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Sample records for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance

  1. Non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography has gained renewed interest since the discovery of the association between gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The following article is an overview of the different magnetic resonance angiography sequences, the technical possibilities and new developments. Clinical options and recent advancements will be highlighted, and recommendations for non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography techniques in different anatomical regions will be given. Furthermore, the authors seek to predict the future of non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography, with special focus on patients at risk.

  2. Contrast agents in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuling; Sun, Xilin; Shen, Baozhong

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a noninvasive method to assess angiogenesis, which is widely used in clinical applications including diagnosis, monitoring therapy response and prognosis estimation in cancer patients. Contrast agents play a crucial role in DCE-MRI and should be carefully selected in order to improve accuracy in DCE-MRI examination. Over the past decades, there was much progress in the development of optimal contrast agents in DCE-MRI. In this review, we describe the recent research advances in this field and discuss properties of contrast agents, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we discuss the research perspectives for improving this promising imaging method. PMID:28415647

  3. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of hypoperfused myocardium.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, S; Lange, R A; Gutekunst, D P; Parkey, R W; Willerson, J T; Peshock, R M

    1991-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can define myocardial perfusion defects due to acute coronary occlusion. However, since most clinically important diagnostic examinations involve coronary arteries with subtotal stenoses, we investigated the ability of MR imaging with a manganese contrast agent to detect perfusion abnormalities in a canine model of partial coronary artery stenosis. The contrast agent was administered after the creation of a partial coronary artery stenosis with the addition of the coronary vasodilator dipyridamole in six of 12 animals. The hearts were imaged ex situ using gradient reversal and spin-echo sequences, and images were analyzed to determine differences in signal intensity between hypoperfused and normally perfused myocardium. Comparison of MR images with regional blood flow and thallium-201 measurements showed good concordance of hypoperfused segments in those animals given dipyridamole, with 75% of the abnormal segments correctly identified. In those animals not given dipyridamole, 48% of segments were correctly identified. Thus, ex vivo MR imaging with a paramagnetic contrast enhancement can be used to detect acute regional myocardial perfusion abnormalities due to severe partial coronary artery stenoses.

  4. Image fusion for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Twellmann, Thorsten; Saalbach, Axel; Gerstung, Olaf; Leach, Martin O; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2004-01-01

    Background Multivariate imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) have been shown to provide valuable information for medical diagnosis. Even though these techniques provide new information, integrating and evaluating the much wider range of information is a challenging task for the human observer. This task may be assisted with the use of image fusion algorithms. Methods In this paper, image fusion based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) is proposed for the first time. It is demonstrated that a priori knowledge about the data domain can be easily incorporated into the parametrisation of the KPCA, leading to task-oriented visualisations of the multivariate data. The results of the fusion process are compared with those of the well-known and established standard linear Principal Component Analysis (PCA) by means of temporal sequences of 3D MRI volumes from six patients who took part in a breast cancer screening study. Results The PCA and KPCA algorithms are able to integrate information from a sequence of MRI volumes into informative gray value or colour images. By incorporating a priori knowledge, the fusion process can be automated and optimised in order to visualise suspicious lesions with high contrast to normal tissue. Conclusion Our machine learning based image fusion approach maps the full signal space of a temporal DCE-MRI sequence to a single meaningful visualisation with good tissue/lesion contrast and thus supports the radiologist during manual image evaluation. PMID:15494072

  5. Development of contrast enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lex, L

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful new diagnostic tool in medicine. In MRI there is a great need to improve the specific identification of different tissues i.e. to enhance the contrast between them. This review tries to cover most of the approaches known for solving this problem.

  6. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in chronic Achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Gärdin, Anna; Brismar, Torkel B; Movin, Tomas; Shalabi, Adel

    2013-11-22

    Chronic Achilles tendinosis is a common problem. When evaluating and comparing different therapies there is a need for reliable imaging methods. Our aim was to evaluate if chronic Achilles tendinosis affects the dynamic contrast-enhancement in the tendon and its surroundings and if short-term eccentric calf-muscle training normalizes the dynamic contrast-enhancement. 20 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were included. Median duration of symptoms was 31 months (range 6 to 120 months). Both Achilles tendons were examined with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI before and after a 12- week exercise programme of eccentric calf-muscle training. The dynamic MRI was evaluated in tendon, vessel and in fat ventrally of tendon. Area under the curve (AUC), time to peak of signal, signal increase per second (SI/s) and increase in signal between start and peak as a percentage (SI%) was calculated. Pain and performance were evaluated using a questionnaire. In the fat ventrally of the tendon, dynamic contrast enhancement was significantly higher in the symptomatic leg compared to the contralateral non-symptomatic leg before but not after treatment. Despite decreased pain and improved performance there was no significant change of dynamic contrast enhancement in symptomatic tendons after treatment. In Achilles tendinosis there is an increased contrast enhancement in the fat ventrally of the tendon. The lack of correlation with symptoms and the lack of significant changes in tendon contrast enhancement parameters do however indicate that dynamic enhanced MRI is currently not a useful method to evaluate chronic Achilles tendinosis.

  7. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in chronic Achilles tendinosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic Achilles tendinosis is a common problem. When evaluating and comparing different therapies there is a need for reliable imaging methods. Our aim was to evaluate if chronic Achilles tendinosis affects the dynamic contrast-enhancement in the tendon and its surroundings and if short-term eccentric calf-muscle training normalizes the dynamic contrast-enhancement. Methods 20 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were included. Median duration of symptoms was 31 months (range 6 to 120 months). Both Achilles tendons were examined with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI before and after a 12- week exercise programme of eccentric calf-muscle training. The dynamic MRI was evaluated in tendon, vessel and in fat ventrally of tendon. Area under the curve (AUC), time to peak of signal, signal increase per second (SI/s) and increase in signal between start and peak as a percentage (SI%) was calculated. Pain and performance were evaluated using a questionnaire. Results In the fat ventrally of the tendon, dynamic contrast enhancement was significantly higher in the symptomatic leg compared to the contralateral non-symptomatic leg before but not after treatment. Despite decreased pain and improved performance there was no significant change of dynamic contrast enhancement in symptomatic tendons after treatment. Conclusion In Achilles tendinosis there is an increased contrast enhancement in the fat ventrally of the tendon. The lack of correlation with symptoms and the lack of significant changes in tendon contrast enhancement parameters do however indicate that dynamic enhanced MRI is currently not a useful method to evaluate chronic Achilles tendinosis. PMID:24261480

  8. Mechanisms of contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    1991-02-01

    The use of contrast agents has increased the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast in MRI is multifactorial, depending not only on T1 and T2 relaxation rates, but also on flow, proton density and, in gradient-echo sequences, on the angle of the induced field. The use of contrast agents in MRI changes the T1 and T2 relaxation rates, producing increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images or decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, or both. All contrast agents produce changes in magnetic susceptibility by enhancing local magnetic fields. These effects are caused by interactions between nuclear and paramagnetic substance magnet moments, which produce accentuated transitions between spin states and cause shortening of T1; the paramagnetic substance causes accentuated local fields, which lead to increased dephasing and thus shortening of T2 or T2* relaxation time. The efficacy of shortening of T1, T2 or T2* relaxation time depends on the distance between the proton nucleus and the electronic field of the paramagnetic compound, the time of their interaction (correlation time) and the paramagnetic concentration. The MRI contrast agents currently in use cause shortening of T1, T2 or T2* relaxation time. Metal chelates (e.g., gadolinium-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid [Gd-DTPA]) in low concentration cause shortening of T1 relaxation times, and the superparamagnetics (e.g., ferrite) cause shortening of T2 relaxation times.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging and contrast enhancement. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenberg, C.E.; Movius, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chapters II through VI of this report discuss: Relaxation of Nuclear Spins; Echo Techniques; Basic Imaging Pulse Sequences; Partial Saturation Recovery; Inversion Recovery; Spin Echo; Effects of Pulse Sequence on Image Contrast; Contrast Agents; Theoretical Aspects; Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity; and Physiological Rationale for Agent Selection. One of the major goals in all medical imaging techniques is to maximize one's ability to visualize and differentiate adjacent tissue regions in the body on the basis of differences in anatomy, physiology, or various pathological processes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers distinct advantages over conventional x-ray imaging because of the possibility of selecting specific pulse sequences that can differentiate adjacent structures on the basis of differences in proton density, T/sub 1/ or T/sub 2/ relaxation rates, or flow. As a result of applying these various pulse sequences, numerous images have been obtained of the brain and other organs that demonstrate considerably more-detailed anatomical structure than had previously been available with computerized tomography, ultrasound, or nuclear medicine techniques. In some situations it is clearly superior, such as in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

  10. Confident diagnosis of bronchobiliary fistula using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Nevzat; Cakmak, Vefa; Kiter, Göksel

    2010-01-01

    We report the utility of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) using gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in the diagnosis of bronchobiliary fistula associated with liver hydatid cyst. Contrast-enhanced MRC clearly delineated the leakage of contrast agent from the biliary duct and its communication with the bronchial tree. Providing functional information about physiologic or pathologic biliary flow in addition to the display of biliary anatomy, contrast-enhanced MRC stands as a robust technique in confidently detecting bronchobiliary fistula and bile leaks.

  11. [Detection and quantification of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance].

    PubMed

    Pujadas, Sandra; Carreras, Francesc; Arrastio, Xabier; Leta, Rubén; Vila, Montserrat; Subirana, María Teresa; Bayés-Genís, Antoni; Pons-Lladó, Guillem

    2007-01-01

    Severity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been associated with the amount of myocardial fibrosis in autopsy studies. Cardio-vascular magnetic resonance allows, by means of the delayed contrast-enhancement technique, an in vivo detection of focal myocardial fibrosis. Our aim was to study myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by means of contrast-enhance cardio-vascular magnetic resonance. 43 patients (30 males; mean age 47 [18] years) were studied by cardio-vascular magnetic resonance. In all patients left ventricular function and mass was analyzed. Total mass of myocardial fibrosis, as identified by delayed contrast-enhancement, was also calculated. In 63% of patients some degree of myocardial delayed contrast-enhancement was observed, total mass of myocardial fibrosis ranging between 1 and 59 g (mean: 17 g). There was a positive correlation between the amount of myocardial fibrosis and the degree of hypertrophy. Maximal wall thickness was higher in patients with myocardial fibrosis (23 [7] vs 18 [4] mm, respectively, P=.04). Familial cases were also more prevalent among this group (48% vs 13%, respectively), as well as conventional clinical risk factors. Myocardial fibrosis as detected by contrast-enhanced cardio-vascular magnetic resonance is highly prevalent in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients, particularly in familial cases with severe hypertrophy and associated risk factors.

  12. Focal Liver Lesions: Real-time 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Compared With 2-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Chieh; Yan, Kun; Lee, San-Kan; Yang, Wei; Chen, Min-Hua

    2017-06-24

    This study sought to evaluate the application of real-time 3-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) to diagnose focal liver lesions and to compare these results with those from 2-dimensional (2D) contrast-enhanced US and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with focal liver lesions were examined by 2D contrast-enhanced US, 3D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI for lesion characterization, and biopsies and comprehensive clinical diagnoses served as reference standards. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and intermodality agreement were assessed. The number of contrast agent injections and lesions observed per injection were calculated for 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US. The number and display quality of the feeding arteries observed with 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US were assessed. A total of 117 patients with 151 focal liver lesions were enrolled, including 67 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of liver metastasis, and 33 cases of benign liver lesions. No significant differences were found among the modalities. The sensitivity values for 3D contrast-enhanced US, 2D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI were 96%, 95%, and 93%, respectively; the specificity values were 87%, 84%, and 89%; and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.92, 0.90, and 0.92. The intermodality agreement was excellent (κ > 0.77). Fewer contrast agent injections were needed, and more lesions and feeding arteries were more clearly displayed on 3D than 2D contrast-enhanced US (P < .001). Real-time 3D contrast-enhanced US is useful for diagnosing focal liver lesions and for observing feeding arteries with fewer contrast agent injections. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate to map verteporfin delivery in photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Bryant, Amber; Gunn, Jason R.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-12-01

    The use of in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a surrogate for photosensitizer (verteporfin) dosimetry in photodynamic therapy of pancreas cancer is demonstrated by correlating MR contrast uptake to ex vivo fluorescence images on excised tissue. An orthotopic pancreatic xenograft mouse model was used for the study. A strong correlation (r=0.57) was found for bulk intensity measurements of T1-weighted gadolinium enhancement and verteporfin fluorescence in the tumor region of interest. The use of contrast-enhanced MR imaging shows promise as a method for treatment planning and photosensitizer dosimetry in human photodynamic therapy (PDT) of pancreas cancer.

  14. Noninvasive assessment of pulmonary emphysema using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Morino, Shigeyuki; Toba, Toshinari; Araki, Masato; Azuma, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Sadami; Tao, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Tagawa, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    Emphysema tends to be complicated by diffuse abnormalities in the pulmonary peripheral microvasculature. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide a valid assessment of pulmonary blood flow as an indicator of the severity of emphysema. To do this, the authors compared MRI data with the pathological findings in lung tissue. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is a noninvasive method and can be used to repeatedly monitor clinicopathological severity. Using MRI clear pulmonary vascular information can be obtained easily, and the relative pulmonary blood flow in the lung parenchyma can be quantified.

  15. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the thoracic vasculature.

    PubMed

    Leung, D A; Debatin, J F

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has become a useful non-invasive imaging technique for the assessment of vascular disease. Due to limitations such as respiratory motion artefacts, saturations problems, and long acquisition times, applications of MRA in the thorax have largely been restricted to imaging of the aorta. The recent introduction of breath-hold three-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced MRA promises not only to enhance conventional MR protocols for aortic imaging, but to extend the clinical indications of MRI to diseases affecting other vascular structures of the thorax, most notably the pulmonary arteries. This article describes the technical aspects of contrast-enhanced 3D MRA and reviews existing and potential future clinical applications.

  16. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance tomoangiography: a new imaging technique for studying thoracic great vessels.

    PubMed

    Revel, D; Loubeyre, P; Delignette, A; Douek, P; Amiel, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors propose a new imaging approach for studying thoracic great vessels, using high-speed MR imaging combined with intravenous rapid bolus injection of a paramagnetic contrast media. The decrease of the T1 relaxation time of flowing blood induced by the contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) caused an increased signal intensity within the vessel lumen for a time period allowing multiplanar imaging of various vascular structures. The intraluminal signal enhancement is mainly related to the blood concentration of the contrast agent as in conventional X-ray angiography. Information on the aorta and pulmonary arteries obtained by the so-called contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance tomoangiography appears complementary to that obtained with other vascular MR imaging procedures such as cine-MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

  17. Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Patients: Review and Recommendations for Current Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Ravi; Hahn, Gabriele; Hirsch, Wolfgang; Kim, Myung-Joon; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Olsen, Øystein E.; Stokland, Eira; Triulzi, Fabio; Vazquez, Elida

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), frequently with contrast enhancement, is the preferred imaging modality for many indications in children. Practice varies widely between centers, reflecting the rapid pace of change and the need for further research. Guide-line changes, for example on contrast-medium choice, require continued practice reappraisal. This article reviews recent developments in pediatric contrast-enhanced MRI and offers recommendations on current best practice. Nine leading pediatric radiologists from internationally recognized radiology centers convened at a consensus meeting in Bordeaux, France, to discuss applications of contrast-enhanced MRI across a range of indications in children. Review of the literature indicated that few published data provide guidance on best practice in pediatric MRI. Discussion among the experts concluded that MRI is preferred over ionizing-radiation modalities for many indications, with advantages in safety and efficacy. Awareness of age-specific adaptations in MRI technique can optimize image quality. Gadolinium-based contrast media are recommended for enhancing imaging quality. The choice of most appropriate contrast medium should be based on criteria of safety, tolerability, and efficacy, characterized in age-specific clinical trials and personal experience. PMID:25114547

  18. Phenomenological universalities: a novel tool for the analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliozzi, A. S.; Mazzetti, S.; Delsanto, P. P.; Regge, D.; Stasi, M.

    2011-02-01

    Dynamic contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a promising tool for the clinical diagnosis of tumors, whose implementation may be improved through the use of suitable hemodynamic models. If one prefers to avoid assumptions about the tumor physiology, empirical fitting functions may be adopted. For this purpose, in this paper we discuss the exploitation of a recently proposed phenomenological universalities (PUN) formalism. In fact, we show that a novel PUN class may be used to describe the time-signal intensity curves in both healthy and tumoral tissues, discriminating between the two cases and thus potentially providing a convenient diagnostic tool. The proposed approach is applied to analysis of the DCE-MRI data relative to a study group composed of ten patients with spine tumors.

  19. Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-10-01

    We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized.

  20. Contrast Enhanced Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Pulmonary Embolism: Building a Successful Program

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Scott K; Schiebler, Mark L; Repplinger, Michael D; François, Christopher J; Vigen, Karl K; Yarlagadda, Rajkumar; Grist, Thomas M; Reeder, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    The performance of contrast enhanced pulmonary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is an effective non-ionizing alternative to contrast enhanced computed tomography and nuclear medicine ventilation/perfusion scanning. However, the technical success of these exams is very dependent on careful attention to the details of the MRA acquisition protocol and requires reader familiarity with MRI and its artifacts. Most practicing radiologists are very comfortable with the performance and interpretation of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) performed to detect pulmonary embolism but not all are as comfortable with the use of MRA in this setting. The purpose of this review is to provide the general radiologist with the tools necessary to build a successful pulmonary embolism MRA program. This review will cover in detail image acquisition, image interpretation, and some key elements of outreach that help to frame the role of MRA to consulting clinicians and hospital administrators. It is our aim that this resource will help build successful clinical pulmonary embolism MRA programs that are well received by patients and physicians, reduce the burden of medical imaging radiation, and maintain good patient outcomes. PMID:26860667

  1. Magnetic resonance contrast-enhancing agents whose effects are altered by electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the potential of membranes control or accompany numerous biological processes including information transfer in neuronal networks. Magnetic resonance imaging is essentially a non-invasive 3-dimensional imaging modality and could record changes in membrane potential if they were accompanied by changes in water proton relaxation rates in the vicinity of the membrane. Contrast-enhancing agents whose effects are changed by electric fields were developed. It may also be possible to develop magnetic resonance contrast agents that respond to changes in temperature, pH, light, or concentrations of certain ions and molecules, as all these changes in the environment are known to induce volume phase transitions in some polyelectrolyte gels. A polyelectrolyte gel, sodium polyacrylate, that undergoes a volume phase transition when an electric field is applied, was modified to make it magnetic by the incorporation of small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles into the polymer's network. A suspension of magnetic gel microparticles that shrunk when an electric field was applied also showed an increase in the transverse relaxation rate of the water. A similar change occurred when the magnetic gel microparticles were put in a 10% red blood cell suspension and the cells were hyperpolarized by adding valinomycin. These experiments should be extended to excitable cells, both in vitro and in vivo, including MRI experiments. Although the work concentrated on superparamagnetic-contrast agents, some preliminary work was carried out on Gd[sup 3+]-bound (paramagnetic) polyelectrolyte gel microparticles which showed a small decrease in the relaxation rate when an electric field was applied.

  2. Detection and localization of proteinuria by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using MS325.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yantian; Choyke, Peter L; Lu, Huiyan; Takahashi, Hideko; Mannon, Roslyn B; Zhang, Xiaojie; Marcos, Hani; Li, King C P; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2005-06-01

    After renal transplantation, persistent glomerular disease affecting the native kidneys typically causes albuminuria, at least for a period of time, making it difficult to determine in a noninvasive fashion whether proteinuria originates in the native kidneys or the renal allograft. To address this problem, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium (Gd)-based albumin-bound blood pool contrast agent (MS325) to localize proteinuria was investigated. Glomerular proteinuria was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intravenous injection of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN), whereas control rats received physiologic saline vehicle. Both groups of animals underwent a 40-min dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using radio frequency spoiled gradient echo imaging sequence after injection of Gd-labeled MS325. Contrast uptake and clearance curves for cortex and medulla were determined from acquired MR images. Compared with controls, proteinuric rats exhibited significantly lower elimination rate constants. The use of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) as a contrast agent showed smaller and less specific differences between proteinuric and control groups. In rats with one proteinuric kidney (PAN-treated) and one normal kidney (transplanted from a normal rat), MRI using MS325 was able to differentiate between the two kidneys. The results suggest that MRI with an albumin-bound blood pool contrast agent may be a useful noninvasive way to localize proteinuria. If this technique can be successfully applied in human patients, it may allow for the localization of proteinuria after kidney transplant and thereby provide a noninvasive way to detect disease affecting the renal allograft.

  3. Comparison Between Perfusion Computed Tomography and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kierkels, Roel G.J.; Backes, Walter H.; Janssen, Marco H.M.; Buijsen, Jeroen; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H.; Lambin, Philippe; Lammering, Guido; Oellers, Michel C.; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To compare pretreatment scans with perfusion computed tomography (pCT) vs. dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients diagnosed with rectal cancer were included in this prospective study. All patients underwent both pCT and DCE-MRI. Imaging was performed on a dedicated 40-slice CT-positron emission tomography system and a 3-T MRI system. Dynamic contrast enhancement was measured in tumor tissue and the external iliac artery. Tumor perfusion was quantified in terms of pharmacokinetic parameters: transfer constant K{sup trans}, fractional extravascular-extracellular space v{sub e}, and fractional plasma volume v{sub p}. Pharmacokinetic parameter values and their heterogeneity (by 80% quantile value) were compared between pCT and DCE-MRI. Results: Tumor K{sup trans} values correlated significantly for the voxel-by-voxel-derived median (Kendall's tau correlation, tau = 0.81, p < 0.001) and 80% quantile (tau = 0.54, p = 0.04), as well as for the averaged uptake (tau = 0.58, p = 0.03). However, no significant correlations were found for v{sub e} and v{sub p} derived from the voxel-by-voxel-derived median and 80% quantile and derived from the averaged uptake curves. Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time that pCT provides K{sup trans} values comparable to those of DCE-MRI. However, no correlation was found for the v{sub e} and v{sub p} parameters between CT and MRI. Computed tomography can serve as an alternative modality to MRI for the in vivo evaluation of tumor angiogenesis in terms of the transfer constant K{sup trans}.

  4. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin α(v)β₃ targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  5. Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography: Practical Tips and Clinical Indications for Biliary Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, Stefano; Roccasalva, Federica; Piccoli, Marina; Fuccio Sanzà, Giovanni; Foti, Pietro Valerio; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Milone, Pietro; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Since its introduction, MRCP has been improved over the years due to the introduction of several technical advances and innovations. It consists of a noninvasive method for biliary tree representation, based on heavily T2-weighted images. Conventionally, its protocol includes two-dimensional single-shot fast spin-echo images, acquired with thin sections or with multiple thick slabs. In recent years, three-dimensional T2-weighted fast-recovery fast spin-echo images have been added to the conventional protocol, increasing the possibility of biliary anatomy demonstration and leading to a significant benefit over conventional 2D imaging. A significant innovation has been reached with the introduction of hepatobiliary contrasts, represented by gadoxetic acid and gadobenate dimeglumine: they are excreted into the bile canaliculi, allowing the opacification of the biliary tree. Recently, 3D interpolated T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo images have been proposed for the evaluation of the biliary tree, obtaining images after hepatobiliary contrast agent administration. Thus, the acquisition of these excretory phases improves the diagnostic capability of conventional MRCP-based on T2 acquisitions. In this paper, technical features of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography are briefly discussed; main diagnostic tips of hepatobiliary phase are showed, emphasizing the benefit of enhanced cholangiography in comparison with conventional MRCP.

  6. Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography: Practical Tips and Clinical Indications for Biliary Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Roccasalva, Federica; Piccoli, Marina; Fuccio Sanzà, Giovanni; Foti, Pietro Valerio; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Milone, Pietro; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Since its introduction, MRCP has been improved over the years due to the introduction of several technical advances and innovations. It consists of a noninvasive method for biliary tree representation, based on heavily T2-weighted images. Conventionally, its protocol includes two-dimensional single-shot fast spin-echo images, acquired with thin sections or with multiple thick slabs. In recent years, three-dimensional T2-weighted fast-recovery fast spin-echo images have been added to the conventional protocol, increasing the possibility of biliary anatomy demonstration and leading to a significant benefit over conventional 2D imaging. A significant innovation has been reached with the introduction of hepatobiliary contrasts, represented by gadoxetic acid and gadobenate dimeglumine: they are excreted into the bile canaliculi, allowing the opacification of the biliary tree. Recently, 3D interpolated T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo images have been proposed for the evaluation of the biliary tree, obtaining images after hepatobiliary contrast agent administration. Thus, the acquisition of these excretory phases improves the diagnostic capability of conventional MRCP—based on T2 acquisitions. In this paper, technical features of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography are briefly discussed; main diagnostic tips of hepatobiliary phase are showed, emphasizing the benefit of enhanced cholangiography in comparison with conventional MRCP. PMID:28348578

  7. A Multi-Institutional Comparison of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameter Calculations.

    PubMed

    Ger, Rachel B; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Awan, Musaddiq J; Ding, Yao; Li, Kimberly; Fave, Xenia J; Beers, Andrew L; Driscoll, Brandon; Elhalawani, Hesham; Hormuth, David A; Houdt, Petra J van; He, Renjie; Zhou, Shouhao; Mathieu, Kelsey B; Li, Heng; Coolens, Catherine; Chung, Caroline; Bankson, James A; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jihong; Sandulache, Vlad C; Lai, Stephen Y; Howell, Rebecca M; Stafford, R Jason; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Heide, Uulke A van der; Frank, Steven J; Barboriak, Daniel P; Hazle, John D; Court, Laurence E; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Fuller, Clifton D

    2017-09-11

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides quantitative metrics (e.g. K(trans), ve) via pharmacokinetic models. We tested inter-algorithm variability in these quantitative metrics with 11 published DCE-MRI algorithms, all implementing Tofts-Kermode or extended Tofts pharmacokinetic models. Digital reference objects (DROs) with known K(trans) and ve values were used to assess performance at varying noise levels. Additionally, DCE-MRI data from 15 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients over 3 time-points during chemoradiotherapy were used to ascertain K(trans) and ve kinetic trends across algorithms. Algorithms performed well (less than 3% average error) when no noise was present in the DRO. With noise, 87% of K(trans) and 84% of ve algorithm-DRO combinations were generally in the correct order. Low Krippendorff's alpha values showed that algorithms could not consistently classify patients as above or below the median for a given algorithm at each time point or for differences in values between time points. A majority of the algorithms produced a significant Spearman correlation in ve of the primary gross tumor volume with time. Algorithmic differences in K(trans) and ve values over time indicate limitations in combining/comparing data from distinct DCE-MRI model implementations. Careful cross-algorithm quality-assurance must be utilized as DCE-MRI results may not be interpretable using differing software.

  8. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphography in the assessment of lower limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    White, R D; Weir-McCall, J R; Budak, M J; Waugh, S A; Munnoch, D A; Sudarshan, T A P

    2014-11-01

    Chronic lower limb lymphoedema is a debilitating condition that may occur as a primary disorder or secondary to other conditions. Satisfactory visualization of the lymphatic vessels to aid diagnosis and surgical planning has been problematic. Historically, direct lymphography was used to visualize lymphatic vessels, although the significant surgical risks involved led to this being largely abandoned as a technique. Technetium-99m lymphoscintigraphy has been the mainstay of diagnosis for over two decades, but is hampered by inherently poor temporal and spatial resolution and limited anatomical detail. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) is a relatively new technique that shows early promise in the evaluation of chronic lymphoedema. This article provides the procedural technique for lower limb MRL at both 1.5 and 3 T, discusses pathophysiology and classifications of lymphoedema, provides an overview of relevant lower limb lymphatic anatomy using MRL imaging, compares the various techniques used in the diagnosis of lower limb lymphoedema, shows common pathological MRL imaging findings, and describes alternative uses of MRL. Utilization of this technique will allow more accurate diagnosis and classification of patients suffering from lymphoedema.

