Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...
Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...
... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...
... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...
Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos
Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.
Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...
McIntyre, G T
Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.
Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L
A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.
Niemiec, Brook A
Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.
Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H
The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.
Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya
Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438
Albretsen, Jay C
Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.
Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.
The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197
Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B
Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.
Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H
Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.
Maclennan, A H
Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen
... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...
Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...
Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.
Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario
The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.
The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.
Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K
Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.
Cottrell, June, Ed.
This speech communication curriculum guide is designed to provide a comprehensive oral language curriculum, to suggest ways for integrating oral activities into other curriculum areas, and to stimulate ideas for using oral language in a holistic rather than a fragmentary learning environment. Following an introductory chapter on "creating the…
Moon, W. Jay
A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…
... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...
Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R
Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.
Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944
PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky
Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585
López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric
We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies.
Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M
During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.
Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara
Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.
Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S
Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.
Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi
Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.
Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.
Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399
Troiano, Claire A.
An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…
Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole
Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.
Mousa, G Y
Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.
Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S
The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.
Burkman, R T
During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.
... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...
As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…
Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.
Swithers, S E; Hall, W G
Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The diminished responsiveness is specific to the flavor of the stimulus experienced orally and can persist for several hours. We suggest that this experience-based decrement in responsiveness is best considered "oral habituation" and that oral habituation largely accounts for the onset of satiety. Post-ingestive feedback signals may have their influence through the oral habituation process or act in the context of oral habituation. Oral habituation is also shown to depend on the pattern of stimulus presentation, a phenomenon that adds considerable complexity to assessing the contributions of oral experience to satiety. The concept of oral habituation may be useful in understanding the immediate control of ingestion and the moment-to-moment expression of ingestive behavior in adult animals.
Moullan, M; Denis, F
Mental health is an essential component of general health. Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental illness that affects higher brain functions. It is characterized by the presence of a mental dissociation, dampened or inappropriate affects, hallucinations and delirium. Schizophrenia has also a negative impact on oral health. As schizophrenia affects 1% of the population, every practitioner concerned with oral sphere will be confronted one day or another with a patient suffering from this disease. It is therefore important to acquire essential notions. The aim of our work was to make an update about factors that may affect oral health in patients with schizophrenia.
Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil
ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934
Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K
The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.
The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927
Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...
Albuterol is used to prevent and treat difficulty breathing, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness ... for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, ...
... the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . See the following PDQ summaries for more information ...
Ipratropium oral inhalation is used to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness in people ... damage to the air sacs in the lungs). Ipratropium is in a class of medications called bronchodilators. ...
... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...
... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...
Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo
The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.
Noyer, C M; Simon, D
This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.
Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel
The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.
McCann, A L; Bonci, L
Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.
Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B
Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.
Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G
A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.
Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.
Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887
Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M
Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.
Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay
While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106
Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.
Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona
Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606
Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N
Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.
Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.
Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.
Lommer, Milinda J
The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.
Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan
Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429
Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R
Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.
Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B
A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.
Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro
Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.
Journal of Dental Education, 1987
Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)
Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen
Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…
Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…
On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.
NEY, JAMES W.
ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…
Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A
Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.
Fresno County Dept. of Education, Fresno, CA.
An oral language continuum designed to help elementary students develop techniques for a variety of speech situations, learn to listen, and learn to be aware of the responsibility of the speaker is presented. The continuum is divided into four sections. Student needs, implications for teaching, and suggested activities are arranged sequentially.…
Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team
Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (email@example.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.
Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Garcia, David A
After the introduction of warfarin, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment remained unchanged for more than 50 years. Most recently, with the development and approval of new oral anticoagulants, the treatment of medical conditions that require thrombosis prophylaxis and long-term anticoagulation has become more complex. In the case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention after orthopedic surgery, the new oral agents will be less costly than the parenteral alternative. In other settings (such as atrial fibrillation or treatment of acute VTE), the new agents will offer additional convenience at higher cost, but the degree to which they will reduce clinically important events such as thrombosis or bleeding will be limited, especially for patients on optimally controlled warfarin. As the use of the new oral anticoagulants becomes more widespread, it will be important for all clinicians to have a basic understanding of their pharmacology, advantages, and limitations. Although the need to measure or reverse the effect of these drugs will arise infrequently, clinicians--especially hematologists--will desire evidence-based recommendations about how to manage such scenarios, which will require research studies.
Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero
Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269
Petty, Walter T., Ed.
This collection of six articles on oral language is a product of the cooperative efforts of the National Conference on Research in English, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the International Reading Association, the Association for Childhood Education International, and the National Council of Teachers of English. It is…
One Feather, Vivian
Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…
DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V
With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution
Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh
Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420
Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier
Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.
Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.
This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…
Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A
BACKGROUND.: The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing METHODS.: A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ;;oral and perioral, piercing , ;;oral, piercing and disease", ;;recessions and oral piercing . It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series RESULTS.: A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. CONCLUSION.: Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS.: Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.
Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi
Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377
Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Vianna, Leonora; Sobreira, Maria Nazareth; de Araújo, Flavio Nader Gross; de Melo, Nilce Santos
Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are rare. However, bone and tooth resorption may be the result of chronic inflammation and the presence of osteoclastic cells surrounding the oxalate crystal deposit. A deposit of calcium oxalate in the periodontium was identified in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Dental radiographs indicated bone loss and external tooth resorption. Radiolucent image in the inferior incisor region was observed and removed. The tissue showed granulomatous inflammation with foreign body reaction and associated crystalline deposits. When viewed in polarized light, these deposits are green and presented a birefringent aspect, which were interpreted as calcium oxalate crystals compatible with oxaluria. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are of particular interest because of the unusual location of the oxalate crystal deposition, resulting in aggressive tooth resorption and alveolar bone loss, which may be misdiagnosed.
Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim
Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079
Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.
Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713
Kay, N J
A double-blind triple cross-over trial was designed for 21 patients suffering from tinnitus; mexiletine, diazapam, betahistine and placebo were taken each for a month sequentially during which time the patients recorded their tinnitus loudness subjectively on a visual analogue scale. The results showed that these medications did not influence the tinnitus loudness. Since mexiletine is an oral analogue of lignocaine and a cardiovascular drug, any untoward cardiovascular history and clinical finding disqualified such patients from the trial. Twenty-one such patients were rejected from an original group of 42 patients. In a volunteer trial mexiletine unrelated to this, it was reported that a vasovagal attack was suffered by someone who had just consumed 400 mg mexiletine orally. After ethical considerations the tinnitus trial was stopped. Eleven patients completed the cycle of medications, 10 did not. The dangers of using a cardiovascular drug for a non-cardiovascular condition is thus exposed.
Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund
The indications of lasers in oral surgery are defined by the laser-tissue interaction types. These are mainly thermal effects depending especially on the absorption of laser light in varying biological tissues. In histological sections different laser effects are demonstrated on oral mucosa, bone and cartilage, which have a great influence on wound healing and subsequently on clinical indications of the different wavelengths. On the one hand the good coagulation effect of the Nd:YAG laser is wanted for hemostasis in soft tissue surgery. On the other hand, for the treatment of precancerous dysplasias or neoplasias an effective cutting with a coagulation effect like using the CO2 laser is necessary. However, the excision of benign mucosal lesions as well as performing osteotomies or shaping of cartilage should be undertaken with the Er:YAG laser without greater coagulation and consequently without any delay of wound healing.
Gennaro, Susan; Naidoo, Sudeshi; Berthold, Peter
Oral lesions are common in women and children with HIV/AIDS and may decrease the overall quality of life in these patients because of pain, dry mouth, and difficulty in eating. An oral cavity screening is an easy, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive procedure that provides nurses with invaluable information about the need for referral, treatment, and health education. Nurses can use the information obtained from a careful oral screening to decrease the symptoms experienced with oral lesions and optimize a patient's ability to chew and enjoy food. Common oral manifestations of HIV infection include fungal, viral, and bacterial infections, although neoplasms, periodontal disease, salivary gland disease, and lesions of uncertain origin are also seen. Oral lesions such as candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpetic ulcers, and Kaposi's sarcoma are often among the first symptoms of HIV infection.
Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.
An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174
O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M
The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.
Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G
Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.
Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.
Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.
Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla
Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.
Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C
Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes
Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.
Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes
Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro
Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578
Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Davarian, Shieva; Crimmins, Eileen
Background/purpose Previous studies have shown the relationship between individual oral health conditions and mortality; however, the relationship between mortality and multiple oral health conditions has not been examined. This study investigates the link between individual oral health problems and oral comorbidity and mortality risk. Materials and methods Data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, which is linked to the National Death Index for mortality follow-up through 2006. We estimated the risk of mortality among people with three individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontitis as well as with oral comorbidity—or having all three conditions. Results Significant tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease were associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between oral health conditions and mortality disappeared when controlling for sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral indicators. Having multiple oral health problems was associated with an even higher rate of mortality. Conclusion Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying. PMID:24416472
Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S
In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440
Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.
Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659
Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok
Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458
Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent
Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229
Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F
Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.
Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya
Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) is an intermediate malignant potential vascular neoplasm with uncertain clinical behavior, wide variations in microscopic findings, and prognosis. According to the World Health Organization (2002) classification, epithelioid HE has been considered under malignant tumors which rarely metastasize. The epithelioid variant, the most aggressive one, has similar gender predilection and sporadic occurrence in children. The patients usually present with an asymptomatic oral mass whereas few cases may report with the painful bleeding lesion. We attempt to present a case in an adolescent male with previously never described biological behavior, diverse histopathological features, and immunohistochemistry findings. PMID:26681871
Harris, Lydia; Staines, Konrad; Pring, Miranda
Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is a key for the correct management of this lesion. Excision of this lesion is curative. PMID:25819830
Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.
Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel
The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.
Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil
The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.
Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda
Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care.
Bagán, Jose V.
Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102
Boulanger, C.; And Others
The contrast between written language and oral language did not really begin to attract attention until second language teaching defined as its goal the acquisition of a communicative tool rather than a literary tool. This focus on communication made necessary the distinction between language used for oral communication and language used for…
Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi
The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma.
Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L
Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity.
Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.
Ong, Walter J.
Points out the importance of orality in past centuries and in some contemporary cultures (including that of the black urban ghetto); discusses the problems in moving from oral expression to writing; and notes contrasts between primary orality, writing and printing, and secondary orality--the orality induced by radio and television. (GW)
Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith
The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…
Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M
Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).
Hieke, Adolf E.
It is proposed that a speech-dynamic analysis of oral fluency phenomena serves best to highlight the nondiscrete nature of the sound stream and to capture English syllable structure. Some current concepts and practices in oral testing are criticized, and previously neglected evidence concerning temporal variables in speech, automatic speech…
Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove
Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)
... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon H. Northover v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No... hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No....
Lowe, Pardee, Jr.
This booklet describes the test used by the federal government to determine oral proficiency in a foreign language. The test is essentially an oral interview, conducted by two testers, and lasting from 15 to 30 minutes, although the format can vary. Proficiency levels range from 0 (for no practical speaking proficiency) to 5 (for speaking…
Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing
The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566
Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P
This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.
Scully, Crispian; Mignogna, Michele
Pemphigus defines a group of rare mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases of which pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is the most common. The aetiology and pathogenesis of PV are not completely clear, but there is a fairly strong genetic background: ethnic groups such as Ashkenazi Jews and people of Mediterranean and Indian origin are particularly susceptible and there is a link to HLA class II alleles. The initiating event in PV is not clear, but circulating IgG autoantibodies develop, directed particularly against the intercellular cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in desmosomes of stratified squamous epithelium. Oral lesions often herald the disease and are initially vesiculobullous, but they rupture readily to leave ulcers. Involvement of other mucosa and skin is almost inevitable and PV is potentially life threatening. The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy with histological examination and immunostaining. Management is largely by systemic immunosuppression with corticosteroids, usually azathioprine or other agents, but newer treatments with potentially fewer adverse effects look promising.
Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.
Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696
Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim
Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.
Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M
Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.
Oral health is often not a priority during cancer treatment; however, patients with cancer are at increased risk for oral complications during and after treatment. This article focuses on the importance of oral health care before, during, and after cancer treatment using the head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach. AT A GLANCE: Oral health is linked to overall health, and healthcare providers must be cognizant of the oral-systemic connection with patients undergoing cancer treatment, which may cause acute and chronic oral health problems. Oral assessment, prevention, early recognition, and treatment of oral problems must be incorporated into cancer care, particularly with the aid of an interprofessional team to meet patients' oral care needs. The head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach integrates oral care into patients' history taking, physical examination, and plan of cancer care. .
Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud
Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.
... desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral Health Important for ... changing. Reviewed: January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Women's Oral Health Burning Mouth Syndrome in Middle-aged ...
Ong, Walter J.
Treats orality and literacy in two ways: (1) examines the ubiquitous problem of moving from oral expression to writing, and (2) considers briefly the new, secondary orality that surrounds viewers on radio and television. (JMF)
Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128
Lauterslager, Tosca G M; Hilgers, Luuk A T
To evaluate whether vaccine administration via intragastric gavage is indicative for the outcome of edible vaccines, mice were orally immunised with ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with or without Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in various compositions via various routes: (1) OVA dissolved in saline and intragastrically (IG) administered ('IG'); (2) OVA mixed with food extract and administered IG ('food IG'); (3) food chow absorbed with OVA dissolved in saline and fed to the animals ('food'); and (4) OVA dissolved in saline and administered via drinking bottles ('drinking'). When given to naive mice, 'IG' and 'food IG' but not 'food' or 'drinking' induced anti-OVA IgG1 responses in serum, but oral boost immunisations were necessary. Serum IgA was not induced. Oral boosting of subcutaneously (SC) primed mice enhanced the IgG1 and IgA response in serum regardless of the route of immunisation or the vaccine composition. CT did not dramatically enhance the immune response. All immunisation routes except 'drinking' induced antigen-specific IgA antibody secreting cells (ASC) in the lamina propria of naive mice. But antigen-specific antibody responses in faeces were not observed. We concluded that oral (i.e. IG) administration is distinct from oral intake. The composition of the vaccine (food or saline) did not influence oral administration. We thus suggested that the route of administration greatly influenced the outcome of oral immunisation. Although oral administration is a well-accepted route to test the potentials of oral vaccines, our study demonstrated that it is merely indicative for the effectiveness of edible vaccines. Studies on the feasibility of edible vaccines should thus be performed by eating the vaccine.
Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V
The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.
Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V
The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966
Feller, Liviu; Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Jadwat, Yusuf; Lemmer, Johan
The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis.There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease.In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation.
Kamenczak, A; Pokorska, M; Wołek, E; Kobyłecka, K
Zinc vapour poisoning by inhalation in the form of zinc fever is more frequent than oral zinc product poisoning, the product used in therapy. The main aim of the study was the evaluation of clinical manifestation present after Zincteral ingestion as well as attempt to find the relationship between the presence and aggravation of the clinical manifestation and zinc level in the blood. The course of acute clinical suicidal poisoning by ingestion of Zincteral 50 tablets (10.0 g) and 100 tablets (20.0 g) is presented. The clinical picture revealed the following symptoms and signs: tachycardia, changes of arterial BP, vascular shock; dyspeptic nausea, vomiting cramps in abdominal region, diarrhoea. Damage of the parenchymatous organs, mainly liver was evident. In pregnant woman (9-week-pregnancy) on the 12-th day of her stay in the Clinic complete miscarriage took place accompanied by haemorrhage from reproductive organs. The kind and exacerbation of the clinical manifestations in relation to the zinc level in body fluid were analysed.
Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.
It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756
Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R
A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.
Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle
Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446
Grande, M; Milano, V; Desiate, A; Martinelli, A; Iaffaldano, B
This paper deals with the oral manifestations observed in patients with haemolymphopathies and oral complications associated with systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We report the percentage of oral manifestations observed in 30 patients treated with cytotoxic drugs for malignant haemolymphopathies or other tumors after 2-4 cycles of systemic combinations chemotherapy. No sex or age differences were recorded except for abnormalities of taste present only in 13% treated patients older than 50. Stomatitis was more frequent in patients with malignant haemolymphopathies than in patient with other neoplastic diseases, probably due to the fact that in the former group neutropenia and thrombocytopenia induced by bone marrow infiltration or by more aggressive combination chemotherapy are most frequent. An oral care protocol for these patients is suggested.
... to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates ... for information about oral health programs in my area? The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors ( ...
Ivanhoe, J R; Attanasio, R
Many patients with upper airway sleep disorders can be successfully treated with oral appliance therapy. It is necessary for dentists to recognize these patients and refer them to a physician for further evaluation. Dentists must not become the primary care providers for these patients or attempt to treat a medical problem with an oral appliance without a proper diagnosis, which usually requires a sleep study and can only be diagnosed by a physician. Dentists must also be able to treat the patients referred by physicians and to follow accepted procedures when fabricating, inserting, titrating, and providing follow-up care for oral appliance therapy. In addition, the dental community needs to continue to heighten the awareness in their local medical community and in their patient population as to the possible contribution of oral appliance therapy to the management of snoring and some of the sleep-related breathing disorders.
... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...
Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D
Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control.
... and ill-fitting or loose dentures. Effects of Osteoporosis Treatments on Oral Health It is not known ... Resources For more information on osteoporosis, visit: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: ...
... Annual Meeting New Orleans, LA April 21-25, 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline ... Annual Meeting New Orleans, LA April 21-25, 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Patient Resources Oral Medicine ...
This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...
Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…
Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin
Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862
Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M
Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.
Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan
Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0
Sanfilippo, J S
Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development
Edgren, R A
Concerns over the safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) have led to numerous empirical studies of the relationship of OC use to normal pregnancy outcomes, pituitary effects, cardiovascular accidents, and cancer. The article reviews some of the results of studies on the effects of OC use on ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancer and on hepatic cancer and melanomas. Reference is made to direct study results rather than to reviews of studies, although it is noted that the critical reviews of Goldzieher and Realini reflect appropriate critiques of the validity of the methods employed in the analysis of cancers as well as cardiovascular risks. Concern is raised for meta-analysis of pooled data. In spite of the 30 years of research on OCs there is no definitive answer to the question of cause and effect. The epidemiological articles reviewed do not meet the standards of critical editorial review boards of experimental journals; confirmation of findings is also lacking. Studies suggesting increased risks as well as those showing positive benefits are questionable. The conclusion reached is that OCs protect against ovarian and uterine cancers and do not cause mammary, cervical, or liver cancer or melanoma. This conclusion is based on inconclusive data. The conclusion on hepatic cancer is that the 3 retrospective case control studies and anecdotal reports are flawed in design, and little confidence can be placed on such a limited number of cases. Malignant melanoma conclusions are that the data are inconsistent and hover around a risk of one for long-term OC-users. There is no increased risk related to OC-use. Ovarian cancer risk seems to be decreased in about 40% of OC-users. Endometrial cancer risk seems to be decreased, except for the sequential contraceptive Oracon which is associated with increased risk. Decreased risk is related to length of usage and continues after stoppage. Cervical carcinoma results appear to confirm the finding that prolonged OC use slightly
Drummer, Olaf H
Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing
Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia
Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions.
Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam
The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids.
Glaros, Alan G; Hanson, Anne H; Ryen, Chris C
This study tested the hypotheses that individuals with headaches would show significantly more oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls, be diagnosed with one or more temporomandibular disorders (TMD) significantly more frequently than controls, and would report significantly less pain and other symptoms of headache after participating in a habit reversal treatment to reduce oral parafunctional behaviors, compared to a wait list control. In Phase I, individuals with and without self-reported headaches were examined by a blinded examiner and participated in a week-long experience sampling protocol (ESM) to assess oral parafunctional behaviors, pain, and emotional states. In Phase II, those with headaches were randomly assigned to either a habit reversal treatment or to a wait list control group. In the last, sixth week of the program, participants again completed an ESM protocol. Results showed that headache patients were significantly more likely to report oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls and to receive a Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD diagnosis. Results from Phase II showed general improvement in both groups on pain and parafunctions. Individuals with headaches engage in significantly higher rates and intensities of oral parafunctional behaviors. Treatment of these behaviors using habit reversal techniques appears to have the same effect on pain as waiting.
