mosquitoes nor mosquitoes species considered holistically are appropriately described as bearing a significant degree of moral status. The second objection claims that seeking to eradicate mosquitoes amounts to displaying unacceptable degrees of hubris. Although I argue that this objection also fails, I conclude by claiming that it raises the important point that we need to acquire more empirical data about, inter alia, the likely effects of mosquito eradication on the ecosystem, and the likelihood of gene-drive technology successfully eradicating the intended mosquito species, in order to adequately inform our moral analysis of gene-drive technologies in this context.

  3. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-03-23

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence.

  4. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M.; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L.; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence. PMID:26463078

  5. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in 'gene-drive' technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been raised in the public domain against the use of gene-drive technologies to eradicate mosquitoes. The first objection invokes the concept of the 'sanctity of life' in order to claim that we should not drive an animal to extinction. In response, I follow Peter Singer in raising doubts about general appeals to the sanctity of life, and argue that neither individual mosquitoes nor mosquitoes species considered holistically are appropriately described as bearing a significant degree of moral status. The second objection claims that seeking to eradicate mosquitoes amounts to displaying unacceptable degrees of hubris. Although I argue that this objection also fails, I conclude by claiming that it raises the important point that we need to acquire more empirical data about, inter alia, the likely effects of mosquito eradication on the ecosystem, and the likelihood of gene-drive technology successfully eradicating the intended mosquito species, in order to adequately inform our moral analysis of gene-drive technologies in this context. PMID:27118691

  6. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  7. Analyzing the control of mosquito-borne diseases by a dominant lethal genetic system.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Michael P; Su, Zheng; Alphey, Nina; Alphey, Luke S; Coleman, Paul G; Wein, Lawrence M

    2007-05-29

    Motivated by the failure of current methods to control dengue fever, we formulate a mathematical model to assess the impact on the spread of a mosquito-borne viral disease of a strategy that releases adult male insects homozygous for a dominant, repressible, lethal genetic trait. A dynamic model for the female adult mosquito population, which incorporates the competition for female mating between released mosquitoes and wild mosquitoes, density-dependent competition during the larval stage, and realization of the lethal trait either before or after the larval stage, is embedded into a susceptible-exposed-infectious-susceptible human-vector epidemic model for the spread of the disease. For the special case in which the number of released mosquitoes is maintained in a fixed proportion to the number of adult female mosquitoes at each point in time, we derive mathematical formulas for the disease eradication condition and the approximate number of released mosquitoes necessary for eradication. Numerical results using data for dengue fever suggest that the proportional policy outperforms a release policy in which the released mosquito population is held constant, and that eradication in approximately 1 year is feasible for affected human populations on the order of 10(5) to 10(6), although the logistical considerations are daunting. We also construct a policy that achieves an exponential decay in the female mosquito population; this policy releases approximately the same number of mosquitoes as the proportional policy but achieves eradication nearly twice as fast.

  8. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections. PMID:27376502

  9. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder.

  10. Olfactory search-image use by a mosquito-eating predator.

    PubMed

    Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R

    2010-10-22

    By choosing blood-carrying mosquitoes as prey, Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid spider, specializes at feeding indirectly on vertebrate blood. It also has an exceptionally complex mate-choice system. An earlier study revealed that search-image use assists E. culicivora in finding prey and mates when restricted to using vision alone. Here we show that search-image use assists E. culicivora in finding prey and mates when restricted to using olfaction alone. After being primed with prey odour or mate odour (control: not primed with odour), spiders were transferred to an olfactometer designed to test ability to find a prey-odour or mate-odour source that was either 'cryptic' (i.e. accompanied by a masking odour source, Lantana camara) or 'conspicuous' (no L. camara odour). When tested with conspicuous odour, the identity of the priming odour had no significant effect on how many spiders found the odour source. However, when tested with cryptic odour, significantly more spiders found the odour source when primed with congruent odour and significantly fewer spiders found the odour source when primed with incongruent odour. PMID:20504813

  11. Adult survivorship of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti varies seasonally in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2014-02-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle.

  12. Adult Survivorship of the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti Varies Seasonally in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Trewin, Brendan J.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251

  13. Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The personal protection capability of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) is compared under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species and using human volunteers for lan...

  14. [A mosquito net for everyone in 2010].

    PubMed

    Pays, J-F

    2010-10-01

    At less than two hundred days of the 2010 deadline for the "Roll Back Malaria" initiative which committed itself to reduce by half, before that date, mortality due to malaria in the world and relying on the latest WHO reports pointing out, in Africa, major shortcomings concerning the accessibility to treatment combinations consisting of artemisinin and on the acknowledged fact that an insufficient number of pregnant women receive an intermittent treatment, the author notes that a coverage, so-called universal, with the use of long action insecticide treated mosquito nets has become the Grail of the battle against malaria, with the perverse effects entailed, namely that of blinding realities or throwing discredit on other types of possible interventions that are not consistent with an accounting logic. He also notes that the average figure of estimated deaths due to malaria was at a quasi stagnation in 2008 and that the lives of 34,000 African children of less than 5 years of age saved between 2006 and 2008 was achieved in the context of the reduction in infant mortality resulting from a series of causes among which it is impossible to individualise malaria with certainty. He finally points out that Eritrea, Rwanda, Zambia, São Tome y Principe and the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar which quite regularly serve as showcases to RBM and UNICEF and which report spectacular progress in the field of prevention of malaria accompanied by a parallel reduction in its mortality, are, for different reasons, far from being representative of the totality of African countries and that they should be considered as exceptions rather than examples to be exploited without restraint. On the other hand, the author considers that deluding the grand public into thinking that a few watchwords, slogans and simple, even simplistic, ideas would enable eradicating malaria given that large sums of money are made available, is not quite honest and may finally prove to be dangerous. He warns

  15. [A mosquito net for everyone in 2010].

    PubMed

    Pays, J-F

    2010-10-01

    At less than two hundred days of the 2010 deadline for the "Roll Back Malaria" initiative which committed itself to reduce by half, before that date, mortality due to malaria in the world and relying on the latest WHO reports pointing out, in Africa, major shortcomings concerning the accessibility to treatment combinations consisting of artemisinin and on the acknowledged fact that an insufficient number of pregnant women receive an intermittent treatment, the author notes that a coverage, so-called universal, with the use of long action insecticide treated mosquito nets has become the Grail of the battle against malaria, with the perverse effects entailed, namely that of blinding realities or throwing discredit on other types of possible interventions that are not consistent with an accounting logic. He also notes that the average figure of estimated deaths due to malaria was at a quasi stagnation in 2008 and that the lives of 34,000 African children of less than 5 years of age saved between 2006 and 2008 was achieved in the context of the reduction in infant mortality resulting from a series of causes among which it is impossible to individualise malaria with certainty. He finally points out that Eritrea, Rwanda, Zambia, São Tome y Principe and the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar which quite regularly serve as showcases to RBM and UNICEF and which report spectacular progress in the field of prevention of malaria accompanied by a parallel reduction in its mortality, are, for different reasons, far from being representative of the totality of African countries and that they should be considered as exceptions rather than examples to be exploited without restraint. On the other hand, the author considers that deluding the grand public into thinking that a few watchwords, slogans and simple, even simplistic, ideas would enable eradicating malaria given that large sums of money are made available, is not quite honest and may finally prove to be dangerous. He warns

  16. The Contra-Diction of Design: Blake's Illustrations to Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Argues that William Blake's illustrations for Thomas Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat" testify to the contradictions in Gray's poetry. States that Blake's designs offer another language, a contra-diction, that deconstructs Gray's conscious discourse and liberates his unconscious discourse. (RS)

  17. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  18. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Contra Costa County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, Russell W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $27 million in damages were assessed in Contra Costa County.

