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Sample records for contraceptivo oral contendo

  1. Use of and access to oral and injectable contraceptives in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farias, Mareni Rocha; Leite, Silvana Nair; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-12-01

    combined oral contraceptives were the most frequently reported (71.6%) and low-level levonorgestrel + ethinylestradiol combination accounted for 38.7% of them. The most frequently reported medicines are included in the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME - National List of Essential Medicines. Most women aged 15 to 49 who reported using contraceptives had access to the medicine and use monophasic combined oral contraceptives of appropriate efficiency and safety purchased by direct payment, mainly from retail pharmacies. Analisar a prevalência do uso atual de contraceptivos orais e injetáveis por mulheres brasileiras, segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e aspectos relacionados ao acesso a esses medicamentos. Estudo transversal, analítico, baseado nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), de base populacional e amostra probabilística, realizada entre setembro/2013 e fevereiro/2014, em 20.404 domicílios urbanos brasileiros. A prevalência foi calculada a partir do relato das mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, não grávidas, sobre o uso de contraceptivos orais ou contraceptivos injetáveis. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, idade, escolaridade, nível socioeconômico, região geográfica e situação conjugal. Também foram analisados acesso, fontes de financiamento, fontes de obtenção e medicamentos citados. As análises estatísticas consideraram intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) e teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson para avaliação da significância estatística das diferenças entre os grupos, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. A prevalência de uso de contraceptivos orais (CO) foi 28,2% e de contraceptivos injetáveis (CI), 4,5%. A prevalência de contraceptivos orais foi maior no Sul (37,5%) e menor no Norte (15,7%). Para contraceptivos injetáveis não houve diferença entre as regiões. O acesso foi maior para as usuárias de contraceptivos orais (90

  2. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  4. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  5. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  6. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  7. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    Cold sore; Fever blister; Oral herpes simplex; Herpes labialis; Herpes simplex ... Oral herpes is a common infection of the mouth area. It is caused by ... genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ...

  8. Oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T

    2001-04-01

    Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.

  9. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  10. Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Charruf, Laurie Frey

    1984-01-01

    Oral tests for speaking skills evaluate two major skills: linguistic competence, including accuracy of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure, and communication ease. Four factors affect students' oral performance: verbal intelligence, short-term auditory and visual memory, sound-symbol association skill, and grammatical analysis. Personality…

  11. Oral cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele.

  12. Oral Thrush

    MedlinePlus

    ... more susceptible to oral thrush infection: HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes AIDS — damages or destroys cells of your immune system, making you more susceptible to opportunistic infections that your body would normally resist. Repeated bouts of oral thrush, ...

  13. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  14. Oral mucositis

    MedlinePlus

    ... help keep your mouth moist. Stop wearing your dentures if they cause you to get sores on ... 2016. www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/side-effects/mouth-throat/oral-complications-hp-pdq . Accessed March ...

  15. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  16. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  17. Normal Oral Flora and the Oral Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H

    2017-04-01

    The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.

  18. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P; Chande, Mayura S; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2010-10-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  19. Oral myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438

  20. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Institute, components of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. For more copies contact: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Oral Health Information Clearinghouse 1 NOHIC Way Bethesda, MD 20892-3500 1–866–232–4528 www. nidcr. ...

  1. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  2. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  3. Oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, A; Morgan, R

    2002-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

  4. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  5. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  6. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  7. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  8. [Prevention of oral diseases].

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin

    2013-06-01

    Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.

  9. Factors associated with the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Daniele Aparecida Silva; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Mendes, Mayara Santos; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2017-01-12

    To estimate the prevalence of the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives and the associated factors in Brazilian women. 20,454 women who answered the VIGITEL survey in 2008 also participated in this study, of which 3,985 reported using oral contraceptives. We defined the following conditions for the contraindicated use of contraceptives: hypertension; cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack, stroke/cerebrovascular accident; diabetes mellitus; being smoker and 35 years old or older. We estimated the prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of contraindicated use in users of oral contraceptives and the factors associated with contraindication by prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. In the total population, 21% (95%CI 19.7-21.9) of women showed some contraindication to the use of oral contraceptives, of which 11.7% (95%CI 10.6-13.7) belonged to the group of users of oral contraceptives. The most frequent contraindication in users of oral contraceptives was hypertension (9.1%). The largest proportion of women with at least one contraindication was aged between 45 and 49 years (45.8%) and with education level between zero and eight years (23.8%). The prevalence of contraindication to oral contraceptives was higher in women less educated (zero to eight years of study) (PR = 2.46; 95%CI 1.57-3.86; p < 0.05) and with age between 35-44 years (PR = 4.00; 95%CI 2.34-6.83) and 45-49 years (PR = 5.59; 95%CI 2.90-10.75). Age greater than or equal to 35 and low education level were demographic and iniquity factors, respectively, in the contraindicated use of oral contraceptives. Estimar a prevalência de contraindicação ao uso de anticoncepcionais orais e os fatores associados em mulheres brasileiras. Participaram 20.454 mulheres que responderam ao inquérito Vigitel em 2008, das quais 3.985 reportaram uso de contraceptivos orais. Definiu-se como uso contraindicado de anticoncepcionais quando presente pelo menos uma condição: hipertensão; doen

  10. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Disparities in Oral Health Oral Health Conditions Periodontal Disease Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Over 70 ... 2% of U.S. adults have some form of periodontal disease. In adults aged 65 and older, 70.1% ...

  11. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Peptides in oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.

  13. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties ... years of age and older. Albuterol powder for oral inhalation (Proair Respiclick) is used in children 12 ...

  14. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  15. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  16. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  17. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  18. Oral Communication K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, June, Ed.

    This speech communication curriculum guide is designed to provide a comprehensive oral language curriculum, to suggest ways for integrating oral activities into other curriculum areas, and to stimulate ideas for using oral language in a holistic rather than a fragmentary learning environment. Following an introductory chapter on "creating the…

  19. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  20. Oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  1. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  2. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  3. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  4. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  5. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  6. Epilepsy and oral care.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole

    2002-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.

  7. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.

  8. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  9. Oral contraceptives in migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.

  10. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  11. ORAL AMELANOTIC MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  12. Oral surgery. Basic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S

    1986-09-01

    Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.

  13. Genomics of oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Margaret J

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects for oral bacteria and their non-oral-pathogen relatives. This review describes features of several oral bacterial genomes, and emphasizes the themes of species relationships, comparative genomics, and lateral gene transfer. Genomics is having a broad impact on basic research in microbial pathogenesis, and will lead to new approaches in clinical research and therapeutics. The oral microbiota is a unique community especially suited for new challenges to sequence the metagenomes of microbial consortia, and the genomes of uncultivable bacteria.

  14. Oral contraceptives: current status.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    2001-03-01

    During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.

  15. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  16. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  17. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  18. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  19. Oral availability of bilastine.

    PubMed

    Sádaba, B; Gómez-Guiu, A; Azanza, J R; Ortega, I; Valiente, R

    2013-05-01

    Bilastine (Bilaxten™) is a novel non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist (antihistamine) developed in the dosage form of oral tablets and indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. Several clinical trials have been performed in order to determine the efficacy and safety of bilastine. The aim of this trial was to study the absolute oral bioavailability of bilastine in humans. Twelve male and female adults were recruited into a single centre for a randomized, single-dose, open-label, controlled two-arm crossover study with a minimum 14-day washout period between the two single doses. Two single doses of bilastine were administered: a 20-mg oral tablet and a 10-mg intravenous formulation. Blood and urine samples were collected between 0 and 72 h post each administration. The clinical trial was carried out under quality assurance and quality control systems with standard operating procedures to ensure that the study was conducted and data generated in compliance with the protocol, Good Clinical Practice standards, International Conference on Harmonisation and other applicable regulations. Oral bioavailability of bilastine was 60.67 % with a 90 % parametric confidence interval of 53.79-67.56. The maximum bilastine concentration was measured 1.31 h after oral administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those observed in previous studies. Tolerance to treatment was good, with no adverse events related to study medication. The absorption of bilastine after oral administration to healthy subjects was rapid. The absolute oral bioavailability was moderate.

  20. Personality and oral health.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E; Broadbent, Jonathan M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. Oral health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pla, G W

    1994-03-01

    The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders.

  2. [Schizophrenia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Moullan, M; Denis, F

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is an essential component of general health. Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental illness that affects higher brain functions. It is characterized by the presence of a mental dissociation, dampened or inappropriate affects, hallucinations and delirium. Schizophrenia has also a negative impact on oral health. As schizophrenia affects 1% of the population, every practitioner concerned with oral sphere will be confronted one day or another with a patient suffering from this disease. It is therefore important to acquire essential notions. The aim of our work was to make an update about factors that may affect oral health in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  4. Etiology of oral habits.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  5. Probiotics and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Haukioja, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

  6. Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

    PubMed

    Swithers, S E; Hall, W G

    1994-10-01

    Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The diminished responsiveness is specific to the flavor of the stimulus experienced orally and can persist for several hours. We suggest that this experience-based decrement in responsiveness is best considered "oral habituation" and that oral habituation largely accounts for the onset of satiety. Post-ingestive feedback signals may have their influence through the oral habituation process or act in the context of oral habituation. Oral habituation is also shown to depend on the pattern of stimulus presentation, a phenomenon that adds considerable complexity to assessing the contributions of oral experience to satiety. The concept of oral habituation may be useful in understanding the immediate control of ingestion and the moment-to-moment expression of ingestive behavior in adult animals.

  7. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of substances. The most common causes are food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are more commonly implicated in intraoral hypersensitivity ...

  8. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-18

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.

  9. Massive Oral Decoding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicke, Eugene M.

    1981-01-01

    An intensive reading clinic used the Massive Oral Decoding (MOD) technique to help 10 reading disabled students (grades 7 and 8) increase independent reading skills. MOD stresses large amounts of reading practice at the student's independent level. (CL)

  10. Oral manifestations of menopause.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1993-12-01

    Menopause is a normal developmental stage in a woman's life, marking the permanent cessation of menstruation. It is the result of irreversible changes in the hormonal and reproductive functions of the ovaries. Menopause is accompanied by a number of characteristic physical changes; some of which occur in the oral cavity. The two most common oral manifestations of menopause are: oral discomfort, including pain, a burning sensation, dryness, and altered taste perception; and alveolar bone loss as a result of osteoporosis. Although menopause has been recognized for centuries, it has only been recently that the study of menopause has gained much attention. The purpose of this article is to review the basic physiology of menopause, and to present the etiology of the oral manifestations associated with menopause.

  11. Oral contraceptives and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G D

    1977-01-01

    A variety of studies have noted that the use of oral contraceptives generally leads to mild increases in blood pressure which are usually reversible when the medication is discontinued. Representative data from the Walnut Creek Contraceptive Drug Study and the Royal College of General Practitioners Study concerning the magnitude of excess risk and relation to duration of use and pull content are shown. Preliminary data from women, aged 25-34 years, taking multiphasic health checkups in Oakland and San Francisco, suggest that black as well as white women are susceptible to this side effect of oral contraceptives. A method is given for estimating the proportion of hypertensives among a population of young women that is attributable to oral contraceptive use. Although the risk of pull-induced hypertension is small for the average user, oral contraceptives appear to be an important identifiable cause of hypertension in samples of women studied.

  12. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  13. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the disease drawn from literally hundreds of sources. Current Stories OCF Support Group A FREE and anonymous patient / survivor discussion forum is open to the public, where those currently fighting oral ...

  15. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...

  16. Oral contraception and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G

    1976-05-22

    A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.

  17. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  18. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  19. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  20. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  1. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  2. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  3. Oral application of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Georgiades, J A; Fleischmann, W R

    1996-01-01

    A number of different laboratories reported on studies with orally administered interferons and cytokines. Their observations extend previous observations which showed that orally administered interferons and cytokines can exert both local and systemic effects. As difficult as it may be to understand how orally administered interferons and cytokines may exert both effects, the increasing number of laboratories that demonstrate biological effects with orally administered cytokines suggests that serious consideration be given to the possibility that orally administered interferons and cytokines can indeed exert effects. They also raise the possibility that these effects may have biological relevance for the treatment of human disease. Moreover, they may indicate that the nasal/oral region is a window on the environment. It is most important, however, to assure that these experiments are performed with special care to avoid presenting preliminary data that is not properly controlled. It is essential to carry out these studies with sufficient animals or patients to ascertain their significance; and to plan the studies as double-blind evaluations to avoid misinterpretations when subjective tests are used. Nevertheless, the overall data presented give one the impression of an area that should be pursued.

  4. Oral somatosensory awareness.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; de Boer, Lieke

    2014-11-01

    Oral somatosensory awareness refers to the somatic sensations arising within the mouth, and to the information these sensations provide about the state and structure of the mouth itself, and objects in the mouth. Because the oral tissues have a strong somatosensory innervation, they are the locus of some of our most intense and vivid bodily experiences. The salient pain of toothache, or the habit of running one's tongue over one's teeth when someone mentions "dentist", provide two very different indications of the power of oral somatosensory awareness in human experience and behaviour. This paper aims to review the origins and structure of oral somatosensory awareness, focussing on quantitative, mechanistic studies in humans. We first extend a model of levels of bodily awareness to the specific case of the mouth. We then briefly summarise the sensory innervation of oral tissues, and their projections in the brain. We next describe how these peripheral inputs give rise to perceptions of objects in the mouth, such as foods, liquids and oral devices, and also of the mouth tissues themselves. Finally, we consider the concept of a conscious mouth image, and the somatosensory basis of "mouth feel". The theoretical framework outlined in this paper is intended to facilitate scientific studies of this important site of human experience. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  6. HPV-associated oral warts.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

  7. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  8. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  9. The Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Arweiler, Nicole B; Netuschil, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The oral microbiota represents an important part of the human microbiota, and includes several hundred to several thousand diverse species. It is a normal part of the oral cavity and has an important function to protect against colonization of extrinsic bacteria which could affect systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are based on microorganisms. While (medical) research focused on the planktonic phase of bacteria over the last 100 years, it is nowadays generally known, that oral microorganisms are organised as biofilms. On any non-shedding surfaces of the oral cavity dental plaque starts to form, which meets all criteria for a microbial biofilm and is subject to the so-called succession. When the sensitive ecosystem turns out of balance - either by overload or weak immune system - it becomes a challenge for local or systemic health. Therefore, the most common strategy and the golden standard for the prevention of caries, gingivitis and periodontitis is the mechanical removal of this biofilms from teeth, restorations or dental prosthesis by regular toothbrushing.

  10. Oral varix: a review.

    PubMed

    Lazos, Jerónimo P; Piemonte, Eduardo D; Panico, René L

    2015-06-01

    Ageing produces several changes on the oral cavity, and oral varix (OV) is among the most common, and they are related with some medical diseases; however, this association is not clear. The aim of this article is to offer a review of OV, regarding aetiology, clinical and histological features, associated factors, treatment and its clinical significance. Except for a higher incidence of OV in elder individuals, there is limited evidence that supports its relationship with medical conditions such us cardiovascular diseases or portal hypertension. Also, there is no consensus regarding its pathogenesis, but the hemodynamic theory embodies the most comprehensive approach. The high prevalence in elderly people stresses the need for regular oral examination, but more detailed studies regarding OV in relation to systemic diseases are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  12. Oral contraceptives: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Derman, R

    1989-09-01

    Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.

  13. Oral and perioral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

    1994-06-01

    The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed.

  14. Oral Myiasis : Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan

    2002-01-01

    Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of oral health care in the special needs patients. PMID:22844224

  15. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  16. Oral myiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

    2012-04-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

  17. [Oral hygiene (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gülzow, H J

    1978-12-08

    Appropriate oral hygiene is an essential and effective prophylactic measure against caries and periodontal disease. The most important aids for this purpose are suitable multi-tufted short-headed tooth brushes with suitable plastic bristles and suitable tooth-pastes. By means of a rational technique, as for instance the rotation method, teeth and gum margin should be systematically cleaned for at least three minutes if at all possible after every meal. A certain massage effect is exerted on the gingivae at the same time. All other aids to oral hygiene such as toothpicks, dental floss, interdental stimulators, mouthwashes etc. are only additional aids which certainly have their special indications.

  18. Oral myiasis in children

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058

  19. [Oral contraceptives (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kopera, H

    1976-11-26

    A short review of the endocrinological basis of reproduction in the female is followed by a critical survey of the oral contraceptive methods in current use. The composition of the preparations, their use, their biological and use-effectiveness and mode of action are discussed.The importance is emphasized of complying with the basic principles of drug testing in the evaluation of effects of oral contraceptiveson health. Other effects than merely the contraceptive actions of these preparations are described in detail, including not only the undesirable, frequently neglected, yet very important beneficial effects on the drug-users, their children and families.

  20. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  1. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  2. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  3. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  4. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  5. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  6. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  7. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  8. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the ‘Warburg effect’. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases. PMID:27271597

  9. The novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Garcia, David A

    2013-03-01

    After the introduction of warfarin, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment remained unchanged for more than 50 years. Most recently, with the development and approval of new oral anticoagulants, the treatment of medical conditions that require thrombosis prophylaxis and long-term anticoagulation has become more complex. In the case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention after orthopedic surgery, the new oral agents will be less costly than the parenteral alternative. In other settings (such as atrial fibrillation or treatment of acute VTE), the new agents will offer additional convenience at higher cost, but the degree to which they will reduce clinically important events such as thrombosis or bleeding will be limited, especially for patients on optimally controlled warfarin. As the use of the new oral anticoagulants becomes more widespread, it will be important for all clinicians to have a basic understanding of their pharmacology, advantages, and limitations. Although the need to measure or reverse the effect of these drugs will arise infrequently, clinicians--especially hematologists--will desire evidence-based recommendations about how to manage such scenarios, which will require research studies.

  10. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  11. Oral Cancer Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the rates of oral cancers, pancreatic cancer, periodontal disease, and the chronic infections that it produces may ... patients who have confirmed distant metastasis of the disease, it is a powerful ... from periodontal problems, caries, etc. may be extracted. This avoidance ...

  12. Oral Language Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno County Dept. of Education, Fresno, CA.

    An oral language continuum designed to help elementary students develop techniques for a variety of speech situations, learn to listen, and learn to be aware of the responsibility of the speaker is presented. The continuum is divided into four sections. Student needs, implications for teaching, and suggested activities are arranged sequentially.…

  13. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  14. Research in Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Walter T., Ed.

    This collection of six articles on oral language is a product of the cooperative efforts of the National Conference on Research in English, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the International Reading Association, the Association for Childhood Education International, and the National Council of Teachers of English. It is…

  15. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  16. Oral cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Dios, Pedro Diz; Lestón, Juan Seoane

    2010-06-01

    Pain may be the initial symptom in oral cancer, and is a common complaint both in patients awaiting treatment and in those already in treatment. However, little has been published in the literature on the management of oral cancer pain. Effective pain control requires a multimodal approach in which pharmacological management based on the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder continues to play an essential role. Although different routes are available for the administration of analgesics, oral delivery continues to be the principal route for pain control in the first instance. Interventional approaches include blockade of a peripheral nerve or of the relevant ganglion, and the use of central neuraxial blockade. The intraventricular or intrathecal administration of opioids, with or without local anaesthetics, has been indicated for severe intractable pain. The development of new treatment modalities provides additional options, though further clinical research is required. There is no evidence of the efficacy of non-pharmacological methods such as acupuncture or transcutaneous nerve stimulation in the management of oral cancer pain. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have also been suggested, but their results have not been quantified. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  18. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  19. Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is currently field testing a set of instructional materials for teaching English language speaking and listening skills in preschool and first grade classes. The Oral Language Program (OLP) is directed at providing non-English speaking youngsters with a fluent, independent speaking ability in…

  20. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  1. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  2. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... What We Do Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ... Teeth Management Procedures Administration of Anesthesia Administration of Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are extensively trained to ...