  9. Spatially regularized estimation for the analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Julia C; Gertheiss, Jan; Schmid, Volker J

    2014-03-15

    Competing compartment models of different complexities have been used for the quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data. We present a spatial elastic net approach that allows to estimate the number of compartments for each voxel such that the model complexity is not fixed a priori. A multi-compartment approach is considered, which is translated into a restricted least square model selection problem. This is done by using a set of basis functions for a given set of candidate rate constants. The form of the basis functions is derived from a kinetic model and thus describes the contribution of a specific compartment. Using a spatial elastic net estimator, we chose a sparse set of basis functions per voxel, and hence, rate constants of compartments. The spatial penalty takes into account the voxel structure of an image and performs better than a penalty treating voxels independently. The proposed estimation method is evaluated for simulated images and applied to an in vivo dataset. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Unsupervised tissue segmentation from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiusano, Gabriele; Staglianò, Alessandra; Basso, Curzio; Verri, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Design, implement, and validate an unsupervised method for tissue segmentation from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). For each DCE-MRI acquisition, after a spatial registration phase, the time-varying intensity of each voxel is represented as a sparse linear combination of adaptive basis signals. Both the basis signals and the sparse coefficients are learned by minimizing a functional consisting of a data fidelity term and a sparsity inducing penalty. Tissue segmentation is then obtained by applying a standard clustering algorithm to the computed representation. Quantitative estimates on two real data sets are presented. In the first case, the overlap with expert annotation measured with the DICE metric is nearly 90% and thus 5% more accurate than state-of-the-art techniques. In the second case, assessment of the correlation between quantitative scores, obtained by the proposed method against imagery manually annotated by two experts, achieved a Pearson coefficient of 0.83 and 0.87, and a Spearman coefficient of 0.83 and 0.71, respectively. The sparse representation of DCE MRI signals obtained by means of adaptive dictionary learning techniques appears to be well-suited for unsupervised tissue segmentation and applicable to different clinical contexts with little effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Volumetric texture analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijie; Giger, Maryellen L; Li, Hui; Bick, Ulrich; Newstead, Gillian M

    2007-09-01

    Automated image analysis aims to extract relevant information from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (CE-MRI) of the breast and improve the accuracy and consistency of image interpretation. In this work, we extend the traditional 2D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to investigate a volumetric texture analysis approach and apply it for the characterization of breast MR lesions. Our database of breast MR images was obtained using a T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient echo sequence and consists of 121 biopsy-proven lesions (77 malignant and 44 benign). A fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) based method is employed to automatically segment 3D breast lesions on CE-MR images. For each 3D lesion, a nondirectional GLCM is then computed on the first postcontrast frame by summing 13 directional GLCMs. Texture features are extracted from the nondirectional GLCMs and the performance of each texture feature in the task of distinguishing between malignant and benign breast lesions is assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Our results show that the classification performance of volumetric texture features is significantly better than that based on 2D analysis. Our investigations of the effects of various of parameters on the diagnostic accuracy provided means for the optimal use of the approach.

  12. Breast mass segmentation on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance scans using the level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark; Wu, Yi-Ta; Ge, Jun; Zhang, Yiheng; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an automated method to segment breast masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) scans that were performed to monitor breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A radiologist experienced in interpreting breast MR scans defined the mass using a cuboid volume of interest (VOI). Our method then used the K-means clustering algorithm followed by morphological operations for initial mass segmentation on the VOI. The initial segmentation was then refined by a three-dimensional level set (LS) method. The velocity field of the LS method was formulated in terms of the mean curvature which guaranteed the smoothness of the surface and the Sobel edge information which attracted the zero LS to the desired mass margin. We also designed a method to reduce segmentation leak by adapting a region growing technique. Our method was evaluated on twenty DCE-MR scans of ten patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Each patient had pre- and post-chemotherapy DCE-MR scans on a 1.5 Tesla magnet. Computer segmentation was applied to coronal T1-weighted images. The in-plane pixel size ranged from 0.546 to 0.703 mm and the slice thickness ranged from 2.5 to 4.0 mm. The flip angle was 15 degrees, repetition time ranged from 5.98 to 6.7 ms, and echo time ranged from 1.2 to 1.3 ms. The computer segmentation results were compared to the radiologist's manual segmentation in terms of the overlap measure defined as the ratio of the intersection of the computer and the radiologist's segmentations to the radiologist's segmentation. Pre- and post-chemotherapy masses had overlap measures of 0.81+/-0.11 (mean+/-s.d.) and 0.70+/-0.21, respectively.

  13. Thyroid Nodules Detected by Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Prevalence and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Sung Tae

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Incidental thyroid lesions are frequently found on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (CE-MR) angiography. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas detected by CE-MR angiography and to evaluate their clinical significance by correlation with ultrasound (US) and cytopathological results. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 3,299 consecutive CE-MR angiography examinations performed at our institution between January 2010 and March 2013. Two radiologists evaluated the CE-MR angiography imaging in consensus regarding the presence, location, and vascularity of thyroid incidentaloma. We correlated these findings with follow-up US and cytopathologic results. Results The prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas detected by CE-MR angiography was 4.6% (152/3,299 patients). CE-MR angiography showed hypervascularity in 86.8% (145/167), isovascularity in 8.4% (14/167), and hypovascularity in 4.8% (8/167) of thyroid nodules compared to vascularity of thyroid parenchyma. Among the patients with thyroid incidentaloma, 34 patients (22.4%) were followed by US examination, and all 36 nodules on CE-MR angiography were detected on follow-up US. Of these nodules, 9 (25%) nodules were classified as probably benign, 26 (72.2%) as indeterminate, and 1 (2.8%) as suspicious malignant nodule. Among the 16 nodules with available cytopathologic results, 12 nodules were benign, 2 nodules were follicular neoplasm, and 2 nodules showed non-diagnostic results. Conclusion Incidental thyroid nodules were found in 4.6% of CE-MR angiography examinations. Because the high incidence of indeterminate US feature among thyroid incidentaloma, when a thyroid incidentaloma is detected on CE-MR angiography, further evaluation with US should be performed. PMID:26919607

  14. Thyroid Nodules Detected by Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Prevalence and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Sung Tae; Ha, Hongil; Choi, Seo-youn

    2016-01-01

    Incidental thyroid lesions are frequently found on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (CE-MR) angiography. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas detected by CE-MR angiography and to evaluate their clinical significance by correlation with ultrasound (US) and cytopathological results. We retrospectively reviewed 3,299 consecutive CE-MR angiography examinations performed at our institution between January 2010 and March 2013. Two radiologists evaluated the CE-MR angiography imaging in consensus regarding the presence, location, and vascularity of thyroid incidentaloma. We correlated these findings with follow-up US and cytopathologic results. The prevalence of thyroid incidentalomas detected by CE-MR angiography was 4.6% (152/3,299 patients). CE-MR angiography showed hypervascularity in 86.8% (145/167), isovascularity in 8.4% (14/167), and hypovascularity in 4.8% (8/167) of thyroid nodules compared to vascularity of thyroid parenchyma. Among the patients with thyroid incidentaloma, 34 patients (22.4%) were followed by US examination, and all 36 nodules on CE-MR angiography were detected on follow-up US. Of these nodules, 9 (25%) nodules were classified as probably benign, 26 (72.2%) as indeterminate, and 1 (2.8%) as suspicious malignant nodule. Among the 16 nodules with available cytopathologic results, 12 nodules were benign, 2 nodules were follicular neoplasm, and 2 nodules showed non-diagnostic results. Incidental thyroid nodules were found in 4.6% of CE-MR angiography examinations. Because the high incidence of indeterminate US feature among thyroid incidentaloma, when a thyroid incidentaloma is detected on CE-MR angiography, further evaluation with US should be performed.

  15. Accelerated free breathing ECG triggered contrast enhanced pulmonary vein magnetic resonance angiography using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Roujol, Sébastien; Foppa, Murilo; Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Nezafat, Reza

    2014-11-22

    To investigate the feasibility of accelerated electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered contrast enhanced pulmonary vein magnetic resonance angiography (CE-PV MRA) with isotropic spatial resolution using compressed sensing (CS). Nineteen patients (59±13 y, 11 M) referred for MR were scanned using the proposed accelerated free breathing ECG-triggered 3D CE-PV MRA sequence (FOV=340×340×110 mm3, spatial resolution=1.5×1.5×1.5 mm3, acquisition window=140 ms at mid diastole and CS acceleration factor=5) and a conventional first-pass breath-hold non ECG-triggered 3D CE-PV MRA sequence. CS data were reconstructed offline using low-dimensional-structure self-learning and thresholding reconstruction (LOST) CS reconstruction. Quantitative analysis of PV sharpness and subjective qualitative analysis of overall image quality were performed using a 4-point scale (1: poor; 4: excellent). Quantitative PV sharpness was increased using the proposed approach (0.73±0.09 vs. 0.51±0.07 for the conventional CE-PV MRA protocol, p<0.001). There were no significant differences in the subjective image quality scores between the techniques (3.32±0.94 vs. 3.53±0.77 using the proposed technique). CS-accelerated free-breathing ECG-triggered CE-PV MRA allows evaluation of PV anatomy with improved sharpness compared to conventional non-ECG gated first-pass CE-PV MRA. This technique may be a valuable alternative for patients in which the first pass CE-PV MRA fails due to inaccurate first pass timing or inability of the patient to perform a 20-25 seconds breath-hold.

  16. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Metastatic Potential of Melanoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Ellingsen, Christine; Galappathi, Kanthi; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been suggested as a useful noninvasive method for characterizing the physiologic microenvironment of tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI has the potential to provide biomarkers for hypoxia-associated metastatic dissemination. Methods and Materials: C-10 and D-12 melanoma xenografts were used as experimental tumor models. Pimonidazole was used as a hypoxia marker. A total of 60 tumors were imaged, and parametric images of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (fractional distribution volume of Gd-DTPA) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI series. The host mice were killed immediately after DCE-MRI, and the primary tumor and the lungs were resected and prepared for histologic assessment of the fraction of pimonidazole-positive hypoxic tissue and the presence of lung metastases, respectively. Results: Metastases were found in 11 of 26 mice with C-10 tumors and 14 of 34 mice with D-12 tumors. The primary tumors of the metastatic-positive mice had a greater fraction of hypoxic tissue (p = 0.00031, C-10; p < 0.00001, D-12), a lower median K{sup trans} (p = 0.0011, C-10; p < 0.00001, D-12), and a lower median v{sub e} (p = 0.014, C-10; p = 0.016, D-12) than the primary tumors of the metastatic-negative mice. Conclusions: These findings support the clinical attempts to establish DCE-MRI as a method for providing biomarkers for tumor aggressiveness and suggests that primary tumors characterized by low K{sup trans} and low v{sub e} values could have a high probability of hypoxia-associated metastatic spread.

  17. Assessment of Hypoxia in Human Cervical Carcinoma Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingsen, Christine; Egeland, Tormod A.M.; Gulliksrud, Kristine M.Sc.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Patients with advanced cervical cancer and highly hypoxic primary tumors show increased frequency of locoregional treatment failure and poor disease-free and overall survival rates. The potential usefulness of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing tumor hypoxia noninvasively was investigated in the present preclinical study. Methods and Materials: CK-160 and TS-415 human cervical carcinoma xenografts transplanted intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) in BALB/c nu/nu mice were subjected to DCE-MRI and measurement of fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. Tumor images of K{sup trans} (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (the extracellular volume fraction of the imaged tissue) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data. Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells was measured by using the paired survival curve method. Results: Fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells differed significantly among the four tumor groups. The mean values {+-} SE were determined to be 44% {+-} 7% (i.m. CK-160), 77% {+-} 10% (s.c. CK-160), 23% {+-} 5% (i.m. TS-415), and 52% {+-} 6% (s.c. TS-415). The four tumor groups differed significantly also in K{sup trans}, and there was an unambiguous inverse relationship between K{sup trans} and fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells. On the other hand, significant differences among the groups in v{sub e} could not be detected. Conclusions: The study supports the clinical development of DCE-MRI as a method for assessing the extent of hypoxia in carcinoma of the cervix.

  18. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Enterography and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn’s Disease: An Observational Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Rune; Peters, David A.; Nielsen, Agnete H.; Hovgaard, Valeriya P.; Glerup, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose e Cross-sectional imaging methods are important for objective evaluationof small intestinal inflammationinCrohn’sdisease(CD).The primary aim was to compare relative parameters of intestinal perfusion between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance enterography (DCE-MRE) in CD. Furthermore, we aimed at testing the repeatability of regions of interest (ROIs) for CEUS. Methods This prospective study included 25 patients: 12 females (age: 37, range: 19–66) with moderate to severe CD and a bowel wall thickness>3mm evaluated with DCE-MRE and CEUS. CEUS bolus injection was performed twice for repeatability and analyzed in VueBox®. Correlations between modalities were described with Spearman’s rho, limits of agreement(LoA) and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC). ROIrepeatability for CEUS was assessed. Results s The correlation between modalities was good and very good for bowel wall thickness (ICC=0.71, P<0.001) and length of the inflamed segment (ICC=0.89, P<0.001). Moderate-weak correlations were found for the time-intensity curve parameters: peak intensity (r=0.59, P=0.006), maximum wash-in-rate (r=0.62, P=0.004), and wash-in perfusion index (r=0.47, P=0.036). Best CEUS repeatability for peak enhancement was a mean difference of 0.73 dB (95% CI: 0.17 to 1.28, P=0.01) and 95% LoA from −3.8 to 5.3 dB. Good quality of curve fit improved LoA to −2.3 to 2.8 dB. Conclusion The relative perfusion of small intestinal CD assessed with DCE-MRE and CEUS shows only a moderate correlation. Applying strict criteria for ROIs is important and allows for good CEUS repeatability PMID:28286879

  19. Three-dimensional Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Response Assessment for Breast Cancer: A Comparison with Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wan-Ru; Tang, Lei; Wang, Deng-Bin; Chai, Wei-Min; Fei, Xiao-Chun; He, Jian-Rong; Chen, Man; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To compare the capabilities of three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MRI) in predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) among breast cancer patients, 48 patients with unilateral breast cancer were recruited for 3D-CEUS and DCE-MRI examinations both before and after NAC; pathology was used to validate the results. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Imaging feature changes and pathological vascularity response, including microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were calculated. Pathological complete response (pCR) and major histological response (MHR) were used as references. The 3D-CEUS score, DCE-MRI score, MVD and VEGF significantly decreased (P < 0.0001) after NAC. The correlations between Δ3D-CEUS and ΔDCE-MRI with pCR (r = 0.649, P < 0.0001; r = 0.639, P < 0.0001) and MHR (r = 0.863, P < 0.0001; r = 0.836, P < 0.0001) were significant. All scores showed significant differences between the pCR and non-pCR groups with folder changes of 0.1, 0.1, 2.4, and 2.3, respectively (P = 0.0001, <0.0001, <0.0001 and <0.0001). In conclusion, 3D-CEUS is effective in assessing the response of breast cancer patients undergoing NAC. PMID:27652518

  20. A comparative study of contrast enhanced ultrasound and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the detection and characterization of hepatic hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Zhu, Zheng; Huang, Beijian; Ding, Hong; Mao, Feng; Li, Chaolun; Zeng, Mengsu; Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Ling; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Yue

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to compare contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) for the detection and characterization of hepatic hemangiomas. Included in this retrospective study were 83 histopathologically confirmed lesions of hemangioma in 66 hospitalized patients who underwent both CEUS and CEMRI and received surgery. The enhancement patterns on CEUS and CEMRI in each lesion were compared and analyzed. In addition, data obtained by the two modalities were then compared with the pathological findings to determine their value in differential diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. CEUS diagnosed 78 lesions of hemangioma against 80 by CEMRI. There were no statistical significant differences in the diagnostic value between CEUS and CEMRI in terms of sensitivity (88.0% vs. 92.8%), specificity (99.0% vs. 99.4%), accuracy (97.3% vs. 98.4%), positive predictive value (93.6% vs. 96.3%), and negative predictive value (98.0% vs. 98.8%) (p > 0.05, all). In the arterial phase, the main enhancement pattern on both CEUS and CEMRI was peripheral nodular enhancement (73 vs. 76), but lesions with diffuse enhancement on CEUS outnumbered those on CEMRI (3 vs. 1) and lesions with circular enhancement on CEMRI outnumbered those on CEUS (3 vs. 2). In the portal venous phase and delayed phase, the main enhancement pattern was hyperechoic change on CEUS and hyperintense on CEMRI (66 vs. 65), some lesions presented isoechoic change (12 vs. 15). These results suggested CEUS, an equivalent to CEMRI, may have an added diagnostic value in hemangiomas.

  1. Importance of Contrast-Enhanced Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Various Intracranial Pathologic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Sungwon; Lee, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial lesions may show contrast enhancement through various mechanisms that are closely associated with the disease process. The preferred magnetic resonance sequence in contrast imaging is T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) at most institutions. However, lesion enhancement is occasionally inconspicuous on T1WI. Although fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences are commonly considered as T2-weighted imaging with dark cerebrospinal fluid, they also show mild T1-weighted contrast, which is responsible for the contrast enhancement. For several years, FLAIR imaging has been successfully incorporated as a routine sequence at our institution for contrast-enhanced (CE) brain imaging in detecting various intracranial diseases. In this pictorial essay, we describe and illustrate the diagnostic importance of CE-FLAIR imaging in various intracranial pathologic conditions. PMID:26798225

  2. Three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound score and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging score in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis: correlation with biological factors.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wan-Ru; Chai, Wei-Min; Tang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Fei, Xiao-Chun; Han, Bao-San; Chen, Man

    2014-07-01

    To explore the clinical value of three-dimensional contrast enhanced ultrasound (3D-CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) score systems in evaluating breast tumor angiogenesis by comparing their diagnostic efficacy and correlation with biological factors. 3D-CEUS was performed in 183 patients with breast tumors by Esaote Mylab90 with SonoVue (Bracco, Italy), DCE-MRI was performed on a dedicated breast magnetic resonance imaging (DBMRI) system (Aurora Dedicated Breast MRI Systems, USA) with a dedicated breast coil. 3D-CEUS and DCE-MRI score systems were created based on tumor perfusion and vascular characteristics. Microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) expression were measured by immunohistochemistry. Pathological results showed 35 benign and 148 malignant breast tumors. MVD (P=0.000, r=0.76), VEGF (P=0.000, r=0.55), MMP-2 (P=0.000, r=0.39) and MMP-9 (P=0.000, r=0.41) expression were all significantly different between benignity and malignancy. Regarding 3D-CEUS 4 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 85.1%, 94.3% and 86.9%, respectively, and correlated well with MVD (P=0.000, r=0.50), VEGF (P=0.000, r=0.50), MMP-2 (P=0.000, r=0.50) and MMP-9 (P=0.000, r=0.66). Taking DCE-MRI 5 points as cutoff value, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 86.5%, 94.3% and 88.0%, respectively and also correlated well with MVD (P=0.000, r=0.52), VEGF (P=0.000, r=0.44), MMP-2 (P=0.000, r=0.42) and MMP-9 (P=0.000, r=0.35). 3D-CEUS score system displays inspiring diagnostic performance and good agreement with DCE-MRI scoring. Moreover, both score systems correlate well with MVD, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and thus have great potentials in tumor angiogenesis evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Tumor Radioresponsiveness and Metastatic Potential by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Gulliksrud, Kristine; Mathiesen, Berit; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) may provide clinically useful biomarkers for personalized cancer treatment. In this preclinical study, we investigated the potential of DCE-MRI as a noninvasive method for assessing the radioresponsiveness and metastatic potential of tumors. Methods and Materials: R-18 melanoma xenografts growing in BALB/c nu/nu mice were used as experimental tumor models. Fifty tumors were subjected to DCE-MRI, and parametric images of K{sup trans} (the volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (the fractional distribution volume of Gd-DTPA) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI series. The tumors were irradiated after the DCE-MRI, either with a single dose of 10 Gy for detection of radiobiological hypoxia (30 tumors) or with five fractions of 4 Gy in 48 h for assessment of radioresponsiveness (20 tumors). The host mice were then euthanized and examined for lymph node metastases, and the primary tumors were resected for measurement of cell survival in vitro. Results: Tumors with hypoxic cells showed significantly lower K{sup trans} values than tumors without significant hypoxia (p < 0.0001, n = 30), and K{sup trans} decreased with increasing cell surviving fraction for tumors given fractionated radiation treatment (p < 0.0001, n = 20). Tumors in metastasis-positive mice had significantly lower K{sup trans} values than tumors in metastasis-negative mice (p < 0.0001, n = 50). Significant correlations between v{sub e} and tumor hypoxia, radioresponsiveness, or metastatic potential could not be detected. Conclusions: R-18 tumors with low K{sup trans} values are likely to be resistant to radiation treatment and have a high probability of developing lymph node metastases. The general validity of these observations should be investigated further by studying preclinical tumor models with biological

  4. Improved dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy using high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Morancy, Tye; Kaplan, Irving; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Rofksy, Neil M.; Holupka, Edward; Oismueller, Renee; Hawliczek, Robert; Helbich, Thomas H.; Bloch, B. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess detailed dosimetry data for prostate and clinical relevant intra- and peri-prostatic structures including neurovascular bundles (NVB), urethra, and penile bulb (PB) from postbrachytherapy computed tomography (CT) versus high resolution contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (HR-CEMRI). Material and methods Eleven postbrachytherapy prostate cancer patients underwent HR-CEMRI and CT imaging. Computed tomography and HR-CEMRI images were randomized and 2 independent expert readers created contours of prostate, intra- and peri-prostatic structures on each CT and HR-CEMRI scan for all 11 patients. Dosimetry data including V100, D90, and D100 was calculated from these contours. Results Mean V100 values from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were as follows: prostate (98.5% and 96.2%, p = 0.003), urethra (81.0% and 88.7%, p = 0.027), anterior rectal wall (ARW) (8.9% and 2.8%, p < 0.001), left NVB (77.9% and 51.5%, p = 0.002), right NVB (69.2% and 43.1%, p = 0.001), and PB (0.09% and 11.4%, p = 0.005). Mean D90 (Gy) derived from CT and HR-CEMRI contours were: prostate (167.6 and 150.3, p = 0.012), urethra (81.6 and 109.4, p = 0.041), ARW (2.5 and 0.11, p = 0.003), left NVB (98.2 and 58.6, p = 0.001), right NVB (87.5 and 55.5, p = 0.001), and PB (11.2 and 12.4, p = 0.554). Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that HR-CEMRI facilitates accurate and meaningful dosimetric assessment of prostate and clinically relevant structures, which is not possible with CT. Significant differences were seen between CT and HR-CEMRI, with volume overestimation of CT derived contours compared to HR-CEMRI. PMID:25834576

  5. Quantification of pulmonary microcirculation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of four regularization methods.

    PubMed

    Salehi Ravesh, M; Brix, G; Laun, F B; Kuder, T A; Puderbach, M; Ley-Zaporozhan, J; Ley, S; Fieselmann, A; Herrmann, M F; Schranz, W; Semmler, W; Risse, F

    2013-01-01

    Tissue microcirculation can be quantified by a deconvolution analysis of concentration-time curves measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. However, deconvolution is an ill-posed problem, which requires regularization of the solutions. In this work, four algebraic deconvolution/regularization methods were evaluated: truncated singular value decomposition and generalized Tikhonov regularization (GTR) in combination with the L-curve criterion, a modified LCC (GTR-MLCC), and a response function model that takes a-priori knowledge into account. To this end, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data sets were simulated by an established physiologically reference model for different signal-to-noise ratios and measured on a 1.5-T system in the lung of 10 healthy volunteers and 20 patients. Analysis of both the simulated and measured dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging datasets revealed that GTR in combination with the L-curve criterion does not yield reliable and clinically useful results. The three other deconvolution/regularization algorithms resulted in almost identical microcirculatory parameter estimates for signal-to-noise ratios > 10. At low signal-to-noise ratios levels (<10) typically occurring in pathological lung regions, GTR in combination with a modified L-curve criterion approximates the true response function much more accurately than truncated singular value decomposition and GTR in combination with response function model with a difference in accuracy of up to 76%. In conclusion, GTR in combination with a modified L-curve criterion is recommended for the deconvolution of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging curves measured in the lung parenchyma of patients with highly heterogeneous signal-to-noise ratios. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Off-resonance-robust velocity-selective magnetization preparation for non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Shin, Taehoon; Hu, Bob S; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2013-11-01

    To develop a new velocity-selective (VS) excitation pulse sequence which is robust to field inhomogeneity, and demonstrate its application to non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography (MRA). The off-resonance-robust VS saturation pulse is designed by incorporating 180° refocusing pulses into the k-space-based reference design and tailoring sequence parameters in a velocity region of interest. The VS saturation pulse is used as magnetization preparation for non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA to suppress background tissues but not arterial blood based on their velocities. Non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA using the proposed VS preparation was tested in healthy volunteers and a patient with arterial stenosis. Calf angiograms obtained using the new VS preparation show more uniform background suppression than the reference VS preparation, as demonstrated by larger mean values and smaller standard deviations of artery-to-vein and artery-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratios (71.0 ± 11.4 and 75.3 ± 12.1 versus 61.7 ± 22.7 and 58.5 ± 27.8). Two-station peripheral MRA using the new VS preparation identifies stenosis of the femoral and popliteal arteries in the patient, as validated by digital subtraction angiography. Non-contrast-enhanced MRA using the new VS magnetization preparation can reliably provide high angiographic contrast in the lower extremities with significantly improved immunity to field inhomogeneity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Differentiation between ductal carcinoma in situ and mastopathy using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and a model of contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Motoko; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Murase, Kenya

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and mastopathy by analyzing their time-intensity curves (TICs) using the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with an assumption of instantaneous injection of contrast medium (TCPM). After the pre-contrast MRI was performed using a 1.5 T MRI system, DCE-MRI was performed four times after the intravenous administration of contrast medium. We set the volumes of interest (VOIs) on the tumor and normal mammary gland, and obtained the TICs in these VOIs. We calculated the following parameters by fitting these TICs to the equation derived from TCPM; the initial slope of the TIC (Slopeini), the area under the TIC (AUC), the time to peak enhancement (TTP) and the peak enhancement (PeakE). We calculated these parameters in both the lesion and normal mammary gland and the ratios of the parameters in the lesion to those in the normal gland (rSlopeini, rAUC, rTTP and rPeakE). There were significant differences in Slopeini (P=0.009), PeakE (P=0.019), rSlopeini (P=0.010), and rTTP (P=0.005) between DCIS and mastopathy. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for Slopeini, PeakE, rSlopeini, and rTTP were 0.67±0.06 (P=0.009), 0.65±0.06 (P=0.019), 0.67±0.06 (P=0.01), and 0.68±0.06 (P=0.005), respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that analysis of TICs obtained by DCE-MRI using TCPM appears to be useful for differentiating between DCIS and mastopathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contrast-Enhanced Whole-Heart Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 3T with Radial EPI

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Himanshu; Yang, Qi; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Debiao

    2011-01-01

    Whole-heart coronary MRA is a promising method for detecting coronary artery disease. However, the imaging time is relatively long (typically 10-15 minutes). The goal of this study was to implement a radial echo planar imaging (radial EPI) sequence for contrast-enhanced whole-heart coronary MRA, with the aim of combining the scan efficiency of EPI with the motion insensitivity of radial k-space sampling. A self-calibrating phase correction technique was used to correct for off-resonance effects, trajectory measurement was used to correct for k-space trajectory errors and variable density sampling was used in the partition direction to reduce streaking artifacts. 7 healthy volunteers and 2 patients were scanned with the proposed radial EPI sequence, and the images were compared with a traditional GRE and x-ray angiography techniques respectively. Whole-heart images with the radial EPI technique were acquired with a resolution of 1.0 × 1.0 × 2.0 mm3 in a scan time of 5 minutes. In healthy volunteers the average image quality scores and visualized vessel lengths of the RCA and LAD were similar for the radial EPI and GRE techniques (p value > 0.05 for all). Anecdotal patient studies showed excellent agreement of the radial EPI technique with x-ray angiography. PMID:21305601

  9. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver: Perinodular enhancement on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Anami, Shinpei; Takeuchi, Taizo; Nakai, Motoki; Sahara, Shinya; Tanihata, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Sato, Morio

    2015-06-07

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) of the liver. She underwent partial hepatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, histopathological analysis revealed RLH. The liver nodule showed the imaging feature of perinodular enhancement in the arterial dominant phase on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which could be a useful clue for identifying RLH in the liver. Histologically, the perinodular enhancement was compatible with prominent sinusoidal dilatation surrounding the liver nodule.