González, Joaquín V; Gutiérrez, Rafael A; Keszler, Alicia; Colacino, Maria del Carmen; Alonio, Lidia V; Teyssie, Angelica R; Picconi, Maria Alejandra
Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.
Khudhur, Ahmed Salih; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Carrozzo, Marco
The concept of lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis was introduced in dermatology to define a number of diverse inflammatory skin diseases linked together by the presence of common histopathological features. Similarly to the skin, the oral mucosa is affected by a variety of oral lichenoid lesions. Oral LTRs (OLTRs) include: oral lichen planus; oral lichenoid contact lesion; oral lichenoid drug reaction; oral lichenoid lesions of graft-versus-host disease; oral discoid lupus erythematosus; oral lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus; erythema multiforme; paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome; chronic ulcerative stomatitis and lichen planus pemphigoid. Traditionally, diagnosis of OLTRs relies on clinical and histological correlation but in several instances this approach fails to provide a reliable diagnosis. Inclusion of molecular techniques may refine our ability to differentiate OLTRs.
De Smet, Rebecca; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A
Oral vaccination is the most challenging vaccination method due to the administration route. However, oral vaccination has socio-economic benefits and provides the possibility of stimulating both humoral and cellular immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Despite the advantages of oral vaccination, only a limited number of oral vaccines are currently approved for human use. During the last decade, extensive research regarding antigen-based oral vaccination methods have improved immunogenicity and induced desired immunological outcomes. Nevertheless, several factors such as the harsh gastro-intestinal environment and oral tolerance impede the clinical application of oral delivery systems. To date, human clinical trials investigating the efficacy of these systems are still lacking. This review addresses the rationale and key biological and physicochemical aspects of oral vaccine design and highlights the use of yeast-derived β-glucan microparticles as an oral vaccine delivery platform. PMID:24553259
Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.
Shearman, R P
The history of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been a progressive reduction in dosage to what is now probably the lowest does that is compatible with the desired therapeutic effect -- to inhibit ovluation. Yet, controversy and argument continue. A table lists the OCs that are available in Australia. Many of these preparations, although having different trade names, have an identical composition. Since the withdrawal of sequential OCs from the Australian market, there are only 2 generic types. These are the progestogen only (mini) OCs, which consist of either 30 mcg of levonorgestrel or 350 mcg of norethisterone given at the same time every day; and the combined OCs, which contain an estrogen and a progestogen. In the last 12 months, some of the older high-dose OCs have been withdrawn, and it seems likely that further withdrawals will follow. Only 2 estrogens are used in the formulation of the OC, but there is a greater variety of progestogens. Ethinyl estradiol is used in most preparations. A small minority of OCs contain mestranol, the 3-methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Currently, there are only 4 OC agents that are available in Australia that contain mestranol and 2 of these contain the high doses of 100 mcg. Fundamentally, there are 2 types of progestogens -- those that contain, or are metabolized to, norethisterone and those that contain norgestrel or its close relative, desogestrel. With the exception of the norgestrel group and desogestrel, all other progestins, including norethisterone itself, are effective in vivo after they have been metablized to norethisterone. Mestranol is effective in humans after demethylation to ethinyl estradiol. In the norgesterel group, since d-norgestrel is inert endocrinologically, 250 mcg of levonorgestrel and 500 mcg of dl-norgestrel are equivalent. Levonorgestrel and desogestrel are of approximately equal potency. With the combined OC agents, the overwhelming mechanism of action is by the inhibition of the
Mota-Ramírez, Amparo; Silvestre, Francisco Javier; Simó, Juan Manuel
The conclusions drawn from the study of an oral biopsy are considered essential for the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the oral mucosa, and for the subsequent planning of appropriate treatment. Although the obtainment of biopsies is widely used in all medical fields, the practice is not so widespread in dental practice--fundamentally because of a lack of awareness of the procedure among dental professionals. In this context, it must be taken into account that the early diagnosis of invasive oral malignancy may be critical for improving the patient prognosis. However, in some cases the results are adversely affected by incorrect manipulation of the biopsy material. The present study provides an update on the different biopsy sampling techniques and their application. Such familiarization in turn will contribute to knowledge of the material and instruments required for correct biopsy performance in dentistry, as well as of the material required for correct sample storage and transport.
Land, Michael H.; Kim, Edwin H.; Burks, A. Wesley
Synopsis Over the past 20 years, food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem primarily in developed countries. An explanation for this increased prevalence is currently under investigation as it is not well understood. Allergic reactions can result in life threatening anaphylaxis over a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a rescue therapy rather than a disease modifying treatment. In recent years, investigators have been studying allergen immunotherapy as a way to promote induction of oral tolerance. These efforts have shown some promise towards a viable disease modifying therapy for food allergies. This review will examine the mechanisms of oral tolerance and the breakdown that leads to food allergy, as well as the history and current state of oral and sublingual immunotherapy development. PMID:21530825
Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222
Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A
Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.
Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.
Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G
Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis.
Kumar, Purnima S
It is well known that bacteria are the primary cause of infectious diseases, however, evidence is emerging that these organisms are also indirectly responsible for several diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The oral cavity is home to several million bacteria that can cause two major diseases-periodontitis and caries. The relationship between periodontopathic bacteria and systemic diseases has been explored for several years. The concept of the oral cavity as a source of distant infection has been debated for at least a century. This review will discuss the historic aspects of the development of the focal infection theory, the reasons for its demise, its re-emergence and current status.
Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen
Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613
Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F
Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.
Student testing in Japan is not effectively used. In many cases test results are used only for ranking and sorting students into whatever the designated purposes of the tests are. They are not focused on monitoring individual student progress. This is an especially inadequate approach for teaching oral communications courses. This paper proposes a…
Resnick, L; Herbst, J S; Ablashi, D V; Atherton, S; Frank, B; Rosen, L; Horwitz, S N
To define the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of oral hairy leukoplakia, 13 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men with clinical and histologic evidence of oral hairy leukoplakia were enrolled in an open-label trial of orally administered acyclovir therapy (3.2 g/d for 20 days). Of six patients who received therapy, five exhibited clinical regression. Once therapy was discontinued, recurrences occurred in all responders. Among seven patients who refused therapy, no spontaneous remissions occurred. Before therapy, EBV replication within the leukoplakia was demonstrated by immunofluorescence tissue staining or electron microscopy in five patients who were studied. Human papillomavirus was not detected by immunocytochemistry or electron microscopy from tissue specimens of six patients. After therapy, biopsy specimens from two patients with complete responses revealed a normalization of histologic abnormalities and an inability to detect EBV in previously involved mucosa by immunofluorescence or in situ DNA hybridization assays. It was concluded that EBV replication within the epithelial cells of the tongue is necessary for the development of oral hairy leukoplakia.
Journal of Dental Education, 1985
The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and…
Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min
Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi
This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160
Friedman, Paul G.
Defining oral history as a method of inquiry by which the memories of individuals are elicited, preserved in interview transcripts or on tape recordings, and then used to enrich understanding of individuals' lives and the events in which they participated, this annotated bibliography provides a broad overview and a sampling of the resources…
Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh
Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination.
Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.
A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…
Berger, Andrew J.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Quivey, Robert G.
Raman spectroscopy has been employed to measure the varying concentrations of two oral bacteria in simple mixtures. Evaporated droplets of centrifuged mixtures of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans were analyzed via Raman microspectroscopy. The concentration of s. sanguis was determined based upon the measured Raman spectrum, using partial least squares cross-validation, with an r2 value of 0.98.
The present work is a Literature review about the Ecologycal Concepts that can be applied to the host-parasite relationship that generates in the oral cavity. These concepts let understand us, much of the phenomena presents in the mouth, that explain pathologies that affects organs and tissues of it, in its morphophysiological aspects.
Fiske, J; Hyland, K
Parkinson's disease is a relatively common, progressive, neurological disorder. Its key features of resting tremor, bradykinesia, akinesia, restricted mobility and postural instability militate against independence for daily living, mobility, good nutrition and oral health. The successful management of the disease requires a multi-disciplinary approach in which the dietician, speech therapist, nurse and dental staff are pivotal members of the care team.
Shashikumar, BM; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, MR
Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. PMID:24082207
Shashikumar, Bm; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, Mr
Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.
Havelock, Eric A.
Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…
Olivero, James L.
The Oral Language Program developed by the Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is intended to disseminate and implement strategies and materials which will improve the teaching of language skills to preschool and primary children with little or no facility in English. The first version of the program, known as Mark I, did not include…
Allen, W. Sidney
A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…
Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)
Carter, Cedric J.
The author briefly reviews the use of anticoagulants, describing the specific tests their use requires. These tests are usually performed in a specialized laboratory. The clinical implication of the laboratory's use of different prothrombin time systems is explained. Implications of the use of oral anticoagulants in family practice are discussed. PMID:21253057
Olivera-Fernandez, R; Fernandez-Ribeiro, F; Piñeiro-Corrales, G; Crespo-Diz, C
Introducción: Los tratamientos antineoplasicos orales presentan ventajas en cuanto a coste, comodidad y mejora potencial en la calidad de vida respecto al tratamiento endovenoso, pero es mas dificil controlar la adherencia y monitorizar los efectos adversos. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la adherencia real en pacientes con antineoplasicos orales en nuestro centro, analizar la influencia de las caracteristicas del paciente y del tratamiento, identificar motivos de no adherencia, oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica y evaluar la posible relacion adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Método: estudio prospectivo observacional de cuatro meses de duracion, en los pacientes con tratamiento antineoplasico oral dispensado desde la consulta de farmacia oncologica. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron: orden medica, historia clinica y visita con entrevistas al paciente. Resultados: Se evaluaron un total de 141 pacientes. Un 72% se considero totalmente adherente, mientras que en un 28% se detecto algun tipo de no adherencia. El tiempo desde el diagnostico y la presencia de efectos adversos fueron las variables que afectaron a la adherencia. No se pudo demostrar relacion entre adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Conclusiones: La adherencia al tratamiento antineoplasico oral en nuestro centro fue del 72%, identificando oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica dirigidas a prevenir los efectos adversos y a potenciar la adherencia de nuestros pacientes.
This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…
Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.
Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458
Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L
Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities.
... Disease Medications Quick-Relief Medications Oral Steroids Oral Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...
Ritchie, Donald A.
Contends that the "historical detective work" of oral history helps students break free of their textbooks and become active collectors of information. Provides five recommendations, six teacher guidelines, and seven student guidelines for implementing oral history in the classroom. (CFR)
... facial and oral disfigurement following surgery and even death. More than 8,000 people die each year from oral and pharyngeal diseases. If you use tobacco, it is important to see a dentist frequently ...
Giannini, Peter J; Shetty, Kishore V
Oral candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in both the immunocompetent and the immunocompromised populations. This article reviews the clinical presentations of the different forms of oral candidiasis, as well as the diagnosis and management.
Cameron, Jack R.
Proposes a greater emphasis on the oral expression of literature in English classrooms and English teacher education curricula. Examines the three main oral problems encountered by students--persona, emphasis, and pace. (RL)
Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam
Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068
Mason, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Starr, Louis M., Ed.
This book is a catalog of the contents of the oral history collection at Columbia University. Entries are listed alphabetically by the person or group making the oral history recordings. Each entry includes the subject's full name and vocation, brief notes on the content of the oral recording, and an indication of the accessibility of the…
Eijkman, M A J
George Washington, the first president of the United States of America, suffered for most of his life from continuous oral pain. Through letters, diaries, and other personal information from this president, much has become known concerning his oral problems and the level of oral healthcare in the United States in the mid and late 18th century.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property. Follow...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other..., emphasize, and/or clarify information related to an appeal. Oral presentations are to be conducted in...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or augment, written information. Use of oral presentations as a substitute for portions of a proposal can be...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals official shall be granted. The purpose of an oral presentation shall be to permit the appellant to...
Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena
Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…
The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…
... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...
... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...
Okafor, Clement A.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that oral literature, which is an aspect of the oral tradition, has functioned historically as a vital medium of moral and civic education in non-literate societies the world over. Through the ages, oral literature has performed this function by presenting its various genres as forms of entertainment…
Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J
Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.
Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna
Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).
Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna
Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610
Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge
A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.
Blanchard, Janice C.; Towe, Vivian; Donald, Stephanie
Abstract Research suggests that there are significant barriers to oral health care for many children in Washington, D.C. This article assesses the perspectives of Washington, D.C., stakeholders, including parents and providers, about the oral health of children, particularly those insured by Medicaid. The authors present qualitative data from focus groups with parents and providers, from an oral health forum with primary care medical and oral health clinicians and representatives from the D.C. government, and from a provider survey. The opinions captured here provide a snapshot of the challenges to improving access to oral care for D.C. children and suggest recommendations for doing so. PMID:28083291
Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E
Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.
Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan
Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains.
Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam
Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone.
Schwartz, Scott C
The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.
Kathpalia, Harsha; Phadke, Chetan
An oral pharmaceutical suspension has been one of the most favorable dosage forms for pediatric and geriatric patients or patients unable to tolerate solid dosage forms. The liquid form is preferred because of the ease of swallowing and flexibility in the administration of doses. This emerging area of suspensions as applied to the pharmaceutical field are discussed in the current article enlightening the vision of the readers towards pharmaceutical formulations including nanosuspensions, non-aqueous suspensions and modified release suspensions. The emphasis in the article focuses on the essential principles involved in the process of formation of different types of suspensions and their applications, since novel oral suspensions have potential to provide various strategy systems.
Filigheddu, Maria Teresa; Górgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José Manuel
Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is most frequently associated with a vectorial transmission. However, in recent years we have observed a significant increase in the oral transmission of the disease, associated mainly with the consumption of drinks made from fruit or other vegetables contaminated with triatomine faeces or secretions from infected mammals. After a latency period of 3 to 22 days after ingestion, the oral infection is characterized by more severe manifestations than those associated with vectorial transmission: prolonged fever, acute myocarditis with heart failure and, in some cases, meningoencephalitis. Mortality can reach up to 33% of those infected. The aim of this paper is to review this matter and to promote prevention practices.
Langer, A; Devanesan, M; Pelosi, M A
The estrogen and progestin in most oral contraceptives, regardless of amounts, can produce undesirable side effects in any woman. The convenience and effectiveness, however, make oral contraceptives an excellent birth control method for the correctly screened patient. The use of relatively small doses of estrogen combined with a progestin complementary to the estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic needs of the patient will reduce the risk of side effects. Above the 50 ug estrogen level there is significantly higher risk of pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, and cerebral thrombosis. Hypertension, depression and hepatic disorders are other potential side effects. Less serious complications are breakthrough bleeding, likely caused by low level estrogen dosage and amenorrhea. Progestogenic effects include sustained noncyclic weight gain and amenorrhea. Prescribing these agents necessitates adequate follow-up and willingness to alter the prescription.
Zhu, J F; Kaminski, M J; Pulitzer, D R; Hu, J; Thomas, H F
Psoriasis is a chronic, remitting and relapsing inflammatory skin disorder with a strong genetic predisposition. Psoriasis affects 1-3% of the world's population in their early lives representing a disabling condition with significant social and economic impact. Despite a great deal of research on the etiology and tissue destruction mechanisms, the disease is not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to provide current information from the literature with a special focus on oral manifestations. The major signs and symptoms presented in the oral environment of a psoriasis patient may include geographic tongue, fissure tongue, gingival and/or mucosal lesions. Inflammatory temporomandibular joint lesions have been reported in less than 5% of psoriasis patients. Multiple treatment strategies, be they topical or systemic, have been applied to these patients for symptom relief but not for cure.
Goto, Shunsuke; Yoshiya, Kunihiko; Kita, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Hideki; Fukagawa, Masafumi
Uremic toxins are associated with various disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease and it is difficult to remove some of these toxins by dialysis. Since some uremic toxins are generated by bacterial metabolites in the colon, oral adsorbents that interfere with the absorption of uremic toxins or their precursors are believed to prevent their accumulation in the body. AST-120 adsorbs various uremic retention solutes in the gastrointestinal system and has potential for providing clinical benefit. Sevelamer hydrochloride binds some harmful compounds in addition to phosphate and seems to have pleiotropic effects that include lowering serum LDL cholesterol levels and reduction of inflammation. The effect of sevelamer hydrochloride on indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol has been shown in an in vitro study; however, in vivo studies in mice or humans did not demonstrate this effect on protein-binding uremic toxins. Oral adsorbents are thus one of the important modalities in the treatment of uremic syndrome.
Lavelle, Ed C; O'Hagan, D T
The oral route is the ideal means of delivering prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, offering significant advantages over systemic delivery. Most notably, oral delivery is associated with simple administration and improved safety. In addition, unlike systemic immunisation, oral delivery can induce mucosal immune responses. However, the oral route of vaccine delivery is the most difficult because of the numerous barriers posed by the gastrointestinal tract. To facilitate effective immunisation with peptide and protein vaccines, antigens must be protected, uptake enhanced and the innate immune response activated. Numerous delivery systems and adjuvants have been evaluated for oral vaccine delivery, including live vectors, inert particles and bacterial toxins. Although developments in oral vaccines have been disappointing so far, in terms of the generation of products, the availability of a range of novel delivery systems offers much greater hope for the future development of improved oral vaccines.
Mawardi, Hani H; Al-Mohaya, Maha A; Treister, Nathaniel S
Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have helped in prolonging the survival rate for cancer patients. However, the patients who undergo treatment for cancer are potentially at high-risk for developing a number of oral complications, including oral mucositis, infections, hyposalivation, dental caries, and jaw osteonecrosis. Cancer survivors may remain at life-long risk of developing oral complications, and therefore require long-term dental follow-up, well after completion of cancer therapy. Patients should typically undergo thorough oral examination prior to initiation of therapy, during and after therapy to identify any active infection. In addition, and in order to maintain adequate oral health throughout treatment, patients should continue normal oral hygiene with tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning. The aim of this review is to discuss potential oral complications as a result of cancer therapy, and the certain precautions we should be aware of these patients.
Nagasawa, Herbert T; Goon, David J W; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Patterson, Steven E
A series of prodrugs of 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), the substrate for the enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate/cyanide sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) that converts cyanide to the nontoxic thiocyanate, which are highly effective cyanide antidotes, have been developed. These prodrugs of 3-MP are unique in being not only orally bioavailable, but may be administered up to an hour prior to cyanide as a prophylactic agent and are both rapid- or slow-acting when given parenterally.
Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali
The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384
... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: James C. Latham v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number DA-0353-10-0408-I-1; Ruby N. Turner v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number SF-0353-10... Service; MSPB Docket Number SF-0353-10-0329-I-1; Arleather Reaves v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB...
Giovannitti, J A
Patients frequently require conscious-sedation to achieve anxiety relief in the dental office. There are specific indications, contraindications, advantages, and disadvantages to each sedation modality. Selection of the appropriate anesthetic technique should be individualized for each patient. This paper reviews two important conscious-sedation modalities: oral premedication and nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation.Pertinent drugs are reviewed and recommendations are made for their use; current researches are presented and new areas for investigation are suggested.
SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656
Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M
To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis.
Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D
Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.
Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A; Almers, Lucy M; Cardwell, Chris R; Murray, Liam J; Abnet, Christian C
Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder.
Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R
Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness.
Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A.; Almers, Lucy M.; Cardwell, Chris R.; Murray, Liam J.; Abnet, Christian C.
Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder. PMID:28281559
Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester
The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms.
Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506
van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M
The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.
Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte
This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157
Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446
Xu, H; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A
The oral mycobiota is an important component of the oral microbiota that has only recently received increased attention. The diversity and complexity of the oral mycobiota in healthy humans is greater than any other body site. Dysbiotic imbalance of indigenous fungal communities in immunosuppressed hosts has been proposed to lead to oropharyngeal fungal infections. As in other body sites, to survive and thrive in the oral cavity fungi have to maintain mutually beneficial relationships with the resident bacterial microbiota and the host. Here we review our current understanding of the composition of the oral mycobiota and how it may be influenced by oral commensal bacteria and the host environment.
Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou
A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.
Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet
Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553
Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio
To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.
Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah
Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing
Girtan, Mihaela; Zurac, Sabina; Stăniceanu, Florica; Bastian, Alexandra; Popp, Cristiana; Nichita, Luciana; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina
Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic systemic disorders with major influences of the oral cavity microenvironment. Oral manifestations of diabetes are diverse; they are represented by candidose, lichen plan, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, salivary disorders, oral mucosa atrophy and rarely hypertrophy; a possible link between oral cancer and diabetes is suspected, both in animal models and humans. We report a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes with class I Kennedy edentation with mobile denture prosthesis; latter in the clinical follow-up, a hyperplasic lesion of the oral mucosa with p53 expression within the epithelial nuclei was identified, p53 being the more likely pathogenic pathway involved in diabetes-related oral cancer. The approach of this patient required multidisciplinary investigations and careful follow-up.
Allard, R H B; Bruers, J M M; Baart, J A
A representative survey amongst Dutch dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons showed that almost all of them indicated analgesics regularly. Thirty-five% of the dentists advised their patients in case of one or several tooth extractions to use analgesics. Forty-seven % of these dentists advised using the analgesics before the pain starts. After similar treatments, 89% of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons indicated analgesics and 73% advised taking the analgesic preventatively. Also in the case of other treatments oral and maxillofacial surgeons advised more often than dentists using analgesics preventatively. Dentists usually advised paracetamol and oral and maxillofacial surgeons a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Most dentists and all oral and maxillofacial surgeons thought that they had enough knowledge about the side-effects and interactions of analgesics. The majority of the dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons indicated that they would like to be updated on analgesia by post-graduate education occasionally
Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review oral health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and T2DM, oral health awareness is lacking among patients with diabetes and other health professionals. There is a need for the treating physician to be educated about the various oral manifestations of diabetes so that they can be diagnosed early and timely referrals to oral health specialists can be made. The established link between periodontitis and diabetes calls for an increased need to study ways to control both diseases, particularly among populations with health disparities and limited access to oral and health care. PMID:23531957
Reibel, Jesper; Kragelund, Camilla
The most common infections of the oral mucosa are those caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Candidosis occurs as pseudomembraneous, erythematous and hyperplastic types with varying symptoms from no to a burning sensation. Treatment most importantly includes elimination of any predisposing factors such as smoking, sub-optimal denture hygiene and hyposalivation. A primary HSV infection results in a life-long latent infection recurring in some infected persons either intraorally or on the lip. If treatment is indicated, topical or systemic aciclovir and related drugs can be used.
Vitezic, D; Pelcic, J Mrsic
Erectile dysfunction (ED) (impotence) is a widespread, age-related problem, which affects 52% of men between 40 and 70 years of age. It is classified as psychogenic, organic, or mixed psychogenic and organic. ED is not a problem only of men, because the relationship between partners can also be disturbed. Therefore, adequate treatment of ED is needed and the most convenient and simplest way is oral drug therapy. Sildenafil, phosphodiesterase-(PDE)-5-selective inhibitor has been the drug of choice for patients with ED since it has been launched in March 1998. The results of various studies have confirmed the efficacy of the drug in men with ED of various etiologies, as well as the positive effect of sildenafil on the quality of a partnership. The most frequent adverse effects documented with sildenafil usage are headache, flushes, dyspepsia, visual disturbances and nasal congestion/rhinitis. These adverse effects are dose-related, usually transient and mild, with low withdrawal rate. Several studies performed recently have shown that sildenafil is a safe and effective treatment of ED in patients with cardiovascular disease, who do not take nitrates or nitrate donors concomitantly. Other oral medications for ED include apomorphine, phentolamine, yohimbine, trazodone, testosterone and new PDE-5 inhibitors in Phase III clinical trials, such as vardenafil and tadalafil. It is obvious, according to recent data, that the concept of PDE-5 inhibition has a central position in oral pharmacotherapy of ED. However, larger clinical studies of efficacy and safety should be carried out using most of the other above-mentioned oral agents and these may also gain a place in the therapy of ED. There are no studies directly comparing sildenafil and other treatments of ED or assessing its role in combination with other therapies. According to the present knowledge, the quality of life, not only of patients but also of their sexual partners, will be improved significantly with
Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Kolarov, G; Novachkov, V; Ivanov, S
The authors review the effect of the oral contraceptive Mercilon on menstrual cycle, contraceptive efficacy, lipid profile, safety profile and adverse effects in a group of 32 women, included in the survey. The results of the trial show excellent contraceptive effect with Pearl Index of 0.00 and good control over the menstrual cycle. No negative or unfavorable effects were seen on the lipid profile as well as on the liver kidney and coangulant system function. Minor side effects were seen in only 5% of the patients.
This review article is based on the ingredients of my lecture titled "Desirable way for oral biomaterial research in the JPS - considering Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Summer School 2006" at the JPS Advanced Seminar which was held with the general assembly meeting at March 4, 2007. How we explore the desirable way for oral biomaterial research in Japan was discussed with referral of the contents and discussion in the summer school.
Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported. PMID:20066060
Glascoe, Alison; Brown, Ronald; Robinson, Grace; Hailu, Kassahun
The oral cavity is a part of the body. The health of the oral cavity affects the health of the entire body. This relationship is reciprocal, as the overall health of an individual will also affect the health of that individual's oral cavity. Periodontal disease is a common, chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. It has been proposed that periodontal disease is a risk factor for systemic diseases such as diabetes.
Andersson, P; Hallberg, I R; Lorefält, B; Unosson, M; Renvert, S
A combination of poor oral hygiene and dry mouth may be hazardous to the oral health status. However, systematic assessments in order to detect oral health problems are seldom performed in the nursing care of the elderly. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of oral health problems measured using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG) and to analyse associations between oral health problems and age, gender, living conditions, cohabitation, reason for admission, number of drugs, and functional and nutritional status. One registered nurse performed oral health assessments using ROAG in 161 newly admitted elderly patients in rehabilitation care. Oral health problems were found in 71% of the patients. Thirty per cent of these patients had between four and eight problems. Low saliva flow and problems related to lips were the most frequent oral health problems. Problems in oral health status were significantly associated with presence of respiratory diseases (problems with gums, lips, alterations on the tongue and mucous membranes), living in special accommodation (low saliva flow, problems with teeth/dentures and alterations on the tongue), being undernourished (alterations on the tongue and low saliva flow) and being a woman (low saliva flow). The highest Odds ratio (OR) was found in problems with gums in relation with prevalence of respiratory diseases (OR 8.9; confidence interval (CI) 2.8-27.8; P < 0.0005). This study indicates the importance of standardised oral health assessments in order to detect oral health problems which can otherwise be hidden when the patients are admitted to the hospital ward.
dental implant failures, denture stomatitis and oral yeast infections such as candidiasis. It is one of the most widely studied biofilm systems, yet...and free-floating forms. In the oral cavity, microbial biofilms including dental plaque, are involved in the pathogenesis of caries, periodontitis...award. B.1. Previously Approved Statement of Work Title: "Effect of Lactoferrin on Oral Biofilm Formation" Background: Dental emergencies
Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira
Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.
Neves, Ana Rita; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena
Even after a century, heparin is still the most effective anticoagulant available with few side effects. The poor oral absorption of heparins triggered the search for strategies to achieve oral bioavailability since this route has evident advantages over parenteral administration. Several approaches emerged, such as conjugation of heparins with bile acids and lipids, formulation with penetration enhancers, and encapsulation of heparins in micro and nanoparticles. Some of these strategies appear to have potential as good delivery systems to overcome heparin’s low oral bioavailability. Nevertheless, none have reached the market yet. Overall, this review aims to provide insights regarding the oral bioavailability of heparin. PMID:27367704
Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T
Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs.
Etheridge, Zac C; Schofield, Christopher; Prinsloo, Peter J J; Sturrock, Nigel D C
Hypocalcaemia due to hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy is a relatively common occurrence. Standard treatment is with oral calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy; lack of response to oral therapy is rare. Herein we describe a case of hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy in a patient with a complex medical history. We consider the potential causes in the context of calcium metabolism including: poor adherence, hungry bone syndrome, malabsorption, vitamin D resistance, bisphosphonate use and functional hypoparathyroidism secondary to magnesium deficiency. Malabsorption due to intestinal hurry was likely to be a contributory factor in this case and very large doses of oral therapy were required to avoid symptomatic hypocalcaemia.
Bagán-Sebastián, José V
Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762
Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth
Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients.
Wollina, Uwe; Verma, Shyam B; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Kishor
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. PMID:25914554
Manfredi, M; Polonelli, L; Aguirre-Urizar, J M; Carrozzo, M; McCullough, M J
Candida species (spp) are commensal yeast that can only instigate oral infection (oral candidosis - OC) when there is an underlying predisposing condition in the host. We investigated four controversial topics on OC: (i) How can a microbiological determination of OC be made as Candida spp. are commensal yeasts and not all of them form hyphae or pseudohyphae during infection? (ii) Is median rhomboid glossitis (MRG) a manifestation of candidal infection? (iii) Can candidal infection cause palate papillary hyperplasia (PPH)? (iv) What is the best therapeutic treatment for denture-associated erythematous stomatitis (DAES)? Results from extensive literature searches, including a systematic review, suggested the following: (i) the diagnosis of OC merely on the basis of the presence of yeasts is an oversimplification of a complex process. No convincing evidence of a single test or method better able to discriminate the transition from candidal saprophytism to pathogenicity has been reported in the literature; (ii-iii) conclusive evidence of a direct aetiopathogenic relationship between MRG and PPH and candidal infection has not been found; and (iv) only limited evidence is available for any DAES treatment, thus making it impossible to make strong therapeutic recommendations.
Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Krishna, Murali C.; Mitchell, James B.
Oxidative species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), are components of normal cellular metabolism and are required for intracellular processes as varied as proliferation, signal transduction, and apoptosis. In the situation of chronic oxidative stress, however, ROS contribute to various pathophysiologies and are involved in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. In head and neck cancers specifically, many common risk factors contribute to carcinogenesis via ROS-based mechanisms, including tobacco, areca quid, alcohol, and viruses. Given their widespread influence on the process of carcinogenesis, ROS and their related pathways are attractive targets for intervention. The effects of radiation therapy, a central component of treatment for nearly all head and neck cancers, can also be altered via interfering with oxidative pathways. These pathways are also relevant to the development of many benign oral diseases. In this review, we outline how ROS contribute to pathophysiology with a focus toward head and neck cancers and benign oral diseases, describing potential targets and pathways for intervention that exploit the role of oxidative species in these pathologic processes. PMID:25417961
Edelstein, Burton L.
The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being. Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease, that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development of preeclampsia, and delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal oral flora is transmitted to the newborn infant, and increased cariogenic flora in the mother predisposes the infant to the development of caries. It is intriguing to consider preconception, pregnancy, or intrapartum treatment of oral health conditions as a mechanism to improve women's oral and general health, pregnancy outcomes, and their children's dental health. However, given the relationship between oral health and general health, oral health care should be a goal in its own right for all individuals. Regardless of the potential for improved oral health to improve pregnancy outcomes, public policies that support comprehensive dental services for vulnerable women of childbearing age should be expanded so that their own oral and general health is safeguarded and their children's risk of caries is reduced. Oral health promotion should include education of women and their health care providers ways to prevent oral disease from occurring, and referral for dental services when disease is present. PMID:16816998
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity for oral presentation. 8.27 Section 8... Opportunity for oral presentation. (a) Electing oral presentation. If an opportunity for an oral presentation... the decisionmaking process will be substantially aided by oral presentations and arguments....
Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121
Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.
Hale, Laura P; Fitzhugh, David J; Staats, Herman F
Bromelain is a natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes derived from pineapple stem that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity when administered orally. Although most proteins given orally without adjuvant (e.g., food) result in tolerance, we previously reported that long-term oral exposure to bromelain stimulated the development of high serum anti-bromelain antibody titers. The purpose of these studies was to further investigate the mechanisms responsible for the immunogenicity of oral bromelain. Results showed that repeated exposure was required for development of anti-bromelain antibodies, with strong antibody responses in all mice that received at least 12 doses of bromelain either orally or intragastrically over 3-6 weeks. Proteolytic activity was required for strong oral immunogenicity in the absence of conventional adjuvant, with strong serum antibody responses generated against proteolytically active bromelain and trypsin, but not against ovalbumin, lysozyme, or inactivated bromelain. Significantly higher anti-bromelain antibody titers were seen in IL-10-deficient versus wild-type mice, suggesting that simultaneous treatments that decrease IL-10 activity may further enhance systemic antibody responses following oral exposure. The antibodies generated did not affect the proteolytic activity of bromelain. The data demonstrate that proteolytically active antigens such as bromelain can stimulate both systemic and mucosal immune responses following repeated oral exposure. Further studies of the mechanisms involved in generation of immune responses following oral exposure to proteolytically active antigens can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of oral tolerance and to the development of novel adjuvants for oral vaccines.
Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti
Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study. Results: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable. PMID:26430364
Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668
Quigley, Brooke L.
To address concerns that college students do not develop adequate oral communication skills, guidelines are offered to faculty for designing oral presentation assignments within their courses, developing grading criteria, guiding students in their preparation for speaking, and addressing some of the unique challenges of this process, which include…
Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Macías, Berenice; Paredes-Farrera, Fernando; Hernández, Marco A; Araiza, Javier; Ponce, Rosa M
Oral geotrichosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Geotrichum candidum, a habitual contaminant and component of the flora of various parts of the body. This communication reports both a 20-year retrospective study of clinically and mycologically proven cases of oral geotrichosis, and a prospective study of fungal oral flora in 200 individuals divided into two groups: normal individuals and individuals with associated conditions. Twelve patients with proven oral geotrichosis were included: 9 females and 3 males, with a mean age of 48.5 years; the associated conditions were diabetes mellitus (66.6%), leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and HIV/AIDS infection. The oral geotrichoses showed three clinical varieties: pseudomembranous (75%), hyperplastic, and palatine ulcer. G. candidum was isolated in 11 cases and G. capitatum in one. Positive fungal cultures were obtained from the two groups, and 48% and 78% of cultures were positive, respectively, for Candida spp. In 2.8% and 6.33% of the cases, G. candidum was isolated, respectively, together with one strain of G. capitatum. Oral geotrichosis is an exceptional infection that clinically presents, and is treated, as oral candidiasis. G. candidum may be isolated from the oral flora of a small proportion of patients, either normal individuals or those with associated conditions.
... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section....713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of FinCEN or his designee will not issue administrative..., the Internal Revenue Service, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, or any other...
Brady, Mary Ella; And Others
A self-instructional program for use by teachers of the handicapped, this training manual was developed to teach accurate coding with the Oral Reading Observation System (OROS)an observation system designed to code teacher-pupil verbal interaction during oral reading instruction. The body of the manual is organized to correspond to the nine…
Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.
This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…
... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Rules of... to the ASC. That letter shall include the reasons why an oral presentation is necessary. (c)...
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a)...
Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.
In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…
... clinical abnormalities, gross lesions, identified target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality... (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2650 Oral toxicity. (a) Purpose. In... testing. The subchronic oral study has been designed to permit the determination of the...
... clinical abnormalities, gross lesions, identified target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality... (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2650 Oral toxicity. (a) Purpose. In... testing. The subchronic oral study has been designed to permit the determination of the...
... information into the resultant contract; (3) The impact on the efficiency of the acquisition; and (4) The impact (including cost) on small businesses. In considering the costs of oral presentations, contracting... information to be presented orally and the associated evaluation factors that will be used; (2)...
Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi
This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…
Hahn, Sidney; Michaelis, Joyce
It is important to introduce and facilitate oral activities in the second language classroom with enthusiasm in a climate of mutual support and cooperation. Students should understand that mistakes are inevitable but not fatal, and that each attempt will build greater ease and confidence in using the language for communication. Oral proficiency…
van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F
Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes.
... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral argument. (a)...
... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral argument. (a)...
Jeon, Eun Hee
This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a)...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture... presentation. Any person seeking an adjustment under this part 2901 shall be given an opportunity to make an oral presentation of data, views and arguments in support of the request for an adjustment,...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart...
Moscicki, Eve K.; Tallal, Paula
Presents study exploring oral reading errors of normally developing readers to determine any developmental differences in learning phoneme-grapheme units; to discover if the grapheme representations of some phonemes are more difficult to read than others; and to replicate results reported by Fowler, et. al. Findings show most oral reading errors…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a)...
Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi
High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098
... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart...
He, Xue-song; Shi, Wen-yuan
Since the initial observations of oral bacteria within dental plaque by van Leeuwenhoek using his primitive microscopes in 1680, an event that is generally recognized as the advent of oral microbiological investigation, oral microbiology has gone through phases of “reductionism” and “holism”. From the small beginnings of the Miller and Black period, in which microbiologists followed Koch's postulates, took the reductionist approach to try to study the complex oral microbial community by analyzing individual species; to the modern era when oral researchers embrace “holism” or “system thinking”, adopt new concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, poly-microbial diseases, oral microbiological knowledge has burgeoned and our ability to identify the resident organisms in dental plaque and decipher the interactions between key components has rapidly increased, such knowledge has greatly changed our view of the oral microbial flora, provided invaluable insight into the etiology of dental and periodontal diseases, opened the door to new approaches and techniques for developing new therapeutic and preventive tools for combating oral poly-microbial diseases. PMID:20687296
Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)
Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.
Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their…
... Section 15.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS... resources, transition plans, or sample tasks (or other types of tests) may be suitable for oral... qualifications for personnel that will be required to provide the oral presentation(s); (3) The requirements...
Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming
Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers.
Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes
Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…
Presents arguments for oral language work in classrooms that go far beyond "the principal means of human communication" justification. Topics discussed include relationships between oral language and literacy, intelligence, problem solving, cognition, "the hypothetical mode of learning," and personality growth. Recommendations…
Lam, Jenny K W; Xu, Yingying; Worsley, Alan; Wong, Ian C K
The formulation of medicines for children remains a challenge. An ideal pediatric formulation must allow accurate dose administration and be in a dosage form that can be handled by the target age group. It is also important to consider the choices and the amount of excipients used in the formulation for this vulnerable age group. Although oral formulations are generally acceptable to most pediatric patients, they are not suitable for drugs with poor oral bioavailability or when a rapid clinical effect is required. In recent years, oral transmucosal delivery has emerged as an attractive route of administration for pediatric patients. With this route of administration, a drug is absorbed through the oral mucosa, therefore bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism and thus avoiding drug degradation or metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. The high blood flow and relatively high permeability of the oral mucosa allow a quick onset of action to be achieved. It is a simple and non-invasive route of drug administration. However, there are several barriers that need to be overcome in the development of oral transmucosal products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the current development of oral transmucosal delivery specifically for the pediatric population in order to achieve systemic drug delivery. The anatomical and physiological properties of the oral mucosa of infants and young children are carefully examined. The different dosage forms and formulation strategies that are suitable for young patients are discussed.