  4. Hemophilia and oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaliuniene, Ruta; Peciuliene, Vytaute; Brukiene, Vilma; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to overview the oral health aspects in hemophilia patients. An electronic search of Medline (Pub Med), Cochrane, SSCI (Social Citation Index), SCI (Science Citation Index) databases from 1982 to the present, using the following search words: hemophilia, oral health, dental caries, dental caries prevalence, gingivitis, periodontitis, primary dentition, permanent dentition, dental treatment and review, was performed. The search yielded 196 titles and abstracts on chosen words. All articles were full-text reviewed and 40 of publications were included. Nowadays coagulation factor abnormalities are the most common of inherited bleeding disorders, but occur much less frequently approximating 10000-50000 male births than acquired coagulation defects. Von Willebrand disease, Hemophilia A and Hemophilia B account for 95-97% of all coagulation deficiencies. Hemophilias A and B are subdivided according to the factor's activity levels in the blood: mild, moderate or severe. The two main oral diseases affecting patients with hemophilia are the same as for the rest of population, i.e. dental caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. Only a few studies concerning oral health aspects in hemophilia patients were carried out. Some controversy exists concerning caries prevalence in both primary and permanent dentitions in children with hemophilia. People with congenital hemorrhagic diatheses constitute a very small proportion of the total population. Due to that fact treatment of such patients becomes a challenge to the most of dentists due to the fact that most of them have no experience in dealing with dental problems in such patients. There is a lack of epidemiological studies in oral health status of hemophilia patient.

  5. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  6. [Oral manifestations in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2010-11-01

    Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.

  7. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  8. Prevention of oral diseases and oral health promotion.

    PubMed

    Gift, H C

    1991-06-01

    Research and activities, as promoted in 1989 and 1990, in oral disease prevention and health promotion are summarized. Significant syntheses of research findings have occurred, as a result of planning and workship activities, which will direct oral health promotion in the 1990s. Original research on established and new preventive therapies for dental caries, periodontal diseases, oral mucosal alterations, soft-tissue lesions, precancers and cancers, and trauma are reported, opportunities to prevent oral diseases or maintain oral health through changes in individual behaviors, professional orientation, and social and environmental changes are addressed.

  9. Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-01-01

    Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures. PMID:19444317

  10. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  11. Oral History: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusnerz, Peggy Ann

    1979-01-01

    This selected bibliography lists 188 items pertaining to oral history, including manuals and handbooks, collection guides and directories, methods, interviewing techniques, theories, teaching devices, oral history in libraries and archives, international perspectives, oral history in research, the profession, and periodicals. (CHC)

  12. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  13. Oral and perioral piercing complications.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-12-04

    BACKGROUND.: The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing METHODS.: A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ;;oral and perioral, piercing , ;;oral, piercing and disease", ;;recessions and oral piercing . It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series RESULTS.: A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. CONCLUSION.: Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS.: Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

  14. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  15. 47 CFR 1.297 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297... Actions in Hearing Proceedings § 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested... oral argument. ...

  16. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasdeep; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify salivary and serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in patients with oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and healthy controls. Patients selected included 54 oral lichen planus (41 to 65 years), 50 oral leukoplakia (42 to 65 years), 51 oral submucous fibrosis (41 to 65 years), and 50 healthy controls (42 to 65 years). Oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis cases were diagnosed using histopathological analysis. Salivary and serum cytokine concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits in all subjects. The levels of serum and salivary TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were statistically significantly increased in oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and lichen planus in contrast to normal healthy subjects (P<0.05). Serum and salivary correlation analysis revealed strong and highly significant correlations for TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in all groups (r=0.72-0.82, P<0.05). Salivary and serum cytokines were also elevated when analyzed in oral precancerous lesions. Thus, salivary and serum IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α levels might act as diagnostic markers for detection of oral precancer.

  17. Oral chemotherapy in tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kay, N J

    1981-05-01

    A double-blind triple cross-over trial was designed for 21 patients suffering from tinnitus; mexiletine, diazapam, betahistine and placebo were taken each for a month sequentially during which time the patients recorded their tinnitus loudness subjectively on a visual analogue scale. The results showed that these medications did not influence the tinnitus loudness. Since mexiletine is an oral analogue of lignocaine and a cardiovascular drug, any untoward cardiovascular history and clinical finding disqualified such patients from the trial. Twenty-one such patients were rejected from an original group of 42 patients. In a volunteer trial mexiletine unrelated to this, it was reported that a vasovagal attack was suffered by someone who had just consumed 400 mg mexiletine orally. After ethical considerations the tinnitus trial was stopped. Eleven patients completed the cycle of medications, 10 did not. The dangers of using a cardiovascular drug for a non-cardiovascular condition is thus exposed.

  18. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  19. Infant Oral Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Michael J.; Levine, Norman

    1988-01-01

    The family physician/pediatrician who sees a child from birth as part of the well-baby visit program is in the best position to identify early dental problems and to educate the family about early oral preventive health care. Since children under three years of age are not seen routinely by dentists, they are at risk of developing dental disease. This paper briefly covers the areas of infant oral pathology, early preventive care, teething, suckling habits, and dental trauma in the toddler. The physician will then be in a better position to recommend to parents when they should seek dental advice and treatment for their young children. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21253204

  20. Herbs in Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand, Maryam; Jafari, Soudeh

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucositis is an inflammatory mucosal destruction as a result of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, which in severe cases can impair patients’ quality of life. Moreover, mucosal infection and/or systemic involvement due to compromised immunity leads to delay or discontinuation of the treatment. Many strategies and agents have been suggested for the management of this condition. Because of their lower side effects compared to chemical drugs, general interest in evaluating therapeutic effects of herbs has been increased intensively. Herbal plants apply their effect through different mechanisms of action: antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiseptic, and anticarcinogenic activity. Recently, various natural agents in plants have been noticed in mucositis, which may improve the symptoms through different interventions. The purpose of this review is to focus on the preventive or therapeutic use of herbal medicine to alleviate oral mucositis. PMID:28511530

  1. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  2. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Vianna, Leonora; Sobreira, Maria Nazareth; de Araújo, Flavio Nader Gross; de Melo, Nilce Santos

    2011-11-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are rare. However, bone and tooth resorption may be the result of chronic inflammation and the presence of osteoclastic cells surrounding the oxalate crystal deposit. A deposit of calcium oxalate in the periodontium was identified in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Dental radiographs indicated bone loss and external tooth resorption. Radiolucent image in the inferior incisor region was observed and removed. The tissue showed granulomatous inflammation with foreign body reaction and associated crystalline deposits. When viewed in polarized light, these deposits are green and presented a birefringent aspect, which were interpreted as calcium oxalate crystals compatible with oxaluria. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are of particular interest because of the unusual location of the oxalate crystal deposition, resulting in aggressive tooth resorption and alveolar bone loss, which may be misdiagnosed.

  3. Oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute oral ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Julia S; Rogers, Roy S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of acute oral ulcers can be challenging. Important historic details include the pattern of recurrence, anatomic areas of involvement within the mouth and elsewhere on the mucocutaneous surface, associated medical symptoms or comorbidities, and symptomology. Careful mucocutaneous examination is essential. When necessary, biopsy at an active site without ulceration is generally optimal. Depending on the clinical scenario, supplemental studies that may be useful include cultures; perilesional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence testing; and evaluation for infectious diseases, gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, connective tissue diseases, or hematinic deficiencies. Clinicians should maintain a broad differential diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute oral ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lasers in oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1994-12-01

    The indications of lasers in oral surgery are defined by the laser-tissue interaction types. These are mainly thermal effects depending especially on the absorption of laser light in varying biological tissues. In histological sections different laser effects are demonstrated on oral mucosa, bone and cartilage, which have a great influence on wound healing and subsequently on clinical indications of the different wavelengths. On the one hand the good coagulation effect of the Nd:YAG laser is wanted for hemostasis in soft tissue surgery. On the other hand, for the treatment of precancerous dysplasias or neoplasias an effective cutting with a coagulation effect like using the CO2 laser is necessary. However, the excision of benign mucosal lesions as well as performing osteotomies or shaping of cartilage should be undertaken with the Er:YAG laser without greater coagulation and consequently without any delay of wound healing.

  6. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  7. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  8. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  9. [Reiter's syndrome oral manifestations].

    PubMed

    Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G

    1988-01-01

    Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  10. Oral health & HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Naidoo, Sudeshi; Berthold, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions are common in women and children with HIV/AIDS and may decrease the overall quality of life in these patients because of pain, dry mouth, and difficulty in eating. An oral cavity screening is an easy, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive procedure that provides nurses with invaluable information about the need for referral, treatment, and health education. Nurses can use the information obtained from a careful oral screening to decrease the symptoms experienced with oral lesions and optimize a patient's ability to chew and enjoy food. Common oral manifestations of HIV infection include fungal, viral, and bacterial infections, although neoplasms, periodontal disease, salivary gland disease, and lesions of uncertain origin are also seen. Oral lesions such as candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpetic ulcers, and Kaposi's sarcoma are often among the first symptoms of HIV infection.

  11. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  12. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  13. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, N.; Amaechi, B.; Niederman, R.; Acevedo, A.-M.; Vianna, R.; Ganss, C.; Ismail, A.; Honkala, E.

    2011-01-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  14. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  15. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  16. Oral health problems and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Davarian, Shieva; Crimmins, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Background/purpose Previous studies have shown the relationship between individual oral health conditions and mortality; however, the relationship between mortality and multiple oral health conditions has not been examined. This study investigates the link between individual oral health problems and oral comorbidity and mortality risk. Materials and methods Data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, which is linked to the National Death Index for mortality follow-up through 2006. We estimated the risk of mortality among people with three individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontitis as well as with oral comorbidity—or having all three conditions. Results Significant tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease were associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between oral health conditions and mortality disappeared when controlling for sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral indicators. Having multiple oral health problems was associated with an even higher rate of mortality. Conclusion Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying. PMID:24416472

  17. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578

  18. Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2000-01-01

    In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440

  19. Oral verruciform xanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia; Staines, Konrad; Pring, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is a key for the correct management of this lesion. Excision of this lesion is curative. PMID:25819830

  20. Oral epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) is an intermediate malignant potential vascular neoplasm with uncertain clinical behavior, wide variations in microscopic findings, and prognosis. According to the World Health Organization (2002) classification, epithelioid HE has been considered under malignant tumors which rarely metastasize. The epithelioid variant, the most aggressive one, has similar gender predilection and sporadic occurrence in children. The patients usually present with an asymptomatic oral mass whereas few cases may report with the painful bleeding lesion. We attempt to present a case in an adolescent male with previously never described biological behavior, diverse histopathological features, and immunohistochemistry findings. PMID:26681871

  1. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  2. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  3. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  4. Genital occurrence of oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Forsum, U; Hjelm, E; Holmberg, K; Nord, C E; Wallin, J

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that tonsillar gonococcal infection or colonization is fairly common. Carriage rates of about 8% have been found. These studies also indicate that oro-genital contacts are common. Since very little is known about the amount of oral microbiota transmitted to the genitals, we have studied the occurrence of oral streptococci and Neisseria species in urethra and cervix. Among 128 patients attending an STD-clinic we found 10 carriers of oral streptococci, one Streptococcus mitior, four Streptococcus sanguis, one Streptococcus mutans and four Streptococcus salivarius and case of urethritis due to Neisseria menigitidis. Seventy-three of the patients had recently had their genitals exposed to the oral flora of their partners. Despite the heavy contamination with oral microbiota that can be assumed to occur in these cases, there seems to be no colonization of the genitals with oral microbiota.

  5. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  6. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  7. Complications of equine oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.

  8. Improving oral hygiene for patients.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

    2015-01-13

    Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care.

  9. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  10. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  11. Gingival involvement in oral paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cléverson O; Almeida, Aroldo Dos Santos; Pereira, Alessandro Antônio Costa; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2007-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep mycosis endemic in parts of Latin America, often presents with oral lesions involving the gingiva. Nevertheless, the periodontal literature is devoid of references to oral paracoccidioidomycosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the gingival involvement in oral paracoccidioidomycosis and to contrast clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of the disease. Differential diagnosis and management of oral paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed. From January 1995 to October 2006, the files of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Alfenas Federal University, were reviewed to identify cases referred because of a clinical diagnosis of oral paracoccidioidomycosis. Data collected included patient demographics (age, gender, race, and occupation), clinical information (oral lesion location), and histopathologic diagnosis. Forty-six cases were identified, and 34 were histopathologically confirmed as paracoccidioidomycosis. Of the remaining 12 cases, one-half were diagnosed as either carcinoma or dysplastic leukoplakia. Of the 34 confirmed paracoccidioidomycosis cases, 45% presented with multiple site involvement, whereas the gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site overall (52%). The gingiva/alveolar process was the most prevalent site in both multiple and single site cases. The majority of patients were men (88%), white (75%), and in their fourth decade of life (47%). Statistical analysis revealed that patients with gingival/alveolar process involvement were demographically indistinguishable from those without. Oral paracoccidioidomycosis has a strong predilection for the gingiva, whereas patients with gingival lesions do not differ from patients lacking such involvement. Early diagnosis of gingival/oral lesions may prevent life-threatening complications of this mycosis.

  12. Electrolytes: Oral Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Oral electrolyte solutions are used widely for rehydration in diarrheal illness and to maintain hydration during vigorous exercise. In diarrheal illness, an oral rehydration solution (ORS) typically is preferred over intravenous fluids except for patients with severe dehydration. The preferred ORS is one similar to the glucose-containing reduced osmolarity World Health Organization ORS. There also are polymer-based solutions that use rice or wheat as the source of carbohydrates but these are not widely recommended. Use of other liquids, such as sport drinks, juice, soft drinks, and chicken broth is not recommended, though these can be considered for patients with no or mild dehydration. For maintaining hydration during exercise, particularly vigorous high-intensity exercise, recommendations are to consume fluids (ie, 5 to 7 mL/kg) and a sodium-containing snack at least 4 hours before. During exercise, individuals require 200 to 800 mL/hour of liquid that should contain 20 to 30 mEq/L of sodium. Carbohydrate intake is recommended during high-intensity exercise. Intake of excessive sodium-free fluids should be avoided to prevent exercise-induced hyponatremia. Additional fluids (ie, 1.5 L/kg of weight lost) can be consumed after exercise to restore hydration. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not recommended routinely for athletes unless known deficiencies exist. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  13. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  14. Le Discours Oral (Oral Discourse). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, C.; And Others

    The contrast between written language and oral language did not really begin to attract attention until second language teaching defined as its goal the acquisition of a communicative tool rather than a literary tool. This focus on communication made necessary the distinction between language used for oral communication and language used for…

  15. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].

    PubMed

    Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

    2007-01-01

    Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity.

  17. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  18. Oral History and the Special Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Rebecca S.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between oral history and libraries notes the character of oral history (both auditory and visual); types of oral history interviews (focused or subject-oriented, life review); forming an oral history collection (audiotapes, videotapes, transcripts); legal agreements and oral history; and collecting versus creating…

  19. Literacy and Orality in Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1978-01-01

    Points out the importance of orality in past centuries and in some contemporary cultures (including that of the black urban ghetto); discusses the problems in moving from oral expression to writing; and notes contrasts between primary orality, writing and printing, and secondary orality--the orality induced by radio and television. (GW)

  20. Literacy and Orality in Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1978-01-01

    Points out the importance of orality in past centuries and in some contemporary cultures (including that of the black urban ghetto); discusses the problems in moving from oral expression to writing; and notes contrasts between primary orality, writing and printing, and secondary orality--the orality induced by radio and television. (GW)

  1. 39 CFR 3001.116 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 3001.116 Section 3001.116 Postal... of Postal Service Determinations To Close or Consolidate Post Offices § 3001.116 Oral argument. Oral... circumstances, oral argument is a necessary addition to the written filings. Any request for oral argument shall...

  2. 75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon H. Northover v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No... hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No....

  3. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  4. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…

  5. Oral cancer: just the facts.

    PubMed

    Laronde, Denise M; Hislop, T Greg; Elwood, J Mark; Rosin, Miriam P

    2008-04-01

    Oral cancer screening should be an integral part of a clinician's routine. This article reviews facts about oral cancer that are relevant to screening. The relevance of some issues in a particular dental practice will vary with the patient composition of the practice.

  6. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  7. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  8. 76 FR 73691 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: James C. Latham v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB... Merit Systems Protection Board (``MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of James C... week in advance. William D. Spencer, Clerk of the Board. BILLING CODE 7400-01-P ...

  9. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…

  10. Oral History in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Ron

    1979-01-01

    Defines oral history as the act of talking to another person about the past. By obtaining the common man's view, a more complete interpretation of the past results. Outlines an oral history unit on the depression. Activities include tape recorded interviews and use of letters, pictures, diaries, newspapers, films, music, and books. (KC)

  11. Oral Fluency and Its Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieke, Adolf E.

    It is proposed that a speech-dynamic analysis of oral fluency phenomena serves best to highlight the nondiscrete nature of the sound stream and to capture English syllable structure. Some current concepts and practices in oral testing are criticized, and previously neglected evidence concerning temporal variables in speech, automatic speech…

  12. The Oral Language Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    This booklet describes the test used by the federal government to determine oral proficiency in a foreign language. The test is essentially an oral interview, conducted by two testers, and lasting from 15 to 30 minutes, although the format can vary. Proficiency levels range from 0 (for no practical speaking proficiency) to 5 (for speaking…

  13. [Hexetidine--an oral antiseptic].

    PubMed

    Kapić, Elvedina; Becić, Fahir; Becić, Ervina

    2002-01-01

    Hexetidine is very safe oral antiseptic with broad antibacterial and antifungal activity in vivo and in vitro. It has local-anesthetics, astringent and deodorant activity. Also, it has very strong antiplac effects. Resistention of microorganisms on hexetidine is short and transient. These characteristics give important therapeutic role in treatment of oral infections.

  14. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  15. History (of oral contraceptives).

    PubMed

    1978-02-01

    This article summarizes the interest and research in oral contraceptives, with particular attention given to recent discoveries in the field. Development of the present day pill was impossible until scientific discoveries of female ovarian hormones during pregnancy. Scientific work in the 1920s identified the 2 hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and scientists showed that use of the 2 together influenced ovulation and eased dysmenorrhea. It was not until 1944 that a scientist produced progesterone from a plant steroid; today synthetic steroids are available. Margaret Sanger, a pioneer in the American Family Planning Movement, financed and encouraged early human volunteer trials and later clinical trials with contraceptive pills. By 1957, the pills were approved by the FDA for use in treating menstrual disorders. In January 1962, they were released on the market as contraceptives. By 1976-77, the pill was used by 80-100 million women around the world. A dated table summarizes the information in the article in a timetable fashion.

  16. Oral mucosal disease: pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Mignogna, Michele

    2008-06-01

    Pemphigus defines a group of rare mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases of which pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is the most common. The aetiology and pathogenesis of PV are not completely clear, but there is a fairly strong genetic background: ethnic groups such as Ashkenazi Jews and people of Mediterranean and Indian origin are particularly susceptible and there is a link to HLA class II alleles. The initiating event in PV is not clear, but circulating IgG autoantibodies develop, directed particularly against the intercellular cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in desmosomes of stratified squamous epithelium. Oral lesions often herald the disease and are initially vesiculobullous, but they rupture readily to leave ulcers. Involvement of other mucosa and skin is almost inevitable and PV is potentially life threatening. The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy with histological examination and immunostaining. Management is largely by systemic immunosuppression with corticosteroids, usually azathioprine or other agents, but newer treatments with potentially fewer adverse effects look promising.

  17. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1978-02-01

    This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.

  18. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  19. Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.

  20. Partnerships for better oral health.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, E

    2003-05-01

    Improving oral health in populations who do not easily access the private dental office or the available community care site is a challenge to dental hygienists and others concerned with the health and well-being of all. Partnerships for improved oral health have been part of the community health efforts for many years and in many countries. With the knowledge, skills, and resources that are held by specific groups and organisations combined into a larger entity of a partnership or coalition, greater impact on oral health issue may be possible. Agencies and individuals interested in making improvements in oral health status in any particular target group may begin a process of working with others who have an interest in improving the health and well being of that target group. In a world that is increasingly synergistic and mutually dependent, improvements in oral health can be advanced by considering the elements of successful coalition building and forming partnerships with multiple organisations and individuals.

  1. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  2. Oral reconstruction with submental flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

  3. Integrating oral health throughout cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin

    2015-10-01

    Oral health is often not a priority during cancer treatment; however, patients with cancer are at increased risk for oral complications during and after treatment. This article focuses on the importance of oral health care before, during, and after cancer treatment using the head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach. AT A GLANCE: Oral health is linked to overall health, and healthcare providers must be cognizant of the oral-systemic connection with patients undergoing cancer treatment, which may cause acute and chronic oral health problems. 
Oral assessment, prevention, early recognition, and treatment of oral problems must be incorporated into cancer care, particularly with the aid of an interprofessional team to meet patients' oral care needs. 
The head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach integrates oral care into patients' history taking, physical examination, and plan of cancer care.
.