  10. Diagnostic advantages of intratympanically gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with bilateral Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xi; Fang, Zhe-Ming; Liu, Ying; Huang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to probe whether intratympanically gadolinium contrast-enhanced three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging, together with magnetic resonance imaging scoring system of the perilymphatic space, had advantages in diagnosing patients with bilateral Meniere's disease. Eight patients diagnosed as 'definite' bilateral Meniere's disease and two patients considered as 'possible' Meniere's disease were selected for the current study. All ten patients underwent caloric test, vestibular evoked myogenic potential and intratympanically gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The perilymphatic space of scanned images were analyzed to investigate the presence of endolymphatic hydrops. The positive rates (bilaterally abnormal patients/patients tested) of the three examinations in the eight patients with bilateral Meniere's disease were calculated respectively. We also selected eight patients with unilateral Meniere's disease as the control group by the method of simple random sampling without replacement. According to the magnetic resonance imaging scoring system, 100% (8/8) of the patients with bilateral Meniere's disease had bilateral endolymphatic hydrops. The positive rates of vestibular evoked myogenic potential and caloric test were 50% (4/8) and 25% (2/8), respectively. There was a significant difference among the positive rates of the three examinations (P<.05). Two patients with 'possible' Meniere's disease had bilateral endolymphatic hydrops by magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with unilateral Meniere's disease displayed endolymphatic hydrops of the affected ears. Intratympanically gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging has a relatively high positive rate of exhibiting bilateral endolymphatic hydrops. This technique with the magnetic resonance imaging scoring system is valuable when diagnosing bilateral Meniere's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Stress-Induced Angiogenesis in MCF7 Human Breast Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman-Haran, Edna; Margalit, Raanan; Grobgeld, Dov; Degani, Hadassa

    1996-06-01

    The mechanism of contrast enhancement of tumors using magnetic resonance imaging was investigated in MCF7 human breast cancer implanted in nude mice. Dynamic contrast-enhanced images recorded at high spatial resolution were analyzed by an image analysis method based on a physiological model, which included the blood circulation, the tumor, the remaining tissues, and clearance via the kidneys. This analysis enabled us to map in rapidly enhancing regions within the tumor, the capillary permeability factor (capillary permeability times surface area per voxel volume) and the fraction of leakage space. Correlation of these maps with T2-weighted spin echo images, with histopathology, and with immunohistochemical staining of endothelial cells demonstrated the presence of dense permeable microcapillaries in the tumor periphery and in intratumoral regions that surrounded necrotic loci. The high leakage from the intratumoral permeable capillaries indicated an induction of a specific angiogenic process associated with stress conditions that cause necrosis. This induction was augmented in tumors responding to tamoxifen treatment. Determination of the distribution and extent of this stress-induced angiogenic activity by contrast-enhanced MRI might be of diagnostic and of prognostic value.

  12. Evaluation of left ventricular scar identification from contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Lehmann, H. I.; Johnson, S. B.; Packer, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    Patients with ventricular arrhythmias typically exhibit myocardial scarring, which is believed to be an important anatomic substrate for reentrant circuits, thereby making these regions a key target in catheter ablation therapy. In ablation therapy, a catheter is guided into the left ventricle and radiofrequency energy is delivered into the tissue to interrupt arrhythmic electrical pathways. Low bipolar voltage regions are typically localized during the procedure through point-by-point construction of an electroanatomic map by sampling the endocardial surface with the ablation catheter and are used as a surrogate for myocardial scar. This process is time consuming, requires significant skill, and has the potential to miss low voltage sites. This has led to efforts to quantify myocardial scar preoperatively using delayed, contrast-enhanced MRI. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of left ventricular scar identification from delayed contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. Myocardial infarcts were created in three canines followed by a delayed, contrast enhanced MRI scan and electroanatomic mapping. The left ventricle and myocardial scar is segmented from preoperative MRI images and sampled points from the procedural electroanatomical map are registered to the segmented endocardial surface. Sampled points with low bipolar voltage points visually align with the segmented scar regions. This work demonstrates the potential utility of using preoperative delayed, enhanced MRI to identify myocardial scarring for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy.

  13. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ocular Melanoma as a Tool to Predict Metastatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenbo; Jia, Guang; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed; Wei, Lai; Christoforidis, John B; Davidorf, Frederick; Knopp, Michael V

    This study explores the capability of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to differentiate tumor characteristics of metastatic and nonmetastatic choroidal melanoma as a potential tool for patient management. A total of 13 patients (69 ± 9 years) with choroidal melanoma were imaged using DCE-MRI on a 3-T MRI system with a 16-channel head coil. The Tofts 2-compartment model was chosen for quantification, and parameters K (the transfer constant from the blood plasma to the extracellular space) and Kep (the transfer constant from the extracellular space to the blood plasma) were calculated and compared. Metastasis was excluded by subsequent clinical work-up or confirmed by histology after targeted biopsy. Six patients were diagnosed with metastatic melanoma and 7 without. All orbital tumors were at least larger than 2 mm. A significant difference was identified in K between patients with (0.73 ± 0.18/min) and without (1.00 ± 0.21/min) metastatic melanoma (P = 0.03), whereas the difference was not significantly shown in Kep (2.58 ± 1.54/min of metastatic patients vs 2.98 ± 1.83/min of nonmetastatic patients, P = 0.67). Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging has the potential to differentiate orbital melanomas with metastatic and nonmetastatic spread. Thus, DCE-MRI has the potential to be an in vivo imaging technique to predict early which patients are prone to metastatic disease.

  14. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain revisited with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).

    PubMed

    Tasali, N; Cubuk, R; Aricak, M; Ozarar, M; Saydam, B; Nur, H; Tuncbilek, N

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to assess the contrast enhancement patterns of the retrodiscal tissue with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) with respect to different temporomandibular joint disc pathologies. Additionally, we questioned the relationship between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and the contrast enhancement pattern of the retrodiscal tissue regardless of the TMJ disc position. 52 joints of 26 patients (4 males and 22 females) who have pain in at least at one of their TMJ were included in this study. For the qualitative analysis, the joints were divided into four groups in terms of their disc positions: normal (1), partially displaced with or without reduction (2), totally dislocated with reduction (3) and totally dislocated without reduction (4). Besides, two different joint groups were constituted, namely the painful group and painless group according to the clinical findings without taking the TMJ disc positions into account. Quantitative analyses were made by means of measuring signal intensity ratios (SI) ratio at the retrodiscal tissue (from internal side and external side of the each joint) using DCE-MRI and these measurements were analyzed with paired samples t test to define the difference between the measurements. At the second stage, the time-dependent arithmetical mean values of the SI ratios were calculated for each joint group and significant differences between the groups were questioned using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Besides, painful and painless groups which were classified on the basis of the clinical data were compared according to the mean SI ratios found for each joint and the significant differences between these two groups were assessed by means of Student's T test. The results were assessed in 95% confidence interval where the significance level was p<0.05. A significant difference was observed between the internal and external contrast enhancement of the joints with partial displacement. Another significant difference

  15. Usefulness of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) poses a challenge to radiologists. Chest computed tomography (CT) is considered the standard technique for assessing morphologic findings and intrathoracic spread of an SPN. Although the clinical role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for SPNs remains limited, considerable experience has been gained with MRI of thoracic diseases. Dynamic MRI and dynamic CT are useful for differentiating between malignant and benign SPNs (especially tuberculomas and hamartomas). Furthermore, dynamic MRI is useful for assessing tumor vascularity, interstitium, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and for predicting survival outcome among patients with peripheral pulmonary carcinoma. These advantages make dynamic MRI a promising method and a potential biomarker for characterizing tumor response to anti-angiogenic treatment as well as for predicting survival outcomes after treatment. PMID:18331971

  16. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of tumor-bearing mice treated with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Aicher, K P; Dupon, J W; White, D L; Aukerman, S L; Moseley, M E; Juster, R; Rosenau, W; Winkelhake, J L; Brasch, R C

    1990-11-15

    Pharmacological effects of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) were studied in a mouse fibrosarcoma model using magnetic resonance imaging enhanced with a macromolecular contrast agent, albumin(gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid)35. TNF was administered i.v. in a dose of 150 micrograms/kg, 60 to 80 min prior to imaging. Contrast-enhanced and nonenhanced magnetic resonance images of TNF-treated (n = 10) and untreated (n = 8) Meth A fibrosarcomas were obtained at 2.0 Tesla using T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences. Serial images spanning an interval of 60 to 120 min after TNF administration showed that the TNF-treated tumors enhanced significantly more overall than did untreated tumors (43% versus 31%). The most marked differential tumor enhancement was observed in the tumor rim (59% versus 40%). Nontumorous tissue, including muscle and brain, revealed no significant enhancement differences between TNF-treated animals and controls. The observed tumor enhancement corresponded strongly with Evans blue staining; the TNF-treated tumors stained deep blue, while untreated tumors and normal tissues observed did not stain. The different enhancement and Evans blue staining patterns between TNF-treated tumors and untreated tumors are attributed to TNF-induced changes in tumor capillary integrity. The data indicate that TNF effects on tumors include an increased capillary permeability for macromolecules at early times after administration. The ability to detect changes in capillary permeability in vivo using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may prove to be clinically useful to monitor tumor response to TNF.

  17. Reproducibility of chronic infarct size measurement by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mahrholdt, Heiko; Wagner, Anja; Holly, Thomas A; Elliott, Michael D; Bonow, Robert O; Kim, Raymond J; Judd, Robert M

    2002-10-29

    The reproducibility of contrast-enhanced MRI has not been established. We compared MRI reproducibility for infarct size determination with that of (99m)Tc-sestamibi (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Patients with chronic myocardial infarction defined by enzymes (peak creatine kinase-MB 173+/-119 U/L) were scanned twice by MRI (MRI I and MRI II, n=20) and twice by SPECT (SPECT I and SPECT II, n=15) on the same day. The MRI contrast agent was injected during MRI I but not MRI II to test the effect of imaging time after contrast. Resting Tc-MIBI SPECT images were acquired and infarct size was determined with commercial software. Infarct size in patients scanned by MRI and SPECT was 14+/-6% of left ventricular mass (%LV) by MRI (range 4%LV to 27%LV) and 14+/-7%LV by SPECT (range 4%LV to 26%LV). MRI I and II scans were performed 10+/-2 and 27+/-3 minutes after contrast, respectively. For MRI, the difference in infarct size between scans I and II (bias) was -0.1%LV, and the coefficient of repeatability was +/-2.4%LV. For SPECT, bias was -1.3%LV, and the coefficient of repeatability was +/-4.0%LV. Within individual patients, no systematic differences in infarct size were detected when the 2 MRI scans were compared, the 2 SPECT scans were compared, or MRI was compared to SPECT. The size of healed infarcts measured by contrast-enhanced MRI does not change between 10 and 30 minutes after contrast. The clinical reproducibility of contrast-enhanced MRI for infarct size determination compares favorably with that of routine clinical SPECT.

  18. Cross-Linkable Liposomes Stabilize a Magnetic Resonance Contrast-Enhancing Polymeric Fastener

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads. PMID:24635565

  19. Automatic detection of larynx cancer from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos

    2015-03-01

    Detection of larynx cancer from medical imaging is important for the quantification and for the definition of target volumes in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used in RTP due to its high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast. Manually detecting larynx cancer from sequential MRI is time consuming and subjective. The large diversity of cancer in terms of geometry, non-distinct boundaries combined with the presence of normal anatomical regions close to the cancer regions necessitates the development of automatic and robust algorithms for this task. A new automatic algorithm for the detection of larynx cancer from 2D gadoliniumenhanced T1-weighted (T1+Gd) MRI to assist clinicians in RTP is presented. The algorithm employs edge detection using spatial neighborhood information of pixels and incorporates this information in a fuzzy c-means clustering process to robustly separate different tissues types. Furthermore, it utilizes the information of the expected cancerous location for cancer regions labeling. Comparison of this automatic detection system with manual clinical detection on real T1+Gd axial MRI slices of 2 patients (24 MRI slices) with visible larynx cancer yields an average dice similarity coefficient of 0.78+/-0.04 and average root mean square error of 1.82+/-0.28 mm. Preliminary results show that this fully automatic system can assist clinicians in RTP by obtaining quantifiable and non-subjective repeatable detection results in a particular time-efficient and unbiased fashion.

  20. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Localization of Recurrent Prostate Cancer After External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haider, Masoom A. Chung, Peter; Sweet, Joan; Toi, Ants; Jhaveri, Kartik; Menard, Cynthia; Warde, Padraig; Trachtenberg, John; Lockwood, Gina M.Math.; Milosevic, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of T2-weighted (T2w) imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland in the localization of recurrent prostate cancer in patients with biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: T2-weighted imaging and DCE MRI were performed in 33 patients with suspected relapse after EBRT. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed with a temporal resolution of 95 s. Voxels enhancing at 46 s after injection to a greater degree than the mean signal intensity of the prostate at 618 s were considered malignant. Results from MRI were correlated with biopsies from six regions in the peripheral zone (PZ) (base, mid, and apex). The percentage of biopsy core positive for malignancy from each region was correlated with the maximum diameter of the tumor on DCE MRI with a linear regression model. Results: On a sextant basis, DCE MRI had significantly better sensitivity (72% [21of 29] vs. 38% [11 of 29]), positive predictive value (46% [21 of 46] vs. 24% [11 of 45]) and negative predictive value (95% [144 of 152] vs. 88% [135 of 153] than T2w imaging. Specificities were high for both DCE MRI and T2w imaging (85% [144 of 169] vs. 80% [135 of 169]). There was a linear relationship between tumor diameters on DCE MRI and the percentage of cancer tissue in the corresponding biopsy core (r = 0.9, p < 0.001), with a slope of 1.2. Conclusions: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI performs better than T2w imaging in the detection and localization of prostate cancer in the peripheral zone after EBRT. This may be helpful in the planning of salvage therapy.

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of radiation therapy-induced microcirculation changes in rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lussanet, Quido G. de . E-mail: qdlu@rdia.azm.nl; Backes, Walter H.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Padhani, Anwar R.; Baeten, Coen I.; Baardwijk, Angela van; Lambin, Philippe; Beets, Geerard L.; Engelshoven, Jos van; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) allows noninvasive evaluation of tumor microvasculature characteristics. This study evaluated radiation therapy related microvascular changes in locally advanced rectal cancer by DCE-MRI and histology. Methods and Materials: Dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI was performed in 17 patients with primary rectal cancer. Seven patients underwent 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy radiation therapy (RT) (long RT) before DCE-MRI and 10 did not. Of these 10, 3 patients underwent five fractions of 5 Gy RT (short RT) in the week before surgery. The RT treated and nontreated groups were compared in terms of endothelial transfer coefficient (K{sup PS}, measured by DCE-MRI), microvessel density (MVD) (scored by immunoreactivity to CD31 and CD34), and tumor cell and endothelial cell proliferation (scored by immunoreactivity to Ki67). Results: Tumor K{sup PS} was 77% (p = 0.03) lower in the RT-treated group. Histogram analyses showed that RT reduced both magnitude and intratumor heterogeneity of K{sup PS} (p = 0.01). MVD was significantly lower (37%, p 0.03) in tumors treated with long RT than in nonirradiated tumors, but this was not the case with short RT. Endothelial cell proliferation was reduced with short RT (81%, p = 0.02) just before surgery, but not with long RT (p > 0.8). Tumor cell proliferation was reduced with both long (57%, p < 0.001) and short RT (52%, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI-derived K{sup PS} values showed significant radiation therapy related reductions in microvessel blood flow in locally advanced rectal cancer. These findings may be useful in evaluating effects of radiation combination therapies (e.g., chemoradiation or RT combined with antiangiogenesis therapy), to account for effects of RT alone.

  2. Evaluation of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Locally Advanced Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Orbay, Özge; Balcı, Pınar; Durak, Merih Guray; Demirkan, Binnaz; Saydam, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Objective The reliability of traditional methods such as physical examination, ultrasonography (US) and mammography is limited in determining the type of treatment response in patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) application for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gaining popularity in the evaluation of NAC response. This study aimed to compare NAC response as determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI in patients with LABC to histopathology that is the gold standard; and evaluate the compatibility of MRI, mammography and US with response types. Materials and Methods The US, mammography and MRI findings of 38 patients who received NAC with a diagnosis of locally advanced breast cancer and surgical treatment were retrospectively analyzed and compared to histopathology results. Type of response to treatment was determined according to the “Criteria in Solid Tumors Response Evolution 1.1” by mammography, US and MRI criteria. The relationship between response types as defined by all three imaging modalities and histopathology were evaluated, and the correlation of response type as detected by MRI and pathological response and histopathological type of breast cancer was further determined. For statistical analysis, the chi-square, paired t test, correlation and kappa tests were used. Results There is a statistical moderate positive correlation between response type according to pathology and MRI (kappa: 0.63). There was a weak correlation between response type according to mammography or US and according to pathology (kappa: 0.2). When the distribution of treatment response by MRI is stratified according to histopathological types, partial response was higher in all histopathological types similar to the type of pathologic response. When compared with pathology MRI detected treatment response accurately in 84.2% of the patients. Conclusion Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI appears to

  3. Reconstruction of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast with temporal constraints

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liyong; Schabel, Matthias C.; DiBella, Edward V.R.

    2010-01-01

    A number of methods using temporal and spatial constraints have been proposed for reconstruction of undersampled dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The complex data can be constrained or regularized in a number of different ways, for example, the time derivative of the magnitude and phase image voxels can be constrained separately or jointly. Intuitively, the performance of different regularizations will depend on both the data and the chosen temporal constraints. Here, a complex temporal total variation (TV) constraint was compared to the use of separate real and imaginary constraints, and to a magnitude constraint alone. Projection onto Convex Sets (POCS) with a gradient descent method was used to implement the diverse temporal constraints in reconstructions of DCE MRI data. For breast DCE data, serial POCS with separate real and imaginary TV constraints was found to give relatively poor results while serial/parallel POCS with a complex temporal TV constraint and serial POCS with a magnitude-only temporal TV constraint performed well with an acceleration factor as large as R=6. In the tumor area, the best method was found to be parallel POCS with complex temporal TV constraint. This method resulted in estimates for the pharmacokinetic parameters that were linearly correlated to those estimated from the fully-sampled data, with Ktrans,R=6=0.97 Ktrans,R=1+0.00 with correlation coefficient r=0.98, kep,R=6=0.95 kep,R=1+0.00 (r=0.85). These results suggest that it is possible to acquire highly undersampled breast DCE-MRI data with improved spatial and/or temporal resolution with minimal loss of image quality. PMID:20392585

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of small renal masses in real practice: sensitivity and specificity according to subjective radiologic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Cho, Yong Jin; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Song, Yun Seob

    2016-10-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of small renal masses in real practice. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were performed between February 2008 and February 2013 on 68 patients who had suspected small (≤4 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on ultrasonographic measurements. CT and MRI radiographs were reviewed, and the findings of small renal masses were re-categorized into five dichotomized scales by the same two radiologists who had interpreted the original images. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed, and sensitivity and specificity were determined. Among the 68 patients, 60 (88.2 %) had RCC and eight had benign disease. The diagnostic accuracy rates of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were 79.41 and 88.23 %, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was greater when using contrast-enhanced MRI because too many masses (67.6 %) were characterized as "4 (probably solid cancer) or 5 (definitely solid cancer)." The sensitivity of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for predicting RCC were 79.7 and 88.1 %, respectively. The specificities of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for predicting RCC were 44.4 and 33.3 %, respectively. Fourteen diagnoses (20.5 %) were missed or inconsistent compared with the final pathological diagnoses. One appropriate nephroureterectomy and five unnecessary percutaneous biopsies were performed for RCC. Seven unnecessary partial nephrectomies were performed for benign disease. Although contrast-enhanced CT and MRI showed high sensitivity for detecting small renal masses, specificity remained low.

  5. Simulation of the modulation transfer function dependent on the partial Fourier fraction in dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2016-12-01

    The image characteristics in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) depend on the partial Fourier fraction and contrast medium concentration. These characteristics were assessed and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated by computer simulation. A digital phantom was created from signal intensity data acquired at different contrast medium concentrations on a breast model. The frequency images [created by fast Fourier transform (FFT)] were divided into 512 parts and rearranged to form a new image. The inverse FFT of this image yielded the MTF. From the reference data, three linear models (low, medium, and high) and three exponential models (slow, medium, and rapid) of the signal intensity were created. Smaller partial Fourier fractions, and higher gradients in the linear models, corresponded to faster MTF decline. The MTF more gradually decreased in the exponential models than in the linear models. The MTF, which reflects the image characteristics in DCE-MRI, was more degraded as the partial Fourier fraction decreased.

  6. Revision of the theory of tracer transport and the convolution model of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bammer, Roland; Stollberger, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Counterexamples are used to motivate the revision of the established theory of tracer transport. Then dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in particular is conceptualized in terms of a fully distributed convection–diffusion model from which a widely used convolution model is derived using, alternatively, compartmental discretizations or semigroup theory. On this basis, applications and limitations of the convolution model are identified. For instance, it is proved that perfusion and tissue exchange states cannot be identified on the basis of a single convolution equation alone. Yet under certain assumptions, particularly that flux is purely convective at the boundary of a tissue region, physiological parameters such as mean transit time, effective volume fraction, and volumetric flow rate per unit tissue volume can be deduced from the kernel. PMID:17429633

  7. Improved artery-vein separation with acceleration-dependent preparation for non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Priest, Andrew Nicholas; Taviani, Valentina; Graves, Martin John; Lomas, David John

    2014-09-01

    To compare the use of acceleration-dependent and velocity-dependent flow-preparation for non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA), investigating both image quality and the ability to discriminate between arteries and veins. We develop an acceleration-dependent NCE-MRA method known as acceleration dependent vascular anatomy for non-contrast-enhanced MRA (ADVANCE-MRA). Acceleration-dependent and velocity-dependent images were acquired using a constant and pulsatile flow-phantom and from the lower legs of six healthy volunteers and one patient with peripheral vascular disease. The volunteer images were assessed both by quantitative signal measurements and qualitative scoring by a radiologist. In the phantom, acceleration-dependent preparation depicted pulsatile but not constant flow, while velocity-dependent preparation depicted both. In the volunteers and the patient, the velocity-dependent preparation was unable to separate the arterial and venous signals completely, with some overlap of arterial and venous signals for all acquired flow sensitizations whereas the acceleration-dependent preparation gave complete artery-vein separation over a wide range of flow sensitizations. Acceleration-dependent preparation received the best overall qualitative scores for arterial image quality and venous contamination. Acceleration-dependent NCE-MRA improves arterial image quality and reduces venous contamination, compared with velocity-dependent NCE-MRA, and warrants further investigation in patients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in carotid artery disease: does automated image registration improve image quality?