Asnaashari, Mohammad; Zadsirjan, Saeede
In this review collected from the literature on usage of laser in oral minor surgery based on a Medline search in the time period between the years: 2008 and 2013, the most current evidence on laser-assisted oral minor surgery is going to be surveyed. PMID:25653807
Herzog, Martha; Shaw, Victor
The development of an indirect oral proficiency test for foreign languages by the Defense Language Institute is described. The technique uses taped questions to elicit answers, also taped, that are evaluated according to the Foreign Service Institute's oral proficiency rating scale of 0 to 5. Tape recordings are used because of the large numbers…
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearing. 134.222 Section 134.222 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.222 Oral hearing....
Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.
Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…
Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori
A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…
António, Natália; Castro, Graça; Ramos, Domingos; Machado, António; Gonçalves, Lino; Macedo, Tice; Providência, Luís A
The management of patients taking long-term oral anticoagulants who require dental surgery is still highly controversial. The risk of bleeding associated with dental treatment under oral anticoagulants must be weighed against the risk of thromboembolism associated with suspension of antithrombotic therapy. Mortality and morbidity associated with thromboembolic events are higher than those associated with hemorrhagic events after minor oral surgery procedures. Evidence-based information does not support oral anticoagulant suspension before minor oral surgery. The authors propose a management protocol for chronically anticoagulated patients who require a dental procedure, to reduce both thromboembolic risk and the risk of bleeding.
De Wilde, R
Thirty patients with clinical pelvic inflammatory disease were studied. Diagnosis was confirmed by laparoscopy. To determine the microbiological etiology, swab specimen for detection of aerobic, anaerobic and chlamydial infections were obtained from the endocervix, fimbriae and cul-de-sac. In 22 of 30 patients, microorganisms were detected. The patients received ciprofloxacin 2 X 750 mg p.o. daily at 12 hours interval for 10 days. During and after therapy, bacteriological examinations of the endocervix were performed. Based on the microbiological evaluation and clinical aspects, the bacteriological response and clinical efficacy were 86%. Laboratory analysis showed no alterations of blood values. As side effects we noticed gastrointestinal complaints (6/30), candidiasis vulvovaginalis (6/30), allergic exanthema (5/30) and non-bacterial cystitis (2/30). Oral ciprofloxacin-monotherapy proved to be safe and effective in pelvic inflammatory disease.
Leão, J C; Gueiros, L A; Lodi, G; Robinson, N A; Scully, C
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been recognised since 1947, but just recently it became a worldwide major public health problem. The most common features of ZIKV infection are fever, cutaneous rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis but most affected patients with the clinical disease present with only mild symptoms. However, severe neurological complications have been described: there is an occasional association with Guillain-Barre syndrome, and emerging data indicate an association between vertical transmission of ZIKV infection and microcephaly, but no specific orofacial manifestations have yet been reported. ZIKV is present in body fluids and has also been demonstrated in the saliva, but there is as yet no reliable evidence to support ZIKV transmission via this pathway. Transmission in oral health care should be effectively prevented using standard infection control measures. There are currently no specific treatments for Zika virus disease and no vaccines available, so prevention of ZIKV is based on vector control.
The high incidence of periodontal disease among adults in the Western world indicates that in most cases, routine dental care could be considerably improved. The progressive effect of the disease suggests that improvements in oral cleanliness are mandatory if large numbers of adults are to retain their teeth into old age. Data show that periodontal disease can be minimized through effective plaque control, and that a combination of brushing, interdental cleaning, and chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. mouthwash) is beneficial to patients with plaque control problems. The vast majority of adults do not follow an adequate home-care routine. Average brushing times are low, and only a minority of patients regularly floss. In addition, in those patients who do regularly brush and floss, a deterioration of plaque control occurs over time, suggesting that compliance is a major issue. The principal challenge for dental professionals is to identify how best to elicit an improvement.
Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator. PMID:23283016
Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan
Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931
Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan
Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.
Culhane, James; Frantz, Andrea Breemer
To achieve a significant educational experience that offered effective and lasting change in students' attitudes about expertise and collaboration, the authors designed an interdisciplinary project that purposefully linked students from history of pharmacy and communication studies courses. Over 3 successive semesters, 60 students formed interdisciplinary teams to design, conduct, and transcribe area pharmacists' oral histories. This project challenged students to overcome stereotypes, address anxiety about working with people outside traditional peer groups, and recognize specialized knowledge and skills they offered to the interdisciplinary partnership. Fifty-seven students wrote individual reflective self analyses that examined their own attitudes and experiences prior to, during, and after the project. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the students' accounts provided substantial insight into the value of the interdisciplinary and intergenerational experience as well as students' recognition of disciplinary expertise, both in and outside of their respective majors.
Maher, Sam; Ryan, Ben; Duffy, Aoife; Brayden, David J
Delivery of peptides by the oral route greatly appeals due to commercial, patient convenience and scientific arguments. While there are over 60 injectable peptides marketed worldwide, and many more in development, most delivery strategies do not yet adequately overcome the barriers to oral delivery. Peptides are sensitive to chemical and enzymatic degradation in the intestine, and are poorly permeable across the intestinal epithelium due to sub-optimal physicochemical properties. A successful oral peptide delivery technology should protect potent peptides from presystemic degradation and improve epithelial permeation to achieve a target oral bioavailability with acceptable intra-subject variability. This review provides a comprehensive up-to-date overview of the current status of oral peptide delivery with an emphasis on patented formulations that are yielding promising clinical data.
Mehler, Stephen J; Bennett, R Avery
Each species of reptile has evolved unique characteristics that are associated with their oral cavity, dentition, tongue, glands, and methods of mastication. These developments have provided each with an opportunity to interact with their surroundings. In captivity, the developmental relationship is often severed by the introduction of artificial surroundings and inappropriate husbandry. These changes predispose the animals to many stresses and disorders. Disorders of the oral cavity are often a representation of what is occurring systemically. Bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, neoplastic, and nutritional causes of disorders of the oral cavity in reptilian species are probably underestimated and likely cause a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality than has been reported. The misinformation that clients receive regarding husbandry may directly correlate with the frequency of oral diseases seen in a clinical setting. Prevention of disease of the oral cavity is primarily through providing appropriate environmental conditions and diet.
Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine
Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.
Shigeishi, Hideo; Ohta, Kouji; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Mizuta, Kuniko; Ono, Shigehiro; Shimasue, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Yoshiaki; Higashikawa, Koichiro; Tada, Misato; Ishida, Fumi; Okui, Gaku; Okumura, Toshiya; Fukui, Akiko; Kubozono, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yoko; Seino, Sayaka; Hashikata, Miho; Sasaki, Kazuki; Naruse, Takako; Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Uetsuki, Ryo; Nimiya, Akiko; Takamoto, Megumi; Dainobu, Kana; Tokikazu, Tomoko; Nishi, Hiromi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Takechi, Masaaki
The records of 70 patients with oral cancer who were treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2014 were reviewed. The body temperature, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were compared between those who had received preoperative oral care (oral care group) and those who had not received any (non-oral care group). When the patients were divided into those who underwent minimally invasive surgery and those who underwent severely invasive surgery, the mean CRP level in the early postoperative period was lower in the oral care group as compared with the non-oral care group in those who underwent minimally invasive surgery as well as those who underwent severely invasive surgery. However, the mean CRP level was most evidently reduced in the severely invasive group on days 1 and 3–5. However, no significant differences were observed with regard to the percentage of postoperative infectious complications (for example, surgical site infection, anastomotic leak and pneumonia) between the oral care (13.6%) and non-oral care (20.8%) groups, though a reduced prevalence of postoperative complications following preoperative oral care was noted. The results of the present study suggest that preoperative oral care can decrease inflammation during the early postoperative stage in patients with oral cancer who undergo severely invasive surgery. PMID:27588111
Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W
Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents.
Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna
Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.
da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria
Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL
Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathogen depends on the intervention of different predisposing factors that modify the microenvironment of the oral cavity and favor the appearance of opportunistic infection. The present study offers a literature review on the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establishing when complementary microbiological techniques for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be used, and which techniques are most commonly employed in routine clinical practice in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. Materials and methods: A Medline-PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane search was made covering the last 10 years. Results: The diagnosis of oral candidiasis is fundamentally clinical. Microbiological techniques are used when the clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed, for establishing a differential diagnosis with other diseases, and in cases characterized by resistance to antifungal drugs. Biopsies in turn are indicated in patients with hyperplastic candidiasis. Staining (10% KOH) and culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar) are the methods most commonly used for diagnosing primary candidiasis. Identification of the individual species of Candida is usually carried out with CHROMagar Candida®. For the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, and in cases requiring differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, use is made of immunological and genetic techniques such as ELISA and PCR. Key words:Clinical, oral candidiasis, microbiology. PMID:24455095
Muhvić-Urek, Miranda; Tomac-Stojmenović, Marija; Mijandrušić-Sinčić, Brankica
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - has been increasing on a global scale, and progressively, more gastroenterologists will be included in the diagnosis and treatment of IBD. Although IBD primarily affects the intestinal tract, extraintestinal manifestations of the disease are often apparent, including in the oral cavity, especially in CD. Specific oral manifestations in patients with CD are as follows: indurate mucosal tags, cobblestoning and mucogingivitis, deep linear ulcerations and lip swelling with vertical fissures. The most common non-specific manifestations, such as aphthous stomatitis and angular cheilitis, occur in both diseases, while pyostomatitis vegetans is more pronounced in patients with UC. Non-specific lesions in the oral cavity can also be the result of malnutrition and drugs. Malnutrition, followed by anemia and mineral and vitamin deficiency, affects the oral cavity and teeth. Furthermore, all of the drug classes that are applied to the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases can lead to alterations in the oral cavity due to the direct toxic effects of the drugs on oral tissues, as well as indirect immunosuppressive effects with a risk of developing opportunistic infections or bone marrow suppression. There is a higher occurrence of malignant diseases in patients with IBD, which is related to the disease itself and to the IBD-related therapy with a possible oral pathology. Treatment of oral lesions includes treatment of the alterations in the oral cavity according to the etiology together with treatment of the primary intestinal disease, which requires adequate knowledge and a strong cooperation between gastroenterologists and specialists in oral medicine. PMID:27433081
Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.
Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-β) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-β, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357
Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I
Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop
Yamamoto, Fernanda-Paula; Corrêa Pontes, Flávia-Sirotheau; Cury, Sérgio-Elias; Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Rebelo-Pontes, Hélder; Pinto-Júnior, Décio-dos Santos
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of TWIST and p-Akt proteins in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), correlating their expressions with the histological features of the lesions. Study design: Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 10 normal oral epithelium, 30 OL and 20 OSCC formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Immunoperoxidase reactions for TWIST and p-Akt proteins were applied on the specimens and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Results: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post tests revealed a significant difference in TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression among normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TWIST and p-Akt expressions according to the Pearson’s correlation test. Conclusions: The results obtained in the current study suggest that TWIST and p-Akt may participate of the multi-step process of oral carcinogenesis since its early stages. Key words: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry. PMID:21743395
... Care Institute and the National Oral Health Conference. Resource Highlights: Nutrition and Oral Health This collection of selected resources offers key facts and high-quality information about ...
Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan
Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products.
Shaji, Jessy; Patole, V.
Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance and long term compliance, which increases the therapeutic value of the drug. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery through the gastro intestinal tract has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 1% to at least 30-50%. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form used for the conventional small molecule drugs has been used to explore oral protein and peptide delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve oral bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for oral delivery. PMID:20046732
Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa
ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232
Pedersen, N C
There is a great deal of frustration among veterinarians about the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity of the cat. This frustration is due to both the high frequency of feline oral inflammatory lesions and our poor understanding of their causes. This poor understanding can be blamed on several things: (1) a rapidly emerging, but still relatively poor, understanding of feline diseases in general and nutrition in particular; (2) a tendency to lump rather than separate specific oral inflammations; (3) a tendency not to use a thorough and systematic approach to diagnosing oral cavity disease; and (4) the reluctance of veterinarians to apply what is already known about human oral cavity diseases to cats. When problems 2 through 4 are adequately addressed, it becomes apparent that we really know more about oral cavity disease in the cat than we thought we knew and that great progress has been made. The task ahead is to define, in precise medical terms, those remaining disease entities of the oral cavity that pose the greatest health risk to cats, to apply what has been already been discovered from human disease counterparts, and to study them systematically.
Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric
Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug.
Lam, O L T; McGrath, C; Bandara, H M H N; Li, L S W; Samaranayake, L P
The oral cavity serves as a reservoir of Staphylococcus aureus for infection of the lower respiratory tract and cross-infection to other patients. This systematic review was designed to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on this pathogen. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral and oropharyngeal carriage of S. aureus. Oral health promotion interventions on oral reservoirs of S. aureus in both systemically healthy and medically compromised groups consisted of oral hygiene interventions only. There was a lack of evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of mechanical oral hygiene interventions against this pathogen. Chlorhexidine delivered in oral hygiene products such as mouthrinses, gels, and sprays appeared to have some utility against S. aureus, although some studies found equivocal effects. There was a dearth of studies investigating the efficacy of other chemical agents. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against S. aureus, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remain to be confirmed by further high-quality randomized controlled trials.
Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison
Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681
García-Carnicero, Tamara; Gándara-Vila, Pilar; Couso-Folgueiras, Elena; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Gándara-Vila, Rafael; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José-Manuel
Objective: We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the brush biopsy technique using OralCDx ® (OralScan Laboratories Inc., Suffern, NY) as a new method for early diagnosis and control of a “potentially malignant disorder” such as oral leukoplakia. Design of the study: We performed a study in which samples were taken using OralCDx ® on 24 patients who visited the Master of Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Santiago de Compostela between February 2009 and May 2010. These patients presented clinical and histological lesions that were consistent with oral leukoplakia. We evaluated the relationship between the keratinization degree of the lesions and cell representation; the diagnosis obtained through OralCDx ® and biopsies; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: 50% of patients were men and 50% women with an average age of 62.38 years. The Kappa coefficient relating keratinization of lesions and cell representation was 0.33, the OralCDx ® - biopsy diagnostic rate reached a Kappa value of 0.66, recording 72.7%,sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, PPV was 88.8%, while NPV reached 80%. Conclusions: cytology sampling with OralCDx ® showed high sensitivity and specificity values, which make it a good tool for monitoring oral leukoplakia, but nowadays the most reliable method that allows us to confirm the exact diagnosis of the lesions and their anatomical and pathological characteristics still is conventional biopsy using a surgical scalpel. Key words: OralCDx®, brush biopsy, oral leukoplakia. PMID:21743402
Takeyasu, Yoshihiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Tonogi, Morio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Serita, Ryohei; Imura, Kumiko
Although oral health care has a preventive effect against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most effective method of oral health care in this respect remains to be established. The objective of this single-center, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the relationship between VAP and various methods of oral health care. All patients included in the study (n=142) were on mechanical ventilation with oral intubation at the intensive care unit of the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital. They were divided into two groups, one receiving standard oral health care (Standard group), and the other receiving oral health care using an oral moisture gel instead of water (Gel group). After removal of the intubation tube, biofilm on cuff of the tube was stained with a disclosing agent to determine the contamination level. Factors investigated included sex, age, number of remaining teeth, intubation time, fever ≥38.5°C, VAP, cuff contamination level, and time required for one oral health care session. No VAP occurred in either group during the study period. The level of cuff contamination was significantly lower in the Gel group than the Standard group, and the time required for one session of oral health care was shorter (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed use of the oral moisture gel as a factor affecting cuff contamination level. Use of an oral moisture gel decreased invasion of the pharynx by bacteria and contaminants together with biofilm formation on the intubation tube cuff. These results suggest that oral health care using an oral moisture gel is effective in preventing cuff contamination.
Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika
More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.
Ong, Cliff K. S.; Seymour, R. A.
Pain is a major postoperative symptom in many oral surgical procedures. It is a complex and variable phenomenon that can be influenced by many factors. Good management of oral surgical pain requires a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of surgical pain. This article aims at reviewing postoperative pain from a broad perspective by looking into the nociception, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology of pain. Therapeutic recommendations are made after reviewing the evidence from the literature for maximizing the efficacy of pain management techniques for oral surgical pain. PMID:12722900
Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker
Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction in the oral cavity subsequent to the consumption of food such as fruits, nuts, and vegetables. It occurs mainly due to homology of proteins of pollen to the proteins of fruits and vegetables. In OAS, the immune system produces antibodies that are directed against the proteins of pollen and structurally similar proteins in food, hence, resulting in allergic symptoms limited mainly to the oral cavity. In this review, we have summarized the etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of OAS as an update for stomatologists. PMID:26633978
Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S
Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.
Steinberg, Barbara J; Hilton, Irene V; Iida, Hiroko; Iada, Hiroko; Samelson, Renee
Current research shows that women tend to receive less dental care than usual when they are pregnant. In 2012, the first national consensus statement on oral health care during pregnancy was issued, emphasizing both the importance and safety of routine dental care for pregnant women. This article reviews the current recommendations for perinatal oral health care and common oral manifestations during pregnancy. Periodontal disease and its association with preterm birth and low birth weight are also discussed, as is the role played by dental intervention in these adverse outcomes.
Meurman, J. H.
The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.
Gasperini, Claudio; Ruggieri, S
Disease-modifying treatments are now available in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), and their beneficial effects have been shown in several clinical studies. However, as these treatments are only partially effective in halting the MS disease process and are frequently associated with side effects and suboptimal patient adherence, new oral therapeutic approaches are warranted. This review focuses on advances in current and novel oral treatment approaches for MS. Several pivotal reports have provided promising results for new oral therapies evaluating the safety and efficacy of new agents including fingolimod, fumaric acid, cladribine, teriflunomide and laquinimod.
Gick, Bryan; Francis, Naomi; Klenin, Anna; Mizrahi, Ezra; Tom, Denise
Two speech functions have traditionally been ascribed to the velum: opening and closing the velopharyngeal port and providing a passive surface against which the tongue can produce oral constrictions. Contrary to this passive oral function, the present x-ray study finds that a substantial portion of the velum moves to constrict the oropharyngeal isthmus for French uvular /ʁ/. This substructure, designated the velic traverse, functions independently of the parts of the velum used for velopharyngeal port closure, thus acting as an oral articulator. An active velic traverse challenges methods for estimating vocal tract shapes based on tongue posture alone.