  4. Literacy and Orality in Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1980-01-01

    Treats orality and literacy in two ways: (1) examines the ubiquitous problem of moving from oral expression to writing, and (2) considers briefly the new, secondary orality that surrounds viewers on radio and television. (JMF)

  5. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  6. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  7. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Kent, Ray D

    2015-11-01

    Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article.

  8. Efficacy of oral administration and oral intake of edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lauterslager, Tosca G M; Hilgers, Luuk A T

    2002-12-03

    To evaluate whether vaccine administration via intragastric gavage is indicative for the outcome of edible vaccines, mice were orally immunised with ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with or without Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in various compositions via various routes: (1) OVA dissolved in saline and intragastrically (IG) administered ('IG'); (2) OVA mixed with food extract and administered IG ('food IG'); (3) food chow absorbed with OVA dissolved in saline and fed to the animals ('food'); and (4) OVA dissolved in saline and administered via drinking bottles ('drinking'). When given to naive mice, 'IG' and 'food IG' but not 'food' or 'drinking' induced anti-OVA IgG1 responses in serum, but oral boost immunisations were necessary. Serum IgA was not induced. Oral boosting of subcutaneously (SC) primed mice enhanced the IgG1 and IgA response in serum regardless of the route of immunisation or the vaccine composition. CT did not dramatically enhance the immune response. All immunisation routes except 'drinking' induced antigen-specific IgA antibody secreting cells (ASC) in the lamina propria of naive mice. But antigen-specific antibody responses in faeces were not observed. We concluded that oral (i.e. IG) administration is distinct from oral intake. The composition of the vaccine (food or saline) did not influence oral administration. We thus suggested that the route of administration greatly influenced the outcome of oral immunisation. Although oral administration is a well-accepted route to test the potentials of oral vaccines, our study demonstrated that it is merely indicative for the effectiveness of edible vaccines. Studies on the feasibility of edible vaccines should thus be performed by eating the vaccine.

  9. Serum metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Gokul; Ramani, Pratibha; Patankar, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is a core discipline of system biology focusing on the study of low molecular weight compounds in biological system. Analysis of human metabolome, which is composed of diverse group of metabolites, can aid in diagnosis and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study is to analyze and identify serum metabolites in oral leukoplakia and OSCC as a potential diagnostic biomarker and a predictor for malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Serum metabolomic profile of patients diagnosed with oral leukoplakia (n = 21) and OSCC (n = 22) was compared with normal controls (n = 18) using quadrupole time of flight-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. MassHunter profile software was used for metabolite identification, and statistical analysis to assess the variation of the metabolites was performed using Mass Profiler Professional software. Statistical significance between the three groups was expressed using ANOVA (P < 0.05), and intergroup comparison was done using Student's t-test (P < 0.05). Significant upregulation of estradiol-17-beta-3-sulfate, L-carnitine, 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), 8-hydroxyadenine, 2-methylcitric acid, putrescine, and estrone-3-sulfate was seen in oral leukoplakia and OSCC than in normal controls. Furthermore, significant upregulation of 5,6-dihydrouridine, 4-hydroxypenbutolol glucuronide, 8-hydroxyadenine, and putrescine was evident in OSCC group than in oral leukoplakia. Upregulation of L-carnitine, lysine, 2-methylcitric acid, putrescine; 8-hydroxyadenine; 17-estradiol; 5,6-dihydrouridine; and MTA suggests their diagnostic potential in oral leukoplakia and OSCC. Further, a significant upregulation of putrescine, 8-hydroxyadenine, and 5,6-dihydrouridine in OSCC than in oral leukoplakia indicates their potential role in predicting the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

  10. Oral stimulation for promoting oral feeding in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Greene, Zelda; O'Donnell, Colm Pf; Walshe, Margaret

    2016-09-20

    Preterm infants (< 37 weeks' postmenstrual age) are often delayed in attaining oral feeding. Normal oral feeding is suggested as an important outcome for the timing of discharge from the hospital and can be an early indicator of neuromotor integrity and developmental outcomes. A range of oral stimulation interventions may help infants to develop sucking and oromotor co-ordination, promoting earlier oral feeding and earlier hospital discharge. To determine the effectiveness of oral stimulation interventions for attainment of oral feeding in preterm infants born before 37 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA).To conduct subgroup analyses for the following prespecified subgroups.• Extremely preterm infants born at < 28 weeks' PMA.• Very preterm infants born from 28 to < 32 weeks' PMA.• Infants breast-fed exclusively.• Infants bottle-fed exclusively.• Infants who were both breast-fed and bottle-fed. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 25 February 2016), Embase (1980 to 25 February 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 25 February 2016). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and the reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing a defined oral stimulation intervention with no intervention, standard care, sham treatment or non-oral intervention in preterm infants and reporting at least one of the specified outcomes. One review author searched the databases and identified studies for screening. Two review authors screened the abstracts of these studies and full-text copies when needed to identify trials for inclusion in the review. All review authors independently extracted the data and analysed each study for risk of bias across the five domains of bias. All review authors discussed and analysed the data and

  11. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution.

    PubMed

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

  12. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  13. [Oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Siukosaari, Päivi; Nihtilä, Annamari

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of our population is ageing with own teeth in the mouth. Good oral health and an adequate number of teeth improve the functional capacity of an elderly person. Oral diseases are, however, becoming more common among the elderly population with the accumulation of risk factors such as insufficient self-care, cariogenic diet, reduced salivation, smoking and systemic diseases. Dryness of the mouth due to the adverse effects of drugs or systemic diseases makes eating and cleaning of the mouth more difficult. Prevention of oral diseases with good self-care and regular dental examinations is essential.

  14. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-04-10

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication.

  15. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  16. Egg oral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Brian P

    2012-06-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood and no interventional therapy is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Much recent research has focused on the safety, efficacy, and mechanism of oral immunotherapy (OIT) as a disease-modifying treatment. Small pilot studies with varying protocol designs have shown egg OIT to be relatively well tolerated, and efficacy is suggested but not formally demonstrated. At this time, no placebo-controlled randomized trial has been published confirming desensitization and no published study has convincingly demonstrated the development of OIT-induced tolerance to egg. Egg OIT is a promising modality for providing temporary protection from reactions caused by accidental egg exposure. However, the overall strength of the evidence in favor of egg OIT is limited by small sample sizes and the lack of controls, both of which are important considerations given the spontaneous resolution expected in egg allergy. More high-quality studies are necessary before egg OIT can be recommended as a viable treatment option.

  17. Oral cavity eumycetoma.

    PubMed

    Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Stuani, Maria Luiza de Toledo; Stuani, Luís Antonio Sasso

    2011-01-01

    Mycetoma is a pathological process in which eumycotic (fungal) or actinomycotic causative agents from exogenous source produce grains. It is a localized chronic and deforming infectious disease of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones. We report the first case of eumycetoma of the oral cavity in world literature. A 43-year-old male patient, complaining of swelling and fistula in the hard palate. On examination, swelling of the anterior and middle hard palate, with fistula draining a dark liquid was observed. The panoramic radiograph showed extensive radiolucent area involving the region of teeth 21-26 and the computerized tomography showed communication with the nasal cavity, suggesting the diagnosis of periapical cyst. Surgery was performed to remove the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed purulent material with characteristic grain. Gram staining for bacteria was negative and Grocott-Gomori staining for the detection of fungi was positive, concluding the diagnosis of eumycetoma. The patient was treated with ketoconazole for nine months, and was considered cured at the end of treatment. Histopathological examination, using histochemical staining, and direct microscopic grains examination can provide the distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma accurately.

  18. [Acute zincteral oral poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kamenczak, A; Pokorska, M; Wołek, E; Kobyłecka, K

    Zinc vapour poisoning by inhalation in the form of zinc fever is more frequent than oral zinc product poisoning, the product used in therapy. The main aim of the study was the evaluation of clinical manifestation present after Zincteral ingestion as well as attempt to find the relationship between the presence and aggravation of the clinical manifestation and zinc level in the blood. The course of acute clinical suicidal poisoning by ingestion of Zincteral 50 tablets (10.0 g) and 100 tablets (20.0 g) is presented. The clinical picture revealed the following symptoms and signs: tachycardia, changes of arterial BP, vascular shock; dyspeptic nausea, vomiting cramps in abdominal region, diarrhoea. Damage of the parenchymatous organs, mainly liver was evident. In pregnant woman (9-week-pregnancy) on the 12-th day of her stay in the Clinic complete miscarriage took place accompanied by haemorrhage from reproductive organs. The kind and exacerbation of the clinical manifestations in relation to the zinc level in body fluid were analysed.

  19. Oral contraceptives and exercise.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Woebkenberg, N R; Jarrett, M T

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken with volunteer females (aged 20-25) to determine the effect of OCs (oral contraceptives) on hematologic and metabolic variables during exercise. 5 of the women studied were naturally cycling and 7 were taking OCs. The women worked at 2 workloads on a bicycle ergometer at 50% and 90% of their maximal aerobic capacity during 3 different phases of their menstrual cycle. There was no better time of the month for doing the 50% or the 90% workload in either group. Heartrate for the OC group was significantly higher at the 50% maximal capacity. Results of the test indicate tha women on OCs have somewhat reduced cardiac efficiency and are ventilating more to carry out a given amount of work when compared to women who are naturally cycling. Possible explanations for the higher heart rate are put forward. The main limitation of the study is that the subject numbers involved are small and the number of cycles studied is also small.

  20. Genetic Abnormalities in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Kil, Tae Jun; Kim, Hyun Sil; Kim, Hyung Jun; Nam, Woong; Cha, In-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The cancer progression of oral leukoplakia is an important watchpoint in the follow-up observation of the patients. However, potential malignancies of oral leukoplakia cannot be estimated by histopathologic assessment alone. We evaluated genetic abnormalities at the level of copy number variation (CNV) to investigate the risk for developing cancer in oral leukoplakias. The current study used 27 oral leukoplakias with histological evidence of dysplasia. The first group (progressing dysplasia) consisted of 7 oral lesions from patients with later progression to cancer at the same site. The other group (non- progressing dysplasia) consisted of 20 lesions from patients with no occurrence of oral cancer and longitudinal follow up (>7 years). We extracted DNA from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) samples and examined chromosomal loci and frequencies of CNVs using Taqman copy number assays. CNV frequently occurred at 3p, 9p, and 13q loci in progressing dysplasia. Our results also indicate that CNV at multiple loci-in contrast to single locus occurrences-is characteristic of progressing dysplasia. This study suggests that genetic abnormalities of the true precancer demonstrate the progression risk which cannot be delineated by current histopathologic diagnosis.

  1. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

  2. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Feller, Liviu; Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Jadwat, Yusuf; Lemmer, Johan

    2014-03-24

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis.There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease.In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation.

  3. Relationship between chronic trauma of the oral mucosa, oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Piemonte, Eduardo David; Lazos, Jerónimo Pablo; Brunotto, Mabel

    2010-08-01

    Oral cancer represents 2%-5% of all cancers, being one of the 10 most frequent ones. Apart from oral cancer risk factors already described in literature, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, others emerging risk factors have been proposed, such as chronic irritation from dental factors. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of chronic trauma of the oral mucosa (CTOM) in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and cancer. A retrospective study of 406 patients (both sexes; aged between 18 and 80 years; with OPMD and cancer) who attended the Department of Clinical Stomatology A of the National University of Cordoba was performed by non-probabilistic sampling. The association of variables and outcome variable diagnosis, with levels control, OPMD, oral cancer, was evaluated by multinomial regression model. Population under study was represented by 72% of control patients, 16% patients with OPMD and 11% of patients with oral cancer. It was observed a significant association between diagnosis and CTOM (P = 0.000), after adjustment of confounding factors (smoking and drinking habits, sex, cancer inheritance and denture use). Our results suggest that CTOM is, together with other factors, an important risk factor in patients with oral cancer diagnosis, but not for patients with OPMD.

  4. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756

  5. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that 40-60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease.

  6. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Annual Meeting New Orleans, LA April 21-25, 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline ... Annual Meeting New Orleans, LA April 21-25, 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Patient Resources Oral Medicine ...

  7. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  8. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ill-fitting or loose dentures. Effects of Osteoporosis Treatments on Oral Health It is not known ... Resources For more information on osteoporosis, visit: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: ...

  9. [Radiotherapy for oral cavity cancers].

    PubMed

    Lapeyre, M; Biau, J; Racadot, S; Moreira, J F; Berger, L; Peiffert, D

    2016-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy are standard techniques for the irradiation of oral cavity cancers. These techniques are detailed in terms of indication, preparation, delineation and selection of the volumes, dosimetry and patient positioning control.

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Brenda N.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Brown, Susannah

    1970-01-01

    Of 261 women who completed a self-rating scale for measuring depression, 168 were taking oral contraceptives and 93 were using physical methods of contraception. Of the group of women taking oral contraceptives 6·6% were more severely depressed than any of the control group. There was a significant variation in the depth of depression related to the day of the menstrual cycle in the control group. This association was not found in the oral contraceptive group, where premenstrual depression was limited to the one or two days preceding menstruation. Women taking a contraceptive containing lynoestrenol 2·5 mg. and mestranol 0·075 mg. showed a significantly increased incidence of pessimism, feelings of dissatisfaction, crying, and tension, compared with women taking other oral contraceptives and the control group. PMID:5475818

  11. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  12. Sleep disorders and oral devices.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, J R; Attanasio, R

    2001-10-01

    Many patients with upper airway sleep disorders can be successfully treated with oral appliance therapy. It is necessary for dentists to recognize these patients and refer them to a physician for further evaluation. Dentists must not become the primary care providers for these patients or attempt to treat a medical problem with an oral appliance without a proper diagnosis, which usually requires a sleep study and can only be diagnosed by a physician. Dentists must also be able to treat the patients referred by physicians and to follow accepted procedures when fabricating, inserting, titrating, and providing follow-up care for oral appliance therapy. In addition, the dental community needs to continue to heighten the awareness in their local medical community and in their patient population as to the possible contribution of oral appliance therapy to the management of snoring and some of the sleep-related breathing disorders.

  13. Cereal based oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed

    Kenya, P R; Odongo, H W; Oundo, G; Waswa, K; Muttunga, J; Molla, A M; Nath, S K; Molla, A; Greenough, W B; Juma, R

    1989-07-01

    A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered traditional weaning foods. Treatment with oral rehydration solution continued until diarrhoea stopped. Accurate intake and output was maintained throughout the study period. Efficacy of the treatment was compared between the different treatment groups in terms of intake of the solution, stool output, duration of diarrhoea after admission, and weight gain after 24, 48, and 72 hours, and after resolution of diarrhoea. Results suggest that all the cereal based solutions were as effective as glucose based standard oral rehydration solution in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  14. Oral lesions in haemopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Grande, M; Milano, V; Desiate, A; Martinelli, A; Iaffaldano, B

    1990-03-01

    This paper deals with the oral manifestations observed in patients with haemolymphopathies and oral complications associated with systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We report the percentage of oral manifestations observed in 30 patients treated with cytotoxic drugs for malignant haemolymphopathies or other tumors after 2-4 cycles of systemic combinations chemotherapy. No sex or age differences were recorded except for abnormalities of taste present only in 13% treated patients older than 50. Stomatitis was more frequent in patients with malignant haemolymphopathies than in patient with other neoplastic diseases, probably due to the fact that in the former group neutropenia and thrombocytopenia induced by bone marrow infiltration or by more aggressive combination chemotherapy are most frequent. An oral care protocol for these patients is suggested.

  15. [Oral rehydration immediately after appendectomy].

    PubMed

    Azabache, W; Johanson, L

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study of 20 patients with appendicitis was carried out in order to know if after the appendectomy they tolerate the hidratation with rehidratant salts by mouth in place of endovenous hydratation. The oral hydratation was indicated in all the cases immediately after the operation and only was one failure (5%). In the 95% the oral hydratation was tolerated, 45% without gastric symptoms, 35% with mild gastric symptoms and in 15% with moderate gastric symptoms. The association of gentamycin-metronidazol administered by intramuscular and oral way respectively was used in 100% of the patients. In 80% as profilaxis and in 20% as treatment. Two cases had complication as sepsis of the wound one of the profilactic group (5.9%) and another of the treatment group. In conclusion the oral hydratation with rehydrating salts were tolerated for the patients immediately after the appendectomy.

  16. Oral vibrotactile assessment procedures: modifications.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L

    1995-11-01

    An ongoing process to develop oral vibrotactile instrumentation that can be standardized and used in practical assessment of the oral tactile sensory system was reported in The International Journal of Orofacial Myology in March, 1990, by Fucci, Petrosino, and Harris. The material presented in the present article reflects the current research and future direction that the development of this instrumentation is taking. Potential benefits of this instrumentation for individuals working in the area of orofacial myofunctional disorders are suggested.

  17. Imaging of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Meesa, Indu Rekha; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is a challenging area in head and neck imaging because of its complex anatomy and the numerous pathophysiologies that involve its contents. This challenge is further compounded by the ubiquitous artifacts that arise from the dental amalgam, which compromise image quality. In this article, the anatomy of the oral cavity is discussed in brief, followed by a description of the imaging technique and some common pathologic abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Oral manifestations of bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Zachariasen, R D

    1995-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa is a psychological compulsive eating disorder that appears to be affecting a growing number of young women. It is characterized by repeated episodes of binge-eating followed by vomiting or some other purging behavior. Bulimia is accompanied by a number of physiological disturbances, some of which occur in the oral cavity. The present article reviews the major characteristics of bulimia nervosa, and describes the most significant oral manifestations of this disorder along with their reported incidences and etiologies.

  19. Diseases of the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

  20. Autophagy analysis in oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, T B; Paz, A H R; Rados, P V; Leonardi, R; Bufo, P; Pedicillo, M C; Santoro, A; Cagiano, S; Aquino, G; Botti, G; Pannone, G; Visioli, F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of autophagy in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate with clinical pathological features, as well as, the evolution of these lesions. 7 Normal oral mucosa, 51 oral leukoplakias, and 120 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were included in the study. Histological sections of the mucosa and leukoplakias were evaluated throughout their length, while the carcinomas were evaluated using Tissue Microarray. After the immunohistochemical technique, LC3-II positive cells were quantified in the different epithelial layers of the mucosa and leukoplakias and in the microarrays of the squamous cell carcinomas. The correlation between positive cells with the different clinical-pathological variables and with the evolution of the lesions was tested using the t test, ANOVA, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We observed increased levels of autophagy in the oral squamous cell carcinomas (p<0.001) in relation to the other groups, but without any association with poorer evolution or survival of these patients. Among the leukoplakias, we observed a higher percentage of positive cells in the intermediate layer of the dysplastic leukoplakias (p=0.0319) and in the basal layer of lesions with poorer evolution (p=0.0133). The levels of autophagy increased during the process of oral carcinogenesis and are correlated with poorer behavior of the leukoplakias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  2. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  3. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  4. 32 CFR 150.16 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral arguments. 150.16 Section 150.16 National... JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.16 Oral arguments. Oral arguments... the Court. The motion of a party for oral argument shall be made no later than 7 days after the filing...

  5. 49 CFR 825.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 825.25 Section 825.25....25 Oral argument. (a) If any party desires to argue a case orally before the Board, he should request leave to make such argument in his brief filed pursuant to § 825.20. (b) Oral argument before the Board...

  6. 10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearing. 2.1507 Section 2.1507 Energy NUCLEAR... Hearings § 2.1507 Oral hearing. (a) Not less than five (5) days before the commencement of the oral hearing... witnesses at the oral hearing. The order shall be filed upon all participants by email or facsimile...

  7. 42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 423.2124 Section 423.2124 Public... Judicial Review § 423.2124 Oral argument. An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it decides that the case raises an important...

  8. 24 CFR 1720.625 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 1720.625 Section... Proceedings Appeals § 1720.625 Oral argument. Oral arguments will not be heard in cases on appeal to the appeals officer unless the officer otherwise orders, and stenographic or mechanical record of such oral...

