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Sample records for contraception body water

  1. Effects of oral contraceptives on body fluid regulation.

    PubMed

    Stachenfeld, N S; Silva, C; Keefe, D L; Kokoszka, C A; Nadel, E R

    1999-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that estrogen reduces the operating point for osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP), thirst, and body water balance, we studied nine women (25 +/- 1 yr) during 150 min of dehydrating exercise followed by 180 min of ad libitum rehydration. Subjects were tested six different times, during the early-follicular (twice) and midluteal (twice) menstrual phases and after 4 wk of combined [estradiol-norethindrone (progestin), OC E + P] and 4 wk of norethindrone (progestin only, OC P) oral contraceptive administration, in a randomized crossover design. Basal plasma osmolality (P(osm)) was lower in the luteal phase (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means, P < 0.05), OC E + P (281 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0.05), and OC P (282 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, P < 0. 05) than in the follicular phase (286 +/- 1 mosmol/kgH(2)O, combined means). High plasma estradiol concentration lowered the P(osm) threshold for AVP release during the luteal phase and during OC E + P [x-intercepts, 282 +/- 2, 278 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O, for follicular, luteal (combined means), OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, luteal phase and OC E + P vs. follicular phase] during exercise dehydration, and 17beta-estradiol administration lowered the P(osm) threshold for thirst stimulation [x-intercepts, 280 +/- 2, 279 +/- 2, 276 +/- 2, and 280 +/- 2 mosmol/kgH(2)O for follicular, luteal, OC E + P, and OC P, respectively; P < 0.05, OC E + P vs. follicular phase], without affecting body fluid balance. When plasma 17beta-estradiol concentration was high, P(osm) was low throughout rest, exercise, and rehydration, but plasma arginine vasopressin concentration, thirst, and body fluid retention were unchanged, indicating a lowering of the osmotic operating point for body fluid regulation.

  2. Contraception

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sharon; Hansen, Lisa; Mann, Janice; Sevigny, Cathy; Wong, Thomas; Roache, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Contraception choices affect the long-term sexual health and fertility of women and men. Data from the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study and the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey were assessed for measures of contraceptive use and familiarity with various methods among Canadian women. Key Findings The oral contraceptive (OC) pill is the dominant method of contraception for Canadian women. Canadian women demonstrate high awareness of the benefits of condom use, but 75% are unaware of the female condom. Among youth, condom use drops as OC use increases. Contraception use in sexually active females aged 15–17 is fairly high, but use is inconsistent. Sexually active adolescent females report high awareness of emergency contraception but poor knowledge of the time frame within which it is most effective. Women aged 35–44 are more familiar with and likely to choose sterilization than younger women. There has also been a shift away from tubal ligation in favour of vasectomies. Data Gaps and Recommendations National data to guide policy and program development are limited. More data are needed on contraception use among males, and factors affecting accessibility, adherence and negotiation of choice. The importance of dual protection, and correct and consistent use of the chosen contraceptive method must be communicated to younger Canadians, as well as health care providers and educators. All women of reproductive age should be made aware of emergency contraception methods and increased efforts on sexual health promotion and education are required. Further research is essential to develop expanded contraceptive choices. PMID:15345088

  3. Combined oral contraceptives and body weight: do oral contraceptives cause weight gain? A primate model.

    PubMed

    Edelman, A; Jensen, J T; Bulechowsky, M; Cameron, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if oral contraceptive (OC) use affects body weight, body composition and metabolism in primates. Reproductive-age female rhesus monkeys of normal and obese BMI were studied to document baseline weight stability, then treated continuously with an OC (dosed to achieve equivalent human serum levels for a 30 µg ethinyl estradiol/150 µg levonorgestrel preparation) for 237 days. Monkeys were monitored for changes in body weight, levels of physical activity (measured by a triaxial Actical accelerometer), food/caloric intake, percent body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) and metabolism (24 h metabolic rate and serum metabolic substrate and hormone concentrations). All 10 monkeys completed the study protocol with no adverse events. While body weight (-0.73% change) and percent body fat (-1.78% change) of the normal BMI group did not significantly decrease from baseline, obese monkeys showed a significant decrease in body weight (-8.58% change, P < 0.01) and percent body fat (-12.13% change P = 0.02) with OC treatment. In both the obese (P = 0.03) and the normal BMI (P = 0.01) groups, there was a significant increase in basal metabolic rate with OC use. No changes were seen in food intake, activity level or % lean muscle mass with OC use for either BMI-based group. Overall, OC use appears to cause a slight increase in basal metabolic rate in female monkeys, leading to a decrease in body weight and percent body fat in obese individuals.

  4. Oral contraceptives alter sleep and raise body temperature in young women.

    PubMed

    Baker, F C; Mitchell, D; Driver, H S

    2001-08-01

    Female reproductive steroids, oestrogen and progesterone, not only affect reproductive function, but also thermoregulation and sleep. Chronic administration of synthetic steroids, as occurs in women taking oral contraceptives, may affect these regulatory systems differently from endogenous oestrogen and progesterone. We therefore investigated body temperature and sleep in ten young women taking oral contraceptives, in the active and placebo phases of the contraceptive pack, and compared them to a group of nine women with ovulatory cycles, in the mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases. Body temperature was raised throughout 24 h in the women taking oral contraceptives in the active phase, and in the naturally cycling women in the luteal phase, compared to the follicular phase. The women taking oral contraceptives in the placebo phase, however, continued to have raised body temperatures, similar to those in the active phase, indicating a prolonged action of synthetic reproductive steroids on body temperature. Sleep also was influenced by the endogenous and synthetic reproductive steroids, but independently of body temperature. The women taking oral contraceptives had more stage-2 non-rapid eye movement sleep in the active phase, both compared to their placebo phase and the naturally cycling women. The naturally cycling women, however, had more slow wave sleep in the luteal phase compared to the contraceptive group of women. Exogenous reproductive steroids therefore influence body temperature and sleep differently from endogenous progesterone and oestrogen.

  5. Counseling on vaginal delivery of contraceptive hormones: implications for women's body knowledge and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E

    2013-12-01

    Healthcare providers (HCPs) have an important role in helping women select the contraceptive method that best matches their needs and lifestyle. Recent surveys outline the need of women to be informed about all available choices, including the newest methods (particularly those not requiring daily administration), such as vaginal contraception. The most relevant publications on combined contraceptive vaginal ring are revised in the context of counseling as an opportunity to empower women in term of vaginal health and sexual functioning. HCPs should explain the main characteristics of the combined contraceptive vaginal ring including the anatomical and physiological implications that make the vagina an ideal route of hormonal administration and the basic notions about functional modifications of the vagina during reproductive life. Clinical data on the vaginal ring should be summarized with regard to efficacy, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, cycle control and user acceptability, including recent findings on extra-contraceptive benefits (also compared to other hormonal contraceptives) on the vaginal flora and on sexual function. Vaginal contraception offers various benefits and should always be discussed during contraceptive counseling. An open dialogue about vaginal contraception will also help enhance body knowledge and sexual health.

  6. Hormonal Contraception, Body Water Balance and Thermoregulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    received 0.35 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg of the progestin norethindrone daily. For progestin only treatment, subjects receive norethindrone , 1 mg...ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone and which is the progestin ( norethindrone )- only pill. The data contained in this report only describe trends; we have

  7. Reduced serum cholecystokinin and increase in body fat during oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, A L; Byström, B; Carlström, K; von Schoultz, B

    1996-02-01

    This investigation was undertaken to explore a possible role of the "satiety peptide" cholecystokinin and some other gastrointestinal hormones for changes in appetite and weight during oral contraception. Ten young healthy women attending a youth health care center for contraceptive counseling volunteered for the study. A standardized meal test was used for recordings of appetite and gastrointestinal hormone response before and after 5 months of treatment with a monophasic combined oral contraceptive. Body fat was calculated from measurements of skin-fold thickness. Oral contraceptives caused a suppression of basal levels of serum cholecystokinin, which was correlated to an increase in body fat. Meal-related response of cholecystokinin and appetite were not affected. Serum levels of gastrin and insulin were also unchanged, whereas triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels were elevated. The results suggest a role of cholecystokinin in regulation of body composition. Cholecystokinin stimulates the release of insulin and stimulates lipolysis in adipose tissue. Reduced cholecystokinin levels may, therefore, be related to mild impairment of glucose tolerance and promote body fat storage during oral contraception.

  8. Weight gain, body image and sexual function in young patients treated with contraceptive vaginal ring. A prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Elena; Casadio, Paolo; Guasina, Francesca; Battaglia, Bruno; Mattioli, Mara; Battaglia, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    Oral contraceptives could induce mood changes. As far as our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that have examined the role of vaginal contraception in self-perceived body image. To evaluate the effects of intravaginal contraception on weight gain and perceived body image in relation with the Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI) and the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ). Twenty-one adult (18-35 years old) eumenorrheic (menstrual cycle of 25-35 days), lean (body mass index - BMI - of 19-25 kg/m(2)) women who were referred for hormonal contraception were administered the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS), BDI and MFSQ. Subjects were studied in basal condition and after 6 months of therapy with vaginal contraception (NuvaRing®; Organon-Schering-Plough Italia, Milan, Italy). BMI, FRS, MFSQ and BDI. After 6 months of therapy with NuvaRing®, both body weight (60.0 ± 8.3; p = 0.050) and BMI (22.1 ± 3.1; p = 0.028) slightly, but statistically, increased. FRS and BDI showed no differences after the vaginal contraception. Hormonal contraception was associated with a significant decrease in the two-factor Italian MFSQ score. Vaginal ring seems a good alternative to other hormonal contraceptive not significantly altering the female sexuality and not influencing the FRS and BDI.

  9. Effect of body weight and BMI on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Nathalie; Abitbol, Jean Louis; Mathé, Henri; Scherrer, Bruno; Guillard, Hélène; Gainer, Erin; Ulmann, André

    2015-02-01

    To further evaluate the effect of weight and body mass index (BMI) on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Data from two large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials designed to assess emergency contraceptive efficacy were pooled to evaluate the effect of weight and BMI on pregnancy rates among women who received levonorgestrel. Descriptive methods (comparison of means and distributions according to pregnancy status and pregnancy rates across weight and BMI categories) as well as cubic spline modeling were used to describe the relationship between pregnancy risk and weight/BMI. The analysis population comprised 1731 women, among whom 38 pregnancies were reported. Women for whom levonorgestrel was not effective in preventing pregnancy had a significantly higher mean body weight and BMI than women who did not become pregnant (76.7 vs. 66.4 kg, p<.0001; 28.1 vs. 24.6 kg/m², p<.0001). The estimated pregnancy rate increased significantly from 1.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5%-3.0%] among the group of women weighing 65-75 kg to 6.4% (95% CI: 3.1%-11.5%) and 5.7% (95% CI: 2.9%-10.0%) in the 75-85 kg and >85 kg groups, respectively. Statistical modeling demonstrated a steep increase in pregnancy risk starting from a weight near 70-75 kg to reach a risk of pregnancy of 6% or greater around 80 kg. Similar results were obtained for statistical modeling of BMI as well as when the two studies were analyzed individually. All analyses showed a significant drop in the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception with increasing body weight, with pregnancy risk in the higher weight categories similar to expected rates in the absence of contraception. Like body weight, increasing BMI was highly correlated with increased pregnancy risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in body composition in women using long-acting reversible contraception.

    PubMed

    Silva Dos Santos, Priscilla de Nazaré; Madden, Tessa; Omvig, Karen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-04-01

    Users of hormonal long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) report weight gain as a side effect, but few studies have assessed body composition change among LARC users. We evaluated weight and body composition of healthy women using the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), copper intrauterine device (copper IUD) or etonogestrel implant (ENG implant). We hypothesized that weight gain and body composition over 12 months would not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. We performed a prospective cohort study of a subgroup of women enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who initiated the LNG-IUS, copper IUD or ENG implant. Inclusion criteria included lack of metabolic and eating disorders or change in body weight of more than 5% in the 6 months before enrollment. We measured changes in weight and body composition (body fat percentage, total body fat mass, total lean mass and total body mass) in women who continued their method for 12 months. We analyzed data from 149 participants: 85 LNG-IUS users, 31 copper IUD users and 33 ENG implant users. The mean age was 25.9 years, 56.4% were White, 82.5% had some college education and 67.6% were nulliparous. Although lean body mass increased over 12 months in LNG-IUS and copper IUD users but not in ENG implant users, changes in body weight and body composition did not differ between the groups. In the adjusted model, Black race was associated with change in total body mass (p<.05). Among those who continued the method for 12 months, changes in body weight and composition did not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. Changes in body weight and composition over 12 months did not differ between copper IUD users and LNG-IUS and ENG implant users among those with 12 months of continuous use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep and 24 hour body temperatures: a comparison in young men, naturally cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Fiona C; Waner, Jonathan I; Vieira, Elizabeth F; Taylor, Sheila R; Driver, Helen S; Mitchell, Duncan

    2001-01-01

    Body temperature has a circadian rhythm, and in women with ovulatory cycles, also a menstrual rhythm. Body temperature and sleep are believed to be closely coupled, but the influence on their relationship of gender, menstrual cycle phase and female reproductive hormones is unresolved. We investigated sleep and 24 h rectal temperatures in eight women with normal menstrual cycles in their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases, and in eight young women taking a steady dose of oral progestin and ethinyl oestradiol (hormonal contraceptive), and compared their sleep and body temperatures with that of eight young men, sleeping in identical conditions. All subjects maintained their habitual daytime schedules. Rectal temperatures were elevated throughout 24 h in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase in the naturally cycling women, consistent with a raised thermoregulatory set-point. Rectal temperatures in the women taking hormonal contraceptives were similar to those of the naturally cycling women in the luteal phase. Gender influenced body temperature: the naturally cycling women and the women taking hormonal contraceptives attained their nocturnal minimum body temperatures earlier than the men, and the naturally cycling women had blunted nocturnal body temperature drops compared with the men. Sleep architecture was essentially unaffected by either menstrual cycle phase or gender. The women taking hormonal contraceptives had less slow wave sleep (SWS), however, than the naturally cycling women. Gender, menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptives significantly influenced body temperature, but had only minor consequences for sleep, in the young men and women in our study. PMID:11158285

  12. Sleep and 24 hour body temperatures: a comparison in young men, naturally cycling women and women taking hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Baker, F C; Waner, J I; Vieira, E F; Taylor, S R; Driver, H S; Mitchell, D

    2001-02-01

    Body temperature has a circadian rhythm, and in women with ovulatory cycles, also a menstrual rhythm. Body temperature and sleep are believed to be closely coupled, but the influence on their relationship of gender, menstrual cycle phase and female reproductive hormones is unresolved. We investigated sleep and 24 h rectal temperatures in eight women with normal menstrual cycles in their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases, and in eight young women taking a steady dose of oral progestin and ethinyl oestradiol (hormonal contraceptive), and compared their sleep and body temperatures with that of eight young men, sleeping in identical conditions. All subjects maintained their habitual daytime schedules. Rectal temperatures were elevated throughout 24 h in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase in the naturally cycling women, consistent with a raised thermoregulatory set-point. Rectal temperatures in the women taking hormonal contraceptives were similar to those of the naturally cycling women in the luteal phase. Gender influenced body temperature: the naturally cycling women and the women taking hormonal contraceptives attained their nocturnal minimum body temperatures earlier than the men, and the naturally cycling women had blunted nocturnal body temperature drops compared with the men. Sleep architecture was essentially unaffected by either menstrual cycle phase or gender. The women taking hormonal contraceptives had less slow wave sleep (SWS), however, than the naturally cycling women. Gender, menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptives significantly influenced body temperature, but had only minor consequences for sleep, in the young men and women in our study.

  13. Modification of corporal weight, body fat distribution, blood lipids and glucose levels in oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Lira, S; Bueno Fontal, J P

    2000-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptives and the modification of corporal weight and body fat distribution is controversial. The characteristics of the menstrual cycle, lipids and glucose levels were also analyzed. Thirty women who received ethinylestradiol 0.035 mg and norethindrone 0.400 mg for one year were studied. The following variables were analyzed every 3 months: weight, body mass index (BMI), hip perimeter, waist perimeter, waist-hip ratio (WHR), duration of menstrual cycle, quantity of uterine bleeding, as well as blood levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Waist and hip perimeters increased during the third evaluation; as well as the BMI starting from the second evaluation. The triglycerides levels rose from the first evaluation. No modifications were found in the WHR, glucose and cholesterol levels and the duration of the menstrual cycle, but the quantity of uterine bleeding decreased from the third month. The oral contraceptive significantly increased BMI and triglycerides level, but no changes were detected in body fat distribution, cholesterol and glucose levels. Uterine bleeding decreased from the first evaluation.

  14. Weight and Body Composition Changes During Oral Contraceptive Use in Obese and Normal Weight Women

    PubMed Central

    Torgal, Anupama H.; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Oral contraceptive (OC) use seems to have little effect on weight change in normal weight women. Most previous studies have excluded obese women, so the effect of OC use on weight change in obese women is unknown. Methods: This analysis evaluates weight and body composition change with OC use among obese (body mass index [BMI] 30.0–39.9) and normal weight (BMI 19.0–24.9) women who were randomly assigned to two OC doses: 20 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100 μg levonorgestrel (LNG) OCs or 30 μg EE and 150 μg LNG OCs. Follow-up occurred after three to four OC cycles. Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and at follow-up using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Results: Among 150 women (54 obese and 96 normal weight) who used OCs for 3 to 4 months, there were no clinically or statistically significant weight or body composition changes in the overall group or by BMI or OC formulation group. Conclusions: These findings add to evidence that EE/LNG OCs are not associated with short term weight or body composition change for normal weight women and suggest that OCs are also are not associated with short term weight or body composition change in obese women. PMID:24156617

  15. Influence of Body Composition, Oral Contraceptive Use, and Physical Activity on Bone Mineral Density in Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Howard, Clint D; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    In premenopausal women, low bone density may reflect attainment of a lower peak bone mass which can increase risk of osteoporosis after menopause. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between total body, lumbar spine, and proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition and oral contraceptive (OC) use in 18-30 year old women. Sixty-five healthy women, split into groups of oral contraceptive users (OC, n = 36) and non oral contraceptive users (Non-OC, n = 29), completed Baecke physical activity, calcium intake, and menstrual history questionnaires. Total body, AP lumbar spine, and dual proximal femur scans were performed using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Body composition measures were obtained from the total body scan analysis. No significant differences were found for BMD in OC users and non-users. Bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) and weight were positively correlated to all BMD sites, and fat mass was related to total body and L1-L4 spine BMD (p < 0.05). Stepwise regression analyses determined that weight was a significant predictor for all BMD sites (p < 0.05). When separating the two components of body weight, BFLBM was a significant predictor for all BMD sites, and fat mass only predicted total body BMD. In conclusion, this study indicates that weight and BFLBM are significant contributors to BMD in young healthy premenopausal women, and OC use did not influence the relationship between BMD and BFLBM.

  16. The social life of emergency contraception in the United States: disciplining pharmaceutical use, disciplining sexuality, and constructing zygotic bodies.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L; Trussell, James

    2006-09-01

    This article is an examination of the FDA hearing on a proposal to permit nonprescription access to the emergency contraceptive pill Plan B. Participants debated the drug's impact on female and young adult sexuality, illustrating how the rhetoric over disciplining pharmaceutical use in the American public is a displaced language for talking about disciplining women's and girls' sexuality. Debate over Plan B also focused on its mechanism of action and whether or not it was abortifacient, revealing a medical technology characterized not only by moral but also by marked scientific ambiguity. The scientific framing of the politics of emergency contraception is testament to the powerful authority of biomedicine to narrate and thus produce ideologies of bodies (individual, embryonic, social, and political), sexuality, and selves. The discourse on access to Plan B in the United States demonstrates how women's bodies are sites of control where the politics of sexuality, discourses on public health, and medical constructions of biological processes intersect.

  17. Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments. PMID:22106226

  18. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  19. Are oral contraceptives a significant contributor to the estrogenicity of drinking water?

    PubMed

    Wise, Amber; O'Brien, Kacie; Woodruff, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    Recent observed feminization of aquatic animals has raised concerns about estrogenic compounds in water supplies and the potential for these chemicals to reach drinking water. Public perception frequently attributes this feminization to oral contraceptives (OCs) in wastewater and raises concerns that exposure to OCs in drinking water may contribute to the recent rise in human reproductive problems. This paper reviews the literature regarding various sources of estrogens, in surface, source and drinking water, with an emphasis on the active molecule that comes from OCs. It includes discussion of the various agricultural, industrial, and municipal sources and outlines the contributions of estrogenic chemicals to the estrogenicity of waterways and estimates that the risk of exposure to synthetic estrogens in drinking water on human health is negligible. This paper also provides recommendations for strategies to better understand all the potential sources of estrogenic compounds in the environment and possibilities to reduce the levels of estrogenic chemicals in the water supply.

  20. Contraceptive Sponge

    MedlinePlus

    Contraceptive sponge Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff The contraceptive sponge is a type of birth control (contraceptive) that prevents ... shaped, and made of polyurethane foam. The contraceptive sponge contains spermicide, which blocks or kills sperm. Before ...

  1. Different nocturnal body temperatures and sleep with forced-air warming in men and in women taking hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Baker, F C; Selsick, H; Driver, H S; Taylor, S R; Mitchell, D

    1998-09-01

    We studied how forced-air warming, conventionally used to control body temperature during and after anaesthesia, affected the nocturnal rectal temperatures and sleep composition of young men and women. Seven healthy women who were taking oral or injection contraceptives, and six healthy men spent 3 nights in a controlled environment: an adaptation night followed by 2 nights when they slept under either a down duvet (baseline) or a quilt perfused with warm air (hot). Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant gender differences in the body temperature responses. On the baseline night, despite sleeping under the same conditions, the women did not show a nocturnal drop in body temperature as shown by the men. Forced-air warming increased body temperature to a similar extent in the men and the women, and resulted in enhanced hyperthermia in the women, and blunted the drop in body temperature in the men, compared to their baseline nights. The significant increases in body temperature had no consequences, however, for the subjective sleep quality of either the men or women, and only minor consequences for objective sleep composition. Both men and women had increased amounts of Stage 2 sleep on the hot night (P < 0.04). In addition, the women had reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when compared to their baseline night (P < 0.04). Our results confirm that in a passive thermal environment, women who are taking oral or injection contraceptives have higher nocturnal body temperatures than men. Also, as sleep architecture was minimally affected by the increases in body temperature of between 0.2 and 0.3 degree C on the hot night in the men and women, and subjective sleep quality was unaffected, our results question the existence of a tight association between sleep and body temperature.

  2. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD).Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor.The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  3. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  4. Forgettable contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A

    2009-12-01

    The term "forgettable contraception" has received less attention in family planning than has "long-acting reversible contraception." Defined here as a method requiring attention no more often than every 3 years, forgettable contraception includes sterilization (female or male), intrauterine devices, and implants. Five principal factors determine contraceptive effectiveness: efficacy, compliance, continuation, fecundity, and the timing of coitus. Of these, compliance and continuation dominate; the key determinants of contraceptive effectiveness are human, not pharmacological. Human nature undermines methods with high theoretical efficacy, such as oral contraceptives and injectable contraceptives. By obviating the need to think about contraception for long intervals, forgettable contraception can help overcome our human fallibility. As a result, all forgettable contraception methods provide first-tier effectiveness (contraceptives today with exclusively first-tier effectiveness is the one that can be started -- and then forgotten for years.

  5. Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    Batur, Pelin; Kransdorf, Lisa N; Casey, Petra M

    2016-06-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception. Ulipristal acetate tends to be more efficacious in pregnancy prevention than is LNG, especially when taken later than 72 hours postcoitus. The mechanism of action of oral EC is delay of ovulation, and current evidence reveals that it is ineffective postovulation. Women who weigh more than 75 kg or have a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) may have a higher risk of unintended pregnancy when using oral LNG EC; therefore, ulipristal acetate or copper intrauterine devices are preferable in this setting. Providers are often unaware of the range of EC options or are unsure of how to counsel patients regarding the access and use of EC. This article critically reviews current EC literature, summarizes recommendations, and provides guidance for counseling women about EC. Useful tips for health care providers are provided, with a focus on special populations, including breast-feeding women and those transitioning to long-term contraception after EC use. When treating women of reproductive age, clinicians should be prepared to counsel them about EC options, provide EC appropriately, and, if needed, refer for EC in a timely manner. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives.

  7. [Intrauterine contraception].

    PubMed

    Tauber, P F

    1984-09-01

    Approximately 60 million women worldwide use IUDs. Despite worldwide distribution, the total number of IUD carriers has barely increased since 1970. Due to its risks and side effects there is a retrograding tendency both in West Germany and the US. To generate positive development, 3 basic trends have emerged: 1) Restrictive usage of the pharmacologically inactive, 1st generation IUDs such as the Lippes Loop or the Saf-T-Coil, 2) the increasing usage of small plastic IUDs with bioactive alloys to decrease failure rates such as the copper (2nd generation) or hormone-releasing IUDs, and 3) improvements made by changing its design to reduce side effects without loss of contraceptive effectiveness. Almost all IUDs increase monthly blood loss by 50-100%. The risk of illness for women with IUDs is 2-3 times higher than for a woman without or with other contraceptive methods. About 20% of all expulsions occur unnoticed. There are 2 kinds of perforations: primary (iatrogenic), at time of insertion, and secondary, some time after insertion. The IUD failure rate is about 1-3 pregnancies/100 woman years. In case of pregnancy, the IUD must be removed immediately. IUD insertion requires consent of the woman and can be made to women from 16 years on, presupposing moral maturity. IUD insertion after a miscarriage or abortion does not lead to risks or complications. Due to its corrosive quality, the copper IUD can only remain inside the uterus for a limited time. IUDs could become an excellent contraceptive method if it were possible to decrease bleeding, design easily-removeable IUDs, and prolong their potential for duration in the body.

  8. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying the release of ...

  9. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  10. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  11. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  12. Contraceptive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troen, Philip; And Others

    This report provides an overview of research activities and needs in the area of contraceptive development. In a review of the present state, discussions are offered on the effectiveness and drawbacks of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, natural family planning, and sterilization. Methods of contraception that are in the…

  13. Postpartum contraception.

    PubMed

    Sober, Stephanie; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2014-12-01

    As birth spacing has demonstrated health benefits for a woman and her children, contraception after childbirth is recognized as an important health issue. The potential risk of pregnancy soon after delivery underscores the importance of initiating postpartum contraception in a timely manner. The contraceptive method initiated in the postpartum period depends upon a number of factors including medical history, anatomic and hormonal factors, patient preference, and whether or not the woman is breastfeeding. When electing a contraceptive method, informed choice is paramount. The availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods immediately postpartum provides a strategy to achieve reductions in unintended pregnancy.

  14. Body mass index does not affect the efficacy or bleeding profile during use of an ultra-low-dose combined oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Steven T; Pappadakis, Jennifer; Archer, David F

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective contraceptive options for obese women are becoming more important due to the obesity epidemic within the United States. This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) on efficacy, safety and bleeding patterns during use of an ultra-low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC). Data are from a Phase 3 clinical efficacy and safety study of an ultra-low-dose COC containing 1.0-mg norethindrone acetate and 10-mcg ethinyl estradiol. Pearl Indices, adverse events and bleeding profile were calculated for BMI ranges of <25, 25-30 and >30 kg/m(2). Of the 1581 participants included in the analysis, 28.3% were overweight, and 18.0% were obese. For women aged 18-45 years, the Pearl Indices were 2.49, 2.32 and 1.89 for women with a BMI <25, 25-30 and >30 kg/m(2), respectively. The ultra-low dose of ethinyl estradiol did not impact scheduled bleeding or intensity of bleeding, but we observed a slight decline in amenorrhea and slight increase in unscheduled bleeding in obese women compared with other BMI categories. Our analysis of an ultra-low-dose COC did not find clinically important differences in contraceptive failure rates, adverse events or bleeding profile with increasing BMI. Our analysis of an ultra-low ethinyl estradiol dose COC did not find clinically important differences in contraceptive failure rates, adverse events or bleeding profile with increasing BMI. An ultra-low-dose COC provides another safe and effective contraceptive option for obese women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Contraception in cardiac patients].

    PubMed

    Barrat, J; Nivet, M

    1976-01-01

    Contraception using IUDs and oral contraception, and sterilization in heart disease are discussed. IUDs are contraindicated in heart patients in whom bacterial infection might present special dangers (heart valve disease and certain congential heart defects), and in patients receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy, because of the increased risk of hemorrhage. Oral contraceptives are contraindicated because of the frequently observed water retention and weight gain, their effects on arterial blood pressure, and their contribution to thromboembolic desease. During sterilization procedures, particular attention should be given to anesthesia and to position. Contraindications are relative, depending on the patients' status and many other factors.

  16. The influence of the body mass index (BMI) on selected parameters of the coagulation system in patients with disorders of the balance system taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Bielińska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Joanna; Kuśmierczyk, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Jurek; Pietkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-07-10

    The objective of the paper is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on selected parameters of the coagulation system in patients with disorders of the balance system taking oral contraceptives. 105 young women participated in the study who were divided into 2 groups. Group I: 52 women disorders of the balance system taking hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, between the age of 20-49; Group II: 53 women with no disorders of the balance system taking hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, between the age of 18-40. Patients entering the study underwent full otoneurological examination, detailed laryngological assessment and the examination of selected parameters of the hemostasis system, including the evaluation of fibrinogen and D-dimer levels, APTT and PT, estradiol and progesterone concentrations in the blood serum and evaluation of the body mass index (BMI). Central vertigo was the most common type of vertigo in the study group (59,6% of cases). Other vertigo types in this group included compensated vertigo of mixed origin (36,6% of cases) and peripheral vertigo (only 3,8% of cases), which indicates that 40.4% of the cases suffer from damage to the labyrinth. The analysis of the concentration of estradiol in the blood serum revealed, after consideration of a menstrual cycle phase, that estradiol concentration exceeded normative values significantly more often in the study group than in the control group and that estradiol concentration was significantly less frequently below the norm in the study group; the difference was statistically significant (p=0,048). The body mass index (BMI) of women participating in the study significantly correlated with the concentration of D-dimers only in the study group (p=0,35 vs p=0,012). Evaluating the body mass index before administering hormonal contraception can be useful to eliminate other risk factors for thromboembolism. In order to prevent potential thromboembolism episodes

  17. The influence of the body mass index (BMI) on selected parameters of the coagulation system in patients with disorders of the balance system taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Bielinska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Joanna; Kusmierczyk, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Jurek; Pietkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-04-30

    The objective of the paper is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) on selected parameters of the coagulation system in patients with disorders of the balance system taking oral contraceptives. 105 young women participated in the study who were divided into 2 groups. Group I: 52 women disorders of the balance system taking hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, between the age of 20-49; Group II: 53 women with no disorders of the balance system taking hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, between the age of 18-40. Patients entering the study underwent full otoneurological examination, detailed laryngological assessment and the examination of selected parameters of the hemostasis system, including the evaluation of fibrinogen and D-dimer levels, APTT and PT, estradiol and progesterone concentrations in the blood serum and evaluation of the body mass index (BMI). Central vertigo was the most common type of vertigo in the study group (59,6% of cases). Other vertigo types in this group included compensated vertigo of mixed origin (36,6% of cases) and peripheral vertigo (only 3,8% of cases), which indicates that 40.4% of the cases suffer from damage to the labyrinth. The analysis of the concentration of estradiol in the blood serum revealed, after consideration of a menstrual cycle phase, that estradiol concentration exceeded normative values significantly more often in the study group than in the control group and that estradiol concentration was significantly less frequently below the norm in the study group; the difference was statistically significant (p=0,048). The body mass index (BMI) of women participating in the study significantly correlated with the concentration of D-dimers only in the study group (p=0,35 vs p=0,012). Evaluating the body mass index before administering hormonal contraception can be useful to eliminate other risk factors for thromboembolism. In order to prevent potential thromboembolism episodes

  18. Pipeline for contraceptive development.

    PubMed

    Blithe, Diana L

    2016-11-01

    The high rates of unplanned pregnancy reflect an unmet need for effective contraceptive methods for women, especially for individuals with health risks such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other conditions that may contraindicate use of an estrogen-containing product. Improvements in safety, user convenience, acceptability, and availability of products remain important goals of the contraceptive development program. Another important goal is to minimize the impact of the products on the environment. Development of new methods for male contraception has the potential to address many of these issues of safety for women who have contraindications to effective contraceptive methods but want to protect against pregnancy. It would also address a huge unmet need for men who want to control their fertility. Products under development for men would not introduce ecotoxic hormones into the water system.

  19. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Van Look, P F; von Hertzen, H

    1993-01-01

    The term 'emergency contraception', as employed in this paper, refers to methods that are used as emergency procedures to prevent pregnancy following unprotected intercourse. Alternative, less appropriate, terms are postcoital and 'morning-after' contraception. References to postcoital preparations can be found as far back as 1500 BC in Egyptian papyri, but it was not until fairly recently that contraceptive research has been able to at least partially fulfill that need. The development of hormonal methods of emergency contraception goes back to the 1960s when the first human trials of postcoitally administered high-dose oestrogens were undertaken. Combined oestrogen- progestogen combination therapy (the so-called Yuzpe regimen) was introduced in the early 1970s, while the postcoital insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for emergency contraception was first reported in 1976. Other compounds that have been tested more recently include levonorgestrel, the antiprogestogen mifepristone, and danazol. Although there is some debate about the magnitude of the protective effect, few people question the important role that emergency contraception can play in preventing unwanted pregnancy and hence maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from unsafe abortion. Given that the most often used methods of emergency contraception, namely the Yuzpe regimen and postcoital insertion of an IUD, rely on technology that has been available for some 30 years, family planning programmes that claim to be concerned with improving women's reproductive health, cannot really be excused if they do not provide emergency contraception as part of their routine services.

  20. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Two oral postcoital contraceptive agents are currently available. The first is a 2 x 2 pill; the second is a 5 x 5. Both release a higher dose of hormones than conventional contraceptive pills. Success rates range between 96% and 99%. They must be taken within 72 hours of intercourse. Side effects include nausea and vomiting. Contraindications are the same as for the common oral contraceptives. The contraceptive mode of action can be any of the following: 1) by making the lining of the uterus unreceptive; 2) by slowing the movement of the egg in the fallopian tube; or 3) by affecting the release of the egg. Emergency contraceptive pills have no effect once implantation takes place. The IUD can be used as an emergency postcoital contraceptive method if placed within 10 days of coitus. They are usually placed within 5-7 days because of laws regarding when birth control becomes abortion. One failure has been reported in Great Britain (December, 1993). Side effects are the same as with regular use. RU486/PG may be used in the future as an emergency contraceptive agent. Research is in progress on success rates and side effects. This agent could potentially be used at any time. Currently, emergency contraception can only be obtained by prescription. Limited hours and interrogating staff are obstacles in such emergencies. British women's groups are asking that emergency oral contraceptive pills be made available over the counter with advice from the pharmacist.

  1. [Achieving quality goals for bodies of water].

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Corrado; Guidi, Massimo; Martinelli, Angiolo; Patrizi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Target of this paper is to draw the relationship between environmental factors and some impacts due to human activity, in order to outline environmental quality restoring strategies for water bodies, which include among result indicators also biological parameters expected for Italian regulation and European directives. Morphologic equilibrium and correct knowledge of processes regulating fluvial dynamic, as basic factor of ecosystem functionality condition, are highlighted. Statistic evaluation processes of water quality data and implementation and validation of mathematical models are described.

  2. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  3. [Postcoital contraception].

    PubMed

    Hamerlynck, J V

    1981-07-11

    Some form of postcoital contraception for protection against unwanted pregnancy is indispensable today especially in cases of rape, failed mechanical contraception, or 1st sexual contact without contraception. A tabletform of postcoital contraceptive would be acceptable if 100% certainty is assured and it doesn't involve adverse effects. Postcoitally administered high-dose estrogens proved effective in Macaca mulatta. Diethylstilbestrol in variable dosages with or without ethinylestradiol was used in various studies and with variable results. Pregnancy rates depended on time of coitus in cycle, contraceptive dosage, and time of administration after coitus (within 72 hours). Conjugated estrogens and various progestagens or combinations of both have been tried with variable success. Another form of postcoital contraception is IUD insertion within 7 days following unprotected coitus. Advantages of this method are the time factors and absence of adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives. Postcoital hormonal contraceptives cause changes in the endometrium which prevent blastocyst implantation. They alter tubal function affecting zygote movement towards the uterus. They have an antiovulatory effect and may be luteolytic. Estrogens have more severe side effects than progestagens. Nausea, vomiting, mastodynia, fluid retention, and vaginal bleeding can result from estrogens. Progestagens can cause irregular bleeding. Combination of both can cause menstrual irregularity. Postcoital hormonal contraceptives are contraindicated in heart and liver diseases, thrombosis, and pregnancy (teratogenic and carcinogenic effects on offspring). Pregnancy despite postcoital contraception results in extrauterine pregnancy in 10% of patients. The most important reservations in evaluating publications on this subject are: 1) lack of control group; 2) estimation of pregnancy probability is not reliable because of study population used; 3) patient fertility cannot be ascertained; and 4

  4. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2002-08-06

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses of contraceptive steroids. The levonorgestrel-only regimen (levonorgestrel, 0.75 mg, repeated in 12 hours) appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the Yuzpe regimen (ethinyl estradiol, 100 microg, and levonorgestrel, 0.5 mg, repeated in 12 hours). In the largest randomized, controlled trial to date, levonorgestrel prevented about 85% of pregnancies that would have occurred without its use. Hormonal emergency contraception has no known medical contraindications, although it is not indicated for suspected or confirmed pregnancy. However, if hormonal emergency contraception is inadvertently taken in early pregnancy, neither the woman nor the fetus will be harmed. Nausea and vomiting associated with the Yuzpe regimen can be reduced by prophylactic use of meclizine. A strong medical and legal case exists for making hormonal emergency contraception available over the counter, as has happened in countries other than the United States. Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States.

  5. Contraceptive Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulka, Barbara S.; And Others

    The objective of research in contraceptive evaluation is to improve the ability of individuals to choose contraceptive methods best suited to their needs and circumstances and to provide information that will lead to the development of safer and more effective methods. There are usually three considerations in judging the importance of a method of…

  6. Contraceptive Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulka, Barbara S.; And Others

    The objective of research in contraceptive evaluation is to improve the ability of individuals to choose contraceptive methods best suited to their needs and circumstances and to provide information that will lead to the development of safer and more effective methods. There are usually three considerations in judging the importance of a method of…

  7. Pharmacokinetics of levonorgestrel and ulipristal acetate emergency contraception in women with normal and obese body mass index.

    PubMed

    Praditpan, Piyapa; Hamouie, Angie; Basaraba, Cale N; Nandakumar, Renu; Cremers, Serge; Davis, Anne R; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2017-05-01

    This study compares the pharmacokinetics (PK) of levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraceptive (EC) and ulipristal acetate (UPA)-EC between normal-body mass index (BMI) and obese-BMI women. This prospective, randomized crossover study evaluates the PK of women after single doses of LNG-EC (1.5mg) and UPA-EC (30mg). Study procedures took place during clinical research unit admissions, where participants received a standardized meal and each study drug, in random order, during two separate 24-h admissions. Study staff collected 14 blood specimens (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24 and 48h). We evaluated serum concentrations of LNG and UPA using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and estimated the PK parameters of both drugs using noncompartmental analysis. The main outcome of this study was a comparison of between-group differences in AUC0-24. Thirty-two women completed the study (16 in each group). Among normal-BMI and obese-BMI participants, the mean BMIs were 22.0 (range 18.8-24.6) and 34.3 (range 30.6-39.9), respectively. After LNG-EC, mean AUC0-24 and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 50% lower among obese-BMI women than among normal-BMI women (AUC0-24 100.8 vs. 208.5ng*h/mL, IQRobese-BMI 35.8, IQRnormal-BMI 74.2, p≤.01; Cmax 10.8 vs. 18.2ng/mL, p=.01). After UPA-EC, AUC0-24 and Cmax were similar between obese-BMI and normal-BMI women (AUC0-24 362.5 vs. 293.5ng*h/mL, IQRobese-BMI 263.2, IQRnormal-BMI 112.5, p=.15; Cmax 95.6 vs. 89.3ng/mL, p=.70). After a single dose of EC, obese-BMI women are exposed to lower concentrations of LNG and similar concentrations of UPA, when compared to normal-BMI women. Differences in LNG-EC PK by BMI group may underlie and account for the lower LNG-EC efficacy reported among obese-BMI women, but modest differences in UPA-EC PK by BMI group provide less support for variable efficacy. A pharmacodynamic study may be able to clarify whether these PK differences account for observed differences in LNG-EC and

  8. Contraceptive Equity

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The Equity in Prescription Insurance and Contraceptive Coverage Act, introduced in Congress in 1997 and still unpassed, seeks to redress health insurers’ failure to pay for birth control as they pay for other prescription drugs, most paradoxically Viagra. In 1936 the International Workers Order (IWO), a fraternal society, became the first insurer to include contraception in its benefits package. A forerunner in the movement for prepaid medical care, the IWO offered its members primary care and contraceptive services for annual flat fees. Founded at a time when the legal status of contraception was in flux, the IWO’s Birth Control Center was the only such clinic to operate on an insurance system. Recent state laws and judicial actions have revived the IWO’s groundbreaking view of contraception as a basic preventive service deserving of insurance coverage. PMID:17761562

  9. Intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Natalie S; Burke, Anne E

    2015-11-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are effective, reversible forms of contraception with high patient satisfaction and continuation. IUDs can be safely used by most women and should be considered the first-line method of contraception for all women. This descriptive review will discuss the clinical issues associated with IUDs - including management of side effects, noncontraceptive uses and insertion and removal. When the burdens of cost are removed, women are more likely to select and IUDs. Health policy changes that increase insurance coverage for contraception will improve access to IUDs. IUDs remain an underutilized form of contraception in USA and efforts to improve availability and access to long-acting reversible contraception methods is needed to optimize their use.

  10. Masking water ice on small icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetto, R.

    2011-10-01

    Additional clues on the surface composition of small icy bodies come from the laboratory study of cometary grains, such as some interplanetary dust particles collected in the Earth's stratosphere. These studies indicate the presence of refractory carbonaceous units that are usually sub-micron in size, i.e. smaller than the wavelength commonly used in remote sensing spectral observations of icy bodies. Based on this evidence, it has been suggested [2] that reddening of small icy bodies may be caused by submicron particles of organic material of pre-solar origin trapped in ice. According to this model, the amount of reddening varies with the concentration of organics to ice. To extend these results, we are developing a space weathering spectral model for small icy bodies that is compatible with laboratory measurements of collected cometary particles [3], and that takes into account the surface processing by solar and cosmic ions. Following the approach of Grundy [2], our model makes use of the Hapke scattering theory and of the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory to approximate the effect of carbon subwavelength inclusions. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed in view of their application to icy body surfaces. The conditions for the NIR spectral detection of water ice will be estimated. We will show that up to ~50% of water ice can be spectroscopically masked at 10% detection sensitivity due to the strong absorption of the sub-micron carbonaceous component, similarly to what previously found in the case of carbon-enriched crusts [4].

  11. Obtaining contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M; Maxwell, G

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 3 sample urban populations of adolescent males and females was conducted in New Zealand to ascertain whether difficulties in obtaining contraceptives was a major factor contributing toward the high rate of unprotected intercourse among young people. The samples included 246 high school students, 80 university students, and 70 individuals from the general population. There was a 47% refusal rate so the interviewed subjects could not be considered representative of the total populations. Subjects were asked to indicate the degree of embarrassment they would experience in obtaining contraceptives from a variety of sources including some sources which were currently not available. Males felt somewhat more embarrassed in obtaining contraceptives than females. About 1/3 of the males said that they felt embarrassed when obtaining contraceptives at a chemist's shop, especially if they were served by a female shop assistant. Males preferred obtaining contraceptives from sources which provided them with a high degree of privacy and anonymity. Males favored obtaining contraceptives from mail order houses, from vending machines, and from male chemists who made contraceptives available in a special display area. Many males said that they would use the services of a male family planning clinic if such services were made available. Most female methods were available through doctors and females reported less embarrassment in obtaining contraceptives than males. About 1/3 of the females preferred getting contraceptive advice and methods from female doctors, and 1/2 of the females felt it was important to know how the physician felt about contraception before seeking his advice. Current methods of distribution are inadequate and new sources associated with less embarrassment are needed.

  12. Atrial natriuretic factor and body water distribution.

    PubMed

    Vidal, N A; Arranz, C T; Mones Sias, M C; Herrmann, A P; Martinez Seeber, A

    1987-11-01

    In the rat, the effects of an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) (Rat, 8-33 Peninsula Lab) on body water distribution have been evaluated. The ANF administration to nephrectomized animals produced a decrease in plasma volume and a slight increase in haematocrit and in plasma albumin concentration. No modifications were observed in total and intracellular water. The fluid efflux from the capillaries appeared to be located in the interstitial space. These results suggest that ANF could regulate plasma volume and systemic blood pressure, concurrently with its other known effects.

  13. Contraceptive implants.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Burke, Anne E

    2010-03-01

    Implantable contraception has been extensively used worldwide. Implants are one of the most effective and reversible methods of contraception available. These devices may be particularly appropriate for certain populations of women, including women who cannot use estrogen-containing contraception. Implants are safe for use by women with many chronic medical problems. The newest implant, Implanon (Organon International, Oss, The Netherlands), is the only device currently available in the United States and was approved in 2006. It is registered for 3 years of pregnancy prevention. Contraceptive implants have failure rates similar to tubal ligation, and yet they are readily reversible with a return to fertility within days of removal. Moreover, these contraceptive devices can be safely placed in the immediate postpartum period, ensuring good contraceptive coverage for women who may be at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Irregular bleeding is a common side effect for all progestin-only contraceptive implants. Preinsertion counseling should address possible side effects, and treatment may be offered to women who experience prolonged or frequent bleeding.

  14. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  15. An Ontology Representation for Water Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodaric, B.; Hahmann, T.; Gruninger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The interoperability of hydrological data has been a major concern in recent years, as evident by the maturation of international standards as well as the development of national and international data systems. Notwithstanding the related significant efforts at modeling hydrological entities, there remain unresolved questions about some core entities that impact the design of hydro schemas, ontologies, and similar knowledge models. One such central entity is the water body, which is represented quite heterogeneously in such models, potentially challenging their interoperability. To meet this challenge, we carry out an ontological analysis of the water body entity and propose a new ontological representation for it, as part of a wider initiative into foundational hydro ontology. The representation exhibits the surprising result that a water body is a mereological entity that is essentially grounded in two types of whole-part relations. The nuanced nature of this result has the potential to inform the design of other hydro knowledge models, as well as to foster interoperability between them.

  16. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lane, M E

    1973-01-01

    In the contraceptive clinic of the Margaret Sanger Research Bureau, about 3000 patients are served each year, with at least 15% under 18. Of those attending the Teen Center as of 1972, aged 17 and younger, 15% used the diaphragm, 26% the IUD, 43% oral contraceptives, 10% foam or condom, and 5% a long-acting injectable. The Teen Center's program is limited to 200 girls, and along with contraceptive services, provides peer group discussions which help the girls decide which contraceptive to choose. Girls choose the diaphragm mostly when intercourse does not occur frequently. The IUD is best for those who fear the possibility of forgetting to use contraception. Although the IUD is not ideal for nulliparous women, gentle and slow insertion techniques reduce unpleasant symptoms. The girl who wishes to run no pregnancy risk whatsoever, who is not fearful of side effects, who has no strong feelings about ingesting chemicals, who is confident of not forgetting to take the pill regularly, and who desires the convenience of routine is most likely to select the oral contraceptive. The risks of the effect of oral contraceptives on the growing body are countered by the greater potential harmful effects of pregnancy producing much higher estrogen levels than caused by the pill. Because of the different needs of teenagers, they are seen every 3 months. Since the clinic's beginning in February 1971, about 8% have dropped from the program; 12 girls became pregnant and 9 had subsequent abortions. The low dropout rate is attributed to the teenagers' perception that the staff accepts and cares about them.

  17. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... against STDs even when using another method of birth control. If a condom breaks (or a couple has ... Emergency contraception is not recommended as a regular birth control method . Instead, it is used for emergencies only. ...

  18. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  19. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-04-01

    Currently approved male-directed contraceptive methods include condoms and vas occlusion. Vas occlusion is very effective but is intended to be non-reversible. Condoms have a relatively high failure rate, at least partially due to compliance problems and are not accepted by many couples. The only other male-oriented methods in clinical trials utilize the administration of testosterone alone or its combination with another gonadotropin-suppressing agent such as a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that a testosterone-containing hormonal contraceptive method suppressed spermatogenesis to azoospermia in most men and severe oligozoospermia in the remaining. The contraceptive efficacy after treatment with testosterone alone was comparable to that of female hormonal methods. Having proven that reversible male contraception is a reality, present trials are attempting to identify the best androgen delivery system and the most effective androgen plus progestin preparation. It is likely that the first marketed male hormonal contraceptive method will be a long-acting (injectable or implant) combination of an androgen plus a progestin. Research is continuing to identify other target areas for male contraceptive development, including agents with post-testicular and epididymal sites of action.

  20. About Implantable Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... TV, Video Games, and the Internet About Implantable Contraception KidsHealth > For Parents > About Implantable Contraception Print A ... How Much Does It Cost? What Is Implantable Contraception? Implantable contraception (often called the birth control implant) ...

  1. Robust three-body water simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tainter, C. J.; Pieniazek, P. A.; Lin, Y.-S.; Skinner, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    The most common potentials used in classical simulations of liquid water assume a pairwise additive form. Although these models have been very successful in reproducing many properties of liquid water at ambient conditions, none is able to describe accurately water throughout its complicated phase diagram. The primary reason for this is the neglect of many-body interactions. To this end, a simulation model with explicit three-body interactions was introduced recently [R. Kumar and J. L. Skinner, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 8311 (2008), 10.1021/jp8009468]. This model was parameterized to fit the experimental O-O radial distribution function and diffusion constant. Herein we reparameterize the model, fitting to a wider range of experimental properties (diffusion constant, rotational correlation time, density for the liquid, liquid/vapor surface tension, melting point, and the ice Ih density). The robustness of the model is then verified by comparing simulation to experiment for a number of other quantities (enthalpy of vaporization, dielectric constant, Debye relaxation time, temperature of maximum density, and the temperature-dependent second and third virial coefficients), with good agreement.