  19. THE TITRATION OF YELLOW FEVER VIRUS IN STEGOMYIA MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Nelson C.; Frobisher, Martin; Lloyd, Wray

    1933-01-01

    Titrations were made of yellow fever virus in stegomyia mosquitoes, using rhesus monkeys as test animals. It was found that: (a) The average mosquito immediately after engorging on highly infectious blood contained between 1 and 2 million lethal doses of virus. The titer of freshly ingested blood was as high as 1 billion lethal doses of virus per cubic centimeter. (b) During the fortnight succeeding a meal on infectious blood there occurred a reduction of titratable virus to not more than 1 per cent of that present in the freshly fed insects. (c) The titer was somewhat higher at later periods. This rise in titer signified possibly not a multiplication, but merely an increase of extracellular virus and of that easily freed by grinding to a titratable form. (d) At no later stage did the quantity of titratable virus equal that demonstrable in freshly fed insects. PMID:19870190

  20. Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.

  1. Inhibition of Anopheles gambiae Odorant Receptor Function by Mosquito Repellents*

    PubMed Central

    Tsitoura, Panagiota; Koussis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The identification of molecular targets of insect repellents has been a challenging task, with their effects on odorant receptors (ORs) remaining a debatable issue. Here, we describe a study on the effects of selected mosquito repellents, including the widely used repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), on the function of specific ORs of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. This study, which has been based on quantitative measurements of a Ca2+-activated photoprotein biosensor of recombinant OR function in an insect cell-based expression platform and a sequential compound addition protocol, revealed that heteromeric OR (ORx/Orco) function was susceptible to strong inhibition by all tested mosquito repellents except DEET. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the observed inhibition was due to efficient blocking of Orco (olfactory receptor coreceptor) function. This mechanism of repellent action, which is reported for the first time, is distinct from the mode of action of other characterized insect repellents including DEET. PMID:25657000

  2. Mercadeo Virus: A Novel Mosquito-Specific Flavivirus from Panama

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Guzman, Hilda; Beltrán, Davis; Díaz, Yamilka; López-Vergès, Sandra; Torres-Cosme, Rolando; Popov, Vsevolod; Widen, Steven G.; Wood, Thomas G.; Weaver, Scott C.; Cáceres-Carrera, Lorenzo; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses in the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) include many arthropod-borne viruses of public health and veterinary importance. However, during the past two decades an explosion of novel insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs), some closely related to vertebrate pathogens, have been discovered. Although many flavivirus pathogens of vertebrates have been isolated from naturally infected mosquitoes in Panama, ISFs have not previously been reported from the country. This report describes the isolation and characterization of a novel ISF, tentatively named Mercadeo virus (MECDV), obtained from Culex spp. mosquitoes collected in Panama. Two MECDV isolates were sequenced and cluster phylogenetically with cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV) and Nakiwogo virus (NAKV) to form a distinct lineage within the insect-specific group of flaviviruses. PMID:26304915

  3. Inhibition of Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor function by mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Tsitoura, Panagiota; Koussis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas

    2015-03-20

    The identification of molecular targets of insect repellents has been a challenging task, with their effects on odorant receptors (ORs) remaining a debatable issue. Here, we describe a study on the effects of selected mosquito repellents, including the widely used repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), on the function of specific ORs of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. This study, which has been based on quantitative measurements of a Ca(2+)-activated photoprotein biosensor of recombinant OR function in an insect cell-based expression platform and a sequential compound addition protocol, revealed that heteromeric OR (ORx/Orco) function was susceptible to strong inhibition by all tested mosquito repellents except DEET. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the observed inhibition was due to efficient blocking of Orco (olfactory receptor coreceptor) function. This mechanism of repellent action, which is reported for the first time, is distinct from the mode of action of other characterized insect repellents including DEET. PMID:25657000

  4. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  5. Early skin immunological disturbance after Plasmodium-infected mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Henrique Borges; Caetano, Susana S; Monteiro, Isadora; Gómez-Conde, Iván; Hanson, Kirsten; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Olivieri, David N; Mota, Maria M; Marinho, Cláudio R; D'Imperio Lima, Maria R; Tadokoro, Carlos E

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during malaria infection has been studied extensively, such studies have focused exclusively on the role of Treg during the blood stage of infection; little is known about the detailed mechanisms of Tregs and sporozoite deposition in the dermis by mosquito bites. In this paper we show that sporozoites introduced into the skin by mosquito bites increase the mobility of skin Tregs and dendritic cells (DCs). We also show differences in MHC class II and/or CD86 expression on skin-resident dendritic cell subtypes and macrophages. From the observed decrease of the number of APCs into draining lymph nodes, suppression of CD28 expression in conventional CD4 T cells, and a low homeostatic proliferation of skin-migrated CD4 T found in nude mice indicate that Tregs may play a fundamental role during the initial phase of malaria parasite inoculation into the mammalian host.

  6. A material isolated from human hands that attracts female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Schreck, C E; Smith, N; Carlson, D A; Price, G D; Haile, D; Godwin, D R

    1982-02-01

    The residue left on glass surfaces by human hands was found to be attractive to femaleAedes aegypti (L.) andAnopheles quadrimaculatus Say mosquitoes. The material lost half of its activity in 1 hr. A solvent wash technique was developed to recover and concentrate the residuum from handled glass beads. The residuum could be recovered effectively with absolute ethanol and less effectively with several other solvents. More mosquitoes were attracted to heated than to unheated residuum, an indication of its volatility. Also, attraction of the residuum decreased with decreasing concentration or dose. Concentrated residuum collections, stored under refrigeration and tested for longevity, showed no appreciable loss of attractiveness up to 60 days of storage.