  9. 25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 11.805 Section 11.805 Indians BUREAU OF... Appellate Proceedings § 11.805 Oral argument. The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose of...

  10. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section 2700.77 Labor Regulations... the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by the Commission on its own motion or on the motion of a party. A party requesting oral argument shall do so by separate motion no...

  11. 17 CFR 12.209 - Oral testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral testimony. 12.209 Section... REPARATIONS Rules Applicable to Summary Decisional Proceedings § 12.209 Oral testimony. (a) Generally. When the Judgment Officer determines that an oral hearing is necessary and appropriate, such oral hearing...

  12. 46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201.166 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) § 201.166 Oral argument. If oral argument before the...

  13. 46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision § 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may hear oral argument either on...

  14. 13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearings. 134.311 Section 134... NAICS Code Designations § 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS... Judge of extraordinary circumstances. If such an oral hearing is ordered, the proceeding shall be...

  15. 37 CFR 41.124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.124 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request an oral argument on an issue raised in a paper...

  16. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its own...

  17. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...

  18. Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Ann L.; Burk, Tamara L.

    Focusing exclusively on the art and science of oral communication for grades K-8, this book explains fundamental concepts in contemporary oral communication instruction and suggests practical strategies for implementing a competency-based approach to oral communication in an integrated classroom setting. The book also emphasizes oral communication…

  19. Oral rehydration therapy.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, H P

    1996-08-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS), the best treatment of dehydration due to acute diarrhea, is the most important medical advance of this century since it is key to reducing infant and child morbidity and mortality. Pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea include those which produce enterotoxin at the intestinal mucosal surface, inducing secretion but are not invasive (e.g., Vibrio cholerae); those which invade and disrupt the mucosal lining (e.g., shigella species); and rotavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF ORS is considered a universal ORS. Much research has been done on the ideal composition of an ORS. An ORS must have sufficient sodium to replace losses on a volume to volume basis, a glucose concentration that matches that of sodium to ensure its delivery to the ileum, sufficient amounts of potassium and base (e.g., sodium bicarbonate or trisodium citrate dihydrate) to correct acidosis and to enhance sodium absorption, and sufficient amounts of liquid. The risk of hypernatremia with use of the WHO/UNICEF ORS is a concern since infants and young children have an immature renal concentrating capacity, increased insensible water losses, and an impaired natriuretic response. Neonates and young infants may be prone to relatively slow correction of acidosis. It appears that the potassium content (20 mmol/l) of WHO-ORS should be higher to promote a net positive potassium retention. Too much glucose in the ORS will induce reverse osmosis of water into the gut, effectively making the ORS a dehydrating solution rather than a hydrating solution. Some carbohydrates other than glucose have proven effective glucose substitutes (e.g., sucrose, rice starch and powder, other cereals). Cereals have higher acceptability levels in developing countries. Research is investigating the nutritional benefits of supplementing ORS with micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, folic acid, and zinc). ORS use with early refeeding has a beneficial effect on nutritional status after an

  20. Oral health considerations in older women receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Joan C; O'Ryan, Felice; Yang, Jingrong; Hararah, Mohammad K; Gonzalez, Joel R; Gordon, Nancy; Silver, Paula; Ansfield, Alice; Wang, Benjamin; Go, Alan S

    2011-05-01

    Recent reports of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) have increased awareness of oral health in patients receiving osteoporosis therapy. This study describes the demographic, oral health, and clinical characteristics of a contemporary population of women aged 50 and older undergoing oral bisphosphonate treatment who returned a mailed questionnaire pertaining to dental symptoms. The study, as previously reported, was conducted within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large, integrated healthcare delivery system. The cohort included 7,909 women with bisphosphonate exposure of at least 1 year, with a subset of 923 women reporting dental symptoms who underwent clinical examination. Overall, the average age was 71 ± 9; 70% were white, and 74% had at least some college education. Nearly two-thirds had received oral bisphosphonate therapy for 3 or more years. Most reported daily tooth brushing, 85% had had a dental examination in the past year, 22% reported denture use, and 6% reported moderate to severe periodontal disease. Oral healthcare patterns varied according to age and race and ethnicity. Five hundred seven (6.4%) women reported a tooth extraction in the prior year, of whom two developed BRONJ (0.4%). Tori or exostoses were found in 28% of examined participants with dental symptoms; these were predominantly in the lingual mandible and palate, with palatal BRONJ occurring in 1.6% of symptomatic participants with palatal tori. In summary, among older women with bisphosphonate exposure, oral health varied according to patient characteristics, and BRONJ occurred more frequently after tooth extraction or on palatal tori. These data support efforts to optimize oral health and to identify risk factors for BRONJ in older individuals receiving bisphosphonate drugs. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. [Prevalence of oral lichen planus and oral leukoplakia in 112 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Haya Fernández, M C; Bagán Sebastián, J V; Basterra Alegría, J; Lloria de Miguel, E

    2001-04-01

    To study the association existing between precancerous conditions, like oral lichen planus and oral leukoplakia into 112 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We applied a protocol to 112 patients with OSCC in the "Servicio de Estomatología del Hospital General Universitario de Valencia". We made two groups: 1. patients with precancerous lesions and oral carcinoma, 2. patients with OSCC and no precancerous lesions. The average age was 61.4 years, 85 of them being men and 27 women. The tongue and floor of the mouth were the most common locations. 33.6% of the tumours presented stage TNM I, most of them being histologically well differentiated and the 55.8% were ulcerated. We found differences between two groups of the patients regarding alcohol and tobacco habits, location, size and clinical stage and histological differentiation of the malignant lesions.

  2. [Oral medicine 8. Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Schepman, K P; van der Meij, E H; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-01-01

    Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is a potentially malignant disorder, which means that there is an elevated risk oftransformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. The term oral leukoplakia is a clinical diagnosis for a predominantly white lesion which is not immediately recognizable as another well definable lesion which is white in appearance. Oral leukoplakia is generally an asymptomatic disorder of the mucosa with a prevalence of less than 2 per cent in the adult population. Tobacco usage is considered to be the most important etiological factor. Malignant transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma occurs in about I per cent per year. A patient with oral leukoplakia is generally referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, who takes a biopsy for a definitive histopathological diagnosis. The outcome of the histopathological study, which may vary from hyperkeratosis to invasive squamous cell carcinoma, will determine the treatment. It is preferable that every leukoplakia is removed to reduce the risk of malignant transformation. Long term follow-up is indicated. Follow-up may in some cases be performed by the general dental practitioner.

  3. Oral contraception following abortion

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0

  4. Oral contraceptives and cancer.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A

    1991-01-01

    Concerns over the safety of oral contraceptives (OCs) have led to numerous empirical studies of the relationship of OC use to normal pregnancy outcomes, pituitary effects, cardiovascular accidents, and cancer. The article reviews some of the results of studies on the effects of OC use on ovarian, uterine, cervical, and breast cancer and on hepatic cancer and melanomas. Reference is made to direct study results rather than to reviews of studies, although it is noted that the critical reviews of Goldzieher and Realini reflect appropriate critiques of the validity of the methods employed in the analysis of cancers as well as cardiovascular risks. Concern is raised for meta-analysis of pooled data. In spite of the 30 years of research on OCs there is no definitive answer to the question of cause and effect. The epidemiological articles reviewed do not meet the standards of critical editorial review boards of experimental journals; confirmation of findings is also lacking. Studies suggesting increased risks as well as those showing positive benefits are questionable. The conclusion reached is that OCs protect against ovarian and uterine cancers and do not cause mammary, cervical, or liver cancer or melanoma. This conclusion is based on inconclusive data. The conclusion on hepatic cancer is that the 3 retrospective case control studies and anecdotal reports are flawed in design, and little confidence can be placed on such a limited number of cases. Malignant melanoma conclusions are that the data are inconsistent and hover around a risk of one for long-term OC-users. There is no increased risk related to OC-use. Ovarian cancer risk seems to be decreased in about 40% of OC-users. Endometrial cancer risk seems to be decreased, except for the sequential contraceptive Oracon which is associated with increased risk. Decreased risk is related to length of usage and continues after stoppage. Cervical carcinoma results appear to confirm the finding that prolonged OC use slightly

  5. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  6. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  7. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  8. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-16

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions.

  9. [Oral manifestations of acute leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Mirjana; Jovcić, Olivera; Mandić, Jelena; Bogetić, Dusko; Maddalone, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Acute leukaemia is the most common form of childhood cancer. The aim of this paper was to underline the importance of oral manifestations in children with acute leukaemia. The disease and its treatment can directly or indirectly affect oral health. Oral manifestations are gingival inflammation and enlargement. Leukaemic cells are capable of infiltrating the gingiva and the deeper periodontal tissues which leads to ulceration and infection of oral tissues. Gingival bleeding is a common sign in patients with leukaemia. Symptoms include local lymphadenopathy, mucous membrane Petechiae and ecchymoses. Cytotoxic drugs have direct effects like mucositis, involving atrophy, desquamation and ulceration of the mucosa, with increasing the risk for local and systemic infections. Leukaemia can directly influence dental care and dental treatment, while oral lesions may have life-threatening consequences. Knowledge and skills among dentists may also not be adequate to treat children with acute leukaemia. It is therefore imperative that all stomatologists be aware of dental problems that occur in leukaemia in order to be able to effectively carry out appropriate measures to mitigate these problems.

  10. Headache and oral parafunctional behaviors.

    PubMed

    Glaros, Alan G; Hanson, Anne H; Ryen, Chris C

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that individuals with headaches would show significantly more oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls, be diagnosed with one or more temporomandibular disorders (TMD) significantly more frequently than controls, and would report significantly less pain and other symptoms of headache after participating in a habit reversal treatment to reduce oral parafunctional behaviors, compared to a wait list control. In Phase I, individuals with and without self-reported headaches were examined by a blinded examiner and participated in a week-long experience sampling protocol (ESM) to assess oral parafunctional behaviors, pain, and emotional states. In Phase II, those with headaches were randomly assigned to either a habit reversal treatment or to a wait list control group. In the last, sixth week of the program, participants again completed an ESM protocol. Results showed that headache patients were significantly more likely to report oral parafunctional behaviors than non-headache controls and to receive a Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD diagnosis. Results from Phase II showed general improvement in both groups on pain and parafunctions. Individuals with headaches engage in significantly higher rates and intensities of oral parafunctional behaviors. Treatment of these behaviors using habit reversal techniques appears to have the same effect on pain as waiting.

  11. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions.

    PubMed

    González, Joaquín V; Gutiérrez, Rafael A; Keszler, Alicia; Colacino, Maria del Carmen; Alonio, Lidia V; Teyssie, Angelica R; Picconi, Maria Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.

  12. Oral health correlates of captivity.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Varsha; Antonelli, Tyler; Parkinson, Jennifer A; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2016-08-01

    The predominant diet fed to captive carnivores in North America consists of ground meat formulated to provide full nutritional requirements. However, this ground meat diet completely lacks the mechanical properties (i.e., toughness and hardness) of the foods these animals would consume in the wild. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of captivity on oral health by comparing the prevalence of periodontal disease and dental calculus accumulation in wild and captive lions and tigers (Panthera leo and Panthera tigris), and to also correlate oral health with cranial morphology in these specimens. To achieve this, 34 adult lion and 29 adult tiger skulls were scored for the presence and extent of dental calculus and periodontal disease. These oral health scores were also compared to cranial deformations examined in a previous study. We found that the occurrence and severity of calculus buildup and periodontal disease was significantly higher in captive felids compared to their wild counterparts. Further, higher calculus accumulation occurred on the posterior teeth when compared to the anterior teeth, while an opposite trend for periodontal disease was observed. We also found a significant correlation between oral health and cranial morphology of lions and tigers. The results suggest that food mechanical properties are significant factors contributing to oral health in felids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it.

  14. Oral lichenoid tissue reactions: diagnosis and classification.

    PubMed

    Khudhur, Ahmed Salih; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Carrozzo, Marco

    2014-03-01

    The concept of lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis was introduced in dermatology to define a number of diverse inflammatory skin diseases linked together by the presence of common histopathological features. Similarly to the skin, the oral mucosa is affected by a variety of oral lichenoid lesions. Oral LTRs (OLTRs) include: oral lichen planus; oral lichenoid contact lesion; oral lichenoid drug reaction; oral lichenoid lesions of graft-versus-host disease; oral discoid lupus erythematosus; oral lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus; erythema multiforme; paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome; chronic ulcerative stomatitis and lichen planus pemphigoid. Traditionally, diagnosis of OLTRs relies on clinical and histological correlation but in several instances this approach fails to provide a reliable diagnosis. Inclusion of molecular techniques may refine our ability to differentiate OLTRs.

  15. Recent advances in oral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Rebecca; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2014-01-01

    Oral vaccination is the most challenging vaccination method due to the administration route. However, oral vaccination has socio-economic benefits and provides the possibility of stimulating both humoral and cellular immune responses at systemic and mucosal sites. Despite the advantages of oral vaccination, only a limited number of oral vaccines are currently approved for human use. During the last decade, extensive research regarding antigen-based oral vaccination methods have improved immunogenicity and induced desired immunological outcomes. Nevertheless, several factors such as the harsh gastro-intestinal environment and oral tolerance impede the clinical application of oral delivery systems. To date, human clinical trials investigating the efficacy of these systems are still lacking. This review addresses the rationale and key biological and physicochemical aspects of oral vaccine design and highlights the use of yeast-derived β-glucan microparticles as an oral vaccine delivery platform. PMID:24553259

  16. Oral contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Shearman, R P

    1986-02-17

    The history of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been a progressive reduction in dosage to what is now probably the lowest does that is compatible with the desired therapeutic effect -- to inhibit ovluation. Yet, controversy and argument continue. A table lists the OCs that are available in Australia. Many of these preparations, although having different trade names, have an identical composition. Since the withdrawal of sequential OCs from the Australian market, there are only 2 generic types. These are the progestogen only (mini) OCs, which consist of either 30 mcg of levonorgestrel or 350 mcg of norethisterone given at the same time every day; and the combined OCs, which contain an estrogen and a progestogen. In the last 12 months, some of the older high-dose OCs have been withdrawn, and it seems likely that further withdrawals will follow. Only 2 estrogens are used in the formulation of the OC, but there is a greater variety of progestogens. Ethinyl estradiol is used in most preparations. A small minority of OCs contain mestranol, the 3-methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Currently, there are only 4 OC agents that are available in Australia that contain mestranol and 2 of these contain the high doses of 100 mcg. Fundamentally, there are 2 types of progestogens -- those that contain, or are metabolized to, norethisterone and those that contain norgestrel or its close relative, desogestrel. With the exception of the norgestrel group and desogestrel, all other progestins, including norethisterone itself, are effective in vivo after they have been metablized to norethisterone. Mestranol is effective in humans after demethylation to ethinyl estradiol. In the norgesterel group, since d-norgestrel is inert endocrinologically, 250 mcg of levonorgestrel and 500 mcg of dl-norgestrel are equivalent. Levonorgestrel and desogestrel are of approximately equal potency. With the combined OC agents, the overwhelming mechanism of action is by the inhibition of the

  17. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  18. Oral biopsy in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Mota-Ramírez, Amparo; Silvestre, Francisco Javier; Simó, Juan Manuel

    2007-11-01

    The conclusions drawn from the study of an oral biopsy are considered essential for the definitive diagnosis of diseases of the oral mucosa, and for the subsequent planning of appropriate treatment. Although the obtainment of biopsies is widely used in all medical fields, the practice is not so widespread in dental practice--fundamentally because of a lack of awareness of the procedure among dental professionals. In this context, it must be taken into account that the early diagnosis of invasive oral malignancy may be critical for improving the patient prognosis. However, in some cases the results are adversely affected by incorrect manipulation of the biopsy material. The present study provides an update on the different biopsy sampling techniques and their application. Such familiarization in turn will contribute to knowledge of the material and instruments required for correct biopsy performance in dentistry, as well as of the material required for correct sample storage and transport.

  19. [Bipolar disorders and oral health].

    PubMed

    Schulte, P F J; Brand, H S

    2010-10-01

    A bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by recurrent occurrences of manic, depressive or mixed episodes, separated by shorter or longer relatively symptom-free periods. In the Netherlands, the incidence of bipolar disorders is 1.9%. Bipolar disorders are usually treated with a combination of psycho-education, self-management and pharmacotherapy. Both the bipolar disorder and the drugs for treating this disorder have negative effects on oral health. Patients have, among other things, an increased risk of caries, xerostomia, taste abnormalities and bruxism. Extensive instruction in oral hygiene, supported frequently by professional oral health care, is therefore essential. Considering the possible interaction among different kinds of drugs, NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consulting the patient's psychiatrist.

  20. Oral contraceptives and endocrine changes*

    PubMed Central

    Lucis, O. J.; Lucis, R.

    1972-01-01

    In groups of women taking oral contraceptives and in control groups of women, the serum levels of cortisol, protein-bound iodine, and total thyroxine were measured together with the T3 binding index. The daily excretion in the urine of free cortisol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol, total oestrogens, total catecholamines, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid was also assayed. The frequency distribution of the values obtained indicates that oral contraceptives have a marked influence on the endocrine environment. The smallest deviations were observed in urinary excretion of total catecholamines and of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid. In some individuals the hormone assays were continued throughout the menstrual cycle. The morning and afternoon levels of serum cortisol tended to increase during the period when the oral contraceptive was being taken. PMID:4538188

  1. Oral Desensitization for Food Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Land, Michael H.; Kim, Edwin H.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Over the past 20 years, food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem primarily in developed countries[1]. An explanation for this increased prevalence is currently under investigation as it is not well understood. Allergic reactions can result in life threatening anaphylaxis over a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a rescue therapy rather than a disease modifying treatment. In recent years, investigators have been studying allergen immunotherapy as a way to promote induction of oral tolerance. These efforts have shown some promise towards a viable disease modifying therapy for food allergies. This review will examine the mechanisms of oral tolerance and the breakdown that leads to food allergy, as well as the history and current state of oral and sublingual immunotherapy development. PMID:21530825

  2. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  3. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  4. Oral microbiota and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima S

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that bacteria are the primary cause of infectious diseases, however, evidence is emerging that these organisms are also indirectly responsible for several diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The oral cavity is home to several million bacteria that can cause two major diseases-periodontitis and caries. The relationship between periodontopathic bacteria and systemic diseases has been explored for several years. The concept of the oral cavity as a source of distant infection has been debated for at least a century. This review will discuss the historic aspects of the development of the focal infection theory, the reasons for its demise, its re-emergence and current status.

  5. Oral contraceptives and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

  6. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  7. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic problems in oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, C L; Barker, B F

    1985-02-01

    Diagnostic problems within the oral cavity may be associated with lesions of the odontogenic apparatus, salivary glands, bone, mucosa, and connective tissue. Some lesions are unique to the oral cavity, others have a systemic distribution. Several unique and controversial lesions have been selected for discussion, including (1) necrotizing sialometaplasia, a benign salivary gland disease easily mistaken for malignancy; (2) verrucous lesions including verrucous carcinoma, verrucous hyperplasia, and papillary carcinoma; (3) spindle-cell carcinoma, which is often confused with sarcoma; (4) named and unnamed embryonic rests, which may resemble metastatic carcinomas; (5) dental pulp mistaken for odontogenic myxoma; and (6) granular cell tumor with associated pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia.

  9. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  10. Regression of oral hairy leukoplakia after orally administered acyclovir therapy.

    PubMed

    Resnick, L; Herbst, J S; Ablashi, D V; Atherton, S; Frank, B; Rosen, L; Horwitz, S N

    1988-01-15

    To define the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of oral hairy leukoplakia, 13 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive men with clinical and histologic evidence of oral hairy leukoplakia were enrolled in an open-label trial of orally administered acyclovir therapy (3.2 g/d for 20 days). Of six patients who received therapy, five exhibited clinical regression. Once therapy was discontinued, recurrences occurred in all responders. Among seven patients who refused therapy, no spontaneous remissions occurred. Before therapy, EBV replication within the leukoplakia was demonstrated by immunofluorescence tissue staining or electron microscopy in five patients who were studied. Human papillomavirus was not detected by immunocytochemistry or electron microscopy from tissue specimens of six patients. After therapy, biopsy specimens from two patients with complete responses revealed a normalization of histologic abnormalities and an inability to detect EBV in previously involved mucosa by immunofluorescence or in situ DNA hybridization assays. It was concluded that EBV replication within the epithelial cells of the tongue is necessary for the development of oral hairy leukoplakia.