  2. Assessment of dietary choices of young women in the contexts of hormonal contraceptives

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Mariola; Junak, Magdalena

    Metabolic changes caused by hormonal contraception combined with unbalanced diet may pose many threats, and deficiency or excess of nutrients may increase the risk of using such contraceptives. The purpose of the survey was to assess the dietary choices of young women using hormonal contraceptives, taking into account their general knowledge about the contraception and its impact on their bodies. The survey comprised 67 women aged from 18 to 25 years. In of three-day menus (201 daily food rations) of the women under research the content of energy and most of nutritious ingredients wandered away from recommended values in Poland. Each respondent additionally filled in a questionnaire concerning her: anthropometric data, education, place of residence; the type, name and time of taking contraceptives; purpose for using hormonal contraception along with its determinants; duration of use, breaks in contraceptive practice; occurrence of side effects during contraceptive use; stimulants used; physical activity, incidence of diarrhoea and vomiting, and dietary supplements use. The assessment of nutritional status of young women taking hormonal contraceptives has shown a number of nonconformities. The survey has revealed insufficient energy value of the menus, and incorrect proportions of basic nutrients, from recommended values, what was reflected in insufficient intake of vitamins (A, D, E, C, B1, B3, B6, and folates) and minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Fe). An excessive consumption of proteins, animal-based in particular, and insufficient consumption of lipids and carbohydrates, polysaccharides in particular, what resulted in insufficient consumption of dietary fibre. Nutritional choices of the respondents were typical to their gender and age, but were not adjusted to the use of hormonal contraceptives. Side effects observed by the respondents, mainly weight gain, may have been a summary result of improper eating behaviors that facilitated accumulation of body fat and water.

  3. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Ellertson, C; Trussell, J; Stewart, F; Koenig, J; Raymond, E G; Shochet, T

    2001-12-01

    Emergency contraceptives are methods that prevent pregnancy when used shortly after unprotected sex. Three different emergency contraceptive methods are safe, simple, and widely available in the United States. These are: (1) ordinary combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel taken in a higher dose for a short period of time and started within a few days after unprotected intercourse; (2) levonorgestrel-only tablets used similarly; and (3) copper-bearing intrauterine devices inserted within approximately 1 week after unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraceptive use is best known for women who have been raped, but the methods are also appropriate for women who have experienced condom breaks, women who did not use any method because they were not planning on having sex, or women who had unprotected intercourse for any other reason. Unfortunately, few women know about emergency contraceptives, and few clinicians think to inform their patients routinely about the option. A nationwide toll-free hotline (1-888-NOT-2-LATE) and a website (http://not-2-late.com) can help women learn about these options. Sharing "family planning's best-kept secret" widely with women could prevent as many as a million unwanted pregnancies annually in the United States.

  4. Future contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Alexander, N J

    1995-09-01

    This article looks at the improvements that may occur in contraceptives in the near future. While no product currently under study would be ideal (highly effective, safe, readily reversible, free of side effects, coitally independent, counteract the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and inexpensive), several would come closer than those available today. For men, the condom is the only currently available contraception, and a thinner version has recently been introduced in response to the criticism that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. Methods under study for men include manipulating hormones to halt sperm production by the intramuscular injection of an androgen in combination with a progestin or by blocking the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In the future, long-acting reversible agents should be available to directly halt sperm production or maturation. In men and women, vaccines should become available that would use antibodies to disrupt reproduction. Additional hormonal options in women should include hormone-releasing vaginal rings, a simplified contraceptive implant delivery system, a hormone-releasing IUD, and a monthly pill. Vaginal chemicals could be used to impede some of the necessary changes that sperm undergo after ejaculation. Spermicides will also be available with the ability to prevent STDs. The order of appearance of these new contraceptives will probably be nonlatex condoms, vaginal rings, and new implants, followed by disease-reducing spermicides, hormone-releasing IUDs, new emergency contraceptives, a three-month injectable for men, biodegradable implants for women, and immunocontraceptives (if they receive the backing of the industry).

  5. Preparation and characterization of an immunoaffinity chromatography column for the selective extraction of trace contraceptive drug levonorgestrel from water samples.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuwei; Yang, Hong; Wang, Bin; Song, Juan; Deng, Anping

    2009-11-15

    The preparation and characterization of an immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column for the specific extraction and enrichment of trace contraceptive drug levonorgestrel (LNG) from water samples were described. The IAC column was constructed by covalently coupling specific polyclonal antibody against LNG to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B and packed into a common solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The extraction conditions including loading, washing and eluting solutions, as well as the effect of flow rate on the extraction were carefully optimized. Pure water, 5% of methanol and 50% of methanol were respectively selected as loading, washing and eluting solutions, while the flow rates in the loading, washing and eluting steps were selected to be 1.0, 2.0 and 0.5 mL min(-1), respectively. Under optimal conditions, the IAC column was characterized in terms of maximum capacity, extraction recovery and stability. It was found that, for IAC column packed with 0.2g of solid support immobilized with antibody, the maximum capacity for LNG was about 260 ng. The extraction recoveries of the column for LNG at three different spiked concentrations were within 95.3-106.9%. After more than 35 times repeated usage, there was not significant loss of specific recognition. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as an analytical tool, trace amount of LNG in the range of ng L(-1) was found in river water and wastewater samples after 600-fold enrichment, demonstrated the feasibility of the prepared IAC column for LNG extraction.

  6. Contraceptive revolution.

    PubMed

    Segal, S J

    1994-06-01

    Global population will increase by almost 1 billion people in the 1990s, the largest 10-year increase ever recorded. In 1994 alone, population will surpass 5.7 billion. The prospect of double-digit billions of people is worrisome, especially since these numbers may affect global warming, supplies of fresh water, destruction of rain forests, industrial pollution, and sustainable development. Yet, many indicators of quality of life show that people enjoy a better quality of life today than they did 100 years ago. Between India's independence and now, life expectancy increased by 20 years, infant mortality decreased 2-fold, literacy increased, and the food supply stabilized. Even though India's population has almost tripled since 1947, its economy increased rapidly and is 1 of the world's top 10 economies. University enrollment stands at 4.5 million. Agricultural production has exceeded demand. India represents the potential for human achievement through technological advancement and social organization. If the world's first national family planning program had been more successful when it began in 1952 in an India of 350 million people, India's population would be around 500 million instead of the expected 1 billion in 2000. All countries need to achieve a sustainable balance between human numbers and needs and natural resources. Family planning is an essential, cost-effective part of any development strategy. Family planning use has reduced fertility from 6 to 3.6 in developing countries. In 1965, only 8% used contraception, while more than 50% use it now. The most remarkable family planning/fertility reduction successes are Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand. Sufficient investment in family planning is needed if significant declines in fertility are to occur. More than 90% of the developing world's people are in countries with official family planning programs. Cost-effective assistance by donors and developing countries implementing

  7. Body composition and weight gain in new users of the three-monthly injectable contraceptive, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, after 12 months of follow-up.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Priscilla de Nazaré Silva; Modesto, Waleska Oliveira; Dal'Ava, Nathalia; Bahamondes, Maria Valéria; Pavin, Elizabeth João; Fernandes, Arlete

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate weight gain and body composition (BC) in new users of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) as a contraceptive. This cohort study followed up 20 DMPA users and 20 copper intrauterine device (TCu380A IUD) users, paired for age (± 1 year) and body mass index (BMI ± 1 kg/m(2)), during 12-months. Healthy, non-obese women aged 18 to 40 years, unaffected by conditions that could influence their body weight, were enrolled. Socio-demographic variables, habits, weight, BMI, BC using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, circumferences, skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and waist-to-hip ratio were evaluated. All participants were encouraged to adopt healthy habits. At baseline, median age was 29 and 30.5 years, and mean BMI was 24.8 and 24.5 kg/m(2) in the DMPA and IUD groups, respectively. At 12 months, an increase was observed in waist and hip circumference in the DMPA users and 8/20 of them had a weight gain ≥ 5% (mean 4.6 kg) with accumulation of fat centrally. There were no differences in weight gain or in BC measurements between the groups; nevertheless 40% of women in the DMPA group had larger weight gain and accumulation of fat centrally. The duration of follow-up may have been insufficient to detect differences between the groups.

  8. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  9. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  10. Changes in total body water during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Inners, L. D.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) changes occurring in humans as a consequence of prolonged exposure to microgravity were measured in five male crewmembers of Space Shuttle missions STS-61C and STS-26. It was found that the inflight mean TBW values were significantly different from the preflight and postflight values, while the preflight TBW values were not significantly different from the postflight values. It was also found that individuals may differ in the rate at which they respond to weightlessness. Of the three crewmen who reported experiencing no symptoms of space motion sickness (SMS), two had not exhibited a decrease of TBW at the time of measurements (24 hrs after launch), while the two crewmen who reported SMS of intermediate severity showed a decrease of several kg by 24 hrs, suggesting that dehydration might be an important factor affecting the rate of TBW decrease.

  11. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... a prescription, regardless of a person's age. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) can sometimes be used as a form of ... days after unprotected sex. It works because the copper prevents sperm from ... than ECPs, an IUD is the most effective type of emergency contraception. ...

  12. Water in primitive solar system bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin

    This is a dissertation on the physical properties, particularly, the water distribution in three small body populations of the solar system: (1) the Jovian Trojans, (2) the main-belt B-type asteroids and (3) the comets. Using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, I have sought diagnostic (especially water) features in the Trojans. My sample is focused on objects identified in previous measurements as being of special interest. I found that the high albedo Trojan (4709) Ennomos has a featureless spectrum and that its surface contains no more than 10% water ice. In addition, the organic-like features reported earlier for Trojans (617) Patroclus, (911) Agamemnon, (1143) Odysseus and (2797) Teucer were not confirmed. Furthermore, my observations of seven Trojan asteroids that have been formerly reported to show silicate-like absorption features did not confirm the features in their spectra. My broadband photometric observations of two Trojan families (the Eurybates and the 1986WD family) showed that five Eurybates Trojans and one 1986WD Trojan exhibit UV drop-offs, indicating the presence of hydrated minerals on these objects. B-type asteroids are rare, blue asteroids, of which 2 Pallas is the largest and most famous example. In a focused, spectroscopic study of 20 B-type asteroids, I found that optically similar B-type asteroids are spectrally diverse in the near infrared. The negative optical spectral slope is due to the presence of a broad absorption band centered near 1.0 mm, which can often be modeled using magnetite. The best meteorite analogs for B-types are the unusual CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. In the NIR spectra of the outburst comet 17P/Holmes, I found two broad absorption bands with centers (at 2mm and 3mm, respectively) and overall shapes consistent with the presence of micron-sized water ice grains in the coma. These features together with the discovery of excess 3mm thermal emission, suggests that the coma of 17P/Holmes has two components (hot

  13. [Contraceptive methods].

    PubMed

    Toivonen, J

    1987-01-01

    Interest in contraceptive devices has increased in recent years due to their safety and protection offered against venereal disease. Use of the devices prevents sperm from entering the uterine canal. Failure of a device is usually caused either because the contraceptive outside the uterus is wrongly positioned or because not enough active spermicidal ingredients were released before ejaculation. Mass production of condoms was made possible through utilization of latex rubber. Different color and shape alternatives have made condom usage more popular in developing countries. The diaphragm and its variation, the cervical cap, are treated with spermicide and then placed inside the vagina. Correct size of the contraceptive is an important consideration. Spermicides consist of active substances that kill sperm, as well as a carrier substance such as foam, ointment and jelly. The newest preventive device is the contraceptive sponge, which can stay in place for up to 36 hours. IN vitro studies show that effectiveness of condoms is 0.5-2.0 (Pearl's index). Combination use of diaphragm and spermicide yields a protection rate of 2-20 (life-table index), and spermicides 0.3-30.0. Risks associated with these methods include local irritation. It was believed that some spermicides increased rats of miscarriage, Down's Syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities, as well as limb anomalies. Diaphragm use increases potential for urinary tract infections. Toxic shock may occur with some users of sponge and diaphragm. All the mentioned contraceptives protect from infection, and are most suitable for people who cannot tolerate hormonal preparations or IUD's, who are in a casual sexual relationship or nursing mothers or youth.

  14. Impact of bodyweight/body mass index on the effectiveness of emergency contraception with levonorgestrel: a pooled-analysis of three randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, K; Kardos, L; von Hertzen, H

    2015-12-01

    A pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggested that increased bodyweight and body mass index (BMI) may be associated with a greater probability of pregnancy. To address this issue we investigated whether higher bodyweight and/or BMI negatively impacted the risk of pregnancy in women receiving LNG-EC (levonorgestrel - emergency contraception) after unprotected sexual intercourse in a pooled analysis of three large multinational RCTs conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO). A pooled analysis of three double-blind, multinational RCTs conducted by the WHO to investigate the efficacy of LNG-EC in the general population. All analyses were done on the per-protocol set (PPS) which included 5812 women who received LNG-EC within 72 hours following unprotected sexual intercourse. The analysis was based on logistic regression, with pregnancy as the outcome. BMI and weight were represented in the same model. A total of 56 pregnancies were available for analysis in the PPS. Increasing bodyweight and BMI were not correlated with an increased risk of pregnancy in the studied population. A limitation of this study is that despite the large study population in the pooled analysis there were relatively small numbers of women in the high-BMI and high-bodyweight subgroups. LNG-EC is effective for preventing pregnancy after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and no evidence was found to support the hypothesis of a loss of EC efficacy in subjects with high BMI or bodyweight. Therefore, access to LNG-EC should not be limited only to women of lower bodyweight or BMI.

  15. Latest developments in contraception.

    PubMed

    Gold, J

    1983-05-28

    The 10th Annual Symposium on Latest Developments in Contraception, organized by the Biological Science Committee of the Australian Federation of Family Planning Associations, was held in February 1983 and provided an update on the current status of contraceptive technology. In a review of steroidal contraception, it was proposed that the Silastic vaginal ring is the most promising of the fertility control devices not requiring continual involvement of the couple. Product development costs, the length of time required for safety trials have hindered development of the perfect contraceptive device. In a discussion of IUD use, it was reported that there are fewer expulsions and a lower incidence of infection when the device is inserted between the 11th and 17th days of the menstrual cycle. Although it is current practice to reinsert copper IUDs every 2 years, no increase in failure rates has been observed after 5 years of continual use. It is recommended that IUD insertion be delayed until 8 weeks postpartum. Another participant asserted that there is no empirical evidence to justify the use of spermicides with diaphragms. Unknown factors of vaginal physiology and its interaction with sperm must be elucidated before a good barrier method can be introduced. Concern was expressed with the numbers of women seeking reanastomosis of the Fallopian tubes after tubal ligation. Success of reanastomosis depends on the type of initial procedure and the time elapsed. 7% of Australian men have had vasectomies, and the request rate for reversal is 2-3/1000/year. In a review of immunological contraception, it was noted that long-lasting, non-pharmacologically active agents are the most promising substances for future research, but their potential hazards are great. Dr. Evelyn Billings reported that the ovulation method of natural family planning is superior to the basal-body-temperature or rhythm methods since it takes stress-induced fluctuations in ovulation into account. The

  16. FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163907.html FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure to ultra-low temperatures shows no benefits ... There's no evidence that a growing trend called whole body cryotherapy is effective, but it does pose a number ...

  17. Diatomological mapping of water bodies--a future perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvinder; Deepa; Kaur, Ramanjeet

    2013-08-01

    Corpse floating in running or stagnant water may not keep a tail of its exact place of drowning. Disagreement between diatoms recovered from the body and those in the presumed drowning medium may possibly advocate that body has been moved from its exact site of drowning. It emphasizes on the importance of water sampling from where the body is found. Diatomological Mapping (D-Mapping) of water bodies assumes to be an important means to solve this problem even when reference water sample is not available. Information of the present attempt has been exercised to scratch the authenticity of D-maps of these four water bodies after a gap of four years (2007-2011). Current records have been found interesting and significant for the authenticity of D-maps for a prolong characterization of water bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    PubMed

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  19. Regulation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol in water bodies in Europe, the United States, and Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Danieli Lima; da Silva, Samuel Muylaert Camargo; Bila, Daniele Maia; Oliveira, Jaime Lopes da Mota; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; Larentis, Ariane Leites

    2016-03-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol, the principal component of oral contraceptives, has been identified as one of the main compounds accounting for adverse effects on the endocrine system in various species. This study aimed to analyze the state-of-the-art in legislation and guidelines for the control of this synthetic estrogen in water bodies in Europe and the United States and to draw a parallel with the Brazilian reality. Countries have generally attempted to expand the regulation and monitoring of certain emerging micropollutants not previously covered by legislation. Europe is more advanced in terms of water quality, while in the United States this estrogen is only regulated in water for human consumption. Brazil still lacks legal provisions or standards for this estrogen, which can be explained by the relatively limited maturity of the country's system for controlling water pollutants.

  20. Contraception and Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing of ...

  1. Emergency Contraception Website

    MedlinePlus

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website is ...

  2. [Hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Prilepskaia, V N

    1991-12-01

    Effective contraceptives contribute to the regulation of births, protect the health of women, reduce maternal and perinatal mortality and gynecological diseases, and prevent abortion-related complications. Complications after abortion average 30%, and among primigravidas the rate reaches 45%. Abortion can result in sterility and in the inability to carry out the pregnancy. Oral contraceptives (OCs) are used by 150 million globally. In new preparations ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) are the most common components. In the 2-phase and 3-phase preparations Sequilar, Anteovin, and lipid profile safe Triquilar the gestagen component was reduced 40%. Continuin and Famulen are minipills, and Postinor is a postcoital contraceptive. Absolute contraindications of OCs include thromboembolytic diseases, severe cardiovascular system diseases, liver disorders, cirrhosis, cerebral vascular diseases, grave diabetes, jaundice, and malignant tumors of the mammae and sexual organs. Rigevidon, Triquilar, and Trisiston have high steroid content with minimal side effects. The protective effect of OCs are: 2-3 times lower risk of inflammation of the small pelvis, lower risk of malignant and benign ovarian tumors that lasts even after discontinuation, uterine cancer prevention (antiproliferation effect on the endometrium and inhibition of mitotic activity of the myometrium), and reduced risk of benign breast neoplasms. The finding that estrogen-induced risk of breast cancer increases with longterm contraceptive use in young nulliparas has not been persuasively proven. The optimal duration of uninterrupted OC use is 1-1.5 years. Monophasic estrogen-gestagen preparations include Bisecurin, Non-Ovlon, Ovidon, Rigevidon, Minisiston, and Demulen with low dosages of EE, LNG, norethisterone acetate, and diacetate ethonodiol. Norplant is a subdermal silastic capsule with effectiveness for up to 5 years.

  3. Contraceptive practices.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, J E; Rao, P S

    1976-08-01

    A family life education program (FLEP) providing contraceptive services within a comprehensive health care organization for low-income, inner-city adolescents is described. Each female patient attending in the July 1-September 30, 1974, period was included in a study undertaken to identify and serve the unmet needs of the teen-age population in the community of East Harlem. Of the 334 females interviewed, almost 1/2 were black, 37% were Hispanic, 12% were white, and 2% were Oriental, totals representative of the surrounding community. The questionnaire included information on demographic and social background, sexual history, reproductive history, and contraceptive experience. Comparisons are made on the answers between groups. Personal contacts and school outreach were the 2 main sources of referral to the clinic. Sexual history was found to be associated with social background rather than physiological factors. More than 1/2 the teen-agers had never used contraception prior to their 1st clinic visit and another 1/4 of the girls were using unreliable methods. The study indicated that teen-agers will use good programs which are designed to meet their needs. For teen-agers, a free-standing clinic offering comprehensive health care is the ideal situation.

  4. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  5. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  6. Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

  7. Immaculate contraception.

    PubMed

    Smith, K

    The city of Dundee has the highest teen pregnancy and abortion rate in Scotland. In the heart of the city, The Corner is a health and information drop-in center for people aged 12-25 years which has provided a range of health promotion activities, contraception services, and general information and advice since April 1996. 8000 inquiries were posed from young people in Dundee and the surrounding areas in The Corner's first full year of operation, one-third on sexual health. A survey conducted last December found that 55% of the center's clients were aged 12-15. Young people helped to design the center, creating a cafe atmosphere in the main drop-in area with tables, chairs, and loungers. Reference literature is on display, music plays, and a series of computers is linked to health information databases. In this environment, clients can hang out, ask questions, and receive condoms or other contraceptive services without the embarrassment of attending a local family planning clinic. The examination and counseling rooms are also relaxed and warmly-appointed. The Corner has also offered emergency contraception since January, one of the few places in Scotland where nurses can provide it. While The Corner has received some local criticism, it is operating within the laws and codes of professional practices. The center is jointly funded by Tayside Health Board, Dundee City Council, and the Scottish Office. Finally, the center has a travel program which offers a package of activities based upon a different foreign country each week.

  8. Postcoital contraception.

    PubMed

    McLaren, H C

    1977-02-05

    My colleague Dr. C.L. Brewer (January 15, p. 169) is within his rights to ask for a precise definition of abortion and contraception. I define abortion as the deliberate destruction of the embryo once it is embedded in the uterus. The absolutist on the abortion issue, until he is sure that an IUD never works by destroying an embedded embryo, must logically eschew this technique, advising his patient as to his ethical objections. She may then seek other advice once she has the facts. However, to insist that those who advise an IUD with the motive of contraception cannot herefore object to, say, intrauterine saline aimed at the destruction of a moving 27-week fetus is, in my view, stretching his argument. With further stretching it could be carried to absurdity in the rubella-early pregnancy dilemma: why not deliver the child, examine it carefully, and then if imperfect kill it with a silver hammer? Unthinkable, even if logical. Still, Dr. Brewer has a point and (with me) no doubt he will sympathize with Pope John and his advisers in their support for family spacing only by the avoidance of the fertile days - esthetically admirable but, alas, not always effective. How absurd the Catholic Church would now look if 10 years ago it had blessed the IUD only to find that it may operate not only by preventing the embedding of the zygot but by destroying it in situ - by definition an abortion. The future may settle the debate with hormones which convert the endometrium to a nonreceptive state so that a fetus is never embedded in the womb. Even better, we may develop a male hormone which prevents sperm from penetrating the ovum. Meantime, motive is important: contraception is not abortion and our abortionists should not dress up as delayed contraceptors. (Editor's note: This correspondence is now closed.)

  9. [Postabortion contraception].

    PubMed

    Morales del Olmo, R A; Vega, A; Fuentes, G; Pérez Palacios, G

    1998-02-01

    In Mexico, as in almost all the Latin American countries, abortion represents an important maternal morbidity-mortality reason. It has been pointed out that those women who had an abortion, are in greater risk to repeat this condition than those women who have not had the episode. For this reason, it is a transcendental matter, the use of modern contraceptive technology for fertility regulation with the aim to avoid not planned pregnancies and their devastating consequences. This document reviews-according to the Family Planning Official Norm of the Ministry of Health-those different contractive alternatives, that can be used in the postabortion.

  10. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  11. Sexual health and contraception.

    PubMed

    Straw, Fiona; Porter, Charlotte

    2012-10-01

    Sexual health encompasses 'sexual development and reproductive health, as well as the ability to develop and maintain meaningful interpersonal relationships; appreciate one's own body; interact with both genders in respectful and appropriate ways; express affection, love and intimacy in ways consistent with one's own values'. The 2008 WHO Consensus Statement additionally noted that 'responsible adolescent intimate relationships' should be 'consensual, non-exploitative, honest, pleasurable and protected against unintended pregnancy and STDs if any type of intercourse occurs'. Young people (YP) must, therefore, be able to access sexual health information and services that meet their needs. For most YP, interest in sexual activity begins with puberty, and this is associated with increasingly sexualised behaviour, including exploration of themselves and others. Most YP find this a confusing time, and so it is important that health professionals are able to offer advice regarding the wide range of sexual health issues, including sexuality, choice of partner, contraception, risk and management of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a confident and approachable manner. YP have never had so much choice or information available to them, and this can be confusing for them. There is good evidence that YP who get information from their parents are likely to initiate sexual activity later than their peers who access information from their friends. However, there is also evidence that some YP would prefer to get sexual health information from health professionals. It is therefore imperative that all health professionals who see YP have an awareness of sexual health issues, and know where to signpost YP should they need more specialist sexual health advice and/or treatment. Where appropriate, one-to-one sexual health advice should be provided to YP on how to prevent and get tested for STIs, and how to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Advice should also be given on all methods

  12. Mathematical modeling of the human body during water replacement and dehydration: body water changes.

    PubMed

    Downey, D; Seagrave, R C

    2000-03-01

    A model of the human body that integrates the variables involved in temperature regulation and blood gas transport within the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is presented here. It expands upon previous work to describe the competition between skin and muscles when both require increased blood flows during exercise and/or heat stress. First, a detailed study of the control relations used to predict skin blood flow was undertaken. Four other control relations employed in the model were also examined and modified as indicated by empirical results found in literature. Internal responses to exercise and/or heat stress can affect both thermoregulation and the cardiorespiratory system. Dehydration was studied in addition to complete water replacement during similar environmental and exercise situations. Control relations for skin blood flow and evaporative heat loss were modified and a water balance was added to study how the loss of water through sweat can be limiting. Runoff from sweating as a function of relative humidity was introduced along with evaporation, and these results were compared to data to validate the model.

  13. [Influence of weightlessness on water and electrolytes balance in body].

    PubMed

    Shen, X Y

    2000-02-01

    The balance of water and electrolytes plays an important role in enabling the human body to adapt to spaceflight. This paper introduced the research methods, and changes in water and electrolytes balance during and after space flight. The mechanism and the hazard of the disorder of water and electrolytes caused by weightlessness were discussed.

  14. Non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    Bahamondes, Luis; Valeria Bahamondes, M; Shulman, Lee P

    2015-01-01

    Most contraceptive methods present benefits beyond contraception; however, despite a large body of evidence, many healthcare professionals (HCPs), users and potential users are unaware of those benefits. This review evaluates the evidence for non-contraceptive benefits of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods. We searched the medical publications in PubMed, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE and LILACS for relevant articles, on non-contraceptive benefits of the use of hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, which were published in English between 1980 and July 2014. Articles were identified using the following search terms: 'contraceptive methods', 'benefits', 'cancer', 'anaemia', 'heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB)', 'endometrial hyperplasia', 'endometriosis' and 'leiomyoma'. We identified, through the literature search, evidence that some combined oral contraceptives have benefits in controlling HMB and anaemia, reducing the rate of endometrial, ovarian and colorectal cancer and ectopic pregnancy as well as alleviating symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Furthermore, the use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system also controls HMB and anaemia and endometrial hyperplasia and cancer, reduces rates of endometrial polyps in users of tamoxifen and alleviates pain associated with endometriosis and adenomyosis. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate controls crises of pain associated with sickle cell disease and endometriosis. Users of the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant have the benefits of a reduction of pain associated with endometriosis, and users of the copper intrauterine device have reduced rates of endometrial and cervical cancer. Despite the high contraceptive effectiveness of many hormonal and intrauterine reversible contraceptive methods, many HCPs, users and potential users are concerned mainly about side effects and safety of both hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods, and there is scarce information

  15. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demery, A

    1987-05-01

    Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion.

  16. [Body cooling capacity of water circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment].

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takao; Idota, Nozomi; Nagano, Chikage; Horie, Seichi; Sogabe, Yasuhiro; Monji, Koichi

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the body cooling capacity of water-circulated cooling pants during lower body exercise in a hot environment. Five subjects were asked to ride a bicycle ergometer and to keep a work rate of 75 W continuously for 20 minutes. They then rest on the ergometer for 15 minutes, in a climate chamber kept at WBGT = 31.5 degrees C. They repeated the same procedure three times under three different conditions; 1) wearing cooling pants with cold water supply; 2) wearing cooling pants without water supply; 3) wearing short pants instead of cooling pants. Esophageal temperature and heart rate of the subjects, when their cooling pants were supplied with cold water, were lower compared with the condition without water supply, and were almost the same as the condition wearing short pants. Water-circulated cooling pants should effectively cool the body at work where the worker has to wear pants that cover his legs to prevent injury.

  17. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    SciTech Connect

    Medders, Gregory R.; Gotz, Andreas W.; Morales, Miguel A.; Bajaj, Pushp; Paesani, Francesco

    2015-09-09

    Our recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interactionenergy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. Moreover, it is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representation of the waterinteractions from the gas to the condensed phase. Likewise, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.

  18. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types across Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWB), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological processes; yet the spatial distributions of various SWB types are often unknown. Usi...

  20. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types across Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWB), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological processes; yet the spatial distributions of various SWB types are often unknown. Usi...

  1. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types in Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Using updated National Wetland Inventory data, we describe the spatial distribution o...

  2. Spatial Distribution of Small Water Body Types in Indiana Ecoregions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their large numbers and biogeochemical activity, small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds and wetlands, can have substantial cumulative effects on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Using updated National Wetland Inventory data, we describe the spatial distribution o...

  3. Water-Rock Interactions in Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palguta, J.; Travis, B. J.; Schubert, G.

    2006-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) form the most primitive class of meteorites and are vestiges of the planetesimals that formed the building blocks of the planets. Consequently, they possess a wealth of information pertaining to the early solar system. Carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies (CCPBs) are the bodies in which the CCs acquired their current chemical and mineralogical characteristics. There is abundant evidence that 4.5 billion years ago liquid water circulated through the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites, interacted with the rock, and produced secondary minerals. As a result, understanding the role of hydrothermal circulation in altering CCPBs is key to determining the information about the early solar system contained in CCs. We have previously investigated hydrothermal convection in CCPBs without water-rock interactions. These numerical simulations of the thermal evolution and hydrothermal circulation of CCPBs indicate a period of several million years during which convective motion of water can occur. The simulations also clearly indicate heterogeneous distributions of water flow and temperature in a CCPB. Some regions of a CCPB experience no pore water flow while other regions experience hundreds of pore volumes of liquid water flow. The spatial heterogeneity in pore water flow suggests that heterogeneous alteration of the body is possible. Accordingly, hydrothermal alteration of minerals inside the parent body could vary greatly with location in the body; thus, one parent body could be the source of chemically diverse meteorites contrary to the general assumption that CC meteorites of different chemical groups come from distinct parent bodies. We have extended our previous simulations to include the effects of water-rock reactions in order to determine the pattern of mineral heterogeneity in CCPBs. Different rates for the relevant reactions could strongly influence the mineral heterogeneity. Therefore, different reaction rate models based on both

  4. Young Australian women explain their contraceptive choices.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Britta; Moran, Claire; Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Lucke, Jayne

    2016-07-01

    New developments in female contraceptives allow women increased options for preventing pregnancy, while men's options for reversible contraception have not advanced beyond the condom. There has been little discursive exploration of how neoliberal and postfeminist discourses shape women's accounts of choosing whether or not to use contraception. Our thematic discourse analysis of 760 free-text responses to a question about contraceptive choice considers the social and political climate that promotes the self-governed woman who freely chooses contraception. We examine the ways in which women formulated and defended their accounts of choice, focusing on the theme of free contraceptive choice that constructed women's choices as unconstrained by material, social and political forces. We identify two discursive strategies that underpinned this theme: a woman's body, a woman's choice and planning parenthood, and explore the ways in which choice was understood as a gendered entitlement and how contraceptive choices were shaped (and constrained) by women's plans for parenthood. We discuss the implications of these discursive strategies, and neoliberal and postfeminist discourses, in terms of the disallowance of any contextual, social and structural factors, including the absence of men in the 'contraceptive economy'.

  5. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.

  6. Oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  7. Can tritiated water-dilution space accurately predict total body water in chukar partridges

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, B.G.; Williams, J.B.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-11-01

    Total body water (TBW) volumes determined from the dilution space of injected tritiated water have consistently overestimated actual water volumes (determined by desiccation to constant mass) in reptiles and mammals, but results for birds are controversial. We investigated potential errors in both the dilution method and the desiccation method in an attempt to resolve this controversy. Tritiated water dilution yielded an accurate measurement of water mass in vitro. However, in vivo, this method yielded a 4.6% overestimate of the amount of water (3.1% of live body mass) in chukar partridges, apparently largely because of loss of tritium from body water to sites of dissociable hydrogens on body solids. An additional source of overestimation (approximately 2% of body mass) was loss of tritium to the solids in blood samples during distillation of blood to obtain pure water for tritium analysis. Measuring tritium activity in plasma samples avoided this problem but required measurement of, and correction for, the dry matter content in plasma. Desiccation to constant mass by lyophilization or oven-drying also overestimated the amount of water actually in the bodies of chukar partridges by 1.4% of body mass, because these values included water adsorbed onto the outside of feathers. When desiccating defeathered carcasses, oven-drying at 70 degrees C yielded TBW values identical to those obtained from lyophilization, but TBW was overestimated (0.5% of body mass) by drying at 100 degrees C due to loss of organic substances as well as water.

  8. Diurnal temperature fluctuations in an artificial small shallow water body.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Adrie F G; Heusinkveld, Bert G; Kraai, Aline; Paaijmans, Krijn P

    2008-03-01

    For aquatic biological processes, diurnal and annual cycles of water temperature are very important to plants as well as to animals and microbes living in the water. An existing one-dimensional model has been extended to simulate the temperature profile within a small water body. A year-round outdoor experiment has been conducted to estimate the model input parameters and to verify the model. Both model simulations and measurements show a strong temperature stratification in the water during daytime. Throughout the night, however, a well-mixed layer starting at the water surface develops. Because the water body is relatively small, it appears that the sediment heat flux has a strong effect on the behaviour of the water temperature throughout the seasons. In spring, the water temperature remains relatively low due to the cold surrounding soil, while in autumn the opposite occurs due to the relatively warm soil. It appears that, in small water bodies, the total amount of incoming long wave radiation is sensitive to the sky view factor. In our experiments, the intensity of precipitation also appears to have a small effect on the stratification of the water temperature.

  9. Is Bigger Better? Small Water Bodies Help Clean up Our Water Much Better than Large Ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F. Y.; Basu, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    People have changed our water bodies for the worse in the last hundred years. As more people live on and use our land, we have put more bad stuff into our water and less and less of our water can be used for drinking until we clean it up. But how? The good news is that things such as trees can use the bad stuff for food and so water can be "self cleaning" given enough time! In our work, we studied many places and water bodies that have been used by humans. To our surprise, we found that small water bodies were best at cleaning our waters. These small water bodies are "hot spots" that can take out much more bad stuff by area. We saw that water in small water bodies has many more chances to touch the ground where most of the serious business happens. However, people like to take away what is actually good for us and keep what looks good. Our time is usually spent on saving large water bodies but we need to change our focus. Instead of saving one large water body, we might want to look at a hundred small ones of the same area. It is important to remember that bigger is not always better and that little things can mean a lot.

  10. Plan A: postabortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth; Prager, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    More than 1 million abortions are performed annually in the United States. Women presenting for abortion care are often motivated by the pregnancy to use effective contraception; they are also at high risk for repeat unintended pregnancy. For these reasons, abortion represents an optimal time to initiate effective contraception. There is strong evidence that most methods of contraception, including intrauterine devices and the contraceptive implant, should be initiated at the time of the abortion procedure. Most women ovulate within the first month after an abortion. If provision of contraception is delayed, women are less likely to use effective contraception and more likely to have a repeat unintended pregnancy. Although some methods of permanent contraception can be safely performed at the time of abortion, federal and state laws often restrict these procedures being performed concurrently. Contraceptive counseling and provision at the time of abortion are important strategies to decrease rates of unintended pregnancy.

  11. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.

  12. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S

    2014-10-01

    A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.

  13. [Contraception in French teenage girls in 2007].

    PubMed

    Robin, G; Massart, P; Letombe, B

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of adolescence contraception are the eviction of involuntary pregnancies and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In France, in spite of our rich contraceptive arsenal and a widely spread information, the rate of voluntary termination of pregnancy keeps growing among the teenagers population--and this, probably because the gap between theoretical effectiveness and practice of contraception is particularly wide among the young people. Every contraceptive means can be used by teenagers; the best option being, it seems, the "double DUTCH", which consists of concomitant use of condoms and hormonal contraception. Most often, the consultation for contraception is the first gynaecological consultation. That is the reason why it is usually stressful for teenagers who dread undergoing a gynaecological examination. If this examination is not necessary for most of young patients, it is essential to create a trustful relationship and to make explicit the several contraceptive methods. During this consultation it is interesting to look for common teenage troubles like addiction to smoking and eating disorders. For any prescription of hormonal contraception, it is important to explain the benefits and the possible side effects, to stress the observance and to tell the teenager about the recommendations in case of forgetting. Concerning condom - the only efficient way of preventing sexually transmitted infections--, it is useful to talk about it in concrete and straightforward terms, to show its handling and to inform about risks of tearing. With this state of mind, an emergency contraception can be prescribed straightaway in order to make its use easier. Also, without any moralizing speech, the need for maturity must be emphasized as well as taking care of one's body with the aim of avoiding a premature pregnancy or any sexually transmitted infection. This consultation must be coupled with a close follow-up, availability and mutual

  14. [The difficulties of contraception: conflicts and paradoxes].

    PubMed

    Cribier, F

    1988-06-01

    might be better met by contraception that leaves some risk of failure, such as low-dose progestins or local methods. Their relative efficacy may allow the ambivalent desire for a child not to be completely stifled. Cases also arise in which patients use contraceptives to mask problems and to give the illusion of a normally functioning body. The possibility of having a child is very seldom raised during contraceptive consultations, perhaps because for the physician contraception subconsciously evokes the forces of death. The doctor can take refuge in the technical aspects of contraception, ignoring the emotional needs of the client.

  15. Body water balance and body temperature in vasopressin V1b receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, R; Kunitake, T; Kato, K; Tanoue, A; Tsujimoto, G; Kannan, H

    2007-10-30

    In an attempt to determine whether there is a specific vasopressin receptor (V(1b)) subtype involved in the regulation of body water balance and temperature, vasopressin V(1b) receptor knockout mice were used. Daily drinking behavior and renal excretory function were examined in V(1b)-deficient (V(1b)(-/-)) and control (V(1b)(+/+)) mice under the basal and stress-induced condition. In addition, body temperature and locomotor activity were measured with a biotelemetry system. The baseline daily water intake and urine volume were larger in V(1b)(-/-) mice than in V(1b)(+/+) mice. V(1b)(-/-) mice (V(1b)(-/-)) had significantly higher locomotor activity than wild-type, whereas the body temperature and oxygen consumption were lower in V(1b)(-/-) than in the V(1b)(+/+) mice. Next, the V(1b)(-/-) and V(1b)(+/+) mice were subjected to water deprivation for 48 hr. Under this condition, their body temperature decreased with the time course, which was significantly larger for V(1b)(-/-) than for V(1b)(+/+) mice. Central vasopressin has been reported to elicit drinking behavior and antipyretic action, and the V(1b) receptor has been reported to be located in the kidney. Thus, the findings suggest that the V(1b) receptor may be, at least in part, involved in body water balance and body temperature regulation.

  16. Searching for Ideal Contraceptives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djerassi, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem of adolescent pregnancy and focuses on improving contraception as a practical solution. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods (the condom, the pill, and the contraceptive sponge). Predicts that the development of a fundamentally new contraceptive, such as a monthly menses-inducer pill, will not occur…

  17. Searching for Ideal Contraceptives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djerassi, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem of adolescent pregnancy and focuses on improving contraception as a practical solution. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods (the condom, the pill, and the contraceptive sponge). Predicts that the development of a fundamentally new contraceptive, such as a monthly menses-inducer pill, will not occur…

  18. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  19. Estrogens and postcoital contraception.

    PubMed

    Notelovitz, M

    1981-07-01

    The contraceptive effect of large doses of estrogens administered postcoitally is not fully understood, although numerous reports have described the use of a 4 to 6 day course of high dose oral diethylstilbestrol (DES), ethinyl estradiol, conjugated estrogens, and combinations of estrogen and progestogen. Because estrogens are effective postovulatory rather than postcoital contraceptives, it is necessary to know the exact time of unprotected intercouse in relation to a woman's menstrual cycle. Depending on the frequency and timing of intercouse, a 5-day course of postcoital estrogen, introduced within 72 hours, yields a pregancy rate of .03-.3%. Failures are usually due to inadequate doses of estrogen, errors in timing, or multiple exposures. A lowering of basal body temperature after postovulatory administration of high doses of estrogen indicates successful intervention. Existence of various conditions such as hypertension and migraine contraindicate the use of postcoital estrogens. DES and possibly other estrogens are associated with teratogenic and potentially carcinogenic effects. 70 to 80% of women taking postcoital estrogens report side effects such as nausea, weight gain and headache. No randomized studies have compared the efficacy, side effects, or safety of the available estrogens. The use of informed coinsent procedures is advised because of the potency of high dose estrogens.

  20. Impact of highway construction on water bodies: a geospatial assessment.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Labhasetwar, P K

    2017-08-01

    India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies. The study indicates that construction activities have led to transformation within the water bodies regarding reduction in area and inter-changing of land use and land cover classes, in turn leading to siltation and reduction of recharge.

  1. Water and the thermal evolution of carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two hypotheses are proposed for the aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites within their parent bodies, in which respectively the alteration occurs (1) throughout the parent body interior, or (2) in a postaccretional surface regolith; both models assume an initially homogeneous mixture of ice and rock that is heated through the decay of Al-26. Water is seen to exert a powerful influence on chondrite evolution through its role of thermal buffer, permitting substitution of a low temperature aqueous alteration for high temperature recrystallization. It is quantitatively demonstrated that liquid water may be introduced by either hydrothermal circulation, vapor diffusion from below, or venting due to fracture.

  2. Contraception and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pieh Holder, Kelly Lynne

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum contraception is important to lengthening birth intervals and improving the health of women and children. For breastfeeding women the choice and timing of contraception may influence breastfeeding and infant growth patterns. Nonhormonal methods of contraception are the preferred choice for breastfeeding women. Progestin-only methods comprise a viable next option. Combined hormonal methods of contraception containing estrogen and progestin may be considered as a third option for birth control in breastfeeding women. The objective of this chapter is to review the current literature and recommendations for the use of hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception while breastfeeding.

  3. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L M; Newmann, S J; Grimes, D A; Nanda, K; Schulz, K F

    2008-04-16

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The main intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was first introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. How immediate start compares to conventional menses-dependent start is unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. We included randomized controlled trials that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge' method (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.05 to 3.77).A trial of two immediate-start methods showed the vaginal ring group had less prolonged bleeding (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20 to 0

  4. Remote sensing of ephemeral water bodies in western Niger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Research was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring the small ephemeral water bodies of the Sahel with the 1.1 km resolution data of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Twenty-one lakes of western Niger with good ground observation records were selected for examination. Thematic Mapper images from 1988 were first analysed to determine surface areas and temperature differences between water and adjacent land. Six AVHRR scenes from the 1988-89 dry season were then studied. It was found that a lake can be monitored until its surface area drops below 10 ha, in most cases. Furthermore, with prior knowledge of the location and shape of a water body, its surface area can be estimated from AVHRR band 5 data to within about 10 ha. These results are explained by the sharp temperature contrast between water and land, on the order of 13?? C.

  5. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  6. Permanent Contraception for Women.

    PubMed

    Patil, Eva; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2016-05-01

    Permanent contraception is a highly desired and commonly used contraceptive option for women around the world who desire never to become pregnant. Current methods of female permanent contraception require surgery. Postpartum tubal ligation and interval surgical tubal ligation are safe and effective, do not interfere with menstrual cycles, and require no ongoing cost or medical checkups. Hysteroscopic tubal occlusion offers a less invasive surgical approach, but requires an imaging study for verification of correct placement. However, not all women have access to a surgeon trained to provide permanent contraception, or they may face other prohibitive logistic or financial burdens. The development of novel permanent contraception methods that are immediately effective and/or nonsurgical could help improve access to and acceptability of permanent contraception. The expansion of permanent contraception options could help women achieve their family planning goals and reduce unintended pregnancies.

  7. Contraceptive use in China.

    PubMed

    Perkin, G W; Genstein, J; Morrow, M

    1980-01-01

    An estimate is made of the relative use of the various contraceptive methods--IUDs, sterilization, oral contraceptives (OCs), condoms, injectable contraceptives, abortion, and other contraceptive products approved for general use but only available in limited supply--in China at this time. All of the major contraceptive methods are available without cost. The user is permitted to be absent from work with pay when he/she chooses either IUD insertion/removal, vasectomy, tubal ligation, and induced abortion. IUDs, OCs, sterilization, and condoms account for most of the contraceptive practice in China. Abortion is also available, particularly as a backup to failed contraception. A look at the family planning program in the major municipal area of Tianjin provides an indication of the impact of the national planned birth program. In Tianjin, contraceptives are distributed without cost through the union representative or in the commune. Many men and women obtain their contraceptive supplies at work. The Tianjin program of social and economic incentives and disincentives is typical of such programs throughout China, but the specific details vary from province to province. There are many advantages to having the "only-child certificates" issued by the Tianjin Municipal Revolutionary Council. Economic sanctions are recommended for couples who have a 2nd child. The IUD is the most widely used method in China and is the method most often recommended for women living in rural areas. The IUD may account for as much as 50% of national contraceptive practice. The most widely used IUD consists of a single ring of tightly coiled stainless steel wire. Male and female sterilization is available in most parts of China and accounts for about 30% of contraceptive practice. OC use may be estimated to account for about 8-10% of national contraceptive practice. The condom accounts for about 6% of national contraceptive practice and the injectable for about 1% of total contraceptive use.

  8. Contraception: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2006-03-01

    Although it is estimated that the population growth rate will decline to a replacement level by 2050, it is also now predicted that the total world population will reach 8.9 billion in that year -- far higher than the 2004 estimate of 6.4 billion. More than 26 billion new couples will need contraceptives in the next half century. Although a steady increase in contraceptive use has been observed in both developed and developing countries, the contraceptive needs of a high percentage of couples have not yet been met and the number of unplanned pregnancies continues to increase. The actual use of contraception differs from region to region. Although no new method has been registered for many years, several new products have been marketed during the last 5. Among these are new implants, medicated intrauterine systems, contraceptive vaginal rings, transdermal patches and several new combined oral contraceptive formulations. New contraceptive methods have been developed to meet the objectives of expanding contraceptive choices for both women and men and answering an unmet need for contraceptives with a long-term action that meet the expectations of consumers. Simplicity, reversibility and effectiveness are the desired features of a male contraceptive, but no new male contraceptive method is yet available. New areas of basic research include studies on genes, proteins and enzymes involved in the reproductive system. The new methods will be targeted to specific interactions within the reproductive system at the level of ovaries and testes, as well as between spermatozoa and ova. This futuristic approach still keeps in mind the need for better access to existing contraceptive methods, as well as the discovery of new contraceptives that are simple to use, safe, reversible and inexpensive. In the future, contraceptives may be combined with other medicinal agents to provide dual protection against both pregnancy and other preventable conditions, such as sexually transmitted

  9. Contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Lauren B; Murtaza, Sarah; Whiteman, Maura K; Jamieson, Denise J; Robbins, Cheryl L; Marchbanks, Polly A; D'Angelo, Denise V; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the associations between prenatal and postpartum contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2004-2008 data were analyzed from Missouri, New York state, and New York City (n = 9536). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations between prenatal and postpartum contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use, defined as any method and more effective methods (sterilization, intrauterine device, or hormonal methods). The majority of women received prenatal (78%) and postpartum (86%) contraceptive counseling; 72% received both. Compared with those who received no counseling, those counseled during 1 time period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-2.67) and both time periods (AOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.87-2.89) had significantly increased odds of postpartum use of a more effective contraceptive method (32% vs 49% and 56%, respectively; P for trend < .0001). Results for counseling during both time periods differed by type of health insurance before pregnancy, with greater odds of postpartum use of a more effective method observed for women with no insurance (AOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.18-5.66) and Medicaid insurance (AOR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.98-7.06) than for those with private insurance (AOR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44-2.43) before pregnancy. Findings were similar for postpartum use of any contraceptive method, except that no differences by insurance status were detected. The prevalence of postpartum contraceptive use, including the use of more effective methods, was highest when contraceptive counseling was provided during both prenatal and postpartum time periods. Women with Medicaid or no health insurance before pregnancy benefited the most. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Decrease in body insulation with exercise in cool water.

    PubMed

    Park, Y S; Pendergast, D R; Rennie, D W

    1984-06-01

    Steady-state body insulation was measured in 7 healthy male subjects during rest and exercise for 3 h in water of 28 degrees C - 32 degrees C. At rest, maximal body insulation increased as a linear function of mean subcutaneous fat thickness by an amount approximately 4-fold what would be predicted from the physical insulation of fat alone. With arm plus leg exercise, body insulation declined as an exponential function of the exercise intensity, reaching approximately 25% of the resting value at work loads above VO2 = 1.2 liters.min-1. During exercise the relationship between overall body insulation and mean subcutaneous fat thickness was almost identical to that predicted from fat insulation and mean subcutaneous fat thickness was almost identical to that predicted from fat insulation alone. These results suggest that 75% of maximal body insulation in resting subjects is achieved by use of skeletal muscle as an insulative barrier and that the muscle component is increased with increasing fat thickness. This muscle insulation shell is lost during exercise. As a practical consequence, heat generated by muscular exercise in water colder than critical water temperature cannot offset cooling unless the exercise intensity is great.

  11. On the representation of many-body interactions in water

    DOE PAGES

    Medders, Gregory R.; Gotz, Andreas W.; Morales, Miguel A.; ...

    2015-09-09

    Our recent work has shown that the many-body expansion of the interactionenergy can be used to develop analytical representations of global potential energy surfaces (PESs) for water. In this study, the role of short- and long-range interactions at different orders is investigated by analyzing water potentials that treat the leading terms of the many-body expansion through implicit (i.e., TTM3-F and TTM4-F PESs) and explicit (i.e., WHBB and MB-pol PESs) representations. Moreover, it is found that explicit short-range representations of 2-body and 3-body interactions along with a physically correct incorporation of short- and long-range contributions are necessary for an accurate representationmore » of the waterinteractions from the gas to the condensed phase. Likewise, a complete many-body representation of the dipole moment surface is found to be crucial to reproducing the correct intensities of the infrared spectrum of liquid water.« less

  12. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Treesearch

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  13. Contraception after thirty-five.