    PubMed

    Menke, Jan; Larsen, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a noninvasive imaging alternative to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for patients with carotid artery disease. In DSA, image quality can be improved by shifting the mask image if the patient has moved during angiography. This study investigated whether such image registration may also help to improve the image quality of carotid MRA. Data from 370 carotid MRA examinations of patients likely to have carotid artery disease were prospectively collected. The standard nonregistered MRAs were compared to automatically linear, affine and warp registered MRA by using three image quality parameters: the vessel detection probability (VDP) in maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in MIP images, and contrast-to-noise ratio in three-dimensional image volumes. A body shift of less than 1 mm occurred in 96.2% of cases. Analysis of variance revealed no significant influence of image registration and body shift on image quality (p > 0.05). In conclusion, standard contrast-enhanced carotid MRA usually requires no image registration to improve image quality and is generally robust against any naturally occurring body shift.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) characteristics of healed myocardial infarction differ from viable myocardium.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, James W; Zhao, Wenguo

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether healed myocardial infarction alters dynamic contrast-enhancement (DCE) curve shapes as well as late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE). Twenty patients with chronic myocardial infarction underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T with blood and myocardial T1 measurements before and after contrast administration for forty minutes. Viable and infarcted myocardial partition coefficients were calculated using multipoint slope methods for ten different DCE sampling intervals and windows. Partition coefficients and coefficients of determination were compared with paired statistical tests to assess the linearity of DCE curve shapes over the 40 min time period. Calculated partition coefficients did not vary significantly between methods (p=0.325) for viable myocardium but did differ for infarcted myocardium (p<0.001), indicating a difference in infarcted DCE. There was a significant difference between viable and infarcted myocardial partition coefficients estimates for all methods with the exception of methods that included measurements during the first 10 min after contrast agent administration. Myocardial partition coefficients calculated from a slope calculation vary in healed myocardial infarction based on the selection of samples due to non-linear DCE curve shapes. Partition coefficient calculations are insensitive to data sampling effects in viable myocardium due to linear DCE curve shapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Oncology: Theory, Data Acquisition, Analysis, and Examples

    PubMed Central

    Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Gore, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) enables the quantitative assessment of tumor status and has found application in both pre-clinical tumor models as well as clinical oncology. DCE-MRI requires the serial acquisition of images before and after the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent so that the variation of MR signal intensity with time can be recorded for each image voxel. As the agent enters into a tissue, it changes the MR signal intensity from the tissue to a degree that depends on the local concentration. After the agent is transported out of the tissue, the MR signal intensity returns to its’ baseline value. By analyzing the associated signal intensity time course using an appropriate mathematical model, physiological parameters related to blood flow, vessel permeability, and tissue volume fractions can be extracted for each voxel or region of interest. In this review we first discuss the basic physics of this methodology, and then present technical aspects of how DCE-MRI data are acquired and analyzed. We also discuss appropriate models of contrast agent kinetics and how these can be used to elucidate tissue characteristics of importance in cancer biology. We conclude by briefly summarizing some future goals and demands of DCE-MRI. PMID:19829742

  11. Early prediction of functional outcome using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Yuan; Wu, Gang; Li, Jian-Jun; Geng, Dao-Ying; Tan, Wen-Li; Yu, Xiang-Rong

    2016-09-01

    Early prediction of functional outcome in cerebral ischemia stroke using MRI remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in terms of functional outcome of ischemia stroke. Right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed in male SD rats (n=50), followed by withdrawal of the occluding filament after 3 (n = 10), 4 (n = 10), 5 (n = 10), 6 (n = 10) or 7 (n = 10) h to establish ischemia and reperfusion stroke. DCE and conventional MRI were performed in each animal 60 ± 15 min before and after reperfusion. The outcome was assessed by the modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) (before reperfusion and at 72 h after reperfusion) and the infarct volume. Comparisons of functional prognosis and DCE parameters (K(trans), Ve and Kep) were performed using binary logistic regression and operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. DCE parameters results indicated that blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability increased with prolonged reperfusion timing. Using binary logistic regression analysis on stroke characteristics (reperfusion timing, infarct volume) and BBB permeability parameters (drK(trans)subcortex, drK(trans)cortex, drVesubcortex, drVecortex, drKepsubcortex and drKepcortex) as covariates , the results demonstrated that reperfusion timing, infarct volume, drK(trans)subcortex and drKepsubcortex were independent factors that were associated with prognosis (OR=0.01, OR=0.23, OR=245.23, OR=1.29). ROC analysis indicated that a drK(trans)subcortex threshold of 0.88 with a sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 85.2% and a drKepsubcortex threshold of -0.25 with a sensitivity of 69.6% and a specificity of 70.4% for differentiation between favourable and unfavourable prognosis. Quantitative DCE-MRI can be used to predict the functional outcomes of cerebral ischemia injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulatory dynamics of the cauda equina in lumbar canal stenosis using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Meir, Adam; Al-Khudairi, Naji; Nakane, Takashi; Hayakawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-10-01

    There has been no study regarding the cauda equina circulation of patients with neurogenic intermittent claudication (NIC) in lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The mechanism responsible for the onset of NIC was investigated using DCE-MRI to examine changes in cauda equina blood flow in patients with LSCS. This was a retrospective longitudinal registry and magnetic resonance imaging study. The subjects consisted of 23 patients who had LSCS associated with NIC (stenosis group). Ten asymptomatic volunteers who did not have NIC served as controls (control group). In the LSCS group, the cross-sectional area of the dural sac was <75 mm2 at the site of most severe stenosis. These patients were further divided into single and double stenosis subgroups. The main measures we used were the signal intensity (S-I) ratio and the shape and size of the time intensity (T-I) curves. We compared these between the stenosis and control groups. At first, plain T1-weighted MR images were obtained and the lumbar dural sac cross-sectional area was measured using a digitizer. For DCE-MRI, sagittal T1-weighted images of the same slice were acquired continuously for 10 minutes after administration of gadolinium as an intravenous bolus to observe the distribution of contrast medium (gadolinium) in the cauda equina. To objectively evaluate changes in contrast enhancement of the cauda equina at the site of canal stenosis, regions of interest were established. The signal intensity (SI) ratio was calculated to compare the signal intensities before and after contrast enhancement, and time-intensity curves were prepared to investigate changes over time. The static imaging findings and the changes of gadolinium uptake showed striking differences between the study and control patients. In the stenosis group, abnormal intrathecal enhancement showed around the site of stenosis on enhanced MR imaging. The SI ratio at the site of

  13. Analysis of Pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Saeid; Jon Shah, N.; Rosenberg, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23–85 years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05 mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125 mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PK of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28–80 years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025 mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025 mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3 ± 6.6 mins, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1 mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025 mmol/kg was 3.37± 0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1 mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enable us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. PMID:27109487

  14. Assessment of colon and bladder crosstalk in an experimental colitis model using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Towner, R A; Smith, N; Saunders, D; Van Gordon, S B; Tyler, K R; Wisniewski, A B; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B; Hurst, R E

    2015-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two chronic remitting-relapsing inflammatory disorders in the colon referred to as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). Inflammatory bowel disease affects about 1.4 million Americans. 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is a widely used model of experimental intestinal inflammation with characteristic transmural and segmental lesions that are similar to CD. Here, we report on the use of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to monitor in vivo bladder permeability changes resulting from bladder crosstalk following colon TNBS exposure, and TNBS-induced colitis. Changes in MRI signal intensities and histology were evaluated for both colon and bladder regions. Uptake of contrast agent in the colon demonstrated a significant increase in signal intensity (SI) for TNBS-exposed rats (p < 0.01) compared to controls. In addition, a significant increase in bladder SI for colon TNBS-exposed rats (p < 0.001) was observed compared to saline controls. Histological damage within the colon was observed, however, bladder histology indicated a normal urothelium in rats with TNBS-induced colitis, despite increased permeability seen by CE-MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI was able to quantitatively measure inflammation associated with TNBS-induced colitis, and assess bladder crosstalk measured as an increase in urothelial permeability. Although CE-MRI is routinely used to assess inflammation with IBD, currently there is no diagnostic test to assess bladder crosstalk with this disease, and our developed method may be useful in providing crosstalk information between organ and tissue systems in IBD patients, in addition to colitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Correlations of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Morphologic, Angiogenic, and Molecular Prognostic Factors in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Suk; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hae-Jeong; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lee, Jae Mun; Cho, Hyeon Je

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlations between parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and prognostic factors in rectal cancer. Materials and Methods We studied 29 patients with rectal cancer who underwent gadolinium contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted DCE-MRI with a three Tesla scanner prior to surgery. Signal intensity on DCE-MRI was independently measured by two observers to examine reproducibility. A time-signal intensity curve was generated, from which four semiquantitative parameters were calculated: steepest slope (SLP), time to peak (Tp), relative enhancement during a rapid rise (Erise), and maximal enhancement (Emax). Morphologic prognostic factors including T stage, N stage, and histologic grade were identified. Tumor angiogenesis was evaluated in terms of microvessel count (MVC) and microvessel area (MVA) by morphometric study. As molecular factors, the mutation status of the K-ras oncogene and microsatellite instability were assessed. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with each prognostic factor using bivariate correlation analysis. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results Erise was significantly correlated with N stage (r=-0.387 and -0.393, respectively, for two independent data), and Tp was significantly correlated with histologic grade (r=0.466 and 0.489, respectively). MVA was significantly correlated with SLP (r=-0.532 and -0.535, respectively) and Erise (r=-0.511 and -0.446, respectively). MVC was significantly correlated with Emax (r=-0.435 and -0.386, respectively). No significant correlations were found between DCE-MRI parameters and T stage, K-ras mutation, or microsatellite instability. Conclusion DCE-MRI may provide useful prognostic information in terms of histologic differentiation and angiogenesis in rectal cancer. PMID:23225808

  16. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich; Piringer, Gudrun; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Saely, Christoph Hubert; Lukas, Peter; Öfner, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial input function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance, computed tomography and contrast enhanced ultrasound in radiological multimodality assessment of peribiliary liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Granata, Vincenza; Fusco, Roberta; Catalano, Orlando; Avallone, Antonio; Palaia, Raffaele; Botti, Gerardo; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Granata, Francesco; Cascella, Marco; Izzo, Francesco; Petrillo, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    We compared diagnostic performance of Magnetic Resonance (MR), Computed Tomography (CT) and Ultrasound (US) with (CEUS) and without contrast medium to identify peribiliary metastasis. We identified 35 subjects with histological proven peribiliary metastases who underwent CEUS, CT and MR study. Four radiologists evaluated the presence of peribiliary lesions, using a 4-point confidence scale. Echogenicity, density and T1-Weigthed (T1-W), T2-W and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) signal intensity as well as the enhancement pattern during contrast studies on CEUS, CT and MR so as hepatobiliary-phase on MRI was assessed. All lesions were detected by MR. CT detected 8 lesions, while US/CEUS detected one lesion. According to the site of the lesion, respect to the bile duct and hepatic parenchyma: 19 (54.3%) were periductal, 15 (42.8%) were intra-periductal and 1 (2.8%) was periductal-intrahepatic. According to the confidence scale MRI had the best diagnostic performance to assess the lesion. CT obtained lower diagnostic performance. There was no significant difference in MR signal intensity and contrast enhancement among all metastases (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in CT density and contrast enhancement among all metastases (p>0.05). MRI is the method of choice for biliary tract tumors but it does not allow a correct differential diagnosis among different histological types of metastasis. The presence of biliary tree dilatation without hepatic lesions on CT and US/CEUS study may be an indirect sign of peribiliary metastases and for this reason the patient should be evaluated by MRI.

  18. Semiquantitative and Quantitative Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measurements Predict Radiation Response in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zahra, Mark A. Tan, Li Tee; Priest, Andrew N.; Graves, Martin J.; Arends, Mark; Crawford, Robin A.F.; Brenton, James D.; Lomas, David J.; Sala, Evis

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate semiquantitative and quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) measurements in predicting the response to radiotherapy in cervix cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with cervix cancer treated radically with chemoradiotherapy had DCE-MRI at three time points: before starting treatment, after 2 weeks of radiotherapy, and in the 5th week of radiotherapy. Semiquantitative measurements obtained from the signal intensity vs. time plots included arrival time of contrast, the slope and maximum slope of contrast uptake, time for peak enhancement, and the contrast enhancement ratio (CER). Pharmacokinetic modeling with a modeled vascular input function was used for the quantitative measurements volume transfer constant (K{sup trans}), rate constant (k{sub ep}), fraction plasma volume (fPV), and the initial area under gadolinium-time curve. The correlation of these measurements at each of the three time points with radiologic tumor response was investigated. Results: Thirteen patients had a total of 38 scans. There was no correlation between the DCE-MRI measurements and the corresponding tumor volumes. A statistically significant correlation with percentage tumor regression was shown with the pretreatment DCE-MRI semiquantitative parameters of peak time (p = 0.046), slope (p = 0.025), maximum slope (p = 0.046), and CER (p = 0.025) and the quantitative parameters K{sup trans} (p = 0.043) and k{sub ep} (p = 0.022). Second and third scan measurements did not show any correlation. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that pretreatment DCE-MRI quantitative parameters predict the radiation response in cervix cancer. These measurements may allow a more meaningful comparison of DCE-MRI studies from different centers.

  19. Tumor Vascularity in Renal Masses: Correlation of Arterial Spin-Labeled and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Kapur, Payal; Yuan, Qing; Xi, Yin; Carvo, Ingrid; Signoretti, Sabina; Dimitrov, Ivan; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Margulis, Vitaly; Muradyan, Naira; Brugarolas, James; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Arterial spin-labeled (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been proposed to quantitatively assess vascularity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, there are intrinsic differences between these 2 imaging methods, such as the relative contribution of vascular permeability and blood flow to signal intensity for DCE MRI. We found a correlation between ASL perfusion and the DCE-derived volume transfer constant and rate constant parameters in renal masses > 2 cm in size and these measures correlated with microvessel density in clear cell RCC. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlations between perfusion using arterial spin-labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI-derived quantitative measures of vascularity in renal masses > 2 cm and to correlate these with microvessel density (MVD) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Informed written consent was obtained from all patients before imaging in this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved, prospective study. Thirty-six consecutive patients scheduled for surgery of a known renal mass > 2 cm underwent 3T ASL and DCE MRI. ASL perfusion measures (PASL) of mean, peak, and low perfusion areas within the mass were correlated to DCE-derived volume transfer constant (K(trans)), rate constant (Kep), and fractional volume of the extravascular extracellular space (Ve) in the same locations using a region of interest analysis. MRI data were correlated to MVD measures in the same tumor regions in ccRCC. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between PASL and DCE-derived measurements, and MVD. P < .05 was considered statistically significant. Histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 36 patients (25 men; mean age 58 ± 12 years). PASL correlated with K(trans) (ρ = 0.48 and P = .0091 for the entire tumor and ρ = 0.43 and P = .03 for the

  20. [Three-dimensional reconstruction and image fusion between liver focal lesions and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Liang, Bi-Ling; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Xiao-Mao; Ren, Jun-Jie; Ye, Rui-Xin; Zhong, Jing-Lian

    2006-07-01

    Identifying the correlation of focal lesions to the liver vessel system is a key factor in selecting treatment patterns for focal hepatic diseases. This study was to evaluate the feasibility of 3-dimensional reconstruction and the fusion image between the 3-dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (3D DCE MRA) and the focal hepatic lesions, and further, explore the clinical application of this method. 3D DCE-MRA and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. The angiography and focal hepatic lesions were reconstructed with maximum intensity projection (MIP) and surface shaded display (SSD), and then fused together. Of the 25 cases with evaluable images, 2 were hemangioma, 3 were focal nodular hyperplasia, 1 was hepatocellular adenoma, 2 were macroregenerative nodule, 2 were hepatobiliary cystadenocarcinoma, and 17 were hepatocellular carcinoma; 21 were confirmed by operation resection, and 4 received digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The anatomic relationship between the lesions and the vessels were well shown. Of the 27 cases, 5 showed normal vessel branching, 6 showed feeding arteries from the hepatic artery, 11 showed compressed and shifted trunks of the vessels, 6 showed tumor invaded vessels, and 11 showed the tumor embolism in the portal vein or the inferior vena cave; 9 also showed MRI signs of portal hypertension. MIP was prior to SSD in demonstrating small branches of the hepatic vessels. The 3-dimensional reconstruction and fusion images between 3D DCE-MRA and the focal hepatic lesions by using MIP and SSD can easily display the anatomic relationship between the focal hepatic lesions and the hepatic vessels, and thus can help the surgeons to localize lesions, minimize operating time and decide the extent of surgical resection.

  1. Prospective intraindividual comparison of gadoterate and gadobutrol for cervical and intracranial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Hoelter, Philip; Lang, Stefan; Weibart, Marina; Schmidt, Manuel; Knott, Michael F X; Engelhorn, Tobias; Essig, Marco; Kloska, Stephan; Doerfler, Arnd

    2017-09-14

    Gadobutrol (GB) is reported to provide improved relaxivity and concentration compared to gadoterate (GT). This study was designed to intraindividually compare quantitative and qualitative enhancement characteristics of GB to GT in cervicocranial magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Patients (n = 54) with CVD underwent two identical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) examinations of the cervical and intracranial vasculature in randomized order, using GB and GT in equimolar dose. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were obtained by two independent neuroradiologists, blinded to the applied contrast agents. Qualitative assessment was performed using a three-point scale with a focus on M1/M2 segments. One thousand and twenty-six vessel segments were analyzed. GB revealed a significantly higher SNR (p = 0.032) and CNR (p = 0.031) in all vessel segments. GB featured a significantly higher SNR and CNR in thoracic (p = 0.022; p = 0.016) and cervical vessels (p = 0.03; p = 0.038), as well as in the posterior circulation (p = 0.012; p = 0.005). In blinded qualitative assessment, overall preference was given to GB (p = 0.02), showing a significant better delineation of the M1/M2 segments (p = 0.041). Compared to GT, the use of GB results in a significantly higher SNR and CNR in cervical and cerebral CE-MRA, leading to a better delineation of the intracranial vasculature. Present results underline the potential of GB for improved CE-MRA assessment of vasculature in CVD patients.

  2. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pancreatic Cancer: Characteristics and Correlation With Histopathologic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wanling; Li, Na; Zhao, Weiwei; Ren, Jing; Wei, Mengqi; Yang, Yong; Wang, Yingmei; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Zhuoli; Larson, Andrew C; Huan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To clarify diffusion and perfusion abnormalities and evaluate correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), MR perfusion and histopathologic parameters of pancreatic cancer (PC). Eighteen patients with PC underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Parameters of DCE-MRI and ADC of cancer and non-cancerous tissue were compared. Correlation between the rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the arterial blood into the extravascular extracellular space (K, volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve), and ADC of PC and histopathologic parameters were analyzed. The rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the extravascular extracellular space into blood plasma, K, tissue volume fraction occupied by vascular space, and ADC of PC were significantly lower than nontumoral pancreases. Ve of PC was significantly higher than that of nontumoral pancreas. Apparent diffusion coefficient and K values of PC were negatively correlated to fibrosis content and fibroblast activation protein staining score. Fibrosis content was positively correlated to Ve. Apparent diffusion coefficient values and parameters of DCE-MRI can differentiate PC from nontumoral pancreases. There are correlations between ADC, K, Ve, and fibrosis content of PC. Fibroblast activation protein staining score of PC is negatively correlated to ADC and K. Apparent diffusion coefficient, K, and Ve may be feasible to predict prognosis of PC.

  3. 3D lacunarity in multifractal analysis of breast tumor lesions in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Soares, Filipe; Janela, Filipe; Pereira, Manuela; Seabra, João; Freire, Mário M

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) of the breast is especially robust for the diagnosis of cancer in high-risk women due to its high sensitivity. Its specificity may be, however, compromised since several benign masses take up contrast agent as malignant lesions do. In this paper, we propose a novel method of 3D multifractal analysis to characterize the spatial complexity (spatial arrangement of texture) of breast tumors at multiple scales. Self-similar properties are extracted from the estimation of the multifractal scaling exponent for each clinical case, using lacunarity as the multifractal measure. These properties include several descriptors of the multifractal spectra reflecting the morphology and internal spatial structure of the enhanced lesions relatively to normal tissue. The results suggest that the combined multifractal characteristics can be effective to distinguish benign and malignant findings, judged by the performance of the support vector machine classification method evaluated by receiver operating characteristics with an area under the curve of 0.96. In addition, this paper confirms the presence of multifractality in DCE-MR volumes of the breast, whereby multiple degrees of self-similarity prevail at multiple scales. The proposed feature extraction and classification method have the potential to complement the interpretation of the radiologists and supply a computer-aided diagnosis system.

  4. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging study of the nutrition pathway for lumbar intervertebral disk cartilage of normal goats.

    PubMed

    Du, Heng; Ma, Shao-hui; Guan, Min; Han, Bo; Yang, Guang-fu; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Miao

    2011-05-01

    Study of the nutrition pathway for lumbar intervertebral disk cartilage of normal goats. Four lumbar intervertebral disks from each of eight 24-month-old goats (32 disks) were studied. After the goats had been anesthetized, signal intensity changes in the regions of interest (ROI) were observed by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance scanning. Before and after enhancement at the time points of 0, 5, 10, and 30 mins, and 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 hs, the ROI signal intensity was measured, and the time-signal intensity curve and peak times analyzed. Signal intensity in the vertebral bodies reached a peak at 0 min and decreased quickly thereafter. Signal intensity in the cartilage endplate zones reached the first peak at 30 mins and then went down slightly before increasing to a second peak at 2 hs. Signal intensity in the nuclei pulposus was negative within 5 mins, increased slowly to a peak at 2 hs, and declined thereafter. Nutrient metabolism of the lumbar intervertebral disks of normal goats occurs mainly through the cartilage end-plate pathway. © 2011 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Increased microcirculation detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is of prognostic significance in asymptomatic myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hillengass, Jens; Ritsch, Judith; Merz, Maximilian; Wagner, Barbara; Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas; Laue, Hendrik; Bäuerle, Tobias; Zechmann, Christian M; Ho, Anthony D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moehler, Thomas M; Delorme, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as a non-invasive imaging technique delivering the quantitative parameters amplitude A (reflecting blood volume) and exchange rate constant kep (reflecting vascular permeability) in patients with asymptomatic monoclonal plasma cell diseases. We analysed DCE-MRI parameters in 33 healthy controls and 148 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) according to the 2003 IMWG guidelines. All individuals underwent standardized DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine. Regions of interest were drawn manually on T1-weighted images encompassing the bone marrow of each of the 5 lumbar vertebrae sparing the vertebral vessel. Prognostic significance for median of amplitude A (univariate: P < 0·001, hazard ratio (HR) 2·42, multivariate P = 0·02, HR 2·7) and exchange rate constant kep (univariate P = 0·03, HR 1·92, multivariate P = 0·46, HR 1·5) for time to progression of 79 patients with SMM was found. Patients with amplitude A above the optimal cut-off point of 0·89 arbitrary units had a 2-year progression rate into symptomatic disease of 80%. In conclusion, DCE-MRI parameters are of prognostic significance for time to progression in patients with SMM but not in individuals with MGUS.

  6. Hepatic Phospholipidosis Is Associated with Altered Hepatobiliary Function as Assessed by Gadoxetate Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Stephen C; Lev, Mally; Webster, Lindsey O; Peterson, Richard A; Goulbourne, Christopher N; Miller, Richard T; Jucker, Beat M

    2016-01-01

    To determine if amiodarone induces hepatic phospholipidosis (PLD) sufficient to detect changes in hepatobiliary transporter function as assessed by gadoxetate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), rats were orally dosed with vehicle (1% methyl cellulose) or amiodarone (300 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days. Gadoxetate DCE-MRI occurred at baseline, day 7, and following a 2-week washout of amiodarone. At day 7, the gadoxetate washout rate was significantly decreased compared to the vehicle group. Blood chemistry analysis revealed no significant changes in liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]/aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), bilirubin, or bile acids between vehicle or amiodarone groups. Hepatic PLD was confirmed in all rats treated with amiodarone at day 7 by transmission electron microscopy. Following the 2-week washout, there was no ultrastructural evidence of hepatic PLD in rats and the gadoxetate washout rate returned to baseline levels. This is the first study to show the application of gadoxetate DCE-MRI to detect hepatobiliary functional changes associated with PLD and offer a potential new technique with clinical utility in patients suspected of having PLD. These results also suggest PLD itself has functional consequences on hepatobiliary function in the absence of biomarkers of toxicity, given the cause/effect relationship between PLD and function has not been fully established.

  7. Image Quality and Stenosis Assessment of Non-Contrast-Enhanced 3-T Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Compared with Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Digital Subtraction Angiography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiayi; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Luo, Nan; Zhao, Yike; Bi, Xiaoming; An, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Dongting; Wen, Zhaoying; Fan, Zhanming; Li, Debiao

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3 T for imaging infragenual arteries relative to contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). A series of 16 consecutive patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) underwent a combined peripheral MRA protocol consisting of FSD-MRA for the calves and large field-of-view CE-MRA. DSA was performed on all patients within 1 week of the MR angiographies. Image quality and degree of stenosis was assessed by two readers with rich experience. Inter-observer agreement was determined using kappa statistics. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis determined the diagnostic value of FSD-MRA, CE-MRA, and CE-MRA combined with FSD-MRA (CE+FSD MRA) in predicting vascular stenosis. At the calf station, no significantly difference of subjective image quality scores was found between FSD-MRA and CE-MRA. Inter-reader agreement was excellent for both FSD-MRA and CE-MRA. Both of FSD-MRA and CE-MRA carry a stenosis overestimation risk relative to DSA standard. With DSA as the reference standard, ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve was largest for CE+FSD MRA. The greatest sensitivity and specificity were obtained when a cut-off stenosis score of 2 was used. In patients with severe PAD,3 T FSD-MRA provides good-quality diagnostic images without a contrast agent and is a good supplement for CE-MRA. CE+FSD MRA can improve the accuracy of vascular stenosis diagnosis.

  8. Assessment of subconjunctival and intrascleral drug delivery to the posterior segment using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stephanie H; Galbán, Craig J; Lutz, Robert J; Dedrick, Robert L; Csaky, Karl G; Lizak, Martin J; Wang, Nam Sun; Tansey, Ginger; Robinson, Michael R

    2007-02-01

    Sustained-release intravitreal drug implants for posterior segment diseases are associated with significant complications. As an alternative, subconjunctival infusions of drug to the episclera of the back of the eye have been performed, but results in clinical trials for macular diseases showed mixed To improve understanding of transscleral drug delivery to the posterior segment, the distribution and clearance of gadolinium-diethylene-triamino-penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) infused in the subconjunctival or intrascleral space was investigated by means of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In anesthetized rabbits, catheters were placed anteriorly in the subconjunctival or intrascleral space and infused with Gd-DTPA at 1 and 10 muL/min. Distribution and clearance of Gd-DTPA were measured using DCE-MRI. Histologic examination was performed to assess ocular toxicity of the delivery system. results. Subconjunctival infusions failed to produce detectable levels of Gd-DTPA in the back of the eye. In contrast, intrascleral infusions expanded the suprachoroidal layer and delivered Gd-DTPA to the posterior segment. Suprachoroidal clearance of Gd-DTPA followed first-order kinetics with an average half-life of 5.4 and 11.8 minutes after intrascleral infusions at 1 and 10 muL/min, respectively. Histologic examination demonstrated expansion of the tissues in the suprachoroidal space that normalized after infusion termination. An intrascleral infusion was successful in transporting Gd-DTPA to the posterior segment from an anterior infusion site with limited anterior segment exposure. The suprachoroidal space appears to be an expandible conduit for drug transport to the posterior segment. Further studies are indicated to explore the feasibility of clinical applications.

  9. Radiogenomic analysis of breast cancer: dynamic contrast enhanced - magnetic resonance imaging based features are associated with molecular subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijian; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor with upgrading incidence in females. The key to decrease the mortality is early diagnosis and reasonable treatment. Molecular classification could provide better insights into patient-directed therapy and prognosis prediction of breast cancer. It is known that different molecular subtypes have different characteristics in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Therefore, we assumed that imaging features can reflect molecular information in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated associations between dynamic contrasts enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) features and molecular subtypes in breast cancer. Sixty patients with breast cancer were enrolled and the MR images were pre-processed for noise reduction, registration and segmentation. Sixty-five dimensional imaging features including statistical characteristics, morphology, texture and dynamic enhancement in breast lesion and background regions were semiautomatically extracted. The associations between imaging features and molecular subtypes were assessed by using statistical analyses, including univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression. The results of multivariate regression showed that imaging features are significantly associated with molecular subtypes of Luminal A (p=0.00473), HER2-enriched (p=0.00277) and Basal like (p=0.0117), respectively. The results indicated that three molecular subtypes are correlated with DCE-MRI features in breast cancer. Specifically, patients with a higher level of compactness or lower level of skewness in breast lesion are more likely to be Luminal A subtype. Besides, the higher value of the dynamic enhancement at T1 time in normal side reflect higher possibility of HER2-enriched subtype in breast cancer.

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Juzhong; Fan, Ming; Zheng, Bin; Shao, Guoliang; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of women death in the United States. Currently, Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) has become standard treatment paradigms for breast cancer patients. Therefore, it is important to find a reliable non-invasive assessment and prediction method which can evaluate and predict the response of NAC on breast cancer. The Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) approach can reflect dynamic distribution of contrast agent in tumor vessels, providing important basis for clinical diagnosis. In this study, the efficacy of DCE-MRI on evaluation and prediction of response to NAC in breast cancer was investigated. To this end, fifty-seven cases of malignant breast cancers with MRI examination both before and after two cycle of NAC were analyzed. After pre-processing approach for segmenting breast lesions and background regions, 126-dimensional imaging features were extracted from DCE-MRI. Statistical analyses were then performed to evaluate the associations between the extracted DCE-MRI features and the response to NAC. Specifically, pairwise t test was used to calculate differences of imaging features between MRI examinations before-and-after NAC. Moreover, the associations of these image features with response to NAC were assessed using logistic regression. Significant association are found between response to NAC and the features of lesion morphology and background parenchymal enhancement, especially the feature of background enhancement in normal side of breast (P=0.011). Our study indicate that DCE-MRI features can provide candidate imaging markers to predict response of NAC in breast cancer.