  11. Authentic Progress Assessment of Oral Language: Oral Portfolios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Yuichi

    Student testing in Japan is not effectively used. In many cases test results are used only for ranking and sorting students into whatever the designated purposes of the tests are. They are not focused on monitoring individual student progress. This is an especially inadequate approach for teaching oral communications courses. This paper proposes a…

  12. Curriculum Guidelines for Postdoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and…

  13. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], −4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.22 to −2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, −3.64; 95% CI, −5.57 to −1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.36–1.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06–0.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus

  14. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  15. Advancing oral health in physician assistant education: evaluation of an innovative interprofessional oral health curriculum.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Jonathan; Sivahop, Jacqueline; Glicken, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The impact of an oral health curriculum was evaluated by measuring increases in knowledge about oral health topics and implementation of oral health skills in the clinical year. A 3-year, longitudinal oral health curriculum was developed and implemented. Student knowledge of oral health concepts was evaluated before and 2 years after the curriculum was implemented. Student performance of oral health skills was evaluated in the clinical year by electronic patient logging. Students demonstrated significant and persistent gains in knowledge following the initiation of the curriculum. Students used oral health skills in the clinical year, particularly in the area of patient education about oral health. Incorporation of an oral health curriculum can lead to lasting knowledge about basic oral health concepts and increased performance of oral health skills in the clinical year.

  16. Oral symptoms and salivary findings in oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Kristine Roen; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Reibel, Jesper; Zachariae, Claus; Rosing, Kasper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2017-06-29

    To examine if patients with oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis and concomitant contact allergy have more frequent and severe xerostomia, lower unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva and citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva flow rates, and higher salivary concentration of total protein and sIgA than cases without contact allergy and healthy controls. Forty-nine patients (42 women, aged 61.0 ± 10.3 years) and 29 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects underwent a standardised questionnaire on general and oral health, assessment of xerostomia, clinical examination, sialometry, mucosal biopsy and contact allergy testing. Nineteen patients had oral lichen planus, 19 patients had oral lichenoid lesions and 11 patients had generalised stomatitis. 38.8% had contact allergy. Xerostomia was significantly more common and severe in patients (46.9%) than in healthy controls, whereas the saliva flow rates did not differ. The patients had higher sIgA levels in unstimulated and chewing-stimulated saliva than the healthy controls. The total protein concentration in saliva was lower in the unstimulated saliva samples whereas it was higher in the chewing stimulated saliva samples from patients when compared to healthy controls. The differences were not significant and they were irrespective of the presence of contact allergy. Xerostomia is prevalent in patients with oral lichen planus, lichenoid lesions and generalised stomatitis, but not associated with salivary gland hypofunction, numbers of systemic diseases or medications, contact allergy, age, or gender. Salivary sIgA levels were higher in patients than in healthy controls, but did not differ between patient groups. The total salivary protein concentration was lower in unstimulated saliva samples and higher in chewing-stimulated saliva samples in patients than in healthy controls, but did not differ between patient groups. Our findings do not aid in the discrimination between OLP

  17. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  18. Oral manifestations of asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Ghapanchi, Janan; Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Kamali, Fereshte; Rezaee, Mostafa; Ghodrati, Maryam; Amanpour, Sara

    2015-11-01

    The effect of asthma on oral health is the subject of debate among dental practitioners. The current study was planned to investigate the oral manifestations of asthmatics compared to healthy subjects. The study group composed of 100 asthmatics and 100 age-matched healthy controls. The caries status based on Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth (DMFT) criteria and oral lesion were evaluated in all subjects. The mean age of the asthmatics group was 47.5±3.5 years and in the control group it was 43.5±3.0 years. Asthmatics included 45(45%) males and 55(55%) females. There was no statistical difference between caries prevalence in both groups. The most prevalent oral lesions in asthmatics group were geographic tongue 10(10%), fissured tongue 13(13%), chronic atrophic candidiasis13(13%), and in the control group were fissured tongue(11%) and lichenoid reaction(2%). The dental professional must be familiar with all signs and symptoms of this disease in order to offer effective and safe treatment.

  19. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  20. Parkinson's disease and oral care.

    PubMed

    Fiske, J; Hyland, K

    2000-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is a relatively common, progressive, neurological disorder. Its key features of resting tremor, bradykinesia, akinesia, restricted mobility and postural instability militate against independence for daily living, mobility, good nutrition and oral health. The successful management of the disease requires a multi-disciplinary approach in which the dietician, speech therapist, nurse and dental staff are pivotal members of the care team.

  1. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  2. [Adherence to oral antineoplastic therapy].

    PubMed

    Olivera-Fernandez, R; Fernandez-Ribeiro, F; Piñeiro-Corrales, G; Crespo-Diz, C

    2014-11-03

    Introducción: Los tratamientos antineoplasicos orales presentan ventajas en cuanto a coste, comodidad y mejora potencial en la calidad de vida respecto al tratamiento endovenoso, pero es mas dificil controlar la adherencia y monitorizar los efectos adversos. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la adherencia real en pacientes con antineoplasicos orales en nuestro centro, analizar la influencia de las caracteristicas del paciente y del tratamiento, identificar motivos de no adherencia, oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica y evaluar la posible relacion adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Método: estudio prospectivo observacional de cuatro meses de duracion, en los pacientes con tratamiento antineoplasico oral dispensado desde la consulta de farmacia oncologica. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron: orden medica, historia clinica y visita con entrevistas al paciente. Resultados: Se evaluaron un total de 141 pacientes. Un 72% se considero totalmente adherente, mientras que en un 28% se detecto algun tipo de no adherencia. El tiempo desde el diagnostico y la presencia de efectos adversos fueron las variables que afectaron a la adherencia. No se pudo demostrar relacion entre adherencia y respuesta al tratamiento. Conclusiones: La adherencia al tratamiento antineoplasico oral en nuestro centro fue del 72%, identificando oportunidades de mejora en la atencion farmaceutica dirigidas a prevenir los efectos adversos y a potenciar la adherencia de nuestros pacientes.

  3. [Ecology of the oral biosystem].

    PubMed

    Huerta, J

    1990-01-01

    The present work is a Literature review about the Ecologycal Concepts that can be applied to the host-parasite relationship that generates in the oral cavity. These concepts let understand us, much of the phenomena presents in the mouth, that explain pathologies that affects organs and tissues of it, in its morphophysiological aspects.

  4. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  5. The Oral Accentuation of Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. Sidney

    1967-01-01

    A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…

  6. Oral Hemorrhagic Blister: An Enigma

    PubMed Central

    Shashikumar, BM; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, MR

    2013-01-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. PMID:24082207

  7. Oral hemorrhagic blister: an enigma.

    PubMed

    Shashikumar, Bm; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, Mr

    2013-09-01

    Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis.

  8. Oral History: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul G.

    Defining oral history as a method of inquiry by which the memories of individuals are elicited, preserved in interview transcripts or on tape recordings, and then used to enrich understanding of individuals' lives and the events in which they participated, this annotated bibliography provides a broad overview and a sampling of the resources…

  9. Antibiofilm peptides against oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oral cavity is a major entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms. Oral biofilms are formed by mixed communities of microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. Biofilms forming on dental hard or soft tissue are the major cause of caries and endodontic and periodontal disease. Human oral biofilms exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antibiofilm peptides constitute a diverse class of host-defense molecules that act to combat invasion and infection with biofilms. Different in vitro and in vivo biofilm models with quantitative analysis have been established to provide predictable platforms for the evaluation of the antibiofilm effect of oral antibiofilm peptides. These peptides have engendered considerable interest in the past decades as potential alternatives to traditional disinfecting agents due to their ability to target bacterial biofilms specifically, leading to the prevention of biofilm formation and destruction of pre-existing biofilms by Gram-positive and -negative bacterial pathogens and fungi. At the same time, challenges associated with the application of these antibiofilm peptides in dental practice also exist. The production of effective, nontoxic, and stable antibiofilm peptides is desired in both academic and industrial fields. This review focuses on the antibiofilm properties of current synthetic peptides and their application in different areas of dentistry. PMID:28748031

  10. Raman spectroscopy of oral bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Quivey, Robert G.

    2003-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been employed to measure the varying concentrations of two oral bacteria in simple mixtures. Evaporated droplets of centrifuged mixtures of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans were analyzed via Raman microspectroscopy. The concentration of s. sanguis was determined based upon the measured Raman spectrum, using partial least squares cross-validation, with an r2 value of 0.98.

  11. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination.

  12. Divergent routes to oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Keith D; Thurlow, Johanna K; Fleming, Janis; Drake, Paul J H; Vass, J Keith; Kalna, Gabriela; Higham, Des J; Herzyk, Pawel; Macdonald, D Gordon; Parkinson, E Ken; Harrison, Paul R

    2006-08-01

    Most head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients present with late-stage cancers, which are difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis of high-risk premalignant lesions and incipient cancers is important. HNSCC is currently perceived as a single progression mechanism, resulting in immortal invasive cancers. However, we have found that approximately 40% of primary oral SCCs are mortal in culture, and these have a better prognosis. About 60% of oral premalignancies (dysplasias) are also mortal. The mortal and immortal tumors are generated in vivo as judged by p53 mutations and loss of p16(INK4A) expression being found only in the original tumors from which the immortal cultures were derived. To investigate the relationships of dysplasias to SCCs, we did microarray analysis of primary cultures of 4 normal oral mucosa biopsies, 19 dysplasias, and 16 SCCs. Spectral clustering using the singular value decomposition and other bioinformatic techniques showed that development of mortal and immortal SCCs involves distinct transcriptional changes. Both SCC classes share most of the transcriptional changes found in their respective dysplasias but have additional changes. Moreover, high-risk dysplasias that subsequently progress to SCCs more closely resemble SCCs than nonprogressing dysplasias. This indicates for the first time that there are divergent mortal and immortal pathways for oral SCC development via intermediate dysplasias. We believe that this new information may lead to new ways of classifying HNSCC in relation to prognosis.

  13. Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

  14. Developing the Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, James L.

    The Oral Language Program developed by the Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is intended to disseminate and implement strategies and materials which will improve the teaching of language skills to preschool and primary children with little or no facility in English. The first version of the program, known as Mark I, did not include…

  15. The Monitoring of Oral Anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Cedric J.

    1988-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the use of anticoagulants, describing the specific tests their use requires. These tests are usually performed in a specialized laboratory. The clinical implication of the laboratory's use of different prothrombin time systems is explained. Implications of the use of oral anticoagulants in family practice are discussed. PMID:21253057

  16. Assessing Proofs via Oral Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Fuller, Evan

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored how oral interviews can inform instructors about students' understanding of abstract algebra and their ability to construct a proof in this setting. Our findings indicate that some students had a good understanding of the ideas needed for a subgroup proof, but could not write a coherent proof. On the other…

  17. Restored Behavior and Oral Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Kathleen Bindert

    Interest in oral traditions has benefitted the field of interpretation in two ways: a new emphasis on the social and cultural contexts of performance, and an expanded perspective on performance manifestations. In Richard Schechner's concept of "restored behavior," the interpreter engages in a reconstruction of living behavior independent…

  18. Oral vaccination: where we are?

    PubMed

    Silin, Dmytro S; Lyubomska, Oksana V; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S

    2007-07-01

    As early as 900 years ago, the Bedouins of the Negev desert were reported to kill a rabid dog, roast its liver and feed it to a dog-bitten person for three to five days according to the size and number of bites [1] . In sixteenth century China, physicians routinely prescribed pills made from the fleas collected from sick cows, which purportedly prevented smallpox. One may dismiss the wisdom of the Bedouins or Chinese but the Nobel laureate, Charles Richet, demonstrated in 1900 that feeding raw meat can cure tuberculous dogs - an approach he termed zomotherapy. Despite historical clues indicating the feasibility of oral vaccination, this particular field is notoriously infamous for the abundance of dead-end leads. Today, most commercial vaccines are delivered by injection, which has the principal limitation that recipients do not like needles. In the last few years, there has been a sharp increase in interest in needle-free vaccine delivery; new data emerges almost daily in the literature. So far, there are very few licensed oral vaccines, but many more vaccine candidates are in development. Vaccines delivered orally have the potential to take immunization to a fundamentally new level. In this review, the authors summarize the recent progress in the area of oral vaccines.

  19. Orality, Literacy, and Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Eric A.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…

  20. The Impending Oral Health Crisis.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Carl H; Miller, David J; Shub, Judith L

    2016-04-01

    Last May, the New York State Dental Association and the New York State Dental Foundation convened the first "Oral Health Stakeholders' Summit on the Future of Special Needs Dentistry, Hospital Dentistry and Dental Education." The summit was chaired by David J. Miller, then NYSDA President Elect, and Carl H. Tegtmeier, then chair of the NYSDA Council on Dental Health Planning and Hospital Dentistry. It brought together experts, called to frame the issues and provide information necessary for a reasoned response. And it sought input from attendees to develop recommendations to ensure that patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as an aging population with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, have access to appropriate oral health care in the years ahead. Over 100 participants, representing dentistry, hospital training programs, third-party payers, state government offices and related patient support associations, attended the two-day event in Albany. They focused on the impact of reductions in funding, the transition of Medicaid services into a managed care model, a loss of service providers and the need for expanded training programs. They heard from speakers epresenting a broad spectrum of those involved in he oral health care of patients with intellectual and evelopmental disabilities, the Alzheimer's Association, dental educators and researchers, hospital dentistry and the benefits industry, whose presentations focused on a looming oral health crisis threatening access to dental care for patients with disabilities.

  1. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes the lips, the inside ... oropharynx. The oropharynx is the part of the throat just behind the mouth. It begins where the ...

  2. Accessibility to Literature through Oral Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jack R.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes a greater emphasis on the oral expression of literature in English classrooms and English teacher education curricula. Examines the three main oral problems encountered by students--persona, emphasis, and pace. (RL)

  3. Oral Health Promotion During Well Visits.

    PubMed

    Sanguino, Sandra M; Dhepyasuwan, Niramol; Church, Annamaria; Dabrow, Sharon; Serwint, Janet R; Bernstein, Henry H

    2017-09-01

    Training pediatric residents in Bright Futures and oral health concepts is critical to improving oral health. This study's objective was to determine the skill level of pediatric residents in integrating oral health promotion during health supervision visits of 12- to 35-month-old children. One hundred forty-three pediatric residents participated in an evaluation of the effectiveness of a Bright Futures oral health curriculum. Competencies assessed preintervention included partnership building, communication, and integration of oral health concepts. Pediatric residents' abilities to integrate oral health promotion into health supervision visits varied considerably. Residents demonstrated greater skill in communication and partnership building compared with oral health promotion behaviors and performance of an oral examination. Further education is needed at a national level if we are to meet Healthy People 2020 goals.

  4. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Medications Quick-Relief Medications Oral Steroids Oral Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  5. Diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Peter J; Shetty, Kishore V

    2011-02-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in both the immunocompetent and the immunocompromised populations. This article reviews the clinical presentations of the different forms of oral candidiasis, as well as the diagnosis and management.

  6. Teaching the Cold War through Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the "historical detective work" of oral history helps students break free of their textbooks and become active collectors of information. Provides five recommendations, six teacher guidelines, and seven student guidelines for implementing oral history in the classroom. (CFR)

  7. [Determination of human papillomavirus in oral leukoplakia,oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Jin, Jian-qiu; Deng, Da-jun; Liu, Hong-wei

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the possibility for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to be a predictable signal for the carcinogenesis of oral mucosa by comparing the prevalences of HPV in each stage of oral mucosal carcinogenesis and to compare the sensitivity differences of the two methods in detecting HPV infection in oral cavity. The hybrid capture (HC-II) was used to detect infection of HPV in 255 samples taken from 12 cases of healthy oral mucosa, 211 cases of patients with pathological diagnosis and 32 cases of patients with clinical diagnosis. The diagnosed cases included 8 cases of benign lesions of the oral mucosa, precancerous lesions [74 cases of oral leukoplakia (OLK) with hyperplasia and 42 cases of OLK with oral epithelial dysplasia (OED)], 91 cases of precancerous condition [oral lichen planus (OLP)] and 28 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). And in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to detect infection of HPV in 33 cases of OSCC and 76 cases of OLK, including 30 cases of hyperplasia, 15 cases of mild OED, 15 cases of moderate OED and 16 cases of severe OED. The prevalence of HPV in OLP samples was higher (12.12%, 8/66) than that of OLK (2.59%, 3/116) (χ(2)=4.666, P=0.031) and OSCC(7.14%, 2/28, χ(2)=0.513, P=0.474). The prevalence of HPV in OSCC (7.14%, 2/28) was higher than that of OLK (2.59%, 3/116), and no significant difference was found. There was only one case of smoke spot and statistical analysis was not carried out. ISH was used to detect type 16/18 and type 31/33 HPV DNA in 109 cases of oral mucosal lesions in paraffin sections and only one case of OSCC was HPV positive. Thirty-seven cases were detected by HC-II and ISH methods at the same time. The same negative results by the two methods were found in 94.6% samples (35/37). In the other two samples, one was OSCC with early infiltration and the other was OLK with hyperplasia, The HC-II results were positive while the ISH results were negative. The patients with OLP and HPV testing results

  8. Oral surgery in patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Vicente Barrero, Mario; Knezevic, Milan; Tapia Martín, Manuel; Viejo Llorente, Aurora; Orengo Valverde, Juan Carlos; García Jiménez, Francisco; López Pérez, Omar; Domínguez Sarmiento, Sergio; Díaz Cremades, Jose Manuel; Castellano Reyes, Juan

    2002-01-01

    There is an evident need for procedural protocol for oral surgery patients who undergo oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) because of: 1) the possible severity of complications and 2) the growing demand for OAT, which in some cases may be as much as 8% of the oral surgery patients that are referred to the hospital from primary care centers. In this study, the authors define the parameters for creating a proto- col applicable to this group of patients. The conclusion is that it is not necessary to suspend OAT before surgery; rather, these procedures should be performed under multidisciplinary medical control. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to perform oral surgery on OAT patients, without having to sus- pend treatment beforehand. A longitudinal study was performed in OAT patients that required some type of oral surgical procedures. After an INR control, the patient underwent surgery and afterwards the patient was given tranexamic acid as a mouth rinse. Postoperative hemorrhage was classified as slight when it lasted less than 5 minutes, moderate when it lasted longer than five minutes, and severe when it required blood transfusion. The study was performed over a 5-year period (1996-2000), by the maxillofacial surgery department. In that time period, 125 patients with OAT were treated; 90 of them were males and 35 were females. Tooth extraction was per- formed in 229 sessions and a total of 367 teeth were extracted, with an average of 1.6% per session. With regards to postoperative hemorrahage, it was slight in 210 cases (91.7%), moderate in 18 (7.9%) and severe only in one case (0.4%). All the variables were compared and no statistically significant differences were found. We believe that OAT should not be suspended before oral surgery, but it surgery should be performed under multidisciplinary control-especially in the case of the elderly (over 65) or with those patients that have other concomitant illnesses such as renal insufficiency or anemia or other

  9. Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

  10. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...

  11. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...

  12. The Oral History Collection of Columbia University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Starr, Louis M., Ed.

    This book is a catalog of the contents of the oral history collection at Columbia University. Entries are listed alphabetically by the person or group making the oral history recordings. Each entry includes the subject's full name and vocation, brief notes on the content of the oral recording, and an indication of the accessibility of the…

  13. Improving Oral Reports: A Heuristic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glossner, Alan J.

    A student's fear of giving oral reports and the instructor's objection to using too much class time on oral reports are often seen as the major barriers that prevent an oral communication unit from being included in a business or management communications course. One approach to easing both concerns is the use of videotaping as a self-discovery…

  14. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  15. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the... General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the... of the proceeding. (b) In its discretion, the Board or a single presiding member may permit oral...

  16. 7 CFR 15.139 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 15.139 Section 15.139 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Posthearing Procedures § 15.139 Oral... oral argument on all parties and will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of time...

  17. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.73 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Inter Partes Appeals § 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which an appellant or a...

  18. 17 CFR 171.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 171.32 Section... Registration Actions § 171.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument in a proceeding. (b) On request of party. Any party may file...