    PubMed

    Luukkainen, T

    1992-04-01

    Our knowledge about the safety, the incidence of side effects, and the effectiveness of contraceptive methods for women in premenopause, or during the last decade of their reproductive life, has not been a primary interest for research and development in fertility control. The main purpose of trials for the evaluation of new contraceptive methods is to test their effectiveness, and therefore only women below 38 years of age are accepted. Furthermore, when new methods are being tested, only healthy women are accepted, and those having health problems of almost any kind are excluded. Therefore our knowledge about the contraceptive methods in women over 40 years of age is scanty and comes from trials with a long-lasting follow-up on healthy women who can use the method without problems until they are 45 or reach menopause. We have very limited reported information on the use of contraceptives by women who have cardiovascular disease, diabetes, liver problems, etc. Therefore the main body of experience in this review comes from healthy women between 35 and 44. On the other hand, one should remember that these women have a high motivation to use contraceptive methods and therefore the continuation rate in the trials is high. This compensates for the relatively small number of acceptors by giving more women-years in follow-up. Continuation rate and the proper use of methods are directly correlated to increase in age, socioeconomical status, and to education of users. Highly educated women in this age group have very low failure rate with almost any method.

  14. Contraception during perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Kailas, N A; Sifakis, S; Koumantakis, E

    2005-03-01

    Perimenopause marks the transition from normal ovulation to anovulation and ultimately to permanent loss of ovarian function. Fecundity, the average monthly probability of conception, declines by half as early as the mid-forties, however women during the perimenopause still need effective contraception. Issues arising at this period such as menstrual cycle abnormalities, vasomotor instability, the need for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease prevention, as well as the increased risk of gynecological cancer, should be taken into consideration before the initiation of a specific method of contraception. Various contraceptive options may be offered to perimenopausal women, including oral contraceptives, tubal ligation, intrauterine devices, barrier methods, hormonal injectables and implants. Recently, new methods of contraception have been introduced presenting high efficacy rates and minor side-effects, such as the monthly injectable system, the contraceptive vaginal ring and the transdermal contraceptive system. However, these new methods have to be further tested in perimenopausal women, and more definite data are required to confirm their advantages as effective contraceptive alternatives in this specific age group. The use of the various contraceptive methods during perimenopause holds special benefits and risks that should be carefully balanced, after a thorough consultation and according to each woman's contraceptive needs.

  15. Today's contraceptive choices.

    PubMed

    Schnare, S; Matsuda, K J

    1997-12-01

    This article was written to acquaint nurses involved in contraceptive counseling with the methods currently available in the US and with the general needs of clients of different ages. The article includes a chart giving descriptions, the perfect use failure rate, advantages, and disadvantages of the following: combined oral contraceptives (OCs), progestin-only OCs, Norplant, Depo-Provera, Copper T-380 IUDs, Progestasert IUDs, male condoms, female condoms, spermicide, vaginal diaphragms, cervical caps, natural family planning, the lactation amenorrhea method, sexual sterilization, emergency postcoital contraception using combined OCs, and emergency postcoital contraception with Copper T-380 IUDs. The counseling advice considers how to meet the challenge involved in talking about sexuality, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases with adolescents. Next, a method-by-method review of topics to discuss with young adults is presented to dispel the misinformation that often results in unintended pregnancies among this group. Contraceptive counseling for postpartum women should address their concerns about when to resume contraceptive usage and which types are appropriate, especially if they are breast feeding. Finally, the article covers the contraceptive needs of perimenopausal women and how to determine when they can stop worrying about contraception. It is concluded that counselors should insure that their facilities offer a wide variety of methods and should always match contraceptive advice to a patient's specific needs.

  16. Innate recognition of water bodies in echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Greif, Stefan; Siemers, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of their lives, most animals must find different specific habitat and microhabitat types for survival and reproduction. Yet, in vertebrates, little is known about the sensory cues that mediate habitat recognition. In free flying bats the echolocation of insect-sized point targets is well understood, whereas how they recognize and classify spatially extended echo targets is currently unknown. In this study, we show how echolocating bats recognize ponds or other water bodies that are crucial for foraging, drinking and orientation. With wild bats of 15 different species (seven genera from three phylogenetically distant, large bat families), we found that bats perceived any extended, echo-acoustically smooth surface to be water, even in the presence of conflicting information from other sensory modalities. In addition, naive juvenile bats that had never before encountered a water body showed spontaneous drinking responses from smooth plates. This provides the first evidence for innate recognition of a habitat cue in a mammal. PMID:21045825

  17. Inland water bodies in Chile can locally increase rainfall intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Roberto; Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdes, Rodrigo; Dominguez, Francina; Hossain, Faisal; Ffolliott, Peter; Olivares, Claudio; Morales, Carolina; Balocchi, Francisco; Bro, Per

    2013-02-01

    SummaryAnalysis of precipitation observations from Chile indicated that man-made water reservoirs might be affecting the intensity of extreme precipitation events. Fifty rain gauges were used to evaluate rainfall intensities under different climates, using the Gumbel method (T = 5 and 100 years) and average maximum recorded rainfall intensities to construct IDF curves for each station. A spatial analysis of the stations was undertaken to establish graphical relationships on documented maximum annual rainfall intensities for 1 h and those obtained by the Gumbel method as a function of latitude, longitude, elevation, and the distance from water bodies. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied with an error of 5%. Values obtained from stations located close to water bodies were compared to those located away from them. The results show significant changes in dryer climates.

  18. Body composition in healthy older persons: role of the ratio of extracellular/total body water.

    PubMed

    Malczyk, E; Dzięgielewska-Gęsiak, S; Fatyga, E; Ziółko, E; Kokot, T; Muc-Wierzgon, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the best prognostic parameters for quickly assessing fluid volume status in the context of nutritional status and water balance in older persons and to facilitate decision-making of the general practitioner (GP). This pilot study was conducted with 142 volunteers aged 60 years or older who were Polish students of the University of the Third Age. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study were defined. Assessment tools included: the Mini Nutritional Assessment questionnaire (MNA®) and the anthropometric measurements. Weight and body composition analysis were determined by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) using the Tanita MC-780 multi frequency segmental Body Composition Analyzer. According to the MNA scale, 89.2% of the sample was wellnourished and 10.8% were at risk of malnutrition. A total of 47.1% participants had normal body mass index, 20.6% were overweight, and 32.3% were obese. The BIA showed that females had more fat mass (FM) compared to males (35.84% vs 23.90%), while men had more free fat mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW; 61.16% vs 45.22% and 53.31% vs 45.22%respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in FM, FFM, and TBW by age. The ratio of Extracellular to Total Body Water (ECW/TBW) was higher in women than in men (46.76% vs 43.66%). Of all measures, only ECW/TBW increased significantly with age and sex, especially after 65 years. We propose that ECW/TBW may be used as the first, simple, and fast indicator of water volume status in the context of nutritional status and water balance in older subjects. Systematic control of the ECW/TBW by GP or nurse may increase senior independence, resulting in longer self-maintenance at home and reduced hospital admissions.

  19. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  20. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  1. The vaginal contraceptive sponge.

    PubMed

    Edelman, D A

    1984-06-01

    The vaginal contraceptive sponge, approved on April 1, 1983 by the US Food Administration (FDA) for sale in the US as a single use, disposable, over-the-counter contraceptive, is made of polyurethane and designed to be biocompatible with the vaginal environment. The sponge is available in a single size, is round, and about 5.5 cm in diameter and 2.5 cm thick. An indentation on 1 side helps to ensure the sponge's correct placement against the cervix. A polyester retrieval loop attached to the sponge facilitates removal. Postcoital tests of the sponge without the spermicide indicated that it was ineffective in preventing sperm from entering the cervical canal. Before insertion, the contraceptive sponge is moistened with tap water to activate the spermicide and is inserted into the vagina with the indentation placed against the cervis. The sponge has been designed to provide continuous protection against pregnancy for at least 24 hours after insertion. Following a successful phase ii clinical trail of the sponge, in 1979 comparative phase iii clinical trials were initiated by Family Health International. The following trials were conducted: sponge versus the diaphragm (arcing-spring) used with a spermicide (nonoxynol-9) at 13 clinics in the US (1439 subjects) and at 2 clinics in Canada and the UK (502 subjects); sponge versus a foaming spermicidal (menfegol) suppository at 5 clinics in Yugoslavia, Taiwan, and Bangladesh (1386) subjects); and sponge versus spermicidal (nonoxynol-9) foam at 2 clinics in Israel and Thailand (366 subjects). In all trials the contraceptive methods were raondomly assigned. Clinics were required to follow up subjects for 1 year. Only the US study has been completed. In the comparative trials of the sponge and diaphragm (both US based and overseas) the pregnancy rates were significantly higher for the sponge. In the comparative trials of the sponge and foaming suppositories or spermicidal foam there were no significant differences between the

  2. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception.

    PubMed

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.

  3. Oral contraceptives: current status.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    2001-03-01

    During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.

  4. Long-term contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Brown, Audrey

    2010-10-01

    To avoid unintended pregnancy, women in the UK need to consistently use reliable contraception for over 30 years. The long-acting reversible contraceptive methods compromise the progestogen-only implant, the progestogen-only injectable contraceptive, the copper-bearing intra-uterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intra-uterine system. These methods of contraception are highly reliable in pregnancy prevention, and are amongst the medically safest methods for users. Despite this, these long-acting methods are used by less than 10% of the UK population. National guidance has advised that increasing uptake of these long-acting methods will reduce the unplanned pregnancy rate. In addition, these methods are more cost effective than the oral contraceptive even at 1 year of use. Obstetricians and gynaecologists frequently come into contact with women requiring contraceptive advice, and should have a sound knowledge of the long-acting methods.

  5. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  6. [Contraception and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Amate, P; Luton, D; Davitian, C

    2013-06-01

    The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk

  7. Oral contraception and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G

    1976-05-22

    A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.

  8. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, R.; Cohen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Extraterrestrial water-bearing minerals are of great importance both for understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system and for supporting future human activities in space. Asteroids are the primary source of meteorites, many of which show evidence of an early heating episode and varying degrees of aqueous alteration. The origin and characterization of hydrated minerals (minerals containing H2O or OH) among both the main-belt and near-earth asteroids is important for understanding a wide range of solar system formation and evolutionary processes, as well as for planning for human exploration. Current hypotheses postulate asteroids began as mixtures of water ice and anhydrous silicates. A heating event early in solar system history was then responsible for melting the ice and driving aqueous alteration. The link between asteroids and meteorites is forged by reflectance spectra, which show 3-µm bands indicative of bound OH or H2O on the C-class asteroids, which are believed to be the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites in our collections. The conditions at which aqueous alteration occurred in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites are thought to be well-constrained: at 0-25 C for less than 15 Myr after asteroid formation. In previous models, many scenarios exhibit peak temperatures of the rock and co-existing liquid water in more than 75 percent of the asteroid's volume rising to 150 C and higher, due to the exothermic hydration reactions triggering a thermal runaway effect. However, even in a high porosity, water-saturated asteroid very limited liquid water flow is predicted (distances of 100's nm at most). This contradiction has yet to be resolved. Still, it may be possible for water to become liquid even in the near-surface environment, for a long enough time to drive aqueous alteration before vaporizing or freezing then subliming. Thus, we are using physics- and chemistry-based models that include thermal and fluid transport as well

  9. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  10. Wet tropospheric delay spatial variability over terrestrial water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, E.; Moller, D.; Andreadis, K.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    Among the sources of uncertainty in radar altimetry measurements of inland water bodies is the signal delay associated with space-time variations in water vapor in the atmosphere. Over the ocean, zenith wet tropospheric path delays (PD) can be measured by satellite microwave radiometry; however, the high brightness temperature of land prevents the use of these techniques over inland waters. SAR-based Atmospheric Phase Screens can be estimated over land, but not over water bodies. Radiosonde- and GPS-based estimates of PD over land are available, yet these measurements occur at specific, sparse locations. Atmospheric models are therefore the best source of information about space-time variations in PD, where observations (e.g., from radiosonde and GPS) are incorporated via data assimilation. The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT) will use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) in Ka-band, at a high incidence angle, to measure temporal variations in water elevation, slope, and extent in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Images will be collected over a 120-km wide swath with <100 m spatial resolution and ~1 cm height precision when averaged over a 1 km2 area, with a 21-day repeat cycle. At present, the spatial and temporal variability of PD at spatial scales relevant to the mission's inland water objectives (e.g., measurement of variations in the storage of reservoirs and lakes with spatial extent order 1 sq. km and larger) is an open question. We report the results of simulations of PD based on simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model. We consider two domains within the continental U.S.: 1) the Pacific Northwest (at 4-km and 4/3-km spatial resolutions, via WRF results provided by the Northwest Modeling Consortium), and 2) sections of New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas (at 2.33-km spatial resolution, via simulations performed for this study). We then investigate the spatial and temporal

  11. Heated Discharge Control and Management Alternatives: Small Water Bodies and Rivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLaren, James F.

    Basic concepts of waste heat management on shallow and deep small water bodies and rivers are reviewed and examples are given. This study defines a small water body as a body in which the far field hydrothermal effects of a heated discharge can be detected in a major portion or practically all of the water body. Environmental effects due to…

  12. Heated Discharge Control and Management Alternatives: Small Water Bodies and Rivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLaren, James F.

    Basic concepts of waste heat management on shallow and deep small water bodies and rivers are reviewed and examples are given. This study defines a small water body as a body in which the far field hydrothermal effects of a heated discharge can be detected in a major portion or practically all of the water body. Environmental effects due to…

  13. Increase of total body water with decrease of body mass while running 100 km nonstop--formation of edema?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition, bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine total body water, and urinary (urinary specific gravity) and hematological parameters (hematocrit and plasma sodium) were measured in order to determine hydration status. Body mass decreased by 1.6 kg (p < .01), fat mass by 0.4 kg (p < .01), and skeletal muscle mass by 0.7 kg (p < .01), whereas total body water increased by 0.8 L (p < .05). Hematocrit and plasma sodium decreased significantly (p < .01), whereas plasma urea and urinary specific gravity (USG) increased significantly (p < .01). The decrease of 2.2% body mass and a USG of 1.020 refer to a minimal dehydration. Our athletes seem to have been relatively overhydrated (increase in total body water and plasma sodium) and dehydrated (decrease in body mass and increase in USG) during the race, as evidenced by the increased total body water and the fact that plasma sodium and hematocrit were lower postrace than prerace. The change of body mass was associated with the change of total body water (p < .05), and we presume the development of.

  14. Total body water measurements using resonant cavity perturbation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Darren A.; Robinson, Martin P.

    2004-05-01

    A recent paper proposed a novel technique for determining the total body water (TBW) of patients suffering with abnormal hydration levels, using a resonant cavity perturbation method. Current techniques to measure TBW are limited by resolution and technical constraints. However, this new method involves measuring the dielectric properties of the body, by placing a subject in a large cavity resonator and measuring the subsequent change in its resonant frequency, fres and its Q-factor. Utilizing the relationship that water content correlates to these dielectric properties, it has been shown that the measured response of these parameters enables determination of TBW. Results are presented for a preliminary study using data estimated from anthropometric measurements, where volunteers were asked to lie and stand in an electromagnetic screened room, before and after drinking between 1 and 2 l of water, and in some cases, after voiding the bladder. Notable changes in the parameters were observed; fres showed a negative shift and Q was reduced. Preliminary calibration curves using estimated values of water content have been developed from these results, showing that for each subject the measured resonant frequency is a linear function of TBW. Because the gradients of these calibration curves correlate to the mass-to-height-ratio of the volunteers, it has proved that a system in which TBW can be unequivocally obtained is possible. Measured values of TBW have been determined using this new pilot-technique, and the values obtained correlate well with theoretical values of body water (r = 0.87) and resolution is very good (750 ml). The results obtained are measurable, repeatable and statistically significant. This leads to confidence in the integrity of the proposed technique.

  15. Hemodynamic and thermoregulatory responses to lower body water immersion.

    PubMed

    Muller, Matthew D; Kim, Cihul-Ho; Seo, Yongsuk; Ryan, Edward J; Glickman, Ellen L

    2012-10-01

    Lower body water immersion (LBWI) is experienced in the marine industry but the physiological responses to LBWI are unclear. The purpose of the current experiment was to test the effects of water temperature and immersion duration on rectal temperature, heart rate, stroke volume, blood pressure, metabolic rate, and thermal sensation in healthy subjects. Nine young men underwent two 60-min trials of seated LBWI to the iliac crest in a counterbalanced fashion. On one occasion, the water was 35 degrees C (LBWI-Neutral) and on the other it was 13 degrees C (LBWI-Cold); the upper body remained thermoneutral and dry throughout. As expected, exposure to cold water reduced mean skin temperature and individuals reported cold thermal sensation. Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher at 60 min of LBWI-Cold (86 +/- 7 mmHg) compared to LBWI-Neutral (76 +/- 5 mmHg) while heart rate tended to be lower. The change in rectal temperature from baseline to 30 min of LBWI-Cold (delta = -0.01 +/- 0.21degrees C) was significantly smaller than the change in T(re) from 30 to 60 min of LBWI-Cold (delta = -0.46 +/- 0.16 degrees C). Despite this accelerated drop in core temperature during minutes 30-60, metabolic rate did not increase significantly. LBWI-Cold reduces core temperature and increases arterial blood pressure via an increase in total peripheral resistance. This experimental model may help scientists better understand the body during cold stress. Further, people who are occupationally exposed to cold water (when the torso, hands, and arms remain thermoneutral) may be at increased risk for hypothermia.

  16. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Laureen M; Newmann, Sara J; Grimes, David A; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-12-12

    Health care providers often tell women to wait until the next menses to begin hormonal contraception. The intent is to avoid contraceptive use during an undetected pregnancy. An alternative is to start hormonal contraception immediately with back-up birth control for the first seven days. Immediate initiation was introduced with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and has expanded to other hormonal contraceptives. At the time of the initial review, how immediate start compared to conventional menses-dependent start was unclear regarding effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception. This review examined randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of immediate-start hormonal contraception for differences in effectiveness, continuation, and acceptability. In August 2012, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP for trials of immediate-start hormonal contraceptives. We contacted researchers to find other studies. Earlier searches also included EMBASE. We included RCTs that compared immediate start to conventional start of hormonal contraception. Also included were trials that compared immediate start of different hormonal contraceptive methods with each other. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. The Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Five studies were included. No new eligible studies have been found since the review was initially conducted. Method discontinuation was similar between groups in all trials. Bleeding patterns and side effects were similar in trials that compared immediate with conventional start. In a study of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), immediate start of DMPA showed fewer pregnancies than a 'bridge' method before DMPA (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.84). Further, more women in the immediate-DMPA group were very satisfied versus those with a 'bridge

  17. Predicting total body water and extracellular fluid volumes from bioelectrical measurements of the human body.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H L; Virk, S P; Mayclin, P; Barbieri, T

    1992-10-01

    Two biological impedance analyzers, a 50 kHz (RJL) and 20-100 kHz (BMA) instrument, and a total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) instrument were used to estimate total body water (TBW), extracellular (ECF) and intracellular (ICF) fluid volumes by repeated measurements of 16 normal men (19-38 years old) to assess which, if any, would provide the best estimates. At 3-week intervals, TBW was determined by deuterium dilution, ECF by bromide dilution, ICF by difference (TBW-ECF) and lean body mass by density. Prediction equations were obtained by regression; predicted values for the body fluid volumes were calculated and the results were statistically evaluated. Both the TOBEC and the BMA provided rapid and reliable estimates for body fluid volumes with standard errors of the estimates of about 0.5-1.1 L for ECF, 1.0-1.8 L for TBW, and 1.0-1.3 L for ICF. Part of the error was attributable to standard tracer-dilution methods.

  18. Combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use among obese women and contraceptive effectiveness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, Monica V; Simmons, Katharine B; Paulen, Melissa E; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate from the literature whether combined hormonal contraception (CHC), including combined oral contraception pills (COCs), transdermal patch, vaginal ring or combined injectables, have different effectiveness or failure rates by body weight or body mass index (BMI). We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases for all articles in all languages published between inception and February 2016, for evidence relevant to body weight or BMI, CHC use and contraceptive effectiveness. The quality of each individual study was assessed using the system for evaluating evidence developed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. From 2874 articles, we identified 15 reports for inclusion, all of fair to poor quality. Fourteen studies measured the association of obesity status and contraceptive failure among COC users. Three fair quality and one poor quality study reported increased COC failure among a heterogeneous population of overweight and obese women compared with normal weight women, while eight fair quality and two poor quality studies did not find an association. Two fair quality studies reported on contraceptive transdermal patches. One pooled analysis described a higher proportion of pregnancies among women using the patch who weighed ≥90 kg; another secondary analysis suggested BMI>30 was associated with increased failure. No studies directly compared contraceptive effectiveness using the combined vaginal ring or combined injectable. Current available evidence addressing the risk of CHC failure in obese compared to normal weight women is limited to fair and poor quality studies. Studies of COCs show mixed results, though absolute differences in COC failure by body weight and BMI are small. Based on limited evidence, it appears that increasing body weight and BMI may contribute to decreasing contraceptive patch effectiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: Drowning and Bodies Recovered From Water.

    PubMed

    McEwen, B J; Gerdin, J

    2016-09-01

    Determining the cause of death in animals recovered from bodies of water, swimming pools, or other water-containing vessels is challenging. Animals recovered from water may or may not have drowned. The diagnosis of drowning is usually one of exclusion, requiring information from the crime scene, recovery scene, the medical history or reliable witness accounts. While there are characteristic macroscopic and microscopic lesions of drowning, none are specific and are dependent on the volume and tonicity of the drowning medium. Beyond interpreting the postmortem findings, the court may ask pathologists to comment on the behavioral and welfare implications of drowning. This requires an understanding of the drowning process, which is a complex series of sequential, concurrent, and overlapping cardiorespiratory reflexes, electrolyte and blood gas abnormalities, aspiration, physical exhaustion, and breathlessness eventually culminating in death. This review addresses the mechanisms, lesions, and diagnostic issues associated with drowning in nonaquatic companion animals.

  20. Nonprescription vaginal contraception.

    PubMed

    Edelman, D A

    1980-01-01

    Data on the efficacy of vaginal contraceptive suppositories and foams available in the United States are reviewed, and data on a new vaginal contraceptive, the Collatex sponge, is presented. The efficacy of this device appears to be similar to that of the diaphragm.

  1. Vaginal mechanical contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Barwin, B N

    1983-10-01

    The alleged adverse effects of oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices have led to increased consumer and physician demand for vaginal contraceptive devices. The efficacy and the advantages and disadvantages of vaginal sponges, cervical caps and diaphragms are discussed and compared in this article.

  2. Internet availability of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Miller, L; Nielsen, C

    2001-01-01

    To measure the accessibility of contraceptive supplies over the Internet. We performed an Internet search with the use of search engines and key words. We posed as consumers purchasing both prescription and over-the-counter contraceptive supplies. The number of clicks or web pages accessed, costs, shipping time, barriers to access, and prescription requirements were compared for selected birth control supplies. More than 200 web sites were visited to locate at least one site where we could purchase each selected product. Contraceptive supplies, including male and female condoms, spermicides, vaginal sponges, intrauterine devices (IUDs), diaphragms, and cervical caps, were easily obtained without a prescription from foreign web sites. Oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were readily available online in November 1999; some sites had discontinued sales by February 2000, but OCs could still be purchased with no prescription in August 2000. None of the four prescription sites supplied physician or prescriber credentials. The contraceptive costs varied by vendor and product. A type of copper IUD could be purchased for less than $50.00, whereas a single package of emergency contraceptive pills cost $141.00 from one vendor because of prescription and shipping fees. Some emergency contraceptive pills ordered arrived after 72 hours or did not arrive and the purchase was not refunded. A levonorgestrel IUD was shipped without difficulty in December 1999, but a second device, ordered in February 2000, was temporarily impounded by United States Customs. This method of contraceptive purchase is accessible, expensive, erratically regulated, and rapidly changing.

  3. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.

  4. Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David L; Secura, Gina M; Madden, Tessa E; Allsworth, Jenifer E; Zhao, Qiuhong; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine women's knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a contraceptive knowledge questionnaire that had been completed by 4144 women who were enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project before they received comprehensive contraceptive counseling and chose their method. For each contraceptive method, women were asked "what percentage would get pregnant in a year: <1%, 1-5%, 6-10%, >10%, don't know." Overall, 86% of subjects knew that the annual risk of pregnancy is >10% if no contraception is used. More than 45% of women overestimate the effectiveness of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate, pills, the patch, the ring, and condoms. After adjustment for age, education, and contraceptive history, the data showed that women who chose the intrauterine device (adjusted relative risk, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.6-8.5) or implant (adjusted relative risk, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.7-7.3) were significantly more likely to identify the effectiveness of their method accurately compared with women who chose either the pill, patch, or ring. This cohort demonstrated significant knowledge gaps regarding contraceptive effectiveness and over-estimated the effectiveness of pills, the patch, the ring, depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate, and condoms. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Weariness of contraception].

    PubMed

    Borg, V

    1979-07-01

    Mechanical methods of contraception tend nowadays to be considered as unsafe and the "modern" contraceptives are more popular. The advantage of the intrauterine device is that once it has been placed, one can forget about it. However it is necessary for the woman to undergo checkups and have the device replaced regularly. IUD's are not always very well tolerated psychologically. Women are influenced by information, the fear of the risks, the opinion of their friends and families and the media, and they end up getting tired of this method of contraception. Oral contraceptives are 100% safe but only provided one does not forget to take it: it imposes a daily routine which disturbs many women after a certain time. They then tend to relate all their problems to the pill. Women are aware of the risks contained in oral contraceptives, and they refuse to run these risks by themselves. Whichever method of contraception one chooses, it liberates the woman from the fear of unwanted pregnancy. A good contraception should do this, plus separate the idea of procreation from the sexual intercourse. This seems to be going well for a few years, but after a while a weariness appears. The answer may be to find a contraception suitable to both partners, so that they could make their own decision.

  6. Oral contraceptives in migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.

  7. Social marketing of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Schellstede, W P; Derr, B B

    1986-12-01

    Application of commercial marketing techniques has not only increased awareness, acceptability, and use of modern contraceptives in developing countries, but also overcome logistic problems in service delivery. The ability of contraceptive social marketing to reach large numbers and to treat contraceptives as common consumer products has helped to diminish social and religious constraints associated with family planning. Each contraceptive social marketing program is built around a theme tailored to meet specific cultural, social, and management requirements. The primary target populations are those who cannot afford regular commercial products and those who are not adequately reached by government programs. In countries such as Sri Lanka and Jamaica, profit is not a primary sales objective and retail prices are highly subsidized to make products affordable to low-income people. In contrast, the Colombian and Thai programs use contraceptive social marketing to help offset the operating costs of rural community-based programs and seek profits. The most impressive contraceptive social marketing sales performances have been recorded in Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, and Jamaica. The main reason contraceptive social marketing is more cost-efficient than other modes of contraceptive distribution is that the cost of product delivery is assumed by the commercial system. Although there has been some interest in making these programs self-sufficient financially, this step has tended to undermine the purpose of serving lower income groups.

  8. Contraception in the perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, B A; Guillebaud, J

    1991-04-01

    Pregnancy in women aged 40 and above is frequently unplanned and the legal abortion rate is high in this age group. Contraception and fertility are shrouded in popular mythology and many women do not appreciate either their risk of conception or the range of methods available to prevent conception. Either hormonal or non-hormonal methods of contraception may be appropriate.

  9. [Contraception and obesity].

    PubMed

    Lobert, M; Pigeyre, M; Gronier, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Robin, G

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing massively over several decades in industrialized countries. Obese women are sexually active but they use fewer contraceptive methods and are at high risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, obesity is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism events and arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke). All of these data are to be considered in choosing a contraceptive method for obese women. Except depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, the progestin-only contraceptives (progestin only pills and etonogestrel subdermal implant) and the intra-uterine devices are the preferred contraceptive methods in obese women. The combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives (pill, patch and vaginal ring) may be proposed in very strict conditions (no other associated vascular risk factor). Obesity does not increase the risk of failure of most contraceptive methods. Bariatric surgery is a complex situation. It requires to program a possible pregnancy and contraception is needed for several months. Some bariatric surgical techniques such as by-pass can induce gastrointestinal malabsorption. In this situation, all oral contraceptives are not recommended because of a higher risk of failure.

  10. Neonatal body water turnover: a putative index of perinatal morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    MacLennan, A.H.; Millington, G.; Grieve, A.; McIntosh, J.E.; Seamark, R.F.; Cox, L.W.

    1981-04-15

    The water metabolism of 46 newborn babies was determined during a 10 day period by means of an isotope dilution technique, and correlations were sought with the clinical assessment of the babies by multiple obstetric and pediatric clinical criteria. The babies, 48 to 72 hours of age, were given a single oral dose (2 ml/kg) of deuterated water (D/sub 2/O), a nonradioactive tracer, and the urinary excretion rate was followed by means of infrared spectrophotometry. After a period of equilibration of the D/sub 2/O with body water (20 hours), the rate of D2O clearance was found to be a single exponential decay process, thus allowing the fraction of total body water lost each hour (the rate constant) to be calculated for each baby. The median values of the rate constants X 10(4)(h-1) for 14 growth-retarded babies ws 104 (98% confidence limits, 97.8 to 122) compared with 76.3 (67.0 to 80.2) for 16 normal mature babies and 82.1 (73.4 to 90.6) for 16 normal premature babies. These data indicate that, compared with normal mature or normal premature babies, growth-retarded infants have a significantly (P less than 0.05) faster turnover of water during the first 10 days of postnatal life. Since there was little overlap in results between the normally grown and the retarded infants, the measurement of water turnover may provide a useful index of perinatal morbidity.

  11. Barrier methods of contraception.

    PubMed

    Skrine, R L

    1985-05-01

    Barrier methods of contraception make up an essential part of the present contraceptive range, and doctors need to know in detail how to choose and fit them as well as how to instruct patients in their use. This discussion reviews the mode of action of the barrier method and then focuses on the vaginal diaphragm, the cervical or vault cap, the collatex (Today) sponge, condoms, emotionl problems associated with the use of barrier methods, advantages of barrier methods, and future developments. Barrier methods of contraception are only effective if used consistently and carefully. Failure rates vary greatly between studies, but in selected populations the failure rate for the diaphragm with spermicide can be as low as 1.9/100 woman years (wy) and for the condom 3.6 per 100wy (Vessey et al., 1982). If known user failures are removed, the figure for the condom can drop to as low as 0.4 per 100wy (John, 1973), which compares favorably with that of the combined oral contraceptive. Other studies quote failure rates of 10 per 100wy or more. These methods call for considerable participation by the patient at or before each act of intercourse and there is, therefore, great scope for inefficient use, either as a result of poor instruction or because couples find that they interfere with happy, relaxed sexual activity -- or fear that they may do so. Doctors need to understand the feelings of their patients before recommending them. The aim of a barrier method is to prevent live sperm from meeting the ovum. This is accomplished by the combination of a physical barrier with a spermicide. In the case of the condom, the integrity of the physical barrier is the most important factor, although some patients feel more secure with an additional spermicide. The vaginal barriers used at present do not produce a "water-tight" fit, and the principle is that the spermicide is held over the cervix by the barrier. It is also possible that the device acts partially by holding the alkaline

  12. Oral contraceptives and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G D

    1977-01-01

    A variety of studies have noted that the use of oral contraceptives generally leads to mild increases in blood pressure which are usually reversible when the medication is discontinued. Representative data from the Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study and the Royal College of General Practitioners Study concerning the magnitude of excess risk and relation to duration of use and pull content are shown. Preliminary data from women, aged 25-34 years, taking multiphasic health checkups in Oakland and San Francisco, suggest that black as well as white women are susceptible to this side effect of oral contraceptives. A method is given for estimating the proportion of hypertensives among a population of young women that is attributable to oral contraceptive use. Although the risk of pull-induced hypertension is small for the average user, oral contraceptives appear to be an important identifiable cause of hypertension in samples of women studied.

  13. Contraception in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Riphagen, F E; von Schoultz, B

    1989-06-01

    In 1987, a survey of contraceptive use, knowledge and attitudes was conducted in Sweden by the International Health Foundation (IHF) as part of a multi-country study that has so far involved six other countries in Europe. The women involved, who were aged 15-44, completed a standard questionnaire. The overall percentage use of contraceptive methods, especially the reliable ones, was found to be high (95%). Oral contraception was the most frequently used method, followed by barrier methods and the intrauterine device (IUD). Contraceptive methods were chosen or abandoned mainly because of health reasons and better reliability. Knowledge of fertility proved to be generally good. Medical methods such as oral contraceptives and IUDs were associated with health hazards. In the case of the pill, fears of cardiovascular risks, thrombosis and cancer were widespread, while infection risk and menorrhagia were the most frequently quoted perceived disadvantages of the IUD. Indeed, these two methods suffer from a very negative image among Swedish users.

  14. [Hormonal contraception use in social and psychological context].

    PubMed

    Grzybek, Aleksandra; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla

    The purpose of this article is to consider, form psychological point of view, hormonal contraception and its effects on women's body and health. Beliefs and decisions of young women in this area are the main plane of these analyzes. This study reflects on their motivations to use or not to use hormonal contraception and rate its influence on their body. It was also verified, if there is any difference in self-esteem between women who use and who do not use hormonal contraception. The study was conducted amongst 95 women aged form 18 to 35. Two instruments were used in this study: Body Esteem Scale (BES) and questionnaire on hormonal contraception. The results show, that hormonal contraception is used only by 1/3 of the women. The main reason, why women use this method is contraception. Women regard, this method is inoffensive for them. Women do not use hormonal contraception mainly, because of their ideological views, religious beliefs and fears for their own health. Women, who use hormonal contraception acquire higher self-esteem in this aspects of their body, which can be control with diet or physical exercises. Women choose hormonal contraception because of its: high efficiency, extra health benefits and no difficulties in use. This contrasts with low popularity of this method amongst young women in the study. Verification, why women are anxious about their health and fertility, is believed to be an important issue. Moreover, it seems valuable to check, how important for women is a partner's role in terms of contraception.

  15. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  16. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  17. The 1998 Canadian Contraception Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William A.; Boroditsky, Richard; Bridges, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study, a mailed survey which asked women about contraceptive practices past, present, and future (including use of oral contraceptives, condoms, and sterilization); familiarity with and opinion about different contraception methods; and general sexual and reproductive health. The paper also examines…

  18. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  19. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  20. Water transport and the evolution of CM parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, R.; Cohen, B.

    2014-07-01

    Extraterrestrial water-bearing minerals are of great importance both for understanding the formation and evolution of the solar system and for supporting future human activities in space. Asteroids are the primary source of meteorites, many of which show evidence of an early heating episode and varying degrees of aqueous alteration. The origin and characterization of hydrated minerals (minerals containing H_2O or OH) among both the main-belt and near-Earth asteroids is important for understanding a wide range of solar-system formation and evolutionary processes, as well as for planning for human exploration. Current hypotheses postulate asteroids began as mixtures of water ice and anhydrous silicates. A heating event early in solar-system history was then responsible for melting the ice and driving aqueous alteration. The link between asteroids and meteorites is forged by reflectance spectra, which show 3-μm bands indicative of bound OH or H_2O on the C-class asteroids, which are believed to be the parent bodies of the carbonaceous chondrites in our collections [1]. The conditions at which aqueous alteration occurred in the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites are thought to be well-constrained: at 0--25°C for less than 15 Myr after asteroid formation [2]. In previous models, many scenarios exhibit peak temperatures of the rock and co-existing liquid water in more than 75 % of the asteroid's volume rising to 150°C and higher[3,4], due to the exothermic hydration reactions triggering a thermal runaway effect. However, even in a high-porosity, water-saturated asteroid, very limited liquid water flow is predicted (distances of 100's μ m at most) [5]. This contradiction has yet to be resolved. Still, it may be possible for water to become liquid even in the near-surface environment, for a long enough time to drive aqueous alteration before vaporizing or freezing then subliming. Thus, we are using physics- and chemistry-based models that include thermal and

  1. [Pollution hazard for water bodies at oil production].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Beliaeva, N I

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there have been summarizes the concepts of the danger of the pollution ofwater bodies in oil production (the most dangerous are reagents used in the drilling, drilling waste, oil and petrochemicals, oil biodestructors. There was shown the danger of the spread of oil pollution. New indices, presenting a hazard during drilling and oil production have been substantiated The tasks aimed to the improvement of the standards and methods of the control of the water pollution by oil, as well as of the documents regulating the conditions of environmental protection during the drilling have been conceived.

  2. Contraceptive use and sexual behavior in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2012-12-01

    Obesity and unintended pregnancy differentially affect women based on sociodemographic factors. Because of the overlap of these factors, obesity and unintended pregnancy have been described as colliding epidemics. Understanding the relationship between obesity and unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and sexual behavior is important in improving the reproductive health of women given the increasing weight demographic. A review of the literature reveals contraceptive use versus nonuse does not differ in women of different body weights. Obese women use oral contraceptives less than normal weight women and are more likely to use procedural methods like sterilization. No difference was noted in most types of sexual behavior for women of different body weights.

  3. Contraception and headache.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, E Anne

    2013-02-01

    Most women have used at least 1 method of contraception during their reproductive years, with the majority favoring combined oral contraceptives. Women are often concerned about the safety of their method of choice and also ask about likely effects on their pre-existing headache or migraine and restrictions on using their headache medication. While there should be no restriction to the use of combined hormonal contraceptives by women with migraine without aura, the balance of risks vs benefits for women with aura are debatable. Migraine with aura, but not migraine without aura, is associated with a twofold increased risk of ischemic stroke, although the absolute risk is very low in healthy, nonsmoking women. Although ethinylestradiol has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, the risk is dose-dependent. Low-dose pills currently used are considerably safer than pills containing higher doses of ethinylestradiol but they are not risk-free. This review examines the evidence available regarding the effect that different methods of contraception have on headache and migraine and identifies strategies available to minimize risk and to manage specific triggers such as estrogen "withdrawal" headache and migraine associated with combined hormonal contraceptives. The independent risks of ischemic stroke associated with migraine and with hormonal contraceptives are reviewed, and guidelines for use of contraception by women with migraine are discussed in light of the current evidence.

  4. Evidence based contraceptive choices.

    PubMed

    Scott, Alison; Glasier, Anna

    2006-10-01

    People who attend for contraceptive advice have usually formulated an idea of the type of contraceptive that will suit them best. They may wish to use a method that is long, short or medium acting. These are defined as follows: Long-acting method requires renewal no more frequently than every 3 months (e.g. injectable or intrauterine). Short-acting method used daily or with every act of intercourse (e.g. pills, condoms) Medium-acting method requires renewal weekly or monthly (e.g. ring, patch). For men the choice is limited to condoms or vasectomy. Some women do not wish to use hormonal preparations or have an intrauterine device (IUD) or implant inserted. There may also be cultural influences making certain methods of contraception unacceptable. Each of these factors influences the final decision of which method of contraception is decided upon. In addition to taking a full medical and sexual history to identify any risks to the individual's health, which might be increased by a particular contraceptive, time must be spent discussing the options available. It is important to ensure that there is a full understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The most successful contraceptive method is likely to be the one that the woman (or man) chooses, rather than the one the clinician chooses for them. Access for women to contraception can be improved by having convenient clinic times and service developments such as nurse prescribing and Patient Group Directions.

  5. Male hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K

    2006-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop additional forms of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development involves the administration of exogenous testosterone (T). When administered to a man, T functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After 2-3 months of treatment, low levels of these gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. Hormonal contraception with exogenous T has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well tolerated by men. In addition, sperm counts uniformly normalize when the exogenous T is discontinued. Thus, male hormonal is safe, effective and reversible; however, spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some diminished potential for fertility persists. Because of this recent studies have combined T with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to further suppress pituitary gonadotropins and optimize contraceptive efficacy. Current combinations of T and progestogens completely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable T, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  6. Postpartum contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    1990-08-01

    Contraceptive methods suitable for postpartum women include sterilization, intrauterine devices (IUDs), barrier methods, oral contraceptives, implants, injectables, breastfeeding, and natural family planning. Couples considering either male or female sterilization should receive counseling since this method is irreversible; however, it is very effective. IUDs are effective, reversible, and can be inserted as early as 10 minutes following placental delivery. Barrier methods are not as effective and include condoms, spermicides, diaphragm, and cervical caps. While condoms and spermicides can be employed whenever sexual activity resumes, diaphragms and cervical caps can be used 4-6 weeks postpartum. The progestin-only and the combined oral contraceptives are both very effective. There is disagreement among professionals regarding when nursing mothers should start taking oral contraceptives and implant and injectable contraceptives. Implants and injectable contraceptives have long acting effects. Breastfeeding is a natural form of contraception which can last up to 6 months; it also supplies nutritional and immunological benefits. Natural family planning requires providing women with information on fertility awareness.

  7. Continued decrease of open surface water body area in Oklahoma during 1984-2015.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhenhua; Dong, Jinwei; Menarguez, Michael A; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Doughty, Russell B; Hooker, Katherine V; David Hambright, K

    2017-10-01

    Oklahoma contains the largest number of manmade lakes and reservoirs in the United States. Despite the importance of these open surface water bodies to public water supply, agriculture, thermoelectric power, tourism and recreation, it is unclear how these water bodies have responded to climate change and anthropogenic water exploitation in past decades. In this study, we used all available Landsat 5 and 7 images (16,000 scenes) from 1984 through 2015 and a water index- and pixel-based approach to analyze the spatial-temporal variability of open surface water bodies and its relationship with climate and water exploitation. Specifically, the areas and numbers of four water body extents (the maximum, year-long, seasonal, and average extents) were analyzed to capture variations in water body area and number. Statistically significant downward trends were found in the maximum, year-long, and annual average water body areas from 1984 through 2015. Furthermore, these decreases were mainly attributed to the continued shrinking of large water bodies (>1km(2)). There were also significant decreases in maximum and year-long water body numbers, which suggested that some of the water bodies were vanishing year by year. However, remarkable inter-annual variations of water body area and number were also found. Both water body area and number were positively related to precipitation, and negatively related to temperature. Surface water withdrawals mainly influenced the year-long water bodies. The smaller water bodies have a higher risk of drying under a drier climate, which suggests that small water bodies are more vulnerable under climate-warming senarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2014-10-01

    Reliable estimates of fresh manure water output from dairy cows help to improve storage design, enhance efficiency of land application, quantify the water footprint, and predict nutrient transformations during manure storage. The objective of the study was to construct a mechanistic, dynamic, and deterministic mathematical model to quantify urinary and fecal water outputs (kg/d) from individual lactating dairy cows. The model contained 4 body water pools: reticulorumen (QRR), post-reticulorumen (QPR), extracellular (QEC), and intracellular (QIC). Dry matter (DM) intake, dietary forage, DM, crude protein, acid detergent fiber and ash contents, milk yield, and milk fat and protein contents, days in milk, and body weight were input variables to the model. A set of linear equations was constructed to determine drinking, feed, and saliva water inputs to QRR and fractional water passage from QRR to QPR. Water transfer via the rumen wall was subjected to changes in QEC and total water input to QRR. Post-reticulorumen water passage was adjusted for DM intake. Metabolic water production and respiratory cutaneous water losses were estimated with functions of heat production in the model. Water loss in urine was driven by absorbed N left after being removed via milk. Model parameters were estimated simultaneously using observed fecal and urinary water output data from lactating Holstein cows (n=670). The model was evaluated with data that were not used for model development and optimization (n=377). The observations in both data sets were related to thermoneutral conditions. The model predicted drinking water intake, fecal, urinary, and total fresh manure water output with root mean square prediction errors as a percentage of average values of 18.1, 15.6, 30.6, and 14.6%, respectively. In all cases, >97% of the prediction error was due to random variability of data. The model can also be used to determine saliva production, heat and metabolic water production, respiratory

  9. Adolescent Contraception: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pavilanis, Alan V.

    1988-01-01

    Adolescents are sexual beings who are undergoing important biological and social changes. Physicians must recognize the need for contraception in their teenage patients and realize when teenagers are asking for contraception. In order to deal effectively with the question of birth control, the physician must be comfortable with the issues of adolescent development and sexuality, as well as with his of her own sexuality. The birth-control pill remains the contraceptive prescription of choice, but other methods of birth control are discussed as well. Physicians must also be prepared to validate a teenager's decision not to engage in intercourse. PMID:21253171

  10. Post-coital contraception.

    PubMed

    Ashton, J R; Chambers, J; Hall, D J

    1984-03-01

    137,000 British women chose to have an abortion in 1981 and about 25% were teenagers. A recent estimate noted that 10% of unintended pregnancies could have been avoided if postcoital contraception had been obtainable. The availability of postcoital contraception is limited and few doctors have much knowledge of or interest in this contraceptive method. 2 questions that arise are why have doctors been so slow to adopt this effective method of birth control and what are the chances of its availability in the National Health Service (NHS) improving. Postcoital contraception is a comparatively new and until recently unpublicized fertility control method, and there was little knowledge of it among the general population or the medical profession. Doctors' ignorance and reluctance to provide the method may have been due in part to the fact that the pharmaceutical firms have been hesitant to recommend oral contraceptive (OC) pills for this use. There is no specially packaged product, and it is necessary for a patient to be given 4 pills from a 21-pill pack. This has meant that the method has not been advertized, as most new methods would be, in the medical magazines. Hopefully, this lack of knowledge has been rectified by the Family Planning Association. As part of its campaign to launch the method, it has sent details to all general practitioners. Attitudes to postcoital contraception are important, and clearly there are strong parallels with the abortion issues and legal and moral undercurrents as well. Many doctors might have been put off providing postcoital contraception by the experience of the 2 clinics (BPAS in Sheffield and the Caithorpe Nursing Home in Birmingham) which had been reported by Life, an antiabortion pressure group, to the Director of Public Prosecutions under the Offences Against the Persons Act 1863. But on May 10, 1983 the Attorney General announced that the provisionof postcoital contraception is not a criminal offense. This statement may not be

  11. Contraception with intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Parr, E L

    1973-05-01

    A review of the history of contraception with intrauterine devices, characteristics of present devices, and directions of current research is presented. The serious need for population control is not yet being met by today's inconvenient, ineffective, or unsafe methods. Intrauterine devices have been best for international family planning programs because they are cheap, easily installed, and provide continuous protection. There are many different models that have been and are being used, with different effectiveness and complication rates. The most commonly used today is the Lippes Loop, with a pregnancy rate of 2.8/100 years of woman use and an expulsion rate of 10.4. Most of these failures occur in the first few months of use, after which these rates are greatly reduced. The removal rate because of bleeding or pain for the Lippes device is 14.0. Other devices commonly used have pregnancy rates ranging 1.3-4.7, expulsion rates of 2.6-25.8, and removal rates of 13.5-22.1. Expulsion is directly related to the size and design of the IUD and the age and parity of t,e recipient. It is important to match the size of the device used to the individual characteristics of the patient. Research is seeking a design that will implant itself in the endometrium to resist expulsion, but not too deeply so that it is covered. Removal for bleeding and pain remains the most frequent complication of the IUD, and it partly depends on the skill of the inserting physician and how well the patient is psychologically prepared for side effects in the first months of use. Pregnancy is the most significant IUD complication. The key to an effective IUD is an understanding of its antifertility mechanism, which has thus far eluded researchers. The IUD prevents implantation of the blastocyst in the uterine wall, which may be due to a foreign-body reaction in the endometrium. IUDs with copper cause a greater reaction than plastic devices and provide hope for a very effective device; particularly

  12. Allergy to spermicidal lubricant in a contraceptive.

    PubMed

    van Ulsen, J; Stolz, E; van Joost, T; Geursen-Reitsma, A M

    1987-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is reported in a patient using a condom with the spermicidal lubricant Tectol. A 36 year old female, with no history of dermatitis or pruritus of the vagina or vulva, experienced itchy dermatitis 24-48 hours after her partner used a Durex Top Safe contraceptive containing Tectol. The dermatitis appeared on the neck, upper legs, underarms, and trunk area. When another contraceptive was used Durex Featherlite (without Tectol), the patient experienced no problems. Patch tests concluded that the Tectol lubricant was the cause for the reaction in the patient. Transmission of the lubricant to the patient occurred when the patient's partner, after handling the contraceptive (Durex Top Safe) during intercourse, placed his hands on the patient's body. To which exact element of Tectol the patient was sensitized could not be determined as the patient refused further treatment.

  13. [Breastfeeding and contraception].

    PubMed

    Treffers, P E

    1999-09-18

    In the Netherlands many women stop breastfeeding in the first few months postpartum. In 1997, only 16.9% of all 3-month-old babies received full breastfeeding. One of the causes may be insufficient support by the medical profession. A second factor is that often combined oral contraceptives are prescribed to breastfeeding women. As it has been shown that estrogens in these contraceptives inhibit lactation, this is probably one of the reasons why breastfeeding frequently fails in this country. WHO advises not to use estrogens during lactation. According to recent research the lactational amenorrhoea method of contraception (LAM) is highly effective during the first 4 months postpartum. In the 5th and 6th month the effectiveness is strongly dependent on the accuracy by which the conditions are met. The medical profession should pay more attention to the support of breastfeeding and contraception in relation to each other.

  14. Post abortion contraception.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kopp, Helena Kallner

    2015-11-01

    A safe induced abortion has no impact on future fertility. Ovulation may resume as early as 8 days after the abortion. There is no difference in return to fertility after medical or surgical abortion. Most women resume sexual activity soon after an abortion. Contraceptive counseling and provision should therefore be an integrated part of the abortion services to help women avoid another unintended pregnancy and risk, in many cases an unsafe, abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods that includes implants and intrauterine contraception have been shown to be the most effective contraceptive methods to help women prevent unintended pregnancy following an abortion. However, starting any method is better than starting no method at all. This Special Report will give a short guide to available methods and when they can be started after an induced abortion.

  15. Whole body immersion and hydromineral homeostasis: effect of water temperature.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Chantal; Regnard, Jacques; Robinet, Claude; Mourot, Laurent; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Jammes, Yves; Dumoulin, Gilles; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Melin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the effects of prolonged whole body immersion (WBI) in thermoneutral and cold conditions on plasma volume and hydromineral homeostasis.10 navy "combat swimmers" performed three static 6-h immersions at 34 degrees C (T34), 18 degrees C (T18) and 10 degrees C (T10). Rectal temperature, plasma volume (PV) changes, plasma proteins, plasma and urine ions, plasma osmolality, renin, aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured. Results show that compared to pre-immersion levels, PV decreased throughout WBI sessions, the changes being markedly accentuated in cold conditions. At the end of WBI, maximal PV variations were -6.9% at T34, -14.3% at T18, and -16.3% at T10. Plasma osmolality did not change during and after T34 immersion, while hyperosmolality was present at the end of T18 immersion and began after only 1 h of T10 immersion. In the three temperature conditions, significant losses of water (1.6-1.7 l) and salt (6-8 g) occurred and were associated with similar increases in osmolar and free water clearances. Furthermore, T18 and T10 immersions increased the glomerular filtration rate. There was little or no change in plasma renin and ADH, while the plasma level of aldosterone decreased equally in the three temperature conditions. In conclusion, our data indicate that cold water hastened PV changes induced by immersion, and increased the glomerular filtration rate, causing larger accumulated water losses. The iso-osmotic hypovolemia may impede the resumption of baseline fluid balance. Results are very similar to those repeatedly described by various authors during head-out water immersion.