Kumari, Sarika; Agrawal, Nidhi; Usha, G.; Talwar, Vandana; Gupta, Poonam
Background: Midazolam has been commonly used orally for premedication in children. A search for a better alternative continues to overcome its side effects. Recently alpha-2 agonists, clonidine, and dexmedetomidine have been used for premedication in children. Aim: To study and compare the efficacy of oral clonidine, oral dexmedetomidine, and oral midazolam for premedication in pediatric surgical patients. Settings and Design: This prospective, randomized, double blind study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in ninety children of either sex, in the age group of 4–12 years and the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical status I, posted for ophthalmic surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups of thirty patients each: Group M: Oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg body weight, Group D: Oral dexmedetomidine 4 μg/kg body weight, and Group C: Oral clonidine 4 μg/kg body weight. Patients were assessed for sedation, anxiolysis, and change in heart rate and blood pressure in the preoperative area. Behavior of children at separation from parents, mask acceptance, and side effects if any were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was performed by unpaired Student's t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Children in oral midazolam group achieved faster onset of sedation, higher sedation score, and lower anxiety score as compared to other two groups. The Group D and Group M were comparable as regards behavior at separation from parents (P = 0.236), but Group D was significantly better than Group C (P = 0.031). The three groups were comparable as regards providing satisfactory mask acceptance (P = 0.163). A number of children with easy separation from parents and excellent mask acceptance were significantly more in Group M as compared to Groups C and D (P = 0.028 and P = 0.012, respectively). Group C and Group D showed a lower mean arterial pressure at 45 min (P < 0.001) and 60 min after
A review of the available literature suggests that adolescent lack of compliance with oral contraceptives (OCs) is a multifactorial problem that requires a multifactorial solution. Because of their lack of experience with contraception, higher frequency of intercourse, higher intrinsic fertility, and pattern of frequent stopping or switching of methods, adolescents experience higher OC failure rates than do adult women. Adolescents also are more likely to forget to take the pill or to discontinue due to side effects, without consulting their physician. A survey of European young women identified contraceptive protection without weight gain as the most necessary change in OCs. Adolescents must be counseled not to miss a single pill, observe the pill-free interval, take phasic formulations in the right order, and use a back-up method in case of diarrhea and vomiting or when certain medications (e.g., antibiotics and anti-epileptics) are used concurrently, and be informed of steps to take in the event of side effects and unprotected intercourse. The quality of the counseling appears to be more important to compliance than the quantity of information provided. Pharmacists should complete the counseling initiated by the physician and explain prescription use. The most significant predictor of consistent OC use is the adolescent's motivation.
Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W
Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced.
Lyseng-Williamson, Katherine A
Oral bepotastine is a second-generation histamine H(1) receptor antagonist that also suppresses some allergic inflammatory processes. Numerous short- and long-term clinical trials and surveillance studies have shown that twice-daily bepotastine is an effective and generally well tolerated antihistamine in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria or pruritus associated with skin conditions (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus). Bepotastine 20 mg/day was significantly more effective than terfenadine 120 mg/day in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis, as evaluated by the final global improvement rating and several other endpoints in a phase III trial. In phase III trials in patients with chronic urticaria, bepotastine 20 mg/day was more effective than placebo in improving levels of itching and eruption, and as effective as terfenadine 120 mg/day with regard to the final global improvement rating and other endpoints. In a noncomparative trial in patients with pruritus associated with skin diseases, the majority of bepotastine recipients in the overall population, as well as in the specific skin disease subgroups (eczema/dermatitis, prurigo or pruritus cutaneus), had a final global improvement rating of moderate or greater. Bepotastine was generally well tolerated in adult and paediatric patients with allergic conditions.
Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction that occurs after consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in patients with allergy to pollen. It is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and symptoms arise as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and plant-derived food. OAS is rarely seen in young children, but the prevalence increases with age. The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of OAS and probable risk factors in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR). One-hundred and twenty patients with seasonal AR were included. Patients were diagnosed based on their clinical history, skin prick test outcome and specific IgE. In patients describing OAS, prick-by-prick tests with fresh fruit or vegetables were carried out. Thirty-two patients had OAS and it was more frequent in female patients than in male patients. OAS was more frequent in adolescents than in small children and in patients with higher total IgE. OAS was significantly more prevalent in patients with AR and asthma (P=0.0016), as was the case in patients with AR and atopic dermatitis (P=0.0004). OAS is rarely diagnosed in small children, partly because of an inadequate clinical history. Patients with OAS may have some risk factors in addition to pollen allergy, and those with more severe atopy are more likely to develop OAS.
Zhang, G-Q; Meng, Y
Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological condition affecting sensory and motor nerve transmission. Its progression and symptoms are unpredictable and vary from person to person as well as over time. Symptoms of orofacial pain, trigeminal neuralgia, spasticity, spasms, tremor, fatigue, depression and progressive disability, impact on the individual's ability to maintain oral health, cope with dental treatment and access dental services. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause dry mouth and associated oral disease. There is no cure for multiple sclerosis, and treatment focuses on prevention of disability and maintenance of quality of life. The oral health care team plays an essential role in ensuring that oral health impacts positively on general health. This review highlights the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, oral and craniofacial manifestations and their management, and oral health care considerations in patients with MS.
Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Vidovic Juras, Danica; Gabric, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir
Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied. PMID:25883811
Background A parental/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of adults. Objectives To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they reach adulthood. Methods Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment were used. The main outcome measure was study members' short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) at age 32. Analyses involved 827 individuals (81.5% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, who also completed the OHIP-14 questionnaire at age 32, and whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. Results There was a consistent gradient of relative risk across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status at the age-5 assessment for having one or more impacts in the overall OHIP-14 scale, whereby risk was greatest among the study members whose mothers rated their oral health as "poor/edentulous", and lowest among those with an "excellent/fairly good" rating. In addition, there was a gradient in the age-32 mean OHIP-14 score, and in the mean number of OHIP-14 impacts at age 32 across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status. The higher risk of having one or more impacts in the psychological discomfort subscale, when mother rated her oral health as "poor/edentulous", was statistically significant. Conclusions These data suggest that maternal self-rated oral health when a child is young has a bearing on that child's OHRQOL almost three decades later. The adult offspring of mothers with poor self-rated oral health had poorer OHRQOL outcomes, particularly in the psychological discomfort subscale. PMID:21736754
Journal of Chemical Education, 1978
Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)
The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. PMID:27254802
Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen
The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria.
Batista, Leonardo M; Portela de Oliveira, Millena Teles; Magalhaes, Wilrama B; Bastos, Poliana Lima
Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The symptoms are characterized by motor disorders - tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability, which hinder oral hygiene. Oral and dental health in Parkinson's disease has been under-documented and findings are conflicting. Moreover, a number of dentists have limited experience regarding the management of these patients. This article reviews literature published within the last fifteen years, to better understand the impact of this disease in oral health. A literature search (MEDLINE and PUBMED), using keywords Parkinson Disease and Oral Hygiene, yielded 27 articles, from which 20 were selected. All of the articles were published in English in the last 15 years.
Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen
The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798
Marasini, Nirmal; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan
Most infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic infiltrations from the mucosal tract. Therefore, vaccines delivered to the mucosal tissues can mimic natural infections and provide protection at the first site of infection. Thus, mucosal, especially, oral delivery is becoming the most preferred mode of vaccination. However, oral vaccines have to overcome several barriers such as the extremely low pH of the stomach, the presence of proteolytic enzymes and bile salts as well as low permeability in the intestine. Several formulations based on nanoparticle strategies are currently being explored to prepare stable oral vaccine formulations. This review briefly discusses several molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal immune cell activation and various aspects of oral nanoparticle-based vaccine design that should be considered for improved mucosal and systemic immune responses.
Marsh, Philip D; Do, Thuy; Beighton, David; Devine, Deirdre A
Saliva plays a major role in determining the composition and activity of the oral microbiota, via a variety of mechanisms. Molecules, mainly from saliva, form a conditioning film on oral surfaces, thus providing receptors for bacterial attachment. The attached cells use saliva components, such as glycoproteins, as their main source of nutrients for growth. Oral bacteria work sequentially and in a concerted manner to catabolize these structurally complex molecules. Saliva also buffers the pH in the biofilm to around neutrality, creating an environment which is conducive to the growth of many oral bacteria that provide important benefits to the host. Components of the adaptive and innate host defences are delivered by saliva, and these often function synergistically, and at sublethal concentrations, so a complex relationship develops between the host and the resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can occur rapidly if the flow of saliva is perturbed.
Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kolasa, Justin; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.
Objective To determine the utility of oral fluids for assessment of coronary and cardiovascular (CVD) health. Study Design Twenty-nine patients with pre-existing CVD disease underwent an invasive cardiac procedure (alcohol septal ablation or percutaneous coronary intervention) and provided unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), sublingual swabs (LS), gingival swabs (GS) and serum at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr. Concentrations of 13 relevant biomarkers were determined and correlated with levels in serum and the oral fluids. Results Concentrations of the majority of biomarkers were higher in UWS than LS and GS. Coronary and CVD disease biomarkers in UWS correlated better with serum than LS and GS based on group status and measures of time effect. Seven biomarkers demonstrated time effect changes consistent with serum biomarkers, including C-reactive protein and troponin I. Conclusions Changes in serum biomarker profiles are reflected in oral fluids suggesting that oral fluid biomarkers could aid in the assessment of cardiac ischemia/necrosis. PMID:22769406
Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.
Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.
... team of doctors who are expert in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help ...
Wawrzyniak, Marcin; O'Mahony, Liam
The immune system is continuously exposed to great amounts of different antigens from both food and intestinal microbes. Immune tolerance to these antigens is very important for intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis. Oral tolerance is a specific type of peripheral tolerance induced by exposure to antigen via the oral route. Investigations on the role of intestinal immune system in preventing hypersensitivity reactions to innocuous dietary and microbial antigens have been intensively performed during the last 2 decades. In this review article, we discuss how food allergens are recognized by the intestinal immune system and draw attention to the role of regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells in the establishment of oral tolerance and tolerogenic features of intestinal dendritic cells. We also emphasize the potential role of tonsils in oral tolerance induction because of their anatomical location, cellular composition, and possible usage to develop novel ways of specific immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:28102055
Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Yoon Seok
Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder that primarily occurs on the convex surfaces of the central face and is often characterized by exacerbations and remissions. A case of a 52-yr-old woman visited our clinic in February 2008 complaining typical features of rosacea including multiple pinhead to rice-sized erythematous papules. We applied various conventional treatments including topical benzoyl peroxide and metronidazole as well as oral metronidazole, isotretinoin, and doxycycline. The lesions were not controlled but were rather aggravated by complications from these treatments. Therefore, we prescribed oral azithromycin, which has anti-inflammatory effects and reduces reactive oxygen species. Ten weeks after the administration of oral azithromycin, 500 mg per day for 2 weeks, the lesions had mostly disappeared and no specific side effects related to the azithromycin were noted. Oral azithromycin dosing 500 mg/day for 2 weeks is effective for treatment of intractable rosacea. PMID:21532865
Bamgboye, E A; Ladipo, O A
The demographic transition in Nigeria is gradually moving towards the second stage. There is clear evidence of a declining mortality but the fertility rate remains exceptionally high. A realistic approach towards reducing fertility rate is the use of oral contraceptive. This study assesses the distribution system of oral contraceptive in Ibadan, the second largest city in Nigeria. The findings revealed that the people are aware of modern oral contraceptives as they purchase them freely at chemist shops. But effective distribution is hampered by existing channels and high costs. A local source recommended is the proprietary medicine stores, often at convenient locations to the potential users of contraceptives. The current cost which is between $1.3 and $19.5 per couple-years of protection is exorbitant, consuming 0.5-7.8% of the gross annual income of the average individual. Therefore, the government should subsidize the prices of oral contraceptives, to facilitate freedom from the tyranny of excessive fertility.
... oral health isn't a key to heart disease prevention, it's important to take care of your teeth ... and cleanings. If you're concerned about heart disease prevention, ask your doctor about proven ways to reduce ...
... and less painful alternative. University of Texas at Austin researchers created an oral treatment for one type ... Journal of Pharmaceutics . SOURCE: University of Texas at Austin, news release HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All ...
This article reminds you that, whatever the psychoactive substance in question, it is not one that has repercussions on the oral health of its user. This affects both the tooth, the periodontal and oral mucosa. Drug addicts, especially those engaged in polydrug use, represent the population at the largest risk for oral cancer. Of all the factors, smoking is by far the largest risk. The alcohol has a synergistic effect with the tobacco, so that the combined effect is more than multiplied. Preventing risks of these products is possible through good oral hygiene and lifestyle, preventive care and followed by a regular dentist. Regaining self-esteem, however, should be one of the key dimensions of social reappropriation through his body.
Schulz, Elizabeth; Mathew, Oommen P
Cerebral palsy is often associated with spasticity. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral baclofen in hypertonic neonates. Retrospective chart review of patients treated with oral baclofen (identified by means of pharmacy records) during a 3-year period was undertaken. Data on muscle tone evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale scores were analyzed for effectiveness. Twenty-nine infants had Modified Ashworth Scale scores before and during oral baclofen therapy. The study infants had a mean gestational age of 25.7 ± 1.9 weeks. Baclofen was started at a postnatal age of 86.4 ± 33.6 days. Comparison of Modified Ashworth Scale scores after initiation of therapy to prebaclofen scores demonstrated no significant decrease in muscle tone. Results of our study show that there is no overall decrease in tone during oral baclofen therapy in hypertonic preterm neonates.
Belinga, L Essama Eno; Njifou, A; Noa, S Ananga; Ateba, G R; Ngan, W Bell
Erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. Rare among Blacks and Asian subjects, it is at the origin of symptoms ranging from burning pain during meals up to the inability to absorb solid foods or to ensure adequate oral hygiene. Its diagnosis is before all clinical, then confirmed by histopathological examination. Chronic and recurrent forms developments can cause malignant transformation where the importance of being known by any clinicians compared to other oral diseases. Treatment is difficult and aimed at palliation rather than cure. We report the only case of erosive oral lichen planus received and supported in the service of Stomatology of General Hospital in Douala during the last ten years and whose etiology is discussed.
Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana
Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed. PMID:23551419
Author gives a review of the development of Hungarian oral contraceptives from the beginning to the present status. He describes the three main historical phases that means the high-dose combined pills, the low-dose compositions and the most modern two- and three-phasic preparations. Besides, he mentions the monohormonal mini-pills and the so-called postcoital pill, too. He refers to the fact that the Hungarian pharmaceutical research followed truly the international development in oral contraception, too.
Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam
Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.
Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam
Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions. PMID:19570281
Recurrent oral ulcers (ROUs) are the most common oral mucosal disease. The etiology of ROUs is complex. The factors include mechanical trauma, genetics, stress, smoking, and viral and bacterial infections. Treatment modalities depend on the differential diagnosis of ROUs and could consist of antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, immunomodulators, or over-the-counter medications. New therapy available in the form of a coating polymer, Colgate ORABASE Soothe.N.Seal, is clinically proven to provide rapid relief and healing of ROUs.
Magliocca, Kelly R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah G
Immune-related disorders of the oral cavity may occur as primary disease process, secondary to systemic disease or neoplasm, or as a reaction to medications and other agents. The entities represented within this group may vary significantly by severity, clinical presentation, microscopic presentation, and special testing results. The selected immune-related conditions of the oral cavity in this article are categorized and presented by their prototypical tissue reaction patterns: vesiculobullous, including acantholytic and subepithelial separation; psoriasiform; spongiotic; and lichenoid reaction patterns.
Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Dhama, Kuldeep; Niraj, Lav Kumar; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Prasad, Monika
Introduction Oral contraceptives are one of the risk factors for gingival disease. Oral contraceptives can affect the proliferation of cell, growth and differentiation of tissues in the periodontium. Nowadays recent research has suggested that the newer generation oral contraceptives have less influence on gingival diseases. Aim The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effect of oral contraceptives on periodontium. Materials and Methods A literature review was performed; PubMed, PubMed Central and Cochrane Library, Embase, Google Scholar were searched from 1970 up to December 2015 to identify appropriate studies. Results Out of the total 94 titles appeared 13 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. Two articles which were hand searched and one article which was through e-mail was also included. The hormones progesterone and estrogen have direct impact on immune system of the body and thus, affect the pattern and rate of collagen production in the gingiva. Furthermore, the review also shows that longer duration usage of oral contraceptive could lead to poorer oral hygiene status, gingival inflammation and increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. Conclusion There are relatively few studies evaluating the effect of oral contraceptives on periodontium. It was found that oral contraceptives have a marked effect on periodontium. The gingival changes after use of oral contraceptives are pronounced in the first few months and with the passage of time these changes get enhanced. PMID:28050520
Yadev, Nishant P; Murdoch, Craig; Saville, Stephen P; Thornhill, Martin H
Candida albicans is a commensal organism that can be isolated from the majority of healthy individuals. However, in certain susceptible individuals C. albicans can become pathogenic leading to the mucocutaneous infection; oral candidiasis. Murine models and in vitro monolayer cultures have generated some data on the likely virulence and host factors that contribute to oral candidiasis but these models have limitations. Recently, tissue engineered oral mucosal models have been developed to mimic the normal oral mucosa but little information is available on their true representation. In this study, we assessed the histological features of three different tissue engineered oral mucosal models compared to the normal oral mucosa and analysed both cell damage and cytokine release following infection with C. albicans. Models comprised of normal oral keratinocytes and a fibroblast-containing matrix displayed more similar immunohistological and proliferation characteristics to normal mucosa, compared to models composed of an oral carcinoma cell line. Although all models were invaded and damaged by C. albicans in a similar manner, the cytokine response was much more pronounced in models containing normal keratinocytes. These data suggest that models based on normal keratinocytes atop a fibroblast-containing connective tissue will significantly aid in dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of oral candidiasis.
Bratoĭcheva, M St; Kondeva, V K
Many authors consider oral hygiene an important factor in the etiology and pathogenesis of oral cavity cancer. The aim of the present study was to establish the role of poor oral hygiene in the development of malignant lesions in the oral cavity. One hundred and three patients were interviewed. Questions, regarding oral hygiene were included in the interview. Results showed that 53,80% of urban residents brush their teeth twice daily whereas 65,52% of rural residents brush their teeth irregularly - p<0,001 (chi(2)=23,67). 46,88% of women clean their teeth twice daily. 46,94% of men do not maintain adequate oral hygiene - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 9,21). Regarding the brush, it was found out that 56,00% of females use a hard bristle toothbrush, the same refers to 28,04% of men - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 4,15). Hard bristle toothbrush was used by 48,88% of urban residents and 9,09% of rural residents - p<0,05 (chi(2)= 5,78). People up to 30 years of age use hard bristle toothbrush most often -39,13% - p<0,01 (chi(2)=12,26). The accumulated evidence provides further explanation why oral cavity cancer is more frequent in men, rural residents and in the elderly. Oral hygiene is a factor in the development of oral cavity cancer.
Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.
Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613
Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral and written arguments. 900.9 Section 900.9... Oral and written arguments. (a) Oral argument before judge. Oral argument before the judge shall be in... writing and made part of the transcript. (b) Briefs, proposed findings and conclusions. The judge...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral and written arguments. 900.9 Section 900.9... Oral and written arguments. (a) Oral argument before judge. Oral argument before the judge shall be in... writing and made part of the transcript. (b) Briefs, proposed findings and conclusions. The judge...
... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral and written arguments. 900.9 Section 900.9... Oral and written arguments. (a) Oral argument before judge. Oral argument before the judge shall be in... writing and made part of the transcript. (b) Briefs, proposed findings and conclusions. The judge...
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conduct of oral presentation. 1052.3 Section... INFORMAL ORAL PRESENTATIONS IN PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION § 1052.3 Conduct of oral presentation. (a) The purpose of the oral presentation is to afford interested persons...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions for an oral hearing. 34.9 Section 34.9 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.9 Conditions for an oral hearing. (a) We provide an oral hearing if you— (1) Request an oral hearing; and (2)...
... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions for an oral hearing. 34.9 Section 34.9 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.9 Conditions for an oral hearing. (a) We provide an oral hearing if you— (1) Request an oral hearing; and (2)...
... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions for an oral hearing. 34.9 Section 34.9 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.9 Conditions for an oral hearing. (a) We provide an oral hearing if you— (1) Request an oral hearing; and (2)...
... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions for an oral hearing. 34.9 Section 34.9 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.9 Conditions for an oral hearing. (a) We provide an oral hearing if you— (1) Request an oral hearing; and (2)...
Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao
Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces not only provide a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection, contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged use of HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: (i) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, (ii) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, (iii) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, (iv) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and (v) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART?
Over a 10-year period, the oral language development of 338 pupils was studied from kindergarten through grade 9 to establish the most crucial and frequent oral language difficulties. Recorded samples of oral English from each subject were segmented by oral intonation patterns and syntactic units, and were analyzed yearly in terms of 21 oral…
Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.
In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888
Mattila, Riikka; Gomez-Font, Rafael; Meurman, Jukka H.
Objectives: The main objectives are to present the different adverses effects of the immunomodulatory drugs that can impair the quality of life of the immunosupressed patients and study the impact of immunomodualtion on oral diseases. Immunomodulatory drugs have changed the treatment protocols of many diseases where immune functions play a central role, such as rheumatic diseases. Their effect on oral health has not been systematically investigated, however. Study Design: We review current data on the new immunomodulatory drugs from the oral health perspective based on open literature search of the topic. Results: These target specific drugs appear to have less drug interactions than earlier immunomodulating medicines but have nevertheless potential side effects such as activating latent infections. There are some data showing that the new immunomodulatory drugs may also have a role in the treatment of certain oral diseases such as lichen planus or ameliorating symptoms in Sjögren´s syndrome, but the results have not been overly promising. Conclusions: In general, data are sparse of the effect of these new drugs vs. oral diseases and there are no properly powered randomized controlled trials published on this topic. Key words:Immunomodulatory drugs, oral diseases, adverse effects, therapeutic action. PMID:23986016
Nakazono, T T; Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M
Using data from population-based samples of adults participating in the ICS-II USA study, and using principal components analysis, we constructed oral health belief measures corresponding to the Health Belief Model (HBM) dimensions. Tests of validity and reliability were performed. Scales measuring perceived benefit of preventive practices and seriousness of oral disease had the highest validity and reliability. We used multiple regression analysis to examine sociodemographic predictors of perceived benefits of preventive practices. Race-ethnicity and age cohort were significant predictors among Baltimore and San Antonio adults. White adults and middle-aged persons in both research locations were more likely to believe in the benefit of preventive practices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, and better self-rated health were significant indicators of more positive oral health beliefs in every research location. Results also characterize persons who place lower value on preventive practices (i.e., males, less-educated persons, and those reporting poorer self-rated health). The design of effective dental public health messages and outreach efforts requires an analysis of the individual's health orientation and the factors influencing oral health beliefs. Oral health education interventions designed to improve health beliefs should contain an evaluation component for assessing the impact of education on health practices and oral health status.
Scully, Crispian; Bagan, José V; Hopper, Colin; Epstein, Joel B
Oral cancer is among the 10 most common cancers worldwide, and is especially seen in disadvantaged elderly males. Early detection and prompt treatment offer the best chance for cure. As patient awareness regarding the danger of oral cancer increases, the demand for "screening" is expected to increase. The signs and symptoms of oral cancer often resemble less serious conditions more commonly found and similarly usually presenting as a lump, red or white patch or ulcer. If any such lesion does not heal within 3 weeks, a malignancy or some other serious disorder must be excluded and a biopsy may be indicated. Dental health care workers have a duty to detect benign and potentially malignant oral lesions such as oral cancer and are generally the best trained health care professionals in this field. Prompt referral to an appropriate specialist allows for the best management but, if this is not feasible, the dental practitioner should take the biopsy which should be sent to an oral/head and neck pathologist for histological evaluation.
Meckstroth, R L
A large percentage of the residents in long-term care facilities are unable to achieve an acceptable level of oral hygiene due to mental and physical incapacities and must thus rely on nursing staff for daily oral care. Significant morbidity is associated with chronic inadequate oral hygiene. In addition, a lack of self-esteem related to poor dental status has been observed in some nursing home patients, leading to withdrawal from social interaction and personal isolation. The Collis Curve toothbrush removed more plaque than the straight bristle toothbrush. The curved bristle toothbrush was well received by the residents and well accepted by the nursing staff. A clinically significant number of staff reported that the curved bristle toothbrush made their job easier. Monitoring of the nurses' aides' brushing techniques during the study caused them to provide more effective oral hygiene than prior to the study. The importance of proper oral hygiene must be monitored and supported by nursing supervisors, regardless of the type of brush, used to achieve acceptable levels of oral hygiene.
We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans to develop therapeutic tools against oral diseases such as oral candidiasis. C. albicans, a dimorphic fungus, is a component of the healthy human microbial flora. However, the excessive overgrowth of C. albicans causes oral candidiasis, and the symptoms, accompanied by severe inflammation, reduce the quality of life of elderly people. We found that spices such as clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum) exhibit inhibitory activity against Candida mycelial growth and show therapeutic efficacy in a murine oral candidiasis model. Our studies also demonstrated that the inhibitory activity of cinnamaldehyde was strengthened in parallel with a prolonged treatment time. Furthermore, when cinnamaldehyde in combination with methylcellulose was administered to the model mice, the therapeutic effect was potentiated. Here, we summarize up-to-date findings on how to use spices and herbs on a daily basis to improve or prevent oral problems such as oral candidiasis with the presentation of our recent data.
ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031
Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health.
El-Housseiny, Azza A; Saleh, Susan M; El-Masry, Ashraf A; Allam, Amany A
The aim of this study was to assess the early oral complications in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy. An interview and oral examination was conducted on 150 pediatric cancer patients receiving standard dose chemotherapy. Results showed that oral pain and dry mouth were the most frequent patients' complaints. The prevalences of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and oral infections were relatively high. The chemotherapeutic antimetabolites were the most frequently associated with oral complications than other types of chemotherapy. The present results indicate that the oral complications among patients receiving chemotherapy are common.
Johnson, K H; Millard, P S
The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer conducted a meta-analysis of data from 10 cohort and 44 case-control studies of the association between combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer. 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women with no breast cancer from 25 countries worldwide were studied. Current OC users faced a 24% increased risk of developing breast cancer (confidence interval = 1.15-1.33). This risk fell steadily after cessation and reached 0 at 10 years and thereafter. Use of OCs with higher doses were associated with a greater risk of breast cancer than medium or low-dose OCs. The number of excess cancers in women while using OCs and up to 10 years after OC cessation stood at 0.5/10,000 women 16-19 years old, 1.5/10,000 women 20-24 years old, and 4.7/10,000 women 25-29 years old. The elevated risk of developing breast cancer did not differ by country of origin, ethnic background, reproductive history, or family history of breast cancer. OC users had less clinically advanced breast cancer than never-users who had breast cancer. This finding plus the moderate reduced risk of breast cancer more than 10 years after OC cessation suggest that OCs may effect earlier diagnosis of existing breast cancer instead of causing new breast cancers. The findings of this meta-analysis along with a plausible biologic mechanism (estrogen stimulates breast cancer cells) suggest a causal relationship between OC use and breast cancer. They also indicate that the risk is small, decreases with time, and is lower among low-dose OC users. It is reassuring that the breast cancers found among OC users is less clinically advanced than those found in never-users.
Ransome-Kuti, O; Bamisaiye, A
Immediate oral therapy at home by the mother using a sugar-salt solution offers a real prospect of reducing mortality from gastroenteritis among preschool children in the developing world. The sugar-salt solution enables the mother to take action against a disease which is the most frequent cause of death among young children. In Lagos, Nigeria, knowledge of the treatment has diffused rapidly in a low-income community served by a clinic run by the Institute of Child Health. In a recent study, women expecting their 1st child and others who had never used the service were able to describe the sugar-salt solution treatment taught to all who attend the clinic. However, of the 217 women who described the method, less than 1/2 (34%) could give the correct proportions of sugar and salt to be used (4 teaspoons and 1/4 teaspoon respectively in a standard local beer bottle filled with water). Most errors involved the use of too much salt. In nearly 1/2 these cases, 4 times too much salt was described, and in 3 cases, 16 times too much salt. Under these circumstances, we can expect a possible increase in children admitted with hypernatremia, a situation which would bring the method into disrepute. Any attempt to transfer health skills to mothers in developing countries must recognize, as in this example, the problems posed by lack of education and unfamiliarity with measurement terms such as "1/4" or even "a teaspoon." What is required is a simple measuring spoon giving the actual quantity to be used. Manufactured on a large scale in plastic, this would be inexpensive. Ideally, every mother of a preschool child should have 1, but where this is not possible, all health workers should have such spoons so that they can measure into a mother's hand the correct amounts. In this way the mother can make correct use of a treatment which has such potential for saving lives.
Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan
Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…
Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina
Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p < 0.001). The median oral mucositis severity, assessed using the WHO oral toxicity scale from grade 0-4, experienced in the no group was 2.5 vs. 2 in the cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.
Pavlinac, Patricia B; Hawes, Stephen E; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Gaye, Awa; N'Diaye, Charlotte F; Critchlow, Cathy W; Sow, Papa Salif; Feng, Qinghua; Kiviat, Nancy B
Objective To quantify the prevalence and burden of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) and HIV-1 RNA in the oral cavity of antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected Senegalese individuals and to identify correlates of oral HIV viral loads. Design A cross-sectional study of 163 HIV-1 and 27 HIV-2-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive Senegalese adults. Methods Participants received clinical and oral exams and provided blood and oral wash samples for viral load and plasma CD4 count ascertainment. Logistic and interval regression models were used to identify univariate and multivariable associations between presence and level of oral HIV RNA and various immunovirologic, local and demographic factors. Results Presence of detectable oral HIV RNA was less common in HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-1-infected study participants (33% vs 67%, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.59). HIV type was no longer associated with oral shedding of HIV when plasma viral load was considered. Detection of oral HIV RNA was associated with increased plasma viral load in both HIV-1-infected and HIV-2-infected individuals (HIV-1, OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.61; HIV-2, OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.39). Oral HIV-1 detection was also associated with periodontal disease (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.16 to 7.87). Conclusions Oral shedding of HIV-2 RNA is less common than HIV-1 RNA, a likely consequence of lower overall viral burden. Both systemic and local factors may contribute to shedding of HIV in the oral cavity. PMID:22250179
Kumar, Malay; Nanavati, Ronak; Modi, Tapan G; Dobariya, Chintan
Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.
Diringer, Joel; Phipps, Kathy R
California has virtually no statewide dental public health infrastructure leaving the state without leadership, a surveillance program, an oral health plan, oral health promotion and disease prevention programs, and federal funding. Based on a literature review and interviews with 15 oral health officials nationally, the paper recommends hiring a state dental director with public health experience, developing a state oral health plan, and seeking federal and private funding to support an office of oral health.
Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N
Summary Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18–26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners. Women who had oral sex more than three times with their partners in the past month were more likely to have oral HPV than women who had oral sex three times or less (P = 0.06). Ten (71.4%) women with oral HPV were HPV-positive at the cervix; conversely 8.3% of women with cervical HPV were HPV-positive in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral HPV was relatively low, considering the high rates of oral sex practiced by these women. PMID:22096051
Brown, B; Blas, M M; Cabral, A; Carcamo, C; Gravitt, P E; Halsey, N
Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18-26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners. Women who had oral sex more than three times with their partners in the past month were more likely to have oral HPV than women who had oral sex three times or less (P = 0.06). Ten (71.4%) women with oral HPV were HPV-positive at the cervix; conversely 8.3% of women with cervical HPV were HPV-positive in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral HPV was relatively low, considering the high rates of oral sex practiced by these women.
Hellwig, E; Lussi, A
Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface. Xerostomia or oral dryness can occur as a consequence of medication such as tranquilizers, anti-histamines, anti-emetics and anti-parkinsonian medicaments or of salivary gland dysfunction e.g. due to radiotherapy of the oral cavity and the head and neck region. Above all, these patients should be aware of the potential demineralization effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. Acetyl salicylic acid taken regularly in the form of multiple chewable tablets or in the form of headache powder as well chewing hydrochloric acids tablets for treatment of stomach disorders can cause erosion. There is most probably no direct association between asthmatic drugs and erosion on the population level. Consumers, patients and health professionals should be aware of the potential of tooth damage not only by oral hygiene products and salivary substitutes but also by chewable and effervescent tablets. Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids.
Lajoinie, A; Henin, E; Kassai, B
Selecting the most appropriate oral formulation is very challenging when developing medicines for children and in routine practice. Research in pediatric pharmacology has focused on oral drug formulation, determining whether the active pharmaceutical ingredient can be successfully delivered to children. Pediatric expert committees (EMA, EuFPI) recommend that children's medicines be safe, well tolerated, easy to use (palatable and requiring minimal handling), transportable, easily produced, cost effective, commercially viable, with a minimal impact on children's life-style. Oral liquid drug formulations (OLFs: solutions, syrups, suspensions) are historically considered as the most appropriate oral formulation for children, since they are easy to swallow for younger infants and palatable for children. However, OLFs present numerous disadvantages, such as low stability, potentially toxic excipients for children, and low transportability. In the long-term, dose volume and frequency of administration might lead to non-compliance. Multiple preparation steps and volume calculations are also among risk factors for medicine errors in children. An alternative to OLFs is the conventional solid oral dosage form (OSF), such as tablets and capsules. These offer the advantages of greater stability, easy dose selection, improved transportability, and ease of storage. They also allow the modification of drug pharmacokinetic parameters, minimizing administration frequency. Finally, OSFs are less costly than OLFs, since they are easier to develop, manufacture, transport, store, and deliver. Controlled study results suggest that the use of OSFs in children would be associated with greater acceptability by children, greater preference on the part of caregivers, and higher drug compliance than OLFs. Recent controlled studies, confirming that OSFs with an acceptable size for children (mini-tablets), should shift the current paradigm of OLFs as the reference for children's oral medicine
Murai, Atsushi; Kitahara, Kazuki; Okumura, Shouta; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko
Recent studies have emphasized the crucial role of gut microbiota in triggering and modulating immune response. We aimed to determine whether the modification of gut microbiota by oral co-administration of two antibiotics, ampicillin and neomycin, would lead to changes in the antibody response to antigens in chickens. Neonatal chickens were given or not given ampicillin and neomycin (0.25 and 0.5 g/L, respectively) in drinking water. At 2 weeks of age, the chicks were muscularly or orally immunized with antigenic keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and then serum anti-KLH antibody levels were examined by ELISA. In orally immunized chicks, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced antibody responses (IgM, IgA, IgY) by 2-3-fold compared with the antibiotics-free control, while the antibiotics did not enhance antibody responses in the muscularly immunized chicks. Concomitant with their enhancement of antibody responses, the oral antibiotics also lowered the Lactobacillus species in feces. Low doses of antibiotics (10-fold and 100-fold lower than the initial trial), which failed to change the fecal Lactobacillus population, did not modify any antibody responses when chicks were orally immunized with KLH. In conclusion, oral antibiotics treatment enhanced the antibody response to orally exposed antigens in chickens. This enhancement of antibody response was associated with a modification of the fecal Lactobacillus content, suggesting a possible link between gut microbiota and antibody response in chickens.
Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah
Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327
Lanman, Barry A.; Wendlin, Laura M.
"Preparing the Next Generation of Oral Historians" is a resource to educators seeking to bring history alive for students at all levels. The anthology opens with chapters on the fundamentals of oral history and its place in the classroom, but its heart lies in nearly two dozen insightful personal essays by educators who have successfully…
Meier, Christoph R
Oral contraceptives (OC) are either composed of a combination of an estrogen derivative (usually ethinly estradiol) and a progestogen, or they contain a progestogen only. OC are characterized by a high effectiveness and have a low failure rate if taken correctly. Most women tolerate OC relatively well, but adverse effects do occur which are driven by the estrogen dose as well as by the type of progestogen. The most frequently reported adverse effects are nausea or vomiting, breast tenderness, headache or inbalanced mood, but these unwanted side effects are often transient. The fear of weight gain of many OC users is not necessarily supported by data from studies which report relatively little differences in body mass index on average during OC use. Nevertheless, substantial weight gain can occur in individual women. The widely discussed fear of breast cancer is also not justified, and the risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer is reduced for women who use OC on a regular basis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the adverse effect with the greatest potential for serious harm if pulmonary embolism develops. This rare, but potentially dangerous adverse effect of OC has been discussed emotionally for many years and keeps attracting a lot of public interest. VTE is rare in young women, but the VTE risk is increased two- to sixfold for OC users as compared to non-users. The VTE risk increases with increasing estrogen dose, is highest in the first year of use, and is higher for OC from the third generation (containing desogestrel, gestodene or norgestimate) than for OC from the second generation (containing levonorgestrel) or than for the progestogen-only pill. According to most studies, OC containing the progestogens drospirenone or cyproterone acetate are similar with regard to VTE risks than OC from the third generation. Individual genetic susceptibility affecting the clotting system plays a major role in the risk of developing VTE in combination with OC, and
Hoppe, T; Kraus, D; Novak, N; Probstmeier, R; Frentzen, M; Wenghoefer, M; Jepsen, S; Winter, J
The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. The expression of oncogenic relevant anti-microbial peptides was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were performed to examine cellular impacts caused by stimulation, i.e., altered gene expression, proliferation rate, and EGF receptor-dependent signaling. Incubation of oral tumor cells with an oral pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) and human α-defensins led to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, another oral bacterium used, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, enhanced cell death. The bacteria and anti-microbial peptides exhibited diverse effects on the transcript levels of oncogenic relevant defensin genes and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These two oral pathogens exhibited opposite primary effects on the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells. Nevertheless, both microbe species led to similar secondary impacts on the proliferation rate by modifying expression levels of oncogenic relevant α-defensin genes. In this respect, oral pathogens exerted multiplying effects on tumor cell proliferation. Additionally, human defensins were shown to differently influence epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, supporting the hypothesis that these anti-microbial peptides serve as ligands of EGFR, thus modifying the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells.
Thurnheer, Thomas; Belibasakis, Georgios N
Biofilms are polymicrobial communities that grow on surfaces in nature. Oral bacteria can spontaneously form biofilms on the surface of teeth, which may compromise the health of the teeth, or their surrounding (periodontal) tissues. While the oral bacteria exhibit high tropism for their specialized ecological niche, it is not clear if bacteria that are not part of the normal oral microbiota can efficiently colonize and grow within oral biofilms. By using an in vitro "supragingival" biofilm model of 6 oral species, this study aimed to investigate if 3 individual bacterial species that are not part of the normal oral microbiota (Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecails) and one not previously tested oral species (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) can be incorporated into this established supragingival biofilm model. Staphylococcus aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans were able to grow efficiently in the biofilm, without disrupting the growth of the remaining species. They localized in sparse small aggregates within the biofilm mass. Enterococcus faecalis and E. coli were both able to populate the biofilm at high numbers, and suppressed the growth of A. oris and S. mutants. Enterococcus faecalis was arranged in a chain-like conformation, whereas E. coli was densely and evenly spread throughout the biofilm mass. In conclusion, it is possible for selected species that are not part of the normal oral microbiota to be introduced into an oral biofilm, under the given experimental micro-environmental conditions. Moreover, the equilibrated incorporation of A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. aureus in this oral biofilm model could be a useful tool in the study of aggressive periodontitis and peri-implantitis, in which these organisms are involved, respectively.