  7. The cell biology of malaria infection of mosquito: advances and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Sinden, R E

    2015-01-01

    Recent reviews (Feachem et al.; Alonso et al.) have concluded that in order to have a sustainable impact on the global burden of malaria, it is essential that we knowingly reduce the global incidence of infected persons. To achieve this we must reduce the basic reproductive rate of the parasites to < 1 in diverse epidemiological settings. This can be achieved by impacting combinations of the following parameters: the number of mosquitoes relative to the number of persons, the mosquito/human biting rate, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying infectious sporozoites, the daily survival rate of the infectious mosquito and the ability of malaria-infected persons to infect mosquito vectors. This paper focuses on our understanding of parasite biology underpinning the last of these terms: infection of the mosquito. The article attempts to highlight central issues that require further study to assist in the discovery of useful transmission-blocking measures. PMID:25557077

  8. Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

  9. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  10. Dispersal of Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From a Wastewater Treatment Facility

    PubMed Central

    Ciota, Alexander T.; Drummond, Cori L.; Ruby, Meghan A.; Drobnack, Jason; Ebel, Gregory D.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    A mark-recapture project examined dispersal and flight distances of Culex mosquitoes from a wastewater treatment plant in Albany, NY, during 2007 and 2008. A self-marking device was constructed to mark egressing mosquitoes with fluorescent marking powder. Mosquitoes were recaptured using 30 CDC miniature light traps located within a 2.0 km radius of the marking site. A total of 13 and 10 marked Culex mosquitoes were recaptured in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Culex mosquitoes traveled a minimum of 0.16 km, a maximum of 1.98 km and, following correction for decreasing trap density with distance, had a mean distance traveled of 1.33 km. Characterizing the dispersal patterns of these mosquitoes is important for understanding the distribution of West Nile virus and other pathogens. PMID:22308769

  11. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26336303

  12. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles.

  13. Mosquitoes Use Vision to Associate Odor Plumes with Thermal Targets.

    PubMed

    van Breugel, Floris; Riffell, Jeff; Fairhall, Adrienne; Dickinson, Michael H

    2015-08-17

    All moving animals, including flies, sharks, and humans, experience a dynamic sensory landscape that is a function of both their trajectory through space and the distribution of stimuli in the environment. This is particularly apparent for mosquitoes, which use a combination of olfactory, visual, and thermal cues to locate hosts. Mosquitoes are thought to detect suitable hosts by the presence of a sparse CO₂ plume, which they track by surging upwind and casting crosswind. Upon approach, local cues such as heat and skin volatiles help them identify a landing site. Recent evidence suggests that thermal attraction is gated by the presence of CO₂, although this conclusion was based experiments in which the actual flight trajectories of the animals were unknown and visual cues were not studied. Using a three-dimensional tracking system, we show that rather than gating heat sensing, the detection of CO₂ actually activates a strong attraction to visual features. This visual reflex guides the mosquitoes to potential hosts where they are close enough to detect thermal cues. By experimentally decoupling the olfactory, visual, and thermal cues, we show that the motor reactions to these stimuli are independently controlled. Given that humans become visible to mosquitoes at a distance of 5-15 m, visual cues play a critical intermediate role in host localization by coupling long-range plume tracking to behaviors that require short-range cues. Rather than direct neural coupling, the separate sensory-motor reflexes are linked as a result of the interaction between the animal's reactions and the spatial structure of the stimuli in the environment.

  14. Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*

    PubMed Central

    Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

    1970-01-01

    New pyrethrin-like compounds are compared with earlier synthetic pyrethroids and natural pyrethrins for intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos and for residual contact activity. Two of the compounds are at least as toxic as pyrethrin I to female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Residues of these compounds are very persistent in the dark or in very subdued lighting but they decompose on exposure to normal intensities of daylight and rapidly lose their insecticidal activity. PMID:4392939

  15. AN IMPROVED TRAP TO CAPTURE ADULT CONTAINER-INHABITING MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    BARRERA, ROBERTO; MACKAY, ANDREW J.; AMADOR, MANUEL

    2015-01-01

    Although dengue viruses are thought to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Puerto Rico, Aedes mediovittatus, the Caribbean tree hole mosquito, is also a potential vector. This species is native to the Greater Antilles and has been shown to be a competent vector of dengue viruses in the laboratory. Consequently, it has been suggested that Ae. mediovittatus could be acting as a secondary vector or virus reservoir. This study was part of an ongoing investigation into this, and it aimed to determine whether BG-Sentinel traps (BGS traps) could be used to collect adults of this mosquito and could be modified to increase the number of captures of this species in the field. We conducted experiments to test the relative attractiveness of BGS traps to Ae. mediovittatus and Ae. aegypti and explored the effects of chemical lures (BG-Lure, CO2, octenol) and optical properties (color, size) on the capture rates of BGS traps in a large, outdoor cage in San Juan city, Puerto Rico. We also conducted field tests to compare modified BGS traps with the original traps in a rural community in Patillas municipality, Puerto Rico. Results obtained from the large, outdoor cage experiments indicated that trap captures of both mosquito species could be significantly enhanced by using black instead of white BGS traps combined with BG-Lure. Field experiments revealed that the modified traps captured a significantly greater number of Ae. aegypti, Ae. mediovittatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus, with greater sensitivity for the latter 2 species, and also captured a larger number of mosquito species and a smaller ratio of Ae. aegypti to Ae. mediovittatus, with greater than expected species co-occurrences. PMID:24551969

  16. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:27217948

  17. Pteridine fluorescence for age determination of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Lehane, M J

    1999-02-01

    The age structure of mosquito populations is of great relevance to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and in monitoring the success of control operations. Unfortunately, the ovarian dissection methods currently available for determining the age of adult mosquitoes are technically difficult, slow and may be of limited value, because the proportion of diagnostic ovarioles in the ovary declines with age. By means of reversed-phase HPLC this study investigated the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi to see if changes in fluorescent pteridine pigments, which have been used in other insects to determine the age of field-caught individuals, may be useful for age determination in mosquitoes. Whole body fluorescence was inversely proportional to age (P < 0.001, r2 > 91%) up to 30 days postemergence, with the regression values: y = 40580-706x for An. gambiae, and y = 52896-681x for An. stephensi. In both species the main pteridines were 6-biopterin, pterin-6-carboxylic acid and an unidentified fluorescent compound. An. gambiae had only 50-70% as much fluorescence as An. stephensi, and fluorescent compounds were relatively more concentrated in the head than in the thorax (ratios 1:0.8 An. gambiae; 1:0.5 An. stephensi). The results of this laboratory study are encouraging. It seems feasible that this simpler and faster technique of fluorescence quantification could yield results of equivalent accuracy to the interpretation of ovarian dissection. A double-blind field trial comparing the accuracy of this technique to marked, released and recaptured mosquitoes is required to test the usefulness of the pteridine method in the field. PMID:10194749

  18. Preventing mosquito and tick bites: A Canadian update

    PubMed Central

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The present practice point provides updated guidance on personal protective measures to safely and effectively prevent mosquito and tick bites in Canada. Means of avoidance as well as physical and chemical barriers are described. Current information regarding insect and tick repellents and recommendations for their use are provided, along with instructions for removing ticks. Guidance on using insecticide for additional chemical protection is offered. PMID:25332663

  19. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  20. Observations on mosquito breeding in wells and its control.