  16. Promoting emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Stewart, F

    1998-08-15

    The use of available oral contraceptive agents for emergency contraception has been judged safe and effective by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and other agencies. Yet implementation by physicians has been limited, and only a small percentage of women take advantage of this option each year. Lack of a specially packaged--and marketed--product for this indication has been a major barrier.

  17. The intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed Central

    Barwin, B. N.; Tuttle, S.; Jolly, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    This presentation brings into perspective the most recent information on intrauterine contraceptive devices. A comprehensive review of the literature is presented in a manner meaningful to the clinician. The advantages and disadvantages of this method of contraception, the problems that arise and the recommended methods of management are discussed. An updated review of the literature with regard to bleeding, pain, expulsion of the device, infection, uterine perforation and pregnancy is also presented. PMID:620385

  18. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  19. [Post-abortion contraception].

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C

    2016-12-01

    To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Adolescent contraception. Current trends].

    PubMed

    Anthuber, Sabine

    2005-10-01

    Despite easy availability of contraception, Germany is confronted with the problem of increasing rates of pregnancies and abortions in minors. Prescription of contraceptives that do not rely on compliance and are acceptable to adolescents is required in addition to improved counseling. For that purpose, adherence to the guidelines for the use of contraceptives in minors written by the consortium for legislation in medicine (AG Medizinrecht) is essential. Oral contraceptives are the most commonly prescribed form of birth control, advantages include reversibility as well as a good tolerance and safety profile. New developments are low-dose compounds, novel progestins, prevention of ovulation by pure gestagen pills and the long-term use of low-dose monophasic micro pills. Long-term contraceptives like subdermally implantable depot compounds or hormone-releasing pessaries in utero have been used on a regular basis and seem a convenient alternative for birth control for longer periods, also in adolescents. The easy-to-use intravaginal ring and the birth control patch have expanded the spectrum of hormone-releasing contraceptive systems. Studies show improved compliance and a possible reduction of unintentional pregnancies due to application errors. Amelioration of the range of highly effective birth control products different modes of application will hopefully lead to drop in the rate of unplanned pregnancies, especially in adolescents.

  1. Lackawanna River Priority Water Body survey report water quality standards review

    SciTech Connect

    McMorran, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, Priority Water Bodies (those waters for which regulatory or control decisions are needed) were identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources through a series of Total Maximum Daily Load/Waste Load Allocation screenings. These watersheds were selected for screening on the basis of: (1) presence of a portable water supply in the watershed; (2) documentation of toxics related fish and aquatic life water quality problems in the watershed; and (3) presence of one (or more) major National Priority point discharge permits in the watershed. The screenings were conducted on a watersheds basis and were designed to: (1) inventory readily available information on the nature and extent of toxics discharged from Publicly Owned Treatment Works and industrial discharges; (2) evaluate the potential impact that these discharges have on the receiving water body; (3) determine the parameters of concern associated with each discharge that may require water quality based effluent limitations; and (4) determine where potential discharge interactions may require additional field data collection, and multiple discharge wasteload allocations. The data indicated that relationships exist between levels of toxic pollutants in the Lackawanna River and the major discharges. Water quality in the Lackawanna River is impacted by high levels of sulfates, iron, lead and manganese discharged from abandoned coal mines. The sewage treatment plants discharge large amounts of lead, cyanide and cadmium. High levels of aluminum were also discharged form the Lower Lackawanna STP. Cadmium was high in discharges from Chrysler Defense, which also had high levels of cyanide, lead, iron, zinc and manganese.

  2. Apparatus for removing oil and other floating contaminants from a moving body of water

    DOEpatents

    Strohecker, J.W.

    1973-12-18

    The patent describes a process in which floating contaminants such as oil and solid debris are removed from a moving body of water by employing a skimming system which uses the natural gravitational flow of the water. A boom diagonally positioned across the body of water diverts the floating contaminants over a floating weir and into a retention pond where an underflow weir is used to return contaminant-free water to the moving body of water. The floating weir is ballasted to maintain the contaminant-receiving opening therein slightly below the surface of the water during fluctuations in the water level for skimming the contaminants with minimal water removal.

  3. Worldwide Eutrophication of Water Bodies: Causes, Concerns, Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prepas, E. E.; Charette, T.

    2003-12-01

    Eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of waters that stimulates an array of symptomatic changes, that can include increased phytoplankton and rooted aquatic plant (macrophyte) production, fisheries and water quality deterioration, and other undesirable changes that interfere with water uses (Bartsch, 1972). The trophic state, or degree of fertility, of water bodies ranges from oligotrophic to mesotrophic to eutrophic with increasing supply of nutrients and organic matter ( Table 1). Eutrophication is most often the result of an elevated supply of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, to surface waters that results in enhanced production of primary producers, particularly phytoplankton and aquatic plants. Table 1. Mean annual values for the trophic classification system Total phosphorus (μg L-1)Chlorophyll a (μg L-1)Secchi disk depth (m) Ultra-oligotrophic<4<1>12 Oligotrophic<10<2.5>6 Mesotrophic10-352.5-86-3 Eutrophic35-1008-253-1.5 Hypertrophic>100>25<1.5 Source: OECD (1982). Phytoplankton are unpleasant at high densities. The sight and smell of clots or masses of decaying phytoplankton decreases the recreational value of most waters and usually generates concerns among the public. Furthermore, blooms of toxin-producing phytoplankton can cause widespread illness. A bloom is a conspicuous concentration of phytoplankton, often concentrated at or near the surface. It is difficult to quantify what constitutes a "bloom," but a rough estimate places it as a chlorophyll a concentration over 30 μg L-1. Toxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Pfiesteria in marine environments of the northeastern US and red tides in tropical waters have caused massive fish kills, millions of dollars in losses to seafood-related industries, human memory loss, paralysis, and even death (Van den Hoeck et al., 1995; Silbergeld et al., 2000). Bloom-forming species of cyanobacteria can produce potent hepato-(liver) toxins termed microcystins that have been implicated in

  4. Body weight, diet and water intake in preventing stone disease.

    PubMed

    Meschi, Tiziana; Schianchi, Tania; Ridolo, Erminia; Adorni, Giuditta; Allegri, Franca; Guerra, Angela; Novarini, Almerico; Borghi, Loris

    2004-01-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of nephrolithiasis, i.e. calcium (calcium oxalate and phosphate) and uric acid stone disease. For this reason, dietary measures are the first level of intervention in primary prevention, as well as in secondary prevention of recurrences. An unbalanced diet or particular sensitivity to various foods in stone formers can lead to urinary alterations such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and an excessively acid urinary pH. Over the course of time, these conditions contribute to the formation or recurrence of kidney stones, due to the effect they exert on the lithogenous salt profile. The fundamental aspects of the nutritional approach to the treatment of idiopathic nephrolithiasis are body weight, diet and water intake. This paper will present data resulting from our own investigations and the most significant evidence in literature.

  5. Sculpting of a dissolvable body by flowing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinzi Mac; Moore, M. Nicholas J.; Ristroph, Leif

    2014-11-01

    Fluid flows strongly influence the dissolution of materials in geological contexts and in chemical and pharmaceutical applications. We approach flow-driven dissolution as a moving boundary problem and conduct experiments on hard candy bodies immersed within fast flowing water. We discover that different initial shapes are sculpted into a similar final form before ultimately vanishing, suggesting convergence to a stable shape-flow state. A model linking the flow and solute concentration suggests an explanation for this state and offers scaling laws for quantities such as the volume decay rate in time. As a whimsical application, we also show how this model can be used to address the long-standing question, ``How many licks does it take to get to the center of lollipop?''

  6. Current contraceptive research and development.

    PubMed

    Reape, Kathleen Z

    2005-10-01

    The approval of various new contraceptive products in recent years has resulted in broadening the options available to women. Trends in contraceptive research for hormonal products include variations in dose and dosing regimens, introduction of novel compounds, evaluation of products for noncontraceptive indications, and development of nonoral delivery systems and male contraceptives. Nonhormonal areas of research include microbicidal products, dual protection methods, and contraceptive vaccines. For each of these categories, contraceptive products currently in development and the potential implications for adolescents are discussed. Ongoing contraceptive research and development activity is robust and should ensure the continued availability of various new products for adolescents.

  7. Male contraception: history and development.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception.

  8. Contraceptive needs of the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Petrus S; Goldstuck, Norman D

    2014-08-01

    The provision of contraception to adolescents requires specific attention. Adolescents require contraceptive methods which are safe, effective and simple to use. While long-acting reversible contraceptive methods are preferable, they should have a choice and not be forced or mandated especially in situations where this may compromise safety. After counselling they should have the ability to choose any method of contraception. Under the appropriate circumstances, each method of contraception may have a place. This chapter will be devoted to evaluating the most current scientific rationale for the indication for use of each method of contraception in adolescents. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Long-acting reversible contraception.

    PubMed

    Peck, Susan A

    2013-10-01

    Although short-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives, such as oral contraceptives and the contraceptive patch and vaginal ring, remain the most commonly used contraceptive methods in the United States, they are also associated with the highest failure rates. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, offer high continuation rates and very low failure rates, and are safe for use in most women. The provision of LARC methods to adolescent, young adult and nulliparous women is a relatively new concept that offers an innovative option for these populations.

  10. Recasting image of contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Rimon Jg; Kiragu, K

    1993-03-01

    Even though contraceptives are linked to sex which, along with sensuality and peer acceptance, is used to market consumer goods, contraceptives are promoted in a hygienic, clinical way. Glamorous images which divert from adverse health effects are used to sell unhealthy goods, e.g., alcohol and cigarettes, but technical and intimidating promotion techniques centering on risks are used to promote family planning (FP) products and services which actually save the lives of mothers and children and improve their health. Until recently, only the medical system provided FP products and services so consumers identified them with illness and a help-seeking behavior. The image of contraceptives must be remolded to gain people's attention. To avoid instilling mistrust of a method in consumers, even those who believe in birth spacing, it is important for images to be positive and to reflect accurate information. In Indonesia, the Dualima condom has been linked to responsible fatherhood thereby creating a positive image and removing the negative image of a condom being linked to illicit sex. In the US, condom adds show the user in control, especially in reference to AIDS. Prior to promotion of any contraceptive, complete, clear communication and marketing plans are needed to identify and to focus on consumers' perceived needs. A survey in Egypt shows that the most important attributes of a contraceptive are ease of use, healthiness, and effectiveness and that Egyptians considered IUDs to best fit these attributes. Images of contraceptive users often determine whether potential users do choose to use contraceptives. For example, in Cameroon and the Philippines, female users are considered to be smart, rich, educated, confident and in control of their lives. In the Philippines, male users are perceived to be loving, caring, and considerate husbands. The mass medias can improve providers' public image as was the case in Turkey and Egypt.

  11. Barriers to contraceptive services.

    PubMed

    Silverman, J; Torres, A; Forrest, J D

    1987-01-01

    More than 1/2 of the pregnancies that occur each year in the US are unintended and 1/2 of these end in abortion. An attempt was made to determine the contraceptive availability, needs and preferences of low-income women via a telephone survey of 760 women, 18-35 years of age, living in 4 urban locations and a mail survey of all family planning clinics and private obstetrician-gynecologists in each of the 4 communities, as well as other physicians and clinics mentioned by the women. Although 94% of the women said they had used some contraceptive method at some time, 23% were not currently practicing contraception. Both nonuse and the use of less effective methods appear to be caused by method-related fears, dislike of available methods, and a general negative feeling about contraception. Less effective methods may be avoided because women view them as offering less protection and dislike their coitus-dependent qualities. Structural or provider-related concerns, such as cost, were seldom reported as barriers to contraceptive use. The primary barrier to clinic use is the apparent belief of many women that clinics do not offer personalized care and provide lower quality care than private physicians. Private physicians are avoided because of high cost and their lesser acceptance of Medicaid or Medi-Cal reimbursement. Encouraging more favorable attitudes toward contraceptive methods and improving access to and knowledge of inexpensive, personalized family planning services appear to be critical factors in fostering better contraceptive practice among low-income women in the US.

  12. Subdermal progestin implant contraception.

    PubMed

    Darney, P D

    1991-08-01

    Sustained-release progestin contraceptives are a new approach to meeting a worldwide need for more effective and acceptable birth control. These contraceptive systems provide low, stable levels of synthetic progestins for periods of months to several years. Unlike earlier injectable and oral contraceptives, they do not cause peaks in progestin levels beyond those required for effective contraception, nor do they employ estrogens. For these reasons, sustained-release progestin systems are without some of the health risks attributed to birth control pills, and they are more effective, as well as easy to use, and completely reversible. They share common side effects, the most frequent of which is irregular menstrual bleeding caused by the erratic shedding of hypotrophic endometrium. Despite this and other minor side effects, most users find the sustained-release systems acceptable alternatives to other methods of contraception. Permanent or biodegradable subdermal implants, injections, intrauterine and intracervical devices, and vaginal rings are all employed as delivery systems for contraceptive progestins. The Norplant (Wyeth Ayerst, Radnor, PA) system, consisting of six silastic tubes filled with levonorgestrel and implanted under the skin, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and is already used by more than a half million women worldwide. The other sustained-release systems are in various stages of development, at least several years away from general use. When these new methods complete clinical trials, women will be able to choose from among implants, injections, or pellets with various durations of action, all providing convenient, highly effective contraception with low risk to health.

  13. Adolescents and contraceptive advice.

    PubMed

    Sondergaard, M

    1993-06-01

    In the Scandinavian countries there is no age limit for adolescents' access to contraceptive advice. Denmark deems it important to avoid barriers which prevent young girls from seeking contraceptive advice. Offering easy access to counseling is preferable to adolescent girls having unwanted pregnancies. In Denmark there is no age limit for adolescent girls to see their general practitioner (GP) for instruction in the use contraceptive methods. Without parental consent all can receive such counseling. In addition, the GP is obliged to observe professional secrecy at counseling, hence parents cannot request any information from the GP. There must be exceptionally serious reasons for breaking this professional secrecy. Thus a young woman should not refrain from seeking advice out of fear that her parents will know about her intimate life, and that she protects herself against unwanted pregnancy. It is not desirable to fix any age limit for adolescents' right to seek this advice because it concerns the adolescents' actual sex life. After the introduction of free abortion, many quite young girls sought abortion. The objective is to bolster the development that all children receive the requisite sex education at school, as well as to ensure that there is easy access to information on contraceptive methods. The GP's counseling is provided free of charge. A number of contraceptive clinics are available all over the country to provide alternative contraceptive counseling in case a young woman does not want to consult her GP because perchance the GP is her family doctor. Denmark as well as the other Scandinavian countries characteristically give high priority to promoting and improving the access to information and counseling on contraceptive methods by avoiding all economical, geographical, ethical, or emotional barriers.

  14. Total Body Water Content of Neonates with Obstruction of Alimentary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Tsingoglou, Stavros; Phillips, Harriett; Wilkinson, Andrew W.

    1972-01-01

    The total body water content was measured by the deuterium oxide dilution method in 55 neonates admitted to hospital for surgical treatment within 90 hours of birth. The mean total body water of the whole group was 77·03 ± 0·62 (SEM)% of the body weight (range 67·4 to 88·6%), or 1·974 ± 0·005 (SEM) litres (range 1·010 to 2·830 litres). Over a range of body weights from 1·160 to 3·851 kg, total body water content expressed as a percentage of body weight decreased by 5% per kg rise in body weight, but when expressed as litres per kg body weight it increased by 737 ml for each rise of 1 kg in body weight. There was a small difference in water content between babies with obstruction of the alimentary tract and those with other nonobstructive lesions, which was not statistically significant. PMID:4567075

  15. Introducing new contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Segal, S J; Coutinho, E

    1986-12-01

    At this time, private research efforts to discover new contraceptives are threatened. Drug companies, particularly in the US, have reduced their interest in contraceptive development due to concern over the rising cost of product liability insurance, the cost of lawsuits in defense of liability claims, and the fear of extremely high awards by juries in product liability cases. The current form of private-public collaboration, now threatened by the liability crisis, works under a few simple principles of agreement. Private industry agrees to supply its patented chemical compounds for assessment as contraceptive agents, to be willing to enter into negotiations with public sector organizations to develop the contraceptive drugs if initial tests warrant it, and to release compounds to another company if the patent-holder declines to proceed with contraceptive development. The public-sector program agrees to fund the studies, keep the industry informed, and maintain confidentiality. When the technology is discovered by the public sector and is of potential interest to private industry, the collaboration involves other issues. The public agency agrees to supply manufacturing know-how and all biological and clinical information, to license under applicable patents, and to permit cross reference to regulatory agency filings. Private industry agrees to use its best efforts to bring the product to market, to manufacture the product at reduced cost for public sector use, or to provide know-how for others to do so. It also agrees to assume product liability and to grant the public sector agency licenses to any patented improvement in its product. Contraceptive research both within and outside the US is feeling the effects of the US litigious atmosphere. Companies from abroad now wish to steer clear of contraceptive research, even though these companies would be prepared to meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration. Contraceptives, considered to be high risk

  16. Contraception in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Dusitsin, Nikorn

    2003-06-01

    Women in their forties are still potentially fertile, and pregnancy in this age group is attended with increased maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, fetal anomalies and perinatal mortality. Contraception for women in this age group has special risks and benefits; both should be balanced to choose between the different options available. Recent epidemiological and clinical pharmacology studies have indicated the safety of extending the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) beyond the age of 35 years and up to menopause. Women who have reasons for avoiding COCs can use progestogen-only contraceptives like pills, depot injectables and implants. Implant combines high efficacy and long-term effect. Both copper-releasing and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive device (LNG-IUD) combine the advantages of high efficacy and long-term effect. The reduced fecundity above the age of forty can allow extending the use beyond the accepted term, and up to one or two years beyond the menopause without the need for replacement. The levonorgestrel IUD has the advantage of reducing the amount of menstrual bleeding. The condom has the added benefit of protection against sexual transmitted diseases (STDs). Male or female sterilization is an excellent contraceptive option, provided that this approach is culturally acceptable and available at reasonable cost and low risk.

  17. Effectiveness of Glycerol Ingestion for Enhanced Body Water Retention during Cold Water Immersion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    carbohydrate (CHO) meal was consumed by all subjects to minimize differences in nutritional status. This was designed to ensure sufficient substrate...GLY in the ingested solution was 79 ± 8 ml. The mean nutritional values for the predive 10 meals consumed by each treatment group did not differ...body or head-out immersion. Additionally, Rochelle and Horvath (1978) found that surfers who were chronically exposed to cold water exhibited a smaller

  18. Adolescent Religiosity and Contraceptive Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Marlena; Thornton, Arland

    1987-01-01

    Examined contraceptive use by never married, sexually experienced female adolescents (N=224). Found birth control pills to be the single most popular method of contraception. Subjects who reported regularly attending religious services were less likely to have used an effective, medical method of contraception than those who rarely attended…

  19. Adolescent Religiosity and Contraceptive Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studer, Marlena; Thornton, Arland

    1987-01-01

    Examined contraceptive use by never married, sexually experienced female adolescents (N=224). Found birth control pills to be the single most popular method of contraception. Subjects who reported regularly attending religious services were less likely to have used an effective, medical method of contraception than those who rarely attended…

  20. [Contraception in perimenopause].

    PubMed

    Merki-Feld, G S

    2000-10-01

    Perimenopausal women are still potentially fertile and pregnancy is attended with increased maternal and perinatal mortality. Several contraceptive methods can be used therapeutic for the treatment of climacteric symptoms like menstrual irregularities, flushes and vaginal dryness. Low-dose oral contraceptives (OC) prevent climacteric symptoms and additionally protect from perimenopausal bone loss. However, the individual cardiovascular risk increases with age and is even higher in perimenopausal women using OCs. Therefore for women with cardiovascular risk factors sterilization, barrier methods, progestin-only methods and intrauterine devices (IUD) are the better choice. Prolonged and heavy menses can be treated with the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD or injectable progestogens. If estrogen replacement is necessary, a low-dose treatment with natural estrogens can be combined with barrier methods, the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD and injectable progestogens. The variety of contraceptive options available to perimenopausal women allows individual counseling and thus may enhance compliance.

  1. History (of oral contraceptives).

    PubMed

    1978-02-01

    This article summarizes the interest and research in oral contraceptives, with particular attention given to recent discoveries in the field. Development of the present day pill was impossible until scientific discoveries of female ovarian hormones during pregnancy. Scientific work in the 1920s identified the 2 hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and scientists showed that use of the 2 together influenced ovulation and eased dysmenorrhea. It was not until 1944 that a scientist produced progesterone from a plant steroid; today synthetic steroids are available. Margaret Sanger, a pioneer in the American Family Planning Movement, financed and encouraged early human volunteer trials and later clinical trials with contraceptive pills. By 1957, the pills were approved by the FDA for use in treating menstrual disorders. In January 1962, they were released on the market as contraceptives. By 1976-77, the pill was used by 80-100 million women around the world. A dated table summarizes the information in the article in a timetable fashion.

  2. Contraception for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Hess, Rachel; Trussell, James

    2009-11-01

    Women who have survived cancer may need guidance in choosing a method of contraception. This paper reviews the evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of available methods of contraception for cancer survivors and concludes that the Copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD), a highly effective, reversible, long-acting, hormone-free method should be considered a first-line contraceptive option for women with a history of a hormonally mediated cancer. However, the levonorgestrel-containing IUD may be preferable for women being treated with tamoxifen and women who have survived non-hormonally mediated cancers. Women with IUDs can undergo all forms of imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. [Contraception during the perimenopause: indications, security, and non contraceptive benefits].

    PubMed

    Cantero Pérez, P; Klingemann, J; Yaron, M; Irion, N Fournet; Streuli, I

    2015-10-28

    Although patients' fertility is diminished in the period of perimenopause, they still need efficient contraception. Thorough knowledge of the physiological changes occuring during this period of transition is essential in order to provide optimal care. Until the age of 50, no contraceptive method is specifically considered unsuitable due to age alone. The choice of contraceptive needs to be adapted to the patient, assessing the individual risk factors and favouring the potential non-contraceptive advantages of the method selected. Long-term contraceptive methods (e.g., the copper intrauterine device (IUD), the Mirena IUD or a subcutaneous implant) offer an excellent solution on both levels.

  4. Oral contraceptives: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Derman, R

    1989-09-01

    Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.

  5. Advances in Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  6. Contraceptive developments for men.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K

    2007-03-01

    Efforts are underway to develop new methods of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development is hormonal and involves the administration of testosterone. When testosterone is administered to a man, it functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After two to three months of treatment, low levels of gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. In many clinical trials, male hormonal contraception has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well-tolerated by men. In addition, sperm parameters uniformly normalize when treatment is discontinued. The main drawback to this approach is the observation that spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some potential for fertility persists. Because of this, recent studies have combined testosterone with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to synergistically suppress pituitary gonadotropins and improve suppression of spermatogenesis. Current combinations of testosterone and progestogens severely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable testosterone, such as testosterone undecanoate, which can be administered every 8-10 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  7. [Contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and

  8. [Hormonal contraception interactions].

    PubMed

    Hurt, K; Sottner, J; Záhumenský, J; Halaska, M; Krcmár, M; Krajcová, A

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the probable ways of interactions between some drugs or remedies and steroid contraceptives. A review article. OBGYN Clinic of the 1t Faculty of Medicine, Prague, Teaching Hospital Bulovka. Low dose oral contraceptives are very popular these days. Some drugs and remedies could negatively influence the levels of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and/or progestins and thus increase the possibility of their failure. These drugs mostly implicate as an inducer of the CYP450 system (liver) and as an inducer of P-glycoprotein transport system (transmembrane drug pump in the intestines). We wanted to describe briefly the mechanism and the principles of their impact.

  9. [Oral contraceptives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kopera, H

    1976-11-26

    A short review of the endocrinological basis of reproduction in the female is followed by a critical survey of the oral contraceptive methods in current use. The composition of the preparations, their use, their biological and use-effectiveness and mode of action are discussed.The importance is emphasized of complying with the basic principles of drug testing in the evaluation of effects of oral contraceptiveson health. Other effects than merely the contraceptive actions of these preparations are described in detail, including not only the undesirable, frequently neglected, yet very important beneficial effects on the drug-users, their children and families.

  10. Sculpting of an erodible body by flowing water.

    PubMed

    Ristroph, Leif; Moore, Matthew N J; Childress, Stephen; Shelley, Michael J; Zhang, Jun

    2012-11-27

    Erosion by flowing fluids carves striking landforms on Earth and also provides important clues to the past and present environments of other worlds. In these processes, solid boundaries both influence and are shaped by the surrounding fluid, but the emergence of morphology as a result of this interaction is not well understood. We study the coevolution of shape and flow in the context of erodible bodies molded from clay and immersed in a fast, unidirectional water flow. Although commonly viewed as a smoothing process, we find that erosion sculpts pointed and cornerlike features that persist as the solid shrinks. We explain these observations using flow visualization and a fluid mechanical model in which the surface shear stress dictates the rate of material removal. Experiments and simulations show that this interaction ultimately leads to self-similarly receding boundaries and a unique front surface characterized by nearly uniform shear stress. This tendency toward conformity of stress offers a principle for understanding erosion in more complex geometries and flows, such as those present in nature.

  11. Sculpting of an erodible body by flowing water

    PubMed Central

    Ristroph, Leif; Moore, Matthew N. J.; Childress, Stephen; Shelley, Michael J.; Zhang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Erosion by flowing fluids carves striking landforms on Earth and also provides important clues to the past and present environments of other worlds. In these processes, solid boundaries both influence and are shaped by the surrounding fluid, but the emergence of morphology as a result of this interaction is not well understood. We study the coevolution of shape and flow in the context of erodible bodies molded from clay and immersed in a fast, unidirectional water flow. Although commonly viewed as a smoothing process, we find that erosion sculpts pointed and cornerlike features that persist as the solid shrinks. We explain these observations using flow visualization and a fluid mechanical model in which the surface shear stress dictates the rate of material removal. Experiments and simulations show that this interaction ultimately leads to self-similarly receding boundaries and a unique front surface characterized by nearly uniform shear stress. This tendency toward conformity of stress offers a principle for understanding erosion in more complex geometries and flows, such as those present in nature. PMID:23150552

  12. Body water compartments during bed rest: Evaluation of analytical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, H. L.; Juhos, L.; Castle, B. L.; Yusken, J.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine healthy young men were studied to determine the reproducibility and interchangeability of the use of radio-iodinated human serum albumin and Evans Blue dye for estimating plasma volume, sodium bromide for extracellular fluid volume, and deuterium oxide for total body water volume. All subjects were tested in a semibasal condition and allowed to rest for at least 30 min. after arriving at the laboratory. The results indicate that there was uniform distribution of I131 and Evans Blue dye 10 min. after injection and of NaBr and D2O 3 hours after oral ingestion; the buildup of residual tracer did not interfere appreciably with the measurement of either or Evans Blue spaces when they are administered at equal intervals, and the buildup of background tracer after ingestion of NaBr and D2O once per week for three consecutive weeks did not affect the accuracy of the measurement. It was found that I131 and Evans Blue may be used interchangeably for estimating plasma volume; for estimating bromide and D2O spaces, one 3-hour equilibrium blood sample gives results similar to the extrapolation of multiple samples.

  13. Comparison of Two Mercury Contaminated Surface Water Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. C.; Southworth, G. R.; Turner, R. R.; Jensen, R.

    2008-12-01

    Due to the methyl mercury (MeHg) burden in fish tissues, the Virginia Department of Health and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation have posted fish advisories for the South River, VA and the East Fork Poplar Creek, TN (EFPC), respectively. This presentation will compare and contrast the hydrogeochemical characteristics of these two industrially contaminated water bodies. Both streams share broad similarities in terms of their general chemistry and underlying geology. Nevertheless, patterns of waterborne mercury (Hg) and, importantly, MeHg concentration are different. For example, in the South River both Hg and MeHg concentrations increase with increasing distance downstream from the industrial site of mercury origin whereas in EFPC Hg decreases while MeHg increases with increasing distance downstream. Although both sites are the focus of concerted research efforts to identify effective remediation, the underlying mechanisms that drive the patterns within each system and therefore account for the differences between them are poorly understood. We intend for this presentation to provide a context within which attendees can frame their discussion of the challenges inherent to studying the biogeochemical cycling of Hg in general and at contaminated sites in particular where effective remedies can be elusive.

  14. The Effect of Age, Parity and Body Mass Index on the Efficacy, Safety, Placement and User Satisfaction Associated With Two Low-Dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive Systems: Subgroup Analyses of Data From a Phase III Trial.

    PubMed

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Apter, Dan; Hauck, Brian; Schmelter, Thomas; Rybowski, Sarah; Rosen, Kimberly; Nelson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems (LNG-IUSs; total content 13.5 mg [average approx. 8 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 8] and total content 19.5 mg [average approx. 13 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 13]) have previously been shown to be highly effective (3-year Pearl Indices: 0.33 and 0.31, respectively), safe and well tolerated. The present subgroup analyses evaluated whether or not outcomes were affected by parity, age (18-25 vs 26-35 years), or body mass index (BMI, <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). Nulliparous and parous women aged 18‒35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21‒35 days) requesting contraception were randomized to 3 years of LNG-IUS 8 or LNG-IUS 13 use. In the LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 groups, 1432 and 1452 women, respectively, had a placement attempted and were included in the full analysis set; 39.2%, 39.2% and 17.1% were 18-25 years old, nulliparous and had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Both systems were similarly effective regardless of age, parity or BMI; the subgroup Pearl Indices had widely overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Placement of LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 was easier (p < 0.0001) and less painful (p < 0.0001) in women who had delivered vaginally than in women who had not. The complete/partial expulsion rate was 2.2-4.2% across all age and parity subgroups and higher in parous than in nulliparous women (p = 0.004). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 0.1-0.6% across all age and parity subgroups: nulliparous and younger women were not at higher risk than parous and older women, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rate was 0.3-0.4% across all age and parity subgroups. Across all age and parity subgroups, the 3-year completion rate was 50.9-61.3% for LNG-IUS 8 and 57.9-61.1% for LNG-IUS 13, and was higher (p = 0.0001) among older than younger women in the LNG-IUS 8 group only. LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 were highly effective, safe and well tolerated regardless of age or parity

  15. The Effect of Age, Parity and Body Mass Index on the Efficacy, Safety, Placement and User Satisfaction Associated With Two Low-Dose Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Contraceptive Systems: Subgroup Analyses of Data From a Phase III Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Apter, Dan; Hauck, Brian; Schmelter, Thomas; Rybowski, Sarah; Rosen, Kimberly; Nelson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objective Two low-dose levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive systems (LNG-IUSs; total content 13.5 mg [average approx. 8 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 8] and total content 19.5 mg [average approx. 13 μg/24 hours over the first year; LNG-IUS 13]) have previously been shown to be highly effective (3-year Pearl Indices: 0.33 and 0.31, respectively), safe and well tolerated. The present subgroup analyses evaluated whether or not outcomes were affected by parity, age (18–25 vs 26–35 years), or body mass index (BMI, <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). Methods Nulliparous and parous women aged 18‒35 years with regular menstrual cycles (21‒35 days) requesting contraception were randomized to 3 years of LNG-IUS 8 or LNG-IUS 13 use. Results In the LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 groups, 1432 and 1452 women, respectively, had a placement attempted and were included in the full analysis set; 39.2%, 39.2% and 17.1% were 18–25 years old, nulliparous and had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Both systems were similarly effective regardless of age, parity or BMI; the subgroup Pearl Indices had widely overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Placement of LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 was easier (p < 0.0001) and less painful (p < 0.0001) in women who had delivered vaginally than in women who had not. The complete/partial expulsion rate was 2.2–4.2% across all age and parity subgroups and higher in parous than in nulliparous women (p = 0.004). The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 0.1–0.6% across all age and parity subgroups: nulliparous and younger women were not at higher risk than parous and older women, respectively. The ectopic pregnancy rate was 0.3–0.4% across all age and parity subgroups. Across all age and parity subgroups, the 3-year completion rate was 50.9–61.3% for LNG-IUS 8 and 57.9–61.1% for LNG-IUS 13, and was higher (p = 0.0001) among older than younger women in the LNG-IUS 8 group only. Conclusions LNG-IUS 8 and LNG-IUS 13 were highly effective

  16. Organic halogens in unpolluted waters and large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Grimvall, A.; Jonsson, S.; Karlsson, S.; Savenhed, R.; Boren, H. )

    1991-05-01

    In this paper the authors review and update recently performed studies of organic halogens in unpolluted waters and two large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents---Lake Vattern in Sweden and the Baltic Sea. All water samples contained measurable amounts of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX); the highest concentrations (up to 200 {mu}g Cl/L) were observed in humic lakes not exposed to any industrial discharges. Analysis of chlorophenols revealed that there is a long-distance transport ({gt} 100 km) of chloroguaiacols from bleach plants to remote parts of receiving waters. However, there was no evidence of chlorinated organics from bleach plants accumulating over several years in the water phase. One chlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and its methylated analogue, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, were also detected in surface waters considered to be unpolluted. Mass balance calculations showed that different processes in terrestrial environments make large contributions of AOX; enzyme-mediated chlorination of humic substances is a plausible explanation to the widespread occurrence of organic halogens.

  17. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  18. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  19. Contraception for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sophia; Martin, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: 1.Identify and explain the four currently available methods of emergency contraception.2.Discuss the risk and benefits of intrauterine devices as a first-line option for contraception in adolescents.3.Review strategies for explaining the most common contraceptive methods to an adolescent. The US has the highest pregnancy rate of any industrialized nation, approximately twice that of Canada, four times that of France, and eight times that of Japan or Italy.1 In recent years, the rate has declined, partially due to delayed coitarche (age of onset of vaginal sexual intercourse) but mainly due to greater use of contraception.2 Per the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (a national survey of about 15,000 youth in schools), 33% of high school freshmen, 44% of sophomores, 53% of juniors, and 63% of seniors have had vaginal sexual intercourse. To prevent unplanned and unwanted teenage pregnancies, which have negative consequences on a teenager's health and future, pediatricians must be able to provide birth control or at least know where to refer their patients in need.

  20. Current contraceptive research.

    PubMed

    Benditt, J M

    1980-01-01

    No contraceptive panacea is near or likely. The most exciting prospect, man-made analogs of LHRH (a brain hormone) for both male and female use, could not be available before the late 1980s. Other potential methods in human trials face serious obstacles.

  1. Contraceptive Beach Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Edith B.; Miller, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstinence-based sexuality education includes a discussion about the various types of contraception available today. This lesson addresses the knowledge and skills identified in the National Health Education Standards, and can be used with two different audiences-students and teachers. Included in the lesson are step-by-step procedures, a…

  2. Contraceptive Beach Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Edith B.; Miller, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstinence-based sexuality education includes a discussion about the various types of contraception available today. This lesson addresses the knowledge and skills identified in the National Health Education Standards, and can be used with two different audiences-students and teachers. Included in the lesson are step-by-step procedures, a…

  3. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  4. Detection of pathogenic organisms in food, water, and body fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William H.; Henley, Michael V.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of specific bioluminescent bacteriophage for detection of pathogenic organism can be developed to overcome interferences in complex matrices such as food, water and body fluids. Detection and identification of bacteria often require several days and frequently weeks by standard methods of isolation, growth and biochemical test. Immunoassay detection often requires the expression of the bacterial toxin, which can lead to non-detection of cells that may express the toxin under conditions different from testing protocols. Immunoassays require production of a specific antibody to the agent for detection and interference by contaminants frequently affects results. PCR based detection may be inhibited by substances in complex matrices. Modified methods of the PCR technique, such as magnetic capture-hybridization PCR (MCH-PCR), appear to improve the technique by removing the DNA products away from the inhibitors. However, the techniques required for PCR-based detection are slow and the procedures require skilled personnel working with labile reagents. Our approach is based on transferring bioluminescence (lux) genes into a selected bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are widespread in nature and often are genus and species specific. This specificity eliminates or reduces false positives in a bacteriophage assay. The phage recognizes a specific receptor molecule on the surface of a susceptible bacterium, attaches and then injects the viral nucleic acid into the cell. The injected viral genome is expressed and then replicated, generating numerous exact copies of the viral genetic material including the lux genes, often resulting in an increase in bioluminescence by several hundred fold.

  5. Knowledge of reproductive physiology and modern contraceptives in rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Maynard-Tucker, G

    1989-01-01

    This report is based on fieldwork conducted in a Peruvian community in 1986, which investigated Quechua-speaking Indians' knowledge of the female reproductive organs, perceptions of the way contraceptives work in the body, folk beliefs about conception and menstruation, and opinions about modern contraceptives. The findings reveal that the men have a more accurate knowledge of the female reproductive organs than the women do. However, the women are more knowledgeable about the action of modern contraceptives in the body. Most respondents perceived modern contraceptive methods as the best methods available, but the majority reported using the calendar rhythm method. This preference for rhythm is based on its economic advantage and on its adaptability to folk beliefs about physiology. The men's dominant role in reproductive behavior is related to cultural norms that emphasize traditional gender roles and that prohibit communication about sexual matters between men and women. Educational material, based on the respondents' knowledge of reproduction and taking into account their folk beliefs, might help to decrease the fear of contraceptive side effects and increase understanding of the function of contraceptives.

  6. Teaching in Uncharted Waters: Seeking Critical Body Literacy Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Schools are places of learning, but they are also sites of struggle when fitness, obesity, and body image issues converge for students and teachers. Responding to teachers' concerns about their students on diets, a Canadian teachers' organization produced a body image program which included a training day for schools undertaking whole-school…

  7. Teaching in Uncharted Waters: Seeking Critical Body Literacy Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Schools are places of learning, but they are also sites of struggle when fitness, obesity, and body image issues converge for students and teachers. Responding to teachers' concerns about their students on diets, a Canadian teachers' organization produced a body image program which included a training day for schools undertaking whole-school…

  8. Heavy metal distribution and water quality characterization of water bodies in Louisiana's Lake Pontchartrain Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengqiang; Wang, Jim J; Ali, Amjad; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2016-11-01

    The seasonal variation in physico-chemical properties, anions, and the heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentration was evaluated in water from nine different rivers in Lake Pontchartrain Basin, Louisiana, USA. The water quality parameters were compared with toxicity reference values (TRV), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking/aquatic life protection, and WHO standards. Among physico-chemical properties, pH, DO, and turbidity were high during spring, while, EC, temperature, and DOC were high during summer and vice versa. The anion study revealed that the concentrations of F(-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) were higher during summer and Br(-) and SO4(-) were higher during spring. Our research findings showed anion concentration decreased in the order of Cl(-) > SO4(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > F(-), in accordance with the global mean anion concentration. The dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb) except Zn were higher during spring than summer. None of the rivers showed any Cd pollution for both seasons. Co showed higher concentrations in Amite River, Mississippi River, Industrial Canal, and Lacombe Bayou during summer. The Cr concentration was higher than WHO drinking water standards, implicating water unsuitability for drinking purposes in all the rivers associated with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin. Cu showed no pollution risk for the study area. Mn and Co were similar to concentration in Lacombe Bayou, Liberty Bayou, Blind River, and Industrial Canal. Mn levels were greater than WHO standards for the Tickfaw River, Tangipahoa River, and Blind River in both seasons. Blind River, Tangipahoa River, Tickfaw River, and Amite River will require more monitoring for determining possible Mn pollution. Ni content in river water during both seasons showed low pollution risk. Liberty Bayou and Industrial Canal concentrations were closer to the WHO regulatory standards, indicating possible risk of Pb pollution in these water bodies. The Zn

  9. Postpartum adolescents' contraceptive counselling preferences.

    PubMed

    Sober, Stephanie; Shea, Judy A; Shaber, Allison G; Whittaker, Paul G; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-04-01

    The optimal approach for provision and timing of postpartum contraceptive counselling for adolescents has not been established. To reduce repeat pregnancies from current USA levels of nearly 20%, a better understanding is needed of postpartum adolescent females' preferences regarding contraceptive counselling and delivery. Semi-structured interviews with 30 USA postpartum teens (97% Black) explored pregnancy prevention and contraceptive counselling. Transcripts were independently coded by two researchers and inter-rater reliability calculated using Kappa coefficients. With a standard content analysis approach, common themes were identified, coded and summarized. Findings indicated pregnancy prevention was important - two thirds of subjects reported becoming pregnant 'too soon', almost all did not desire another child for at least 6 years and most indicated that pregnancy prevention was either 'very' or 'extremely' important right now. The subjects described doctors and their prenatal clinic as their most accurate sources of contraception information, but stated that doctors and parents were the most helpful sources. All were comfortable discussing contraception with providers and had a desire for shared decision making. While many had received written materials, most preferred in-person contraceptive counselling. Optimally, participants suggested that contraceptive counselling would be provided by a physician, begin antepartum and almost all preferred to leave the hospital with their chosen method of contraception. Pregnancy prevention is important for postpartum adolescents as most desired to delay future childbearing. In-person contraceptive counselling should begin in the antepartum period and include provision of contraception prior to discharge.

  10. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfriend, G.A.; Magaritz, M.; Gat, J.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in {sup 18}O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in {sup 18}O by ca. 1-2% relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate {sup 18}O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall {sup 18}O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  11. Contraception: traditional and religious attitudes.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

    1993-04-01

    Humans have tried to control fertility for centuries. Primitive, preliterate societies practiced infanticide and abortion. When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the cervix into the uterus and a potion as contraceptives. Islamic physicians had much knowledge about conception control. The attitudes toward contraception. In the 5th century B.C., Saint Augustine condemned contraception, even among married couples. The condom emerged in the early modern period. Yet, they were usually worn to protect against disease, e.g., bilharzia in Egypt and syphilis in Europe. The cervical cap and the diaphragm are examples of occlusive pessaries. By 1880, contraceptives and spermicides were advertised. In 1928, the IUD joined the existing contraceptives. Today we have combined oral contraceptives. Judaic law requires husbands to fulfill their wives sexual needs, separate from their duty to procreate. It also calls men, not women, to procreate and forbids men from masturbating, thus Judaic law does not forbid women from practicing contraception. The Roman Catholic church forbids contraceptive use because it is a sin against nature. Some Protestant denominations have allowed contraceptive use. Islamic law states that children are gifts from Allah. Some Moslems believe that they must have many children, but Allah and the Prophet state that children have rights to education and future security. These rights allow couples to prevent pregnancy. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism prohibit contraceptive use. Differences in husband-wife communication, sex roles, access to contraceptives, and traditional family values will have more of an effect on contraceptive use and fertility than theological barriers or the social class of religious groups.

  12. How safe is emergency contraception?

    PubMed

    Norris Turner, Abigail; Ellertson, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex but before pregnancy begins. Currently, women can use emergency contraception by taking higher doses of the active ingredients found in ordinary oral contraceptive pills [either combined estrogen-progestogen (progestin) or progestogen-only formulations], or by having providers insert copper-bearing intrauterine devices (IUDs). The antiprogestogen mifepristone also has an excellent efficacy and safety profile as emergency contraception, but it is currently available for this indication only in China. Many studies have documented providers' and women's fears about the individual and public health safety risks of emergency contraception. Some of these concerns include potentially increased risks of cardiovascular events (including arterial and venous disease), worries about possible effects on future fertility, feared teratogenic consequences following method failure or inadvertent use during pregnancy, exaggerated or extreme fears of adverse tolerability, and concerns about drug interactions with other medications. Wider public health questions include feared reductions in the use of ongoing, more effective contraception, possible 'abuse' of emergency contraception through overly frequent use, and potential increases in risky sexual encounters (owing to the existence of a back-up, postcoital method) and therefore in rates of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. These fears can each be generally allayed. Direct and indirect investigations of emergency contraception in the biomedical and social science literature, the extensively documented safety profile of ordinary oral contraceptives, and more than 30 years of clinical experience since hormonal emergency contraception was first described, give strong evidence for its safety. This review confirms declarations by the World Health Organization and the US Food and Drug Administration, and shows that emergency contraception has an

  13. [In-situ remediation of polluted water body by planting hydrophytes].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yun-Ying; Yang, Xiao-E; Chang, Hui-Qing; Pu, Pei-Min

    2008-02-01

    In an experimental enclosure system, floating plant Eichhornia crassipes was planted in summer and submersed plant Elodea nutalli was planted in winter to reestablish water ecosystem, and to investigate the effects of the hydrophytes on the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from polluted water body and the improvement of water transparency. The results showed that compared with the control and native pond water, the water body planted with hydrophytes had a low level of nutrients. E. crassipes had a fast growth, with its covered area increased from 100 m2 to 470 m2 in the first 15 days, and to 65% of the water area after 44 days. The total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, CODMn and chlorophyll a decreased to a lower level, and the water transparency increased significantly, reaching to a depth of 1.7-1.8 m (i.e., to the bottom of the pond). After October, the total phosphorus kept on about 0.1 mg L(-1). Due to the increased water transparency, E. nutalli became the dominant species and covered 1/3 of the water area, playing an important role in purifying water quality, keeping water physicochemical properties in good status, and improving water transparency. It was concluded that planting hydrophytes in polluted water body could efficiently reduce its nutrients level and control the overgrowth of algae, being an important way in improving the water quality of eutrophicated water body.

  14. [Biodiversity in plankton, benthos, and fish communities, and ecosystems of fresh water bodies with various productivity].

    PubMed

    Alimov, A F

    2001-01-01

    The species diversity of phyto- and zooplankton, benthic animals, and ichthyofauna was studied in continental water bodies that differ in type, geographic location, size, and productivity. The results showed that the number of species in the communities of aquatic organisms and in ecosystems depends on the area and volume of the water body and the level of plankton primary production. Corresponding relationships can be approximated by the equations of exponential and polymodal functions. The species number and biomass per unit area or volume proved to decrease the area or volume of the water body increased. The greatest number of heterotrophic species was observed in water bodies whose primary production approached 1400 kcal/m2 per year. It is proposed that the number of aquatic species in a body of water depends on the total area of the latter and the area of individual territories occupied by the representatives of certain species.

  15. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  16. A natural contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Shirkie, R

    1982-07-01

    Breastfeeding is a natural contraceptive against another pregnancy. The longer the mother nurses, the longer she delays the return of fertility. A natural mechanism triggered by breastfeeding interrupted Ms. El-Hady's monthly cycle of ovulation and menstruation. Depending on how long and how often she suckles her child, this infertility, termed lactational amenorrhea, could last as long as 2 years. This traditional method of spacing births offers protection against pregnancy to more women than all other methods of contraception combined, according to family planning researchers. With growing trends away from breastfeeding, the traditional practice is losing its impact on fertility. Not many women in Egypt use modern contraceptives. There is little understanding of lactational amenorrhea, but researchers are giving it more attention as they continue to search for effective family planning methods appropriate to the needs and circumstances of the rural population. They know that the effect is only temporary and varies from woman to woman. Ms. El-Hady has been amenorrheic for 15 months, but other women experience much shorter periods of amenorrhea, and some none at all. The secretion of milk is promoted by a hormone called prolactin that the anterior pituitary gland produces in large quantities during pregnancy. The frequency and duration of breastfeeding appear to determine the length of amenorrhea, although the mother's nutrition and any other type of contraceptive used may also play a role. Each month for 2 years, Dr. Olfat Darwish, professor of nutrition at the University of Alexandria's High Institute of Public Health, has visited 260 rural mothers and 290 urban mothers to gather data on diet, breastfeeding practices, state of amenorrhea, and use of contraception. The length of the breastfeeding period was found to affect the duration of amenorrhea. Early weaning brought an earlier return of ovulation and menstruation, and thus of fertility. The nutritional

  17. Thermal sensation and comfort in women exposed repeatedly to whole-body cryotherapy and winter swimming in ice-cold water.

    PubMed

    Smolander, Juhani; Mikkelsson, Marja; Oksa, Juha; Westerlund, Tarja; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Huttunen, Pirkko

    2004-09-30

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC; -110 degrees C) and winter swimming (WS) in ice-cold water are severe ambient cold exposures, which are voluntarily practiced by humans in minimal clothing. The purpose was to examine thermal sensation and thermal comfort associated with WBC and WS. Twenty women similar in body mass index, age, physical activity, and use of hormonal contraception were pairwise randomized either to the WBC group or the WS group. The duration of each WBC exposure was 2 min, which was repeated three times per week for 3 months (13 weeks). Similar exposure frequency was used for the WS group, but each exposure lasted 20 s in outdoor conditions. Thermal sensation and comfort were asked with standard scales. After WBC, 65% of the thermal sensation votes were 'neutral' or 'slightly cool.' After WS, 81% of the thermal sensation votes were 'warm,' 'neutral,' or 'slightly cool.' Majority of comfort votes immediately after exposures in WBC group (98%) and in the WS group (93%) were 'comfortable' or 'slightly uncomfortable.' Thermal sensation and comfort became habituated in both groups at an early stage of trials, but the changes were less conclusive in WS group due to variable conditions outdoors. In the WBC group, cold sensation was less intense already after the second exposure. In conclusion, repeated exposures to WBC and WS in healthy women were mostly well tolerated and comfortable. The results indicate that during repeated severe whole-body cold stress of short duration, thermal sensation and comfort become habituated during the first exposures.