Michcik, Adam; Michajłowski, Igor; Starzyńska, Anna
Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique, which aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The oral mucosa is examined at multiple magnifications and features such as sub-epithelial mucosal vessels, surface patterns, colour tone, transparency and the exact demarcation of mucosal lesions are estimated. The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) oscillates between 1.9% and 3.5%, which makes it the eighth most common carcinoma occurring around the world and in Poland. The 5-year survival rates oscillate between 20% and 30%. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate clinically unchanged mucosal margins around OSCC by direct oral microscopy. The authors approached the question whether the borders of mucosal margins around OSCC established via direct oral microscopy differ from those established based on clinical examination. Material and methods Fifteen patients diagnosed with OSCC were enrolled. Patients were first clinically examined to evaluate the extent of the tumour and to plan resection margins. Eventually, direct oral microscopy was performed to establish the width of the subclinically unchanged mucosal margins based on a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae, followed by comparison with those established by clinical evaluation. Results Histopathologic results of biopsies from areas indicated by direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 86.7% of patients, whereas biopsies from areas indicated by clinical examination revealed dysplasia only in 40% of individuals, resulting in the need for widening of mucosal margins. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy enables detection of dysplasia within clinically unaltered mucosal margins around OSCC, which results in more precise establishing of resection boundaries, contributing to improvement of resection totality. PMID:26759543
Rama, T A; Côrte-Real, I; Gomes, P S; Escribano, L; Fernandes, M H
Mastocytosis encompasses a group of rare clinical entities, which are characterized by an abnormal growth and, usually, low accumulation of clonal and morphologically abnormal mast cells (MCs), within one or more organs. Clinical presentations are quite variable and symptoms are usually related to the release of mast cell mediators, tissue infiltration by MC (usually in the aggressive categories of the disease), or both. Mast cells are hematopoietic-derived cells that reach phenotypic maturity in the mucosa and peripheral connective tissues. These cells play an active role both on immunologic and non-immunologic processes. Within the oral cavity, MCs reside in the connective tissues, in physiologic conditions, and their number is elevated in pathologic situations resulting from immunoinflammatory processes, such as pulpal inflammation and periodontal disease. As MCs influence so many phenomena within the oral cavity, mastocytosis may manifest itself in the oral tissues. Patients with mastocytosis should be put under special care by dental professionals, in what concerns not only general patient management, but also drug prescription, as they are particularly prone to anaphylaxis and other peri and post-operative complications. Several allergens or mast cell activation triggers such as local anesthetics, zinc oxide, eugenol, penicilins, metals and oral hygiene products are frequently administered or prescribed by dentists. Patients with mastocytosis may also require stress management, during dental consultation. This review aims to briefly summarize the potential ways in which mast cell disease may affect the oral cavity and the dental management of mastocytosis affected patients.
Feldblum, P J; Burton, N; Rosenberg, M J
Oral contraceptive use has been shown to protect against gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), but the effect on chlamydial PID is uncertain. Chlamydia infection is rising in incidence and has become the major cause of PID in many areas. PID may cause infertility, impairing the future reproduction of women. Previous studies on oral contraceptives and PID relied on hospitalized women, which may have biased the sample to include mainly gonococcal PID. Several studies show increased risk of endocervical chlamydia infection in users of oral contraceptives. The postulated mechanism is cervical ectopy, exposing more squamous epithelium to the organisms. Nevertheless, there is evidence indicating that despite the increased incidence of endocervical infection, oral contraceptives may inhibit the organisms from ascending, thus still offering a protective affect against both gonococcal and chlamydial PID. Future research must focus on the prevalence of chlamydia infection in Africa, and the natural history of the illness. The effect of different types of oral contraceptives on chlamydia infection must be evaluated.
Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara
Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694
Imanguli, MM; Alevizos, I; Brown, R; Pavletic, SZ; Atkinson, JC
OBJECTIVE: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplant. It is estimated that 40–70% of engrafted patients surviving the initial transplant eventually develop chronic GVHD (cGVHD), which can persist for months to years and require long-term management from multiple disciplines. This review describes the oral component of this transplant complication. DESIGN: The search related to GVHD patho-biology, salivary gland disease after hematopoietic cell transplant and treatments for oral GVHD encompassed literature from 1966 through 2008. Searches were limited to the MEDLINE/PubMed database and English language literature in peer-reviewed journals. RESULTS: Our understanding of the patho-biology of oral cGVHD is based on studies of other affected tissues. It is difficult to determine the prevalence and incidence of salivary gland disease after transplant because there is no universally accepted case definition. In general, clinical trials for treatment of oral cGVHD have been too small to make strong recommendations for use in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Larger well-designed clinical studies are needed to understand the patho-biology of oral cGVHD and determine best treatments for this disease. PMID:18593456
Arnaiz, Ainara; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Díez-Altuna, Izaskun; Uriarte, Jose J; Moro, Juan; Pérez-Ansorena, Maria A
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the oral health of a group of schizophrenic outpatients and a control group without psychiatric illness. The study also aimed to assess the influence of positive and negative symptomatology on oral health among outpatients with schizophrenia. The DMF-T Index (sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth) and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) were assessed in both groups. We evaluated the psychopathological state of the patient group using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The schizophrenic patients had higher scores than the control group with respect to decayed teeth (4.39 vs. 0.72), missing teeth (5.66 vs. 1.50), the DMF-T index (13.51 vs. 7.8) and CPITN (2.32 vs. 1.04); and lower scores for filled teeth (3.53 vs. 5.54). The PANSS negative subscale score correlated positively with the oral health variables studied, whereas the PANSS positive subscale score correlated negatively and exclusively with the number of missing teeth. Age and smoking status affected oral health in both groups, but even when the influence of these factors was considered, the oral health of the patients was poorer than that of the control group.
Mustafa, Mayson B; Porter, Stephen R; Smoller, Bruce R; Sitaru, Cassian
A group of autoimmune diseases is characterised by autoantibodies against epithelial adhesion structures and/or tissue-tropic lymphocytes driving inflammatory processes resulting in specific pathology at the mucosal surfaces and the skin. The most frequent site of mucosal involvement in autoimmune diseases is the oral cavity. Broadly, these diseases include conditions affecting the cell-cell adhesion causing intra-epithelial blistering and those where autoantibodies or infiltration lymphocytes cause a loss of cell-matrix adhesion or interface inflammation. Clinically, patients present with blistering, erosions and ulcers that may affect the skin as well as further mucosal surfaces of the eyes, nose and genitalia. While the autoimmune disease may be suspected based on clinical manifestations, demonstration of tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies, or lymphocytic infiltrates, by various methods including histological examination, direct and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting and quantitative immunoassay is a prerequisite for definitive diagnosis. Given the frequency of oral involvement and the fact that oral mucosa is the initially affected site in many cases, the informed practitioner should be well acquainted with diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune dermatosis with oral involvement. This paper reviews the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of these conditions in the oral cavity with a specific emphasis on their differential diagnosis and current management approaches.
Personal responsibility is a powerful idea supported by many values central to West European thought. On the conceptual level personal responsibility is a complex notion. It is important to separate the concept of being responsible for a given state of affairs from the concept of holding people responsible by introducing measures that decrease their share of available resources. Introducing personal responsibility in oral health also has limitations of a more practical nature. Knowledge, social status and other diseases affect the degree to which people can be said to be responsible for their poor oral health. These factors affect people's oral health and their ability to take care of it. Both the conceptual and practical issues at stake are not reasons to abandon the idea of personal responsibility in oral health, but they do affect what the notion means and when it is reasonable to hold people responsible. They also commit people who support the idea of personal responsibility in oral health to supporting the idea of societal responsibility for mitigating the effects of factors that diminish people's responsibility and increase the available information and knowledge in the population.
Pini, Danielle de Moraes; Fröhlich, Paula Cristina Gil Ritter; Rigo, Lilian
ABSTRACT Objective To identify the prevalence of the main oral problems present in special needs children and to relate the underlying conditions with the clinical and demographic variables. Methods The study was based on the physical examination of 47 students from the Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais diagnosed as Down syndrome, cerebral palsy and intellectual deficit. For data collection, we used a self-administered questionnaire that included indices of dental caries and oral hygiene, Angle classification, malposition of dental groups and oral hygiene habits. Results The predominant age group was 12-25 years (46.8%) and most patients were male (55.3%). Regarding daily brushing, 63.8% reported brushing their teeth three times a day, and 85.1% did it by themselves. A total of 48.9% were rated as Angle class I, and 25.5% had no type of malocclusion. A high dental carries index (decayed, missing, filled >10) was observed in 44.7%, and 53.2% had inadequate oral hygiene (zero to 1.16). There was a statistically significant difference between cerebral palsy and the act of the participants brushing their teeth by themselves. Conclusion There was a high decayed-missing-filled teeth index and malocclusion class I, as well as inadequate oral hygiene. The type of underlying condition of the participants influenced the act of brushing teeth by themselves. PMID:28076597
DiPalma, J A; Buckley, S E; Warner, B A; Culpepper, R M
Our objective was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes after oral sodium phosphate cleansing in a prospectively designed study. The study subjects were seven healthy, asymptomatic adults. Sodium phosphate 45 ml diluted in 45 ml water was given orally at baseline and 12 hr later. Calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, creatinine, and PTH were analyzed at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 21 and 24 hr after the first challenge. Urinary calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and cyclic AMP were analyzed at baseline and every 2 hr after oral sodium phosphate. Blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate were recorded every 2 hr and symptom questionnaires using visual analog scales were completed. A marked rise in phosphorus (peak range 3.6-12.4 mg/dl, P < 0.001) and falls in calcium (P < 0.001) and ionized calcium (P < 0.001) were seen. Rises seen in PTH and urinary cAMP confirmed the physiologic significance of the biochemical effect. There were no significant changes in other serum and urine laboratory or clinical assessments. Reported significant symptoms included bloating, cramps, abdominal pain, and nausea. Significant hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia after oral sodium phosphate raises concern about its use in normal individuals. Oral sodium phosphate should not be administered in patients with cardiopulmonary, renal, or hepatic disease.
Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya
There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic α-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the α-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of α-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 μg/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 μg/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on α-2 adrenoceptors.
Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.
Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.
Parmentier, Johannes; Thewes, Bernhard; Gropp, Felix; Fricker, Gert
The aim of this study is to improve of oral peptide delivery by a novel type of liposomes containing tetraether lipids (TELs) derived from archaea bacteria. Liposomes were used for the oral delivery of the somatostatin analogue octreotide. TELs were extracted from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and subsequently purified to single compounds. Liposomes were prepared by the film method followed by extrusion. Vesicles in size between 130 and 207 nm were obtained as confirmed by photon correlation spectroscopy. The pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled TELs in liposomes was investigated after oral administration to rats. 1.6% of the applied radioactivity in fed and 1.5% in fasted rats was recovered in the blood and inner organs after 2h, while most of the radioactivity remained in the gastro-intestinal tract. After 24h the percentage of radioactivity in inner organs was reduced to 0.6% in fed rats, respectively 1.0% in fasted animals. Several liposomal formulations containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and TELs in different ratios were loaded with octreotide and orally administered. Liposomes with 25% TEL could improve the oral bioavailability of octreotide 4.1-fold and one formulation with a cationic TEL derivative 4.6-fold. TEL-liposomes probably act by protecting the peptide in the gastro-intestinal tract.
Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A
Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections.
Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.
Xu, Ping; Gunsolley, John
Oral diseases including periodontal disease and caries are some of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans. Different microbial species cohabitate and form a polymicrobial biofilm called dental plaque in the oral cavity. Metagenomics using next generation sequencing technologies has produced bacterial profiles and genomic profiles to study the relationships between microbial diversity, genetic variation, and oral diseases. Several oral metagenomic studies have examined the oral microbiome of periodontal disease and caries. Gene annotations in these studies support the association of specific genes or metabolic pathways with oral health and with specific diseases. The roles of pathogenic species and functions of specific genes in oral disease development have been recognized by metagenomic analysis. A model is proposed in which three levels of interactions occur in the oral microbiome that determines oral health or disease. PMID:24642489
Tada, Akio; Miura, Hiroko
AP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients, especially frail elderly patients. The aim of this article is to review effect of oral care, including oral hygiene and improvement of oral function, on the prevention of AP among elderly people in hospitals and nursing homes. There is now a substantial body of work studying the effect of oral care on the prevention of respiratory diseases. Oral hygiene, consisting of oral decontamination and mechanical cleaning by dental professionals, has resulted in significant clinical effects (decreased incidence of pneumonia and decreased mortality from respiratory diseases) in clinical randomized trials. Moreover, studies examining oral colonization by pneumonia pathogens have shown the effect of oral hygiene on eliminating these pathogens. In addition, swallowing training has been shown to improve the movement and function of swallowing-related muscles, also resulting in decreased incidence of pneumonia. These findings support the contention that oral care is effective in the prevention of AP.
Nittis, Maria; Franco, Michele; Cochrane, Clint
Standard collection procedure for the investigation of allegations of penile - oral assault has traditionally been the oral swab. Review of both the literature and NSW forensic laboratory results from oral swabbing has highlighted the sub-optimal nature of this method for the recovery of both sperm and offender DNA. 554 oral swabs, collected in NSW from 2010 to 2015, were analysed. Sperm detection occurred in only 4.2%. In the same period there was analysis of 104 oral rinses (of which 16.4% were positive for sperm) and 71 peri-oral samples (of which 18.3% were positive for sperm). As a result, a decision was made to revise forensic collection guidelines for sample collection in cases of penile - oral assault. Oral swabbing is no longer recommended. Current NSW forensic collection guidelines recommend the collection of both an oral rinse and a peri-oral (lip) swab. Samples are to be taken in the first 12 h after a penile - oral assault in all cases where there is a suspicion of oral assault. Oral collections may be extended to 24 h post penile - oral assault in those cases where there is either a clear recollection of ejaculation into the mouth (or ejaculation elsewhere prior to penile penetration of the mouth) or in those cases where a complainant is clear that there had been penile penetration of the mouth but is unable to recall whether or not ejaculation has taken place.
Wingrave, S J
The longterm prospective study of health effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) conducted by the Royal College of General Practitioners compared 23,000 OC users with 23,000 controls matched for age and marital status. As of 1981, 55 deaths attributable to circulatory problems had occurred in ever-users of OCs, ciompared to 10 in controls, giving a relative risk of 4.2 for OC users. No relation was found between duration of use and mortality risk among users, although mortality risks were greater at all durations of use than for nonusers. Parity was related to mortality risk among users but not among controls. The most significant factors affecting the relation between pill use and circulatory risk were age and smoking. Among users who smoked, the risk ratios were 3.4 for those aged 25-34, 4.2 for those aged 35-44, 7.4 for those aged 45 and over, and 5.1 for the entire group. Among nonsmoking pill users, the ratios were 1.6 for those aged 25-34, 3.3 for those aged 35-44, 4.6 for those 45 and over, and 3.2 for the total sample. Among smokers, the rates of excess deaths were 1 in 10,000 for users aged 15-34, 1 in 2000 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in550 for those aged 45 and over. Among nonsmokers, the rates were 1 in 50,000 users for those aged 25-34, 1 in 6700 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in 2500 for those aged 45 and over. The majority of deaths were attributed to ischemic cardiac problems and to sub-arachnoid hemorrhages, and risks appeared to be elevated in former as well as current users. The total incidence of circulatory effects in former users appears to be elevated only for cerebrovascular disorders, but the suggestion of residual effects requires further study before conclusions can be drawn. Smokers who developed cardiovascular or cerebrovascular problems were at 2-3 times greater risk of dying than were other women. The percentages of fatal cases of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases were 22.8% among ever-users who smoked, 10.9% among controls who
Reginald, Ajay; Sivapathasundharam, B.
Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion. PMID:22114370
Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki
Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.
Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo
Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133
Hutton, A; McKaig, S; Bardsley, P; Monaghan, A; Parmar, S
From the Department of Dental Specialties, Birmingham Children's Hospital. This case study describes a rare case of oral carcinoma cuniculatum in a 7-year-old female. She presented with an enlarged mass of the anterior maxilla arising from the gingiva. An anterior maxillectomy with immediate prosthetic replacement and obturation of the residual defect were carried out. The management of this case was challenging given the rare nature of the disease, unclear etiology, the patient's young age and the mutilating effects of surgery. The treatment involved a large multidisciplinary team. The provision of obturators was particularly difficult due to poor patient compliance and the extent of surgery carried out in a growing child. Oral cancer in children under 15 years old is extremely rare and this is the youngest case of oral carcinoma cuniculatum reported in the literature.
Esguep, A; Ceballos, M; Smith, P
The aim of this study was to look for pathological changes in the oral cavity in a group of 40 non cirrhotic male alcoholics, ranging in age from 30 to 40 years old. These subjects were compared with a group of 40 non alcoholic male subjects of similar age. The presence of lip, dental, periodontal, salivary gland and oral mucosa lesions was recorded. In alcoholics, pigmented lesions were observed in the lips in all the subjects (compared to 36% of controls), in the cheek mucosa in 65% and in the palate mucosa in 35.5%. Sixty five percent of alcoholics were partially edentate (compared to 32.5% of controls). It is concluded that the consideration of oral changes as a whole could be useful in the diagnosis of occult alcoholism. Moreover these patients have an important need of odontological attention that has to be considered.
S., Vagish Kumar L.
Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer. PMID:25006559
Rawlings, J M; Culham, N
We compared currently used methods for assessing oral malodor and found a significant, positive correlation between the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in breath and the human perception of malodor, but only within a limited range of VSC production. Daily tooth-brushing from an early age maintains a low and consistent level of oral malodor that does not differ significantly throughout the day. In contrast, dogs with elevated concentrations of VSC production suffer from the highest level of malodor early in the morning, prior to feeding and daily activities. Even in older dogs, periodontal therapy can result in a substantial reduction of oral malodor that remains significantly below pre-treatment values for up to 3 months after treatment.
Naik, Saraswathi Vishnu; Ghousia, Syed; Shashibhushan, Kamalaksharappa; Benni, Deepa
A pulse granuloma is nothing but a reaction of the foreign body to any vegetable which is characterized by a collection of the hyaline; a hyaline is a transparent substance that is formed from the pathological degeneration of the tissue. These granulomatous rings may be oral or extra-oral. It is important to recognize such a type of granuloma because it may resemble serious pathological processes or may clinically stimulate neoplasia. It might also be confused morphologically with hyaline vasculopathy. The following manuscript presents a rare case of oral pulse granuloma. As going by the literature-search, the following being the only case to have been occurred in a pediatric patient. The authors therefore aim to bring awareness amongst the pediatric dentists about its etiology, occurrence, clinical features and thereby management of the same. PMID:23559964
Banerjee, Amrita; Wong, Jessica; Gogoi, Rohan; Brown, Tyler; Mitragotri, Samir
Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health issue that has almost reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Injectable insulin has been typically utilized for the management of this chronic disease. However, lack of patient compliance with injectable formulations has spurred the development of oral insulin formulations, which although appealing, face several delivery challenges. We have developed novel mucoadhesive intestinal patches, several hundred micrometers in dimension (micropatches) that address the challenges of oral insulin delivery. The micropatches adhere to the intestinal mucosa, release their drug load rapidly within 30 min and are effective in lowering blood glucose levels in vivo. When insulin-loaded micropatches were administered with a permeation enhancer and protease inhibitor, a peak efficacy of 34% drop in blood glucose levels was observed within 3 h. Efficacy further improved to 41% when micropatches were administered in multiple doses. Here, we describe the design of micropatches as an oral insulin formulation and report their in vivo efficacy.