    PubMed

    Rajnikant; Bhatt, R M; Gupta, D K; Sharma, R C; Srivastava, H C; Gautam, A S

    1993-12-01

    Studies on mosquito breeding in wells revealed the dominance of An. stephensi among the malaria vectors, whereas Cx. quinquefasciatus was most abundant in disused wells and was present in wells of all depths. None of the anopheline species was encountered when well depth up to water level exceeded 12 m. Larval breeding was effectively controlled through the introduction of larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata and expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in comparison to untreated control wells. PMID:8034110

  1. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs.

  2. Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Dame, David A; Curtis, Christopher F; Benedict, Mark Q; Robinson, Alan S; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population (14-15 sq km) in El Salvador. Releases of radiation sterilised males failed to control either Aedes aegypti or Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the USA. Releases of radiation-sterilised and chemosterilised male Culex quinquefasciatus in the USA and India were successful in some instances. Development of genetic sexing systems for Anopheles and improved physical separation methods for Culex have made it possible to rear and release males almost exclusively (> 99%) minimizing the release of potential vectors, the females. Factors that affected efficacy in some field programmes included reduction of competitiveness by radiation, immigration of fertilized females from outside the release zones, and inability of laboratory-bred males to perform in the wild. Despite significant progress, institutional commitments to carry the process further were generally lacking in the late 1970s and until recently. Now, with renewed interest and support for further assessment of this technology, this paper summarizes the current knowledge base, prioritizes some areas of investigation, and challenges scientists and administrators to maintain an awareness of progress, remain realistic about the interpretation of new findings, and make decisions about the sterile insect technique on the basis of informed scientific documentation. Areas recommended for priority research status include the establishment of genetic sexing mechanisms that can be transferred to other mosquito species, re-examination of radiation sterilisation, aerial release technology

  3. [Transovarial transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rosen, L

    1981-01-01

    An important aspect of the epidemiology of arboviruses is the manner in which the viruses are maintained during winter, dry season, or other adverse environmental periods when their arthropod hosts are inactive. One possibility is that the viruses survive in arthropods. In the case of mosquito-borne viruses, it is probable that such viruses could be maintained in this manner only if they were transmitted from one insect generation to the next by transovarial transmission. Such transmission was reported in 1905 by Marchoux and Simond for yellow fever virus in Aedes aegypti. Other workers were unable to confirm this observation and, until very recently, it was believed to be in error. Interest in transovarial transmission of viruses by mosquitoes was reawakened with the recovery of La Crosse virus from field-collected larvae of Aedes triseriatus in 1972. Among bunyaviruses, transovarial transmission has been observed mainly among the California serogroup viruses in Aedes mosquitoes. Among flaviviruses, transovarial transmission has been demonstrated experimentally for the viruses of principal interest to man, namely, yellow fever, dengue, japanese encephalitis, and St-Louis encephalitis. Thus far, the only field evidence of transovarial transmission of flaviviruses is the isolation of yellow fever virus from Aedes furcifei/taylori males captured in nature in 1977. At present there is not conclusive evidence that transovarial transmission of alphaviruses occurs in mosquitoes. Among rhabdoviruses, transovarial transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus has been demonstrated experimentally at a relatively high rate in phlebotominae flies. Many factors are known to affect the experimental transovarial transmission of viruses. The significance of such transmission in nature can only be assessed by field studies.

  4. Insight into global mosquito biogeography from country species records.

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2007-07-01

    To advance our limited knowledge of global mosquito biogeography, we analyzed country occurrence records from the Systematic Catalog of the Culicidae (http://www.mosquitocatalog. org/main.asp), and we present world maps of species richness and endemism. A latitudinal biodiversity gradient was observed, with species richness increasing toward the equator. A linear log-log species (y)-area (x) relationship (SAR) was found that we used to compare observed and expected species densities for each country. Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand had the highest numbers of species, and Brazil also had the highest taxonomic output and number of type locations. Brazil, Australia, the Philippines, and Indonesia had the highest numbers of endemic species, but excluding small island countries, Panama, French Guiana, Malaysia, and Costa Rica had the highest densities of total species and endemic species. Globally, 50% of mosquito species are endemic. Island countries had higher total number of species and higher number of endemic species than mainland countries of similar size, but the slope of the SAR was similar for island and mainland countries. Islands also had higher numbers of publications and type locations, possibly due to greater sampling effort and/or species endemism on islands. The taxonomic output was lowest for some countries in Africa and the Middle East. A consideration of country estimates of past sampling effort and species richness and endemism is proposed to guide mosquito biodiversity surveys. For species groups, we show that the number of species of Anopheles subgenus Anopheles varies with those of subgenus Cellia in a consistent manner between countries depending on the region. This pattern is discussed in relation to hypotheses about the historical biogeography and ecology of this medically important genus. Spatial analysis of country species records offers new insight into global patterns of mosquito biodiversity and survey history.

  5. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes.

    PubMed

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

  6. Synergism between permethrin and propoxur against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Corbel, V; Chandre, F; Darriet, F; Lardeux, F; Hougard, J-M

    2003-06-01

    To see if synergism occurs between carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides, we tested permethrin and propoxur as representatives of these two classes of compounds used for mosquito control. Larvicidal activity of both insecticides was assessed separately and together on a susceptible strain of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) by two methods. When mixed at a constant ratio (permethrin : propoxur 1 : 60 based on LC50) and tested at serial concentrations to plot dose/mortality regression, significant synergy occurred between them (co-toxicity coefficient = 2.2), not just an additive effect. For example, when the mixture gave 50% mortality, the same concentrations of permethrin and propoxur alone would have given merely 2 x 1% mortality. When a sublethal dose (LC0) of permethrin or propoxur was added to the other (range LC10-LC95), synergism occurred up to the LC80 level. Synergistic effects were attributed to the complementary modes of action by these two insecticide classes acting on different components of nerve impulse transmission. Apart from raising new possibilities for Culex control, it seems appropriate to consider using such mixtures or combinations for insecticide-treated mosquito nets in situations with insecticide-resistant Anopheles malaria vectors.

  7. Tidal circulation alteration for salt marsh mosquito control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resh, Vincent H.; Balling, Steven S.