  18. Contraception with Chlormadinone Acetate in Woman with Previous Contraceptive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R. P. H.; Williams, Roger

    1970-01-01

    The oral contraceptive chlormadinone acetate has been given for eight months to a woman who had developed jaundice during four pregnancies, and twice while taking a combined contraceptive pill. No side-effects or changes in liver function were observed. This is further evidence that progestogens used for contraception, and in particular those derived from hydroxyprogesterone, are less hepatotoxic than the oestrogenic components. PMID:4189931

  19. The role of contraceptive attributes in women's contraceptive decision making.

    PubMed

    Madden, Tessa; Secura, Gina M; Nease, Robert F; Politi, Mary C; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2015-07-01

    Contraceptive methods have differing attributes. Women's preferences for these attributes may influence contraceptive decision making. Our objective was to identify women's contraceptive preferences among women initiating a new contraceptive method. We conducted a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of women's contraceptive preferences at the time of enrollment into the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. Participants were asked to rank the importance of 15 contraceptive attributes on a 3-point scale (1 = not at all important, 2 = somewhat important, and 3 = very important) and then to rank the 3 attributes that were the most important when choosing a contraceptive method. The survey also contained questions about prior contraceptive experience and barriers to contraceptive use. Information about demographic and reproductive characteristics was collected through the CHOICE Project baseline survey. There were 2590 women who completed the survey. Our sample was racially and socioeconomically diverse. Method attributes with the highest importance score (mean score [SD]) were effectiveness (2.97 [0.18]), safety (2.96 [0.22]), affordability (2.61 [0.61]), whether the method is long lasting (2.58 [0.61]), and whether the method is "forgettable" (2.54 [0.66]). The attributes most likely to be ranked by respondents among the top 3 attributes included effectiveness (84.2%), safety (67.8%), and side effects of the method (44.6%). Multiple contraceptive attributes influence decision making and no single attribute drives most women's decisions. Tailoring communication and helping women make complex tradeoffs between attributes can better support their contraceptive decisions and may assist them in making value-consistent choices. This process could improve continuation and satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fish movement and habitat use depends on water body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolnough, D.A.; Downing, J.A.; Newton, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Home ranges are central to understanding habitat diversity, effects of fragmentation and conservation. The distance that an organism moves yields information on life history, genetics and interactions with other organisms. Present theory suggests that home range is set by body size of individuals. Here, we analyse estimates of home ranges in lakes and rivers to show that body size of fish and water body size and shape influence home range size. Using 71 studies including 66 fish species on five continents, we show that home range estimates increased with increasing water body size across water body shapes. This contrasts with past studies concluding that body size sets home range. We show that water body size was a consistently significant predictor of home range. In conjunction, body size and water body size can provide improved estimates of home range than just body size alone. As habitat patches are decreasing in size worldwide, our findings have implications for ecology, conservation and genetics of populations in fragmented ecosystems. ?? 2008 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Brenda N.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Brown, Susannah

    1970-01-01

    Of 261 women who completed a self-rating scale for measuring depression, 168 were taking oral contraceptives and 93 were using physical methods of contraception. Of the group of women taking oral contraceptives 6·6% were more severely depressed than any of the control group. There was a significant variation in the depth of depression related to the day of the menstrual cycle in the control group. This association was not found in the oral contraceptive group, where premenstrual depression was limited to the one or two days preceding menstruation. Women taking a contraceptive containing lynoestrenol 2·5 mg. and mestranol 0·075 mg. showed a significantly increased incidence of pessimism, feelings of dissatisfaction, crying, and tension, compared with women taking other oral contraceptives and the control group. PMID:5475818

  2. [Contraception in teenagers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hubinont, P O

    1982-04-01

    The age at which adolescents start a sexual life is becoming younger and younger, and it is usually not accompanied by any correct knowledge of contraceptive methods. This particular group is more at risk of unwanted pregnancy; since a contraceptive method which is totally effective and totally reversible is not yet at hand. Several methods can be recommended to adolescents and include: 1) barrier contraception with condom and spermicidal agents, in those cases in which the couple has only occasional contacts; 2) low dose progestational oral contraception when the couple has a regular sex life; and 3) postcoital contraception only in cases of incest or rape, to be administered not later than 12 hours after coitus. While recent studies have demonstrated that low dose hormonal contraception is not harmful to the menstrual patterns and to the genetic patrimony of adolescent girls, the use of an IUD can eventually cause an infection leading to a future tubal sterility.

  3. Contraceptive methods for young adults.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1997-01-01

    Although young age alone poses no biomedical contraindications to selection of any type of contraception, psychosocial and cultural factors may be salient to contraceptive choice. Counseling should include basic information on sexuality and the menstrual cycle, peer pressure, communication difficulties, and sexual inexperience. This article briefly reviews eight contraceptive options for young adults: barrier methods, oral contraceptives, natural family planning, sterilization, injectables and implants, abstinence, IUDs, and emergency contraception. Barrier methods are especially appropriate for young people since they are affordable, accessible, effective, and confer protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. However, condoms in particular require partner participation and communication--difficult skills for most youth. Since sex is often unplanned and sporadic, young adults should be informed about the option of emergency contraception.

  4. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1978-02-01

    This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.

  5. New contraceptive options.

    PubMed

    Archer, D F

    2001-03-01

    New contraceptive modalities that are being introduced into the US marketplace reflect many changes in the delivery of existing steroidal products. These products are available now not only as oral medications but also as transdermal, intravaginal, intrauterine, and implantable or injectable devices. Each of these has its own unique profile and enhances the ability of consumers to pick and choose the product that is most acceptable to them. However, development of new barrier contraceptives, particularly those that have the potential to reduce the heterosexual transmission of HIV or to reduce a bacterial infection such as Chlamydia or Neisseria gonorrhea, continues to be moving forward in clinical trials. These products can have a lower efficacy compared with the steroidal products but, because of their other benefits, may be of significant medical use.

  6. Postabortal and postpartum contraception.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sharon

    2014-08-01

    Healthcare providers often underestimate a woman' need for immediate effective contraception after an abortion or childbirth. Yet, these are times when women may be highly motivated to avoid or delay another pregnancy. In addition, starting the most effective long-acting reversible methods (i.e. the intrauterine device, intrauterine system or implants) at these times, is safe, with low risk of complications. Good evidence shows that women choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives at the time of an abortion are at significantly lower risk of another abortion, compared with counterparts choosing other methods. Uptake of long-acting reversible methods postpartum can also prevent short inter-pregnancy intervals, which have negative consequences for maternal and child health. It is important, therefore, that providers of abortion and maternity care are trained and funded to be able to provide these methods for women immediately after an abortion or childbirth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban impacts on the water quality of selected water bodies in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lucas; Holbach, Andreas; Wei, Hu; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Urban systems belong to the major input sources for pollutants into aquatic systems. In China, the rising urbanisation and industrialisation causes a growing pressure on rivers, lakes and estuaries. With the recent impoundment of the Yangtze River by the Three Gorges Dam, the newly formed Three Gorges Reservoir is additionally experiencing drastic changes in the flow regime [1]. In the frame of the Sino-German "Yangtze-Project" [2] samples were taken from the water bodies in proximity to the Cities of Chongqing, Kaixian and Wushan during a field campaign in April 2011. Water samples were analysed for inorganic contents in suspended solids and the dissolved phase to assess the impact of these cities on the water quality of the reservoir. Results show that input from urban sources, together with the effects from the impoundment of the Yangtze River, deteriorates the quality of water and sediments in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Water in the Wushan Lake is trapped in by the Yangtze River flowing by, which leads to longer retention times of effluent water from the city. The chemical composition of the lake water is also measurable upstream in the Daninghe itself and might be due to the backwater effect. In the Xiaojiang River near Kaixian the low flow velocity from the backwater effect of the Yangtze, together with influences from the city have led to problems with algal blooms. High metal concentrations at Chongqing indicate a strong impact of this megacity on the water quality of the Three Gorges Reservoir and the sediments of the Yangtze River. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany (BMBF), the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). References: [1] Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, 2010: Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2010 [2

  8. [Some aspects of contraception in 1975].

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, C; Renaud, R

    1976-01-01

    Developments in the area of IUDs and experiments on male contraception are reviewed, the mechanisms of action of IUDs, including the copper types, and the importance of their shape and size, as well as that of the position of the copper in the uterine cavity are described, and possible contraindications, insertion techniques, subsequent examinations, the durability of IUDs, the possibility of expulsion and of complictions (perforation and infection), and the risk of abortion and extrauterine pregnancy in case of IUD failure are discussed. With respect to male contraception, still at an experimental stage, the methods reviewed are the administration of an androgen-progesterone combination (orally, by injection or implant), the administration of long-acting steroids (testosterone propionate, testosterone enanthate, medroxyprogesterone acetate), or of andantiandrogen to prevent the maturation of sperm, the reversible occlusion of the vas deferens and the insertion of foreign bodies in the vas deferens, as well as their side effects.

  9. Contraceptive Behavior in Young Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    adolescents does not use CONTRACEPTIVE BEHAVIOR 13 contraceptives. This group accounts for 75% of all unintended teenage pregnancies, 50% of which occur in...skills many adolescents have not yet aquired when sexual acivity begins. The result, all too often, is pregnancy and parenthood. Impact of teenage ...of the adolescent (Neinstein, 1987). Fear of parental notification presents another obstacle for the sexually active teenager desiring contraception

  10. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Creatsas, G

    1997-12-01

    The needs for contraception are increasing world-wide as more women desire protection from unwanted pregnancies. Since the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has increased in many countries, consultation for contraception should be provided together with that on STDs. Each woman may choose the contraceptive method according to her needs but she should also be informed about the beneficial and negative effects of the method in preventing STDs.

  11. Therapeutic uses of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Starks, G C

    1984-09-01

    During the past 20 years, contraceptive steroids have undergone significant changes as the result of an increased understanding of their metabolic, pharmacologic, and hormonal activities. During this time, prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies have elucidated several noncontraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptive steroids, including their therapeutic effects for endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, polycystic ovarian disease, and benign breast disease. From this review it appears that the benefits of oral contraceptive steroids in young, healthy, nonsmoking women far outweigh their more publicized, infrequent risks.

  12. Medical barriers to effective contraception.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Lawrence

    2007-03-01

    Medical barriers to contraception can prevent women from obtaining, initiating, and continuing their contraceptive method of choice. The barriers include lack of appropriate counseling, delaying initiation for menses or laboratory tests, inappropriate contraindications or mandated warnings, untrained clinicians, and financial or regulatory barriers preventing access by low-income, undocumented, or adolescent women. These barriers may partially explain why almost half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended and occur predominantly in the small proportion of sexually active women not using contraception.

  13. Contraceptives versus abortifacients.

    PubMed

    Barber, H R

    1990-11-01

    A less-publicized aspect of the famed Louisiana abortion bill would have outlawed the use of IUDs and oral contraceptives (OCs), a provision that ignores the difference between contraceptives and abortifacients. The bill, which was vetoed by Governor Buddy Roemer, stirred widespread controversy in its effort to sharply restrict abortion. Many of those involved in the discussion -- including the State Attorney General's office -- have contended that IUDs and OCs induce abortions by destroying fertilized eggs. But such statements disregard scientific studies that indicate that both contraceptive methods work by preventing fertilization. Research has shown that IUDs, especially copper-IUDs, restrict the transport of sperm, thereby preventing fertilization. One study revealed the presence of sperm in the fallopian tubes of non-IUD users 15-30 minutes after insemination, but found no sperm in the tubes of IUD users. Inhibiting ovulation, OCs work through a combination of estrogen and progestin. OCs prevent fertility by activating various mechanisms: they suppress the release of certain hormones, and cause a thickening of the cervical mucus which impairs sperm motility. Although neither IUDs nor OCs can be considered abortifacients, a small but vocal minority has succeeded in obscuring this fact. And it is the role of science to resolve the controversy by making the facts clear.

  14. Contraceptive implants and lactation.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Soledad

    2002-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of four contraceptive implants, plant, Implanon, Nestorone and Elcometrine, have been evaluated during use in the postpartum period by lactating women. These implants provide highly effective contraceptive protection with no negative effect on breastfeeding or infant growth and development. Breastfeeding women initiating Norplant use in the second postpartum month experience significantly longer periods of amenorrhea than do untreated women or intrauterine device users. After weaning, the bleeding pattern is similar to that observed in non-nursing women. Norplant use does not affect bone turnover and density during lactation. Norplant and Implanon release orally active progestins while Nestorone and Elcometrine implants release an orally inactive progestin, which represents an advantage since the infant should be free of steroidal effects. The infant's daily intake of steroids (estimated from concentrations in maternal milk during the first month of use) range from 90 to 100 ng of levonorgestrel (Norplant), 75-120 ng of etonogestrel (Implanon), and 50 ng and 110 ng of Nestorone (Nestorone and Elcometrine implants, respectively). Nursing women needing contraception may use progestin-only implants when nonhormonal methods are not available or acceptable. Implants that deliver orally active steroids should only be used after 6 weeks postpartum to avoid transferring of steroids to the newborn.

  15. [Variation of weigth among users of the contraceptive with depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate according to body mass index in a six-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Pantoja, Márcia; Medeiros, Tatiane; Baccarin, Maria Carolina; Morais, Sirlei; Fernandes, Arlete Maria dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    To determine weight variation in women with different Body Mass Index (BMI) in use of trimestral injections of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and compare it to women users of a non-hormonal method. Retrospective study with the chart review of 226 DMPA users and 603 controls, users of DIU TCu380A. Women were distributed in categories, according to their initial BMI, as having normal weight (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25 to 29,9 kg/m(2)) and being obese (>or=30 kg/m(2)), and were followed-up for six years, with yearly measurements of weight and BMI. The statistic test ANOVA was used to measure the weight variation among the groups in each BMI category every year. The average age at the onset of the method employed was higher in the study group than in the controls, in all the BMI categories: 31.6+/-SD 7.1 X 27.4+/-SD 5.5 in the normal weight category (p<0.0001); 37.3+/-SD 6.8 X 29.2+/-SD 6.0 in the overweight category (p<0.0001); and 35.3+/-SD 6.4 X 29.7+/-SD 5.8 among obese women (p<0.0001). DMPA users showed weight increase as compared to the controls in the overweight category (p=0.0082); and the weight increase along the observation period was also higher among the DMPA users than among the controls, for the normal weight (p<0.0001) and overweight (p=0.0008) categories. In the obese group, there was no BMI variation between the groups, nor along the period during which they were using the method. There was no change in weight gain among DMPA users from the obese category. Prospective studies should be done with metabolic tests to establish the determining factors of weight gain in normal and overweight women.

  16. Water body distributions across scales: a comparison of three Arctic wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muster, S.; Heim, B.; Abnizova, A.; Boike, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water bodies are ubiquitous features in Arctic wetlands, ranging from very small polygonal ponds to very large thermokarst lakes. Ponds, i.e. waters with a surface area smaller than 1 ha, have been recognized as hotspots of biological activity and greenhouse gas emissions. Regional and global models, however, cannot resolve ponds due to the coarse resolution. The aims of this study were to identify common characteristics of Arctic wetlands regarding (1) water body size and abundance, and (2) Landsat subpixel fraction of water cover. We mapped water bodies in three Arctic wetlands, i.e. Polar Bear Pass on Bathurst Island in the Canadian High Arctic, Samoylov Island in the Lena River Delta in Siberia, Russia, and Barrow Peninsula on the Alaska Coastal Plain. High-resolution (0.3 to 4 m) water body maps were overlain on to Landsat albedo maps to extract the proportion of open water within a Landsat mixed pixel. At all three sites ponds occupied 95% of the total number of surface waters. Surface waters smaller than 0.1 ha, which cannot be detected with Landsat data, still contributed 60% and higher to the total number. All study areas showed similar rates of decline in water body abundance with increasing water surface area (Fig. 1). Previous studies have fitted abundance-size distributions of water bodies to the Pareto distribution, which appears linear on a log-log plot. Our data, however, shows paretian behavior only in the upper tail of the distribution so that the Pareto distribution strongly overestimates small water bodies. Landsat albedo increased with decreasing proportion of open water cover per Landsat pixel. Linear regressions for albedo values with a subpixel water cover between 100% and less than 5% showed r-square values larger than 0.8, which constitutes a better performance than other more complex unmixing methods. In conclusion, all three wetlands showed similar properties regarding size-abundance data of water bodies, scaling errors, and retrieval of

  17. A simulated insect diet as a water source for quail: effects on body mass and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, W M; Lutz, R S; Patiño, R

    1995-06-01

    Compared with control birds receiving ad libitum free-water, the total water intake of male and female northern bobwhite declined when only mealworms were available as a source of water. Male northern bobwhite sustained tissue mass and reproductive function with mealworms as their only source of water. Female northern bobwhite could not sustain body, ovary, and oviduct mass, and rate of egg production with mealworms as their only source of water. We suggest that, without free-water, breeding females require a diet with a water:dry matter ratio of greater than 1:1.29 (> 44% water).

  18. Analysis of the cold-water restraint procedure in gastric ulceration and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2004-10-15

    Gastric mucosal injury induced by body restraint can be enhanced when combined with cold-water immersion. Based on this fact, the present study had two main purposes: (i) to examine the contribution of each of these two forms of stress on the development of gastric ulceration and regulation of body temperature and (ii) to investigate the importance of the animal's consciousness on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint. Independent groups of animals were exposed for 3 h to one of the following stressful treatments: body restraint plus cold-water (20+1 degrees C) immersion, body restraint alone or cold-water immersion alone. Control animals were not exposed to any form of stress. Half of the animals submitted to each of the four treatments were anesthetized with thionembutal (35 mg/kg), whereas the other half was injected with saline. Results indicated that body restraint alone was not sufficient to induce gastric ulceration or changes in body temperature. On the other hand, cold-water exposure, either alone or in conjunction with body restraint, induced the same amount of stomach erosions and hypothermia. Therefore, it appears that body restraint does not play an important role on gastric ulceration induced by the cold-water restraint procedure. Present results also indicated that conscious and anesthetized animals immersed in cold water presented robust gastric ulceration and a marked drop in body temperature. However, conscious animals developed more severe gastric damage in comparison to anesthetized animals although both groups presented the same degree of hypothermia. These findings suggest that hypothermia resulting from cold-water exposure has a deleterious effect on gastric ulceration but the animal's conscious activity during the cold-water immersion increases the severity of gastric mucosal damage. It is concluded that cold-water restraint is a useful procedure for the study of the underlying mechanisms involved in stress

  19. Progestin-only contraceptives: effects on weight

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Laureen M; Edelman, Alison; Chen-Mok, Mario; Trussell, James; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2015-01-01

    Background Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. Objectives The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight. Search strategy We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP, and contacted investigators to identify other trials. Selection criteria All comparative studies were eligible that examined a POC versus another method or no contraceptive. The primary outcome was mean change in body weight or body composition. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted the data. We computed the mean difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables and odds ratio with 95% CI for dichotomous variables. Main results We did not conduct meta-analysis due to the various contraceptive methods and weight change measures. Fifteen studies examined progestin-only pills (N=1), Norplant (N=4), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) (N=10). Comparison groups were similar for weight change in 11 studies. Four studies showed differences in weight or body composition change for POCs compared to no hormonal method. Adolescents using DMPA had a greater increase in body fat (%) versus a group using no hormonal method (mean difference 11.00; 95% CI 2.64 to 19.36). The DMPA group also had a greater decrease in lean body mass (%) (mean difference −4.00; 95% CI −6.93 to −1.07). In another study, weight gain (kg) was greater for the DMPA group than an IUD group (mean difference 2.28, 2.71, 3.17, respectively). The differences were notable within the normal weight and overweight subgroups. One study showed the Norplant (six-capsule) group had greater weight gain (kg) than a non

  20. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Magaritz, Mordeckai; Gat, Joel R.

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in δD and δ18O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished: 1) on rain days, snail water becomes isotopically depleted approximately in the direction of the rain isotope values, but always less depleted in D as is atmospheric water vapor; 2) during the 1-3 days following a rain, the snail water becomes isotopically enriched along a line with slope < 8, in δD vs. δ18O space (this relates to an increasing influence of humidity derived from the Mediterranean Sea); 3) a period of relative stability of the isotopic composition persists until the next rain event. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in 18O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in 18O by ca. 1-2%. relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate 18O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall 18O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  1. The identification, selection and use of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Flowers, C E; Griffith, S F

    1975-01-01

    Facts about oral contraceptives and their use are provided for the practcing generalist and specialist. Identification of oral contraceptives is given in chart form including company, name, contents, pill color, number in pack and special markings. Section 2 entitled "facts that may be helpful in prescribing or changing the prescription of oral contraceptives" includes potency of progestins and estrogens and symptoms indicating excessive or deficient progestin and estrogen activity. Contraindications such as migraine headaches, epilepsy, hepatic disease, renal disease and hypertension are among the reasons for obtaining a complete family history prior to prescription of oral contraceptives. This information provides the basis for choice of contraception tailored to the individual. A 100 pound 17 year old with a normal menstrual history and with adequate estrogen production would be safest with a medication low in estrogen and progestin. An older heavier woman with prolonged menstruation and cramps would require a pill which is potent in progestins since these are excellent for causing endometrium regression and vascular reduction. Length of time on oral c ontraceptives depends upon the patient's general health. If responding well to contraceptives the patient should continue to use them because 1) the body is programmed for lengthy periods of ovulation suppression; 2) the patient becomes accustomed to infertility and 3) too many unplanned pregnancies occur during rest intervals. Complaints of nausea, migraine headaches, change in libido, chloasma or thrombophlebitis determine the termination of the drug.

  2. Progestin-only contraceptives: effects on weight

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Laureen M; Edelman, Alison; Chen, Mario; Otterness, Conrad; Trussell, James; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2013-01-01

    Background Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. Objectives The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight. Search methods Through May 2013, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. The 2010 search also included EMBASE. For the initial review, we contacted investigators to identify other trials. Selection criteria All comparative studies were eligible that examined a POC versus another contraceptive method or no contraceptive. The primary outcome was mean change in body weight or mean change in body composition. We also considered the dichotomous outcome of loss or gain of a specified amount of weight. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted the data. We computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables. For dichotomous outcomes, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated. Main results We found 16 studies; one examined progestin-only pills, one studied the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), four examined an implant, and 10 focused on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Outcomes examined were changes in body weight only (14 studies), changes in both body weight and body composition (1 study), and changes in body composition only (1 study). We did not conduct meta-analysis due to the various contraceptive methods and weight change measures. Comparison groups did not differ significantly for weight change in 12 studies. However, three studies showed weight change differences for POC users compared to women not using a hormonal method. In one study, weight gain (kg) was greater for the DMPA group

  3. Use of non-emergency contraceptive pills and concoctions as emergency contraception among Nigerian University students: results of a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert; Akpan, Wilson; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent

    2016-10-04

    Emergency contraception (EC) can significantly reduce the rate of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the increasing awareness of EC among educated young women in Nigeria, the rate of utilisation remains low. This study therefore explores the main barriers to the use of EC among female university students by analysing their knowledge of emergency contraception, methods ever used, perceived efficacy, and its acceptability. This paper brings together the findings from several focus groups (N = 5) and in-depth interviews (N = 20) conducted amongst unmarried female undergraduate students in two Nigerian universities. Participants considered the use of condom and abstinence as the most effective methods of preventing unplanned pregnancy. However, many participants were misinformed about emergency contraception. Generally, participants relied on unconventional and unproven ECs; Ampiclox, "Alabukun", salt water solution, and lime and potash and perceived them to be effective in preventing unplanned pregnancies. Furthermore, respondents' narratives about methods of preventing unwanted pregnancies revealed that inadequate information on emergency contraception, reliance on unproven crude contraceptive methods, and misconception about modern contraception constitute barriers to the use of emergency contraception. The findings suggested that female university students are misinformed about emergency contraception and their reliance on unproven ECs constitutes a barrier to the use of approved EC methods. These barriers have serious implications for prevention of unplanned pregnancies in the cohort. Behavioural interventions targeting the use of unproven emergency contraceptive methods and misperceptions about ECs would be crucial for this cohort in Nigeria.

  4. Computers and Contraception: Strange Bedfellows? Contraception Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonyer, Pamela G.

    The University Health Services (UHS) at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, has been conducting contraception education sessions since 1970. The Contraception Education Session lasts about one and one-half hours and consists of three sections: a slide/tape production overview of all prescription and nonprescription methods available, a…

  5. [Contraceptive compliance - why is contraceptive failure still so frequent?].

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Johannes

    2009-02-01

    Contraceptive compliance is defined as the correct use (according to the method specific prescriptions given by a medical professional and/or in written form as patient information leaflet) of a contraceptive method. Non-compliance describes a mismatch between the real behaviour of a user and the correct or ideal behaviour. There are various indicators that in general contraceptive compliance is far from ideal. Many studies report a rate of unintended pregnancies of 50%, half of them terminating in abortion. The abortion rate remains high even in countries with availability of advanced contraceptive technology. Especially with hormonal contraception and barrier methods the gap between correct and real use is large. Discontinuation rates per year reach up to 50%. Reasons for Non Compliance are (a) Lack of motivation to prevent a pregnancy due to ambivalence regarding the wish for a child as well as sexual and relationship issues (b) Cognitive factors (False information, misconceptions, irrational fears) (c) Difficult or lacking access to contraceptive methods (d) Behavioral errors and mistakes (Forgetting, loosing etc.) and (e) Side effects of the methods used. Three strategies to improve compliance can be distinguished: (a) Improving counselling; (b) Developing contraceptive methods which demand a low level of compliant behaviour by the user; (c) Improving quality of life of users by minimizing the negative side effects and maximizing the non contraceptive health benefits.

  6. Water-Body types identification in urban areas from radarsat-2 fully polarimetric SAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chao; Chen, Fulong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for supervised water-body extraction and water-body types identification from Radarsat-2 fully polarimetric (FP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in complex urban areas. First, supervised water-body extraction using the Wishart classifier is performed, and the false alarms that are formed in built-up areas are removed using morphological processing methods and spatial contextual information. Then, the support vector machine (SVM), the classification and regression tree (CART), TreeBagger (TB), and random forest (RF) classifiers are introduced for water-body types (rivers, lakes, ponds) identification. In SAR images, certain other objects that are misclassified as water are also considered in water-body types identification. Several shape and polarimetric features of each candidate water-body are used for identification. Radarsat-2 PolSAR data that were acquired over Suzhou city and Dongguan city in China are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the experimental results are evaluated at both the object and pixel levels. We compared the water-body types classification results using only shape features and the combination of shape and polarimetric features, the experimental results show that the polarimetric features can eliminate the misclassifications from certain other objects like roads to water areas, and the increasement of classification accuracy embodies at both the object and pixel levels. The experimental results show that the proposed methods can achieve satisfactory accuracies at the object level [89.4% (Suzhou), 95.53% (Dongguan)] and the pixel level [96.22% (Suzhou), 97.95% (Dongguan)] for water-body types classification, respectively.

  7. Unmet contraceptive needs among refugees.

    PubMed

    Aptekman, Marina; Rashid, Meb; Wright, Vanessa; Dunn, Sheila

    2014-12-01

    To describe what women of reproductive age who received primary care at a refugee health clinic were using for contraception upon arrival to the clinic, and to quantify the unmet contraceptive needs within that population. Retrospective chart review. Crossroads Clinic in downtown Toronto, Ont. Women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) who first presented for care between December 1, 2011, and December 1, 2012. To be included, a woman had to have had 2 or more clinic visits or an annual health examination. Exclusion criteria for the contraception prevalence calculation were female sexual partner, menopause, hysterectomy, pregnancy, or trying to conceive. Contraception use prevalence was measured, as was unmet contraceptive need, which was calculated using a modified version of the World Health Organization's definition: the number of women with an unmet need was expressed as a percentage of women of reproductive age who were married or in a union, or who were sexually active. Overall, 52 women met the criteria for inclusion in the contraceptive prevalence calculation. Of these, 16 women (30.8%) did not use any form of contraception. Twelve women were pregnant at some point in the year and stated the pregnancy was unwanted or mistimed. An additional 14 women were not using contraception but had no intention of becoming pregnant within the next 2 years. There were no women with postpartum amenorrhea not using contraception and who had wanted to delay or prevent their previous pregnancy. In total, 97 women were married or in a union, or were sexually active. Unmet need was calculated as follows: (12 + 14 + 0)/97 = 26.8%. There was a high unmet contraceptive need in the refugee population in our study. All women of reproductive age should be screened for contraceptive need when first seeking medical care in Canada.

  8. Unmet contraceptive needs among refugees

    PubMed Central

    Aptekman, Marina; Rashid, Meb; Wright, Vanessa; Dunn, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe what women of reproductive age who received primary care at a refugee health clinic were using for contraception upon arrival to the clinic, and to quantify the unmet contraceptive needs within that population. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Crossroads Clinic in downtown Toronto, Ont. Participants Women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) who first presented for care between December 1, 2011, and December 1, 2012. To be included, a woman had to have had 2 or more clinic visits or an annual health examination. Exclusion criteria for the contraception prevalence calculation were female sexual partner, menopause, hysterectomy, pregnancy, or trying to conceive. Main outcome measures Contraception use prevalence was measured, as was unmet contraceptive need, which was calculated using a modified version of the World Health Organization’s definition: the number of women with an unmet need was expressed as a percentage of women of reproductive age who were married or in a union, or who were sexually active. Results Overall, 52 women met the criteria for inclusion in the contraceptive prevalence calculation. Of these, 16 women (30.8%) did not use any form of contraception. Twelve women were pregnant at some point in the year and stated the pregnancy was unwanted or mistimed. An additional 14 women were not using contraception but had no intention of becoming pregnant within the next 2 years. There were no women with postpartum amenorrhea not using contraception and who had wanted to delay or prevent their previous pregnancy. In total, 97 women were married or in a union, or were sexually active. Unmet need was calculated as follows: (12 + 14 + 0)/97 = 26.8%. Conclusion There was a high unmet contraceptive need in the refugee population in our study. All women of reproductive age should be screened for contraceptive need when first seeking medical care in Canada. PMID:25642489

  9. Progestin-only contraceptives: effects on weight

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Laureen M; Ramesh, Shanthi; Chen, Mario; Edelman, Alison; Otterness, Conrad; Trussell, James; Helmerhorst, Frans M

    2016-01-01

    Background Progestin-only contraceptives (POCs) are appropriate for many women who cannot or should not take estrogen. POCs include injectables, intrauterine contraception, implants, and oral contraceptives. Many POCs are long-acting, cost-effective methods of preventing pregnancy. However, concern about weight gain can deter the initiation of contraceptives and cause early discontinuation among users. Objectives The primary objective was to evaluate the association between progestin-only contraceptive use and changes in body weight. Search methods Until 4 August 2016, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. For the initial review, we contacted investigators to identify other trials. Selection criteria We considered comparative studies that examined a POC versus another contraceptive method or no contraceptive. The primary outcome was mean change in body weight or mean change in body composition. We also considered the dichotomous outcome of loss or gain of a specified amount of weight. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted the data. Non-randomized studies (NRS) need to control for confounding factors. We used adjusted measures for the primary effects in NRS or the results of matched analysis from paired samples. If the report did not provide adjusted measures for the primary analysis, we used unadjusted outcomes. For RCTs and NRS without adjusted measures, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous variables. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. Main results We found 22 eligible studies that included a total of 11,450 women. With 6 NRS added to this update, the review includes 17 NRS and 5 RCTs. By contraceptive method, the review has 16 studies of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), 4 of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraception (LNG-IUC), 5 for implants, and 2 for progestin-only pills. Comparison groups

  10. An elastic body impacting the water surface; inspired by diving birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghwan; Ochs, Alex; Gart, Sean

    2013-11-01

    We investigate how a soft elastic body responds to water-entry impact analogous to a bird diving into water to catch prey. Dumbbell shaped objects made of two acrylic spheres connected by an elastic rod are dropped into water. A buckling threshold was found by varying impact force and elastic rod stiffness. This threshold may have implication as to how birds are able to safely dive into water at high speeds and avoid any neck-injury.

  11. Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

  12. The Need for Regular Monitoring and Prediction of Ephemeral Water Bodies in SERVIR Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    With remote sensing and modeling techniques available today it is possible to regularly identify and monitor the presence of surface water globally, for a wide range of applications. Many of the available datasets and tools, however, do not adequately resolve small or ephemeral water bodies in a timely enough fashion to make local and subnational decisions about water resources management in developing regions. This presentation introduces a specific need focused on a basin in Senegal to develop a capability to identify and disseminate timely information on small and ephemeral water bodies, and we seek feedback on methods proposed to address this need.

  13. A study on multi-body floating system in finite water depth by separate region method

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Xuangang

    1996-12-31

    The research on multi-body floating system has been carried out by many researchers in recent days because of its increased practical uses. In these researches, almost all, three-dimensional source method is applied. In this paper, a relatively simple but effective method, separated region method, is applied for predicting the responses of multi-floating bodies in finite water depth. For a floating rectangular section in the finite water depth, the separated region method (eigenvalue method) is very useful to predict the hydrodynamic forces on the body. The method has been extended here, so as to apply to the problems of multi-floating bodies. To check the validity of the method, motion responses of two floating bodies were calculated and the results were compared with experimental data carried out by M. Ohkusu (1976) and M. Kubo et al. (1989). The agreements between the theoretical and the experimental results of motions of two floating bodies are fairly good.

  14. Expanding contraceptive options.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The goals of Family Health International (FHI) have been to introduce a variety of birth control options to people in developing countries, and to provide information to the user on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. FHI has worked with many developing countries in clinical trials of established as well as new contraceptive methods. These trials played an important part in making 2 sterilization procedures, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy popular for women. Further research improved the methods and have made them the most popular in the world, chosen by 130 million users. FHI is doing clinical trials on a new IUD, that is a copper bearing T-shaped device called the TCu380A. they have collected data on over 10,000 women using IUD's and early analysis indicates TCu380A is more effective than others. FHI is also evaluating devices such as Norplant that will prevent pregnancy up to 5 years by implanting the capsules in the arm. More than 8,000 women are being tested to determine the acceptability of implants in different geographical locations. Other research groups are doing work in 10 additional countries: Bangladesh will expand its program to 24,000 women and Nepal to 8,000 women. Trials are also being conducted on progestogen pills, since they do not lesson the volume of milk in breast feeding. FHI has also worked to introduce creative community-based distribution channels. In one case, specially trained health workers delivered contraceptives door-to-door in over 150,000 households. They found that 2 of 3 women accepted the pills and in a follow up survey 90% were still using them. FHI is now focusing on ways to improve moving new contraceptives from clinical testing on everyday use. They will coordinate training programs, educational material, media campaigns, and efforts with other international organizations, government agencies, and family planning groups.

  15. Workshop on injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    At a workshop in Dhaka on February 10, 1994, district and thana level managers discussed the problems associated with a project that delivers injectable contraceptives to the doorsteps of clients. The workshop, which was organized by the Bangladesh government and the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), identified lack of appropriate training, inefficient supervision, and inadequate knowledge about and facilities for the disposal of used syringes and needles as problems. There was agreement among participants that use of the injectables, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), had led to increases in contraceptive use. The 6-month old project had been initiated in 8 thanas by the Directorate of Family Planning of the government of Bangladesh, with the technical assistance of the MCH-FP Extension Project, after ICDDR,B noticed that the rates of use for all types of contraceptives had increased in the rural areas of Matlab, Abhoynagar, and Sirajganj with doorstep delivery by field workers. During the same period, use of injectables that were offered by female paramedics at static centers had remained low. At the workshop, Dr. Rushikesh Maru of the Extension Project spoke about the effective administration of the injectables within 15 days before or after the due date. Mr. AKM Rafiquz Zaman, former director general of Family Planning, government of Bangladesh, requested further expansion in at least 1 thana of each district and in all municipalities and urban slums.

  16. Vaginal contraceptives still evolving.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R M

    1986-01-01

    The effort to develop vaginal contraceptives began in the distant past and is still underway today. 1000 years ago, South American Indians inserted into the vagina bark strips impregnated with quinine. In medieval times women used vaginal inserts of cloth soaked in honey or vinegar. Quinine pessaries were introduced into Europe in the late 1800s, and in the early 1900s investigators began to study the effects of various chemicals on sperm motility. Following World War II, surfactant spermicides which disrupt the sperm membrane were developed and marketed. Many of these preparations contained nonoxynol-9. Currently, the D-isomer of propranolol is being examined as a spermicidal contraceptive, and several bacteriocides, e.g., benzalkonium and chlorhexidine, are being developed as spermicides which reduce the penetrability of cervical mucus. Other chemicals being investigated act by inhibiting the acrosome reaction. Advantages of vaginal contraceptives are that they are inexpensive, reversible, and relatively safe and easy to use. Generally they require no medical intervention or supervision. In addition, spermicides may kill or inhibit the growth of organisms responsible for sexually transmitted diseases. Disadvantages of spermicides are that they are generally less effective than many other methods, some interfere with sexual spontaneity, they may cause local irritations, and some women find them messy to use. Recently, concerns were expressed about the possible teratogenic effects of sperimicides. Most of these concerns proved to be unfounded. Given the many new avenues of research, the major disadvantage of sperimicides, i.e., their high failure rates, may be minimized in the near future.

  17. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  18. Gestodene-containing contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, H; Jung-Hoffmann, C; Wiegratz, I

    1995-12-01

    As GSD is the most potent progestogen used in oral contraceptives, the doses of GSD can be lower than those of other progestogen components. The monophasic (30 micrograms EE + 75 micrograms GSD) and the triphasic formulation (30 micrograms EE + 50 micrograms GSD/40 micrograms EE + 70 micrograms GSD/30 micrograms EE + 100 micrograms GSD) suppress gonadotropin release and ovarian function profoundly and inhibit ovulation reliably. The strong anti-estrogenic and progestogenic effectiveness of GSD is based on the high GSD serum concentrations achieved during daily intake. Because of the weak androgenic properties of GSD, both formulations can be characterized as estrogen-dominant with respect to their hepatic effects. Except for the first cycles, both formulations afford good cycle control, and the rate of side effects is similar to that with comparable low-dose oral contraceptives. The levels of total and free androgens and androgen precursors, as well as of peripheral androgen activity, are significantly reduced, resulting in a reduced incidence of acne. The concentrations of SHBG and other serum-binding globulins are elevated considerably, and thyroid function is almost unaffected. The estrogen-dominant effect on hepatic metabolism of both formulations also is reflected by a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides and VLDL, HDL, and some apolipoproteins, while LDL-CH and total CH remain unchanged. Similar to other low-dose oral contraceptives, the GSD-containing preparations cause a slight impairment of glucose tolerance that does not appear to be of clinical relevance. However, a significant increase exists in pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic activity that leads to a considerable stimulation of fibrin turnover. In predisposed women, this may contribute to an elevated risk of venous and arterial thromboembolic diseases.

  19. [Experiences with levonorgestrel in postcoital contraception].

    PubMed

    Canzler, E; Ahrendt, H J; Ahrendt, S

    1984-01-01

    To examine levonorgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive, 77 women received an oral dose of 0.4 mg per coitus for 1011 cycles and 27 women were administered 0.75 mg per coitus for 226 cycles. In the first dose group seven women became pregnant (Pearl's index 8.3), while two pregnancies resulted in the second group, one of the latter because of faulty drug intake (uncorrected Pearl's index 10.6; corrected Pearl's index 5.3). Menstrual irregularities (chiefly break-through bleedings and oligomenorrhea) were observed in 84.4% and 88.9% of the women, respectively. The number of cycle disorders increased with increasing intake rate and diminished when the drug was applied in excess of six months. The experiments undertaken to test the mechanisms of action indicated an influence on both cervical factor and endometrium, whereas the occurrence of LH-peaks and biphasic basal body temperature patterns suggested the presence of ovulations. Application of levonorgestrel for postcoital contraception failed to be a reliable routine method of hormonal contraception because of insufficient efficacy and considerable menstrual irregularities. The drug should be administered only after unprotected sexual intercourse as might happen, to women with very low frequency of intercourse, or in periods of reduced fertility.

  20. Water Transport and the Evolution of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, Rob; Cohen, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Meteorites have amino acids and hydrated minerals which constrain the peak temperature ranges they have experienced. CMs in particular have a narrow range (273-325K). Bulk fluid motion during hydration constrained to small scales (less than mm). Some asteroids are known to have hydrated minerals on their surfaces. It is presumed these two facts may be related. Problem: hydration only occurs (significantly) with liquid water; melting water only occurs early on in nebula (1-10 Myrs ANC); in nebula asteroid surface temperature very cold (approximately 150K). Can indigenous alteration produce CMs and/or surface hydration?

  1. Contraception in lactating women.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Croxatto, H B

    1993-12-01

    Lactating women need contraception after first menses, supplementation or 6 months postpartum, or before, according to personal or programmatic reasons. Non-hormonal methods have no influence on lactation and are the first choice. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) inserted during amenorrhea are safe and show good continuation rates. Progestin-only methods do not affect breast-feeding and should be used after 6 weeks to prevent transference of orally active steroids to the newborn. Progesterone rings and Nestorone implants are effective new methods, that use orally inactive steroids.

  2. Adolescent pregnancy and contraception.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Jessica; Hayon, Ronni; Carlson, Jensena

    2014-09-01

    7% of US teen women became pregnant in 2008, totaling 750,000 pregnancies nationwide. For women ages 15 to 19, 82% of pregnancies are unintended. Adolescents have a disproportionate risk of medical complications in pregnancy. Furthermore, adolescent parents and their infants both tend to suffer poor psychosocial outcomes. Preventing unintended and adolescent pregnancies are key public health objectives for Healthy People 2020. Screening for sexual activity and pregnancy risk should be a routine part of all adolescent visits. Proven reductions in unintended pregnancy in teens are attained by providing access to contraception at no cost and promoting the most-effective methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitivity to disgust and perceptions of natural bodies of water and watercraft activities.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Robert D; Powell, Gwynn

    2003-08-01

    A written 7-item self-report scale on sensitivity to disgust and participation in watercraft activities was administered to 450 seasonal park employees. Correlations indicate that nonparticipation in seven different watercraft sports was weakly related with reactions of disgust to contact with natural bodies of water (r(pbis) = -.12 to -.32, p < .01). Negative affective reactions to contact with natural bodies of water may contribute to panic reactions in watercraft accidents.

  4. Postpartum contraception: needs vs. reality.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Ariella B; Wolf, Abigail; Gorby, Nicolle

    2011-03-01

    The postpartum time is a unique time to address patient's contraceptive needs and provide education. There are little data to suggest the best approach to provide information about contraception after delivery. Postpartum patients in an urban university hospital were asked to complete a written survey on postpartum contraception. Participants were asked about contraception counseling offered both antepartum and postpartum. Participants were also asked if they would have elected to have an intrauterine device (IUD) inserted immediately after delivery. Participants were contacted 4-6 months after delivery regarding ongoing contraceptive use. One hundred seventy-five surveys were completed; 77% (134) reported discussing contraception antepartum, and 87% (153), postpartum. Thirty percent of women reported discussing IUD insertion at an antepartum visit and 31% reported discussing it in the hospital prior to discharge. Twenty-three percent (39) of women would have elected immediate post-placental IUD placement if available. Of the 59 patients who were able to be contacted 4-6 months after delivery, 5% reported using an IUD. Twenty-two percent (13) of the participants contacted at follow-up still desired an IUD, of which 62% would have elected postplacental placement, if available. Twenty-nine percent of women reported using no contraceptive method and 32% reported using a method which is not highly effective. Prenatal visits and postpartum contact with providers create an opportunity to discuss family planning and contraception and most patients report receiving counseling. However, significantly fewer reported continued contraceptive use at 4-6 months postpartum. Initiation of postplacental IUD placement would be acceptable and would increase contraceptive use at 6 months postpartum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contraceptive considerations in obese women: release date 1 September 2009, SFP Guideline 20091.

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, Susan

    2009-12-01

    Contraceptive failure is the primary cause of unintended pregnancy in the United States. With obesity rates at epidemic proportions, any association between obesity and strategies that prevent undesired pregnancies constitutes a significant public health and economic concern. Unfortunately, the relationship between obesity and contraception has not been extensively studied. Evidence from several epidemiological studies suggests that obesity may increase failure of some hormonal contraceptives resulting in unplanned pregnancies. Obesity may make procedure-dependent contraceptive methods (i.e., sterilization and intrauterine devices) more technically challenging for the provider to perform. Hormonal contraceptives, on the whole, do not appear to adversely affect body weight and provide important noncontraceptive benefits (i.e., cancer protection). Some surgical interventions to treat bariatric issues may compromise the efficacy of orally dosed contraceptive methods. Overall, the Society of Family Planning strongly encourages the use of both hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception in obese women desiring pregnancy prevention with very few restrictions. Further studies are needed to determine the interrelationship between obesity and contraception. In addition, future contraceptive efficacy studies need to include women of differing BMIs to better reflect the population of women using these methods.

  6. External nutrient loading from land, sea and atmosphere to all 656 Swedish coastal water bodies.

    PubMed

    Bryhn, Andreas C; Dimberg, Peter H; Bergström, Lena; Fredriksson, Ronny E; Mattila, Johanna; Bergström, Ulf

    2017-01-30

    Identifying the main sources of nutrient loading is a key factor for efficient mitigation of eutrophication. This study has investigated the pathways of external nutrient loading to 656 coastal water bodies along the entire Swedish coastline. The studied water bodies have been delineated to meet requirements in the European Union's Water Framework Directive, and recent status assessments have shown that 57% of them fail to attain good or high ecological status with respect to nutrients. The analysis in the study was performed on data from mass-balance based nutrient budgets computed using the modelling framework Vattenwebb. The external nutrient contribution from the sea to the water bodies was highly variable, ranging from about 1% to nearly 100%, but the median contribution was >99% of the total external loading regarding both nitrogen and phosphorus. External loading from the atmosphere and local catchment area played a minor role in general. However, 45 coastal water bodies received >25% of the external nitrogen and phosphorus from their catchments. Loading from land typically peaked in April following ice-break and snow melting and was comparatively low during summer. The results indicate that for many eutrophicated Swedish coastal water bodies, nutrient abatement is likely to be optimally effective when potential measures in all of the catchment area of the concerned sea basin are considered. Local-scale mitigation in single water bodies will likely be locally effective only in the small proportion of areas where water and thereby also nutrient input from the catchment is high compared to the influx from the sea. Future studies should include nutrient reduction scenarios in order to refine these conclusions and to identify relevant spatial scales for coastal eutrophication mitigation measures from a water body perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature Dynamics in Very Shallow Water Bodies: the Role of Heat Fluxes at the Soil-Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivato, M.; Carniello, L.; Silvestri, S.; Marani, M.; Gardner, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature represents one of the crucial factors driving the ecological processes in water bodies. Many contributions are available in the literature that describe temperature dynamics in deep basins as lakes or seas. Those basins are typically stratified which makes important to represent the vertical profile of the water temperature. Dealing with shallow water bodies, such as rivers, shallow lakes and lagoons, simplifies the problem because the water temperature can be assumed uniform in the water column. Conversely, the heat exchange at the soil-water interface assumes an important role in the water temperature dynamics. Notwithstanding, very few studies and data about this process are available in the literature. In order to provide more insight on the soil contribution to water temperature dynamics, we performed ad hoc field measurements in the Venice lagoon,. We selected a location on a tidal flat in the northern part of the lagoon, close to the Sant'Erasmo Island, where we measured the temperature within the water column and the first 1.5 m of the soil. Data collection started in July 2015 and is still ongoing. We used the data to characterize the heat flux at the water-soil interface in different periods of the year and to develop a "point" model for describing the evolution of the temperature in the water column. The insight on the process provided by the data and by the point model: i) enabled us to determine the soil thermal properties (diffusivity and heat capacity); ii) confirms the uniform profile of the water temperature in the water column; iii) demonstrates that the heat flux at the soil-water interface is comparable with other fluxes at the air-water interface and iv) highlights the important role exerted by advective water fluxes. The latter will be accounted for developing a module for describing the dynamic of the temperature to be coupled with an already existing 2D hydrodynamic model of the Venice lagoon.

  8. Establishing water body areal extent trends in interior Alaska from multi-temporal Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rover, Jennifer R.; Ji, Lei; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate approach is needed for monitoring, quantifying and understanding surface water variability due to climate change. Separating inter- and intra-annual variances from longer-term shifts in surface water extents due to contemporary climate warming requires repeat measurements spanning a several-decade period. Here, we show that trends developed from multi-date measurements of the extents of more than 15,000 water bodies in central Alaska using Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data (1979–2009) were highly influenced by the quantity and timing of the data. Over the 30-year period from 1979 to 2009, the study area had a net decrease (p < 0.05) in the extents of 3.4% of water bodies whereas 86% of water bodies exhibited no significant change. The Landsat-derived dataset provides an opportunity for additional research assessing the drivers of lake and wetland change in this region.

  9. Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors among Adolescents Requesting Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    Cwiak, Carrie; Howard, Brandon; Hsieh, Jennifer; Ricciotti, Nancy; Sucato, Gina S

    2016-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy rates in the United States remain high among adolescents. Emergency contraception (EC) provides the only option for pregnancy prevention after unprotected sex. To better define the population of adolescents who request and use EC pills, we performed a post hoc analysis of an over-the-counter simulation study of EC pills. Teen reproductive health clinics in 5 cities. Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years who requested EC. Single-tablet levonorgestrel 1.5 mg. We calculated the correlations between age and baseline sexual and contraceptive behaviors. χ(2) Tests were used to compare behaviors of first-time and repeat EC users. Overall, the most commonly reported contraceptive methods ever used were condoms, oral contraceptives, none, and withdrawal; the most common method ever used in each age group was no method for 13- to 14-year-olds and condom for 15-, 16-, and 17-year-olds. The percentage of participants who had never used contraception before requesting EC decreased with age (53% [20/28] of 13- to 14-year-olds vs 15% [10/65] of 17-year-olds). First-time EC users were more likely to report no previous contraceptive use compared with repeat EC users (42% [88/208] vs 10% [13/135]; P < .001). Regardless of age, the most commonly reported reason for requesting EC was nonuse of any contraceptive method (ie, "unprotected sex"). Adolescents who requested EC most commonly reported ever-use of contraceptive methods that rely on user adherence or no method at all, with younger adolescents more likely than older adolescents to have used no previous method. The provision of EC presents an opportunity to provide education and access to highly effective, long-term contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hierarchical clusters of phytoplankton variables in dammed water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Eliana Costa e.; Lopes, Isabel Cristina; Correia, Aldina; Gonçalves, A. Manuela

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a dataset containing biological variables of the water column of several Portuguese reservoirs is analyzed. Hierarchical cluster analysis is used to obtain clusters of phytoplankton variables of the phylum Cyanophyta, with the objective of validating the classification of Portuguese reservoirs previewly presented in [1] which were divided into three clusters: (1) Interior Tagus and Aguieira; (2) Douro; and (3) Other rivers. Now three new clusters of Cyanophyta variables were found. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests are used to compare the now obtained Cyanophyta clusters and the previous Reservoirs clusters, in order to validate the classification of the water quality of reservoirs. The amount of Cyanophyta algae present in the reservoirs from the three clusters is significantly different, which validates the previous classification.

  11. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in body water and hair: modeling isotope dynamics in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Remien, Christopher H; Enright, Lindsey E; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Wagner, Janice D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-07-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water ((2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O expressed as δ(2) H and δ(18)O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of gut water and the (18)O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (α(ow)). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of α(ow) was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems.