  11. Comparison between perfusion computed tomography and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in assessing glioblastoma microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhong Zheng; Shi, Wei; Shi, Jin Long; Shen, Dan Dan; Gu, Hong Mei; Zhou, Xue Jun

    2017-02-01

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provide independent measurements of biomarkers related to tumor perfusion. The aim of this study was to compare the two techniques in assessing glioblastoma microvasculature. Twenty-five patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (14 males and 11 females; 51±11years old, ranging from 33 to 70 years) were includede in this prospective study. All patients underwent both PCT and DCE-MRI. Imaging was performed on a 256-slice CT scanner and a 3-T MRI system. PCT yielded permeability surface-area product (PS) using deconvolution physiological models; meanwhile, DCE-MRI determined volume transfer constant (K(trans)) using the Tofts-Kermode compartment model. All cases were submitted to surgical intervention, and CD105-microvascular density (CD105-MVD) was measured in each glioblastoma specimen. Then, Spearman's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were obtained for PS, K(trans) and CD105-MVD. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Tumor PS and K(trans) values were correlated with CD105-MVD (r=0.644, P<0.001; r=0.683, P<0.001). In addition, PS was correlated with K(trans) in glioblastoma (r=0.931, P<0.001). Finally, Bland-Altman plots showed no significant differences between PS and K(trans) (P=0.063). PCT and DCE-MRI measurements of glioblastoma perfusion biomarkers have similar results, suggesting that both techniques may have comparable utility. Therefore, PCT may serve as an alternative modality to DCE-MRI for the in vivo evaluation of glioblastoma microvasculature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography for detection of renal vein thrombosis: comparison with multidetector CT venography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wu, Xinsheng; Yang, Gui Fen; Tang, Chun Xiang; Luo, Song; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Ji, Xue Man; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-12-01

    Renal vein thrombosis is not uncommon, however, there have been few reports on the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (3D-CE-MRV) in the detection of renal vein thrombosis (RVT). To evaluate the value of 3D-CE-MRV for detecting RVT with multidetector computed tomography (CT) venography as reference standard. Thirty-two patients with nephrotic syndrome underwent renal CT venography and gradient echo pulse sequence (FLASH 3D) 3D-CE-MRV in a clinical 3-T whole-body MR scanner for suspected RVT with time interval of 0-5 days. RVT was recorded on a per-patient and per-vessel (left renal vein, right renal vein, and inferior vena cava) basis. The diagnostic accuracy of 3D-CE-MRV for detection of RVT was calculated with CT venography as reference standard. Inter-reader agreement for RVT detection was evaluated using Kappa statistics. Of 32 patients, CT venography detected 22 vessels with thrombosis in 17 patients, including five in right renal veins, 14 in left renal veins, and three in inferior vena cava, while 15 patients had no RVT. 3D-CE-MRV detected 21 vessels (21/96, 21.9%) with thrombosis in 16 patients (6/32, 50%), including five in right renal veins, 13 in left renal veins, and three in inferior vena cava, while 16 patients (16/32, 50%) had no RVT. With CT venography as reference standard, the sensitivities and specificities of 3D-CE-MRV for RVT detection were 94.1%, 100%; 95.5%, 100% on a per-patient and a per-vessel basis, respectively. Excellent inter-reader agreement (Kappa value = 0.969, P < 0.001) was observed for RVT detection. 3D-CE-MRV has a high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of RVT, which is optimal alternative imaging modality in the detection of RVT.

  13. Comparison of 1.5 and 3.0 T for Contrast-Enhanced Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Londy, Frank Joseph; Lowe, Suzan; Stein, Paul D.; Weg, John G.; Eisner, Robert L.; Leeper, Kenneth V.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Sostman, H. Dirk; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Fowler, Sarah E.; Hales, Charles A.; Hull, Russell D.; Gottschalk, Alexander; Naidich, David P.; Chenevert, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a recent multi-center trial of gadolinium contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA) for diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), two centers utilized a common MRI platform though at different field strengths (1.5T and 3T) and realized a signal-to-noise gain with the 3T platform. This retrospective analysis investigates this gain in signal-to-noise of pulmonary vascular targets. Methods Thirty consecutive pulmonary MRA examinations acquired on a 1.5T system at one institution were compared to 30 consecutive pulmonary MRA examinations acquired on a 3T system at a different institution. Both systems were from the same MRI manufacturer and both used the same Gd-MRA pulse sequence, although there were some protocol adjustments made due to field strength differences. Region-of-interests were manually defined on the main pulmonary artery, 4 pulmonary veins, thoracic aorta, and background lung for objective measurement of signal-to-noise, contrast-to-noise, and bolus timing bias between centers. Results The 3T pulmonary MRA protocol achieved higher spatial resolution yet maintained significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio (≥ 13%, p = 0.03) in the main pulmonary vessels relative to 1.5T. There was no evidence of operator bias in bolus timing or patient hemodynamic differences between groups. Conclusion Relative to 1.5T, higher spatial resolution Gd-MRA can be achieved at 3T with a sustained or greater signal-to-noise ratio of enhanced vasculature. PMID:21993980

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: fundamentals and application to the evaluation of the peripheral perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Yaron; Partovi, Sasan; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Amarteifio, Erick; Bäuerle, Tobias; Weber, Marc-André; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ability to ascertain information pertaining to peripheral perfusion through the analysis of tissues’ temporal reaction to the inflow of contrast agent (CA) was first recognized in the early 1990’s. Similar to other functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) was at first restricted to studies of the brain. Over the last two decades the spectrum of ailments, which have been studied with DCE-MRI, has been extensively broadened and has come to include pathologies of the heart notably infarction, stroke and further cerebral afflictions, a wide range of neoplasms with an emphasis on antiangiogenic treatment and early detection, as well as investigations of the peripheral vascular and musculoskeletal systems. Applications to peripheral perfusion DCE-MRI possesses an unparalleled capacity to quantitatively measure not only perfusion but also other diverse microvascular parameters such as vessel permeability and fluid volume fractions. More over the method is capable of not only assessing blood flowing through an organ, but in contrast to other noninvasive methods, the actual tissue perfusion. These unique features have recently found growing application in the study of the peripheral vascular system and most notably in the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Review outline The first part of this review will elucidate the fundamentals of data acquisition and interpretation of DCE-MRI, two areas that often remain baffling to the clinical and investigating physician because of their complexity. The second part will discuss developments and exciting perspectives of DCE-MRI regarding the assessment of perfusion in the extremities. Emerging clinical applications of DCE-MRI will be reviewed with a special focus on investigation of physiology and pathophysiology of the microvascular and

  15. Vascular territorial segmentation and volumetric blood flow measurement using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the brain.

    PubMed

    Geri, Oren; Shiran, Shelly I; Roth, Jonathan; Artzi, Moran; Ben-Sira, Liat; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a method for territorial segmentation and volumetric flow rate (VFR) distribution measurement of cerebral territories based on time-resolved contrast enhanced magnetic-resonance-angiography (MRA). The method uses an iterative region-growing algorithm based on bolus-arrival-time with increased temporal resolution. Eight territories were segmented: (1) right and (2) left internal carotid arteries, including the middle cerebral artery (ICA+MCA), excluding the anterior cerebral arteries (ACA); (3) right and left ACA (R+L-ACA); (4) right and (5) left external carotid arteries (ECA); (6) right and (7) left posterior cerebral arteries (PCA); and (8) vertebrobasilar territory. VFR percentage, relative to the entire brain (rVFR), was measured based on territorial volume as a function of time. Mean rVFR values of fifteen healthy subjects were: ICA+MCA = 23 ± 2%, R + L-ACA = 17 ± 3%, ECA = 4 ± 2%, PCA = 12 ± 2%, and vertebrobasilar territory = 31 ± 4%. Excluding the ECA-rVFR, which is underestimated, these values are comparable to previously reported values. Six subjects were scanned twice, demonstrating comparable and even higher reproducibility than previously reported using phase-contrast, yet with faster scan time (∼1 min). This method was implemented in one patient with MCA occlusion and one with Moyamoya syndrome scanned before and after bypass surgery, demonstrating its clinical potential for quantitative assessment of the degree of occlusion and the effect of surgery.

  16. Evaluation of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Response to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Beckett, Brooke R.; Tudorica, Alina; Meyer, Janelle M.; Afzal, Aneela; Chen, Yiyi; Mansoor, Atiya; Hayden, James B.; Doung, Yee-Cheen; Hung, Arthur Y.; Holtorf, Megan L.; Aston, Torrie J.; Ryan, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the utility of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters in comparison with imaging tumor size for early prediction and evaluation of soft tissue sarcoma response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. In total, 20 patients with intermediate- to high-grade soft tissue sarcomas received either a phase I trial regimen of sorafenib + chemoradiotherapy (n = 8) or chemoradiotherapy only (n = 12), and underwent DCE-MRI at baseline, after 2 weeks of treatment with sorafenib or after the first chemotherapy cycle, and after therapy completion. MRI tumor size in the longest diameter (LD) was measured according to the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors) guidelines. Pharmacokinetic analyses of DCE-MRI data were performed using the Shutter-Speed model. After only 2 weeks of treatment with sorafenib or after 1 chemotherapy cycle, Ktrans (rate constant for plasma/interstitium contrast agent transfer) and its percent change were good early predictors of optimal versus suboptimal pathological response with univariate logistic regression C statistics values of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively, whereas RECIST LD percent change was only a fair predictor (C = 0.72). Post-therapy Ktrans, ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction), and kep (intravasation rate constant), not RECIST LD, were excellent (C > 0.90) markers of therapy response. Several DCE-MRI parameters before, during, and after therapy showed significant (P < .05) correlations with percent necrosis of resected tumor specimens. In conclusion, absolute values and percent changes of quantitative DCE-MRI parameters provide better early prediction and evaluation of the pathological response of soft tissue sarcoma to preoperative chemoradiotherapy than the conventional measurement of imaging tumor size change. PMID:28066805

  17. Perfusion of subchondral bone marrow in knee osteoarthritis: A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Budzik, Jean-François; Ding, Juliette; Norberciak, Laurène; Pascart, Tristan; Toumi, Hechmi; Verclytte, Sébastien; Coursier, Raphaël

    2017-03-01

    The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis is being given major interest, and inflammation is closely linked with vascularization. It was recently demonstrated that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) could identify the subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes occurring in osteoarthritis in animals. These changes appeared before cartilage lesions were visible and were correlated with osteoarthritis severity. Thus the opportunity to obtain an objective assessment of bone vascularization in non-invasive conditions in humans might help better understanding osteoarthritis pathophysiology and finding new biomarkers. We hypothesized that, as in animals, DCE-MRI has the ability to identify subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes in human osteoarthritis. We performed knee MRI in 19 patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. We assessed subchondral bone marrow vascularization in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments with DCE-MRI and graded osteoarthritis lesions on MR images. Statistical analysis assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement, compared DCE-MRI values between the different subchondral zones, and sought for an influence of age, sex, body mass index, and osteoarthritis garde on these values. The intra- and inter-observer agreement for DCE-MRI values were excellent. These values were significantly higher in the femorotibial compartment the most affected by osteoarthritis, both in femur and tibia (p<0.0001) and were significantly and positively correlated with cartilage lesions (p=0.02) and bone marrow oedema grade (p<0.0001) after adjustment. We concluded that, as in animals, subchondral bone marrow vascularization changes assessed with DCE-MRI were correlated with osteoarthritis severity in humans.

  18. Diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer and its correlation with tumor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, FU; LU, JIANPING; CHEN, LUGUANG; WANG, ZHEN; CHEN, YUKUN

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a novel imaging modality that can be used to reflect the microcirculation, although its value in diagnosing rectal cancer is unknown. The present study aimed to explore the clinical application of DCE-MRI in the preoperative diagnosis of rectal cancer, and its correlation with tumor differentiation. To achieve this, 40 pathologically confirmed patients with rectal cancer and 15 controls were scanned using DCE-MRI. The Tofts model was applied to obtain the perfusion parameters, including the plasma to extravascular volume transfer (Ktrans), the extravascular to plasma volume transfer (Kep), the extravascular fluid volume (Ve) and the initial area under the enhancement curve (iAUC). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to determine the diagnostic value. The results demonstrated that the time-signal intensity curve of the rectal cancer lesion exhibited an outflow pattern. The Ktrans, Kep, Ve, and iAUC values were higher in the cancer patients compared with controls (P<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficients of Ktrans, Kep, Ve and iAUC, as measured by two independent radiologists, were 0.991, 0.988, 0.972 and 0.984, respectively (all P<0.001), indicating a good consistency. The areas under the ROC curves for Ktrans and iAUC were both >0.9, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.3% for Ktrans, and of 92.5%, and 93.3% or 100%, for iAUC, respectively. In the 40 rectal cancer cases, there was a moderate correlation between Ktrans and iAUC, and pathological differentiation (0.3

  19. Renal transplant failure due to urologic complications: Comparison of static fluid with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance urography.

    PubMed

    Blondin, D; Koester, A; Andersen, K; Kurz, K D; Moedder, U; Cohnen, M

    2009-02-01

    Postrenal reasons of renal transplant failure can be assessed by magnetic resonance urography. This study was designed to retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of static fluid (T2-)MRU compared to contrast enhanced (CE-)MRU in patients with renal transplant failure. Thirty-five consecutive patients (14 female, 21 men; mean age 48.6 years) with renal transplant failure and sonographically detected hydronephrosis were examined both with T2-MRU as well as CE-MRU resulting in 39 MRU examinations. MRU was performed both using T2-weighted HASTE-sequence (T2-MRU) as well as Gadolinium-enhanced 3D-FLASH-sequence (CE-MRU) on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Medical Solutions). Subjective image quality of resulting maximum intensity projection was assessed in consensus by two readers blinded to the final diagnosis, using a five point scale. MRU findings were correlated to sonography, operative results or clinical follow up. CE-MRU yielded a sensitivity of 85.7% (T2-MRU 76.2%), and a specificity of 83.3% (T2-MRU: 73.7%), however statistical significance was not reached. The subjective image quality was significantly better in CE-MRU. Only concerning subjective image quality CE-MRU proved superior to T2-MRU. Yet, there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between T2- and CE-MRU. Thinking of incipient nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, T2-MRU can be used as reliable alternative in patients with decreased renal transplant function due to urological complications.

  20. Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging for the prediction of early and late recurrences in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jung; Choi, HyeMi; Choi, Sin Ae; Youk, Ji Hyun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) features for the prediction of early and late recurrences in patients with breast cancer.Of 1030 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery at our hospital from January 2007 to July 2011, 83 recurrent breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study. We compared MRI features (background parenchymal enhancement [BPE], internal enhancement, adjacent vessel sign, whole-breast vascularity, initial enhancement pattern, kinetic curve types, and quantitative kinetic parameters) and clinico-pathologic variables (age, stage, histologic grade, nuclear grade, existence of lymphovascular invasion and extensive intraductal carcinoma component, and immunohistochemical profiles) between patients with early (≤2.5 years after surgery) and late recurrence (>2.5 years after surgery). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent risk factors for early and late recurrence.On breast MRI, prominent ipsilateral whole-breast vascularity was independently associated with early recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.86; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.39-5.88) and moderate or marked BPE (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.04-4.18) and rim enhancement (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.59) were independently associated with late recurrence. Clinico-pathologic variables independently associated with early recurrence included negative estrogen receptor (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.96), whereas T2 stage (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.04-4.16) and nuclear grade III (HR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.29-4.98) were associated with late recurrence.In DCE-MRI, prominent ipsilateral whole-breast vascularity, moderate or marked BPE, and rim enhancement could be useful for predicting recurrence timing in patients with breast cancer.

  1. The benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for predicting vascular access surgery outcome: a computer model perspective.

    PubMed

    Merkx, Maarten A G; Huberts, Wouter; Bosboom, E Mariëlle H; Bode, Aron S; Bescós, Javier Oliván; Tordoir, Jan H M; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Vosse, Frans N

    2013-01-01

    Vascular access (VA) surgery, a prerequisite for hemodialysis treatment of end-stage renal-disease (ESRD) patients, is hampered by complication rates, which are frequently related to flow enhancement. To assist in VA surgery planning, a patient-specific computer model for postoperative flow enhancement was developed. The purpose of this study is to assess the benefit of non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) data as patient-specific geometrical input for the model-based prediction of surgery outcome. 25 ESRD patients were included in this study. All patients received a NCE-MRA examination of the upper extremity blood vessels in addition to routine ultrasound (US). Local arterial radii were assessed from NCE-MRA and converted to model input using a linear fit per artery. Venous radii were determined with US. The effect of radius measurement uncertainty on model predictions was accounted for by performing Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting flow prediction interval of the computer model was compared with the postoperative flow obtained from US. Patients with no overlap between model-based prediction and postoperative measurement were further analyzed to determine whether an increase in geometrical detail improved computer model prediction. Overlap between postoperative flows and model-based predictions was obtained for 71% of patients. Detailed inspection of non-overlapping cases revealed that the geometrical details that could be assessed from NCE-MRA explained most of the differences, and moreover, upon addition of these details in the computer model the flow predictions improved. The results demonstrate clearly that NCE-MRA does provide valuable geometrical information for VA surgery planning. Therefore, it is recommended to use this modality, at least for patients at risk for local or global narrowing of the blood vessels as well as for patients for whom an US-based model prediction would not overlap with surgical choice, as the

  2. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of unclear solid renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Rübenthaler, J; Paprottka, K; Marcon, J; Hameister, E; Hoffmann, K; Joiko, N; Reiser, M; Clevert, D A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of unclear renal lesions to the histopathological outcome. A total of 36 patients with a single unclear solid renal lesion with initial imaging studies between 2005 and 2015 were included. CEUS and MRI were used for determining malignancy or benignancy and initial findings were correlated with the histopathological outcome. Out of the 36 renal masses a total of 28 lesions were malignant (77.8%) and 8 were found to be benign (22.2%). Diagnostic accuracy was testes by using the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. CEUS showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88,9%. MRI showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 75.0%, a PPV of 93.1% and a NPV of 85.7%. Out of the 28 malignant lesions a total of 18 clear cell renal carcinomas, 6 papillary renal cell carcinomas and 4 other malignant lesions, e.g. metastases, were diagnosed. Out of the 8 benign lesions a total 3 angiomyolipomas, 2 oncocytomas, 1 benign renal cyst and 2 other benign lesions, e.g. renal adenomas were diagnosed. Using CEUS, 1 lesion was falsely identified as benign. Using MRI, 2 lesions were falsely identified as benign and 1 lesion was falsely identified as malignant. CEUS is an useful method which can be additionally used to clinically differentiate between malignant and benign renal lesions. CEUS shows a comparable sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV to MRI. In daily clinical routine, patients with contraindications for other imaging modalities can particularly benefit using this method.

  3. Unenhanced respiratory-navigated NATIVE(®) TrueFISP magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of renal arteries: Comparison with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Değirmenci, B; Kara, M; Kıdır, V; İnal, S; Sezer, T; Umul, A; Orhan, H; Çelik, A O; Demirtaş, H; Yilmaz, Ö

    2017-02-01

    To compare unenhanced three-dimensional (3D) NATIVE(®) true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with the more conventional MR angiography technique obtained after intravenous administration of a gadolinium chelate in the evaluation of renal arteries and their branches in patients with suspected renal artery stenosis. A total of 39 patients (25 men, 14 women) with a mean age of 51.4±17.5years (SD) (range: 10-82years) were included in the study. All patients with suspected renal artery stenosis underwent unenhanced 3D NATIVE(®) TrueFISP MR angiography and contrast-enhanced MR angiography. The two MR angiography methods were compared by two independent readers for image quality using a four-point scale, diagnostic performance and grading of renal artery stenosis on a total of 78 renal arteries. For both readers image quality of unenhanced 3D NATIVE(®) TrueFISP MR angiography (3.12 to 3.63) was greater than that of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (1.94 to 2.71) for renal artery ostium-trunk and the left renal artery segmental branches. The sensitivity of 3D NATIVE(®) TrueFISP MR angiography for the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis was 100% for both readers for the right renal artery and 66% and 80% for the left renal artery for reader 1 and reader 2, respectively. Agreement between 3D NATIVE(®) TrueFISP MR angiography and CE-MR angiography was 95% (74/78) for reader 1 and 92% (72/78) for reader 2. Unenhanced NATIVE(®) TrueFISP magnetic resonance angiography can play an additional role in the evaluation of renal arteries in patients with hypertension, especially in subjects at risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. High correlation between microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histopathology in the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de Queiroz, Marcos Roberto Gomes; Francisco, Miguel José; Garcia, Rodrigo Gobbo; Rahal, Antonio; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of microbubble contrast ultrasound in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and to compare its results with those of magnetic resonance and histopathology. Methods A total of 29 patients suffering from chronic liver diseases and awaiting liver transplants at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein were subject to magnetic resonance, microbubble contrast ultrasound, and excision liver biopsies. Results Excellent agreement between magnetic resonance and microbubble contrast ultrasound was observed in this study. There was moderate agreement between both imaging methods and histopathology results. Conclusion Microbubble contrast ultrasound was as accurate as magnetic resonance to evaluate hepatocellular carcinoma. These results were confirmed by comparing both methods to histopathological diagnosis. PMID:24488392

  5. Diagnostic Performance of Combined Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Suspected Subclavian Steal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Teng-Fu; Cheng, Kai-Lun; Shen, Chao-Yu; Wu, Ming-Chi; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Su, Chun-Hung; Chen, Fong-Lin; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Lin, Yung-Chang

    2016-05-01

    The study sought to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspected subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) using both contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiography and phase-contrast (PC) MRI. Fifteen suspected SSSs from 13 patients were evaluated using CE-MR angiography and PC-MRI. Ten patients also received dynamic CE-MR angiography. All MRI examinations were technically successful. By combining CE-MR angiography with PC-MRI, 10 SSSs were diagnosed in 9 patients. The delay enhancement dynamic technique predicted SSS with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 57.1%, 100%, and 72.7%, respectively. Without the dynamic technique, affected delay-enhanced arteries were poorly visualized and could be mistaken for occluded vessels. Retrograde vertebral flow by PC-MRI was used to predict ipsilateral SSS with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100%, 60%, and 86.7%, respectively. There were 2 false positives including 1 patient with a proximal total occlusion of the affected vertebral artery and another with brachiocephalic steal syndrome rather than SSS. This suggested that retrograde vertebral flow does not always indicate SSS. CE-MR angiography combined with PC-MRI is efficacious when evaluating SSS in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Initial Experience in Patients With Early Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Maijer, Karen I; van der Leij, Christiaan; de Hair, Maria J H; Tas, Sander W; Maas, Mario; Gerlag, Daniëlle M; Tak, Paul P; Lavini, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using pharmacokinetic modeling (PKM) provides quantitative measures that mirror microvessel integrity and can be used as an objective marker of the level of synovial inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the PKM parameters K(trans) , kep , and ve in a prospective cohort of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early arthritis, and to validate the results by assessing their correlation with the number of synovial endothelial cells (ECs). Forty-seven patients with early arthritis (arthritis duration <1 year, DMARD naive; comprising 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 22 with unclassified arthritis, 6 with spondyloarthritis [SpA], and 5 with other arthritides) were included. At baseline, DCE-MRI was performed on an inflamed knee joint of each patient. These images were used to calculate the K(trans) (volume transfer constant between the plasma and extracellular extravascular space [EES]), the kep (transfer constant between the EES and plasma), and the ve (fractional volume of the EES). Second, markers of disease activity were collected. Finally, vascularity was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of synovial tissue samples obtained from the inflamed knee joints, using antibodies to detect von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of ECs. The 3 PKM parameters differed significantly between diagnostic groups at baseline, with the highest K(trans) value being observed in patients with SpA (median 0.050/minute, interquartile range [IQR] 0.041- 0.069). Furthermore, the K(trans) , kep , and ve values correlated significantly with markers of disease activity. Finally, the PKM parameters K(trans) and kep , but not ve , correlated significantly with synovial expression of vWF (r = 0.647, P = 0.004 for K(trans) ; r = 0.614, P = 0.007 for kep ; r = 0.398, P = 0.102 for ve ). These results suggest that the K(trans) , kep , and ve can

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the localization of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas at 3T.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G; Li, M H; Lu, C; Yin, Y L; Zhu, Y Q; Wei, X E; Lu, H T; Zheng, Q Q; Gao, W W

    2017-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (DCE-MRA) in the precise location and demonstration of fistulous points in spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs). Fifteen patients (14 men, 1 woman; age range: 40-78 years; mean: 55.5 years) harboring SDAVF who underwent preoperative DCE-MRA and spinal digital subtraction angiography (DSA) between January 2012 and January 2015 were evaluated retrospectively. Two reviewers independently evaluated the level and side of the arteriovenous fistula and feeding artery on 3T DCE-MRA and DSA images. The accuracy of DCE-MRA was assessed by comparing its findings with those from DSA and surgery in each case. All 15 patients underwent DCE-MRA and DSA. DSA was unsuccessful in two patients due to technical difficulties. All cases were explored surgically, guided by the DCE-MRA. Surgery confirmed that 14 AVF sites were located in the thoracic spine, 5 in the lumbar spine, and 1 in the cervical spine. The origin of the fistulas and feeding arteries was accurately shown by DCE-MRA in 11 of the 15 patients. DCE-MRA also detected dilated perimedullary veins in all 15 patients. Overall, DCE-MRA facilitated DSA catheterization in 10 cases. In six patients, the artery of Adamkiewicz could be observed. In 15 out of 20 fistulas (75%), both readers agreed on the location on DCE-MRA images, and the κ coefficient of the interobserver agreement was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.87). In 13 of 16 shunts (75%), the DCE-MRA consensus findings and DSA findings coincided. The intermodality agreement was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.35-0.92). Our DCE-MRA studies benefited from the use of a high-field 3T MR imaging unit and reliably detected and localized the SDAVF and feeding arteries. As experience with this technique grows, it may be possible to replace DSA with DCE-MRA if surgery is the planned treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis of systemic arterial diseases with whole-body 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Jian-hua

    2006-11-05

    With the development of magnetic resonance (MR) technologies, whole-body 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D CE MRA) has become possible. The purpose of this study was to introduce and evaluate this technique in demonstration of various systemic arterial diseases. Thirty-seven patients underwent whole-body 3D CE MRA using a 1.5T MR imager. The patients included were with clinically documented or suspected peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD, n = 19), Takayasu arteritis (n = 8), polyarteritis nodosa (n = 1), Type B dissection (n = 4) and thoracic and/or abdominal aneurysm (n = 5). Sixty-eight surface coil elements were employed to encompass the whole body. Four 3D CE MRA stations were acquired successively through automatic table moving. A total scan range of 188 cm, covering the arterial tree from carotid artery to trifurcation vessels, was acquired. Overall image quality of each arterial segment and venous overlay were assessed and rated. The depiction of various systemic arterial diseases was evaluated and compared with other imaging modalities if available, including digital subtraction angiography (DSA), CT angiography, dedicated mono-station MRA. Whole-body 3D CE MRA was well tolerated by all patients. It yielded a detailed display of the arterial system with a short examination time. The image quality was considered diagnostic in 99.3% of the arterial segments. The remaining 0.7% of the arterial segments were considered non-diagnostic. In 7 of 19 patients with PAOD, whole-body MRA showed additional vascular narrowing apart from peripheral arterial disease. In 9 patients with vasculitis, whole-body MRA depicted luminal irregularity, narrowing or occlusion, aneurysm and collateral circulation involving multiple vascular segments. Whole-body MRA also clearly revealed the severity and extent of dissection and aortic aneurysm. In 20 cases the vascular pathologies demonstrated on whole body MRA were confirmed by other imaging investigations. The whole

  9. Time-resolved contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck at 3.0 tesla: initial results.

    PubMed

    Nael, Kambiz; Michaely, Henrik J; Villablanca, Pablo; Salamon, Noriko; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul

    2006-02-01

    We sought to implement and evaluate a high-performance, extended field of view protocol for time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRA) of the carotid circulation by using a dedicated neurovascular (NV) array coil. A total of 16 adult volunteers and 20 clinical patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease (15 male, 21 female, 25-82 years of age) were scanned with a fast 3D MRA sequence (TR/TE: 2.16/1 milliseconds, sampling BW: 1090 Hz/pixel), with echo-sharing and parallel acquisition. All studies were performed on a 3.0 T MR system using an 8-channel neurovascular array coil. After injection of 6 mL of gadodiamide at 3 mL/s, a coronal 3D data set with in-plane resolution of 1 x 1.3 was implemented for 10 consecutive measurements each 1.8 seconds apart. The subjects subsequently underwent high spatial-resolution (in-plane: 0.8 x 0.9) CEMRA for comparative analysis. The quality of segmental arterial anatomy and the presence and degree of the arterial stenosis were evaluated by 2 neuroradiologists. The interobserver variability was tested by kappa statistics and comparative analysis between the TR-CEMRA and high spatial-resolution CEMRA was evaluated by mean of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Craniocervical arteries were visualized with good image quality and definition in the diagnostic range. Occlusive disease was detected in 42 (reader A) and 44 (reader B) arterial segments with excellent interobserver agreement (kappa =0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.96). There was a significant correlation between the TR-CEMRA and high spatial-resolution CEMRA (Rs = 0.91 and 0.93, for readers A and B, respectively) for the degree of stenosis. Three aneurysms, 3 AVMs, 1 AV-fistula, and 2 subclavian steals were detected by both observers and were confirmed by correlative imaging. Time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T is reliable and versatile, providing 3-dimensional time-resolved data sets with high spatial (in plane: 1.3 x 1 mm2) and temporal (1

  10. A Feasibility Study to Determine Whether Clinical Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging can Detect Increased Bladder Permeability in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Towner, Rheal A; Wisniewski, Amy B; Wu, Dee H; Van Gordon, Samuel B; Smith, Nataliya; North, Justin C; McElhaney, Rayburt; Aston, Christopher E; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Kropp, Bradley P; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Hurst, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is a bladder pain disorder associated with voiding symptomatology and other systemic chronic pain disorders. Currently diagnosing interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is complicated as patients present with a wide range of symptoms, physical examination findings and clinical test responses. One hypothesis is that interstitial cystitis symptoms arise from increased bladder permeability to urine solutes. This study establishes the feasibility of using contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to quantify bladder permeability in patients with interstitial cystitis. Permeability alterations in bladder urothelium were assessed by intravesical administration of the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Gd-DTPA (Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in a small cohort of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity in patient and control bladders was compared regionally and for entire bladders. Quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity indicated a significant increase in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions compared to posterior regions in patients with interstitial cystitis (p <0.01) and significant increases in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions (p <0.001). Kurtosis (shape of probability distribution) and skewness (measure of probability distribution asymmetry) were associated with contrast enhancement in total bladders in patients with interstitial cystitis vs controls (p <0.05). Regarding symptomatology interstitial cystitis cases differed significantly from controls on the SF-36®, PUF (Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency) and ICPI (Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index) questionnaires with no overlap in the score range in each group. ICSI (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index) differed significantly but with a slight overlap in the range of scores. Data suggest that contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging provides an objective, quantifiable measurement

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Gadobutrol for Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System: Results from a Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Comparator Study

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan E; Rosenberg, Martin; Seemann, Jörg; Breuer, Josy; Haverstock, Daniel; Agris, Jacob; Balzer, Thomas; Anzalone, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the central nervous system (CNS) with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is standard of care for CNS imaging and diagnosis because of the visualization of lesions that cause blood–brain barrier breakdown. Gadobutrol is a macrocyclic GBCA with high concentration and high relaxivity. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of gadobutrol 1.0 M vs unenhanced imaging and vs the approved macrocyclic agent gadoteridol 0.5 M at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, crossover trial in patients who underwent unenhanced MRI followed by enhanced imaging with gadobutrol or gadoteridol. Three blinded readers assessed the magnetic resonance images. The primary efficacy variables included number of lesions detected, degree of lesion contrast-enhancement, lesion border delineation, and lesion internal morphology. RESULTS Of the 402 treated patients, 390 patients received study drugs. Lesion contrast-enhancement, lesion border delineation, and lesion internal morphology were superior for combined unenhanced/gadobutrol-enhanced imaging vs unenhanced imaging (P < 0.0001 for all). Compared with gadoteridol, gadobutrol was non-inferior for all primary variables and superior for lesion contrast-enhancement, as well as sensitivity and accuracy for detection of malignant disease. The percentage of patients with at least one drug-related adverse event was similar for gadobutrol (10.0%) and gadoteridol (9.7%). CONCLUSION Gadobutrol is an effective and well-tolerated macrocyclic contrast agent for MRI of the CNS. Gadobutrol demonstrates greater contrast-enhancement and improved sensitivity and accuracy for detection of malignant disease than gadoteridol, likely because of its higher relaxivity. PMID:25922578

  12. Spectral embedding based active contour (SEAC) for lesion segmentation on breast dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Agner, Shannon C.; Xu, Jun; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Segmentation of breast lesions on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the first step in lesion diagnosis in a computer-aided diagnosis framework. Because manual segmentation of such lesions is both time consuming and highly susceptible to human error and issues of reproducibility, an automated lesion segmentation method is highly desirable. Traditional automated image segmentation methods such as boundary-based active contour (AC) models require a strong gradient at the lesion boundary. Even when region-based terms are introduced to an AC model, grayscale image intensities often do not allow for clear definition of foreground and background region statistics. Thus, there is a need to find alternative image representations that might provide (1) strong gradients at the margin of the object of interest (OOI); and (2) larger separation between intensity distributions and region statistics for the foreground and background, which are necessary to halt evolution of the AC model upon reaching the border of the OOI. Methods: In this paper, the authors introduce a spectral embedding (SE) based AC (SEAC) for lesion segmentation on breast DCE-MRI. SE, a nonlinear dimensionality reduction scheme, is applied to the DCE time series in a voxelwise fashion to reduce several time point images to a single parametric image where every voxel is characterized by the three dominant eigenvectors. This parametric eigenvector image (PrEIm) representation allows for better capture of image region statistics and stronger gradients for use with a hybrid AC model, which is driven by both boundary and region information. They compare SEAC to ACs that employ fuzzy c-means (FCM) and principal component analysis (PCA) as alternative image representations. Segmentation performance was evaluated by boundary and region metrics as well as comparing lesion classification using morphological features from SEAC, PCA+AC, and FCM+AC. Results: On a cohort of 50

  13. Validation of Interstitial Fractional Volume Quantification by Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Porcine Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Hindel, Stefan; Söhner, Anika; Maa, Marc; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of fractional interstitial volume determination in low perfused and low vascularized tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The fractional interstitial volume (ve) was determined in the medial thigh muscle of 12 female pigs by using a 3-dimensional gradient echo sequence with k-space sharing and administering gadolinium-based contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine). Analysis was performed using 3 pharmacokinetic models: the simple Tofts model (TM), the extended TM (ETM), and the 2-compartment exchange model (2CXM). We investigated the effect of varying acquisition durations (ADs) on the model parameter estimates of the 3 models and compared the ve values with the results of histological examinations of muscle sections of the medial thigh muscle. Histological measurements yielded a median value (25%-75% quartile) of 4.8% (3.7%-6.2%) for ve. The interstitial fractional volume determined by DCE-MRI was comparable to the histological results but varied strongly with AD for the TM and ETM. For the TM and the ETM, the results were virtually the same. Choosing arterial hematocrit to Hcta = 0.4, the lowest median ve value determined by DCE-MRI was 5.2% (3.3%-6.1%) for the ETM at a 6-minute AD. The maximum ve value determined with the ETM at a 15-minute AD was 7.7% (4.5%-9.0%). The variation with AD of median ve values obtained with the 2CXM was much smaller: 6.2% (3.1%-9.2%) for the 6-minute AD and 6.3% (4.3%-9.8%) for the 15-minute AD. The best fit for the 2CXM was found at the 10-minute AD with ve values of 6.6% (3.7%-8.2%). No significant correlation between the histological and any DCE-MRI modeling results was found. Considering the expected accuracy of histological measurements, the medians of the MR modeling results were in good agreement with the histological prediction. A parameter determination uncertainty was identified with the use of the TMs. This is due to underfitting and

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography by combined qualitative and quantitative analysis in breast lesions: a comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Du, Jing; Li, Feng-Hua; Fang, Hua; Hua, Jia; Wan, Cai-Feng

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography for differentiation of breast lesions by combined qualitative and quantitative analyses in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty-six patients with American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 to 5 breast lesions on conventional sonography were evaluated by contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI. A comparative analysis of diagnostic results between contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI was conducted in light of the pathologic findings. Pathologic analysis showed 26 benign and 30 malignant lesions. The predominant enhancement patterns of the benign lesions on contrast-enhanced sonography were homogeneous, centrifugal, and isoenhancement or hypoenhancement, whereas the patterns of the malignant lesions were mainly heterogeneous, centripetal, and hyperenhancement. The detection rates for perfusion defects and peripheral radial vessels in the malignant group were much higher than those in the benign group (P < .05). As to quantitative analysis, statistically significant differences were found in peak and time-to-peak values between the groups (P < .05). With pathologic findings as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI were 90.0%, 92.3%, 91.1% and 96.7%, 88.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. The two methods had a concordant rate of 87.5% (49 of 56), and the concordance test gave a value of κ = 0.75, indicating that there was high concordance in breast lesion assessment between the two diagnostic modalities. Contrast-enhanced sonography provided typical enhancement patterns and valuable quantitative parameters, which showed good agreement with MRI in diagnostic efficacy and may potentially improve characterization of breast lesions.

  15. Chronic Graft-versus-host Disease Presenting with Multiple Punctate Intracranial Lesions on Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Makoto; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Obara, Naoshi; Ogawa, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Sato, Taiki; Nohara, Seitaro; Chiba, Shigeru; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system graft-versus-host disease can present quite a diagnostic challenge. We herein present a case of histologically-confirmed chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) involving the central nervous system that occurred at 19 months after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed areas of confluent hyperintensity in the deep/subcortical white matter with multiple punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancements, suggesting the disruption of the blood-brain barrier. A brain biopsy revealed perivascular CD3-positive T cell infiltration around the small vessels. We propose that the detection of punctate-enhanced lesions by magnetic resonance imaging may be a useful finding that facilitates the early diagnosis of chronic GVHD involving the central nervous system. PMID:28154284

  16. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional unenhanced and contrast-enhanced echocardiographies versus cineventriculography versus cardiac magnetic resonance for determination of left ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Rainer; von Bardeleben, Stephan; Barletta, Giuseppe; Pasques, Agnes; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw; Greis, Christian; Becher, Harald

    2014-01-15

    Contrast enhancement has been shown to improve detection of regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) in 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. This study determined the use of contrast enhancement in the setting of 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography for definition of left ventricular RWMA compared with 2D echocardiography, cineventriculography, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). In 63 patients, unenhanced and contrast-enhanced (SonoVue; Bracco Imaging S.p.A., Milan, Italy) 2D and 3D echocardiographies, CMR, and cineventriculography were performed. Hypokinesia in ≥1 segment defined the presence of RWMA. Interreader agreement (IRA) between 2 blinded off-site readers on presence of RWMA was determined within each imaging technique. Intermethod agreement among imaging techniques was analyzed. A standard of truth for the presence of RWMA was obtained by an independent expert panel decision. IRA on presence of RWMA expressed as Cohen's κ coefficient was 0.27 for unenhanced 3D echocardiography, 0.40 for unenhanced 2D echocardiography, 0.57 for CMR, and 0.51 for cineventriculography. The use of contrast increased IRA on RWMA to 0.42 for 3D echocardiography and to 0.56 for 2D echocardiography. Agreement with CMR on RWMA increased for 3D echocardiography when contrast enhancement was used (κ 0.40 vs 0.22 for unenhanced 3D echocardiography). Similarly, agreement of 2D echocardiography with CMR on RWMA increased with contrast enhancement (κ 0.50 vs 0.32). Accuracy to detect expert panel-defined RWMA was highest for CMR (84%) followed by 2D contrast echocardiography (78%) and 3D contrast echocardiography (76%). It was lesser for 2D and 3D unenhanced echocardiographies. In conclusion, analysis of RWMA is characterized by considerable interreader variability even using high-quality imaging techniques. IRA on RWMA is lower with 3D echocardiography compared with 2D echocardiography. IRA on RWMA and accuracy to detect panel-defined RWMA improve with contrast enhancement

  17. MRI contrast enhancement using Magnetic Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Kangasniemi, Kim; Takahashi, Masaya; Mohanty, Samarendra K.; Koymen, Ali R.; Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington Team; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Team

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, nanotechnology has become one of the most exciting forefront fields in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics such as drug delivery, thermal therapy and detection of cancer. Here, we report development of core (Fe)-shell (carbon) nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic properties for contrast enhancement in MRI imaging. These new classes of magnetic carbon nanoparticles (MCNPs) are synthesized using a bottom-up approach in various organic solvents, using the electric plasma discharge generated in the cavitation field of an ultrasonic horn. Gradient echo MRI images of well-dispersed MCNP-solutions (in tube) were acquired. For T2 measurements, a multi echo spin echo sequence was performed. From the slope of the 1/T2 versus concentration plot, the R2 value for different CMCNP-samples was measured. Since MCNPs were found to be extremely non-reactive, and highly absorbing in NIR regime, development of carbon-based MRI contrast enhancement will allow its simultaneous use in biomedical applications. We aim to localize the MCNPs in targeted tissue regions by external DC magnetic field, followed by MRI imaging and subsequent photothermal therapy.

  18. Supra-aortic low-dose contrast-enhanced time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 3 T: comparison with time-of-flight MR angiography and high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn-Joo; Kim, Bum-soo; Koo, Ja-Sung; Kim, Bom-Yi; Jang, Jinhee; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Low-dose, time-resolved, contrast-enhanced, magnetic resonance angiography (TR-CEMRA) has been described previously; however, a comparative study between low dose TR-CEMRA and time-of-flight MRA (TOF-MRA) in the diagnosis of supra-aortic arterial stenosis has not yet been published. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of low-dose TR-CEMRA compared with TOF-MRA, using high-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA (HR-CEMRA) as the reference standard. This prospective study consisted of 30 consecutive patients. All patients underwent TOF-MRA of the neck and circle of Willis and supra-aortic HR-CEMRA, followed by supra-aortic low-dose TR-CEMRA. Gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA, Dotarem(®), Guerbet, Roissy CdG Cedex, France) was injected at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg for HR-CEMRA, followed by a 0.03 mmol/kg bolus for low-dose TR-CEMRA. Three readers evaluated the assessibility and image quality, and then two readers classified each stenosis into the following categories: normal (0-30%), mild stenosis (31-50%), moderate (51-70%), severe (71-99%), and occlusion. TR-CEMRA and HR-CEMRA showed a greater number of assessable arterial segments than TOF-MRA (P < 0.01). For TR-CEMRA, 29 cases showed within or better than the diagnostic range, whereas all 30 cases were in the diagnostic range for TOF-MRA and HR-CEMRA. For evaluation of stenosis in a total of 743 arterial segments, both TR-CEMRA and TOF-MRA results agreed with those of HR-CEMRA in 729 segments (98.1%), with excellent inter-observer agreement of TR-CEMRA; stenosis was overestimated in nine segments (1.2%) and underestimated in five segments (0.7%). For diagnosis of stenosis using 30% as the cut-off value on HR-CEMRA, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.2% and 99.3%, respectively, for the TR-CEMRA procedure, versus 94.1% and 99.6%, respectively, for TOF-MRA. Low-dose TR-CEMRA is feasible and effective in the diagnosis of supra-aortic arterial stenosis, and could be more useful option than TOF-MRA. © The

  19. Comparison of Myocardial Perfusion Estimates From Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Four Quantitative Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pack, Nathan A.; DiBella, Edward V. R.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI has been used to quantify myocardial perfusion in recent years. Published results have varied widely, possibly depending on the method used to analyze the dynamic perfusion data. Here, four quantitative analysis methods (two-compartment modeling, Fermi function modeling, model-independent analysis, and Patlak plot analysis) were implemented and compared for quantifying myocardial perfusion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data were acquired in 20 human subjects at rest with low-dose (0.019 ± 0.005 mmol/kg) bolus injections of gadolinium. Fourteen of these subjects were also imaged at adenosine stress (0.021 ± 0.005 mmol/kg). Aggregate rest perfusion estimates were not significantly different between all four analysis methods. At stress, perfusion estimates were not significantly different between two-compartment modeling, model-independent analysis, and Patlak plot analysis. Stress estimates from the Fermi model were significantly higher (~20%) than the other three methods. Myocardial perfusion reserve values were not significantly different between all four methods. Model-independent analysis resulted in the lowest model curve-fit errors. When more than just the first pass of data was analyzed, perfusion estimates from two-compartment modeling and model-independent analysis did not change significantly, unlike results from Fermi function modeling. PMID:20577976

  20. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the preoperative evaluation of hepatic vascular anatomy in living liver donors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xuetao; Wang, Hong; Ma, Qiaozhi; Wu, Chunnan; Ma, Lin

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) when used in the preoperative evaluation of hepatic vascular anatomy in living liver donors. A computer-assisted literature searching of EMBASE, PubMed (MEDLINE), and the Cochrane library databases was conducted to identify potentially relevant articles which primarily examined the utility of contrast-enhanced MRA in the preoperative evaluation of hepatic vascular anatomy in living liver donors. We used the Q statistic of chi-squared value test and inconsistency index (I-squared, I(2)) to estimate the heterogeneity of the data extracted from all selected studies. Meta-Disc software (version 1.4) (ftp://ftp.hrc.es/pub/programas/metadisc/Metadisc_update.htm) was used to perform our analysis. Eight studies were included in the present meta-analysis. A total of 289 living liver donor candidates and 198 patients who underwent liver harvesting were included in the present study. The pooled sensitivities of hepatic artery (HA), portal vein (PV), and hepatic vein (HV) in this meta-analysis were 0.84, 0.97, and 0.94, respectively. The pooled specificities of HA, PV, and HV were 1.00, 1.00, and 1.00, respectively. The pooled diagnostic odds ratios of HA, PV, and HV were 127.28, 302.80, and 256.59, respectively. The area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curves of HA, PV, and HV were 0.9917, 0.9960, and 0.9813, respectively. The high sensitivity and specificity demonstrated in this meta-analysis suggest that contrast-enhanced MRA was a promising test for the preoperative evaluation of hepatic vascular anatomy in living liver donors. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Røe, Kathrine; Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel; Dahle, Jostein

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study the effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.

  2. A novel approach to contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging for screening: high-resolution ultrafast dynamic imaging.

    PubMed

    Mann, Ritse M; Mus, Roel D; van Zelst, Jan; Geppert, Christian; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-09-01

    The use of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as screening tool has been stalled by high examination costs. Scan protocols have lengthened to optimize specificity. Modern view-sharing sequences now enable ultrafast dynamic whole-breast MRI, allowing much shorter and more cost-effective procedures. This study evaluates whether dynamic information from ultrafast breast MRI can be used to replace standard dynamic information to preserve accuracy. We interleaved 20 ultrafast time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectory (TWIST) acquisitions (0.9 × 1 × 2.5 mm, temporal resolution, 4.3 seconds) during contrast inflow in a regular high-resolution dynamic MRI protocol. A total of 160 consecutive patients with 199 enhancing abnormalities (95 benign and 104 malignant) were included. The maximum slope of the relative enhancement versus time curve (MS) obtained from the TWIST and curve type obtained from the regular dynamic sequence as defined in the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS) lexicon were recorded. Diagnostic performance was compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. All lesions were visible on both the TWIST and standard series. Maximum slope allows discrimination between benign and malignant disease with high accuracy (area under the curve, 0.829). Types of MS were defined in analogy to BIRADS curve types: MS type 3 implies a high risk of malignancy (MS >13.3%/s; specificity, 85%), MS type 2 yields intermediate risk (MS <13.3%/s and >6.4%/s), and MS type 1 implies a low risk (MS <6.4%/s; sensitivity, 90%). This simplification provides a much higher accuracy than the much lengthier BIRADS curve type analysis does (area under the curve, 0.812 vs 0.692; P = 0.0061). Ultrafast dynamic breast MRI allows detection of breast lesions and classification with high accuracy using MS. This allows substantial shortening of scan protocols and hence reduces imaging costs, which is beneficial especially for screening.

  3. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery. PMID:27630037

  4. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery.

  5. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-09-15

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery.

  6. Space time relationship in continuously moving table method for large FOV peripheral contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabati, M.; Lauzon, M. L.; Frayne, R.

    2003-09-01

    Data acquisition using a continuously moving table approach is a method capable of generating large field-of-view (FOV) 3D MR angiograms. However, in order to obtain venous contamination-free contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiograms in the lower limbs, one of the major challenges is to acquire all necessary k-space data during the restricted arterial phase of the contrast agent. Preliminary investigation on the space-time relationship of continuously acquired peripheral angiography is performed in this work. Deterministic and stochastic undersampled hybrid-space (x, ky, kz) acquisitions are simulated for large FOV peripheral runoff studies. Initial results show the possibility of acquiring isotropic large FOV images of the entire peripheral vascular system. An optimal trade-off between the spatial and temporal sampling properties was found that produced a high-spatial resolution peripheral CE-MR angiogram. The deterministic sampling pattern was capable of reconstructing the global structure of the peripheral arterial tree and showed slightly better global quantitative results than stochastic patterns. Optimal stochastic sampling patterns, on the other hand, enhanced small vessels and had more favourable local quantitative results. These simulations demonstrate the complex spatial-temporal relationship when sampling large FOV peripheral runoff studies. They also suggest that more investigation is required to maximize image quality as a function of hybrid-space coverage, acquisition repetition time and sampling pattern parameters.

  7. Space-time relationship in continuously moving table method for large FOV peripheral contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Sabati, M; Lauzon, M L; Frayne, R

    2003-09-07

    Data acquisition using a continuously moving table approach is a method capable of generating large field-of-view (FOV) 3D MR angiograms. However, in order to obtain venous contamination-free contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiograms in the lower limbs, one of the major challenges is to acquire all necessary k-space data during the restricted arterial phase of the contrast agent. Preliminary investigation on the space-time relationship of continuously acquired peripheral angiography is performed in this work. Deterministic and stochastic undersampled hybrid-space (x, k(y), k(z)) acquisitions are simulated for large FOV peripheral runoff studies. Initial results show the possibility of acquiring isotropic large FOV images of the entire peripheral vascular system. An optimal trade-off between the spatial and temporal sampling properties was found that produced a high-spatial resolution peripheral CE-MR angiogram. The deterministic sampling pattern was capable of reconstructing the global structure of the peripheral arterial tree and showed slightly better global quantitative results than stochastic patterns. Optimal stochastic sampling patterns, on the other hand, enhanced small vessels and had more favourable local quantitative results. These simulations demonstrate the complex spatial-temporal relationship when sampling large FOV peripheral runoff studies. They also suggest that more investigation is required to maximize image quality as a function of hybrid-space coverage, acquisition repetition time and sampling pattern parameters.

  8. Characterization of breast lesions using the 3D FIESTA sequence and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Klifa, Catherine S; Shimakawa, Ann; Siraj, Zaker; Gibbs, Jessica E; Wilmes, Lisa J; Partridge, Savannah C; Proctor, Evelyn; Hylton, Nola M

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether combining 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced (CE) sequences could help characterize lesions in 32 women with benign, in situ, or invasive breast lesions. Since FIESTA provides both T1 and T2 information on the same three-dimensional (3D) matrix as high-resolution T1-weighted dynamic data, we aimed to verify whether invasive lesions could be separated from in situ and/or benign lesions using quantitative FIESTA measures of tissue intensity and homogeneity. With the use of CE-MRI data, regions of interest (ROIs) were manually delineated in enhancing lesions and on surrounding normal tissue. These ROIs were then applied to 3D FIESTA data. Quantitative measures between lesion and normal tissue were compared among the lesion groups. On FIESTA most invasive cancer lesions were hypointense compared to surrounding normal tissue (mean lesion intensity was 89% of normal tissue intensity), whereas most ductal and benign lesions appeared hyperintense compared to surrounding normal tissue (lesions at 100.9% and 121.9% of normal tissue intensity, respectively). Measures obtained from resampled T2-weighted data showed no significant differences between the invasive and benign lesion groups. We detected significant differences between invasive and noninvasive lesions by quantifying intensity differences between the lesions and surrounding normal tissue on FIESTA.

  9. Efficient method for calculating kinetic parameters using T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kenya

    2004-04-01

    It has become increasingly important to quantitatively estimate tissue physiological parameters such as perfusion, capillary permeability, and the volume of extravascular-extracellular space (EES) using T(1)-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). A linear equation was derived by integrating the differential equation describing the kinetic behavior of contrast agent (CA) in tissue, from which K(1) (rate constant for the transfer of CA from plasma to EES), k(2) (rate constant for the transfer from EES to plasma), and V(p) (plasma volume) can be easily obtained by the linear least-squares (LLSQ) method. The usefulness of this method was investigated by means of computer simulations, in comparison with the nonlinear least-squares (NLSQ) method. The new method calculated the above parameters faster than the NLSQ method by a factor of approximately 6, and estimated them more accurately than the NLSQ method at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of < approximately 10. This method will be useful for generating functional images of K(1), k(2), and V(p) from DCE-MRI data.

  10. Improving contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX for high-grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoneda, Tetsuya; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Shimajiri, Shohei; Tanaka, Tohru; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent is the gold standard for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The compound 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) undergoes a high rate of cellular uptake, particularly in cancer cells. In addition, fluorescence-guided resection with 5-ALA is widely used for imaging HGGs. 5-ALA is water soluble, while protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is water insoluble. It was speculated whether converting from 5-ALA to PpIX may relatively increase intracellular water content, and consequently, might enhance the T2 signal intensity in HGG. The aim of the present study was to assess whether 5-ALA-induced PpIX enhances the T2 signal intensity in patients with HGGs. A total of 4 patients who were candidates for HGG surgical treatment were prospectively analyzed with preoperative MRI. Patients received oral doses of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg) 3 h prior to anesthesia. At 2.5 h post-5-ALA administration, T2-weighted images (T2WIs) were obtained from all patients. Subsequently, tumors were evaluated via fluorescence using a modified operating microscope. Fluorescent tumor tissues were obtained to analyze the accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX within the tumors, which was confirmed quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The MRI T2 signal intensity within the tumors was evaluated prior to and following 5-ALA administration. Three glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were included in the analysis. Intraoperatively, all GBMs exhibited strong fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced PpIX, whilst no fluorescence was observed in the AO sample. HPLC analysis indicated a higher accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX in the GBM samples compared with the AO sample. In total, 48 regions of interest were identified within the tumors from T2-WIs. In the GBM group, the relative T2 signal intensity value within the tumors following 5-ALA administration was significantly increased compared with the T2 signal

  11. Prediction of methylguanine methyltransferase promoter methylation in glioblastoma using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Shin, Na-Young; Chang, Jong Hee; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Eui Hyun; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seung-Koo

    2014-08-01

    The methylation status of the methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter has been associated with treatment response in glioblastoma. The authors aimed to assess whether MGMT methylation status can be predicted by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This retrospective study included 43 patients with pathologically diagnosed glioblastoma who had undergone preoperative DCE-MRI and DTI and whose MGMT methylation status was available. The imaging features were qualitatively assessed using conventional MR images. Regions of interest analyses for DCE-MRI permeability parameters (transfer constant [Ktrans], rate transfer coefficient [Kep], and volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space [Ve]) and DTI parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] and fractional anisotropy [FA]) were performed on the enhancing solid portion of the glioblastoma. Chi-square or Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate relationships between MGMT methylation and imaging parameters. The authors performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to find the optimal cutoff value for the presence of MGMT methylation. MGMT methylation was not significantly associated with any imaging features on conventional MR images. Ktrans values were significantly higher in the MGMT methylated group (median 0.091 vs 0.053 min(-1), p = 0.018). However, Kep, Ve, ADC, and FA were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The optimal cutoff value for the presence of MGMT methylation was Ktrans > 0.086 min(-1) with an area under the curve of 0.756, a sensitivity of 56.3%, and a specificity of 85.2%. Ktrans may serve as a potential imaging biomarker to predict MGMT methylation status preoperatively in glioblastoma; however, further investigation with a larger cohort is necessary.