    1983-01-01

    Mosquito control ditches designed to increase tidal circulation are widely used as a physical control alternative to insecticidal applications The impact of such ditching on Pacific Coast marshlands was largely unknown before this five-year study of impact in two types of San Francisco Bay salt marshes, a Salicornia virginica (pickleweed) monoculure and a mixed vegetation marsh Results of our studies suggest that ditches cause less environmental disturbance than insecticidal applications The article describes the following environmental consequences of ditching for mosquito control: increased tidal flushing of soils occurs adjacent to ditches compared with that in the open marsh, thereby reducing ground water and soil surface salinities and water table height; primary productivity of S. virginica, as determined by both the harvest method and infrared photographic analysis, is higher directly adjacent to ditches than in the open marsh, distribution of selected arthropod populations is similar at ditches and natural channels, although arthropod community response differs seasonally; aquatic invertebrate biomass is similar within ditched and natural ponds, but diversity is lower in ditched habitats, ditching increases fish diversity and density by improving fish access from tidal channels; ditches provide additional salt marsh song sparrow habitat, although ditches are less preferred than natural channels or sloughs. Management criteria can be used to design ditches that provide effective mosquito control and reduced environmental impact

  8. A rationale to design longer lasting mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Iovinella, Immacolata; Pelosi, Paolo; Conti, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito repellents represent a cleaner and safer alternative for population control and reduce the diseases they carry in large areas of the world. Recently, research has been focused on repellents of natural origins, both crude essential oils and their main constituents. We have observed that, although a large number of compounds can be efficiently used as mosquito repellents, their efficacy is never higher than those of commercial products DEET and Icaridin. Reasoning that probably specific and exceptionally active repellents might not exist, we focused our research on products that could provide longer protection times with respect to current commercial formulations while being used at lower concentrations. Based on the structure of menthone, a moderate natural repellent, we designed and synthesised some cyclic ketals that, because of their reduced volatility, could be effective for longer periods. In particular, a 1% solution of one of such derivatives can still reduce mosquito bites by 90% after 2 h, while DEET provides the same performance only for 15 min, when used at the same concentration. The approach we illustrate can be applied to other compounds and other systems and offers the additional advantage that derivatives of reduced volatility are also endowed with weaker odours. PMID:24599300

  9. Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D; Zyzak, M; Watts, D; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; Klein, T A; Jones, J W

    2008-07-01

    Mosquitoes were collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) that were isolated from mosquitoes captured within 20 km of Iquitos. When fed on hamsters or chickens with a viremia of 4105 plaque-forming units (PFU) of EEEV/ml, Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin, Aedesfulvus (Wiedemann), Psorophora albigenu (Peryassu), and Psorophoraferox (Von Humboldt) were susceptible to infection, whereas none of the Aedes serratus (Theobald), Culex vomerifer Komp, Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings, and Ferreira, Culex portesi Senevet and Abonnenc, or Culex coronator Dyar and Knab became infected, even though they fed on the same viremic blood sources. When these mosquito species fed on animals with viremias of approximately 10(8) PFU/ml, Cx. pedroi, Ae.II (Brazil-Peru) and a lineage III (Argentina-Panama) isolate of EEEV. This study, combined with the repeated isolation of strains of EEEV from Cx. pedroi captured in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, suggests that Cx. pedroi may be the primary enzootic vector of EEEV in this region.

  10. [Detection of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti L. mosquitoes in Sochi city].

    PubMed

    Riabova, T E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Markovich, N Ia; Ganushkina, L A; Orabeĭ, V G; Sergiev, V P

    2005-01-01

    Few Aedes aegypti females were found when collecting the mosquitoes attacking human beings in the Central District of Sochi in August to September 2001-2004. Ae. aegypti, a vector of dangerous causative agents of diseases, such as yellow and Aden fevers, appeared on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is recorded after its long absence. By taking into account the potential epidemic value of Ae. aegypti, it is necessary to make a monitoring in the cities, towns, and settlements to establish the spread, number, and the breading sites of mosquitoes in the given area and to prevent their mass reproduction. The effectiveness of Ae. albopictus as a vector of Aden fever has been established in different regions of the world. Entomological surveys for Ae. albopictus should be made in the areas of Russia where Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were distributed early in the past century, particularly in the southern port towns and settlements of Russia. Ae. albopictus is potentially able to spread to the north further than is Ae. aegypti.

  11. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years. PMID:24473809

  12. Evolution of mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Johansen, Cheryl A; Warrilow, David; Ritchie, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO₂-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO₂, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  13. A rationale to design longer lasting mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Iovinella, Immacolata; Pelosi, Paolo; Conti, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito repellents represent a cleaner and safer alternative for population control and reduce the diseases they carry in large areas of the world. Recently, research has been focused on repellents of natural origins, both crude essential oils and their main constituents. We have observed that, although a large number of compounds can be efficiently used as mosquito repellents, their efficacy is never higher than those of commercial products DEET and Icaridin. Reasoning that probably specific and exceptionally active repellents might not exist, we focused our research on products that could provide longer protection times with respect to current commercial formulations while being used at lower concentrations. Based on the structure of menthone, a moderate natural repellent, we designed and synthesised some cyclic ketals that, because of their reduced volatility, could be effective for longer periods. In particular, a 1% solution of one of such derivatives can still reduce mosquito bites by 90% after 2 h, while DEET provides the same performance only for 15 min, when used at the same concentration. The approach we illustrate can be applied to other compounds and other systems and offers the additional advantage that derivatives of reduced volatility are also endowed with weaker odours.

  14. On the escape of infective filarial larvae from the mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zielke, E

    1977-12-01

    Experimentally infected females of Culex pipiens fatigans carrying infective larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti were fed, on the 16th day p.i., on four different solutions, which were offered "cold" (24 degrees C) or "warm" (34 degrees C) in Petri dishes as open fluids. Thus the sucking mosquitoes did not have to bend their labia. Only the "warm" human serum stimulated any considerable number of infective larvae (24.8%) to leave the mouthparts of the mosquitoes. 1289 infective C. fatigens females lost only an estimated 6.4% of their infective larvae of W. bancrofti, when they were maintained on sugar-water until their natural death. Most of the more heavily infected mosquitoes died relatively soon after the filarial larvae had reached maturity (15-20 days p.i.). The main stimulus provoking the filarial larvae to migrate into the labium is believed to be the movement of the muscles of the pharyngeal pump. Mature larvae protrude their anterior ends from the tip of the labellum. There they seem able to distinguish between suitable and unsuitable external conditions and accordingly they will either leave the proboscis completely or retract into the labium. PMID:601855

  15. Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

    2013-09-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed.

  16. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  17. Yellow fever vaccination centers: concurrent vaccinations and updates on mosquito biology.

    PubMed

    Arya, Subhash C; Agarwal, Nirmala

    2012-09-01

    Mandatory visits to immunization centers that offer pre-travel Yellow fever vaccine to prospective travelers would be useful for briefing the basics of the biology of the mosquito responsible for Yellow fever spread. Pre- travel knowledge on the day-time rather the nocturnal biting habit of the mosquitoes of Aedes species would prevent from bites of the mosquitoes responsible for the spread of viruses causing Yellow fever, dengue or Chikungunya infection.