  19. 17 CFR 12.312 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral hearing. 12.312 Section... REPARATIONS Rules Applicable to Formal Decisional Proceedings § 12.312 Oral hearing. (a) Notification; prehearing order. If and when the proceeding has reached the stage of an oral hearing, the Administrative Law...

  20. 29 CFR 7.14 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 7.14 Section 7.14 Labor Office of the... ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Some General Procedural Matters § 7.14 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect... a single presiding member, may permit oral argument in any proceeding. The Board or the presiding...

  1. 17 CFR 10.83 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral arguments. 10.83 Section... Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions § 10.83 Oral arguments. In his discretion the Administrative Law Judge may hear oral arguments by the parties any time before he files his initial decision with the...

  2. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or augment...

  3. 17 CFR 9.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 9.32 Section 9..., Access Denial or Other Adverse Action § 9.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument by the parties any time before the...

  4. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property. Follow the...

  5. 42 CFR 405.1124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 405.1124 Section 405.1124 Public... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1124 Oral argument. A party may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a...

  6. 14 CFR 211.16 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearing. 211.16 Section 211.16... REGULATIONS APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS General Requirements § 211.16 Oral hearing. If an oral evidentiary hearing is convened, the applicant must make available witnesses who are competent and...

  7. 19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral declarations. 148.12 Section 148.12 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations § 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally. Returning residents and nonresidents arriving in the United States may make an oral declaration under the...

  8. 10 CFR 2.343 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.343 Section 2.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules of... Hearings § 2.343 Oral argument. In its discretion, the Commission may allow oral argument upon the request...

  9. 5 CFR 2429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 2429.6 Section 2429.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous § 2429.6 Oral argument. The Authority or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument in...

  10. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... Special Procedural Rules Applicable to Appeals of Decisions Made Under OMB Circular A-76 § 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals...

  11. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper…

  12. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.97 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and other...

  13. 46 CFR 502.317 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.317 Section 502.317 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.317 Oral argument. No oral argument will be held unless...

  14. 22 CFR 1429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Oral argument. 1429.6 Section 1429.6 Foreign... REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous § 1429.6 Oral argument. The Board or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument in any matter arising under this subchapter under such circumstances and...

  15. 43 CFR 4.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 4.25 Section 4.25 Public... General Rules Relating to Procedures and Practice § 4.25 Oral argument. The Director or an Appeals Board may, in their discretion, grant an opportunity for oral argument. ...

  16. 7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral... oral presentation of data, views and arguments in support of the request for an adjustment, provided...

  17. 46 CFR 202.8 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 202.8 Section 202.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE PROCEDURES RELATING TO REVIEW BY SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION OF ACTIONS BY MARITIME SUBSIDY BOARD § 202.8 Oral argument. Generally, oral...

  18. [President George Washington and his oral complaints].

    PubMed

    Eijkman, M A J

    2012-09-01

    George Washington, the first president of the United States of America, suffered for most of his life from continuous oral pain. Through letters, diaries, and other personal information from this president, much has become known concerning his oral problems and the level of oral healthcare in the United States in the mid and late 18th century.

  19. Oral Communicative Competence of Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Isabel Cantón; Barrioluengo, Elena Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Oral communicative competence enables speakers of a language to interact effectively with each other. Oral communicative competence includes a wide semantic field since the oral expression is a way of expression for the thought and it provides feedback and develops by means of the linguistic function (Vygotsky, 1992; Piaget, 1983a, 1983b; Pinker,…

  20. Oral Tradition and Civic Education in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okafor, Clement A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that oral literature, which is an aspect of the oral tradition, has functioned historically as a vital medium of moral and civic education in non-literate societies the world over. Through the ages, oral literature has performed this function by presenting its various genres as forms of entertainment…

  1. Vesiculobullous disease of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Zunt, S L

    1996-04-01

    This article reviews the clinical features of vesiculobullous diseases with oral manifestations. Oral vesiculobullous diseases may be viral, immunologically mediated, drug induced, hereditary, or traumatic in origin. A general approach to the diagnosis is outlined, including immunofluorescent testing of suspected vesiculobullous disease. Recommendations for treatment of oral vesiculobullous diseases are included.

  2. 37 CFR 42.70 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Trial Practice and Procedure Oral Argument... argument on an issue raised in a paper at a time set by the Board. The request must be filed as a separate... business days before the oral argument and filed no later than the time of the oral argument. ...

  3. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  4. Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

  5. [Oral cancer surgery and oral cutaneous fistulas: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gyl Henrique A; Crivelaro, André Luiz Soares; de Oliveira, Benedito Valdecir; Pedruzzi, Paola Andrea G; de Freitas, Rosyane Rena

    2010-04-01

    To quantify the oral cutaneous fistulae after surgery and to identify possible risk factors. A retrospective study, interesting patients that were submitted to surgery, with a two years minimum post-operative follow up. The considered variables were: sex, concomitant diseases, tabacco and alcohol use, the anesthesic and pulmonary risks, clinical stage, cervical linphadenectomy, pre or postoperative radiotherapy, accidents during the surgery, wound infection and or hematoma, pulmonary infection, surgery and reconstruction extension. In 159 patients, oral cutaneous fistulae occurred in 48 patients (30,3%): Patients stage T1 in 26,6 %,T2 in 1,8 %,T3 in 16%, and T4 in 40,3% (p=0,0138). The cases N+ developed fistulae in 22.9%, (N2c with 42,8%, (p=0,0136), those with preoperative radiotherapy in 63,6% (p=0,0346) Those with wound infection in 47,3% (p=0,0146), and those with wound deiscense in 53,7 % (p=0,0030). The fistulae rate was of 60% in the regional mucocutaneous flaps reconstruction cases, 39,2% in the myocutaneous ones and 12,5% of microsurgery ones (p=0,0286). The general rate of oral cutaneous fistulae was 30,3%. The significant factors were: T stage, cervical linphadenectomy, pre or postoperative radiotherapy, wound infection and deiscense, and the use of flaps.

  6. Oral piercing and oral diseases: a short time retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%).

  7. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  8. Sensory Topography of Oral Structures.

    PubMed

    Bearelly, Shethal; Cheung, Steven W

    2017-01-01

    Sensory function in the oral cavity and oropharynx is integral to effective deglutition and speech production. The main hurdle to evaluation of tactile consequences of upper aerodigestive tract diseases and treatments is access to a reliable clinical tool. We propose a rapid and reliable procedure to determine tactile thresholds using buckling monofilaments to advance care. To develop novel sensory testing monofilaments and map tactile thresholds of oral cavity and oropharyngeal structures. A prospective cross-sectional study of 37 healthy adults (12 men, 25 women), specifically without a medical history of head and neck surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy, was carried out in an academic tertiary medical center to capture normative data on tactile sensory function in oral structures. Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments were constructed by securing nylon monofilament sutures (2-0 through 9-0) in the lumen of 5-French ureteral catheters, exposing 20 mm for tapping action. Buckling force consistency was evaluated for 3 lots of each suture size. Sensory thresholds of 4 oral cavity and 2 oropharyngeal subsites in healthy participants (n = 37) were determined by classical signal detection methodology (d-prime ≥1). In 21 participants, test-retest reliability of sensory thresholds was evaluated. Separately in 16 participants, sensory thresholds determined by a modified staircase method were cross-validated with those obtained by classical signal detection. Buckling forces of successive suture sizes were distinct (P < .001), consistent (Cronbach α, 0.99), and logarithmically related (r = 0.99, P < .001). Test-retest reliability of sensory threshold determination was high (Cronbach α, >0.7). The lower lip, anterior tongue, and buccal mucosa were more sensitive than the soft palate, posterior tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall (P < .001). Threshold determination by classical signal detection and modified staircase methods were highly correlated (r = 0

  9. [Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2013-06-17

    A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction.

  10. Oral Health in the District of Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Janice C.; Towe, Vivian; Donald, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research suggests that there are significant barriers to oral health care for many children in Washington, D.C. This article assesses the perspectives of Washington, D.C., stakeholders, including parents and providers, about the oral health of children, particularly those insured by Medicaid. The authors present qualitative data from focus groups with parents and providers, from an oral health forum with primary care medical and oral health clinicians and representatives from the D.C. government, and from a provider survey. The opinions captured here provide a snapshot of the challenges to improving access to oral care for D.C. children and suggest recommendations for doing so. PMID:28083291

  11. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    PubMed

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  12. Orally-transmitted Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Filigheddu, Maria Teresa; Górgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José Manuel

    2017-02-09

    Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is most frequently associated with a vectorial transmission. However, in recent years we have observed a significant increase in the oral transmission of the disease, associated mainly with the consumption of drinks made from fruit or other vegetables contaminated with triatomine faeces or secretions from infected mammals. After a latency period of 3 to 22 days after ingestion, the oral infection is characterized by more severe manifestations than those associated with vectorial transmission: prolonged fever, acute myocarditis with heart failure and, in some cases, meningoencephalitis. Mortality can reach up to 33% of those infected. The aim of this paper is to review this matter and to promote prevention practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Choosing the appropriate oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Langer, A; Devanesan, M; Pelosi, M A

    1978-06-01

    The estrogen and progestin in most oral contraceptives, regardless of amounts, can produce undesirable side effects in any woman. The convenience and effectiveness, however, make oral contraceptives an excellent birth control method for the correctly screened patient. The use of relatively small doses of estrogen combined with a progestin complementary to the estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic needs of the patient will reduce the risk of side effects. Above the 50 ug estrogen level there is significantly higher risk of pulmonary embolism, venous thrombosis, and cerebral thrombosis. Hypertension, depression and hepatic disorders are other potential side effects. Less serious complications are breakthrough bleeding, likely caused by low level estrogen dosage and amenorrhea. Progestogenic effects include sustained noncyclic weight gain and amenorrhea. Prescribing these agents necessitates adequate follow-up and willingness to alter the prescription.

  14. Novel oral suspensions: a review.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Harsha; Phadke, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    An oral pharmaceutical suspension has been one of the most favorable dosage forms for pediatric and geriatric patients or patients unable to tolerate solid dosage forms. The liquid form is preferred because of the ease of swallowing and flexibility in the administration of doses. This emerging area of suspensions as applied to the pharmaceutical field are discussed in the current article enlightening the vision of the readers towards pharmaceutical formulations including nanosuspensions, non-aqueous suspensions and modified release suspensions. The emphasis in the article focuses on the essential principles involved in the process of formation of different types of suspensions and their applications, since novel oral suspensions have potential to provide various strategy systems.

  15. Recent innovations in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

    2010-03-01

    Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone.

  16. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  17. Epithelial dysplasia in oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Samaneh; Kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Homayoni, Solmaz

    2014-09-01

    Among oral lesions, we encounter a series of malignant epithelial lesions that go through clinical and histopathologic processes in order to be diagnosed. Identifying these processes along with the etiology knowledge of these lesions is very important in prevention and early treatments. Dysplasia is the step preceding the formation of squamous cell carcinoma in lesions which have the potential to undergo dysplasia. Identification of etiological factors, clinical and histopathologic methods has been the topic of many articles. This article, reviews various articles presenting oral cavity dysplasia, new clinical methods of identifying lesions, and the immunohistochemical research which proposes various markers for providing more precise identification of such lesions. This article also briefly analyzes new treatment methods such as tissue engineering.

  18. Uremic toxins and oral adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shunsuke; Yoshiya, Kunihiko; Kita, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Hideki; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2011-04-01

    Uremic toxins are associated with various disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease and it is difficult to remove some of these toxins by dialysis. Since some uremic toxins are generated by bacterial metabolites in the colon, oral adsorbents that interfere with the absorption of uremic toxins or their precursors are believed to prevent their accumulation in the body. AST-120 adsorbs various uremic retention solutes in the gastrointestinal system and has potential for providing clinical benefit. Sevelamer hydrochloride binds some harmful compounds in addition to phosphate and seems to have pleiotropic effects that include lowering serum LDL cholesterol levels and reduction of inflammation. The effect of sevelamer hydrochloride on indoxyl sulfate and p-cresol has been shown in an in vitro study; however, in vivo studies in mice or humans did not demonstrate this effect on protein-binding uremic toxins. Oral adsorbents are thus one of the important modalities in the treatment of uremic syndrome.

  19. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains.

  20. Novel, orally effective cyanide antidotes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Herbert T; Goon, David J W; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Patterson, Steven E

    2007-12-27

    A series of prodrugs of 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), the substrate for the enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate/cyanide sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) that converts cyanide to the nontoxic thiocyanate, which are highly effective cyanide antidotes, have been developed. These prodrugs of 3-MP are unique in being not only orally bioavailable, but may be administered up to an hour prior to cyanide as a prophylactic agent and are both rapid- or slow-acting when given parenterally.

  1. Oral targeted therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Christine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral targeted therapies are increasingly being used to treat cancer. They work by interfering with specific molecules or pathways involved in tumour growth. It is essential that health professionals managing patients taking these drugs have appropriate training and skills. They should be aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions, and be able to manage toxicities when they occur. Despite the selectivity of these targeted therapies, they still have serious adverse effects including skin reactions, diarrhoea and altered organ function. PMID:26648656

  2. Methamphetamine Use and Oral Health

    MedlinePlus

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Methamphetamine use and oral health M ethamphetamine is an inexpensive, easy-to-make illicit drug. It is known by several street names: “meth,” “speed,” “ice,” “chalk,” “crank,” “fire,” “glass,” “crystal” and “tina.” It is ...

  3. Nitrous oxide and oral premedication.

    PubMed

    Giovannitti, J A

    1984-01-01

    Patients frequently require conscious-sedation to achieve anxiety relief in the dental office. There are specific indications, contraindications, advantages, and disadvantages to each sedation modality. Selection of the appropriate anesthetic technique should be individualized for each patient. This paper reviews two important conscious-sedation modalities: oral premedication and nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation.Pertinent drugs are reviewed and recommendations are made for their use; current researches are presented and new areas for investigation are suggested.

  4. Hamartomas of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali

    2015-01-01

    The majority of oral diseases present as growths and masses of varied cellular origin. Such masses may include simple hyperplasia, hamartoma, choristoma, teratoma, benign or malignant neoplasms. The distinguishing features of hamartomatous lesions are not certain, and often these non-neoplastic masses are indiscreetly denoted as neoplasms without weighing their pathology or biological behaviour. Essentially, understanding the dynamics of each of these disease processes forms an integral part of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:26539384

  5. Oral sensory dysfunction following radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bearelly, Shethal; Wang, Steven J; Cheung, Steven W

    2017-10-01

    To assess differences in oral tactile sensation between subjects who have undergone radiation therapy (XRT) compared to healthy controls. Cross-sectional cohort comparison. Thirty-four subjects with a history of XRT were compared with 23 healthy controls. There was no difference in age (P = .23), but there were slightly more males in the XRT cohort (P = .03). The mean (standard deviation) time after XRT completion was 3.84 (4.84) years. Fifty-six percent of the XRT cohort received chemotherapy. Using our previously validated methodology to measure oral tactile sensory threshold quantitatively with Cheung-Bearelly monofilaments, sensory thresholds of four subsites (anterior tongue, buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, soft palate) were compared for the two cohorts. Site-by-site comparisons showed higher forces were required for stimulus detection at all four subsites among subjects in the XRT cohort compared to healthy controls. Mean force in grams for XRT versus control cohorts were: anterior tongue, 0.39 (1.0) versus 0.02 (0.01); buccal mucosa, 0.42 (0.95) versus 0.06 (0.05); posterior tongue, 0.76 (1.46) versus 0.10 (0.07); and soft palate, 0.86 (1.47) versus 0.08 (0.05) (P < .001 for all comparisons). Combining all four subsites into a single metric to assess an overall level of oral tactile dysfunction, the XRT cohort had reduced sensation by 18.7 dB (P < .001). After radiation therapy, the oral cavity and oropharynx exhibit global tactile sensory dysfunction, manifested by increased tactile forces required for stimulus detection. The magnitude of sensory impairment is 18.7 dB. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:2282-2286, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Oral health considerations in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mawardi, Hani H; Al-Mohaya, Maha A; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-05-01

    Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatment have helped in prolonging the survival rate for cancer patients. However, the patients who undergo treatment for cancer are potentially at high-risk for developing a number of oral complications, including oral mucositis, infections, hyposalivation, dental caries, and jaw osteonecrosis. Cancer survivors may remain at life-long risk of developing oral complications, and therefore require long-term dental follow-up, well after completion of cancer therapy. Patients should typically undergo thorough oral examination prior to initiation of therapy, during and after therapy to identify any active infection. In addition, and in order to maintain adequate oral health throughout treatment, patients should continue normal oral hygiene with tooth brushing and interproximal cleaning. The aim of this review is to discuss potential oral complications as a result of cancer therapy, and the certain precautions we should be aware of these patients.

  7. Vitamin A, Pregnancy, and Oral Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Schorah, C. J.; Smithells, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It has been shown that women receiving oral contraceptives have increased levels of serum vitamin A. High vitamin A levels may constitute a teratogenic hazard and it has been suggested that women who conceive soon after discontinuing oral contraceptive therapy may be especially at risk to this hazard. We have confirmed a significant increase in vitamin A levels in women taking oral contraceptives. During early pregnancy there is no significant difference in vitamin A levels between women who have recently been taking oral contraceptives and those who have not. We have been unable to show that either taking oral contraceptives shortly before pregnancy or a high vitamin A level during the first trimester of pregnancy, comparable to that of a woman taking oral contraceptives, has any detrimental effect on the outcome of pregnancy. It seems unlikely that women who conceive soon after discontinuing oral contraception run any teratogenic risk from increased vitamin A levels. PMID:4812394

  8. Delivery systems and adjuvants for oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Ed C; O'Hagan, D T

    2006-11-01

    The oral route is the ideal means of delivering prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, offering significant advantages over systemic delivery. Most notably, oral delivery is associated with simple administration and improved safety. In addition, unlike systemic immunisation, oral delivery can induce mucosal immune responses. However, the oral route of vaccine delivery is the most difficult because of the numerous barriers posed by the gastrointestinal tract. To facilitate effective immunisation with peptide and protein vaccines, antigens must be protected, uptake enhanced and the innate immune response activated. Numerous delivery systems and adjuvants have been evaluated for oral vaccine delivery, including live vectors, inert particles and bacterial toxins. Although developments in oral vaccines have been disappointing so far, in terms of the generation of products, the availability of a range of novel delivery systems offers much greater hope for the future development of improved oral vaccines.

  9. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  10. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A; Almers, Lucy M; Cardwell, Chris R; Murray, Liam J; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-03-10

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder.

  11. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  12. Oral bisphosphonates and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Corley, Douglas A.; Almers, Lucy M.; Cardwell, Chris R.; Murray, Liam J.; Abnet, Christian C.

    2017-01-01

    Use of oral bisphosphonates has been associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the association may be related to residual confounding by healthy lifestyle or body mass index (BMI). Therefore, we conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the Kaiser Permanente, Northern California health system cohort. In total, 12,505 CRC cases were individually matched to 599,534 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for important covariates extracted from the database. Participants who had ever used oral bisphosphonates were less likely than non-users to be diagnosed with CRC (OR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.89). Colon and rectum site-specific associations were similar to the overall association. A stronger inverse association for ever use of bisphosphonates was observed for men (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.85), however when stratified by previous lower endoscopy, the association was only observed in the participants who did not have a previous lower endoscopy (OR 0.73 (0.64, 0.83)). In conclusion, we found that oral bisphosphonate use was associated with a decreased odds of CRC, however this association may be due to residual confounding by BMI or another confounder. PMID:28281559

  13. Apoptosis in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R

    2001-10-01

    Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness.

  14. Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

    2013-10-01

    To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis.

  15. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice.