  12. Analysis of breast lesions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images using high-dimensional texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Schlossbauer, Thomas; Leinsinger, Gerda; Wismueller, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Haralick texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were used to classify the character of suspicious breast lesions as benign or malignant on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI studies. Lesions were identified and annotated by an experienced radiologist on 54 MRI exams of female patients where histopathological reports were available prior to this investigation. GLCMs were then extracted from these 2D regions of interest (ROI) for four principal directions (0°, 45°, 90° & 135°) and used to compute Haralick texture features. A fuzzy k-nearest neighbor (k- NN) classifier was optimized in ten-fold cross-validation for each texture feature and the classification performance was calculated on an independent test set as a function of area under the ROC curve. The lesion ROIs were characterized by texture feature vectors containing the Haralick feature values computed from each directional-GLCM; and the classifier results obtained were compared to a previously used approach where the directional-GLCMs were summed to a nondirectional GLCM which could further yield a set of texture feature values. The impact of varying the inter-pixel distance while generating the GLCMs on the classifier's performance was also investigated. Classifier's AUC was found to significantly increase when the high-dimensional texture feature vector approach was pursued, and when features derived from GLCMs generated using different inter-pixel distances were incorporated into the classification task. These results indicate that lesion character classification accuracy could be improved by retaining the texture features derived from the different directional GLCMs rather than combining these to yield a set of scalar feature values instead.

  13. Arterial input functions in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: which model performs best when assessing breast cancer response?

    PubMed

    Woolf, David K; Taylor, N Jane; Makris, Andreas; Tunariu, Nina; Collins, David J; Li, Sonia P; Ah-See, Mei-Lin; Beresford, Mark; Padhani, Anwar R

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the performance of six models of population arterial input function (AIF) in the setting of primary breast cancer and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The ability to fit patient dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, provide physiological plausible data and detect pathological response was assessed. Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters were calculated for 27 patients at baseline and after 2 cycles of NAC for 6 AIFs. Pathological complete response detection was compared with change in these parameters from a reproduction cohort of 12 patients using the Bland-Altman approach and receiver-operating characteristic analysis. There were fewer fit failures pre-NAC for all models, with the modified Fritz-Hansen having the fewest pre-NAC (3.6%) and post-NAC (18.8%), contrasting with the femoral artery AIF (19.4% and 43.3%, respectively). Median transfer constant values were greatest for the Weinmann function and also showed greatest reductions with treatment (-68%). Reproducibility (r) was the lowest for the Weinmann function (r = -49.7%), with other AIFs ranging from r = -27.8 to -39.2%. Using the best performing AIF is essential to maximize the utility of quantitative DCE-MRI parameters in predicting response to NAC treatment. Applying our criteria, the modified Fritz-Hansen and cosine bolus approximated Parker AIF models performed best. The Fritz-Hansen and biexponential approximated Parker AIFs performed less well, and the Weinmann and femoral artery AIFs are not recommended. We demonstrate that using the most appropriate AIF can aid successful prediction of response to NAC in breast cancer.

  14. The quantification of blood-brain barrier disruption using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in aging rhesus monkeys with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziqian; Zeng, Wen; Sun, Jiayu; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Ruzhi; Yang, Zunyuan; Yao, Zunwei; Wang, Lei; Song, Li; Chen, Yushu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chunhua; Gong, Li; Wu, Bing; Wang, Tinghua; Zheng, Jie; Gao, Fabao

    2016-07-08

    Microvascular lesions of the body are one of the most serious complications that can affect patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeable barrier around the microvessels of the brain. This study investigated BBB disruption in diabetic rhesus monkeys using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Multi-slice DCE-MRI was used to quantify BBB permeability. Five diabetic monkeys and six control monkeys underwent magnetic resonance brain imaging in 3 Tesla MRI system. Regions of the frontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the basal ganglia, the thalamus, and the hippocampus in the two groups were selected as regions of interest to calculate the value of the transport coefficient K(trans) using the extended Tofts model. Permeability in the diabetic monkeys was significantly increased as compared with permeability in the normal control monkeys. Histopathologically, zonula occludens protein-1 decreased, immunoglobulin G leaked out of the blood, and nuclear factor E2-related factor translocated from the cytoplasm to the nuclei. It is likely that diabetes contributed to the increased BBB permeability.

  15. Informatics in Radiology (infoRAD): Magnetic Resonance Imaging Workbench: analysis and visualization of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging data.

    PubMed

    d'Arcy, James A; Collins, David J; Padhani, Anwar R; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Suckling, John; Leach, Martin O

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging Workbench (MRIW) allows analysis of T1- and T2*-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data sets to extract tissue permeability and perfusion characteristics by using standard pharmacokinetic models. Parametric maps are calculated from individual pixel enhancement curves in regions of interest (ROIs) and displayed as color overlays on the anatomic images. User-defined ROIs can be saved to ensure consistency of later reanalysis. Individual parametric maps are visualized together with user-selected parameter time-series plots. The following selections are available: overall ROI enhancement curve and fit, histogram, and individual pixel enhancement curve and fit. Summary data (transfer constant, leakage space, rate constant, integrated area under the gadolinium curve after 60 seconds, relative blood volume, relative blood flow, and mean transit time) may be exported to permanent storage along with per-pixel results for statistical analysis. Numerical values for parameters are displayed below the plot for easy reference. The dynamic range of plots and parametric map overlays is interactively adjustable. Viewing individual enhancement curves and parametric maps allows radiologists to investigate the heterogeneity of contrast agent kinetics for lesion characterization and to scrutinize serial changes in response to therapy. MRIW is written in IDL, enabling it to be used on a variety of computer systems.

  16. [Study of optimal flip angle for inversion-recovery gradient echo method in delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masashi; Matsumura, Yoshio; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2013-04-01

    Delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable tool for detecting myocardial infarction and assessing myocardial viability. The standard viability MRI technique is the inversion-recovery gradient echo (IR-GRE) method. Several previous studies have demonstrated that this imaging technique provides superior image quality at high magnetic field strengths, e.g., 3.0 T. However, there are numerous possible flip angles. We investigated the optimal flip angle of IR-GRE in delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI. Phantoms were made that modeled infarcted myocardium and normal myocardium after administration of contrast agent. To determine optimal flip angle, we compared the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) among these phantoms and evaluated the degree of artifacts induced by increased flip angle. The flip angle that showed the highest CNR for 2D IR-GRE and 3D IR-GRE was 30°/15° at 1.5 T and 25°/15° at 3.0 T. The flip angle that showed the highest CNR was independent of R-R interval. Streak artifacts induced by increased flip angle tended to occur more readily at 3.0 T than 1.5 T. The optimal flip angle for 2D IR-GRE and 3D IR-GRE at 1.5 T was 30° and 15°, respectively. At 3.0 T, taking into account the results for both CNR and streak artifacts, we concluded the optimal flip angle of 2D IR-GRE to be 15-20°.

  17. 3-Aminopropylsilane-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of liver lesions induced by Opisthorchis felineus

    PubMed Central

    Demin, Alexander M; Pershina, Alexandra G; Ivanov, Vladimir V; Nevskaya, Kseniya V; Shevelev, Oleg B; Minin, Artyom S; Byzov, Iliya V; Sazonov, Alexey E; Krasnov, Victor P; Ogorodova, Ludmila M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Liver fluke causes severe liver damage in an infected human. However, the infection often remains neglected due to the lack of pathognomonic signs. Nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a promising technique for detecting liver lesions induced by parasites. Materials and methods Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles produced by coprecipitation from a solution of Fe3+ and Fe2+ salts using 3-aminopropylsilane (APS) was carried out. The APS-modified nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Magnetic resonance properties of MNPs were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results The amount of APS grafted on the surface of nanoparticles (0.60±0.06 mmol g−1) was calculated based on elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy data. According to transmission electron microscopy data, there were no essential changes in the structure of nanoparticles during the modification. The APS-modified nanoparticles exhibit high magnetic properties; the calculated relaxivity r2 was 271 mmol−1 s−1. To obtain suspension with optimal hydrodynamic characteristics, amino groups on the surface of nanoparticles were converted into an ionic form with HCl. Cellular uptake of modified nanoparticles by rat hepatoma cells and human monocytes in vitro was 74.1±4.5 and 10.0±3.7 pg [Fe] per cell, respectively. Low cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was confirmed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and Annexin V/7-aminoactinomycin D flow cytometry assays. For the first time, magnetic nanoparticles were applied for contrast-enhanced MRI of liver lesions induced by Opisthorchis felineus. Conclusion The synthesized APS-modified iron oxide nanoparticles showed high efficiency as an MRI contrast agent for the evaluation of opisthorchiasis-related liver damage. PMID:27660439

  18. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging identifies focal regions of intramyocardial fibrosis in patients with severe aortic valve disease: Correlation with quantitative histopathology.

    PubMed

    Nigri, Marcelo; Azevedo, Clerio F; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Schraibman, Vladimir; Tarasoutchi, Flavio; Pommerantzeff, Pablo M; Brandão, Carlos Manuel; Sampaio, Roney O; Parga, José R; Avila, Luiz F; Spina, Guilherme S; Grinberg, Max

    2009-02-01

    Chronic aortic valve disease (AVD) is characterized by progressive accumulation of interstitial myocardial fibrosis (MF). However, assessment of MF accumulation has only been possible through histologic analyses of endomyocardial biopsies. We sought to evaluate contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ce-MRI) as a noninvasive method to identify the presence of increased MF in patients with severe AVD. Seventy patients scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement surgery were examined by cine and ce-MRI in a 1.5-T scanner. Cine images were used for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and function. Delayed-enhancement images were used to characterize the regions of MF. In addition, histologic analyses of myocardial samples obtained during aortic valve replacement surgery were used for direct quantification of interstitial MF. Ten additional subjects who died of noncardiac causes served as controls for the quantitative histologic analyses. Interstitial MF determined by histopathologic analysis was higher in patients with AVD than in controls (2.7% +/- 2.0% vs 0.6% +/- 0.2%, P = .001). When compared with histopathologic results, ce-MRI demonstrated a sensitivity of 74%, a specificity of 81%, and an accuracy of 76% to identify AVD patients with increased interstitial MF. There was a significant inverse correlation between interstitial MF and LV ejection fraction (r = -0.67, P < .0001). Accordingly, patients with identifiable focal regions of MF by ce-MRI exhibited worse LV systolic function than those without MF (45% +/- 14% vs 65% +/- 14%, P < .0001). Contrast-enhanced MRI allows for the noninvasive detection of focal regions of MF in patients with severe AVD. Moreover, patients with identifiable MF by ce-MRI exhibited worse LV functional parameters.

  19. Preoperative planning of renal transplantation: a comparison of non-contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance angiography with observations from surgery.

    PubMed

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte; Pedersen, Bodil G; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Andersen, Gratien; Hørlyck, Arne; Østrat, Ernst Ø; Laustsen, Sussie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    Many candidates for kidney transplantation need to undergo vessel examination before the transplantation procedure. To identify the optimal preoperative modality for the examination of vessel status without the use of contrast agents in kidney transplant candidates. Fifty-three consecutive patients were examined and 31 patients were transplanted. Ultrasonography (US), non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT), and non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCMRA) were compared using inspection during kidney transplantation (TX) as a reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity to severe arteriosclerotic changes and the accuracy were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between TX and the different examination modalities, and McNemar's test was used to test for significant differences. US had higher sensitivity (1.0) and better agreement with observations from surgery (k = 0.89) than both NCCT (sensitivity = 0.60; k = 0.72) and NCMRA (sensitivity = 0.20; k = 0.30). No significant difference was found between TX and US (P = 0.3173) or TX and NCCT (P = 0.1573), but there was a significant difference between TX and NCMRA (P = 0.0455). US was inconclusive in 20% of cases, and the internal iliac artery could not be visualized in 69% of cases. Either US or NCCT can be used as the preferred preoperative imaging modality to examine vessel status before kidney transplantation, but a combination of the two is preferable. NCMRA should not be used as the sole imaging modality for preoperative imaging before kidney transplantation because of its low sensitivity in detecting severe arteriosclerotic disease without the presence of stenosis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  20. Optimal gadolinium dose level for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of U87-derived tumors in athymic nude rats for the assessment of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Nathan; Varghai, Davood; Flask, Chris A.; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2009-02-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of varying gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) dose on Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) tracking of brain tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells (derived from human malignant glioma) into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 9, 12, and 13 days DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 9.4 T micro-MRI scanner before and after administration of 100, 150, or 200 μL of Gd-DTPA. Results: Tumor region normalized DCE-MRI scan enhancement at peak was: 1.217 over baseline (0.018 Standard Error [SE]) at the 100 μL dose, 1.339 (0.013 SE) at the 150 μL dose, and 1.287 (0.014 SE) at the 200 μL dose. DCE-MRI peak tumor enhancement at the 150 μL dose was significantly greater than both the 100 μL dose (p < 3.323E-08) and 200 μL dose (p < 0.0007396). Discussion: In this preliminary study, the 150 μL Gd-DTPA dose provided the greatest T1 weighted contrast enhancement, while minimizing negative T2* effects, in DCE-MRI scans of U87-derived tumors. Maximizing Gd-DTPA enhancement in DCE-MRI scans may assist development of a clinically robust (i.e., unambiguous) technique for PDT outcome assessment.

  1. Potential for Differentiation of Pseudoprogression From True Tumor Progression With Dynamic Susceptibility-Weighted Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Ferumoxytol vs. Gadoteridol: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gahramanov, Seymur; Raslan, Ahmed M.; Muldoon, Leslie L.; Hamilton, Bronwyn E.; Rooney, William D.; Varallyay, Csanad G.; Njus, Jeffrey M.; Haluska, Marianne; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: We evaluated dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) using gadoteridol in comparison to the iron oxide nanoparticle blood pool agent, ferumoxytol, in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who received standard radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with GBM received standard RCT and underwent 19 MRI sessions that included DSC-MRI acquisitions with gadoteridol on Day 1 and ferumoxytol on Day 2. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values were calculated from DSC data obtained from each contrast agent. T1-weighted acquisition post-gadoteridol administration was used to identify enhancing regions. Results: In seven MRI sessions of clinically presumptive active tumor, gadoteridol-DSC showed low rCBV in three and high rCBV in four, whereas ferumoxytol-DSC showed high rCBV in all seven sessions (p = 0.002). After RCT, seven MRI sessions showed increased gadoteridol contrast enhancement on T1-weighted scans coupled with low rCBV without significant differences between contrast agents (p = 0.9). Based on post-gadoteridol T1-weighted scans, DSC-MRI, and clinical presentation, four patterns of response to RCT were observed: regression, pseudoprogression, true progression, and mixed response. Conclusion: We conclude that DSC-MRI with a blood pool agent such as ferumoxytol may provide a better monitor of tumor rCBV than DSC-MRI with gadoteridol. Lesions demonstrating increased enhancement on T1-weighted MRI coupled with low ferumoxytol rCBV are likely exhibiting pseudoprogression, whereas high rCBV with ferumoxytol is a better marker than gadoteridol for determining active tumor. These interesting pilot observations suggest that ferumoxytol may differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression and warrant further investigation.

  2. Semiautomatic determination of arterial input functions for quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chung, Julius; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yoo Na; Yi, Chin A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a semiautomatic detection method for the arterial input functions (AIFs) using Kendall coefficient of concordance (KCC) for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in non-small cell lung cancer patients. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients (17 men, 11 women; mean age, 62 years) who had biopsy-proven non-small cell lung cancer. All enrolled patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the entire thorax. For the quantitative measurement of pharmacokinetic parameters, K and ve, of the lung cancers, AIFs were determined in 2 different ways: a manual method that involved 3 independent thoracic radiologists selecting a region of interest (ROI) within the aortic arch in the 2D coronal plane and a semiautomatic method that used in-house software to establish a KCC score, which provided a measure of similarity to typical AIF pattern. Three independent readers selected voxel clusters with high KCC scores calculated 3-dimensionally across planes in the data set. K and ve were correlated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine agreement across methods and reproducibility within a method. Arterial input functions were determined using the data from ROI volumes that were significantly larger in the semiautomatic method (mean ± SD, 3360 ± 768 mm) than in the manual method (677 ± 380 mm) (P < 0.001). K showed very strong agreement (ICC, 0.927) and ve showed moderately strong agreement (ICC, 0.718) between the semiautomatic and manual methods. The reproducibility for K (ICCmanual, 0.813 and ICCsemiautomatic, 0.998; P < 0.001) and ve (ICCmanual, 0.455 and ICCsemiautomatic, 0.985, P < 0.001) was significantly better with the semiautomatic method than the manual method. We found semiautomated detection using KCC to be a robust method for determining the AIF. This method allows for larger ROIs specified in 3D across planes

  3. Intra-individual comparison of different gadolinium-based contrast agents in the quantitative evaluation of C6 glioma with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Gang; Lou, Xin; Chen, Zhiye; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to compare the ionic (Gadodiamide, Gd-DTPA-BMA) and non-ionic (Gadopentetate dimeglumine, Gd-DTPA) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) in the quantitative evaluation of C6 glioma with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). A C6 glioma model was established in 12 Wistar rats, and magnetic resonance (MR) scans were performed six days after tumor implantation. Imaging was performed using a 3.0-T MR scanner with a 7-inch handmade circular coil. Pre-contrast T1 mapping and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1WI after a bolus injection (0.2 mL s(-1)) of GBCA at 0.4 mmol kg(-1) were performed. Each rat received two DCE-MRI scans, 24 h apart. The first and second scans were performed using Gd-DTPA-BMA and Gd-DTPA, respectively. Image data were processed using the Patlak model. Both K (trans) and V p maps were generated. Tumors were manually segmented on all 3D K (trans) and V p maps. Pixel counts and mean values were recorded for use in a paired t-test. Three radiologists independently performed the tumor segmentation and value calculation. The agreements from different observers were subjective to the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Readers demonstrated that the pixel counts of tumors in K (trans) maps were higher with Gd-DTPA-BMA than with Gd-DTPA (P<0.001, all readers). Although the K (trans) values were higher with Gd-DTPA-BMA than with Gd-DTPA, there was no statistical significance (P>0.05, all readers). The pixel counts of tumors in V p maps, as well as V p values, showed no obvious difference between the two agents (P>0.05, all readers). Excellent interobserver measurement reproducibility and reliability were demonstrated in the ICC tests. The Gd-DTPA-BMA contrast agent had significantly higher pixel counts of glioma in the K (trans) maps, and an increased tendency for average K (trans) values, indicating that DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA-BMA may be more suitable and sensitive for the evaluation of glioma.

  4. Multiphase Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Granulomatous Prostatitis in Five Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Noda, Yoshifumi; Tanahashi, Yukichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the multiphase contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis (GP). Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance images obtained from five patients with histopathologically proven BCG-induced GP were retrospectively analyzed for tumor location, size, signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and appearance on gadolinium-enhanced multiphase images. MR imaging findings were compared with histopathological findings. Results Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced GP (size range, 9-40 mm; mean, 21.2 mm) were identified in the peripheral zone in all patients. The T2WI showed lower signal intensity compared with the normal peripheral zone. The DWIs demonstrated high signal intensity and low ADC values (range, 0.44-0.68 × 10-3 mm2/sec; mean, 0.56 × 10-3 mm2/sec), which corresponded to GP. Gadolinium-enhanced multiphase MR imaging performed in five patients showed early and prolonged ring enhancement in all cases of GP. Granulomatous tissues with central caseation necrosis were identified histologically, which corresponded to ring enhancement and a central low intensity area on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. The findings on T2WI, DWI, and gadolinium-enhanced images became gradually obscured with time. Conclusion Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-induced GP demonstrates early and prolonged ring enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging which might be a key finding to differentiate it from prostate cancer. PMID:25741196

  5. Accuracy of combined dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging for breast cancer detection: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tang, Min; Min, Zhiqian; Lu, Jun; Lei, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to examine patients with suspected breast cancer. To determine the diagnostic performance of combined dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for breast cancer detection. A comprehensive search of the PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to September 2014. Statistical analysis included pooling of sensitivity and specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and diagnostic accuracy using the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC). All analyses were conducted using STATA (version 12.0), RevMan (version 5.2), and Meta-Disc 1.4 software programs. Fourteen studies were analyzed, which included a total of 1140 patients with 1276 breast lesions. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of combined DCE-MRI and DWI were 91.6% and 85.5%, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of DWI-MRI were 86.0% and 75.6%, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of DCE-MRI were 93.2% and 71.1%. The area under the SROC curve (AUC-SROC) of combined DCE-MRI and DWI was 0.94, the DCE-MRI of 0.85. Deeks testing confirmed no significant publication bias in all studies. Combined DCE-MRI and DWI had superior diagnostic accuracy than either DCE-MRI or DWI alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  6. Comparative Investigation of Single Voxel Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Dynamic Contrast Enhancement MR Imaging in Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions in a Sample of Iranian Women.

    PubMed

    Faeghi, Fariborz; Baniasadipour, Banafsheh; Jalalshokouhi, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparison of single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SV-MRS) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI for differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions in a sample of Iranian women. A total of 30 women with abnormal breast lesions detected in mammography, ultrasound, or clinical breast exam were examined with DCE and SV-MRS. tCho (total choline) resonance in MRS spectra was qualitatively evaluated and detection of a visible tCho peak at 3.2 ppm was defined as a positive finding for malignancy. Different types of DCE curves were persistent (type 1), plateau (type 2), and washout (type 3). At first, lesions were classified according to choline findings and types of DCE curve, finally being compared to pathological results as the standard reference. this study included 19 patients with malignant lesions and 11 patients with benign ones. While 63.6 % of benign lesions (7 of 11) showed type 1 DCE curves and 36.4% (4 of 11) showed type 2, 57.9% (11of 19) of malignant lesions were type 3 and 42.1% (8 of 19) type 2. Choline peaks were detected in 18 of 19 malignant lesions and in 3 of 11 benign counterparts. 1 malignant and 8 benign cases did not show any visible resonance at 3.2 ppm so SV-MRS featured 94.7% sensitivity, 72.7 % specificity and 86.7% accuracy. The present findings indicate that a combined approach using MRS and DCE MRI can improve the specificity of MRI for differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions.

  7. [Optic nerve swelling and gadolinium contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging in the subacute stage of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Furuki, Misako; Ohkubo, Takuya; Ota, Kiyobumi; Ishikawa, Kinya; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old man with subacute onset of bilateral visual field loss and visual acuity loss. His visual acuity was 0.07 OD/0.09 OS and Goldmann perimetry showed central scotomas. The optic fundi were normal bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintensity in the right optic nerve on T(2) weighted imaging and swelling of the optic chiasm with slight enhancement of the bilateral optic nerves and the optic chiasm on gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Since sensory disturbance in the left hand and leg was noted in addition to the visual problem, multiple sclerosis (MS) was suspected initially. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day), plasma exchange therapy, and immunosuppressant therapy. However, his visual disturbance did not improve. He had a history of deafness and family history of visual disturbance, because of which we performed an analysis of mitochondrial DNA. G11778A point mutation was found, and a diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was made. Although gadolinium contrast enhancement and swelling of the optic nerve are rare, this case shows that these findings are not in conflict with LHON. The present case also suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may trigger the onset of MS-like extraocular symptoms in patients with LHON.

  8. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  9. Dual-single photon emission computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate dissimilar features of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Satoshi; Kawata, Hiroyuki; Sung, Ji Hee; Okada, Sadanori; Nishida, Taku; Onoue, Kenji; Soeda, Tsunenari; Uemura, Shiro; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an uncommon variant of HCM characterized by hypertrophy located in the left ventricular apex that occurs at a rate of about 30% in the Japanese population. Although the prognosis of most patients with apical HCM is relatively benign, it can be poor if apical left ventricular aneurysms develop. However, the mechanism of aneurysmal formation is unclear. We describe two patients with apical HCM and dissimilar findings in 201Thallous chloride ((201)TlCl) and (123)I-betamethyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) dual single-photon emission computed tomography (dual-SPECT), but no myocardial fibrosis on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (MRI). One had apparently normal myocardial perfusion and metabolism, whereas the other had exercise-induced myocardial ischemia and impaired myocardial metabolism. These findings indicated that even apical HCM without myocardial fibrosis is pathophysiologically heterogeneous. Apical HCM has been evaluated by either dual-SPECT or cardiac MRI, but not by both. Thus, a combination of imaging modalities is apparently essential for elucidating the pathophysiology of apical HCM. These dissimilar findings in dual-SPECT might be important in identifying patients with apical HCM who are at high risk of forming aneurysms.

  10. Lung ventilation- and perfusion-weighted Fourier decomposition magnetic resonance imaging: in vivo validation with hyperpolarized 3He and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Grzegorz; Scholz, Alexander; Rivoire, Julien; Terekhov, Maxim; Friedrich, Janet; de Oliveira, Andre; Semmler, Wolfhard; Schreiber, Laura Maria; Puderbach, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to validate ventilation-weighted (VW) and perfusion-weighted (QW) Fourier decomposition (FD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with hyperpolarized (3)He MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion (DCE) MRI in a controlled animal experiment. Three healthy pigs were studied on 1.5-T MR scanner. For FD MRI, the VW and QW images were obtained by postprocessing of time-resolved lung image sets. DCE acquisitions were performed immediately after contrast agent injection. (3)He MRI data were acquired following the administration of hyperpolarized helium and nitrogen mixture. After baseline MR scans, pulmonary embolism was artificially produced. FD MRI and DCE MRI perfusion measurements were repeated. Subsequently, atelectasis and air trapping were induced, which followed with FD MRI and (3)He MRI ventilation measurements. Distributions of signal intensities in healthy and pathologic lung tissue were compared by statistical analysis. Images acquired using FD, (3)He, and DCE MRI in all animals before the interventional procedure showed homogeneous ventilation and perfusion. Functional defects were detected by all MRI techniques at identical anatomical locations. Signal intensity in VW and QW images was significantly lower in pathological than in healthy lung parenchyma. The study has shown usefulness of FD MRI as an alternative, noninvasive, and easily implementable technique for the assessment of acute changes in lung function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Enhancing patterns of breast cancer on preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and resection margin in breast conserving therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Suk Jung; Lee, Jung Sun

    2016-02-17

    The association between enhancing patterns of preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and resection margins after BCS has not been studied in detail before. We investigated the association between surgical outcomes and enhancing patterns observed on DCE-MRI. 269 enhancing patterns on DCE-MRI scans were selected, and subdivided into the following groups: (1) a single mass-like enhancement, (2) a single non-mass-like enhancement (NME), (3) mass-like enhancing breast cancer with other mass-like enhancing lesions, and (4) mass-like enhancing breast cancer with additional NMEs. Associations between enhancing patterns on DCE-MRI and re-excision rate, size of specimen, and ratio of tumor/specimen were evaluated retrospectively. The conversion rate from breast conserving therapy (BCT) to mastectomy as a result of MRI findings was 13.4%, re-excision rate during BCT was 8.2% and excision rate of another suspicious lesion was 7.4%. The single NME group had the highest re-excision rate after BCT (22.2%) (p = 0.02). The ratio of tumor/specimen (p = 0.61) and mean specimen size (p = 0.38) were not influenced by enhancement patterns. The false positive rate and positive predictive values of using DCE-MRI for defining the extension of breast cancer was 22.2% and 71.4%, respectively. Enhancement patterns on DCE- MRI, especially NME, could increase re-excision rates.