  18. The politics of presidential illness. Ronald Reagan and the Iran-Contra Scandal.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the likelihood that the Iran-Contra scandal was shaped heavily by the effects of Ronald Reagan's cancer surgery in summer, 1985. During the President's hospitalization and in the period soon after, he took several actions--which he apparently did not remember--that launched a policy that was unwise, counterproductive, and a failure. These damaged both his Administration and his standing in history. The 25th Amendment afforded Reagan the means by which his involvement in these events could easily have been avoided. However, the President and his aides determined that he would resume the powers and duties of the presidency only hours after undergoing extensive cancer surgery. This decision contributed materially to the most damaging episode of Reagan's eight-year presidency.

  19. An Integrative Biosensor Based on Contra-Directional Coupling Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xiao-Yu; Yao, Di-Bi; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Huang, Yi-Dong; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Jiang-De

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integrative biochemical sensor utilizing the dip in the transmission spectrum of a normal single-line defect photonic crystal (PC) waveguide, which has a contra-directional coupling with another PC waveguide. When the air holes in the PC slab are filled with a liquid analyte with different refractive indices, the dip has a wavelength shift By detecting the output power variation at a certain fixed wavelength, a sensitivity of 1.2 × 10-4 is feasible. This structure is easy for integration due to its plane waveguide structure and omissible pump source. In addition, high signal to noise ratio can be expected because signal transmits via a normal single-line defect PC waveguide instead of the PC hole area or analyte.

  20. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert R; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R W; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R

    2014-10-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey.

  1. Bacterial Communities Associated with Culex Mosquito Larvae and Two Emergent Aquatic Plants of Bioremediation Importance

    PubMed Central

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G.; Hall, Michael W.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314

  2. Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a

  3. Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship). For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship). The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus. PMID:25494470

  4. Transmission of tularemia from a water source by transstadial maintenance in a mosquito vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäckman, Stina; Näslund, Jonas; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are thought to function as mechanical vectors of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica (F. t. holarctica) causing tularemia in humans. We investigated the clinical relevance of transstadially maintained F. t. holarctica in mosquitoes. Aedes egypti larvae exposed to a fully virulent F. t. holarctica strain for 24 hours, were allowed to develop into adults when they were individually homogenized. Approximately 24% of the homogenates tested positive for F. t. DNA in PCR. Mice injected with the mosquito homogenates acquired tularemia within 5 days. This novel finding demonstrates the possibility of transmission of bacteria by adult mosquitoes having acquired the pathogen from their aquatic larval habitats.

  5. Current and potential impacts of mosquitoes and the pathogens they vector in the Pacific region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPointe, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit are ubiquitous throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the world. The natural and pre-European distribution and diversity of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases throughout much of the Pacific region, however, depicts a depauperate and relatively benign fauna reinforcing the dream of “paradise regained”. In the central and South Pacific few mosquito species were able to colonize the remotest islands and atolls. Native mosquitoes are limited to a few far-ranging species and island endemics are typically restricted to the genera of Aedes and Culex. Only lymphatic filariasis appears to have been present as an endemic mosquito-borne disease before European contact. In nearby Australia, however, some 242 species of mosquitoes are known to occur and more than 70 arboviruses have been identified (Mackenzie 1999). In this regard Australia is more similar to the rest of the tropic and subtropical world than the smaller islands of Oceania. In our ever-shrinking world of global commerce, military activity and travel, the nature of mosquito-borne disease in the Pacific was bound to change. This paper is a brief summary of introduced mosquitoes in the Pacific and their potential impacts on human and wildlife health.

  6. Spatial autocorrelation of West Nile virus vector mosquito abundance in a seasonally wet suburban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawinski, P. R.; Mackay, D. S.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify and model spatial dependence in mosquito vector populations and develop predictions for unsampled locations using geostatistics. Mosquito control program trap sites are often located too far apart to detect spatial dependence but the results show that integration of spatial data over time for Cx. pipiens-restuans and according to meteorological conditions for Ae. vexans enables spatial analysis of sparse sample data. This study shows that mosquito abundance is spatially correlated and that spatial dependence differs between Cx. pipiens-restuans and Ae. vexans mosquitoes.

  7. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert R; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R W; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R

    2014-10-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey. PMID:26064534

  8. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-10-20

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences.

  9. Modeling Occurrence of Urban Mosquitos Based on Land Use Types and Meteorological Factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Lee, Yeo-Rang; Hwang, Suntae; Kim, Sang-Ae; Choi, Young Jean; Park, Young-Seuk

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a public health concern because they are vectors of pathogen, which cause human-related diseases. It is well known that the occurrence of mosquitoes is highly influenced by meteorological conditions (e.g., temperature and precipitation) and land use, but there are insufficient studies quantifying their impacts. Therefore, three analytical methods were applied to determine the relationships between urban mosquito occurrence, land use type, and meteorological factors: cluster analysis based on land use types; principal component analysis (PCA) based on mosquito occurrence; and three prediction models, support vector machine (SVM), classification and regression tree (CART), and random forest (RF). We used mosquito data collected at 12 sites from 2011 to 2012. Mosquito abundance was highest from August to September in both years. The monitoring sites were differentiated into three clusters based on differences in land use type such as culture and sport areas, inland water, artificial grasslands, and traffic areas. These clusters were well reflected in PCA ordinations, indicating that mosquito occurrence was highly influenced by land use types. Lastly, the RF represented the highest predictive power for mosquito occurrence and temperature-related factors were the most influential. Our study will contribute to effective control and management of mosquito occurrences. PMID:26492260

  10. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert R.; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R. W.; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey. PMID:26064534

  11. Nature, nurture and evolution of intra-species variation in mosquito arbovirus transmission competence.

    PubMed

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2013-01-11

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  12. Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama

    PubMed Central

    Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

  13. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories. PMID:18697324

  14. Transmission of tularemia from a water source by transstadial maintenance in a mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Stina; Näslund, Jonas; Forsman, Mats; Thelaus, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are thought to function as mechanical vectors of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica (F. t. holarctica) causing tularemia in humans. We investigated the clinical relevance of transstadially maintained F. t. holarctica in mosquitoes. Aedes egypti larvae exposed to a fully virulent F. t. holarctica strain for 24 hours, were allowed to develop into adults when they were individually homogenized. Approximately 24% of the homogenates tested positive for F. t. DNA in PCR. Mice injected with the mosquito homogenates acquired tularemia within 5 days. This novel finding demonstrates the possibility of transmission of bacteria by adult mosquitoes having acquired the pathogen from their aquatic larval habitats.