  12. Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Body Water and Hair: Modeling Isotope Dynamics in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Shannon P.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Remien, Christopher H.; Enright, Lindsey E.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Wagner, Janice D.; Cerling, Thure E.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water (2H/1H, 18O/16O expressed as δ2H and δ18O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ2H and δ18O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ2H and δ18O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ2H and δ18O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ2H and δ18O values of gut water and the 18O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (αow). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of αow was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems. PMID:22553163

  13. How close do we live to water? A global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies.

    PubMed

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J; Varis, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water.

  14. How Close Do We Live to Water? A Global Analysis of Population Distance to Freshwater Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations live to surface freshwater. We aim to increase the understanding of the relationship between inhabited places, distance to surface freshwater bodies, and climatic characteristics in different climate zones and administrative regions. Our results show that over 50% of the world's population lives closer than 3 km to a surface freshwater body, and only 10% of the population lives further than 10 km away. There are, however, remarkable differences between administrative regions and climatic zones. Populations in Australia, Asia, and Europe live closest to water. Although populations in arid zones live furthest away from freshwater bodies in absolute terms, relatively speaking they live closest to water considering the limited number of freshwater bodies in those areas. Population distributions in arid zones show statistically significant relationships with a combination of climatic factors and distance to water, whilst in other zones there is no statistically significant relationship with distance to water. Global studies on development and climate adaptation can benefit from an improved understanding of these relationships between human populations and the distance to fresh water. PMID:21687675

  15. Skin Temperature Measurements on Small Bodies of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2002-11-26

    The temperature of the top millimeter of a water surface is generally a few tenths of a degree Celsius cooler than the 'bulk' temperature, i.e., the temperature approximately 1 meter deep, which is routinely measured by buoys and ships. This is because of a daytime temperature gradient between the bulk location and the surface, and because of the thin skin at the surface. This difference is important for climate and weather forecasting because of the atmospheric forcing by the oceans.

  16. Visualization of high-speed interaction of bodies in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Burkin, Viktor; Diachkovskii, Alexei; Korolkov, Leonid; Chupashev, Andrei; Zykova, Angelica

    2016-10-01

    The work presents opportunities of hydroballistic complex for studying the characteristics of movement super-cavitation model (SCM) on the length of waterway to 10 m. Gunfire of SCM implemented by this complex allows to study movement and collision of the different masses of SCM with underwater obstacles at subsonic, transonic and supersonic velocities in water. During the movement of SCM different masses the behavior supercavity was investigated.

  17. Abortion and contraceptive failure.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Persona, marketed by Unipath, is a new method of natural family planning which has been on the market since 1996. It works by measuring the hormone levels in a woman's urine and letting her know when she is not fertile and may have sex without using a barrier method of contraception. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) found that their surveyed clients who reported using Persona had 188 abortions in 3 months and concluded that there was a need for better information and more advice for couples who plan to use the method. The other major non-NHS abortion provider, Marie Stopes International, reported similar findings, with about 60 women per month visiting their clinics for abortions after having used the method. The BPAS survey also showed that 43% of the women who had an abortion after using Persona were aged 24 years or younger even though Persona is intended for use by women aged 25-40 years in stable relationships. A similar proportion also reported having sex on days when the method told them that they were most fertile. These latter women were not asked if they used another method of contraception on fertile days. An additional 13% reported ignoring the instructions to wait for 3 natural periods after terminating pill use before beginning to use Persona.

  18. Adolescent contraception: nonhormonal methods.

    PubMed

    Kulig, J W

    1989-06-01

    A comparison of the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each method is presented in Table 1. Barrier methods of contraception offer adolescents protection against both pregnancy and STDs, but innovative approaches are needed to enhance availability and acceptability. Condom use in conjunction with a vaginal spermicide would provide optimal protection. The "female condom" may prove to be an effective alternative. Diaphragms and cervical caps can be prescribed for well-educated, highly motivated adolescents comfortable with insertion and removal. The vaginal contraceptive sponge provides many of the advantages of the diaphragm and cap without the need for an examination and fitting and also may be used as a backup method with the condom. Vaginal spermicides used alone are significantly less effective than in combination with a mechanical barrier. The IUD is not considered appropriate for most adolescents due to its association with an increased risk of pelvic infection. Periodic abstinence requires accurate identification of the fertile period, extensive education, and partner cooperation. Sterilization is rarely considered an option in adolescents. Alternate forms of sexual expression are available to adolescents who choose to abstain from intercourse.

  19. Steroidal contraceptive vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N N

    2003-06-01

    The development of steroid-releasing vaginal rings over the past three decades is reviewed to illustrate the role of this device as an effective hormonal contraceptive for women. Vaginal rings are made of polysiloxane rubber or ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer with an outer diameter of 54-60 mm and a cross-sectional diameter of 4-9.5 mm and contain progestogen only or a combination of progestogen and oestrogen. The soft flexible combined ring is inserted in the vagina for three weeks and removed for seven days to allow withdrawal bleeding. Progesterone/progestogen-only rings are kept in for varying periods and replaced without a ring-free period. Rings are in various stages of research and development but a few, such as NuvaRing, have reached the market in some countries. Women find this method easy to use, effective, well tolerated and acceptable with no serious side-effects. Though the contraceptive efficacy of these vaginal rings is high, acceptability is yet to be established.

  20. Many-body exchange-overlap interactions in rare gases and water.

    PubMed

    Gillan, M J

    2014-12-14

    Generalized-gradient approximations (GGAs) of density-functional theory can suffer from substantial many-body errors in molecular systems interacting through weak non-covalent forces. Here, the errors of a range of GGAs for the 3-body energies of trimers of rare gases and water are investigated. The patterns of 3-body errors are similar for all the systems, and are related to the form of the exchange-enhancement factor FX(x) at large reduced gradient x, which also governs 2-body exchange-overlap errors. However, it is shown that the 3-body and 2-body errors depend in opposite ways on FX(x), so that they tend to cancel in molecular aggregates. Embedding arguments are used to achieve a partial separation of contributions to 3-body error from polarization, non-local correlation, and exchange, and it emerges that exchange is a major contributor. The practical importance of beyond-2-body errors is illustrated by the energetics of the water hexamer. An analysis of exchange-energy distributions is used to elucidate why 2-body and 3-body errors of GGAs depend in opposite ways on FX(x). The relevance of the present analysis to a range of other molecular systems is noted.

  1. European society of contraception statement on contraception in obese women.

    PubMed

    Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Skouby, Sven; Serfaty, David; Lech, Medard; Bitzer, Johannes; Crosignani, Pier Giorgio; Cagnacci, Angelo; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2015-02-01

    The obesity 'epidemic' continues to increase, mostly but not only in developed countries. As overweight and obese women are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) at baseline and at a much higher risk during pregnancy, it is essential to help these women to plan pregnancies carefully and to use contraceptives with a positive ratio of benefits versus risks. The Expert Group on hormonal and molecular contraception of the European Society of Contraception convened to review the existing evidence and propose recommendations to the prescribers in line with most recent studies and with the Medical Eligibility Criteria of the World Health Organisation.

  2. Contraception-related venous thromboembolism in adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah H

    2014-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare but serious complication of combined hormonal contraception. While the absolute risk of VTE is low in adolescents, thrombotic events in contraception users younger than the age of 20 years account for 5 to 10% of total contraception-related VTE events in population studies, because of the high frequency of contraception use in adolescents. An increased risk of VTE exists not only with oral contraceptives, but also the contraceptive patch and vaginal ring. Most adolescents who experience contraception-related VTE have additional transient or inherited thrombotic risk factors at the time of VTE. Although the presence of inherited thrombophilia impacts the risk of contraception-related VTE, thrombophilia screening before contraception prescribing should be targeted only to high-risk populations. Pediatric institutions, caregivers, and young women need to be aware of the risk of VTE with estrogen-containing contraception, and maintain a high index of suspicion for this complication in women using these agents.

  3. Bioindicators of pollution in lentic water bodies of Nagpur city.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Pramila; Dhadse, Sharda; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

    2007-10-01

    The present study deals with assessment of water quality of four selected lakes in the Nagpur city using physicochemical and biological parameters especially phytoplankton and zooplankton community. Tropic level and pollution status of lakes were assessed on the basis of the Palmer's Pollution Index, Shannon Wiener Index and physico-chemical parameters. 57 genera belonging to 7 groups of phytoplankton and 10 genera belonging to 3 groups of zooplankton were identified from the lakes. Different patterns of dominance and sub-dominance of indicator plankton community and species along with physico-chemical quality observed confirm the pollution status of the lakes.

  4. Male contraception: expanding reproductive choice.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, M

    2005-11-01

    The development of steroid-based oral contraceptives had revolutionized the availability of contraceptive choice for women. In order to expand the contraceptive options for couples by developing an acceptable, safe and effective male contraceptive, scientists have been experimenting with various steroidal/non-steroidal regimens to suppress testicular sperm production. The non-availability of a long-acting androgen was a limiting factor in the development of a male contraceptive regimen since all currently tested anti-spermatogenic agents also concurrently decrease circulating testosterone levels. A combination regimen of long-acting progestogen and androgen would have advantage over an androgen-alone modality since the dose of androgen required would be much smaller in the combination regimen, thereby decreasing the adverse effects of high steroid load. The progestogen in the combination regimen would act as the primary anti-spermatogenic agent. Currently, a number of combination regimens using progestogen or GnRH analogues combined with androgen are undergoing trials. The side effects of long-term use of androgens and progestogens have also undergone evaluation in primate models and the results of these studies need to be kept in view, while considering steroidal regimens for contraceptive use in men. Efforts are also being made to popularize non-scalpel vasectomy and to develop condoms of greater acceptability. The development of contraceptive vaccines for men, using sperm surface epitopes not expressed in female reproductive tract as source, still requires considerable research efforts.

  5. Ovarian reserve screening before contraception?

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2014-11-01

    Women are increasingly delaying conception to later years. Hormonal contraception induces artificial cyclicity, which does not, like natural cyclicity, reflect normal, physiological ovarian behaviour. Therefore, long-term users of hormonal contraceptives, in particular, fail to derive potential diagnostic benefits from changes in menstrual cyclicity, which usually alerts patients and physicians to developing ovarian pathology. Timely diagnosis of ovarian problems is further hampered, as anti-Müllerian hormone is suppressed by hormonal contraceptives, making the accurate assessment of functional ovarian reserve more difficult. Women on long-term hormonal contraceptives who develop premature ovarian senescence at young ages, therefore, often go undiagnosed until termination of hormonal contraception, when they present with either post-contraception amenorrhea, other menstrual abnormalities or infertility. As evolving screening options now permit the detection of young women at risk for premature ovarian senescence, it is proposed that young women are offered 'risk screening' for premature ovarian senescence before starting long-term hormonal contraception. A potential protocol is outlined.

  6. Predictions for water clusters from a first-principles two- and three-body force field.

    PubMed

    Góra, Urszula; Cencek, Wojciech; Podeszwa, Rafał; van der Avoird, Ad; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-05-21

    A new rigid-monomer three-body potential has been developed for water by fitting it to more than 70 thousand trimer interaction energies computed ab initio using coupled-cluster methods and augmented triple-zeta-quality basis sets. This potential was used together with a modified form of a previously developed two-body potential and with a polarization model of four- and higher-body interactions to predict the energetics of the water trimer, hexamer, and 24-mer. Despite using the rigid-monomer approximation, these predictions agree better with flexible-monomer benchmarks than published results obtained with flexible-monomer force fields. An unexpected finding of our work is that simple polarization models predict four-body interactions to within a few percent, whereas for three-body interactions these models are known to have errors on the order of 50%.

  7. Emergency contraception: Focus on the facts.

    PubMed

    Najera, Deanna Bridge

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress on contraception, and in particular emergency contraception, has been made in the past decade. Emergency contraception was first introduced as a stand-alone prescription in 1998, and the interaction of politics and medicine meant a tumultuous course to the drug becoming available over the counter. This article reviews how emergency contraception works, the effectiveness of different methods, pros and cons, and the history of emergency contraception.

  8. [Assemblages of bloodsucking mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe].

    PubMed

    Belevich, O É; Iurchenko, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    The population structure of bloodsucking mosquito larvae in temporary and constant water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe was investigated. The seasonal dynamics of the population density, the number of species in different types of reservoirs, and average density of each species are given. The productivity of water reservoirs in relation to mosquitoes of the family Culicidae is analyzed. The basic factors affecting the distribution of larvae of dominant species between different water bodies were revealed. The degree of correlation between the structure of bloodsucking mosquito larva assemblages and the type of the reservoir was established.

  9. [Mercilon - the optimal oral contraceptive].

    PubMed

    Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Kolarov, G; Novachkov, V; Ivanov, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the effect of the oral contraceptive Mercilon on menstrual cycle, contraceptive efficacy, lipid profile, safety profile and adverse effects in a group of 32 women, included in the survey. The results of the trial show excellent contraceptive effect with Pearl Index of 0.00 and good control over the menstrual cycle. No negative or unfavorable effects were seen on the lipid profile as well as on the liver kidney and coangulant system function. Minor side effects were seen in only 5% of the patients.

  10. Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Brito, Milena Bastos; Nobre, Fernando; Vieira, Carolina Sales

    2011-04-01

    Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become increasingly prevalent among young females.

  11. [When is breast feeding contraceptive?].

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Breast-feeding has always been perceived as a contraceptive measure, probably because it is associated with amenorrhea. However, many pregnancies occur during breast-feeding, often quite soon after delivery. A pregnancy occurring 3 months after delivery is considered at risk for both the mother and child. Three conditions are necessary for a 98% contraceptive efficacy of lactation: total amenorrhea; exclusive breast-feeding on demand, both day and night; and occurrence within the first 6 months postpartum. If the three conditions are met, no additional contraceptive method is needed. Beyond 6 months, another method should be used.

  12. The Effect of Contraceptive Knowledge Source upon Knowledge Accuracy and Contraceptive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, A. J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship of the source of contraceptive knowledge to contraceptive knowledge accuracy and contraceptive behavior of college freshmen. Results and implications for health educators are discussed. (MT)

  13. New hyperspectral difference water index for the extraction of urban water bodies by the use of airborne hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huan; Luo, Xin; Xu, Xiong; Tong, Xiaohua; Jin, Yanmin; Pan, Haiyan; Zhou, Bingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Extracting surface land-cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic tasks is to identify and map surface water boundaries. Spectral water indexes have been successfully used in the extraction of water bodies in multispectral images. However, directly applying a water index method to hyperspectral images disregards the abundant spectral information and involves difficulty in selecting appropriate spectral bands. It is also a challenge for a spectral water index to distinguish water from shadowed regions. The purpose of this study is therefore to develop an index that is suitable for water extraction by the use of hyperspectral images, and with the capability to mitigate the effects of shadow and low-albedo surfaces, especially in urban areas. Thus, we introduce a new hyperspectral difference water index (HDWI) to improve the water classification accuracy in areas that include shadow over water, shadow over other ground surfaces, and low-albedo ground surfaces. We tested the new method using PHI-2, HyMAP, and ROSIS hyperspectral images of Shanghai, Munich, and Pavia. The performance of the water index was compared with the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the Mahalanobis distance classifier (MDC). With all three test images, the accuracy of HDWI was significantly higher than that of NDWI and MDC. Therefore, HDWI can be used for extracting water with a high degree of accuracy, especially in urban areas, where shadow caused by high buildings is an important source of classification error.

  14. Background phosphorus concentrations in Danish groundwater and surface water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Bøgestrand, Jens; Windolf, Jørgen; Ovesen, Niels; Troldborg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative information on the background concentration and loading of phosphorus is important when establishing the pressure-impact pathway for Danish streams, lakes and estuaries The background phosphorus loading thus determines present day lowest phosphorus loadings without influence from point sources and agriculture. We have mapped the background concentration of phosphorus in Danish groundwater and streams based on monitoring in 3000 groundwater wells, 7 small streams draining undisturbed catchments (1990-2010) and 19 streams draining small undisturbed catchments being monitored during 2004-2005. The concentration particulate P (PP) was found to be nearly constant within eight major georegions of Denmark (0.018 mg ± 0.010 mg P L-1. On contrary, the concentration of total dissolved P (TDP) was found to vary between 0.011-0.071 mg P L-1 within the eight georegions. We have also time series of background total P concentrations from 7 small undisturbed catchments covering the period 1990-2010. No significant trends have been observed in total P concentrations from these streams during the period 1990-2010. The average annual background loss of total phosphorus amounts to 730 tonnes P or 29% of the total loading of phosphorus from the Danish land to sea during the period 2007-2011. The measured TDP concentration in groundwater was much higher under reduced conditions (median: 0.10-0.15 mg P L-1) than in oxidized groundwater (<0.02 mg P L-1). Clear links could be established between TDP concentrations in reduced groundwater and the geological formations where chalk aquifers have low TDP concentrations and interglacial marine clay deposits having high TDP concentrations. No significant relationship could, however, be established between TDP concentration in oxidized groundwater and in stream water within the catchment to the 19 streams draining uncultivated areas. A modelling of the potential discharge of TDP from deeper reduced groundwater to surface waters in

  15. [Barrier methods of contraception].

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1982-01-01

    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  16. Body Water Indices as Markers of Aging in Male Masters Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Tuuri, Georgianna; Keenan, Michael J.; West, Kenneth M.; Delany, James P.; Loftin, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    The association of age and weekly swim training distance with body water, lean tissue, fat mass and regional adiposity was examined in 27 male masters swimmers. Subjects ranged in age from 25.3 to 73.1 years (mean age = 47.7 ± 11.1 years). Weekly swim distances, estimated from self-reported swim logs, were from 3 400 to 17 500 m and averaged 10 016 ± 4 223 m. Total body water (TBW), and extracellular water (ECW) were predicted from multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and intracellular water was estimated by difference. Lean soft tissue, bone mineral content, fat mass, and percent body fat were estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Measures of skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and abdominal sagittal diameter provided an indication of regional adiposity. Total body water, ECW, and ICW mean values (ranges) were as follows: 47.4 ± 4.6 L (37.9-56.9 L), 19.6 ± 1.8 L., (16.4-24.8 L), and 27.8 ± 3.2 L (21.5-34.4 L). Mean percent body fat levels were 21.9 ± 6.6% and ranged from 10.3 to 34.9%. Age was negatively associated with ICW (p = 0.02) and with the ICW/TBW ratio (p = 0.00). Multiple-linear regression analysis backward method suggested that both lean tissue and fat mass were predictors of ICW although the association with fat mass did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.00 and p = 0.06 for lean and fat mass respectively). There was a tendency for greater lower abdominal thickness with increasing age (p = 0.08), but no other associations were observed between age or with swimming and body composition variables. Changes in ICW and the ration of ICW to TBW appeared to be the strongest marker of aging in this group of adult male competitive swimmers. Key PointsSubject age was negatively associated with the volume of intracellular water and with the intracellular-to-total body water ratio.There was a trend for age to be positively related to lower abdominal thickness.Weekly swim training distance was not associated with body water

  17. Non-Contraceptive Benefits of Oral Hormonal Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is becoming evident that oral hormonal contraceptives-besides being well established contraceptives-seem to become important medications for many functional or organic disturbances. So far, clinical effectiveness has been shown for treatment as well as prevention of menstrual bleeding disorders and menstrual-related pain symptoms. Also this is true for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual disphoric disorder (PMDD). Particular oral contraceptives (OCs) containing anti-androgenic progestogens were shown to be effective medications for treatment of androgenisation symptoms (seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, alopecia). Through perfect suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis OCs have proven to be effective in elimination of persistent follicular cysts. Endometriosis/adenomyosis related pain symptoms are well handled similar to other drugs like Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone agonists but are less expensive, with less side effects, and possibility to be used for longer periods of time. This is also true for myoma. Pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual migraine, and onset of multiple sclerosis are prevented or delayed. Bone density is preserved and asthma symptoms improved. Endometrial hyperplasia and benign breast disease can be controlled. There is definitely a significant impact on risk reduction regarding endometrial, ovarian, and colon cancers. In conclusion, it needs to be recognized that oral combined hormonal contraceptives (estrogen/ progestogen combination) are - besides being reliable forms of contraception - are cost-effective medications for many medical disorders in women. Therefore, these contraceptives drugs are important for female and global health and should be used in clinical practice. PMID:23853619

  18. Seasonal changes of total body water and water intake in Shetland ponies measured by an isotope dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, L; Gerken, M; Riek, A

    2013-08-01

    Water is an essential nutrient necessary to support life, and adequate water supply is crucial for animal survival and productivity. The present study was designed to determine seasonal changes in the water metabolism of horses under outdoor conditions. Total body water (TBW) and total water intake (TWI) of 10 adult Shetland pony mares were estimated at monthly intervals for 14 mo by using the deuterium dilution technique. During the last 4 mo, 5 ponies were fed restrictively to simulate natural feed shortage in winter, and 5 ponies served as controls. The TBW (kg) was closely related to body mass [TBW (kg) = -2.86 + 0.67 × body mass (kg); P < 0.001; n = 105] explaining 86% of the variation. In contrast to TBW (kg), TBW (%) remained relatively stable across all measurements (57.8 to 71.2%). The TWI showed an increase in summer and a decrease in winter [TWI (mL·kg(-1)·d(-1)) = 15.07 + 23.69 × month - 1.45 × month(2) (R(2) = 0.64, P < 0.01)]. However, TWI measured at ambient temperatures (Ta) < 0°C did not follow the same trend as TWI at Ta > 0°C. Therefore, removing TWI values measured at Ta < 0°C from the analysis resulted in high correlations with locomotor activity (r = 0.87), Ta (r = 0.86), and resting heart rate (r = 0.88). The multiple regression among TWI, Ta, and heart rate explained 84% of the variation in TWI [TWI (mL·kg(-1)·d(-1)) = -13.38 + 1.77 × heart rate (beats/min) + 2.11 × Ta (°C); P < 0.001]. Feed restriction had no effect on TWI and TBW. The TBW content was unaffected by season and physical activity. The established regression equation for TBW and body mass can be used to predict TBW from body mass in ponies under field conditions. The comparison of TWI with published data on drinking water intake revealed that ponies had 1.7 to 5.1 times greater total water intakes when other sources of water such as feed and metabolic water were included. The TWI was highly influenced by environmental conditions and metabolic rate. Contrary to

  19. Hypothalamic cholinergic regulation of body temperature and water intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Ishimaru, H; Ikarashi, Y; Kishi, E; Maruyama, Y

    2001-12-10

    Without disturbing the behavior of unanesthetized rats, the perfusion of neostigmine through microdialysis probe into the anterior hypothalamus (AH), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lateral ventricle (LV) decreased body temperature and increased water intake. On the other hand, the perfusion into the supraoptic nucleus (SON) increased the body temperature. The perfusion of neostigmine increased the extracellular concentration of acetylcholine in the perfusion sites except LV. Changes, both decrease and increase, in body temperature and increase in water intake were correlated with increases in c-fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the hypothalamus, pons and medulla. Distinct Fos-IR was found in the PVN, SON, median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), locus coeruleus (LC), area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Co-administration of atropine with neostigmine completely suppressed the changes in the body temperature, water intake and Fos-IR, all of which were induced by the neostigmine perfusion into AH, PVN and SON. In the LV-perfused rats, on the other hand, co-administration of atropine and neostigmine only partially prevented body temperature reduction and still induced significant hypothermia. These results suggest that muscarinic receptor activation in specific regions of the hypothalamus and the activation of LC and NTS are implicated in the regulation of body temperature and water intake. Other receptor processes are involved in the LV-induced changes.

  20. Water entry of a body which moves in more than six degrees of freedom

    PubMed Central

    Scolan, Y.-M.; Korobkin, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The water entry of a three-dimensional smooth body into initially calm water is examined. The body can move freely in its 6 d.f. and may also change its shape over time. During the early stage of penetration, the shape of the body is approximated by a surface of double curvature and the radii of curvature may vary over time. Hydrodynamic loads are calculated by the Wagner theory. It is shown that the water entry problem with arbitrary kinematics of the body motion, can be reduced to the vertical entry problem with a modified vertical displacement of the body and an elliptic region of contact between the liquid and the body surface. Low pressure occurrence is determined; this occurrence can precede the appearance of cavitation effects. Hydrodynamic forces are analysed for a rigid ellipsoid entering the water with 3 d.f. Experimental results with an oblique impact of elliptic paraboloid confirm the theoretical findings. The theoretical developments are detailed in this paper, while an application of the model is described in electronic supplementary materials. PMID:27547102

  1. Effect of water load in human body systems upon tolerance to +Gz acceleration.

    PubMed

    Gembicka, D

    1989-01-01

    A possible improvement of +Gz acceleration tolerance, obtained in human subjects through administering specific volumes of water, viz. 7, 14 and 21 ml/kg body weight, to be drunk immediately before centrifuge examination in order to increase the volume of plasma, thus increasing the circulating blood volume, was the starting-point for this work. Two hundred healthy male subjects, aged 19.9 +/- 0.9, were classified in 4 main groups and 2 supplementary groups for examination. It was found that the water intake in volumes of 14 ml/kg body weight produced a significant mean increase in the acceleration tolerance of 0.8 G, and that of 21 ml/kg body weight improved acceleration tolerance by 1.1 G on the average. The increase tolerance to acceleration was maintained throughout a period of about 30 minutes (for 14 ml/kg body weight) up to approximately 50 minutes (for 21 ml/kg body weight). The favourable effect of water load in the body systems upon +Gz acceleration tolerance was probably due to the increase of plasma volume (by 5.24% and 6.98% for 14 and 21 ml/kg body weight, respectively).

  2. [Contraception and society].

    PubMed

    Miyahara, S

    1988-01-01

    Dramatic decreases in the birth rate between 1947 and 1955 in Japan is due to legalized abortion and wide-spread practice of contraception but is also to some socio-economic changes. In 1947, the birth rate in Japan reached its highest, 34.3/1000 but dramatically decreased by 50% over the next 8 years. The birth rate, which went down to 17.2/1000 in 1955, increased again gradually till 1974 but has been decreasing. Total fertility rate is 1.8 as of now. Eugenic Law was passed in 1948 in Japan. 30% had the experience of contraception in 1950; 52% in 1955; 63% in 1959; 72% in 1965. 15% experienced abortion in 1952; 27%, in 1955; 41% in 1961. A post war baby boom occurred amid shortage of food, shelter and employment, and the experience of poverty prompted people to limit the size of family. Post-war Japan no longer was obsessed with producing an heir. Neither was there a need to produce many children because of improved infant mortality rates. Due to the fast paced industrialization of Japan between 1950 and 1960 a potentially high fertility population migrated from rural to urban areas, where big families were not advantageous. Although the socio economic life of Japanese people greatly improved after 1960, the birth rate has not increased very much. Money is now used more for material comforts in daily life, leisure, and education of small number of children. There is also a trend among some part of population not to have children because of environmental deterioration.

  3. First-principles energetics of water clusters and ice: A many-body analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gillan, M. J.; Alfè, D.; Bartók, A. P.; Csányi, G.

    2013-12-28

    Standard forms of density-functional theory (DFT) have good predictive power for many materials, but are not yet fully satisfactory for cluster, solid, and liquid forms of water. Recent work has stressed the importance of DFT errors in describing dispersion, but we note that errors in other parts of the energy may also contribute. We obtain information about the nature of DFT errors by using a many-body separation of the total energy into its 1-body, 2-body, and beyond-2-body components to analyze the deficiencies of the popular PBE and BLYP approximations for the energetics of water clusters and ice structures. The errors of these approximations are computed by using accurate benchmark energies from the coupled-cluster technique of molecular quantum chemistry and from quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The systems studied are isomers of the water hexamer cluster, the crystal structures Ih, II, XV, and VIII of ice, and two clusters extracted from ice VIII. For the binding energies of these systems, we use the machine-learning technique of Gaussian Approximation Potentials to correct successively for 1-body and 2-body errors of the DFT approximations. We find that even after correction for these errors, substantial beyond-2-body errors remain. The characteristics of the 2-body and beyond-2-body errors of PBE are completely different from those of BLYP, but the errors of both approximations disfavor the close approach of non-hydrogen-bonded monomers. We note the possible relevance of our findings to the understanding of liquid water.

  4. First-principles energetics of water clusters and ice: a many-body analysis.

    PubMed

    Gillan, M J; Alfè, D; Bartók, A P; Csányi, G

    2013-12-28

    Standard forms of density-functional theory (DFT) have good predictive power for many materials, but are not yet fully satisfactory for cluster, solid, and liquid forms of water. Recent work has stressed the importance of DFT errors in describing dispersion, but we note that errors in other parts of the energy may also contribute. We obtain information about the nature of DFT errors by using a many-body separation of the total energy into its 1-body, 2-body, and beyond-2-body components to analyze the deficiencies of the popular PBE and BLYP approximations for the energetics of water clusters and ice structures. The errors of these approximations are computed by using accurate benchmark energies from the coupled-cluster technique of molecular quantum chemistry and from quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The systems studied are isomers of the water hexamer cluster, the crystal structures Ih, II, XV, and VIII of ice, and two clusters extracted from ice VIII. For the binding energies of these systems, we use the machine-learning technique of Gaussian Approximation Potentials to correct successively for 1-body and 2-body errors of the DFT approximations. We find that even after correction for these errors, substantial beyond-2-body errors remain. The characteristics of the 2-body and beyond-2-body errors of PBE are completely different from those of BLYP, but the errors of both approximations disfavor the close approach of non-hydrogen-bonded monomers. We note the possible relevance of our findings to the understanding of liquid water.

  5. First-principles energetics of water clusters and ice: A many-body analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, M. J.; Alfè, D.; Bartók, A. P.; Csányi, G.

    2013-12-01

    Standard forms of density-functional theory (DFT) have good predictive power for many materials, but are not yet fully satisfactory for cluster, solid, and liquid forms of water. Recent work has stressed the importance of DFT errors in describing dispersion, but we note that errors in other parts of the energy may also contribute. We obtain information about the nature of DFT errors by using a many-body separation of the total energy into its 1-body, 2-body, and beyond-2-body components to analyze the deficiencies of the popular PBE and BLYP approximations for the energetics of water clusters and ice structures. The errors of these approximations are computed by using accurate benchmark energies from the coupled-cluster technique of molecular quantum chemistry and from quantum Monte Carlo calculations. The systems studied are isomers of the water hexamer cluster, the crystal structures Ih, II, XV, and VIII of ice, and two clusters extracted from ice VIII. For the binding energies of these systems, we use the machine-learning technique of Gaussian Approximation Potentials to correct successively for 1-body and 2-body errors of the DFT approximations. We find that even after correction for these errors, substantial beyond-2-body errors remain. The characteristics of the 2-body and beyond-2-body errors of PBE are completely different from those of BLYP, but the errors of both approximations disfavor the close approach of non-hydrogen-bonded monomers. We note the possible relevance of our findings to the understanding of liquid water.

  6. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and Water Quality of Urban Water Bodies: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Ingersoll, C.; Kunz, J. L.; Kienzler, A.; Devaux, A.; Bony, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coal-tar-based (CT) sealcoat is used to protect and beautify the asphalt pavement of driveways and parking lots primarily in the central, southern, and northeastern U.S. and in Canada. CT sealcoat typically is 20 to 35 percent crude coal tar or coal-tar pitch and contains from 50,000 to 100,000 mg/kg PAHs, about 1,000 times more than asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat or asphalt itself. Tires and snowplows abrade the friable sealcoat surface into fine particles—PAH concentrations in fine particles (dust) from CT-sealcoated pavement are about 1,000 times higher than in dust from AS-sealcoated pavement (median total PAH concentrations 2,200 and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively). Use of CT sealcoat has several implications for urban streams and lakes. Source apportionment modeling has indicated that, in regions where CT sealcoat is prevalent, particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recently deposited lake sediment, with implications for ecological health. Acute 2-d toxicity of runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement to stream biota, demonstrated for a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), continues for samples collected as long as weeks or months following sealcoat application. Using the fish-liver cell line RGL-W1, runoff collected as much as 36 days following CT-sealcoat application has been demonstrated to cause DNA damage and impair DNA repair capacity. These results demonstrate that CT runoff is a potential hazard to aquatic ecosystems for at least several weeks after sealant application, and that exposure to sunlight can enhance toxicity and genetic damage. Recent research has provided direct evidence that restricting use of CT sealcoat in a watershed can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies.

  7. Association between water consumption and body weight outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Sarganas, Giselle; Grüneis, Anke; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline

    2013-08-01

    Drinking water is often applied as a dietary means for weight loss and overweight/obesity prevention, but no evidence-based recommendation exists for this indication. We summarized the existing evidence on the association between water consumption and body weight outcomes in adults of any body weight status. In a systematic review, we retrieved studies from 4 electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and COCHRANE), cross-references by PubMed functions and hand-searching, and experts' recommendations. Any type of study including adults aged >18 y that reported the association between daily water consumption and any weight-related outcome, such as body weight, body mass index, or body weight classifications, was eligible. Of 4963 retrieved records, 11 original studies and 2 systematic reviews were included. In participants dieting for weight loss or maintenance, a randomized controlled trial, a nonrandomized controlled trial, and an observational longitudinal study showed that increased water consumption, in addition to a program for weight loss or maintenance, reduced body weight after 3-12 mo compared with such a program alone. In mixed-weight populations not primarily dieting for weight loss or maintenance, 2 short-term randomized trials showed no effect of water consumption on body weight; 6 cross-sectional studies showed inconsistent results. Studies of individuals dieting for weight loss or maintenance suggest a weight-reducing effect of increased water consumption, whereas studies in general mixed-weight populations yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association is still low, mostly because of the lack of good-quality studies. This trial was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/Prospero as CRD42012002585.

  8. Potential of mixed microalgae to harness biodiesel from ecological water-bodies with simultaneous treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Devi, M Prathima; Mohanakrishna, G; Amarnath, N; Babu, M Lenin; Sarma, P N

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel as an eco-friendly fuel is gaining much acceptance in recent years. This communication provides an overview on the possibility of using mixed microalgae existing in ecological water-bodies for harnessing biodiesel. Microalgal cultures from five water-bodies are cultivated in domestic wastewater in open-ponds and the harvested algal-biomass was processed through acid-catalyzed transesterification. Experiments evidenced the potential of using mixed microalgae for harnessing biodiesel. Presence of palmitic acid (C16:0) in higher fraction and physical properties of algal oil correlated well with the biodiesel properties. Functional characteristics of water-bodies showed to influence both species diversity and lipid accumulation. Microalgae from stagnant water-bodies receiving domestic discharges documented higher lipid accumulation. Algal-oil showed to consist 33 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having wide food and fuel characteristics. Simultaneous wastewater treatment was also noticed due to the syntrophic association in the water-body microenvironment. Diversity studies visualized the composition of algae species known to accumulate higher lipids.

  9. Water turnover and changes in body composition during arduous wildfire suppression.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Brent C; Schoeller, Dale A; Sharkey, Brian J; Burks, Catherine; Tysk, Sonja

    2003-10-01

    Our lab has recently documented the total energy expenditure during arduous wildfire suppression using the doubly labeled water methodology. The elevated rates of isotopic elimination indicate an arduous working environment that may often compromise energy balance and overall hydration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of arduous wildfire suppression on water turnover and changes in body composition in wildland firefighters (WLFF). WLFF (N = 14) were studied during a 5-d period of arduous fire suppression work. A comparison group (N = 13) of recreationally active college students (RACS) was also studied. Water turnover was measured from rates of 2H elimination (rH2O). Urine osmolality, specific gravity, and skinfold measures were also collected. WLFF demonstrated a decrease in nude body weight (pre = 71.9 +/- 10.4 kg, post = 70.9 +/- 10.2 kg, P = 0.0001) and total body water (pre = 42.9 +/- 7.2 kg, post = 42.0 +/- 6.7 kg, P = 0.0046). RACS maintained total body water and body weight during the experimental period. Isotope (2H2O) dilution demonstrated that rH2O was significantly higher for the WLFF (rH2O = 6.7 +/- 1.4 and 3.8 +/- 1.0 L.24 h-1 for the WLFF and RACS, respectively). These results demonstrate an arduous work environment that threatens hydration, energy balance, and perhaps normal glycogen status.

  10. Media exposure increases contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Retherford, R D; Mishra, V

    1997-08-01

    India's national family welfare program has been broadcasting family planning messages on the radio and television for many years. The electronic mass media play a major role in teaching women about the benefits of small families and providing them with information on contraception. Radio and television are particularly important in India, a country in which 63% of currently married reproductive-age women are illiterate. An analysis of nationally representative data from India's 1992-93 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) on 84,558 currently married women aged 13-49 years indicates that general exposure to radio, television, and cinema has a strong positive effect upon current contraceptive use and the intended future use of contraception. Specific exposure to family planning messages has a significant positive effect upon current and intended future contraceptive behavior beyond the general effect of media exposure.

  11. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ... sterilization procedures, is considered a permanent form of birth control. Different methods of contraception have different rates of ...

  12. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  13. The role of emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Trussell, James; Ellertson, Charlotte; Stewart, Felicia; Raymond, Elizabeth G; Shochet, Tara

    2004-04-01

    Emergency contraception is an underused therapeutic option for women in the event of unprotected sexual intercourse. Available postcoital contraceptives include emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) both with and without estrogen, and copper-bearing intrauterine devices. Each method has its individual efficacy, safety, and side effect profile. Most patients will experience prevention of pregnancy, providing they follow the treatment regimen carefully. There are concerns that women who use ECPs may become lax with their regular birth control methods; however, reported evidence indicates that making ECPs more readily available would ultimately reduce the incidence of unintended pregnancies. In addition, it is typically conscientious contraceptive users who are most likely to seek emergency treatment. Patient education is paramount in the reduction of unintended pregnancies and there are numerous medical resources available to women to assist them in this endeavor. Finally, ECPs are associated with financial and psychologic advantages that benefit both the individual patient and society at large.

  14. Contraception in Japan: Current trends.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Honami; Sakamoto, Haruka; Leslie, Asuka; Takahashi, Osamu; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Kitamura, Kunio

    2016-06-01

    High proportion of Japanese uses condoms; lower proportion uses oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). We examined the longitudinal patterns for contraceptive usage in Japan and evaluated differences before and after OCP government approval. We accessed nationally representative survey data for women aged 16-49years from 1950 to 2014. Usage of condoms and OCP was 83.4% and 3.0%, respectively in 2014. OCP use before (1.21%) and after (1.97%) government approval did not differ significantly (p=.58). The prevalence of OCP usage remains low in Japan. A wide gap in use between Japan and other developed countries exists. Through a wide gap in OCP use between Japan and other countries, we revealed how choices of contraceptive methods and their benefits could be openly available for women of reproductive age, and how health care professionals disseminate appropriate knowledge about contraception for women in need. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rhodovulum aestuarii sp. nov., isolated from a brackish water body.

    PubMed

    Divyasree, B; Lakshmi, K V N S; Bharti, Dave; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-01-01

    A yellowish brown, phototrophic, purple non-sulfur bacterium, strain JA924T, was isolated in pure culture from a brackish water sample collected from an estuary. Single cells were oval to rod-shaped, non-motile and Gram-stain-negative and had a vesicular architecture of intracellular photosynthetic membranes. Bacteriochlorophyll-a and carotenoids of the spheroidene series were present as photosynthetic pigments. Photolithoautotrophy, chemo-organoheterotrophy and photo-organoheterotrophy were the growth modes observed. Strain JA924T had complex growth requirements. Strain JA924T was mesophilic and moderately halophilic. The DNA G+C content was 64 mol% (HPLC). The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. The major quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). Phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, sulfolipid and an aminolipid were the main polar lipids of strain JA924T. EzTaxon-e blast searches based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of JA924T revealed highest similarity with Rhodovulum mangrovi AK41T (98.19 %) and other members of the genus Rhodovulum ( < 95.71 %). Strain JA924T was further identified to be distantly related to Rhodovulum mangrovi AK41T ( < 29 % based on DNA-DNA hybridization and ΔTm (>5 °C). Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular differences indicate that strain JA924T represents a novel species of the genus Rhodovulum, for which the name Rhodovulum aestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA924T ( = LMG 29031T = KCTC 15485T).

  16. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  17. The contraceptive transition in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Cliquet, R; Lodewijckx, E

    1986-05-01

    This article documents changes in contraceptive use in Flanders, mainly using data from 4 quinquennial probability surveys on fertility behavior (NEGOs), conducted between 1966 and 1983. About 60% of the marriage cohort of 1915-1919 reported using contraception. The 1st NEGO (1966) showed that 90% of those then aged 40 had used contraception. During the early 1900s, withdrawal was the main method of contraception. In 1966, 89% of the married women surveyed had used contraception. In 1971, 95% had done so. Older women more often report use of traditional methods (withdrawal and /or periodic abstinence). Trends in current use among married women aged 30-34 for the period 1966-1982/1983 include 1) traditional methods, especially withdrawal, declined strongly, 2) hormonal contraception iccreased sharply between 1966 and 1975/1976 but then leveled off, and 3) IUD use and sterilization increased significantly between 1975/1976 and 1982/1983. In general, differences between birth cohorts at any point in time are larger than those within birth cohorts over time until 1975/1976. The major exception to this pattern is sterilization, where the increase inuse within cohors over time is larger than that between age groups at any point in time. Before 1976, differences in pill use between cohorts were much larger than those within cohorts. After 1975/1976, overall use of pills increased. Within cohorts, the proportion using pills decreased considerably between the 1975/1976 and the 1982/1983 surveys. Those indicating actual or probable future use of sterilization were 1) about 40-60 % of couples with the wife born between 1937 and 1941, and 2) 44-76% when the wife was born in 1947-1951. Flemish contraceptive practice figures for any survey or period are the highest recorded percentages ever or currently using contraceptives. Only 2% of married women at risk do not use any contraception. In Flanders, when shifting from traditional methods to modern medical records, use of

  18. Calculation of Water Drop Trajectories to and About Arbitrary Three-Dimensional Bodies in Potential Airflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norment, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Any subsonic, external, non-lifting flow can be accommodated; flow into, but not through, inlets also can be simulated. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Code descriptions include operating instructions, card inputs and printouts for example problems, and listing of the FORTRAN codes. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.

  19. Assessment of temporal variations of water quality in inland water bodies using atmospheric corrected satellite remotely sensed image data.

    PubMed

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G; Clayton, Chris

    2009-12-01

    Although there have been many studies conducted on the use of satellite remote sensing for water quality monitoring and assessment in inland water bodies, relatively few studies have considered the problem of atmospheric intervention of the satellite signal. The problem is especially significant when using time series multi-spectral satellite data to monitor water quality surveillance in inland waters such as reservoirs, lakes, and dams because atmospheric effects constitute the majority of the at-satellite reflectance over water. For the assessment of temporal variations of water quality, the use of multi-date satellite images is required so atmospheric corrected image data must be determined. The aim of this study is to provide a simple way of monitoring and assessing temporal variations of water quality in a set of inland water bodies using an earth observation- based approach. The proposed methodology is based on the development of an image-based algorithm which consists of a selection of sampling area on the image (outlet), application of masking and convolution image processing filter, and application of the darkest pixel atmospheric correction. The proposed method has been applied in two different geographical areas, in UK and Cyprus. Mainly, the method has been applied to a series of eight archived Landsat-5 TM images acquired from March 1985 up to November 1985 of the Lower Thames Valley area in the West London (UK) consisting of large water treatment reservoirs. Finally, the method is further tested to the Kourris Dam in Cyprus. It has been found that atmospheric correction is essential in water quality assessment studies using satellite remotely sensed imagery since it improves significantly the water reflectance enabling effective water quality assessment to be made.

  20. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Mara Y.; Amory, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. PMID:26947703

  1. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future.

  2. The contraception needs of the perimenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Sarah M R; Gebbie, Ailsa E

    2014-08-01

    Perimenopausal women have low fertility but must still be advised to use contraception until natural sterility is reached if they are sexually active. Patterns of contraceptive use vary in different countries worldwide. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods offer reliable contraception that may be an alternative to sterilisation. Hormonal methods confer significant non-contraceptive benefits, and each individual woman should weigh up the benefits and risks of a particular method. No method of contraception is contraindicated by age alone, although combined hormonal contraception and injectable progestogens are not recommended for women over the age of 50 years. The intrauterine system has particular advantages as a low-dose method of effective hormonal contraception, which also offers control of menstrual dysfunction and endometrial protection in women requiring oestrogen replacement. Condoms are recommended for personal protection against sexually transmitted infections in new relationships. Standard hormone replacement therapy is not a method of contraception.

  3. Relation between the two-body entropy and the relaxation time in supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Gallo, P; Rovere, M

    2015-01-01

    The two-body excess entropy of supercooled water is calculated from the radial distribution functions obtained from computer simulation of the TIP4P model for different densities upon supercooling. This quantity is considered in connection with the relaxation time of the self intermediate scattering function. The relaxation time shows a mode coupling theory (MCT) behavior in the region of mild supercooling and a strong behavior in the deep supercooled region. We find here that the two-body entropy is connected to the relaxation time and shows a logarithmic behavior with an apparent asymptotic divergence at the mode coupling crossover temperature. There is also evidence of a change in behavior of the two-body entropy upon crossing from the fragile (hopping-free) state to the strong (hopping-dominated) state of supercooled water, and the relation that connects the two-body entropy and the relxation time in the MCT region no longer holds.

  4. Water quality observations of ice-covered, stagnant, eutrophic water bodies and analysis of influence of ice-covered period on water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sugihara, K.; Nakatsugawa, M.

    2013-12-01

    The water quality characteristics of ice-covered, stagnant, eutrophic water bodies have not been clarified because of insufficient observations. It has been pointed out that climate change has been shortening the duration of ice-cover; however, the influence of climate change on water quality has not been clarified. This study clarifies the water quality characteristics of stagnant, eutrophic water bodies that freeze in winter, based on our surveys and simulations, and examines how climate change may influence those characteristics. We made fixed-point observation using self-registering equipment and vertical water sampling. Self-registering equipment measured water temperature and dissolved oxygen(DO).vertical water sampling analyzed biological oxygen demand(BOD), total nitrogen(T-N), nitrate nitrogen(NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen(NO2-N), ammonium nitrogen(NH4-N), total phosphorus(TP), orthophosphoric phosphorus(PO4-P) and chlorophyll-a(Chl-a). The survey found that climate-change-related increases in water temperature were suppressed by ice covering the water area, which also blocked oxygen supply. It was also clarified that the bottom sediment consumed oxygen and turned the water layers anaerobic beginning from the bottom layer, and that nutrient salts eluted from the bottom sediment. The eluted nutrient salts were stored in the water body until the ice melted. The ice-covered period of water bodies has been shortening, a finding based on the analysis of weather and water quality data from 1998 to 2008. Climate change was surveyed as having caused decreases in nutrient salts concentration because of the shortened ice-covered period. However, BOD in spring showed a tendency to increase because of the proliferation of phytoplankton that was promoted by the climate-change-related increase in water temperature. To forecast the water quality by using these findings, particularly the influence of climate change, we constructed a water quality simulation model that

  5. Identification of Water Bodies in a Landsat 8 OLI Image Using a J48 Decision Tree

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Tri Dev; Lee, Dong Ha; Yang, In Tae; Lee, Jae Kang

    2016-01-01

    Water bodies are essential to humans and other forms of life. Identification of water bodies can be useful in various ways, including estimation of water availability, demarcation of flooded regions, change detection, and so on. In past decades, Landsat satellite sensors have been used for land use classification and water body identification. Due to the introduction of a New Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor on Landsat 8 with a high spectral resolution and improved signal-to-noise ratio, the quality of imagery sensed by Landsat 8 has improved, enabling better characterization of land cover and increased data size. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the most appropriate and practical water identification methods that take advantage of the improved image quality and use the fewest inputs based on the original OLI bands. The objective of the study is to explore the potential of a J48 decision tree (JDT) in identifying water bodies using reflectance bands from Landsat 8 OLI imagery. J48 is an open-source decision tree. The test site for the study is in the Northern Han River Basin, which is located in Gangwon province, Korea. Training data with individual bands were used to develop the JDT model and later applied to the whole study area. The performance of the model was statistically analysed using the kappa statistic and area under the curve (AUC). The results were compared with five other known water identification methods using a confusion matrix and related statistics. Almost all the methods showed high accuracy, and the JDT was successfully applied to the OLI image using only four bands, where the new additional deep blue band of OLI was found to have the third highest information gain. Thus, the JDT can be a good method for water body identification based on images with improved resolution and increased size. PMID:27420067

  6. Emergency contraception and Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bucar, L; Nolan, D

    1999-01-01

    The "Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care," which outline policies for Catholic hospitals in the US, are ambiguous on the topic of emergency contraception. Recent evidence suggests that, in the absence of definitive guidelines, Catholic hospitals are erring on the side of not providing emergency contraception. A survey of 589 US Catholic hospitals conducted by Catholics for a Free Choice found that 82% refused to supply emergency contraception--even to rape victims. Directive 36, which governs cases of sexual assault, could be argued to sanction the provision of emergency contraception. It states, "A female who has been raped should be able to defend herself against a potential conception from the sexual assault. If, after appropriate testing, there is no evidence that conception has occurred already, she may be treated with medications that would prevent ovulation, sperm capacitation, or fertilization. It is not permissible, however, to initiate or to recommend treatments that have as their purpose or direct effect the removal, destruction, or interference with the implantation of a fertilized ovum." Because the process of conception takes approximately 2 days, it would be consistent with the Catholic Church's position to offer emergency contraception within 24 hours of a rape. Since no currently available test can confirm or deny conception as early as 72 hours after unprotected intercourse, the timetable for emergency contraception, Catholic hospitals should be able to provide this service to all women and still abide by the directives.