Werneck, Juliana Tristão; Costa, Taiara de Oliveira; Stibich, Christian Abreu; Leite, Cristhiane Almeida; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Silva Junior, Arley
BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is considered to be the most common dermatological disease involving the oral mucosa. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the profile, clinical features, and the presence of dysplasia and candidiasis in patients with oral lichen planus. METHODS: A total of 21 patients were selected from 258 patients at risk for oral cancer development. RESULTS: Most of the patients were white (76,2%), female (66,6%), with mean age of 58.8 years. Eight were smokers and seven were alcohol consumers. The buccal mucosa was the most affected site, followed by the tongue and the gingiva. The reticular pattern was the most common appearance. Histopathology depicted dysplasia in nine cases and cytopathology was positive for Candida in eight cases in the first appointment. CONCLUSION: Our data are similar to the literature. Cytopathology was important for the diagnosis of candidiasis. Although the presence of dysplasia was verified, further studies are necessary to clarify the importance of this finding. PMID:26131860
Basson, N J; du Toit, I J; Grobler, S R
The antibacterial properties of honey against medically important bacteria have been well documented but this information is not available for the oral bacteria and specifically for the oral streptococci. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of honey for oral streptococci. Honey had a MIC of 25 per cent (vol/vol) for the bacteria tested with the exception of Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus oralis which were inhibited by 17 per cent (vol/vol) and 12 per cent (vol/vol) honey respectively. The hypertonic sugar control had a MIC of 25 per cent (vol/vol) for all the bacteria tested. Although the results of this study indicate that there could be other antibacterial agents present in the honey, it may be assumed that the hypertonic sugar concentration played an important role in this activity.
Poonia, Neelam; Kharb, Rajeev; Lather, Viney; Pandita, Deepti
Oral delivery is the most accepted and economical route for drug administration and leads to substantial reduction in dosing frequency. However, this route still remains a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry due to poorly soluble and permeable drugs leading to poor oral bioavailability. Incorporating bioactives into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) has helped in boosting their therapeutic functionality and prolonged release from these carrier systems thus providing improved pharmacokinetic parameters. The present review provides an overview of noteworthy studies reporting impending benefits of NLCs in oral delivery and highlights recent advancements for developing engineered NLCs either by conjugating polymers over their surface or modifying their charge to overcome the mucosal barrier of GI tract for active transport across intestinal membrane. PMID:28031979
Bonifait, Laetitia; Chandad, Fatiha; Grenier, Daniel
For some decades now, bacteria known as probiotics have been added to various foods because of their beneficial effects for human health. The mechanism of action of probiotics is related to their ability to compete with pathogenic microorganisms for adhesion sites, to antagonize these pathogens or to modulate the host"s immune response. The potential application of probiotics for oral health has recently attracted the attention of several teams of researchers. Although only a few clinical studies have been conducted so far, the results to date suggest that probiotics could be useful in preventing and treating oral infections, including dental caries, periodontal disease and halitosis. This article summarizes the currently available data on the potential benefits of probiotics for oral health.
Hertel, Moritz; Matter, Daniel; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea M; Bornstein, Michael M
Syphilis is an infectious, usually sexually transmitted, disease caused by Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. Because of the increasing prevalence in Europe during the past few years, dentists could be confronted with patients with oral manifestations of syphilis. Because oral lesions are highly contagious, it is vital to make the correct diagnosis quickly to initiate the proper therapy and to interrupt the chain of infection. We present the cases of 5 patients with syphilis-related oral lesions. These cases are representative because of their clinical presentation, age, and gender distribution and the diagnostic approach. The aim of the present report is to emphasize the importance of the dentist knowing and identifying syphilis in different stages to diagnose the disease and institute treatment at an early stage.
Warrier, S. Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection. PMID:26538978
Dixit, R P; Puthli, S P
Over the recent past, many of the research groups are focusing their research on this technology. Amongst the plethora of avenues explored for rapid drug releasing products, Oral Strip Technology (OST) is gaining much attention. The advantages of OST are the administration to pediatric and geriatric patient population where the difficulty of swallowing larger oral dosage forms is eliminated. This technology has been used for local action, rapid release products and for buccoadhesive systems that are retained for longer period in the oral cavity to release drug in controlled fashion. OST offers an alternate platform for molecules that undergo first pass metabolism and for delivery of peptides. The review article is an overview of OST encompassing materials used in OST, critical manufacturing aspects, applications, commercial technologies and future business prospects of this technology.
More, Chandramani B; Bhavsar, Khushbu; Varma, Saurabh; Tailor, Mansi
Background: Oral mucocele is the most common benign minor (accessory) salivary gland lesion, caused due to mechanical trauma to the excretory duct of the gland. Clinically they are characterized by single or multiple, soft, fluctuant nodule, ranging from the normal color of the oral mucosa to deep blue. It affects at any age and is equally present in both sexes with highest incidence in second decade of life. They are classified as extravasation or retention type. Objectives: To analyze the data between 2010 and 2011 of, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed 58 oral mucoceles for age, gender, type, site, color, cause, symptoms and dimension. Results: Oral mucoceles were highly prevalent in the age group of 15-24 years, were seen in 51.72% of males and 48.28% of females, with a ratio of 1.07:1. The extravasation type (84.48%) was more common than the retention type (15.52%). The most common affected site was lower lip (36.20%) followed by ventral surface of the tongue (25.86%). The lowest frequency was observed in floor of mouth, upper lip and palate. The maximum numbers of mucoceles were asymptomatic (58.62%), and the color of the overlying mucosa had color of adjacent normal mucosa (48.28%). It was also observed that most of the mucoceles had diameter ranging from 5 to 14 mm. The causative factors of the lesion were lip biting (22.41%), trauma (5.18%) and numerous lesions (72.41%). Conclusion: Oral Mucoceles are frequently seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lip, measuring around 5 to 14 mm and the extravasation type being the most common. PMID:25364184
Munro, Cindy L
Oral health is integrally linked to overall well-being. This article describes a research program focused on the contribution of poor oral health to systemic illness. Initial investigations examined factors related to streptococcal virulence that were important in dental caries and endocarditis and led to development of immunization strategies in animal models to reduce risk of endocarditis. Clinical investigations related to critically ill adults began with descriptive and observational studies that established the importance of dental plaque in development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and examined existing nursing practices in oral care. Subsequent intervention studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to test oral care protocols in critically ill adults have built on that foundation. The group's first NIH-funded randomized clinical trial tested the effects of toothbrushing and use of chlorhexidine in reducing risk of VAP in critically ill adults and showed that VAP was reduced by topical application of chlorhexidine initiated after intubation, although toothbrushing did not reduce VAP. The study had a rapid and dramatic effect on clinical practice. Results of the study were published in September 2009 in the American Journal of Critical Care, and in May 2010, the Institute for Health-care Improvement updated the recommendations for the care of patients receiving mechanical ventilation (the ventilator bundle) to include daily oral care with chlorhexidine, referencing the results of that study as evidence for the change. Chlorhexidine is now the standard of care for adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Because the effects of chlorhexidine after intubation were so beneficial, a second recently completed NIH-funded randomized clinical trial investigated the impact of chlorhexidine applied before intubation compared with after intubation. Currently a large randomized clinical trial is being launched to determine the optimal
Patton, Lauren L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications.
Ljubojević, Suzana; Skerlev, Mihael; Alajbeg, Ivan
Many believe that oral sex is safe sex and does not pose a risk of getting sexually transmitted diseases. Despite the prevalence of oral sex, the number of diagnosed oral and pharyngeal sexually transmitted infection is lower than that of anal and vaginal sex. Oral contact with the genitals can cause tiny micro traumas through which pathological microorganisms that are present in body fluids can come into contact and be transmitted. This article reviews the literature on the role of oral sex in the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and the corresponding clinical presentation or oral diseases.
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki
In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes worldwide. The high mortality rate in cancer such as oral squamous cell carcinoma is commonly attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease at an early and treatable stage. New methods of nanoengineered materials that are being developed might be effective in detecting the disease at an early treatable stage and treating illnesses and diseases such as cancer. "Nanotechnology" refers to the handling and/or engineering of nano-objects on the scale of molecules. This review deals with some recent developments concerning cancer detection and treatment enabled by nanotechnologies.
Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P
Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid.
William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.
IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and
Sebastiani, Francesco R; Dym, Harry; Wolf, Joshua
This article highlights the commonly used medications used in dentistry and oral surgery. General dentists and specialists must be knowledgeable about the pharmacology of the drugs currently available along with their risks and benefits. Enteral sedation is a useful adjunct for the treatment of anxious adult and pediatric patients. When enteral sedation is used within the standards of care, the interests of the public and the dental profession are served through a cost-effective, effective service that can be widely available. Oral sedation enables dentists to provide dental care to millions of individuals who otherwise would have unmet dental needs.
Montoya, Manuel; Chumbiraico, Robert; Ricalde, Melvin; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo
Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl-neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient's history included pulmonary tuberculosis twice and previous abandonment of therapy. Thus, it was necessary to use oral itraconazole combined with second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs administered through a gastrostomy tube. The clinical development was favorable.
Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Kalra, Gauri
Leukemia is one of the most common malignancies affecting children in India. These children usually suffer from various oral complications, which may be due to the leukemia or due to the chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiotherapy. The complications may include some of the opportunistic infections like candidiasis, herpes simplex; hemorrhage, mucositis, taste alterations and increased incidence of dental caries etc. These complications can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various oral complications in these children and the methods of prevention and management. PMID:22837605
Boyle, C A; Manley, M C; Fleming, G J
This paper demonstrates how oral midazolam can be employed as an alternative method of behaviour management to general anaesthesia for the dental treatment of people with learning disabilities. A range of treatments, from scaling to root canal therapy, can be carried out successfully using the sedation technique outlined. The advantages of sedation include reduced morbidity and mortality. Treatment outcomes are also likely to be improved as root canal therapy and periodontal care can be carried out over a number of visits rather than a single treatment session under general anaesthesia. Oral sedation with midazolam should improve the scope of dental treatment available to patients with disabilities.
Miura, H; Isogai, E; Mizugai, H; Miura, K
The majority of patients with Behçet's disease (BD) suffers from oral ulcers. The aim of the present study was to survey self-rated oral health status, oral function, and oral health behaviour of patients with BD in eastern Japan. Subjects were 33 BD patients and 101 healthy individuals ranging in age from 20 to 59 years. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The items of oral health in the questionnaire included subjective symptoms, self-rated dental problems and oral health behaviour. We found that compared to the healthy subjects, BD patients experienced more severe physical limitations, mainly involving difficulty in pronouncing words (p < 0.01) and the pain of oral mucosa and gingival tissue caused by oral ulcers (p < 0.01). Based on the results of oral health behaviour, BD patients did not behave positively with regard to maintaining oral health including regular tooth brushing despite relatively higher risk of dental diseases that they face. The present results suggest that oral ulcers due to BD induced dental disorder such as the pain of gingiva, oral mucosa, and difficulty in the pronouncing of words. In spite of this, their oral health behaviour is not positive compared to the healthy subjects. Thus, the need to develop a more active pragramme for oral health education for patients with BD is indicated.
Damle, S G; Gandhi, M; Laheri, V
The safe and effective treatment of uncooperative or combative preschool children with extensive dental needs is one of pediatric dentist's ongoing challenges. The traditional methods of behavior management are no longer acceptable to parents as they are not ready to spare more time for dental treatment of their children. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed and carried out to evaluate the sedative effects of oral ketamine and oral midazolam prior to general anesthesia. Twenty uncooperative children in the age-group of 2-6 years were selected after thorough medical examination and investigations. Informed consent was obtained from the parent. This was a randomized double-blind study. An anesthesiologist administered either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam or 5 mg/kg ketamine orally. The heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation were recorded at regular intervals. The sedation and anxiolysis scores were also recorded. The parents were asked to answer a questionnaire at the follow-up session the next day on the surgical experience of the parent and the child and side effects experienced, if any. When the data was subjected to statistical analysis, it was observed that both drugs resulted in adequate sedation at the end of 30 min, with oral midazolam providing significantly better anxiolysis. The heart rate and respiratory rate were marginally higher with oral ketamine. The questionnaire revealed a better response with oral midazolam; side effects were more prominent with oral ketamine.
Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.
Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…
Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu
Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9), of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0) and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4), and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7) and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8) indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer.
Shah, Altaf Hussain; ElHaddad, Sally A.
Background: Behavioral aspects play a major role in the prevention of oral diseases. Moreover, not many people are aware of the relationship of smoking with potential oral diseases. Therefore, the aims of this study were to analyze oral hygiene behavior, smoking habits, and perceived oral health problems among a sample of university students in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire about oral hygiene behavior, smoking, and perceived oral health problems was developed. The questionnaires were mainly distributed in Medical, Dental, and Pharmacy colleges of the university. Questionnaires completed at other colleges were included under the term “other colleges.” Results: Overall, 380 questionnaires were returned. Majority of the students (92.4%) reported cleaning their teeth. Most of the students reported cleaning teeth once daily (48.7%). Just over a half (55.8%) reported having a dental check-up in the last 6 months, and a significantly higher number of dental students reported having a dental check-up (P < 0.05). Regarding smoking, the majority (63.4%) reported to have never smoked while 17.3% reported that they were smoking frequently. About 17.6% perceived oral health problems, including a significant proportion of those who reported frequent smoking. Conclusions: Oral hygiene behavior exhibited by the university students sample was similar. Majority cleaned their teeth, although only once. Smoking habit was not exhibited by the vast majority of students. Frequent smokers perceived oral health problems more than other students. PMID:26312233
Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M
Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.
Couch, Elizabeth; Mead, Jean Marie; Walsh, Margaret M
Systematic oral care reduces oral complications among children in paediatric palliative care (PPC), yet little is known about the oral health perceptions of PPC nursing staff. This qualitative cross-sectional study used semi-structured interviews based on phenomenography to explore PPC nursing staff's perceptions of oral health and the relationship of oral care to comfort and quality of life. A purposive sample of nine nursing staff employed at a California PPC facility participated. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the interviews: signs of oral health, reasons for oral care, adaptation of oral care on a case-by-case basis, barriers to providing oral care, and facilitators of improving oral care. The perceived importance of oral health was the underlining similarity between the themes. A need for further research in the area of oral PPC is indicated. Collaboration with dental professionals may be needed to create oral PPC guidelines that fit the complex needs of children with life-limiting illnesses.
Taguchi, Yuuki; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Takizawa, Toshio; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru
We examined the effect of a clove (Syzygium aromaticum) administered by two different routes on Candida albicans growth, using a murine oral candidiasis model. When the clove preparation was administered into the oral cavity of Candida-infected mice, their oral symptoms were improved and the number of viable Candida cells in the cavity was reduced. In contrast, when the clove preparation was administered intragastrically, oral symptoms were not improved, but viable cell numbers of Candida in the stomach and feces were decreased. These findings demonstrate that oral intake of an herbal food, clove, may suppress the overgrowth of C. albicans in the alimentary tract including the oral cavity.
Peer assessment has been studied in various situations and actively pursued as a means by which students are given more control over their learning and assessment achievement. This study investigated the reliability of staff and student assessments in two oral presentations with limited feedback for a school-based thesis course in engineering…
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section 41.124 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.124...
This paper reports on a cooperative effort to create a series of web-based multimedia exhibits uniting oral history with historical images to portray the complex history of the Colorado Plateau region. Lead by a university library, regional libraries and museums worked in collaboration to integrate historical and cultural materials from each of…
A brief 1 hour oral presentation to professional staff of Cincinnati Nature Center is intended to provide a lay audience with a general understanding of how market-based approaches to environmental protection can meet (or exceed) regulatory efforts at enforcing pollution standard...
Thomas, Hadley A.; Allen, Harold B.
The authors suggest that "Oral English," designed for preschool and primary grade children whose native language is not English, may also be used with children who speak nonstandard dialects of English. Audiolingual in approach, the course is comprised of a pupil's picture book, a teacher's guide, two groups of illustrated language development…
Aranha, Solange; Leone, Paola
This contribution aims at (1) discussing the characteristics of collecting, filing and storing data to have a databank of oral interactions between university students whose main objective is the learning of a second language through teletandem; and (2) defining the steps for further collections and storage. Our data are Skype sessions of foreign…
Ducasse, Ana Maria; Brown, Annie
Speaking tasks involving peer-to-peer candidate interaction are increasingly being incorporated into language proficiency assessments, in both large-scale international testing contexts, and in smaller-scale, for example course-related, ones. This growth in the popularity and use of paired and group orals has stimulated research, particularly into…
Brinker, William J.
Reviews oral history works that examine various aspects of the Vietnam War. Incorporates diplomatic history and includes recollections of soldiers from a single county in Tennessee, veterans' families, and conscientious objectors. Covers the years of U.S. involvement, 1945-75. (MJP)
Long, Roger D.
Discusses a history professor's attempt to awaken students' interest by assigning an oral history project rather than a traditional research paper. Reports that adding to the personal dimension to the project increased students enthusiasm and introduced them to problems of historical research and historiography. Includes problems of reliability…
... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures..., the parties unanimously agree and file a joint motion requesting a hearing consisting of...
Drake, D.L.; Altig, R.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.
We quantified deformities in the marginal papillae, tooth rows, and jaw sheaths of tadpoles from 13 population samples representing three families and 11 sites in the southeastern United States. Oral deformities were observed in all samples and in 13.5-98% of the specimens per sample. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) infections were detected in three samples. There was high variability among samples in the pattern and number of discovered deformities. Pairwise associations between oral structures containing deformities were nonrandom for several populations, especially those with B. dendrobatidis infections or high total numbers of deformities. Comparisons of deformities among samples using multivariate analyses revealed that tadpole samples grouped together by family. Analyses of ordination indicated that three variables, the number of deformities, the number of significant associations among deformity types within populations, and whether populations were infected with B. dendrobatidis, were significantly correlated with the pattern of deformities. Our data indicate that the incidence of oral deformities can be high in natural populations and that phylogeny and B. dendrobatidis infection exert a strong influence on the occurrence and type of oral deformities in tadpoles. ?? by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herperologists.
Catalfamo, L; Belli, E; Nava, C; Mici, E; Calvo, A; D’Alessandro, B; De Ponte, FS
Background To date, there are no studies reported in the literature on the possible use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or synthetic hyaluronic acid medications in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper is to report the use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, and synthetic hyaluronic acid medications to improve wound healing in the oral cavity by stimulating granulomatous tissue. Methods From 2007 to 2011, 80 patients (median age 67 years) suffering from oral mucosal lesions participated in this double-blind study. The patients were divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 patients. One group received conventional medications, while the other group of patients were treated with the advanced medications. Results Advanced medications allowed re-epithelialization of the wound margin in 2–20 days, whereas patients receiving conventional medication showed a median healing duration of 45 days. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that treating oral mucosal wounds with advanced medication has an advantage with regard to wound healing time, allowing patients to have a rapid, functional, and esthetic recovery. PMID:24143092