  15. Rapid protein profiling facilitates surveillance of invasive mosquito species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Invasive aedine mosquito species have become a major issue in many parts of the world as most of them are recognised vectors or potentially involved in transmission of pathogens. Surveillance of these mosquitoes (e.g. Ae. aegypti, Yellow fever mosquito, Aedes albopictus, Asian tiger mosquito) is mainly done by collecting eggs using ovitraps and by identification of the larvae hatched in the laboratory. In order to replace this challenging and laborious procedure, we have evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for easy and rapid species identification. Methods Individual protein profiles were generated using five eggs each of nine aedine species (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Ae. cretinus, Ae. geniculatus, Ae. japonicus, Ae. koreicus, Ae. phoeniciae, Ae. triseriatus) from various geographical origins, and species-specific biomarker mass sets could be generated. A blinded validation using our reference data base for automated egg identification was performed. In addition, pools of 10 aedine eggs (132 two-species and 18 three-species pools) in different ratios were evaluated. Results Specific biomarker mass sets comprising 18 marker masses could be generated for eggs of nine container-inhabiting aedine species, including all the major invasive and indigenous species of Europe and North America. Two additional masses shared by all investigated aedine species are used as internal calibrators. Identification of single eggs was highly accurate (100% specificity, 98.75% sensitivity), and this method is also of value for the identification of species in pools of ten eggs. When mixing two or three species, all were identified in all pools in at least 2 or 1 of the 4 loaded replicates, respectively, if the “lesser abundant” species in the pool accounted for three or more eggs. Conclusions MALDI-TOF MS, which is widely applied for routine identification of microorganisms in clinical

  16. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  17. Community knowledge and experience of mosquitoes and personal prevention and control practices in Lhasa, Tibet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobo; Wan, Fangjun; Cirendunzhu; Cirenwangla; Bai, Li; Pengcuociren; Zhou, Lin; Baimaciwang; Guo, Yuhong; Dazhen; Xu, Junfang; Sang, Shaowei; Li, Xiaolu; Gu, Shaohua; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Dawa; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-09-23

    Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude

  18. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals.

  19. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  20. Bagaza virus inhibits Japanese encephalitis & West Nile virus replication in Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Sudeep, A.B.; Bondre, V.P.; George, R.; Ghodke, Y.S.; Aher, R.V.; Gokhale, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Studies have shown that certain flaviviruses influence susceptibility of mosquitoes by inhibiting/enhancing replication of important flaviviruses. Hence, a study was designed to determine whether Bagaza virus (BAGV), a flavivirus isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in India, alters susceptibility of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis (JEV) and West Nile viruses (WNV). Methods: JEV and WNV infection in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the presence of BAGV was carried out by intrathoracic (IT) inoculation and oral feeding methods. Mosquitoes were infected with BAGV and WNV/JEV either simultaneously or in a phased manner, in which mosquitoes were infected with BAGV by IT inoculation followed by super-infection with JEV/WNV after eight days post-infection (PI). JEV and WNV yield on 7th and 14th day PI after super-infection was determined by 50 per cent tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) method. Results: In Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, prior infection with BAGV significantly reduced JEV and WNV replication while in Cx. quinquefasciatus, BAGV influence was only seen with WNV. Reduction in virus titre was observed in IT inoculated and oral fed mosquitoes irrespective of the infection mode. JEV replication was also found reduced in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes persistently infected with BAGV at passage four. Interpretation & conclusions: BAGV infection in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes altered their susceptibility to JEV and WNV producing low virus yield. However, the role of BAGV in inhibiting JEV/WNV replication in field mosquitoes needs further investigations. PMID:26905241

  1. Community Knowledge and Experience of Mosquitoes and Personal Prevention and Control Practices in Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaobo; Wan, Fangjun; Cirendunzhu; Cirenwangla; Bai, Li; Pengcuociren; Zhou, Lin; Baimaciwang; Guo, Yuhong; Dazhen; Xu, Junfang; Sang, Shaowei; Li, Xiaolu; Gu, Shaohua; Wu, Haixia; Wang, Jun; Dawa; Xiraoruodeng; Liu, Qiyong

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, great public attention has been paid in Lhasa City (Tibet, China) to mosquito bites and accompanying inflammatory complications. However, the potential contribution of knowledge levels, experiences, disease control and preventive practices (KEP) towards mosquitoes has not received much attention. To investigate community KEP concerning mosquitoes in Lhasa, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four sub-districts of urban Lhasa in 2012. Questionnaires were designed to collect information regarding socio-demographics and KEP concerning the harmful effects of mosquitoes on participants. The scoring for KEP was developed after consultation of literature. A total of 591 eligible questionnaires were examined. The majority of respondents were female (61.8%) with a mean age of 46 years. Nearly all of the respondents were of Tibetan nationality (97.4%) and living in registered native households (92.7%), who have less than primary school education. The averages of overall score, knowledge score, experience score, and practice score were 9.23, 4.53, 1.80, 2.90, respectively. The registered household with the highest overall score, knowledge score and practice score was non-native. Female subjects with monthly incomes between 1000 and 3000 RMB had higher experience scores. The correlation analysis revealed that significant positive linear correlations existed between knowledge and experience, knowledge and practices, and experience and practices towards mosquitoes. Past experiences with mosquitoes can result in a better knowledge of effective mosquito control practices in the present and the future. Though the average of overall scores related to mosquitoes is high among the participants in Lhasa, however, the knowledge about the ecological habits of mosquitoes should be strengthened. The findings in this study may help to develop strategies and measures of mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in the future, not only in Lhasa, but also in similar altitude

  2. Laboratory and field testing of bednet traps for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Andris, Heri; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Barbara, Kathryn A; Munif, Amrul

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance of medically important mosquitoes is critical to determine the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to test self-supporting, exposure-free bednet traps to survey mosquitoes. In the laboratory we tested human-baited and unbaited CDC light trap/cot bednet (CDCBN) combinations against three types of traps: the Mbita Trap (MIBITA), a Tent Trap (TENT), and a modified Townes style Malaise trap (TSM). In the laboratory, 16 runs comparing MBITA, TSM, and TENT to the CDCBN were conducted for a total of 48 runs of the experiment using 13,600 mosquitoes. The TENT trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The CDCBN collected significantly more than the MBITA and there was no difference between the TSM and the CDCBN. Two field trials were conducted in Cibuntu, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. The first test compared human-baited and unbaited CDCBN, TENT, and TSM traps during six nights over two consecutive weeks per month from January, 2007 to September, 2007 for a total of 54 trapnights. A total of 8,474 mosquitoes representing 33 species were collected using the six trapping methods. The TENT-baited trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than both the CDCBN and the TSM. The second field trial was a comparison of the baited and unbaited TENT and CDCBN traps and Human Landing Collections (HLCs). The trial was carried out from January, 2008 to May, 2008 for a total of 30 trap nights. A total of 11,923 mosquitoes were collected representing 24 species. Human Landing Collections captured significantly more mosquitoes than either the TENT or the CDCBN. The baited and unbaited TENT collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The TENT trap was found to be an effective, light-weight substitute for the CDC light-trap, bednet combination in the field and should be considered for use in surveys of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, arboviruses, and filariasis.

  3. Spatial and temporal characterization of mosquito distribution and arbovirus transmission activity in St. Johns County, Florida. St. Augustine, FL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global information technology (GIT) (including Global Positioning System [GPS], Geographic Information Systems [GIS], and image analysis) can be used to develop adult mosquito sampling methods and to characterize adult mosquito distributions and disease transmission patterns. At this meeting of v...