  17. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D Santhosh; Sivapathasundharam, B; Saraswathi, T R; SriRam, G

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were studied to find out if they could aid in histopathological distinction between oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis. To enumerate mast cells and compare the status of Mast Cells (Intact or Degranulated) in Lichen planus, Lichenoid mucositis and normal buccal mucosa in tissue sections stained with Toluidine Blue, and also to enumerate Eosinophils and blood capillaries in tissue sections stained with H and E. The study group included 30 cases each of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis. 10 cases of clinically normal oral buccal mucosa formed the control group. All the sections were stained with Toluidine blue and H and E separately. Histopathological analysis was done using binocular light microscope equipped with square ocular grid to standardize the field of evaluation. The result of the study showed. · Significant increase in number of mast cells in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis compared to normal buccal mucosa. · Significant increase of intact mast cells suepithelially within the inflammatory cell infiltrate in oral lichen planus compared to oral lichenoid mucositis. · Significant increase of degranulated mast cells in oral lichenoid mucositis to oral lichen planus, and increase in number of eosinophil densities in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. · Significant increase in number of capillaries in oral lichenoid mucositis compared to oral lichen planus. The findings of increased number of intact mast cells sub epithelially in oral

  18. [Oral health perception and oral habits in children and teenagers].

    PubMed

    Artázcoz, J; Martinicorena, F J Cortés; Gallardo, E Rosel; Rodríguez, P González; Bravo, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine the self-perception of oral health levels and the need for treatment, hygienic habits and frequency of visits to the dentist amongst schoolchildren in Navarre. The population of the study was aged 6, 12 and 14 years. The sample was obtained from schools teaching 1st and 6th year in Primary Education and 2nd year in Compulsory Secondary Education. The data was gathered through self-answering questionnaires. Ninety-two percent of 6 and 12 year olds, and 82.9% of 14 year olds are satisfied with their oral health. Thirteen point one percent of 12 year olds and 19.3% of 14 year olds are dissatisfied, above all with misaligned teeth. Approximately one-third think they need some treatment, above all fillings at age 6 and orthodontics at 12 and 14 years. Nearly two-thirds say they brush their teeth more than once a day and between 80 and 90% say they have visited the dentist in the last year. More than 75% of those responsible for the schoolchildren aged 6 and 12 years make a positive evaluation of the contributions of the child dental care program (PADI) and more than 95% are satisfied with the care given by PADI dentists to their children. Sex, average residence and socioeconomic level barely influence the perception of health, frequency of brushing teeth or need for treatment. The study reveals that the subjective perception of oral health is good and that one-third of those surveyed think they need some type of treatment. It is very positive that they majority say that they have been to the dentist in the last year and that they brush their teeth more than once a day, which is an improvement on the results of previous studies.

  19. Detection of survivin mRNA in healthy oral mucosa, oral leucoplakia and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Lodi, G; Franchini, R; Bez, C; Sardella, A; Moneghini, L; Pellegrini, C; Bosari, S; Manfredi, M; Vescovi, P; Carrassi, A

    2010-01-01

    Survivin is involved in modulation of cell death and cell division processes. Survivin expression in normal adult tissues has not been fully understood, although it is markedly lower than in cancer, where it is over-expressed. To investigate survivin expression in normal, potentially malignant and cancerous oral mucosa. We measured survivin mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR in specimens of oral mucosa (15 from normal mucosa, 17 from potentially malignant lesions, 17 from neoplasms). Scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc according to Conover. Chi-squared test was used for dichotomous data. The median relative levels of survivin mRNA resulted six for normal mucosa, eight for potentially malignant lesions, 13 for cancers: differences among these three groups were statistically significant, as between cancer and potentially malignant lesions. Expression in normal mucosa and potentially lesions group showed no significant difference. Low, but not marginal expression of survivin in normal mucosa is a new finding, and it could be explained with the higher sensibility of our methods. Survivin expression in oral potentially malignant lesions might indicate a progressive deregulation of expression paralleling oncogenesis, particularly during the first stages of process, suggesting a putative predictive role for survivin.

  20. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  1. Promotion of oral health by community nurses.

    PubMed

    Garry, Brendan; Boran, Sue

    2017-10-02

    To explore the enablers and barriers perceived by community nurses in the promotion of oral health in an adult community trust directorate. Oral health care promotion in community care settings is being neglected. England and Wales have witnessed marked improvements in periodontal disease; however, no improvements have been seen in older people. A qualitative methodology was employed, where eight nurses from Band 5 to 7 were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The data was analysed thematically. Data analysis was organised into four themes: professional self-concept and the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary in the promotion of oral health; the impact an organisation has on the promotion of oral health and an exploration of the enablers and barriers identified by the community nurses while delivering care; the relationships between the nurse and patient and the potential impact on oral health promotion; the concept of self-regard in relation to the promotion of oral health and its overall impact. A commitment to improving oral health and requests for additional educational input were apparent. Organisational enablers and barriers were identified, alongside the crucial role a positive self-regard for oral health care may play in the promotion of oral health. Nurses need relevant education, organisational support, adequate resources and support from a multidisciplinary team to deliver optimal oral health promotion.

  2. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  3. The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446

  4. Shaping the oral mycobiota: interactions of opportunistic fungi with oral bacteria and the host.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2015-08-01

    The oral mycobiota is an important component of the oral microbiota that has only recently received increased attention. The diversity and complexity of the oral mycobiota in healthy humans is greater than any other body site. Dysbiotic imbalance of indigenous fungal communities in immunosuppressed hosts has been proposed to lead to oropharyngeal fungal infections. As in other body sites, to survive and thrive in the oral cavity fungi have to maintain mutually beneficial relationships with the resident bacterial microbiota and the host. Here we review our current understanding of the composition of the oral mycobiota and how it may be influenced by oral commensal bacteria and the host environment.

  5. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  6. ORAL LICHEN PLANUS AND ORAL LICHENOID REACTION--AN UPDATE.

    PubMed

    Rotim, Zeljko; Bolanca, Zeljana; Rogulj, Ana Andabak; Andabak, Matej; Boras, Vanja Vucićević; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-12-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) are clinically and histopathologically similar diseases. Whereas OLP is a consequence of T cell mediated autoinflammatory process to a still unknown antigen, OLR might be caused by drugs, dental restorative materials and dental plaque. Pubmed was searched and 24 publications published over the last three years regarding etiology, diagnosis and malignant alteration were included in this study. Patients with OLR who have amalgam fillings near lesions should have them replaced, i.e. when possible they should be referred to patch test, as well as when drug-induced OLR are suspected. OLR lesions induced by drugs should disappear when the offending drug has been discontinued. Histology finding in OLR consists of more eosinophils, plasma cells and granulocytes in comparison to OLP lesions. Furthermore, OLP lesions showed more p53, bcl-2 and COX-2 positivity when compared to OLR. OLP is characterized by infiltration, atrophic epithelium, rete pegs and Max Joseph spaces, while deep infiltration into connective tissue and hyperkeratosis were the criteria for making the diagnosis of OLR. The number of degranulated mastocytes in the reticular layer, as well as the number of capillaries was higher in OLR in comparison to OLP. It seems that OLR are more prone to malignant alteration in comparison to OLP.

  7. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  8. Marathon Maternity Oral History Project

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing

  9. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p < 0.001). 2) Severe cases of dry mouth (Grade-2&3) were noted in 20.0% and 64.8% in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively ( p < 0.0001). Candidiasis complication rate was significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  10. [Oral microbiota: a promising predictor of human oral and systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xin, Xu; Junzhi, He; Xuedong, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    A human oral microbiota is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms found in human oral cavity. Oral microbiota exists mostly in the form of a biofilm and maintains a dynamic ecological equilibrium with the host body. However, the disturbance of this ecological balance inevitably causes oral infectious diseases, such as dental caries, apical periodontitis, periodontal diseases, pericoronitis, and craniofacial bone osteomyelitis. Oral microbiota is also correlated with many systemic diseases, including cancer, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and preterm birth. Hence, oral microbiota has been considered as a potential biomarker of human diseases. The "Human Microbiome Project" and other metagenomic projects worldwide have advanced our knowledge of the human oral microbiota. The integration of these metadata has been the frontier of oral microbiology to improve clinical translation. By reviewing recent progress on studies involving oral microbiota-related oral and systemic diseases, we aimed to propose the essential role of oral microbiota in the prediction of the onset, progression, and prognosis of oral and systemic diseases. An oral microbiota-based prediction model helps develop a new paradigm of personalized medicine and benefits the human health in the post-metagenomics era.

  11. Preparation and clinical application of 2% diflunisal oral ointment for painful lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kizu, J; Tsuchiya, M; Watanabe, S; Yasuno, N; Arakawa, Y; Saijyo, H; Okuda, O

    2001-11-01

    We previously reported the development and clinical efficacy of a 2% aspirin oral ointment and 2% ethenzamide oral ointment as hospital preparations for painful lesions of the oral mucosa. This study investigated methods of preparing a more stable oral ointment with a more effective analgesic action, using diflunisal, another salicylic acid derivative, with an analgesic effect stronger than that of aspirin. A two-percent diflunisal oral ointment was prepared similarly to the aspirin ointment using plastibase and CMC-Na as the ointment base. From the results of spreadability measurement, a CMC-Na content of 20% was considered appropriate. The stability of diflunisal in 2% diflunisal oral ointment stored at 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C, was determined using HPLC, and a high stability of diflunisal at room temperature for more than 100 days was confirmed. We also investigated its antinociceptive effect using the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test in rats, which showed that 2% diflunisal oral ointment was as effective as 2% aspirin oral ointment. On clinical application of 2% diflunisal oral ointment to 8 patients with painful oral mucous diseases, it was found to be significantly (p = 0.014) more effective than 2% aspirin oral ointment. The results of this study demonstrated that 2% diflunisal oral ointment is a clinically useful analgesic for painful oral lesions.

  12. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  13. [Mercilon - the optimal oral contraceptive].

    PubMed

    Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Kolarov, G; Novachkov, V; Ivanov, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the effect of the oral contraceptive Mercilon on menstrual cycle, contraceptive efficacy, lipid profile, safety profile and adverse effects in a group of 32 women, included in the survey. The results of the trial show excellent contraceptive effect with Pearl Index of 0.00 and good control over the menstrual cycle. No negative or unfavorable effects were seen on the lipid profile as well as on the liver kidney and coangulant system function. Minor side effects were seen in only 5% of the patients.

  14. [Infections of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Reibel, Jesper; Kragelund, Camilla

    2010-11-01

    The most common infections of the oral mucosa are those caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Candidosis occurs as pseudomembraneous, erythematous and hyperplastic types with varying symptoms from no to a burning sensation. Treatment most importantly includes elimination of any predisposing factors such as smoking, sub-optimal denture hygiene and hyposalivation. A primary HSV infection results in a life-long latent infection recurring in some infected persons either intraorally or on the lip. If treatment is indicated, topical or systemic aciclovir and related drugs can be used.

  15. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for

  16. Oral Health and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review oral health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and T2DM, oral health awareness is lacking among patients with diabetes and other health professionals. There is a need for the treating physician to be educated about the various oral manifestations of diabetes so that they can be diagnosed early and timely referrals to oral health specialists can be made. The established link between periodontitis and diabetes calls for an increased need to study ways to control both diseases, particularly among populations with health disparities and limited access to oral and health care. PMID:23531957

  17. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    PubMed

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  18. [Indicating analgesics in oral health care].

    PubMed

    Allard, R H B; Bruers, J M M; Baart, J A

    2012-01-01

    A representative survey amongst Dutch dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons showed that almost all of them indicated analgesics regularly. Thirty-five% of the dentists advised their patients in case of one or several tooth extractions to use analgesics. Forty-seven % of these dentists advised using the analgesics before the pain starts. After similar treatments, 89% of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons indicated analgesics and 73% advised taking the analgesic preventatively. Also in the case of other treatments oral and maxillofacial surgeons advised more often than dentists using analgesics preventatively. Dentists usually advised paracetamol and oral and maxillofacial surgeons a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Most dentists and all oral and maxillofacial surgeons thought that they had enough knowledge about the side-effects and interactions of analgesics. The majority of the dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons indicated that they would like to be updated on analgesia by post-graduate education occasionally

  19. Oral epithelial hyperplasia in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Girtan, Mihaela; Zurac, Sabina; Stăniceanu, Florica; Bastian, Alexandra; Popp, Cristiana; Nichita, Luciana; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic systemic disorders with major influences of the oral cavity microenvironment. Oral manifestations of diabetes are diverse; they are represented by candidose, lichen plan, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, salivary disorders, oral mucosa atrophy and rarely hypertrophy; a possible link between oral cancer and diabetes is suspected, both in animal models and humans. We report a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes with class I Kennedy edentation with mobile denture prosthesis; latter in the clinical follow-up, a hyperplasic lesion of the oral mucosa with p53 expression within the epithelial nuclei was identified, p53 being the more likely pathogenic pathway involved in diabetes-related oral cancer. The approach of this patient required multidisciplinary investigations and careful follow-up.

  20. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth.

  1. [Desirable way for oral biomaterial research].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keiichi

    2007-07-01

    This review article is based on the ingredients of my lecture titled "Desirable way for oral biomaterial research in the JPS - considering Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Summer School 2006" at the JPS Advanced Seminar which was held with the general assembly meeting at March 4, 2007. How we explore the desirable way for oral biomaterial research in Japan was discussed with referral of the contents and discussion in the summer school.

  2. Oral benign fibrous histiocytoma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Fibrous histiocytoma is a benign soft tissue tumour arising as a fibrous mass everywhere in the human body. The involvement of the oral cavity is rare. We report two cases of benign fibrous histiocytoma that localized in the oral cavity. The clinical and histological features of the lesion are reported. Finally, a literature revision of this pathology at the level of the oral cavity is reported. PMID:20066060

  3. Periodontics and Oral-Systeric Relationships: Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Glascoe, Alison; Brown, Ronald; Robinson, Grace; Hailu, Kassahun

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity is a part of the body. The health of the oral cavity affects the health of the entire body. This relationship is reciprocal, as the overall health of an individual will also affect the health of that individual's oral cavity. Periodontal disease is a common, chronic inflammatory disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth. It has been proposed that periodontal disease is a risk factor for systemic diseases such as diabetes.

  4. Oral health problems in elderly rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Andersson, P; Hallberg, I R; Lorefält, B; Unosson, M; Renvert, S

    2004-05-01

    A combination of poor oral hygiene and dry mouth may be hazardous to the oral health status. However, systematic assessments in order to detect oral health problems are seldom performed in the nursing care of the elderly. The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of oral health problems measured using the Revised Oral Assessment Guide (ROAG) and to analyse associations between oral health problems and age, gender, living conditions, cohabitation, reason for admission, number of drugs, and functional and nutritional status. One registered nurse performed oral health assessments using ROAG in 161 newly admitted elderly patients in rehabilitation care. Oral health problems were found in 71% of the patients. Thirty per cent of these patients had between four and eight problems. Low saliva flow and problems related to lips were the most frequent oral health problems. Problems in oral health status were significantly associated with presence of respiratory diseases (problems with gums, lips, alterations on the tongue and mucous membranes), living in special accommodation (low saliva flow, problems with teeth/dentures and alterations on the tongue), being undernourished (alterations on the tongue and low saliva flow) and being a woman (low saliva flow). The highest Odds ratio (OR) was found in problems with gums in relation with prevalence of respiratory diseases (OR 8.9; confidence interval (CI) 2.8-27.8; P < 0.0005). This study indicates the importance of standardised oral health assessments in order to detect oral health problems which can otherwise be hidden when the patients are admitted to the hospital ward.

  5. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chilagondanahalli, Nandini L.; Bundele, Manish M.; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic), mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type) of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision. PMID:27672465

  6. Epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Christine H.; Bagheri, Ashley; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Data regarding oral HPV infection is limited but emerging. HPV infection of the genital tract has been more thoroughly researched and helps inform our understanding of oral HPV infection. In this article we review current data on HPV prevalence, natural history, mode of acquisition, and risk factors for oral HPV infection. PMID:24080455

  7. Hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Zac C; Schofield, Christopher; Prinsloo, Peter J J; Sturrock, Nigel D C

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcaemia due to hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy is a relatively common occurrence. Standard treatment is with oral calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy; lack of response to oral therapy is rare. Herein we describe a case of hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy in a patient with a complex medical history. We consider the potential causes in the context of calcium metabolism including: poor adherence, hungry bone syndrome, malabsorption, vitamin D resistance, bisphosphonate use and functional hypoparathyroidism secondary to magnesium deficiency. Malabsorption due to intestinal hurry was likely to be a contributory factor in this case and very large doses of oral therapy were required to avoid symptomatic hypocalcaemia.

  8. Update on oral herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

    2014-04-01

    Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs.

  9. Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment for oral feeding in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Prade, Leila Sauer; Cuti, Lilian Kopp; Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel

    2016-07-04

    To assess the accuracy of the Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Scale (POFRAS) on the beginning of oral feeding in preterm infants and to verify the concordance between this tool and the Oral Feeding Skill Level. 82 preterm infants were assessed by POFRAS regarding their readiness to initiate oral feeding and by the oral feeding skill level evaluation during the first oral feeding. POFRAS's accuracy was estimated regarding proficiency by a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. The concordance between the tools was obtained by analysis of the Kappa coefficient. POFRAS's global accuracy was of 71.29%. The cut-off value of 29 was the one that presented most optimization of the sensitivity based on specificity. The Kappa coefficient has shown a weak concordance between the instruments to identify infants able and unable to oral feeding (k=0.281). POFRAS's accuracy to initiate oral feeding considering the proficiency was similar to that obtained with the technique of translactation. We observed a weak concordance between the instruments. We suggest that, in clinical practice, both instruments should be used in a complementary manner, since both present important aspects of the preterm feeding behavior that together will better guide the necessary conduct to provide an effective and quick transition to full oral feeding in this population.

  11. Strategies to Overcome Heparins’ Low Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Ana Rita; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Pinto, Madalena

    2016-01-01

    Even after a century, heparin is still the most effective anticoagulant available with few side effects. The poor oral absorption of heparins triggered the search for strategies to achieve oral bioavailability since this route has evident advantages over parenteral administration. Several approaches emerged, such as conjugation of heparins with bile acids and lipids, formulation with penetration enhancers, and encapsulation of heparins in micro and nanoparticles. Some of these strategies appear to have potential as good delivery systems to overcome heparin’s low oral bioavailability. Nevertheless, none have reached the market yet. Overall, this review aims to provide insights regarding the oral bioavailability of heparin. PMID:27367704

  12. Metastasis from oral cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Noguti, Juliana; De Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; De Jesus, Gustavo Protasio Pacheco; Da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Hossaka, Thais Ayako; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is a common neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence and mortality have also increased over the past decades. It is characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate despite sophisticated surgical and radiotherapeutic modalities. Metastasis of oral cancer is a complex process involving detachment of cells from tumor tissue, regulation of cell motility and invasion, proliferation and evasion through the lymphatic system or blood vessels. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge in metastasis from oral cancer regarding facts, such as incidence; stage, histopathology and grade of primary tumor; clinical manifestations; diagnosis; and treatment. Certainly, such information will contribute to the understanding of oral cancer pathogenesis.

  13. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  14. Disinfectants to Fight Oral Candida Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M Elisa; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    Oral biofilms, especially those caused by oral mycobiota, which include Candida species, are very difficult to eradicate, due to their complex structure and recalcitrance. Moreover, the mouth is prone to be colonized since it presents different types of surfaces, especially biomaterials and dental implants, often associated with a high rate of infections. Therefore, although disinfection of the oral cavity is of major importance, the number of commercially available disinfectants is not high. However, new solutions, as silver nanoparticles are being developed to help oral biofilms' eradication.