  7. Efficacy and safety of metformin or oral contraceptives, or both in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Young-Mo; Choi, Eun Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated. This study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or their combination in the treatment of PCOS and to define their specific individual roles. Methods A literature search of original studies published in PubMed and Scopus was conducted to identify studies comparing metformin with oral contraceptives or evaluating the combination of both in PCOS. Results Eight clinical trials involving 313 patients were examined in the review. The intervention dosage of metformin ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/d and that of oral contraceptives was ethinylestradiol 35 µg and cyproterone acetate 2 mg. Lower body mass index was observed with regimens including metformin, but increased body mass index was observed in monotherapy with oral contraceptives. Administration of metformin or oral contraceptives, especially as monotherapy, had a negative effect on lipid profiles. In addition, there are still uncertainties surrounding the effects of metformin or oral contraceptives in the management of insulin level, although they improved total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In the included studies, significant side effects due to metformin or oral contraceptives were not reported. Conclusion The clinical trials suggest that metformin or oral contraceptives are at least patient convenient, efficacious, and safe for the treatment of PCOS. However, well

  8. Water bodies extraction from high resolution satellite images using water indices and optimal threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMaazmi, Alya

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, remote sensing imagery made the earth monitoring more effective and valuable through developing different algorithms for feature extraction. One of the significant features are water surfaces. Water features extraction such as pools, lakes and gulfs gained a considerable attention over the past years, as water plays critical role for surviving, planning and protecting water resources. Past worth efforts in water extraction from remote sensed images mainly faced the challenge of misclassification, especially with shadows. Shadows are typical noise objects for water, extraction, as they have almost identical spectrum characteristics, which result difficulty to discriminate between water and shadows in a remote sensing image, especially in the urban region such as Dubai. Therefore, water extraction algorithm is developed in order to extract water surfaces accurately with shadows elimination. The detection is based on spectral information such as water indices (WIs), and morphological operations. Water indices are used to discriminate water surfaces from lands based on combining two or more water indices such as Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and Normalized Saturation-value Difference Index (NSVDI), used at an optimum threshold. The morphological operators will be performed using opening by reconstruction to discriminate between water and shadows at an optimum threshold. Both Water Indices and morphological operation results will be infused together in one image that result a binary image of water objects. The algorithm and final results are compared with ground truth image for accuracy assessment, the results were satisfactory with an accuracy of 95% and higher and very minimum negligible shadows appeared. Moreover the resultant image transformed into vector features in order to create a shape file that can be used and viewed in google earth and Geo software.

  9. An artificial water body provides habitat for an endangered estuarine seahorse species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claassens, Louw

    2016-10-01

    Anthropogenic development, especially the transformation of natural habitats to artificial, is a growing concern within estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Thesen Islands marina, an artificial water body, added 25 ha of new estuarine habitat to the Knysna Estuary in South Africa, home to the Knysna seahorse. This study aimed to answer: (I) Can an artificial water body provide suitable habitat for an endangered seahorse species? And if so (II) what characteristics of this new habitat are important in terms of seahorse utilization? Four major habitat types were identified within the marina canals: (I) artificial reno mattress (wire baskets filled with rocks); (II) Codium tenue beds; (III) mixed vegetation on sediment; and (IV) barren canal floor. Seahorses were found throughout the marina system with significantly higher densities within the reno mattress habitat. The artificial water body, therefore, has provided suitable habitat for Hippocampus capensis, a noteworthy finding in the current environment of coastal development and the increasing shift from natural to artificial.

  10. Condoms: still the most popular contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Silverstone, T

    1997-01-01

    Condoms can be used as a barrier contraceptive and/or to protect against many sexually-transmitted diseases. They are easy to buy and use and free from medical risk. Carefully used, and used in conjunction with a spermicide, condoms have similar reliability to IUDs, progesterone-only pills and the diaphragm. The condom must be put on before the penis touches the vaginal area. The penis should not touch the vaginal area after the condom has been taken off. Oil-based products, eg baby oil, massage oil, lipstick, petroleum jelly, suntan oil, can damage the condom. If a lubricant is required, use one that is water-based.

  11. The association between distance to water pipes and water bodies positive for anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the urban community of Malindi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Keating, Joseph; Chowdhury, Rinku Roy; Duncan, Robert; Cardenas, Gabriel; Ahmad, Sajjad; Mbogo, Charles M.; Githure, John I.; Beier, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing risk of mosquito-borne diseases in African urban environments has been partly attributed to failed planning and resource underdevelopment. Though engineered systems may reduce mosquito proliferation, there are few studies describing this relationship. This study investigates how engineered systems such as roads and piped water systems affect the odds of anopheline immatures (i.e., larvae and pupae) occurring in water bodies located in Malindi, Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Giles), An. arabiensis (Patton), and An. merus (Dointz) were identified in urban Malindi, with Anopheles gambiae s.s. being the predominant species identified. The Breslow-Day test was used to explore interactions among independent variables. Logistic regression was used to test whether water bodies positive for anopheline immatures are associated with engineered systems, while controlling for potential confounding and interaction effects associated with urban water body characteristics. Water bodies more than 100 m from water pipes were 13 times more likely to have anopheline immatures present, compared to water bodies that were less than 100 m from water pipes (OR = 13.54, 95% CI: 3.15 – 58.23). Roads were not significantly associated with water bodies positive for anopheline immatures. Statistical interaction was detected between water body substrate type and distance to water pipes. This study provides insight into how water pipes influence the distribution of water bodies positive with immature anophelines in urban environments. PMID:18260524

  12. Oral Health and Oral Contraceptive - Is it a Shadow behind Broad Day Light? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Dhama, Kuldeep; Niraj, Lav Kumar; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Prasad, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral contraceptives are one of the risk factors for gingival disease. Oral contraceptives can affect the proliferation of cell, growth and differentiation of tissues in the periodontium. Nowadays recent research has suggested that the newer generation oral contraceptives have less influence on gingival diseases. Aim The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effect of oral contraceptives on periodontium. Materials and Methods A literature review was performed; PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar were searched from 1970 up to December 2015 to identify appropriate studies. Results Out of the total 94 titles appeared 13 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Two articles which were hand searched and one article which was through e-mail was also included. The hormones progesterone and estrogen have direct impact on immune system of the body and thus, affect the pattern and rate of collagen production in the gingiva. Furthermore, the review also shows that longer duration usage of oral contraceptive could lead to poorer oral hygiene status, gingival inflammation and increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. Conclusion There are relatively few studies evaluating the effect of oral contraceptives on periodontium. It was found that oral contraceptives have a marked effect on periodontium. The gingival changes after use of oral contraceptives are pronounced in the first few months and with the passage of time these changes get enhanced. PMID:28050520

  13. Comparison of absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter in six different case 2 water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Okullo, Willy; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-02-01

    Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) is one of the main factors controlling the penetration of solar radiation in Case 2 water and affecting satellite-based estimation of ocean color. We present absorption properties of CDOM sampled in 6 water bodies including three in Norway (Røst coastal water, Samnangerfjord, Lysefjord), two in China (Bohai Sea, Lake Namtso), and one in Africa (Lake Victoria). These locations, which range from near the equator to subarctic regions, include water types from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and altitudes from sea level to 4,700 m above sea level.

  14. Changes in total body water and extracellular fluid volume in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Coran, A G; Drongowski, R A; Wesley, J R

    1984-12-01

    The nature of weight gain seen in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition continues to be controversial. The debate centers around whether or not the weight gain represents an increase in body mass or water retention. The following study was carried out to answer this question. Eighteen infants receiving peripheral or central intravenous nutrition following major surgery were studied for periods ranging from 1 to 17 weeks. The following studies were carried out after receiving informed consent from the parents and in accordance with the standards established by the Human Use Committee. Total body water was measured using the nonradioactive isotope, deuterium oxide; extracellular fluid volume was assayed using the nonradioactive isotope, sodium bromide. Both body fluid compartments were calculated using the Fick principle of dye dilution. Following double vacuum distillation, serum deuterium oxide was assayed using the falling drop technique. Serum bromide was measured by a technique developed in our laboratory that involves the complexing of bromide with gold chloride and the measurement of this chemical complex colorimetrically. Weight gain was observed in all patients. Total body water percent body weight was 82% +/- 15% prior to the initiation of intravenous nutrition; it decreased within the first week to 71% +/- 12% and then stabilized for the remainder of the study period at 75% +/- 7%. The extracellular fluid volume percent body weight was 56% +/- 15% prior to the start of intravenous nutrition; it fell to 47% +/- 10% during the first week of parenteral nutrition, and then stabilized at 40% +/- 9%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. THE MOVEMENT OF WATER IN TISSUES REMOVED FROM THE BODY AND ITS RELATION TO MOVEMENT OF WATER DURING LIFE

    PubMed Central

    Opie, Eugene L.

    1949-01-01

    During the initial period following immersion of parenchymatous cells of liver, kidney, or pancreas in various fluids immediately after their removal from the body water exchange is like that which occurs when water passes by osmosis through a semipermeable membrane; intake of water is proportional to the square root of the elapsed time and when liver tissue is immersed in solutions of sodium chloride movement of water is approximately proportional to the concentration of the solution. Solutions of sodium chloride isotonic for parenchymatous cells of liver have twice the molar concentration of sodium chloride in the blood serum; for those of the kidney slightly less than twice and for those of the pancreas three times this concentration. When interstitial tissue of thymus, omentum, or pancreas is immersed in water, it undergoes edema-like swelling caused by hydration of the colloids of the fibrous tissue; quantitative water exchange in an initial period accords with water movement by osmosis and is proportional to the square root of the elapsed time. Solutions of sodium chloride isotonic for fibrous tissue of the omentum have slightly greater molar concentration than the sodium chloride in the blood serum and for that of the thymus approximately the same as that of blood serum. Sodium chloride produces changes in fibrous tissue which increase with increasing concentration its power to hold water; the dense fibrous tissue of the corium of the skin and of the wall of the aorta takes up water in both weak an strong solutions of sodium chloride. The initial movement of water induced in tissues in the period immediately following removal from the body is dependent upon forces which are active during life but soon impaired by injury to the tissues. The molar concentration of the contents of secreting cells is greater than that of the blood serum and of the fluid surrounding them. These conditions are favorable to the passage of water from the tissue spaces to the cells

  16. Modeling Molecular Interactions in Water: From Pairwise to Many-Body Potential Energy Functions.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Gerardo Andrés; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Ojamäe, Lars; Lu, Jibao; Xu, Yao; Torabifard, Hedieh; Bartók, Albert P; Csányi, Gábor; Molinero, Valeria; Paesani, Francesco

    2016-07-13

    Almost 50 years have passed from the first computer simulations of water, and a large number of molecular models have been proposed since then to elucidate the unique behavior of water across different phases. In this article, we review the recent progress in the development of analytical potential energy functions that aim at correctly representing many-body effects. Starting from the many-body expansion of the interaction energy, specific focus is on different classes of potential energy functions built upon a hierarchy of approximations and on their ability to accurately reproduce reference data obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations and experimental measurements. We show that most recent potential energy functions, which include explicit short-range representations of two-body and three-body effects along with a physically correct description of many-body effects at all distances, predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, thus opening the door to the long-sought "universal model" capable of describing the behavior of water under different conditions and in different environments.

  17. Oral contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Shearman, R P

    1986-02-17

    The history of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been a progressive reduction in dosage to what is now probably the lowest does that is compatible with the desired therapeutic effect -- to inhibit ovluation. Yet, controversy and argument continue. A table lists the OCs that are available in Australia. Many of these preparations, although having different trade names, have an identical composition. Since the withdrawal of sequential OCs from the Australian market, there are only 2 generic types. These are the progestogen only (mini) OCs, which consist of either 30 mcg of levonorgestrel or 350 mcg of norethisterone given at the same time every day; and the combined OCs, which contain an estrogen and a progestogen. In the last 12 months, some of the older high-dose OCs have been withdrawn, and it seems likely that further withdrawals will follow. Only 2 estrogens are used in the formulation of the OC, but there is a greater variety of progestogens. Ethinyl estradiol is used in most preparations. A small minority of OCs contain mestranol, the 3-methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Currently, there are only 4 OC agents that are available in Australia that contain mestranol and 2 of these contain the high doses of 100 mcg. Fundamentally, there are 2 types of progestogens -- those that contain, or are metabolized to, norethisterone and those that contain norgestrel or its close relative, desogestrel. With the exception of the norgestrel group and desogestrel, all other progestins, including norethisterone itself, are effective in vivo after they have been metablized to norethisterone. Mestranol is effective in humans after demethylation to ethinyl estradiol. In the norgesterel group, since d-norgestrel is inert endocrinologically, 250 mcg of levonorgestrel and 500 mcg of dl-norgestrel are equivalent. Levonorgestrel and desogestrel are of approximately equal potency. With the combined OC agents, the overwhelming mechanism of action is by the inhibition of the

  18. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Today, the potential impact of extremely high floods, which in the last years have become a rather frequent weather-related disaster, is the problem of primary concern. In studies of the potential impact of floods the emphasis is placed first of all on the estimation of possible flood zones and the analysis of the flow regimes in these zones. However, in some cases the hydrochemical parameters related to changes in the chemical composition of water are more important than the hydraulic parameters. It is generally believed that the higher is the flow rate, the more intensive is the process of dissolution, i.e. the lower is the concentration of limiting contaminants in water. However, this statement is valid provided that flooding does not activate new sources of water pollution such as contaminated floodplain water bodies located in the vicinity of water supply systems. Being quite reliable and safe at small and moderate discharges, in the case of extremely high level of river waters they become intensive sources of water pollution, essentially limiting the water consumption schedule for downstream water consumers. It should be noted that compared to the well-studied mechanisms of waste discharge due to failure of hydraulic engineering structures by flood waves, the mechanisms of pollutant washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies by the flood waves is still poorly understood. We analyze the impacts of such weather-related events on the quality of water in the water intake system, taking as an example, the section of the Vyatka River located in the Prikamskaya lowland of the Russian Federation. The risk of river pollution due to washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods is studied by hydrodynamical modeling in the framework of combined approach using one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are implemented and by in situ measurements. It is shown that during high floods the removal of pollutants from the

  19. Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L M; Steiner, M J; Grimes, D A; Schulz, K F

    2008-04-16

    Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness is crucial to making an informed choice. The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness. To review all randomized controlled trials comparing strategies for communicating to consumers the effectiveness of contraceptives in preventing pregnancy. We searched the computerized databases MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for studies of communicating contraceptive effectiveness. We also examined references lists of relevant articles, and wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared methods for communicating contraceptive effectiveness to consumers. The comparison could be usual practice or an alternative to the experimental intervention. Data were abstracted by two authors and entered into RevMan. For dichotomous variables, the Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated. For continuous variables, the weighted mean difference (WMD) was computed. Five trials met the inclusion criteria. In one study, knowledge gain favored a slide-and-sound presentation versus a physician's oral presentation (WMD -19.00; 95% CI -27.52 to -10.48). Another trial showed a table with effectiveness categories led to more correct answers than one based on numbers [ORs were 2.42 (95% CI 1.43 to 4.12) and 2.19 (95% CI 1.21 to 3.97)] or a table with categories and numbers [ORs were 2.58 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.42) and 2.03 (95% CI 1.13 to 3.64)]. One trial examined contraceptive choice: women in the expanded program were more likely to choose sterilization (OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.46 to 7.37) or use a modern contraceptive method (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.82 to 3.03). No trial had an explicit theoretical base, but each used concepts from common theories or models. We

  20. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  1. The effect of water temperature and synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over narrow, elongated water bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simulations of the thermally induced breeze involved with a relatively narrow, elongated water body is presented in conjunction with evaluations of sensible heat fluxes in a stable marine atmospheric surface layer. The effect of the water surface temperature and of the large-scale synoptic winds on the development of surface flows over the water is examined. As implied by the sensible heat flux patterns, the simulation results reveal the following trends: (1) when the synoptic flow is absent or light, the induced surface breeze is not affected noticeably by a reduction of the water surface temperature; and (2) for stronger synoptic flow, the resultant surface flow may be significantly affected by the water surface temperature.

  2. Oral contraceptives and cancer.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A

    1991-01-01

    Concerns over the safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) have led to numerous empirical studies of the relationship of OC use to normal pregnancy outcomes, pituitary effects, cardiovascular accidents, and cancer. The article reviews some of the results of studies on the effects of OC use on ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancer and on hepatic cancer and melanomas. Reference is made to direct study results rather than to reviews of studies, although it is noted that the critical reviews of Goldzieher and Realini reflect appropriate critiques of the validity of the methods employed in the analysis of cancers as well as cardiovascular risks. Concern is raised for meta-analysis of pooled data. In spite of the 30 years of research on OCs there is no definitive answer to the question of cause and effect. The epidemiological articles reviewed do not meet the standards of critical editorial review boards of experimental journals; confirmation of findings is also lacking. Studies suggesting increased risks as well as those showing positive benefits are questionable. The conclusion reached is that OCs protect against ovarian and uterine cancers and do not cause mammary, cervical, or liver cancer or melanoma. This conclusion is based on inconclusive data. The conclusion on hepatic cancer is that the 3 retrospective case control studies and anecdotal reports are flawed in design, and little confidence can be placed on such a limited number of cases. Malignant melanoma conclusions are that the data are inconsistent and hover around a risk of one for long-term OC-users. There is no increased risk related to OC-use. Ovarian cancer risk seems to be decreased in about 40% of OC-users. Endometrial cancer risk seems to be decreased, except for the sequential contraceptive Oracon which is associated with increased risk. Decreased risk is related to length of usage and continues after stoppage. Cervical carcinoma results appear to confirm the finding that prolonged OC use slightly

  3. Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Laureen M; Steiner, Markus; Grimes, David A; Hilgenberg, Deborah; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2013-04-30

    Knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness is crucial to making an informed choice. The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness. To review all randomized controlled trials comparing strategies for communicating to consumers the effectiveness of contraceptives in preventing pregnancy. Through February 2013, we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, PsycINFO and CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. Previous searches also included EMBASE. We also examined references lists of relevant articles. For the initial review, we wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared methods for communicating contraceptive effectiveness to consumers. The comparison could be usual practice or an alternative to the experimental intervention.Outcome measures were knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness, attitude about contraception or toward any particular contraceptive, and choice or use of contraceptive method. For the initial review, two authors independently extracted the data. One author entered the data into RevMan, and a second author verified accuracy. For the update, an author and a research associate extracted, entered, and checked the data.For dichotomous variables, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous variables, we computed the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria and had a total of 4526 women. Five were multi-site studies. Four trials were conducted in the USA, while Nigeria and Zambia were represented by one study each, and one trial was done in both Jamaica and India.Two trials provided multiple sessions for participants. In one study that examined contraceptive choice, women in

  4. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  5. [Psychological viewpoints in counseling on contraceptives].

    PubMed

    1981-03-01

    Some psychological studies have shown that many women cannot accept hormonal oral contraceptives because of their very effectiveness. These women feel uneasy or depressed in being what they consider independent from their bodies' fertilization function. Often they experience fear in realizing that they have so much power to choose or reject giving new life. Changing to other forms of contraception, however, often only brings new fears and/or disturbances. Those involved with counseling women on prevention choices are urged to be aware that many women who express desiring total reliability from a particular method may still experience unvoiced or even subconscious wishes to become pregnant. This explains why so many women "forget" to take their oral contraceptives, or simply stop taking them, claiming a fear of side effects. There are also intrapersonal and broader psychosocial factors also at work. The opportunities and challenges of women's emancipation, for example, make many women feel that they must become "independent" in making life choices. This, in combination with the high reliability of such contraceptives, also makes it possible to more easily separate the concept of sexual enjoyment from lifelong commitment to/dependence on an economic provider (1 man). No longer is she forced to marry because of the arrival of a child. But for many women, this new freedom is experienced more as a cause of anxiety, not something liberating. That a woman is now free to choose when and how often to create life puts greater pressure on becoming an "ideal mother." The old possibility of easily becoming pregnant allowed many to feel deeply about their bodies, their femininity. With oral contraceptives or sterilization, they now feel they have detached themselves from nature's laws, and become more insecure in their identity. With the greatly reduced likelihood of accidental pregnancy, many women also complain of the sex act becoming much less exciting, so that they report a

  6. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  7. [Detection of chlorophyll content in water body based on two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Li-Hua; Sun, Hong; Li, Min-Zan

    2014-02-01

    Twenty five samples were collected from 10 different ponds in Jiangsu Province of China. According to the different water status and surface area of each pond, different numbers of water samples were collected. The present paper aims to detect chlorophyll content in water body based on hyperspectrum. The visible and near infrared spectral transmittance of the water samples was measured by using a Shimadzu UV-2450 spectrograph. At the same time, the chlorophyll content of each sample was measured using hot-ethanol extraction method in the laboratory. Then the spectral characteristics were analyzed for the water samples and the results showed that with chlorophyll concentration increasing, spectral transmittance decreased gradually. There is an apparent transmission valley at 676 nm. And then two dimensional correlation spectrum technology was used to analyze the sensitive absorption band of chlorophyll in water body. Comprehensive observation of the spectral characteristics of water samples can be carried out much accurately by analyzing two-dimensional correlation spectra of synchronous and asynchronous spectrograms. And the effective spectral response bands of the chlorophyll content were found at 488 and 676 nm. Then the NDWCI (normalized difference water chlorophyll index) was established with the transmittance of red band and blue band. Two regression models were built to predict the chlorophyll concentration in water. One is a multiple linear regression model based on the original transmittances at 488 and 676 nm. The other is the linear regression model based on NDWCI. By comparison, the model based on NDWCI was better. The R2 of its training model reached to 0.7712, and the root mean square error of calibration was 45.5099 mg x L(-1). The R2 of prediction model reached to 0.7658, and the root mean square error of prediction was 39.5038 mg x L(-1). It reached to a practical level to predict the chlorophyll content in water body rapidly.

  8. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T.; Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. Materials and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and six-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex, controlling for potential confounding variables. Results More than one in five participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper IUD users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who are young (<18 years: adjusted odds ratio (ORadj)=2.04), black (ORadj=1.78), and married or living with a partner (ORadj=1.82). Compared to copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (ORadj=2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (ORadj=2.53, 95% CI=1.37-4.69), and the implant (ORadj=1.60, 95% CI=1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. Conclusion CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared to copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiological basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods. PMID:26855094

  9. Long-acting contraceptive options.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1996-01-01

    Long-acting contraceptive methods are appropriate choices for women who prefer the convenience and high contraceptive efficacy of methods not requiring frequent compliance, and women for whom contraceptive doses of estrogen are either medically contraindicated or associated with persistent intolerable side effects. Annual pregnancy rates for the three methods described below are less than 1 per 100 woman-years. As currently formulated, levonorgestrel implants (Norplant) consist of six 34 x 2.4 mm soft plastic implants, each filled with 36 mg of crystalline levonorgestrel. Irregular and often persistent menstrual bleeding and spotting constitute the most important side effects experienced by and leading to method discontinuation in implant users. Implant removal is technically more difficult and time-consuming than insertion. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA or Depo-Provera) is injected as an aqueous suspension of microcrystals. Intramuscular injection of 150 mg of DMPA results in more than 3 months of contraception. Irregular bleeding and spotting followed by amenorrhea, constitute the most importance side effects experienced by DMPA users. Because DMPA use can result in prolonged (but not permanent) infertility, DMPA is not an optimum contraceptive choice for women who may want to conceive in the next one or two years. The Copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD) provides reversible contraception for up to 10 years. IUDs act as contraceptives, not early abortafacients. Recent epidemiologic data indicate that long-term IUD use does not increase the occurrence of pelvic inflammatory disease. Heavier menstrual flow and cramps constitute the main side effects experienced by women using the copper IUD. Intrauterine device insertion and removal are accomplished during brief office-based procedures.

  10. Young adult couples' decision making regarding emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Richard; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Humphreys, Janice

    2011-03-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health problem among young people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to explore and better understand the reasons for the apparent underuse of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in young people in coupled relationships. THEORETICAL RATIONAL: In postmodern explications of grounded theory, social construction of realities and the influence of subjectivities on the meanings of experiences lead to the development of partial truths that may change with time, context, and situation. Grounded theory methods guided semi-structured face-to-face interviews and data analysis. Twenty-two couples aged 18 to 25 years old were recruited through public notices. Four salient and interrelated conditions were constructed to help explain the complexities involved in young couples decision making regarding ECP use: (a) the shifting locus of responsibility for contraceptive decision making: in a perfect world versus biological reality; (b) relationship power: control-vulnerability continuum; (c) a woman's autonomy over her own body; and (d) conflicting views on ECP. Healthcare professionals whose practice includes young people need to be aware of possible couple dynamics when discussing contraception. Clients in supportive relationships should be encouraged to engage in open communication with their partners about their contraception needs, including possible ECP use. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge with regard to decision making related to ECP use in young adults. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Water ages of 20 groundwater bodies and its relevance for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Brielmann, Heike; Humer, Franko; Grath, Johannes; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The 'Mean Residence Time' (MRT) of groundwater is required to develop reliable hydrogeological concepts of groundwater bodies as a prerequisite for a qualified monitoring and risk assessment. MRTs from monitoring wells help to assess if groundwater bodies are 'at risk' or 'not at risk' failing to meet good groundwater quantitative and chemical status according to the Water Framework Directive and therefore not being able to use the groundwater as drinking water or industrial water resource. A combination of 18O/2H, 3H, 3H/3He and in some cases additional CFC, SF6, 85Kr and 35S measurements allow to calculate reliable MRTs in 20 groundwater bodies covering 13% (approx.10719 km2) of the Austrian territory. Altogether 401 groundwater wells and springs from the existing groundwater monitoring network were analysed for δ18O (n=1500), 3H (n=800) and 3He (n=327) since 2006. Considering both the fact that monitoring wells may have multiple or long well screens and the inherent uncertainties of groundwater age dating techniques, age estimations were classified into 5 categories of short ( 50years) mean residence times for each monitoring site. Subsequently, median values of the MRT categories were assigned to each investigated groundwater body. These are valuable information to fix extraction rates, to set measures to improve the land use and groundwater protection and to validate hydrogeological concepts. Generally, MRTs of groundwater bodies increase from shallow Alpine groundwater bodies over deeper Alpine valley-aquifers to longer MRTs in the Pannonian climate range in the east of Austria.

  12. Water temperature, body mass and fasting heat production of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Fredy A A; Cruz, Thaline M P DA; Mourão, Gerson B; Cyrino, José Eurico P

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on fasting heat production (HEf) of fish is key to develop bioenergetics models thus improving feeding management of farmed species. The core of knowledge on HEf of farmed, neotropical fish is scarce. This study assessed the effect of body mass and water temperature on standard metabolism and fasting heat production of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, an omnivore, Neotropical fresh water characin important for farming and fisheries industries all through South American continent. An automated, intermittent flow respirometry system was used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR) of pacu (17 - 1,050 g) at five water temperatures: 19, 23, 26, 29 and 33 °C. Mass specific SMR increased with increasing water temperature but decreased as function of body mass. The allometric exponent for scaling HEf was 0.788, and lied in the range recorded for all studied warm-water fish. The recorded van't Hoff factor (Q10) for pacu (2.06) shows the species low response to temperature increases. The model HEf = 0.04643×W0.7882×T1.837 allows to predict HEf (kJ d-1) from body mass (W, kg) and water temperature (T, °C), and can be used in bioenergetical models for the species.

  13. Hydrographic Surveys for Six Water Bodies in Eastern Nebraska, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Andersen, Michael J.; Sebree, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality, completed hydrographic surveys for six water bodies in eastern Nebraska: Maskenthine Wetland, Olive Creek Lake, Standing Bear Lake, Wagon Train Lake and Wetland, Wildwood Lake, and Yankee Hill Lake and sediment basin. The bathymetric data were collected using a boat-mounted survey-grade fathometer that operated at 200 kHz, and a differentially corrected Global Positioning System with antenna mounted directly above the echo-sounder transducer. Shallow-water and terrestrial areas were surveyed using a Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System. The bathymetric, shallow-water, and terrestrial data were processed in a geographic information system to generate a triangulated irregular network representation of the bottom of the water body. Bathymetric contours were interpolated from the triangulated irregular network data using a 2-foot contour interval. Bathymetric contours at the conservation pool elevation for Maskenthine Wetland, Yankee Hill Lake, and Yankee Hill sediment pond also were interpolated in addition to the 2-foot contours. The surface area and storage capacity of each lake or wetland were calculated for 1-foot intervals of water surface elevation and are tabulated in the Appendix for all water bodies.

  14. The Effect of Water Compressibility on a Rigid Body Movement in Two Phase Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan Wook; Kim, Hak Sun; Lee, Sungsu

    2008-11-01

    The motion of a rigid body in a tube full of water-filled, initiated by a sudden release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one. The effects of water compressibility on the body movement are investigated, comparing results based on the Fluent VOF model where water is treated as an incompressible medium with those from the presently developed VOF scheme. The present model considers compressibility of both air and water. The Fluent results show that the body moves farther and at higher speeds than the present ones. As time proceeds, the relative difference of speed and displacement between the two results drops substantially, after acoustic waves in water traverse and return the full length of the tube several times. To estimate instantaneous accelerations, however, requires implementation of the water compressibility effect as discrepancies between them do not decrease even after several pressure wave cycles. This work was supported by a research fund granted from Agency for Defense Development, South Korea.

  15. Differentiating sources of anthropogenic loading to impaired water bodies utilizing ratios of sucralose and other microconstituents.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Joan A; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2012-11-15

    Previous studies have suggested the use of sucralose, a synthetic non-nutritive sweetener, as an indicator of domestic wastewater loading to surface waters. This paper presents a novel flow schematic approach for quantifying volumetric load contributions from different water sources by utilizing sucralose as a master diagnostic variable in combination with other trace compounds. This conceptual approach was validated through demonstration of sucralose presence at positive field sites susceptible to either water reuse or septic infiltration and its absence at negative field sites. Differences in the ratios of carbamazepine to sucralose and gadolinium anomaly to sucralose were demonstrated for eight septic and water reuse effluents. Utilization of these ratios as a means of distinguishing septic and water reuse loading to water bodies merits additional study. In the absence of sustained loading, the use of carbamazepine might be hindered by photolysis and gadolinium anomaly might be hindered when volumetric loading is less than 20%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Features of deformation of metal body surfaces under impact of a water jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganin, A. A.; Khismatullina, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model and computational results on dynamics of a perfect elastic-plastic body under the load arising during impact of a high-velocity liquid jet with the hemispherical end. The body is simulated by the isotropic linearly-elastic semi-space, its plastic state is described by the von Mises condition. The dependence of features of the body surface deformation on the body material is studied. The problem is considered in the axisymmetric statement. The axis of symmetry is that of the jet. The loaded domain is a circle with its radius rapidly growing from zero to the jet radius. The pressure in the loaded domain is non-uniform both in time and space. Three metal alloys (aluminium, copper-nickel and steel) are considered as the body material. The loading of the body surface in all the cases corresponds to the impact of a water jet with the radius 100 pm and the velocity 300 m/s. It has been shown that under such impact a nanometer pit arises on the body surface at the center of the domain of the jet action. The profile of the pit and its maximal depth depend on the body material.

  17. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small.

  18. Effects of Contraceptive Education on Adolescent Male Contraceptive Behavior and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between contraceptive education and teenage male contraceptive behavior was investigated. Findings indicated that brief or moderately in-depth contraceptive education had little effect on contraceptive behavior. The teenage pregnancy and other sex-related problems may make parents and schools more amenable to comprehensive…

  19. Effects of Contraceptive Education on Adolescent Male Contraceptive Behavior and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between contraceptive education and teenage male contraceptive behavior was investigated. Findings indicated that brief or moderately in-depth contraceptive education had little effect on contraceptive behavior. The teenage pregnancy and other sex-related problems may make parents and schools more amenable to comprehensive…

  20. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  1. Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/Lift/Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    1 Diagnostic-Photographic Determination of Drag/ Lift /Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column Peter C. Chu and...Determination of Drag/ Lift /Torque Coefficients of High Speed Rigid Body in Water Column 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...rigid body falling through water column with a high speed (such as Mk-84 bomb) needs formulas for drag/ lift and torque coefficients, which depend on

  2. A many-body dissipative particle dynamics study of forced water-oil displacement in capillary.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Zhuang, Lin; Li, Xuefeng; Dong, Jinfeng; Lu, Juntao

    2012-01-17

    The forced water-oil displacement in capillary is a model that has important applications such as the groundwater remediation and the oil recovery. Whereas it is difficult for experimental studies to observe the displacement process in a capillary at nanoscale, the computational simulation is a unique approach in this regard. In the present work, the many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD) method is employed to simulate the process of water-oil displacement in capillary with external force applied by a piston. As the property of all interfaces involved in this system can be manipulated independently, the dynamic displacement process is studied systematically under various conditions of distinct wettability of water in capillary and miscibility between water and oil as well as of different external forces. By analyzing the dependence of the starting force on the properties of water/capillary and water/oil interfaces, we find that there exist two different modes of the water-oil displacement. In the case of stronger water-oil interaction, the water particles cannot displace those oil particles sticking to the capillary wall, leaving a low oil recovery efficiency. To minimize the residual oil content in capillary, enhancing the wettability of water and reducing the external force will be beneficial. This simulation study provides microscopic insights into the water-oil displacement process in capillary and guiding information for relevant applications.

  3. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data for three water bodies, Texas Gulf Coastal Plain, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    East, Jeffery W.; Hogan, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000–September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas. Segments of the three water bodies are on the State 303(d) list. Continuous monitoring showed that seasonal variations in water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen in all three water bodies were similar to those observed at U.S. Geological Survey stations along the Texas Gulf Coast. In particular, water temperature and dissolved oxygen are inversely related. Periods of smallest dissolved oxygen concentrations generally occurred in the summer months when water temperatures were highest. Water-quality monitors were deployed at three depths in Dickinson Bayou. For periodically collected nutrients, the median concentration of ammonia nitrogen was largest in Dickinson Bayou and smallest in the San Bernard River. Median concentrations of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and orthophosphorus were largest in Armand Bayou. The median concentration of each of the four nutrients was larger for high-flow samples than for low-flow samples. The largest individual nutrient concentrations occurred during spring and summer. Both median and individual concentrations of chlorophyll-a were largest for Armand Bayou; median concentrations of pheophyton were similar for all three water bodies, and individual concentrations were largest for Armand Bayou. Median densities of fecal coliform bacteria and E. coli bacteria were similar for all three water bodies. Flow conditions had minimal effect on concentrations of chlorophyll-a and pheophytin, but the largest bacteria densities were in samples collected during high flow. Yields of most nutrients tended to increase with distance downstream. Yields in the San Bernard River and tributaries were less than yields in Dickinson and Armand Bayous. For

  4. Evaluating biochemical response of filamentous algae integrated with different water bodies.

    PubMed

    Çelekli, Abuzer; Kapı, Emine; Soysal, Çiğdem; Arslanargun, Hamdullah; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2017-08-01

    The present study prompted the second attempts to evaluate biochemical responses of filamentous algae under different physico-chemical variables in various water bodies in Turkey. These variables were investigated by use of multivariate approach in the years of 2013 (May and November) and 2014 (May and October). Studied ecoregions had the different geographic position, climate, land-use, and anthropogenic activities, could strongly affect physico-chemical variables of water bodies, which caused to change or regulate in algal biomass composition due to the different response of filamentous species. Besides, biochemical responses of species changed at different sampling times and stations. Multivariate analyses indicated that temperature, heavy metals, and nutrient contents of aquatic systems were found to be major variables driving the spatial and temporal occurrence and biochemical contents of filamentous species. Total protein and pigment production by filamentous algae were high in water bodies having high nutrients, whereas they were low in high heavy metal contents. Amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, total thiol group, total phenolic compounds, proline, total carbohydrate, and bioaccumulation of metals by filamentous algae were closely related with heavy metal contents of water bodies, indicated by the multivariate approach. Significant increase in aforementioned biochemical compounds with a distinct range of habitats and sensitive-tolerance to environmental conditions could make them highly valuable indicators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity to Disgust and Perceptions of Natural Bodies of Water and Watercraft Activities

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Bixler; Gwynn Powell

    2003-01-01

    A written 7-item self-report scale on sensitivity to disgust and participation in watercraft activities was administered to 450 seasonal park employees. Correlations indicate that nonparticipation in seven different watercraft sports was weakly related with reactions of disgust to contact with natural bodies of water (rpbis...

  6. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  7. EUTROPHICATION OF COASTAL WATER BODIES: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NUTRIENT LOADINGS AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This newly initiated research is intended to provide environmental managers with an empirical method to develop regional nutrient input limits for East Coast estuaries and other coastal water bodies. Our goal is to create an improved model of nutrient load-response relationships....

  8. EUTROPHICATION OF COASTAL WATER BODIES: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NUTRIENT LOADING AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This newly initiated research will provide environmental managers with an empirical method to develop regional nutrient input limits for East Coast estuaries/coastal water bodies. The goal will be to reduce the current uncertainty associated with nutrient load-response relationsh...

  9. Fatty acid content and composition of sediments from Siberian eutrophic water bodies: implications for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kuchkina, Anna Yu; Gladyshev, Michail I

    2013-06-01

    We studied lipids and fatty acids (FA) in bottom sediments from four Siberian water bodies, Bugach, Lesnoi and Krasnoyarsk freshwater reservoirs and brackish Shira lake, that differed in physico-chemical and biological conditions. We considered the potential of the bottom sediments as a feedstock for biodiesel production and estimated properties of the obtained biodiesel as a fuel on the basis of FA composition. Contents of lipids and FA in the sediments moderately varied and were generally close to the reported data from lacustrine and estuarine systems. We confirmed that long-term eutrophication of a water body resulted in the lipid-rich bottom sediments that make them a feedstock for biodiesel production. Each of the studied water bodies had specific FA composition of sediments likely due to different organic matter sources and transformation processes. Despite these differences in FA profiles, calculated key parameters (cetane number, iodine number and heat of combustion) of biodiesel produced from all the studied sediments met the limits established by current biodiesel standards. Thus, the variation in the sediment FA composition due to environmental characteristics of a water body likely has no principal significance for fuel properties of the obtained biodiesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EUTROPHICATION OF COASTAL WATER BODIES: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NUTRIENT LOADING AND ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This newly initiated research will provide environmental managers with an empirical method to develop regional nutrient input limits for East Coast estuaries/coastal water bodies. The goal will be to reduce the current uncertainty associated with nutrient load-response relationsh...

  11. Thermal insulation and body temperature wearing a thermal swimsuit during water immersion.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanai, Atsuko; Yokoyama, Shintaro; Nomura, Takeo

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a thermal swimsuit on body temperatures, thermoregulatory responses and thermal insulation during 60 min water immersion at rest. Ten healthy male subjects wearing either thermal swimsuits or normal swimsuits were immersed in water (26 degrees C or 29 degrees C). Esophageal temperature, skin temperatures and oxygen consumption were measured during the experiments. Metabolic heat production was calculated from oxygen consumption. Heat loss from skin to the water was calculated from the metabolic heat production and the change in mean body temperature during water immersion. Total insulation and tissue insulation were estimated by dividing the temperature difference between the esophagus and the water or the esophagus and the skin with heat loss from the skin. Esophageal temperature with a thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit at the end of immersion in both water temperature conditions (p<0.05). Oxygen consumption, metabolic heat production and heat loss from the skin were less with the thermal swimsuit than with a normal swimsuit in both water temperatures (p<0.05). Total insulation with the thermal swimsuit was higher than that with a normal swimsuit due to insulation of the suit at both water temperatures (p<0.05). Tissue insulation was similar in all four conditions, but significantly higher with the thermal swimsuit in both water temperature conditions (p<0.05), perhaps due to of the attenuation of shivering during immersion with a thermal swimsuit. A thermal swimsuit can increase total insulation and reduce heat loss from the skin. Therefore, subjects with thermal swimsuits can maintain higher body temperatures than with a normal swimsuit and reduce shivering thermo-genesis.

  12. Contraception and Birth Control: Other FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials More Information Contraception and Birth Control: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... choose a method of contraception? The choice of birth control depends on many factors. Before deciding on a ...

  13. Contraceptive practice in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Contraceptive use increased substantially in the Philippines from 1983 to 1986. Prevalence increased 32.1% in 1983, 45.7% in 1986. Increase in use was among married women in Northern Mindanao, Central Visayas, Southern Tagalog, Bicol, and Western Mindanao. Prevalence remained unchanged in Southern Mindanao. During this period, modern contraceptive methods also increased with more women opting to use the pill, IUD, injectables, and sterilization. In most areas in the Philippines, contraceptive use escalated with the more traditional methods like rhythm and withdrawal. Modern family planning increased most in urban areas such as Northern and Western Mindanao. Age also played a significant part in the study. Women aged 20-24 increased usage between 1983 and 1986. A more substantial increase was noticed in the 25-49 year old group, and the highest increase came from married women aged 30-34, with at least 3-4 children, during 1983. This figure shifted in 1986 with contraceptive use becoming more pronounced among 35-39 year olds. Modern methods declined at the 40-44 age bracket due to low fecundity. Throughout the country, modern contraceptive methods were more widely practiced by working women and was defined occupationally. Women in production, labor, and service occupations displayed a low level of modern usage, while those women in professional, administrative, and technical positions were more likely to use modern methods.

  14. Mifepristone for luteal phase contraception.

    PubMed

    Croxatto, Horacio B

    2003-12-01

    The concept of luteal phase contraception and the use of mifepristone in clinical trials, which allows for testing of its validity, as well as clinical pharmacological research designed to understand its mode of action, are reviewed. Early luteal phase administration has a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical effects on the endometrium that are likely to interfere with embryonic-endometrial interactions. In fact, specifically designed pilot clinical trials as well as data derived from emergency contraception studies indicate that early luteal phase administration of mifepristone is highly effective in preventing pregnancy, with minimal disturbance of hormonal parameters or menstrual cyclicity. Mid and late luteal phase administration of mifepristone at doses above 25 mg are highly effective in inducing endometrial bleeding in nonconceptional cycles. However, administration of mifepristone within the period between implantation and expected menses fails to induce bleeding in a significant proportion of cases, and furthermore the bleeding induced does not insure the termination of pregnancy. While the data suggest there is potential for a once-a-month contraceptive pill, it is likely that no molecule endowed with partial agonistic properties, like mifepristone, will completely and reliably suppress the essential functions of progesterone in order to achieve contraceptive efficacy comparable to that of modern contraceptive methods.

  15. Body composition, water turnover and physical activity among women in Narok County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Keino, Susan; van den Borne, Bart; Plasqui, Guy

    2014-11-24

    In developing countries where access to water and food is not guaranteed, women may have to travel long distances or engage in intense physical activities to gather food. This may compromise their water requirements and overall nutritional status. The aim of the study was to determine water turnover, physical activity and body composition among women in Kenya and to describe the differences between rural and urban Kenyan women. Thirty women from Narok County who were not pregnant at the time of the study were recruited. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared. Deuterium dilution was used to determine total body water (TBW) and water turnover was measured from deuterium elimination. Fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated by assuming a constant hydration fraction of 73.2%. Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X) were used to assess physical activity and expressed as Vector magnitude counts per day (VM/day). Simple and multiple linear regressions were used to define the determinants of water turnover. Mean BMI was 23.4 ± 4.1 and 21.5 ± 3.8 among rural and urban women respectively. The prevalence of overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m(2)) was 24.1% and of underweight (BMI < 18.4 kg/m2)) was 25%. The mean total body water (TBW) was 29.3 ± 4.2 liters (L) and water turnover was 3.2 ± 0.8 liters per day (L/day). Water loss was positively associated with BMI (R(2) = .45, p < 0.001, n = 28) and Fat mass index (FMI) (R(2) = .41, p < 0.001, n = 28). Water loss was also positively associated with physical activity (PA) (R(2) = .25, p < 0.05, n = 22). Multiple regression analysis showed that physical activity in addition to BMI in the model explained an additional 15% of the variation in water turnover (r(2) = 0.53, p < 0.05; ∆r(2) = 0.15, p < 0.05, n = 22) compared to BMI alone (r(2) = 0.38, p < 0.005 n = 22). BMI together with physical activity were the strongest predictors of water loss.

  16. [Post-abortion contraception: effects of contraception services and reproductive intention].

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela

    2016-02-01

    Contraceptive counseling and the supply of contraceptive methods are part of post-abortion care and positively influence the subsequent use of contraceptive methods. Studies showing such evidence have been conducted predominantly in countries with no legal restrictions on abortion and with adequate care for women that terminate a pregnancy. However, little is known about contraceptive practices in contexts where abortion is illegal, as in Brazil, in which post-abortion contraceptive care is inadequate. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of contraceptive care on male condom use and oral and injectable contraceptives in the six months post-abortion, considering reproductive intention. The results showed that contraceptive care only has a positive effect on the use of oral contraceptives in the first six months post-abortion, as long as the woman had a medical consultation in the same month in which she received information on contraception. One or the other intervention alone had no significant impact.

  17. Distribution and Ecology of Cyanobacteria in the Rocky Littoral of an English Lake District Water Body, Devoke Water

    PubMed Central

    Pentecost, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria were sampled along two vertical and two horizontal transects in the littoral of Devoke Water, English Lake District. Profiles of cyanobacterium diversity and abundance showed that both attained a maximum close to the water line, but declined rapidly 20–40 cm above it. The distribution of individual species with height together with species and site ordinations showed that several taxa occurred in well-defined zones. A narrow “black zone” in the supralittoral was colonised mainly by species of Calothrix, Dichothrix and Gloeocapsa with pigmented sheaths. There was no evidence of lateral variation of species around the lake, but the height of the black zone correlated positively with wind exposure. The flora of Devoke Water is that of a base-poor mountain lake with some elements of a lowland, more alkaline water-body. PMID:25522253

  18. Mechanism for generating power from wave motion on a body of water

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, G.A.; Sachs, H.K.

    1982-09-28

    A mechanism for generating power from wave motion on a body of water is described. The mechanism includes a buoyant body which is adapted to float on a body of water and to roll and pitch in response to the wave motion of the water. A gyro-wave energy transducer is mounted on the buoyant body for translating the pendulum-like motions of the buoyant body into rotational motion. The gyro-wave energy transducer includes a gimbal comprised of first and second frames, with the first frame being pivotally mounted to the second frame and the second frame being pivotally mounted to the buoyant body. A gyroscope is mounted to the first frame for rotation about an axis perpendicular to the axes of rotation of the first and second frames. A motor/generator is coupled to the gyroscope for maintaining a controlled rotational velocity for the gyroscope. Transferring members are associated with one of the first and second frames for transferring torque of one of the first and second frames to the gyroscope about an axis that is perpendicular to that of the gyroscope which results in rotation of the other of the first and second frames. An electrical generator is responsive to the relative rotational movement of the first and second frames for generating electrical energy. A storage battery is mounted on the buoyant body for storing and releasing electrical energy and is operatively coupled to the motor/generator and the electrical generator. A control circuit is associated with the generator and the motor/generator unit of the gyroscope and is responsive to the time rate of change of current produced by the generator for controlling the rotational velocity of the gyroscope in order to maintain maximum power output from the electrical generator.

  19. Three-body breakup in dissociative electron attachment to the water molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, Daniel J.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2008-08-28

    We report the results of {\\em ab initio} calculations on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to water that demonstrate the importance of including three-body breakup in the dissociation dynamics. While three-body breakup is ubiquitous in the analogous process of dissociative recombination, its importance in low-energy dissociative electron attachment to a polyatomic target has not previously been quantified. Our calculations, along with our earlier studies of DEA into two-body channels, indicate that three-body breakup is a major component of the observed O- cross section. The local complex potential model provides a generally accurate picture of the experimentallyobserved features in this system, reproducing some quantitatively, others qualitatively, and one not at all.

  20. The historical distribution of main malaria foci in Spain as related to water bodies.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Arturo; García-Barrón, Leoncio; Vetter, Mark; Morales, Julia

    2014-08-06

    The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS), using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura), the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae) besides A. atroparvus (Levante) or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia). In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  1. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Arturo; García-Barrón, Leoncio; Vetter, Mark; Morales, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS), using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura), the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae) besides A. atroparvus (Levante) or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia). In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe. PMID:25101771

  2. Thermal developmental plasticity affects body size and water conservation of Drosophila nepalensis from the Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Parkash, R; Lambhod, C; Singh, D

    2014-08-01

    In the Western Himalayas, Drosophila nepalensis is more abundant during the colder and drier winter than the warmer rainy season but the mechanistic bases of such adaptations are largely unknown. We tested effects of developmental plasticity on desiccation-related traits (body size, body melanization and water balance traits) that may be consistent with changes in seasonal abundance of this species. D. nepalensis grown at 15°C has shown twofold higher body size, greater melanization (∼15-fold), higher desiccation resistance (∼55 h), hemolymph as well as carbohydrate content (twofold higher) as compared with corresponding values at 25°C. Water loss before succumbing to death was much higher (∼16%) at 15°C than 25°C. Developmental plastic effects on body size are associated with changes in water balance-related traits (bulk water, hemolymph and dehydration tolerance). The role of body melanization was evident from the analysis of assorted darker and lighter flies (from a mass culture of D. nepalensis reared at 21°C) which lacked differences in dry mass but showed differences in desiccation survival hours and rate of water loss. For adult acclimation, we found a slight increase in desiccation resistance of flies reared at lower growth temperature, whereas in flies reared at 25°C such a response was lacking. In D. nepalensis, greater developmental plasticity is consistent with its contrasting levels of seasonal abundance. Finally, in the context of global climate change in the Western Himalayas, D. nepalensis seems vulnerable in the warmer season due to lower adult as well as developmental acclimation potential at higher growth temperature (25°C).

  3. Environmental monitoring and assessment of the water bodies of a pre-construction urban wetland.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Wan, Kun; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ma, Sumin

    2014-11-01

    It is planned that the Dayanghan Wetland in China will be transformed into a national park but little is known about its current water quality and pollution status. Thus, we monitored the physical and chemical characteristics of the Dayanghan Wetland, which showed that the water quality was generally good. However, the chemical oxygen demand was more than double the reference value, which may be attributable to previous tillage for vegetable crops and other farmlands. In addition, nickel and chromium caused low-level pollution in the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland. The mean trophic level index and nutrient quality index were 39.1 and 2.69, respectively. Both indices suggest that the water bodies of the Dayanghan Wetland are in a mesotrophic state and that no eutrophication has occurred. The study would provide a precise report on the status of environmental quality of the water bodies of a typical pre-construction wetland for the administration and decision of the local government and the planning agent.

  4. [Population biology of cestode genus Triaenophorus in natural and man-made water bodies].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I; Il'mast, N V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of the frequencies of occurrence and distribution of the abundances of pike parasites, tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus, was carried out in natural lakes and water bodies contaminated by the Kostomuksha mining and concentration mill (Northern Karelia). We demonstrate that the wide presence of T. crassus and T. nodulosus in natural northern lakes is due to the diversity of aquatic organisms and the structure of trophic relations. The abundance of both species is modeled by the negative binomial distribution. Relations in the host-parasite system are stable. Estimates of the parameter k of the negative binomial distribution reflect the changes in the interactions in the host-parasite system. T. nodulosus has survived in the man-made water body storing the highly mineralized recirculated water from the mill. Disturbance-related distinctions were detected in the parameters of the T. nodulosus abundance distribution in the host population. In the Okunevoye Lake, where the water discharged from the tailings dump is more diluted, the infection rates in pike did not differ from those in undisturbed water bodies.