  4. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes. PMID:27515809

  5. A reappraisal of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of myxomatosis in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Service, M. W.

    1971-01-01

    Field experiments were made in southern England to re-examine the possibility that mosquitoes in Britain might feed on wild rabbits and hence be vectors of myxomatosis. Mosquitoes of several species were attracted to rabbits enclosed in cylindrical traps and in a trap in which the animal was placed in a wire mesh cage. Substantial numbers of mosquitoes were also caught biting, or attempting to bite, tethered rabbits which were not in cages or traps. Evidence that mosquitoes fed on wild rabbits under natural conditions was obtained from results of precipitin tests made on blood-smears collected from mosquitoes caught resting amongst vegetation. On a few evenings mosquitoes were seen to be attracted to healthy wild rabbits and apparently attempting to feed on them. Batches of two mosquito species collected from the field were infected with myxoma virus. It was concluded that contrary to previous beliefs mosquitoes in Britain feed to a certain extent on wild rabbits, and therefore are potential vectors of myxomatosis. No attempts were made to assess their relative importance in the transmission of the disease, which in Britain is transmitted mainly by the rabbit flea. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4401995

  6. Annual Anastasia Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Control Workshops: Summary of the Past 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Realizing the needs of local mosquito control workers for advance training and education the Anastasia Mosquito Control District (AMCD) and the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary entomology (CMAVE) developed a regional workshop to address these needs. Since 2004 the AMCD and CM...

  7. Orientation of Culex mosquitoes to carbon dioxide-baited traps: flight manoeuvres and trapping efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cooperband, M F; Cardé, R T

    2006-03-01

    Females of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Culex tarsalis Coquillet (Diptera: Culicidae) in the host-seeking stage were released and video recorded in three dimensions in a large field wind tunnel as they flew to four kinds of CO2-baited mosquito traps. The trapping efficiency (number of mosquitoes approaching compared to the number caught) was determined for each trap type. The Encephalitis Virus Surveillance (EVS), Mosquito Magnet Freedom (MMF) and Mosquito Magnet Liberty (MML) traps captured only 13-16% of approaching Cx. quinquefasciatus females, whereas the Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) trap captured 58%. Similar results were obtained for Cx. tarsalis. Orientation behaviour and flight parameters of mosquitoes approaching the four traps were compared. Mosquitoes spent the most time orienting to the EVS trap. Flight speed decreased as mosquitoes entered the vicinity of each trap and a large portion of their time was spent within 30 cm downwind of the traps. Flights became highly tortuous downwind of the poorly performing traps and just upwind of the MMX trap. Differences between traps and possible explanations for the superior performance of the MMX trap are considered.

  8. Comparison of carbohydrate sources in yeast-fermentation CO2 generators for mosquito surveillance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito surveillance in remote areas with limited access to canisters of CO2 or dry ice will benefit from an effective alternative CO2 source, such as the natural production of CO2 from yeast fermentation of several carbohydrate sources. In this study, we document the differences in mosquito and n...

  9. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  10. British Container Breeding Mosquitoes: The Impact of Urbanisation and Climate Change on Community Composition and Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

  11. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  12. Response of adult mosquitoes to light emitting diodes placed in resting boxes and in the field.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resting boxes are passive devices used to attract and capture mosquitoes seeking shelter. Increasing the attractiveness of these devices could improve their effectiveness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be attractive to mosquitoes when used together with other trapping devices. Therefore restin...

  13. Detection and Monitoring of Spatio-temporal Change in the Distribution of Mosquito Vector Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit blood-borne disease agents that cause morbidity and mortality in human and animal populations. Preemption of epidemics/epizootics of mosquito-borne disease is predicated on the timely and effective application of vector control. Such timing is decided on the basis of adult mosq...

  14. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.

    PubMed

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

  15. Multiple chemosensory targets for discovery of novel chemicals for disruption of mosquito behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of diseases including dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and West Nile virus. Olfactory and gustatory signals play important roles in the orientation of female mosquitoes to vertebrate hosts and initiation of blood feeding. Using re...

  16. Potential for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Florida to transmit rift valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 8 species of mosquitoes collected in Florida to determine which of these should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America. Female mosquitoes that had fed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV were incubated for 7-21 d at 26°C, allowed to...

  17. Mosquito ovicidal properties of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternativ...

  18. A natural Anopheles-associated Penicillium chrysogenum enhances mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I.; Blumberg, Benjamin J.; Dong, Yuemei; Sandiford, Simone L.; Pike, Andrew; Clayton, April M.; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor. We further provide evidence that the mechanism of the fungus-mediated modulation of mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium involves an upregulation of the insect’s ornithine decarboxylase gene, which sequesters arginine for polyamine biosynthesis. Arginine plays an important role in the mosquito’s anti-Plasmodium defense as a substrate of nitric oxide production, and its availability therefore has a direct impact on the mosquito’s susceptibility to the parasite. While this type of immunomodulatory mechanism has already been demonstrated in other host-pathogen interaction systems, this is the first report of a mosquito-associated fungus that can suppress the mosquito’s innate immune system in a way that would favor Plasmodium infection and possibly malaria transmission. PMID:27678168

  19. Wolbachia Enhances West Nile Virus (WNV) Infection in the Mosquito Culex tarsalis

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Brittany L.; Hughes, Grant L.; Paul, Oluwatobi; Matacchiero, Amy C.; Kramer, Laura D.; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Novel strategies are required to control mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit. One attractive approach involves maternally inherited endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. After artificial infection with Wolbachia, many mosquitoes become refractory to infection and transmission of diverse pathogens. We evaluated the effects of Wolbachia (wAlbB strain) on infection, dissemination and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) in the naturally uninfected mosquito Culex tarsalis, which is an important WNV vector in North America. After inoculation into adult female mosquitoes, Wolbachia reached high titers and disseminated widely to numerous tissues including the head, thoracic flight muscles, fat body and ovarian follicles. Contrary to other systems, Wolbachia did not inhibit WNV in this mosquito. Rather, WNV infection rate was significantly higher in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. Quantitative PCR of selected innate immune genes indicated that REL1 (the activator of the antiviral Toll immune pathway) was down regulated in Wolbachia-infected relative to control mosquitoes. This is the first observation of Wolbachia-induced enhancement of a human pathogen in mosquitoes, suggesting that caution should be applied before releasing Wolbachia-infected insects as part of a vector-borne disease control program. PMID:25010200

  20. Blood Meal Analysis of Mosquitoes Involved in a Rift Valley fever Outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonosis of domestic ruminants in Africa. Bloodfed mosquitoes collected during the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya were analyzed to determine the virus infection status and animal source of the bloodmeals. Bloodmeals from individual mosquito abdomens were sc...