  15. Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

  16. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Verma, Shyam B; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. PMID:25914554

  17. Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Krishna, Murali C.; Mitchell, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), are components of normal cellular metabolism and are required for intracellular processes as varied as proliferation, signal transduction, and apoptosis. In the situation of chronic oxidative stress, however, ROS contribute to various pathophysiologies and are involved in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. In head and neck cancers specifically, many common risk factors contribute to carcinogenesis via ROS-based mechanisms, including tobacco, areca quid, alcohol, and viruses. Given their widespread influence on the process of carcinogenesis, ROS and their related pathways are attractive targets for intervention. The effects of radiation therapy, a central component of treatment for nearly all head and neck cancers, can also be altered via interfering with oxidative pathways. These pathways are also relevant to the development of many benign oral diseases. In this review, we outline how ROS contribute to pathophysiology with a focus toward head and neck cancers and benign oral diseases, describing potential targets and pathways for intervention that exploit the role of oxidative species in these pathologic processes. PMID:25417961

  18. EXPERIENCES WITH CORTISONE GIVEN ORALLY

    PubMed Central

    Engleman, Ephraim P.; Kunkel, Peter; Welsh, Joseph E.; Molyneaux, M. Glenn

    1951-01-01

    The advantages of the oral administration of cortisone, when compared with cortisone given intramuscularly, include the more rapid appearance of therapeutic effects, which is of importance in the therapy of acute disease, and the faster dissipation of effects when the hormone is discontinued, which is of value when dangerous reactions occur. Oral dose schedules depend upon the degree of urgency or chronicity of the treated disease. In acute diseases the therapeutic results, in general, were disappointing. Cortisone may be of greater value in the long-term maintenance treatment of certain chronic diseases. By long-term therapy the authors mean practically continuous treatment until either the disease goes into spontaneous remission or undesirable effects of the drug require cessation of treatment. Critical selection of patients and constant supervision of therapy are vital to the successful administration of cortisone. Even with these precautions, however, the therapeutic use of cortisone must be regarded as experimental until the passage of time permits better appraisal of harmful effects. PMID:14848714

  19. Urban legends series: oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, M; Polonelli, L; Aguirre-Urizar, J M; Carrozzo, M; McCullough, M J

    2013-04-01

    Candida species (spp) are commensal yeast that can only instigate oral infection (oral candidosis - OC) when there is an underlying predisposing condition in the host. We investigated four controversial topics on OC: (i) How can a microbiological determination of OC be made as Candida spp. are commensal yeasts and not all of them form hyphae or pseudohyphae during infection? (ii) Is median rhomboid glossitis (MRG) a manifestation of candidal infection? (iii) Can candidal infection cause palate papillary hyperplasia (PPH)? (iv) What is the best therapeutic treatment for denture-associated erythematous stomatitis (DAES)? Results from extensive literature searches, including a systematic review, suggested the following: (i) the diagnosis of OC merely on the basis of the presence of yeasts is an oversimplification of a complex process. No convincing evidence of a single test or method better able to discriminate the transition from candidal saprophytism to pathogenicity has been reported in the literature; (ii-iii) conclusive evidence of a direct aetiopathogenic relationship between MRG and PPH and candidal infection has not been found; and (iv) only limited evidence is available for any DAES treatment, thus making it impossible to make strong therapeutic recommendations.

  20. Ingested (oral) SST inhibits EAE.

    PubMed

    Brod, Staley A; Hood, Zachary M

    2011-08-01

    Ingested immunoactive proteins type I interferon, soluble immune response suppressor peptide 1-21 and melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibit clinical attacks and inflammation in acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We examined whether another immunoactive protein, somatostatin (SST), would have similar anti-inflammatory effects on EAE after oral administration. B6 mice were immunized with MOG peptide 35-55 and gavaged with control saline or SST during ongoing disease. Splenocytes from mock-fed or SST-fed mice were adoptively transferred into active MOG peptide 35-55-immunized recipient mice during ongoing disease. In actively fed mice, increased Th2-like cytokines in both the spleen and the central nervous system (CNS) inhibited active disease. In recipients of donor cells from SST-fed donors, reduction of Th1 and Th17 and induction of Th2-like IL-4 cytokines in both the spleen and CNS inhibited disease. T(reg) cells were increased threefold in actively fed spleen cells that are responsible for protection against disease after adoptive transfer. Ingested (orally administered) SST can inhibit clinical disease, inhibit CNS inflammation by decreasing Th17 and Th1-like cytokines and increasing Th2-like cytokines in the CNS via induction of T(reg) cells.

  1. Oral health disparities in older adults: oral bacteria, inflammation, and aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients.

  2. Comparative study of effectiveness of oral acyclovir with oral erythromycin in the treatment of Pityriasis rosea.

    PubMed

    Amatya, A; Rajouria, E A; Karn, D K

    2012-01-01

    Pityriasis rosea is an acute, self-limiting disease, probably infective in origin, affecting mainly children and young adults, characterized by distinctive skin eruptions and minimal constitutional symptoms. Both oral Erythromycin and oral Acyclovir have been used in its management. To compare the effectiveness of oral Erythromycin and oral Acyclovir in the treatment of Pityriasis rosea. Forty two patients with clinical diagnosis of Pityriasis rosea were enrolled. They were randomized into two groups. One group was given high-dose oral Acyclovir and another group oral Erythromycin in standard dose. The participants were evaluated one, two, four, six and eight weeks and six months after commencement of the study. Forty two patients including 26 males and 16 females completed the study. After 8th week, all patients showed complete response in both the groups. The response to oral Acyclovir compared with that to oral Erythromycin was better and was statistically significant in 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Although it is a self-limiting disease which resolves within three weeks to three months, this study reveals that both oral Acyclovir and oral Erythromycin are helpful in decreasing the severity and duration of Pityriasis rosea. Moreover, the study also indicates that oral Acyclovir is more effective than oral Erythromycin in reducing the severity and duration of Pityriasis rosea.

  3. Oral Health in Women During Preconception and Pregnancy: Implications for Birth Outcomes and Infant Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Burton L.

    2006-01-01

    The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being. Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease, that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development of preeclampsia, and delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal oral flora is transmitted to the newborn infant, and increased cariogenic flora in the mother predisposes the infant to the development of caries. It is intriguing to consider preconception, pregnancy, or intrapartum treatment of oral health conditions as a mechanism to improve women's oral and general health, pregnancy outcomes, and their children's dental health. However, given the relationship between oral health and general health, oral health care should be a goal in its own right for all individuals. Regardless of the potential for improved oral health to improve pregnancy outcomes, public policies that support comprehensive dental services for vulnerable women of childbearing age should be expanded so that their own oral and general health is safeguarded and their children's risk of caries is reduced. Oral health promotion should include education of women and their health care providers ways to prevent oral disease from occurring, and referral for dental services when disease is present. PMID:16816998

  4. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  5. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  6. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  7. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  8. Oral, post-oral and genetic interactions in sweet appetite.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony

    2006-11-30

    Inbred mouse strains differ in their preferences for sweeteners, due in part to variations in their T1R3 sweet taste receptor. Recent studies of sweet sensitive C57BL/6J (B6) and subsensitive 129P3/J (129) mice indicate that experiential and post-oral effects of sugar substantially modify sweetener preference. In fact, the strain difference in sucrose preference disappeared after the mice were given 23 h/day tests with sucrose at ascending concentrations (0.5-32%). Intragastric infusions of sucrose (16%) also conditioned increased preference for and absolute intake of flavored sweet solutions in B6 and 129 mice. An operant analysis of sweetener appetite revealed, unexpectedly, that sugar-experienced 129 mice respond more vigorously than B6 mice for 16% sucrose rewards. These findings indicate that experiential and nutritional factors can, to some degree, override genetic differences in peripheral taste sensitivity in determining food appetite.

  9. Oral, Post-Oral and Genetic Interactions in Sweet Appetite

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains differ in their preferences for sweeteners, due in part to variations in their T1R3 sweet taste receptor. Recent studies of sweet sensitive C57BL/6J (B6) and subsensitive 129P3/J (129) mice indicate that experiential and post-oral effects of sugar substantially modify sweetener preference. In fact, the strain difference in sucrose preference disappeared after the mice were given 23 h/day tests with sucrose at ascending concentrations (0.5 - 32%). Intragastric infusions of sucrose (16%) also conditioned increased preference for and absolute intake of flavored sweet solutions in B6 and 129 mice. An operant analysis of sweetener appetite revealed, unexpectedly, that sugar-experienced 129 mice respond more vigorously than B6 mice for 16% sucrose rewards. These findings indicate that experiential and nutritional factors can, to some degree, override genetic differences in peripheral taste sensitivity in determining food appetite. PMID:16647093

  10. [New oral anticoagulants. Regional anaesthesia and new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Standl, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    New oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are increasingly applied after hip and knee replacement and in patients with non-vavular atrial fibrillation. Patients with cardiac disease benefit from regional anaesthesia, especially catheter-provided postoperative pain relief, but are at higher risk for puncture-related haematoma when NOAC are applied simultaneously. Therefore recommended time intervals between drug application and performance of RA including catheter removal of 22-34 h must be respected. The next dose of NOAC must not be given before 6 h have been elapsed; after bloody tap a delay of 24 h is recommended. The respective time intervals are prolonged in patients with renal insufficiency, especially when Dabigatran is applied, until 36 to 72 h. In general, high risk patients with NOAC undergoing surgery benefit from an interdicsciplinary approach and from less traumatic techniques such as spinal anaesthesia or superficial peripheral nerve blocks. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  11. 42 CFR 8.27 - Opportunity for oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity for oral presentation. 8.27 Section 8... Opportunity for oral presentation. (a) Electing oral presentation. If an opportunity for an oral presentation... the decisionmaking process will be substantially aided by oral presentations and arguments. The...

  12. 20 CFR 802.307 - Notice of oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of oral argument. 802.307 Section 802... Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.307 Notice of oral argument. (a) In cases where a request for oral argument has been approved or where oral argument has been ordered, the Board shall give...

  13. 20 CFR 802.308 - Conduct of oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct of oral argument. 802.308 Section 802... Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.308 Conduct of oral argument. (a) Oral argument... her discretion, postpone an oral argument to a more convenient time. (b) The proceedings shall be...

  14. 20 CFR 802.304 - Purpose of oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of oral argument. 802.304 Section 802... Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.304 Purpose of oral argument. Oral argument may be...; or (b) When in the interests of justice oral argument will serve to assist the Board in carrying out...

  15. Oral immunogenicity of the plant proteinase bromelain.

    PubMed

    Hale, Laura P; Fitzhugh, David J; Staats, Herman F

    2006-12-20

    Bromelain is a natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes derived from pineapple stem that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity when administered orally. Although most proteins given orally without adjuvant (e.g., food) result in tolerance, we previously reported that long-term oral exposure to bromelain stimulated the development of high serum anti-bromelain antibody titers. The purpose of these studies was to further investigate the mechanisms responsible for the immunogenicity of oral bromelain. Results showed that repeated exposure was required for development of anti-bromelain antibodies, with strong antibody responses in all mice that received at least 12 doses of bromelain either orally or intragastrically over 3-6 weeks. Proteolytic activity was required for strong oral immunogenicity in the absence of conventional adjuvant, with strong serum antibody responses generated against proteolytically active bromelain and trypsin, but not against ovalbumin, lysozyme, or inactivated bromelain. Significantly higher anti-bromelain antibody titers were seen in IL-10-deficient versus wild-type mice, suggesting that simultaneous treatments that decrease IL-10 activity may further enhance systemic antibody responses following oral exposure. The antibodies generated did not affect the proteolytic activity of bromelain. The data demonstrate that proteolytically active antigens such as bromelain can stimulate both systemic and mucosal immune responses following repeated oral exposure. Further studies of the mechanisms involved in generation of immune responses following oral exposure to proteolytically active antigens can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of oral tolerance and to the development of novel adjuvants for oral vaccines.

  16. Expression of E-cadherin in normal oral mucosa, in oral precancerous lesions and in oral carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sridevi, Ugrappa; Jain, Ajay; Nagalaxmi, Velpula; Kumar, Ugrappa Vijay; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials and Methods: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study. Results: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable. PMID:26430364

  17. Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668

  18. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the...

  19. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the...

  20. 29 CFR 8.16 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral proceedings. 8.16 Section 8.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PRACTICE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW BOARD WITH REGARD TO FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General Procedural Matters § 8.16 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect to any proceedings before it, the...

  1. Teaching the Past through Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Pattie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)

  2. Warty dyskeratoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, G; Sklavounou, A

    1985-10-01

    A case of oral warty dyskeratoma is presented and the literature is reviewed in brief. While warty dyskeratoma of the oral mucosa is rare, it appears to exhibit a variability of clinical appearance and to have a special predilection for keratinised mucosae exposed to friction and mechanical stress.

  3. Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

  4. Speak up! Oral Examinations and Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.

    2009-01-01

    Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their…

  5. Speak up! Oral Examinations and Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.

    2009-01-01

    Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their…

  6. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children.

    PubMed

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection.

  7. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart...

  8. Oral Microbiology: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    He, Xue-song; Shi, Wen-yuan

    2009-01-01

    Since the initial observations of oral bacteria within dental plaque by van Leeuwenhoek using his primitive microscopes in 1680, an event that is generally recognized as the advent of oral microbiological investigation, oral microbiology has gone through phases of “reductionism” and “holism”. From the small beginnings of the Miller and Black period, in which microbiologists followed Koch's postulates, took the reductionist approach to try to study the complex oral microbial community by analyzing individual species; to the modern era when oral researchers embrace “holism” or “system thinking”, adopt new concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, poly-microbial diseases, oral microbiological knowledge has burgeoned and our ability to identify the resident organisms in dental plaque and decipher the interactions between key components has rapidly increased, such knowledge has greatly changed our view of the oral microbial flora, provided invaluable insight into the etiology of dental and periodontal diseases, opened the door to new approaches and techniques for developing new therapeutic and preventive tools for combating oral poly-microbial diseases. PMID:20687296

  9. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 15.102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS... resources, transition plans, or sample tasks (or other types of tests) may be suitable for oral... qualifications for personnel that will be required to provide the oral presentation(s); (3) The requirements...

  10. Watch Them SOAR: Student Oral Assessment Redefined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Linda

    1998-01-01

    An oral testing method used in an intensive high school Spanish program is based on a model of communicative competence positing four forms of competence: strategic; sociolinguistic; discourse; and linguistic. All oral domains but linguistic are tested in the first and second years. In the first year, benchmark testing occurs. The rubric used has…

  11. Oral candida: is dummy carriage the culprit?

    PubMed Central

    Sio, J O; Minwalla, F K; George, R H; Booth, I W

    1987-01-01

    Oral candida in subjects who sucked dummies was almost double that of controls. Although the carriage of Candida albicans on silicone dummies was significantly reduced compared with latex dummies, oral colonisation was unaffected, suggesting that dummy carriage is not the cause of the observed increase. Images Figure PMID:3592731

  12. Oral geotrichosis: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Macías, Berenice; Paredes-Farrera, Fernando; Hernández, Marco A; Araiza, Javier; Ponce, Rosa M

    2010-09-01

    Oral geotrichosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Geotrichum candidum, a habitual contaminant and component of the flora of various parts of the body. This communication reports both a 20-year retrospective study of clinically and mycologically proven cases of oral geotrichosis, and a prospective study of fungal oral flora in 200 individuals divided into two groups: normal individuals and individuals with associated conditions. Twelve patients with proven oral geotrichosis were included: 9 females and 3 males, with a mean age of 48.5 years; the associated conditions were diabetes mellitus (66.6%), leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and HIV/AIDS infection. The oral geotrichoses showed three clinical varieties: pseudomembranous (75%), hyperplastic, and palatine ulcer. G. candidum was isolated in 11 cases and G. capitatum in one. Positive fungal cultures were obtained from the two groups, and 48% and 78% of cultures were positive, respectively, for Candida spp. In 2.8% and 6.33% of the cases, G. candidum was isolated, respectively, together with one strain of G. capitatum. Oral geotrichosis is an exceptional infection that clinically presents, and is treated, as oral candidiasis. G. candidum may be isolated from the oral flora of a small proportion of patients, either normal individuals or those with associated conditions.

  13. [Evaluation of voriconazole oral dosage in Japan].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yukihiro; Kawasumi, Noriyo; Hirai, Jun; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2014-10-01

    Voriconazole (VRCZ), a broad-spectrum triazole, is served in two dosage forms-injection and oral. VRCZ is difference dosage of oral and intravenous administration writing a medical package insert in Japan. 6 mg/kg intravenous injection (IV) twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 3-4 mg/kg IV twice daily between meals is recommended. 300 mg orally twice daily for first day as initial loading dose, followed by 150-200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing over 40 kg, 200 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended. Patients weighing under 40 kg, 100 mg orally twice daily between meals is recommended, increase to 150 mg twice daily if inadequate response. This study evaluated VRCZ trough concentration and oral dosage in the 23 cases which administered VRCZ to analysis for TDM in Aichi University Hospital. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p=0.05. All data were analyzed and processed on JMP 8 (SAS Institute Japan). There was a significant positive correlation between VRCZ trough concentration and dose/weight (r=0.47 p<0.05). In this result, VRCZ oral dosage is appropriate to administer dose/weight (mg/kg) twice a day as same as IV.

  14. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  15. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  16. Even small interventions can improve oral health.

    PubMed

    Vega, Lina; Carberry, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    When resources are scarce, authors of articles appearing in health publications have questioned the effectiveness of traditional interventions as a means of improving oral health. The experience in Delicias, Honduras, indicates that the principles of BPOC (Basic Package of Oral Care) may provide quicker and better results.

  17. Ecological therapeutic opportunities for oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Anilei; Marsh, Philip D.; Diaz, Patricia I.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The three main oral diseases of humans, that is caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes. Other strategies such as whole oral microbiome transplantation or modification of community function by enrichment with health-promoting indigenous oral strains may offer more promise but research in this field is still in its infancy. Any microbial-based therapeutics for oral conditions, however, are likely to be only one component within a holistic preventive strategy that should also aim at modification of the environmental influences responsible for the initiation and perpetuation of microbiome shifts associated with oral dysbiosis. PMID:28840820

  18. 10 CFR 590.312 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral argument. (a) Twenty-five...

  20. 10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hybrid Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral argument. (a) Twenty-five...

  1. 10 CFR 590.312 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart...

  3. Oral Reading Observation System Observer's Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Mary Ella; And Others

    A self-instructional program for use by teachers of the handicapped, this training manual was developed to teach accurate coding with the Oral Reading Observation System (OROS)an observation system designed to code teacher-pupil verbal interaction during oral reading instruction. The body of the manual is organized to correspond to the nine…

  4. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36 Banks and Banking FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL APPRAISER REGULATION Rules of... to the ASC. That letter shall include the reasons why an oral presentation is necessary. (c)...

  5. Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

  6. Classroom Activities: Oral Proficiency in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Sidney; Michaelis, Joyce

    It is important to introduce and facilitate oral activities in the second language classroom with enthusiasm in a climate of mutual support and cooperation. Students should understand that mistakes are inevitable but not fatal, and that each attempt will build greater ease and confidence in using the language for communication. Oral proficiency…

  7. Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

  8. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  10. Communicative Competence in Oral Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Rhonda; Haig, Yvonne; Rochecouste, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a review of the teaching and assessment of oral language in Western Australian secondary schools. Results show that teachers have considerable difficulty in incorporating oral language tasks into their pedagogy because of a curriculum biased towards developing writing skills. Teachers also revealed that they do not have the…

  11. Oral Vaccine for Immunization against Enteric Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The oral vaccine can provide protection against both typhoid fever and at least one other enteric disease. A bivalent oral vaccine is described...against typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery caused by S. sonnei. The mutated galactose epimeraseless S. typhi strain such as S. typhi Ty21a strain can be utilized as a carrier strain for other protective antigens. (Patents).

  12. The Unwritten Rules in Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronn-Mills, Daniel; Golden, Alfred

    One of the frustrations students new to intercollegiate competitive oral interpretation experience is having to learn the "unwritten rules" for the events. These rules are neither intrinsically negative nor positive. Any of the practices embodied in these rules may be used effectively by a student performing an oral interpretation of…

  13. Oral Corrective Feedback in Second Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…

  14. 31 CFR 1.10 - Oral information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral information. 1.10 Section 1.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Other Disclosure Provisions § 1.10 Oral information. (a) Officers and employees of the Department may, in response...

  15. Oral Corrective Feedback in Second Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…

  16. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information into the resultant contract; (3) The impact on the efficiency of the acquisition; and (4) The impact (including cost) on small businesses. In considering the costs of oral presentations, contracting... information to be presented orally and the associated evaluation factors that will be used; (2)...

  17. 10 CFR 590.312 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a)...

  18. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  19. Designing and Grading Oral Communication Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Brooke L.

    1998-01-01

    To address concerns that college students do not develop adequate oral communication skills, guidelines are offered to faculty for designing oral presentation assignments within their courses, developing grading criteria, guiding students in their preparation for speaking, and addressing some of the unique challenges of this process, which include…

  20. The Dangerous Waters of Advocacy Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the author's use of advocacy oral history in interviews of people devoted to Montana's wilderness preservation. Discusses the use of questions to elicit broad humanistic responses as opposed to striking journalistic quotations. Examines the differences between traditional and advocacy oral history and the benefits of the latter. (GEA)