  5. Natural inactivation of phosphorus by aluminum in atmospherically acidified water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kopácek, J; Ulrich, K U; Hejzlar, J; Borovec, J; Stuchlik, E

    2001-11-01

    Atmospheric acidification of catchment-lake ecosystems may provide natural conditions for the in-lake control of P cycling. This process is based on the elevated transport of aluminum from acidified soils and its subsequent precipitation in the water body and is described for strongly acidified forest lakes, acidified and circumneutral reservoirs, and a moderately acidified alpine lake. In water bodies with episodically or permanently acidified inflows a pH gradient develops between lake water and tributaries due to: (i) neutralization of acidic inflows after mixing with waters with undepleted carbonate buffering system, and/or (ii) the in-lake alkalinity generation dominated by biochemical removal of NO3- and SO4(2-). With the pH increasing towards neutrality, ionic Al species hydrolyze and form colloidal Al hydroxides (Al(part)) with large specific surfaces and strong ability to bind orthophosphate from the liquid phase. Moreover, Alpart settles and increases the P sorption capacity of the sediment. The presence of Al(part) on the bottom reduces orthophosphate release from sediments after its liberation from ferric oxyhydroxides during anoxia because Al(part) is not sensitive to redox changes. Consequently, the natural in-lake P inactivation may be expected in any water body with elevated Al input and a pH gradient between its inlet and outlet.

  6. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  7. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  8. Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Migration Presenting as Abdominal Wall Swelling: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Imtiaz; Syed, Adil; Maqbool, Muddasir; Bakshi, Iftikhar; Bhat, Hilal; Andrabi, Faheem Ul Hassan; Mohsin, Naveed

    2011-01-01

    A number of complications are reported with the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices. These may pursue asymptomatic course or present as an acute abdomen after migration into peritoneal cavity. The authors here are reporting an abdominal wall swelling caused by transuterine migration of a copper intrauterine contraceptive device in a 28-year-old female. An open approach was used, and impacted foreign body was retrieved. PMID:22606574

  9. Long term effects of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Koetsawang, S; Chiemprasert, T; Premyodhin, M

    1972-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the long-term effects of oral contraceptives on Asian women. At the Family Planning Clinic, Siniray Hospital, Thailand, 181 of the more than 800 women who had used oral contraceptives for more than 4 years prior to May 31, 1971, were studied. All had completed premedical examinations before beginning the drugs. In addition to being studied for changes in body weight, blood pressure, hematocrit, liver function, thyroid function, oral glucose tolerance, and blood urea nitrogen, they were interviewed on their experience with oral contraception. Most were between ages 25-29 years, had only primary education, were housewives, and more than half were in the lower income group. Living children ranged from 1 to 10 with 52.5% having 4 or more. They had been started on a variety or oral contraceptives but in the last 2 years all were given Ovral (norgestrel .5 mg with ethinyl estradiol .05 mg). A total of 10,830 cycles were recorded. Only 9 requested anotehr method. Culdoscopic tubal sterilization was done on 6 and 3 discontinued because they wanted to get pregnant. All had heard rumors of adverse effects but few believed them because 89.3% had no adverse effects. 81.2% said they were in better physical and mental condition because of absence of pregnancy and a majority reported better socioeconomic status. Neurotic complaints were noted in 6.1%. Libido was unchanged in a majority, decreased in a few, but rarely increased. Weight gain of 2.5 kg or more was present in 68%. Slight increase in blood pressure was noted in 17.1%, mostly in those starting with increased pressure. Hematocrit values changed only slightly may have been due to other causes. Liver function tests showed prolonged bromsulphthalein retention in a considerable number. Thyroid function tests were normal except for increased TBG level in 17.8%. Carbohydrate metabolism remained normal in all but a few. Pretreatment glucose tolerance tests not been recorded. Normal findings were

  10. The Contraception Counseling and Education Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley.

    This report is a detailed summary of how the contraception counseling and education clinic at Berkeley operates. The clinic is a broad-based contraception service within the student health service, designed to meet the specific needs of college students. It offers contraception education service, and devices, venereal disease screening,…

  11. Using Landsat image time series to study a small water body in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Chao Rodríguez, Y; el Anjoumi, A; Domínguez Gómez, J A; Rodríguez Pérez, D; Rico, E

    2014-06-01

    Ramsar Convention and EU Water Framework Directive are two international agreements focused on the conservation and achievement of good ecological and chemical status of wetlands. Wetlands are important ecosystems holding many plant and animal communities. Their environmental status can be characterised by the quality of their water bodies. Water quality can be assessed from biophysical parameters (such as Chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), water surface temperature and transparency) in the deeper or lacustrine zone, or from bioindicators (as submerged aquatic vegetation) in the shallow or palustrine zone. This paper proves the use of Landsat time series to measure the evolution of water quality parameters and the environmental dynamics of a small water body (6.57 ha) in a Ramsar wetland (Arreo Lake in the North of Spain). Our results show that Landsat TM images can be used to describe periodic behaviours such as the water surface temperature or the phenologic state of the submerged vegetation (through normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and thus detect anomalous events. We also show how [Chla] and transparency can be measured in the lacustrine zone using Landsat TM images and an algorithm adjusted for mesotrophic Spanish lakes, and the resulting values vary in time in accordance with field measurements (although these were not synchronous with the images). The availability of this algorithm also highlights anomalies in the field data series that are found to be related with the concentration of suspended matter. All this potential of Landsat imagery to monitor small water bodies in wetlands can be used for hindcasting of past evolution of these wetlands (dating back to 1970s) and will be also useful in the future thanks to the Landsat continuity mission and the Operational Land Imager.

  12. American values and contraceptive acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rzepka, J R

    1979-07-01

    A number of individual personality factors and social norms may be associated with reproductive confusion and/or irresponsibility. More specifically, the values underlying common American social norms may contribute to ineffective birth planning in the following ways: 1) The traditional roles of women in our society seem to encourage parenthood. The rule has been early marriage, closely spaced children, and few alternate sources of satisfaction or self-esteem. 2) Our culture strongly encourages family life. Children are a symbol of normalcy. 3) The importance of sexual enjoyment per se often conflicts with contraceptive use. Conversely, innocence is also valued and also contributes to unprotected sexual activity. 4) Religious reasons or adherence to concepts of natural law are almost always given by people opposed to contraception. 5) Health is important to Americans, and birth control methods negatively affect health in real and imagined ways. Social norms, though changing, remain essentially congruent with former contraceptive technology and former ideologies, customs, and dreams.

  13. Oral contraceptives and endocrine changes*

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Lucis, R.

    1972-01-01

    In groups of women taking oral contraceptives and in control groups of women, the serum levels of cortisol, protein-bound iodine, and total thyroxine were measured together with the T3 binding index. The daily excretion in the urine of free cortisol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol, total oestrogens, total catecholamines, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid was also assayed. The frequency distribution of the values obtained indicates that oral contraceptives have a marked influence on the endocrine environment. The smallest deviations were observed in urinary excretion of total catecholamines and of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid. In some individuals the hormone assays were continued throughout the menstrual cycle. The morning and afternoon levels of serum cortisol tended to increase during the period when the oral contraceptive was being taken. PMID:4538188

  14. Hormonal contraception in the male.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The hormonal approach to male contraception is based on the suppression of gonadotrophin secretion with secondary suppression of spermatogenesis. This can be achieved by administration of testosterone or other androgen alone, but combined administration with a progestogen or GnRH analogue allows the dose of testosterone to be reduced to physiological replacement doses. This approach has been investigated for many years but without identification of a regimen which results in sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis to provide ensured contraception in all men, safely and conveniently. The reasons for this are discussed, and recent developments towards a regimen that fulfills all these criteria are described. Crucial to development of any new product is that it will be used: surveys of both men and women indicate firmly positive attitudes towards a 'male pill'. There are, therefore, grounds for cautious optimism that the next decade may see the introduction of the first novel male contraceptive for several hundred years.

  15. [Ictus, pregnancy and contraception].

    PubMed

    Pareja, A; Láinez, J M

    1995-01-01

    Ictus is a severe complication of pregnancy and the puerperium and a significant cause of maternal mortality. The risk of ictus increases by 3-13 times during pregnancy because of a tendency toward hypercoagulability, hemodynamic alterations related to increased blood volume, and severe arterial hypertension. This work outlines the incidence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular pathology, cerebral venous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular pathology occurring during pregnancy. Risk factors are indicated. The role of oral contraceptives (OCs) as a risk factor for cerebrovascular pathology is then discussed. Various prospective and retrospective studies to establish the causal or casual relationship between OC use and ictus have been published since 1962. Two important studies published in 1969 found a statistically significant increased relative risk of ischemic cerebrovascular accident in OC users. The Collaborative Group for the Study of Stroke in Young Women included hemorrhagic ictus in a retrospective study for the first time in 1973, finding that the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident was significantly greater in OC users. In 1975, using the same sample, the group found a positive relation between increased blood pressure and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic events in OC users. The largest prospective study, begun by the Royal College of General Practitioners in England in 1968, found an increased risk of mortality from circulatory diseases in OC users, with mortality risks for coronary ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage statistically significant. The study found that the use of OCs increased the risk of fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in women over 35 who smoked. Other prospective studies found an increased incidence of nonfatal cerebrovascular accident, with relative risks for all cerebrovascular accidents ranging from 5 to 6.5. A recent continuation of the Royal College Study found that

  16. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  17. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  18. Three types of liquid water in icy surfaces of celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhlmann, D.

    2011-08-01

    It is shown that, at temperatures far below the triple point and under appropriate conditions, liquid water can stably or temporarily exist in upper ice-covered surfaces of planetary bodies (like Mars) in three different types: undercooled interfacial water (due to freezing point depression by van der Waals forces and "premelting"), water in brines (due to freezing point depression in solutions), and sub-surface melt water (due to a solid-state greenhouse effect driven heating). The physics behind and the related conditions for these liquid waters to evolve and to exist, and possibly related consequences, are discussed. These calculations are mainly made in view of the possible presence of these sub-surface liquids in the upper surface of the present Mars.

  19. Analysis of aerial multispectral imagery to assess water quality parameters of Mississippi water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvin, Shane Adison

    The goal of this study was to demonstrate the application of aerial imagery as a tool in detecting water quality indicators in a three mile segment of Tibbee Creek in, Clay County, Mississippi. Water samples from 10 transects were collected per sampling date over two periods in 2010 and 2011. Temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) were measured at each point, and water samples were tested for turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS). Relative reflectance was extracted from high resolution (0.5 meter) multispectral aerial images. A regression model was developed for turbidity and TSS as a function of values for specific sampling dates. The best model was used to predict turbidity and TSS using datasets outside the original model date. The development of an appropriate predictive model for water quality assessment based on the relative reflectance of aerial imagery is affected by the quality of imagery and time of sampling.

  20. A global, 30-m resolution land-surface water body dataset for 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Huang, C.; Song, D. X.; Song, X. P.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Inland surface water is essential to terrestrial ecosystems and human civilization. The distribution of surface water in space and its change over time are related to many agricultural, environmental and ecological issues, and are important factors that must be considered in human socioeconomic development. Accurate mapping of surface water is essential for both scientific research and policy-driven applications. Satellite-based remote sensing provides snapshots of Earth's surface and can be used as the main input for water mapping, especially in large areas. Global water areas have been mapped with coarse resolution remotely sensed data (e.g., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)). However, most inland rivers and water bodies, as well as their changes, are too small to map at such coarse resolutions. Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) imagery has a 30m spatial resolution and provides decades of records (~40 years). Since 2008, the opening of the Landsat archive, coupled with relatively lower costs associated with computing and data storage, has made comprehensive study of the dynamic changes of surface water over large even global areas more feasible. Although Landsat images have been used for regional and even global water mapping, the method can hardly be automated due to the difficulties on distinguishing inland surface water with variant degrees of impurities and mixing of soil background with only Landsat data. The spectral similarities to other land cover types, e.g., shadow and glacier remnants, also cause misidentification. We have developed a probabilistic based automatic approach for mapping inland surface water bodies. Landsat surface reflectance in multiple bands, derived water indices, and data from other sources are integrated to maximize the ability of identifying water without human interference. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large

  1. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  2. Roles of subcutaneous fat and thermoregulatory reflexes in determining ability to stabilize body temperature in water.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, M G; Keatinge, W R

    1981-01-01

    1. The lowest water temperature in which different young adults could stabilize body temperature was found to vary from 32 degrees C to less than 12 degrees C, because of large differences in both total body insulation and metabolic heat production. 2. Total body insulation per unit surface area, in the coldest water allowing stability, was quite closely determined by mean subcutaneous fat thickness measured ultrasonically (r = 0.92), regardless of differences in distribution of this fat between men and women. 3. Reactive individuals developed high metabolic rates, and often rather high insulations in relation to fat thickness, which enabled them to stabilize their body temperatures in water more than 10 degrees C colder than was possible for less reactive individuals of similar fat thickness. 4. Measurements of heat flux, after stabilization in the coldest water possible, showed that the trunk was the main site of heat loss and that over half of the internal insulation there could be accounted for by subcutaneous fat; by contrast, fat could account for less than a third of higher insulations found in muscular parts of the limbs, and for less than 3% of very high insulations in the hands and feet. 5. After stabilization of body temperature at rest in the coldest possible water, exercise reduced internal insulation only in muscular parts of the limbs. Exercise also increased heat loss elsewhere by exposing skin of protected regions such as flexural surfaces of joints. During exercise total heat production increased rather more than heat loss in unreactive subjects, but less than loss in subjects whose heat production had already risen to a high level when they were at rest in cold water. 6. In warm (37 degrees C) water, tissue insulations were lower and much more uniform between subjects and between different body regions than in the cold. Even in the warm, however, insulations remained rather higher in fat than thin subjects, higher at rest than during exercise

  3. Water-Rock Reactions on Non-Planetary Bodies in the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2005-12-01

    Reactions of aqueous fluids with rocks shortly after formation of the solar system affected the oxidation states, mineralogy, organic speciation, ice composition, and surface/atmospheric chemistry of asteroids, icy satellites of giant plants, and possibly Kuiper belt objects. Water condensed as ice in the solar nebula, was incorporated into the composition of these bodies together with rocky components represented by extremely reduced and anhydrous nebular condensates (e.g., Fe-rich metal, forsterite, low-Ca pyroxene, troilite, Ca-Mg-Al oxides, phosphides), presolar grains (SiC, graphite, diamond, Al-, Mg-, Ti-oxides) and organic compounds and polymers. Radioactive decay of short-lived radionuclides on small bodies, and accretionary heat and decay of long-lived radionuclides on large bodies provided energy to melt ice. On smaller bodies, low gravity precluded separation of water from rocks and restricted fluid dynamics. On larger bodies, water was separated from descending rocks, limiting the duration of water-rock reactions. Competitive oxidation and hydration by water affected both inorganic and organic compounds in rocks. Oxidation of minerals led to formation of ferrous silicates, magnetite, pyrrhotite, Ni sulfides, Ni-rich metal alloys, chromite, phosphates, carbonates and sulfates. Hydration caused formation of phyllosilicates (serpentine, chlorites, smectite clays, amphiboles, and micas), hydroxides, and hydrated sulfides and salts. High water/rock ratios, elevated temperatures and low pressures favored oxidation. Low temperatures supported hydration. In some icy satellites (Europa, Ganymede) high water content and hydrothermal processes during differentiation may have caused profound oxidation leading to carbonates and even sulfates. Since water was the only early oxidizing agent, the elevated oxidation state of Io implies its early aqueous history. Hydrogen was produced in all oxidation reactions and preferentially separated into the gas phase. Escape of H

  4. Constraints for Using Radon-in-Water Concentrations as an Indicator for Groundwater Discharge into Surface Water Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, Eric; Schubert, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The radon (222-Rn) activity concentration of surface water is a favourable indicator for the detection of groundwater discharge into surface water bodies since radon is highly enriched in groundwater relative to surface waters. Hence, positive radon-in-water anomalies are interpreted as groundwater discharge locations. For this approach, usually, radon time-series are recorded along transects in near-surface waters. Time-series of radon-in-water concentration are commonly measured by permanent radon extraction from a water pump stream and continuous monitoring of the resulting radon-in-air concentration by means of a suitable radon detector. Radon-in-water concentrations are derived from the recorded radon-in-air signal by making allowances for water/air partitioning of radon. However, several constraints arise for this approach since undesirable factors are influencing the radon-in-water concentration. Consequently, corrections are required to remove the effect of these undesirable factors from the radon signal. First, an instrument inherent response delay between actual changes in the radon-in-water concentration and the related radon-in-air signal was observed during laboratory experiments. The response delay is due to (i) the water/air transfer kinetics of radon and (ii) the delayed decay equilibrium between radon and its progeny polonium (218-Po), which is actually being measured by most radon-in-air monitors. We developed a physical model, which considers all parameters that are responsible for the response delay. This model allows the reconstruction of radon-in-water time-series based on radon-in-air records. Second, on a time-scale of several hours the tidal stage is known as a major driver for groundwater discharge fluctuations due to varying hydraulic gradients between groundwater and surface water during a tidal cycle. Consequently, radon-in-water time-series that are detected on tidal coasts are not comparable among each other without normalization

  5. A methodology for defining homogeneous water bodies in estuaries Application to the transitional systems of the EU Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J. G.; Nobre, A. M.; Simas, T. C.; Silva, M. C.; Newton, A.; Bricker, S. B.; Wolff, W. J.; Stacey, P. E.; Sequeira, A.

    2006-02-01

    A methodology is developed and tested for division of estuarine and coastal systems into water bodies for monitoring and management purposes. This division is often implicit in the choice of sampling stations and in pollution abatement measures applied to different locations - it is now an explicit requirement of European Union Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive) and recommended by United States Agencies such as EPA and NOAA. The approach considers both natural characteristics and the human dimension, by means of a stepwise methodology, which considers, on the one hand, morphology and salinity distribution, and, on the other, appropriate indicators of pressure and state. In the present application, nitrogen and phosphorus loading was used as the pressure component and chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen as indicators of state. The criteria for system division were defined based on (1) an adimensional shape factor and salinity classes for the natural component; and (2) a normalised pressure index and (ASSETS) eutrophication symptom classes for the human dimension. Water quality databases and GIS were used to develop spatial distributions for the various components, and the results were aggregated into a final water body division, using tidal excursion as a "common sense" test. The methodology was applied to three well-studied systems in Portugal, a tubular estuary (Mondego), a wide lagunal estuary (Sado) and a coastal barrier island system (Ria Formosa). Although a final definition of water bodies will usually be a policy decision, this type of approach for the division of coastal systems into management units scientifically informs the decision-making process.

  6. Oral contraceptives and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

  7. Nonprescription contraceptives: increasing in popularity.

    PubMed

    Reinders, T P

    1985-09-01

    The nonprescription forms of birth control now receive much attention due to the ongoing controversy about the prescription contraceptive methods. Condoms, 1 of these nonprescription methods, are the most effective nonprescription contraceptives available and among the most widely used. They are simple to use, inexpensive, and not associated with any major adverse effects. Condoms are unique in that they are a reliable contraceptive for males. It is estimated that 1 of 3 people who use contraception worldwide will rely on a male method. In the US this figure is somewhat lower, 18%. In other countries, such as Japan, condoms are the chief contraceptive method. If properly used, the failure rate for condoms is quite low; the lowest observed failure rate is 2%. In contrast, with typical users, the failure rate approaches 10%. The industry has taken several quality control measures to produce a safe and reliable condom. The principal material tested is usually either of the 2 ingredients used to make them, latex or collagenous tissue taken from the lamb cecum. Condoms definitely can protect against sexually transmitted diseases, simply because they prevent the infecting organisms from being transferred across the condom wall. The contraceptive efficacy of the condom is greatly enhanced when a spermicide is used at the same time. In terms of effectiveness, of 100 users that start the year using foams, creams, jellies, or vaginal suppositories containing nonoxynol 9 and used them consistently, the lowest observed rate of failure has been 3-5%. In actual use, the pregnancy rate is probably closer to 18%. Few side effects have been reported with spermicides. The most common of these is a burning sensation. The foaming suppository has been widely promoted as an effective vaginal contraceptive. It does not really offer any advantage over any of the other dosage forms except for convenience. It is the combination of foam and condom that pharmacists need to pay particular

  8. Prediction of body water compartments in preterm infants by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Collins, C T; Reid, J; Makrides, M; Lingwood, B E; McPhee, A J; Morris, S A; Gibson, R A; Ward, L C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate nutritional interventions in preterm infants, a simple, accurate assessment of the type of growth, that is, change in body composition through the relative contributions of lean body tissue and fat mass to weight gain, is needed. Bioelectrical impedance may provide such a method. The aim of this study was to develop resistivity coefficients appropriate for use in bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) analysis of body water volumes in preterm infants. A total of 99 preterm infants were enrolled (mean gestational age 32 completed weeks). Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were determined using the reference methods of deuterium and bromide dilution. BIS measurements taken at the same time allowed calculation of resistivity coefficients. Predictions of TBW and ECW obtained using these coefficients were then validated against volumes determined using the reference methods in a separate cohort of infants. Data were available for 91 preterm infants. BIS-predicted TBW and ECW correlated well with the measured volumes (Pearson's r(p)=0.825 and 0.75, respectively). There was a small bias (TBW 10 ml and ECW 40 ml) but large limits of agreement (TBW ± 650 ml and ECW ± 360 ml). BIS appears to have limited clinical utility; however, the relatively small bias means that it may be useful for measurements within a population or for comparisons between groups in which population means rather than individual values are compared.

  9. Effects of Intense Physical Activity with Free Water Replacement on Bioimpedance Parameters and Body Fluid Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, E. B.; Ulbricht, L.; Krueger, E.; Romaneli, E. F. R.; Souza, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Authors have emphasized the need for previous care in order to perform reliable bioimpedance acquisition. Despite of this need some authors have reported that intense physical training has little effect on Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA), while other ones have observed significant effects on bioimpedance parameters in the same condition, leading to body composition estimates considered incompatible with human physiology. The aim of this work was to quantify the changes in bioimpedance parameters, as well as in body fluids estimates by BIA, after four hours of intense physical activity with free water replacement in young males. Xitron Hydra 4200 equipment was used to acquire bioimpedance data before and immediately after the physical training. After data acquisition body fluids were estimates from bioimpedance parameters. Height and weight of all subjects were also acquired to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. Results point that among the bioimpedance parameter, extracellular resistance presented the most coherent behavior, leading to reliable estimates of the extracellular fluid and part of the total body water. Results also show decreases in height and weight of the participants, which were associated to the decrease in body hydration and in intervertebral discs.

  10. Frontal bodies: novel structures involved in water vapour absorption by the desert burrowing cockroach, Arenivaga investigata.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M J

    1981-01-01

    Above 83% relative humidity, nymphs and adult females of the desert cockroach can condense water vapour on to a fluid layer covering protruded hypopharyngeal bladders. This fluid is produced by a pair of spheroidal bodies situated beneath the frons. Each such frontal body is connected by to the corresponding bladder by a groove in the epipharynx. During absorption, contraction of muscles connecting the frontal bodies to the frons causes them to move dorsally from the mandibles. Oscillation frequency increases with relative humidity or the application of nanoliter quantities of water to the bladders. Frontal bodies appear to be derived from invaginations of the integument, and consist of a mass of tough fibres containing protein and chitin. Fibres embed in a permeable plate which gives rise to the epipharyngeal groove. Tonofibrillae connect the fibres to elongate epidermal cells which are composed primarily of microtubules. The myoepidermal junction is characterized by fascia adherens. Frontal bodies resist tensile forces, but undergo changes in shape as they oscillate. Accompanying changes in hydrostatic pressure may move extracellular fluid across the plate and into the epipharyngeal groove. Possible roles of the fluid in the absorption process are discussed.

  11. The association between water intake, body composition and cardiometabolic factors among children - The Cuenca study.

    PubMed

    Milla-Tobarra, Marta; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Lahoz-García, Noelia; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Lucas-de la Cruz, Lidia; Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P; García-Meseguer, María José; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2016-07-13

    Beverage consumption and its possible association with current obesity epidemic and metabolic syndrome is under investigation in recent years, however water intake is probably the most underestimated of all beverages and could play an important role. The aim of this study was to examine the association between water intake, body composition and cardiometabolic factors in a sample of Spanish children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 366 schoolchildren (53.5% girls) aged 9-11 years from the province of Cuenca in Spain. Data of anthropometrics, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and ardiorespiratory fi tness variables were collected. Beverage consumption was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. We found an inverse association between the consumption of water (ml)/kg per weight with BMI, body fat, fat-free mass, waist circumference, insulin levels, HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), and with arterial pressure parameters, systolic (p < 0.010) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.028), and mean arterial pressure (p < 0.012), as well as direct associations with HDL cholesterol (p < 0.001). In ANCOVA analyses, children who drank less water (ml)/kg per weight, had higher levels of LDL cholesterol (p < 0.050) and lower levels of HDL cholesterol (p < 0.042), and overweight-obesity subjects drank less water (ml)/kg per weight than normal peers (p < 0.011). Besides, children with lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of triglycerides and blood pressure had less water intake as a beverage. Finally, children who drank less water from beverages had high levels of LDL cholesterol. Higher consumption of water (ml)/kg per weight was negatively associated with BMI, body fat, fat-free mass, waist circumference, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, and positively with HDL cholesterol in children independently of age, sex and cardiorespiratory fi tness. In addition, overweight-obese children drank less water (ml)/kg per weight than normoweight ones. Therefore

  12. Simultaneous determination of 15 steroidal oral contraceptives in water using solid-phase disk extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Yong, Wei; Chu, Xiaogan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2009-07-10

    A rapid, accurate and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 15 steroidal hormones including four estrogens (estrone, 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, estriol) and eleven progestogens (17beta-estradiol-3-benzoate, 19-norethindrone, gestodene, levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, cyproterone acetate, megestrol-17-acetate, progesterone, norethindrone acetate, chlormadinone-17-acetate, and hydroxy progesterone caproate) in environmental waters was developed by coupling solid-phase disk extraction (SPDE) to ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization. Among three types of extraction tested (C(8) SPDE, C(18) SPDE and C(18) SPE), the most satisfactory result was achieved using C(18) SPDE for its satisfactory recovery (75.6 to 101.4%) and short extraction time (15 min for 1L deionised water). The validity of this method was investigated and good analytical performance for all the analytes was obtained, including low limits of method detection (0.5-3.4 ng/L) and excellent linear dynamic range (1.0-50.0 ng/L). The method was applied to determine the steroidal hormones in 10 environmental waters including tap water, river water, lake water and waste water in Beijing. No progestogen was detected in all samples and estrone, estriol, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol were found in most samples at levels between 1.8 and 127.9 ng/L.

  13. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z; Genthe, B; Kamika, I; Momba, M N B

    2015-06-15

    The failure of wastewater treatment plants to produce effluents of a high microbiological quality is a matter of great concern in terms of water resource pollution. A more serious concern is that this water source is used by communities in developing countries for multiple purposes, which include drinking, recreation and agriculture. The current study investigated the prevalence and potential health risks of enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae) in the treated effluents of three selected South African Wastewater Treatment Works as well as their receiving water bodies. Culture-based and polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect and identify the pathogenic bacteria. The conventional methods revealed that of the 272 water samples collected, 236 samples (86.8%) tested presumptively positive for Salmonella spp., 220 samples (80.9%) for Shigella spp. and 253 samples (93.0%) for V. cholerae. Molecular test results indicated that out of the randomly selected presumptive positive samples (145), zero to 60% of samples were positive for S. typhimurium and S. dysenteriae and 20% to 60% for V. cholerae. For the health risk assessment, the daily combined risk of S. typhimurium, S. dysenteriae and V. cholerae infection was above the lowest acceptable risk limit of 10(-4) as estimated by the World Health Organization for drinking water. This study showed that the target treated wastewater effluents and their receiving water bodies could pose a potential health risk to the surrounding communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laryngeal water receptors are insensitive to body temperature in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Xia, L; Leiter, J C; Bartlett, D

    2006-01-25

    Heat stress and the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) have both been implicated as possible contributors to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We recently reported that moderate hyperthermia, induced in decerebrate piglets by external heating, substantially prolonged the LCR elicited by injecting 0.1 ml of water into the larynx through a prepositioned transnasal catheter. To examine the question of whether hyperthermia influences the responses of laryngeal water receptors, we recorded single fiber action potentials in fine strands of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in decerebrate piglets while the larynx was filled with water or isotonic saline. Water receptors, identified by their much brisker response to water than to saline, were studied with body temperature at 37.9+/-0.2 degrees C, after warming the animal to 40.6+/-0.2 degrees C and after cooling back to 37.7+/-0.3 degrees C. The results show no effect of body temperature change, in this range, on the responses of the laryngeal water receptors and thus suggest that the potentiation of the LCR by hyperthermia is mediated by a central action.

  15. Finite water depth effect on wave-body problems solved by Rankine source method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Aichun; Tang, Peng; You, Yunxiang; Liu, Kaizhou

    2017-04-01

    Finite water depth effect for wave-body problems are studied by continuous Rankine source method and non- desingularized technique. Free surface and seabed surface profiles are represented by continuous panels rather than a discretization by isolated points. These panels are positioned exactly on the fluid boundary surfaces and therefore no desingularization technique is required. Space increment method is applied for both free surface source and seabed source arrangements to reduce computational cost and improve numerical efficiency. Fourth order Runge-Kutta iteration scheme is adopted on the free surface updating at every time step. The finite water depth effect is studied quantitatively for a series of cylinders with different B/T ratios. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model are validated by comparison with published numerical results and experimental data. Numerical results show that hydrodynamic coefficients vary for cylinder bodies with different ratios of B/T. For certain set of B/T ratios the effect of finite water depth increases quickly with the increase of motion frequency and becomes stable when frequency is relatively large. It also shows that water depths have larger hydrodynamic effects on cylinder with larger breadth to draft ratios. Both the heave added mass and damping coefficients increase across the frequency range with the water depths decrease for forced heave motion. The water depths have smaller effects on sway motion response than on heave motion response.

  16. Status of pharmaceuticals in African water bodies: Occurrence, removal and analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Madikizela, Lawrence Mzukisi; Tavengwa, Nikita Tawanda; Chimuka, Luke

    2017-02-18

    In this review paper, the milestones and challenges that have been achieved and experienced by African Environmental Scientists regarding the assessment of water pollution caused by the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in water bodies are highlighted. The identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in the African water bodies is important to the general public at large due to the lack of information. The consumption of pharmaceuticals to promote human health is usually followed by excretion of these drugs via urine or fecal matter due to their slight transformation in the human metabolism. Therefore, large amounts of pharmaceuticals are being discharged continuously from wastewater treatment plants into African rivers due to inefficiency of employed sewage treatment processes. Large portions of African communities do not even have proper sanitation systems which results in direct contamination of water resources with human waste that contains pharmaceutical constituents among other pollutants. Therefore, this article provides the overview of the recent studies published, mostly from 2012 to 2016, that have focused on the occurrence of different classes of pharmaceuticals in African aqueous systems. Also, the current analytical methods that are being used in Africa for pharmaceutical quantification in environmental waters are highlighted. African Scientists have started to investigate the materials and remediation processes for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from water.

  17. Role of preoptic and anterior hypothalamic cholinergic input on water intake and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, A; Kishi, E; Ishimaru, H; Ikarashi, Y; Maruyama, Y

    2001-01-19

    To elucidate the role played by cholinergic mechanism in the preoptic area (POA) and anterior hypothalamus (AH) in the control of body temperature and water intake of rats, we used microdialysis without disturbing the behavior of unanesthetized animals. After microdialysis, we also investigated immunoreactivity for c-Fos protein in the hypothalamus. Stimulation with neostigmine, an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor, through microdialysis probe increased extracellular concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) in the POA and AH, and was accompanied by a dose-dependent fall in body temperature and increased water intake. Addition of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, to the dialysis medium containing neostigmine suppressed the neostigmine-induced changes in rectal temperature and water intake. Neostignime markedly increased c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in certain hypothalamic areas, including the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus and median preoptic nucleus. This increase was also attenuated by atropine. These results suggest that cholinergic inputs and activation of muscarinic processes in POA and AH induced a decline in body temperature and increased water intake.

  18. [Contraception: yes, but at what cost?].

    PubMed

    Grenon-Plante, D

    1982-11-01

    This article, arguing that consumers have a right to be informed about the dangers of health care measures, discusses the health risks of oral contraceptives (OCs) and IUDs. In a brief review of the history of contraceptive development and use, it is stated that the 1st OC was tested on only 132 women in Puerto Rico before being approved for commercial use. OCs, which inhibit ovulation, sperm penetration, and implantation of the egg, represent the surest and most convenient contraceptive yet developed. Despite their advantages, pills may cause various secondary effects such as spotting, water retention, irritability, nervousness, nausea, vaginitis, migraine headaches, hypertension, and others, whose alleviation is responsible for large additional profits to the pharmaceutical industry. Although results are difficult to interpret and the passage of time may not have been sufficient, disquieting indications of a possible carcinogenic effect of OCs have been noted. The pill has been implicated in an elevated incidence of thromboembolism and is known to influence the metabolism of some substances, and the list of contraindications for pill use is long. Women wishing to use pills should consult a conscientious physician who will take a complete medical history, perform a thorough physical, and furnish complete information on the risks of pill use. IUD mode of action is incompletely understood. Fewer than 2/3 of women accepting IUDS are able to tolerate them for more than 1 year, from 7 to 20% of IUDs are spontaneously expelled, and from 3-35% are removed at the request of the client for pelvic pain and bleeding. Another 4-15% are removed each year for other medical reasons. IUD related mortality is less than that related to OCs, but a series of secondary effects and contraindications are associated with their use. If a woman chooses to use an IUD despite everything, she should choose a physician experienced in IUD insertion who is not experimenting with a new type of

  19. TFA from HFO-1234yf: accumulation and aquatic risk in terminal water bodies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark H; Hoogeweg, Gerco; Webster, Eva M; Ellis, David A; Waterland, Robert L; Hoke, Robert A

    2012-09-01

    A next-generation mobile automobile air-conditioning (MAC) refrigerant, HFO-1234yf (CF(3) CF = CH(2)), is being developed with improved environmental characteristics. In the atmosphere, it ultimately forms trifluoroacetic acid (TFA(A); CF(3)COOH), which is subsequently scavenged by precipitation and deposited on land and water as trifluoroacetate (TFA; CF(3)COO(-)). Trifluoroacetate is environmentally stable and has the potential to accumulate in terminal water bodies, that is, aquatic systems receiving inflow but with little or no outflow and with high rates of evaporation. Previous studies have estimated the emission rates of HFO-1234yf and have modeled the deposition concentrations and rates of TFA across North America. The present study uses multimedia modeling and geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling to assess the potential concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies over extended periods. After 10 years of emissions, predicted concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies across North America are estimated to range between current background levels (i.e., 0.01-0.22 µg/L) and 1 to 6 µg/L. After 50 years of continuous emissions, aquatic concentrations of 1 to 15 µg/L are predicted, with extreme concentrations of up to 50 to 200 µg/L in settings such as the Sonoran Desert along the California/Arizona (USA) border. Based on the relative insensitivity of aquatic organisms to TFA, predicted concentrations of TFA in terminal water bodies are not expected to impair aquatic systems, even considering potential emissions over extended periods.

  20. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  1. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  2. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  3. Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Tia; Walker, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Spatial variation in water quality within the water bodies of a Peak District catchment and the contribution of moorland condition Tia Crouch and Jonathan Walker (Moors for the Future Partnership) Upland locations are significant water supply sources providing over 70% of fresh water in Great Britain. However, the peatlands of the Peak District, Southern Pennines are highly contaminated with anthropogenically derived, atmospherically deposited pollutants, such as heavy metals. This is due to their location between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, the centre of the 19th century English Industrial Revolution. These peatlands are also severely eroded; therefore erosion could be releasing these pollutants into the fluvial system, representing a threat to both aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. These threats are regulated under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Water Supply Regulations respectively. There are two aims of this project. The first aim is to identify spatial and temporal variability of water quality within the Bamford water treatment works (WTW) catchment. This was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight of the tributaries into the reservoir system. The second aim is to assess the contribution of moorland condition to water quality within the Bamford WTW catchment. Similarly, this was achieved by fortnightly spot sampling at eight moorland streams, draining from a variety of peatland conditions (bare peat, restoration, intact and heather burn). Water samples were analysed for carbon (DOC, POC & TOC), pH, hardness and a suite of heavy metals, including copper, iron and zinc. In addition, stream temperature and stage height was recorded. Preliminary results highlight a number of issues within the Bamford WTW catchment: under the WFD streams are not achieving 'good' status for pH, copper and zinc, and under the Drinking Water Standards (DWS) streams are not achieving targets for aluminium, iron and colour. For example, the

  4. Oral contraception following abortion

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0

  5. Immediate versus delayed postpartum insertion of contraceptive implant for contraception.

    PubMed

    Sothornwit, Jen; Werawatakul, Yuthapong; Kaewrudee, Srinaree; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee

    2017-04-22

    The spacing of pregnancies has a positive impact on maternal and newborn health. The progestin contraceptive implant, which is a long-acting, reversible method of contraception, has a well-established low failure rate that is compatible with tubal sterilization. The standard provision of contraceptive methods on the first postpartum visit may put some women at risk of unintended pregnancy, either due to loss to follow-up or having sexual intercourse prior to receiving contraception. Therefore, the immediate administration of contraception prior to discharge from the hospital that has high efficacy may improve contraceptive prevalence and prevent unintended pregnancy. To compare the initiation rate, effectiveness, and side effects of immediate versus delayed postpartum insertion of implant for contraception. We searched for eligible studies up to 28 October 2016 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and POPLINE. We examined review articles and contacted investigators. We also checked registers of ongoing clinical trials, citation lists of included studies, key textbooks, grey literature, and previous systematic reviews for potentially relevant studies. We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared immediate postpartum versus delayed insertion of contraceptive implant for contraception. Two review authors (JS, YW) independently screened titles and abstracts of the search results, and assessed the full-text articles of potentially relevant studies for inclusion. They extracted data from the included studies, assessed risk of bias, compared results, and resolved disagreements by consulting a third review author (PL or SK). We contacted investigators for additional data, where possible. We computed the Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes and the mean difference (MD) with 95% CI for continuous variables. Three studies that included 410 participants met the

  6. When neuroscience gets wet and hardcore: neurocognitive markers obtained during whole body water immersion.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Frick, Hosea; Krehan, Sebastian; Micke, Florian; Sauer, Marc; Dalecki, Marc; Dern, Sebastian

    2014-10-01

    Neutral buoyancy facilities are used to prepare astronauts and cosmonauts for extra vehicular activities e.g. on-board of the International Space Station. While previous studies indicated a decrease in cognitive performance in an under water setting, they have only provided behavioural data. This study aimed to review whether recording of electro cortical activity by the use of electroencephalography (EEG) is possible in an under water setting and if so, to identify the influence of water immersion at a depth of 4 m on neurocognitive markers. Ten male subjects performed a cognitive choice-reaction times (RT) task that progressed through five levels of increasing difficulty on land and when submerged 4 m under water. N200 latency and amplitude in the occipital and frontal areas were measured, and baseline cortical activity was measured during rest in both conditions. Neither RT nor amplitude or latency of the N200 showed any significant changes between the land and the under water conditions. Also theta, alpha and beta frequencies showed no differences between the two conditions. The data provided in this study demonstrate the possibility of recording EEG even under the extreme conditions of full body water immersion. The lack of cognitive impairment in RT and N200 in the under water condition may be explained by the fact that only experienced divers participated in the study. As a proof of principle, this study generates many new experimental possibilities that will improve our understanding of cognitive processes under water.

  7. Influence of open water bodies on the generation of summertime convection over the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, D.; Bélair, S.; Carrera, M. L.; Leroyer, S.

    2014-12-01

    There are still numerous water features on the Canadian landscape that are not monitored. Specifically, there are landscape features (e.g. the prairies and Canadian shield regions of North America) that are ephemeral in nature and have a significant influence on convective storm generation and local weather patterns through turbulent exchanges of sensible and latent heat between land and the atmosphere. In this study we perform a series of numerical experiments with the GEM (Global Environmental Multiscale model) model at 2.5 km resolution to examine the sensitivity of the atmospheric boundary layer to the presence of open water bodies. At present the land-water fraction in the GEM model is specified by means of static geophysical databases which do not change annually. Uncertainty is introduced into this land-water fraction and the sensitivity of the resulting soil moisture and precipitation is quantified for a series of convective precipitation events over Alberta for the summer 2014 period.

  8. Vitamin A, Pregnancy, and Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Schorah, C. J.; Smithells, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It has been shown that women receiving oral contraceptives have increased levels of serum vitamin A. High vitamin A levels may constitute a teratogenic hazard and it has been suggested that women who conceive soon after discontinuing oral contraceptive therapy may be especially at risk to this hazard. We have confirmed a significant increase in vitamin A levels in women taking oral contraceptives. During early pregnancy there is no significant difference in vitamin A levels between women who have recently been taking oral contraceptives and those who have not. We have been unable to show that either taking oral contraceptives shortly before pregnancy or a high vitamin A level during the first trimester of pregnancy, comparable to that of a woman taking oral contraceptives, has any detrimental effect on the outcome of pregnancy. It seems unlikely that women who conceive soon after discontinuing oral contraception run any teratogenic risk from increased vitamin A levels. PMID:4812394

  9. Post-abortion contraception: care and practices.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Monteiro, Renata Luciria; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; dos Santos, Osmara Alves

    2014-01-01

    to analyze assistance regarding contraception methods received by women during hospitalization due to abortion, and contraceptive practices the month after this episode. a longitudinal study of women hospitalized due to abortion in a public hospital in the city of São Paulo. Face-to-face interviews (n=170) followed by telephone interviews in the subsequent month (n=147) were conducted between May and December of 2011. a small number of women reported they received guidance on, and prescription for, contraceptive methods at hospital discharge. A trend of statistical significance was identified for prescription of contraceptive methods at discharge and its use in the following month, when adjusted for age. Most women reported sexual intercourse (69.4%) with the use of contraceptive method (82.4%), but no health professional guidance (63.1%). despite the fact that post-abortion contraception assistance was lower than the recommended guidelines by public health policies, women demonstrated willingness to use contraceptive methods.

  10. Postcoital contraception: present and future options.

    PubMed

    Derman, S G; Peralta, L M

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews information on currently available postcoital contraceptives, and discusses recent advances in postcoital contraception, mostly notably RU 486. Postcoital contraceptives, or "morning after pills," are currently available in the form of high dose estrogens, oral contraceptives, danazol and intrauterine devices. These methods are plagued by high incidences of side effects and less than optimal success rates. Currently, their primary use in the adolescent age group is for victims of sexual assault, but they may also be used as back-up for consensual unprotected intercourse. RU 486, best known as a first trimester abortifacient, has a number of potential uses, including that of a postcoital contraceptive. Two recently published studies from the UK showed RU 486 to have a very low pregnancy rate and fewer side effects when compared with current methods. RU 486 may someday replace high doses of oral contraceptives as the method of choice for postcoital contraception.

  11. Development and clinical application of a length-adjustable water phantom for total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Wei; Yao, Sheng-Yu; Zhang, Tie-Ning; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Zhe-Kai; Lu, Xun

    2012-08-01

    A new type of water phantom which would be specialised for the absorbed dose measurement in total body irradiation (TBI) treatment is developed. Ten millimetres of thick Plexiglas plates were arranged to form a square cube with 300 mm of edge length. An appropriate sleeve-type piston was installed on the side wall, and a tabular Plexiglas piston was positioned inside the sleeve. By pushing and pulling the piston, the length of the self-made water phantom could be varied to meet the required patients' physical sizes. To compare the international standard water phantom with the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms, absorbed dose for 6-MV X ray was measured by an ionisation chamber at different depths in three kinds of phantoms. In 70 cases with TBI, midplane doses were metered using the length-adjustable and the Plexiglas phantoms for simulating human dimensions, and dose validation was synchronously carried out. There were no significant statistical differences, p > 0.05, through statistical processing of data from the international standard water phantom and the self-designed one. There were significant statistical differences, p < 0.05, between the two sets of data from the standard and the Plexiglas one. In addition, the absolute difference had a positive correlation with the varied depth of the detector in the Plexiglas phantom. Comparing the data of clinical treatment, the differences were all <1 % among the prescription doses and the validation data collected from the self-design water phantom. However, the differences collected from the Plexiglas phantom were increasing gradually from +0.77 to +2.30 % along with increasing body width. Obviously, the difference had a positive correlation with the body width. The results proved that the new length-adjustable water phantom is more accurate for simulating human dimensions than Plexiglas phantom.

  12. Determination of water body structures for small rivers using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, Pierre; Henzen, Daniel; Hunger, Sebastian; Hörold, Max

    2015-10-01

    The diversity of habitats in water bodies like rivers is characterised by the status of morphological and hydrological conditions. The good ecological status of water bodies is claimed in the European Water Framework Directive. For the assessment of this status the hydro-morphology is one of the most important supporting components for the classification of the ecological status of water bodies. Therefore the periodical monitoring is a mandatory measure in the scope of the European Water Framework Directive. Regarding the so called overview-method of the LAWA (German Working Group on water issues of the Federal States and the Federal Government represented by the Federal Environment Ministry) the use of remote sensing data and remote sensing methodologies becomes more important. Therefore remote sensing data on different scales (satellite, aerial photographs) as well as other topographic information (ATKIS) and a high resolution DTM are merged into an integrative process of analysis using remote sensing and GIS methodology. The analyses are focused on two parameters. First, a detailed land use classification based on LANDSAT satellite data is performed for whole catchment of a small river. The results show significant increase of urban areas close to the river. The second analyses deals with the determination of river curvature and introduces the use of a quasi-continuously representation of the river. An additional challenge is the chosen study area of a low mountain range river. While large rivers are clear visible in remote sensing data, the usability and transformation of the well-established algorithms and work flows to small rivers need a further substantial research.

  13. Analysis of models assessing the radionuclide migration from catchments to water bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Monte, L.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the analysis of models for assessing the migration of radioactive substances from catchments to water bodies was carried out. Comparisons are made between the mathematical form of the experimental dissolved radionuclide transfer functions (Transfer Function = the amount of radionuclide flowing per unit time from upstream drainage basin to a water body following a single-pulse deposition of radioactive substance) evaluated for rivers in Europe contaminated after the Chernobyl accident, with the {open_quotes}Green Functions{close_quotes} (Green Function = the radionuclide flow per unit time from catchment to water body calculated by the model as a result of a single-pulse input deposition) characterizing some of the most common models. Generally transfer functions are the sum of some time-dependent exponential components. The analysis showed that two main components (a short-term and a long-term component) may be detected over a period of only a few years after the accident. The comparison of transfer functions and Green functions showed that (1) models based on the traditional concept of k{sub d} (the radionuclide partition coefficient soil-water) do not explain the higher value of the experimental long-term effective-decay constant for {sup 137}Cs compared with {sup 90}Sr; and (2) traditional models do not explain the nonlinear dependence of the flux (Bq s{sup -1}) of dissolved {sup 90}Sr migrating through a catchment as a function of the water flux. A semi-empirical model was developed to give reason for the above effects. This model is based on phenomena of water saturation in different soil layers and on the nonreversible processes responsible for the non-availability to migration of radionuclides. 12 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Comparison of total body chlorine, potassium, and water measurements in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Borovnicar, D J; Stroud, D B; Bines, J E; Haslam, R H; Strauss, B J

    2000-01-01

    Symptoms of cystic fibrosis (CF) may limit the utility of total body chlorine (TBCl) and total body potassium (TBK) measurements for assessing body fluid compartments of children. This study assessed relations among independent measurements of TBCl, TBK, and total body water (TBW) in children with CF. We compared cross-sectional measurements of TBCl by in vivo neutron activation analysis, TBK by whole-body counting of (40)K, TBW by D(2)O dilution [TBW(D(2)O)], and TBW from TBCl and TBK [TBW(Cl + K)] in 19 prepubertal children (13 boys) aged 7.6-12.5 y who had mild symptoms of CF. Body-composition measurements were compared with data from previous studies of healthy children. Subjects with CF had deficits in TBCl, TBK, TBW, and body weight compared with control reference data (P < 0.05). The ratios (TBCl + TBK)/TBW and TBCl/TBK were not significantly different from control reference values, and plasma chlorine and potassium concentrations were within control reference ranges. The sum of TBCl and TBK correlated with TBW(D(2)O) (r(2) = 0.79, P < 0.001), and TBW(Cl + K) correlated with TBW(D(2)O) (r(2) = 0.78, P < 0.001). TBW(Cl + K) was similar to TBW(D(2)O) (mean +/- SEM: 19.0 +/- 0.5 compared with 19.4 +/- 0.5 L; NS). Prepubertal children with mild symptoms of CF can develop deficits in TBCl, TBK, and TBW that reflect chronic energy malnutrition. Mild symptoms of CF do not appear to affect normal relations among TBCl, TBK, and TBW. Measurements of TBCl and TBK may be used to assess body fluid compartments in these patients.

  15. Contraception in the prepill era.

    PubMed

    Connell, E B

    1999-01-01

    Although medical history has documented the desire to control fertility since ancient times, safe and effective contraception did not exist until this century and has not been equally available to all people. Strong moral sentiments, economic and social class factors, religious beliefs, familial and gender relations, and political as well as legal constraints have often limited the ability of physicians in favor of contraception to provide advice and methods of birth control to their patients. By the early 1900s, a constellation of factors--in particular, the large influx of poor immigrants, and feminist groups advocating women's rights--helped to move forward a birth-control movement in this country and abroad. In the early 20th century, Margaret Sanger became one of the most avid proponents of contraception in the United States. By 1950, she and Katharine McCormick had contracted with biologist Gregory Pincus to develop an effective birth control pill. A collaborative effort by Pincus and other researchers led to trials of the pill in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and Mexico between 1956 and 1957, which provided the basis for an application to the Food and Drug Administration for approval of the first oral contraceptive.

  16. Contraception and the Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennoy, Ilene

    1989-01-01

    Data from a study of 11 teenage diabetics suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than among the general population, at a time when diabetic control is poor because of psychosocial factors associated with adolescence. Current recommendations regarding contraception for diabetic women, focusing on barrier methods, are…

  17. Contraceptive vaginal rings: a review.

    PubMed

    Brache, Vivian; Faundes, Anibal

    2010-11-01

    Development efforts on contraceptive vaginal rings were initiated over 40 years ago based on two principles: the capacity of the vaginal epithelium to absorb steroids and the capacity of elastomers to release these hormones at a nearly constant rate. Numerous models of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) have been studied, but only two have reached the market: NuvaRing, a combined ring that releases etonogestrel (ENG) and ethinylestradiol (EE), and Progering, a progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar to or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user's ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good