  12. First-pass contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in humans using ferumoxytol, a novel ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-based blood pool agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Tutton, Sean; Vu, Anthony T; Pierchala, Linda; Li, Belinda S Y; Lewis, Jerome M; Prasad, Pottumarthi V; Edelman, Robert R

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of first-pass contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using ferumoxytol in humans. First-pass and equilibrium phase MRA were performed using ferumoxytol in one healthy volunteer and 11 patients with a fast three-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR) pulse sequence. The examined vessels included carotid arteries, thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and peripheral arteries. A dose of either 71.6 micromol Fe/kg (n = 9), or 35.8 micromol Fe/kg (n = 3) was used. Based on a phantom study, the agent with initial concentration of 537.2 micromol Fe/mL was diluted by either four-fold (134.3 micromol Fe/mL) or eight-fold (67.1 micromol Fe/mL) for first-pass MRA. All subjects completed their studies without adverse events. First-pass MRA showed selective arterial enhancement, with both arterial and venous enhancement on delayed acquisitions. Selective venous enhancement could be obtained by subtraction of arterial phase images from equilibrium phase images. The findings in ferumoxytol MRA were consistent with the results of original vascular tests. Our preliminary experience supports the feasibility of first-pass MRA with ferumoxytol. Satisfactory arterial enhancement during first-pass imaging is obtained with injection of diluted contrast agent. With ferumoxytol, arteries and veins can be selectively depicted in a single exam.

  13. A review of technical aspects of T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bergamino, M; Bonzano, L; Levrero, F; Mancardi, G L; Roccatagliata, L

    2014-09-01

    In the last few years, several imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, have been used to investigate the degree of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in patients with neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke, and brain tumors. One promising MRI method for assessing the BBB permeability of patients with neurological diseases in vivo is T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Here we review the technical issues involved in DCE-MRI in the study of human brain tumors. In the first part of this paper, theoretical models for the DCE-MRI analysis will be described, including the Toft-Kety models, the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model and the two-compartment exchange model. These models can be used to estimate important kinetic parameters related to BBB permeability. In the second part of this paper, details of the data acquisition, issues related to the arterial input function, and procedures for DCE-MRI image analysis are illustrated. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel hook-shaped enhancement on contrast-enhanced sagittal magnetic resonance image in acute Sheehan's syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujisawa, Ichiro; Ishihara, Takashi; Tahara, Yumiko; Kazuma, Mariko; Fujiwara, Yuta; Iwakura, Toshio; Hino, Megumu; Matsuoka, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    We report characteristic magnetic resonance (MR) image findings in a case of Sheehan's syndrome. A 37-year-old woman experienced complications of retained placenta and massive bleeding (3600 g) during delivery of a full-term baby. A pituitary function test demonstrated panhypopituitarism. MR image of the pituitary gland on postpartum day 10 revealed swelling of the anterior lobe. A hook-shaped enhancement was demonstrated on a sagittal image. The pituitary stalk, majority of the marginal zone of the anterior lobe, the anterior lobe just in front of the posterior lobe, and posterior lobe were well enhanced. In contrast, the central portion and the superior margin, just in front of the stalk insertion of the anterior lobe, were not enhanced. Anatomically, blood supply to these unenhanced portions of the anterior lobe was via the hypophyseal long portal vein and trabecular artery, which are tributaries of the superior hypophyseal artery that originate far from the internal carotid artery. Based on clinical history and MR image findings, the patient was diagnosed with Sheehan's syndrome and treated with hydrocortisone and levothyroxine. Follow-up MR image revealed marked atrophy of the anterior lobe. The characteristic hook-shaped enhancement in Sheehan's syndrome well reflected the vulnerability to massive bleeding based on the complex pituitary vasculature, which has not been reported previously. MR image with contrast enhancement is useful in the diagnosis of the acute phase of Sheehan's syndrome and in evaluating infarction of the anterior lobe.

  15. Dixon-type and subtraction-type contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: A theoretical and experimental comparison of SNR and CNR.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Eric G; Trzasko, Joshua D; Weavers, Paul T; Riederer, Stephen J

    2014-07-17

    The purpose of this work is to compare the behavior of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in contrast-enhanced MR angiography with background suppression performed by either a Dixon-type or subtraction-type method. Theoretical expressions for the SNR and CNR for both background suppression techniques were derived. The theoretical Dixon:subtraction SNR and CNR ratios were compared to empirical ratios measured from phantom and in vivo studies for Dixon techniques utilizing one, two, and three echoes. Specifically, the SNR and CNR ratios were compared as the concentration of contrast material in the blood changed. Empirical measurements of the SNR and CNR ratios compared favorably with the ratios predicted by theory. As the contrast concentration was reduced, the SNR advantage of the Dixon techniques increased asymptotically. In the ideal case, the SNR improvement over subtraction contrast-enhanced MR angiography was at least twofold for one- and two-echo Dixon techniques and at least a factor of 6 for the three-echo Dixon technique. Expressions showing a contrast concentration-dependent SNR and CNR improvement of at least a factor of two when Dixon-type contrast-enhanced MR angiography is used in place of subtraction-type contrast-enhanced MR angiography were derived and validated with phantom and in vivo experiments. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of screening with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging vs X-ray mammography of women at a high familial risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Griebsch, I; Brown, J; Boggis, C; Dixon, A; Dixon, M; Easton, D; Eeles, R; Evans, D G; Gilbert, F J; Hawnaur, J; Kessar, P; Lakhani, S R; Moss, S M; Nerurkar, A; Padhani, A R; Pointon, L J; Potterton, J; Thompson, D; Turnbull, L W; Walker, L G; Warren, R; Leach, M O

    2006-01-01

    Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE MRI) is the most sensitive tool for screening women who are at high familial risk of breast cancer. Our aim in this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of X-ray mammography (XRM), CE MRI or both strategies combined. In total, 649 women were enrolled in the MARIBS study and screened with both CE MRI and mammography resulting in 1881 screens and 1–7 individual annual screening events. Women aged 35–49 years at high risk of breast cancer, either because they have a strong family history of breast cancer or are tested carriers of a BRCA1, BRCA2 or TP53 mutation or are at a 50% risk of having inherited such a mutation, were recruited from 22 centres and offered annual MRI and XRM for between 2 and 7 years. Information on the number and type of further investigations was collected and specifically calculated unit costs were used to calculate the incremental cost per cancer detected. The numbers of cancer detected was 13 for mammography, 27 for CE MRI and 33 for mammography and CE MRI combined. In the subgroup of BRCA1 (BRCA2) mutation carriers or of women having a first degree relative with a mutation in BRCA1 (BRCA2) corresponding numbers were 3 (6), 12 (7) and 12 (11), respectively. For all women, the incremental cost per cancer detected with CE MRI and mammography combined was £28 284 compared to mammography. When only BRCA1 or the BRCA2 groups were considered, this cost would be reduced to £11 731 (CE MRI vs mammography) and £15 302 (CE MRI and mammography vs mammography). Results were most sensitive to the unit cost estimate for a CE MRI screening test. Contrast-enhanced MRI might be a cost-effective screening modality for women at high risk, particularly for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 subgroups. Further work is needed to assess the impact of screening on mortality and health-related quality of life. PMID:17016484

  17. "One-Stop Shop": Free-Breathing Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Kidney Using Iterative Reconstruction and Continuous Golden-Angle Radial Sampling.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Philipp; Zoellner, Frank G; Budjan, Johannes; Grimm, Robert; Block, Tobias K; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Hausmann, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a recently introduced technique for free-breathing dynamic contrast-enhanced renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applying a combination of radial k-space sampling, parallel imaging, and compressed sensing. The technique allows retrospective reconstruction of 2 motion-suppressed sets of images from the same acquisition: one with lower temporal resolution but improved image quality for subjective image analysis, and one with high temporal resolution for quantitative perfusion analysis. In this study, 25 patients underwent a kidney examination, including a prototypical fat-suppressed, golden-angle radial stack-of-stars T1-weighted 3-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo examination (GRASP) performed after contrast agent administration during free breathing. Images were reconstructed at temporal resolutions of 55 spokes per frame (6.2 seconds) and 13 spokes per frame (1.5 seconds). The GRASP images were evaluated by 2 blinded radiologists. First, the reconstructions with low temporal resolution underwent subjective image analysis: the radiologists assessed the best arterial phase and the best renal phase and rated image quality score for each patient on a 5-point Likert-type scale.In addition, the diagnostic confidence was rated according to a 3-point Likert-type scale. Similarly, respiratory motion artifacts and streak artifacts were rated according to a 3-point Likert-type scale.Then, the reconstructions with high temporal resolution were analyzed with a voxel-by-voxel deconvolution approach to determine the renal plasma flow, and the results were compared with values reported in previous literature. Reader 1 and reader 2 rated the overall image quality score for the best arterial phase and the best renal phase with a median image quality score of 4 (good image quality) for both phases, respectively. A high diagnostic confidence (median score of 3) was observed. There were no respiratory motion artifacts in any of the

  18. Combining dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density to assess the angiogenesis after PEI in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Qian, Ting; Zhang, Huanhuan; Wei, Chunxiao; Meng, Fanhua; Yin, Huabin

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the correlation between parameters of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and microvessel density (MVD) measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models after percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and to observe influence of PEI on angiogenesis in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model with dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Forty five New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. VX2 tumor tissue blocks were implanted in the left lobe of liver by percutaneous puncture under CT guidance. 2 weeks later, all rabbits underwent conventional MRI (T1WI, T2WI) to determine the successful models. Then those successful implanted VX2 liver tumor models in the study were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group, the former did not have processing, and the latter underwent PEI under CT guidance. MRI (T1WI, T2WI and DCE-MRI) was performed 1 week later again, the parameters of DCE-MRI (Ktrans, Kep, Ve and iAUC60) of viable tumor portions were observed. Then all the liver samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 to determine MVD. At last, data (including DCE-MRI perfusion parameters and MVD) were compared between experimental and control groups, correlation of DCE-MRI perfusion parameters and MVD was evaluated. Twenty six VX2 liver tumor models underwent all examinations (thirteen models for each group) 1 week later after PEI. For the experimental group, the parameters Ktrans (r=0.6382, P=0.0189) and iAUC60 (r=0.6591, P=0.0143) in viable tumor portions were positively moderately correlated with MVD, whereas the parameters Kep (r=0.4656, P=0.1088) and Ve (r=0.2918, P=0.3333) were not correlated with MVD. For the control group, the parameters Ktrans (r=0.6385, P=0.0188) and iAUC60 (r=0.6391, P=0.0187) in viable tumor portions were also positively moderately correlated with MVD, while the parameters Kep (r=0.5518, P=0.0506) and Ve (r

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Tumor Responses after Radiation Therapy in a DLD-1 Colon Cancer Mouse Model Using Serial Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Jun; Koom, Woong Sub; An, Chan Sik; Lim, Joon Seok; Lee, Seung-Koo; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictability of pretreatment values including Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) derived parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve), early changes in parameters (Ktrans, tumor volume), and heterogeneity (standard deviation of Ktrans) for radiation therapy responses via a human colorectal cancer xenograft model. Materials and Methods A human colorectal cancer xenograft model with DLD-1 cancer cells was produced in the right hind limbs of five mice. Tumors were irradiated with 3 fractions of 3 Gy each for 3 weeks. Baseline and follow up DCE-MRI were performed. Quantitative parameters (Ktrans, Kep and Ve) were calculated based on the Tofts model. Early changes in Ktrans, standard deviation (SD) of Ktrans, and tumor volume were also calculated. Tumor responses were evaluated based on histology. With a cut-off value of 0.4 for necrotic factor, a comparison between good and poor responses was conducted. Results The good response group (mice #1 and 2) exhibited higher pretreatment Ktrans than the poor response group (mice #3, 4, and 5). The good response group tended to show lower pretreatment Kep, higher pretreatment Ve, and larger baseline tumor volume than the poor response group. All the mice in the good response group demonstrated marked reductions in Ktrans and SD value after the first radiation. All tumors showed increased volume after the first radiation therapy. Conclusion The good response after radiation therapy group in the DLD-1 colon cancer xenograft nude mouse model exhibited a higher pretreatment Ktrans and showed an early reduction in Ktrans, demonstrating a more homogenous distribution. PMID:23074115

  20. Periodicity in tumor vasculature targeting kinetics of ligand-functionalized nanoparticles studied by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and intravital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hak, Sjoerd; Cebulla, Jana; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Catharina de L; Mulder, Willem J M; Larsson, Henrik B W; Haraldseth, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades advances in the development of targeted nanoparticles have facilitated their application as molecular imaging agents and targeted drug delivery vehicles. Nanoparticle-enhanced molecular imaging of the angiogenic tumor vasculature has been of particular interest. Not only because angiogenesis plays an important role in various pathologies, but also since endothelial cell surface receptors are directly accessible for relatively large circulating nanoparticles. Typically, nanoparticle targeting towards these receptors is studied by analyzing the contrast distribution on tumor images acquired before and at set time points after administration. Although several exciting proof-of-concept studies demonstrated qualitative assessment of relative target concentration and distribution, these studies did not provide quantitative information on the nanoparticle targeting kinetics. These kinetics will not only depend on nanoparticle characteristics, but also on receptor binding and recycling. In this study, we monitored the in vivo targeting kinetics of αvβ3-integrin specific nanoparticles with intravital microscopy and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and using compartment modeling we were able to quantify nanoparticle targeting rates. As such, this approach can facilitate optimization of targeted nanoparticle design and it holds promise for providing more quantitative information on in vivo receptor levels. Interestingly, we also observed a periodicity in the accumulation kinetics of αvβ3-integrin targeted nanoparticles and hypothesize that this periodicity is caused by receptor binding, internalization and recycling dynamics. Taken together, this demonstrates that our experimental approach provides new insights in in vivo nanoparticle targeting, which may proof useful for vascular targeting in general.

  1. Value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography versus intraarterial digital subtraction angiography in therapy indications in abdominal and iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Philipp J; Schaefer, Fritz K W; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committe was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30 degrees , field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses > or = 50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies.

  2. Value of Single-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography Versus Intraarterial Digital Subtraction Angiography in Therapy Indications in Abdominal and Iliac Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committee was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30{sup o}, field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses {>=}50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies.

  3. Infarct tissue characterization in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients for primary versus secondary prevention following myocardial infarction: a study with contrast-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Olimulder, Marlon A G M; Kraaier, Karin; Galjee, Michel A; Scholten, Marcoen F; van Es, Jan; Wagenaar, Lodewijk J; van der Palen, Job; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge about potential differences in infarct tissue characteristics between patients with prior life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia versus patients receiving prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) might help to improve the current risk stratification in myocardial infarction (MI) patients who are considered for ICD implantation. In a consecutive series of (ICD) recipients for primary and secondary prevention following MI, we used contrast-enhanced (CE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to evaluate differences in infarct tissue characteristics. Cine-CMR measurements included left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV, ESV), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), wall motion score index (WMSI), and mass. CE-CMR images were analyzed for core, peri, and total infarct size, infarct localization (according to coronary artery territory), and transmural extent. In this study, 95 ICD recipients were included. In the primary prevention group (n = 66), LVEF was lower (23 ± 9% vs. 31 ± 14%; P < 0.01), ESV and WMSI were higher (223 ± 75 ml vs. 184 ± 97 ml, P = 0.04, and 1.89 ± 0.52 vs. 1.47 ± 0.68; P < 0.01), and anterior infarct localization was more frequent (P = 0.02) than in the secondary prevention group (n = 29). There were no differences in infarct tissue characteristics between patients treated for primary versus secondary prevention (P > 0.6 for all). During 21 ± 9 months of follow-up, 3 (5%) patients in the primary prevention group and 9 (31%) in the secondary prevention group experienced appropriate ICD therapy for treatment of ventricular arrhythmia (P < 0.01). There was no difference in infarct tissue characteristics between recipients of ICD for primary versus secondary prevention, while the secondary prevention group showed a higher frequency of applied ICD therapy for ventricular arrhythmia.

  4. Infarct tissue characteristics of patients with versus without early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction: a contrast-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Olimulder, M A G M; Kraaier, K; Galjee, M A; Scholten, M F; van Es, J; Wagenaar, L J; van der Palen, J; von Birgelen, C

    2012-05-01

    Histopathological studies have suggested that early revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) limits the size, transmural extent, and homogeneity of myocardial necrosis. However, the long-term effect of early revascularization on infarct tissue characteristics is largely unknown. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with contrast enhancement (CE) allows non-invasive examination of infarct tissue characteristics and left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function in one examination. A total of 69 patients, referred for cardiac evaluation for various clinical reasons, were examined with CE-CMR >1 month (median 6, range 1-213) post-acute MI. We compared patients with (n = 33) versus without (n = 36) successful early revascularization for acute MI. Cine-CMR measurements included the LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (ESV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF, %), and wall motion score index (WMSI). CE images were analyzed for core, peri, and total infarct size (%), and for the number of transmural segments. In our population, patients with successful early revascularization had better LVEFs (46 ± 16 vs. 34 ± 14%; P < 0.01), superior WMSIs (0.53, range 0.00-2.29 vs. 1.42, range 0.00-2.59; P < 0.01), and smaller ESVs (121 ± 70 vs. 166 ± 82; P = 0.02). However, there was no difference in core (9 ± 6 vs. 11 ± 6%), peri (9 ± 4 vs. 10 ± 4%), and total infarct size (18 ± 9 vs. 21 ± 9%; P > 0.05 for all comparisons); only transmural extent (P = 0.07) and infarct age (P = 0.06) tended to be larger in patients without early revascularization. CMR wall motion abnormalities are significantly better after revascularization; these differences are particularly marked later after infarction. The difference in scar size is more subtle and does not reach significance in this study.

  5. Contrast enhancement of the brain by folate-conjugated gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-human serum albumin nanoparticles by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Korkusuz, Huedayi; Ulbrich, Karsten; Bihrer, Verena; Welzel, Katerina; Chernikov, Valery; Knobloch, Thomas; Petersen, Sabine; Huebner, Frank; Ackermann, Hanns; Gelperina, Svetlana; Korkusuz, Yuecel; Kromen, Wolfgang; Hammerstingl, Renate; Haupenthal, Jörg; Fiehler, Jens; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kreuter, Jörg; Vogl, Thomas J; Piiper, Albrecht

    2012-01-01

    Different from regular small molecule contrast agents, nanoparticle-based contrast agents have a longer circulation time and can be modified with ligands to confer tissue-specific contrasting properties. We evaluated the tissue distribution of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from human serum albumin (HSA), loaded with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (Gd-HSA-NP), and coated with folic acid (FA) (Gd-HSA-NP-FA) in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). FA increases the affinity of the Gd-HSA-NP to FA receptor-expressing cells. Clinical 3 T MRI was used to evaluate the signal intensities in the different organs of mice injected with Gd-DTPA, Gd-HSA-NP, or Gd-HSA-NP-FA. Signal intensities were measured and standardized by calculating the signal to noise ratios. In general, the NP-based contrast agents provided stronger contrasting than Gd-DTPA. Gd-HSA-NP-FA provided a significant contrast enhancement (CE) in the brain (p  =  .0032), whereas Gd-DTPA or Gd-HSA-NP did not. All studied MRI contrast agents showed significant CE in the blood, kidney, and liver (p < .05). Gd-HSA-NP-FA elicited significantly higher CE in the blood than Gd-HSA-NP (p  =  .0069); Gd-HSA-NP and Gd-HSA-NP-FA did not show CE in skeletal muscle and gallbladder; Gd-HSA-NP, but not Gd-HSA-NP-FA, showed CE in the cardiac muscle. Gd-HSA-NP-FA has potential as an MRI contrast agent in the brain.

  6. Monitoring Pc 4-mediated photodynamic therapy of U87 tumors with dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the athymic nude rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghai, Davood; Covey, Kelly; Sharma, Rahul; Cross, Nathan; Feyes, Denise K.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Flask, Chris A.; Dean, David

    2008-02-01

    Post-operative verification of the specificity and sensitivity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is most pressing for deeply placed lesions such as brain tumors. We wish to determine whether Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) can provide a non-invasive and unambiguous quantitative measure of the specificity and sensitivity of brain tumor PDT. Methods: 2.5 x 10 5 U87 cells were injected into the brains of six athymic nude rats. After 5-6 days, the animals received 0.5 mg/kg b.w. of the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 via tail-vein injection. On day 7 peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7T microMRI scanner before and after tail-vein administration of 100 μL gadolinium and 400 μL saline. After this scan the animals received a 30 J/cm2 dose of 672-nm light from a diode laser (i.e., PDT). The DCE-MRI scan protocol was repeated on day 13. Next, the animals were euthanized and their brains were explanted for Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) histology. Results: No tumor was found in one animal. The DCE-MRI images of the other five animals demonstrated significant tumor enhancement increase (p < 0.053 two-sided t-test and p < 0.026 one-sided t-test) following PDT. H&E histology presented moderate to severe tumor necrosis. Discussion: The change in signal detected by DCE-MRI appears to be due to PDT-induced tumor necrosis. This DCE-MRI signal appears to provide a quantitative, non-invasive measure of the outcome of PDT in this animal model and may be useful for determining the safety and effectiveness of PDT in deeply placed tumors (e.g., glioma).

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the early evaluation of anti-angiogenic therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Valeria; Iacovelli, Roberto; Barchetti, Flavio; Altavilla, Amelia; Forte, Valerio; Sciarra, Alessandro; Cortesi, Enrico; Catalano, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) in the response to anti-angiogenic-targeted agents in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). Twenty-eight consecutive patients with sub-diaphragmatic metastases from mRCC were included in the protocol after signed informed consent. Baseline characteristics were collected and patients were first evaluated with a baseline computed tomography (CT) and DCE-MR, subsequently with a new DCE-MRI after 28 days of therapy and followed-up with CT until progression. Treatments were administered at standard doses. The changes of peak enhancement (ΔPE) and of the sum of longest tumor diameters (ΔLTD) were related to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The median PFS was 11.4 months [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.9-14.7 months) and the parametric two-tailed Pearson's test showed a positive correlation between the median ΔPE and the median PFS (rp=0.809; p=0.015); no significant correlation was found between the median ΔLTD and the median PFS (rp=-0.446; p=0.27). The median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI: 13.6-33.0 months) and no significant correlation was found with the median ΔPE (rp=0.218; p=0.60) or with the median ΔLTD (rp=0.012; p=0.98). The ΔPE but not the ΔLTD was found to be significantly related to PFS; these preliminary results suggest extending the number of patients and investigating the possible relationship with other tumor characteristics and MRI parameters.

  8. Focal Salvage Guided by T{sub 2}-Weighted and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prostate Cancer Recurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Moman, Maaike R.; Berg, Cornelis A.T. van den; Boeken Kruger, Arto E.; Battermann, Jan J.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: Salvage treatment of the entire prostate for local recurrent cancer after primary radiotherapy is associated with high toxicity rates. Our goal was to show that, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the visualization of a recurrence, focal salvage treatment can be performed, with, potentially, a reduction in toxicity. Methods and Materials: We performed MRI, including a DCE sequence, in 7 patients with biopsy-proven locally recurrent prostate cancer. The specific regions of interest suspect for containing tumor were delineated using DCE and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI scans. Subsequently, focal salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy plans were created to illustrate the principle of focal salvage. Total salvage treatment plans were also created for comparison. Results: The transfer constant (K{sup trans}) values from the DCE were 0.33-0.67 min{sup -1} for areas suspect for tumor and 0.07-0.25 min{sup -1} for normal tissue. In 4 cases, a focal salvage plan could be generated; 93-100% of the gross tumor volume was covered with the prescribed dose, with relative sparing of the bladder, rectum, and urethra. In the total salvage plans, 24-53% of the gross tumor volume was covered, and the organs at risk received high doses. In 3 cases, a focal salvage plan could not be created because of multifocal tumor, seminal vesicle extension, or capsular extension. Conclusion: Focal salvage treatment plans can be created in patients with local recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy. DCE-MRI supports the localization of the target area. This could lead to less toxicity in patients with local recurrent prostate cancer.

  9. Monitoring of VX2 tumor growth in rabbit liver using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Jo-Chi; Mac, Ka-Wai; Chang, Chiung-Yun; Wu, Yu-Chiuan; Hsiao, Chia-Chi; Chen, Po-Chou

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the VX2 tumor growth in rabbit liver using T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Five New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were implanted with VX2 cell suspension in liver. Afterwards, MRI was performed 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T clinical MRI scanner was used to perform scans. After 3-plane localizer, T1 weighted imaging (T1WI), T2WI, and DCE-MRI using a three-dimensional gradient echo pulse sequence was performed. After 4 pre-contrast images were acquired, each rabbit was injected i.v. with 0.1 mmol/kg Dotarem. The total scan time after Dotarem administration was 30 minutes. All acquired images were analyzed using ImageJ software. Several regions of interest were selected from the rims of tumor, liver, and muscle. The enhancement ratio (ER) was calculated by dividing the MR signal after Dotarem injection to the MR signal before Dotarem injection. The maximum ER (ER_max) value of tumor for each rabbit was observed right after the Dotarem injection. The T2W MR signal intensities (T2W_SI) and the ER_max values obtained 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after tumor implantation were analyzed with a linear regression algorithm. Both T2W_SI and ER_max of tumors increased with time. The changes for T2W_SI and ER_max of tumors between 7 and 28 days after tumor implantation were 32.66% and 18.14%, respectively. T2W_SI is more sensitive than ER_max for monitoring the growth of VX2 tumor in a rabbit liver model.

  10. Inter-reader reproducibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaart, Vivian E M; de Lussanet, Quido G; Houben, Ruud M A; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Groen, Harry J M; Marcus, J Tim; Smit, Egbert F; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Backes, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Objectives When evaluating anti-tumor treatment response by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) it is necessary to assure its validity and reproducibility. This has not been well addressed in lung tumors. Therefore we have evaluated the inter-reader reproducibility of response classification by DCE-MRI in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib enrolled in a multicenter trial. Twenty-one patients were scanned before and 3 weeks after start of treatment with DCE-MRI in a multicenter trial. The scans were evaluated by two independent readers. The primary lung tumor was used for response assessment. Responses were assessed in terms of relative changes in tumor mean trans endothelial transfer rate (K(trans)) and its heterogeneity in terms of the spatial standard deviation. Reproducibility was expressed by the inter-reader variability, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and dichotomous response classification. The inter-reader variability and ICC for the relative K(trans) were 5.8% and 0.930, respectively. For tumor heterogeneity the inter-reader variability and ICC were 0.017 and 0.656, respectively. For the two readers the response classification for relative K(trans) was concordant in 20 of 21 patients (k=0.90, p<0.0001) and for tumor heterogeneity in 19 of 21 patients (k=0.80, p<0.0001). Strong agreement was seen with regard to the inter-reader variability and reproducibility of response classification by the two readers of lung cancer DCE-MRI scans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. p38 MAPK inhibitors ameliorate target organ damage in hypertension: Part 2. Improved renal function as assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Stephen C; Nerurkar, Sandhya S; Schaeffer, Thomas R; Mirabile, Rosanna C; Boyce, Rogely W; Adams, David F; Jucker, Beat M; Willette, Robert N

    2003-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of progressive renal disease. Using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we evaluated chronic treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor, trans-1-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl-methoxypyridimidin-4-yl)imidazole (SB-239063), on renal function in a hypertension model of progressing renal dysfunction. Spontaneously hypertensive-stroke prone rats were placed on a high salt/fat diet (SFD) or maintained on normal chow diet (ND). SFD animals with albuminuria at 4 to 8 weeks (> or =10 mg/day inclusion criteria), were randomized into p38 MAPK inhibitor treatment (SB-239063, 1200 ppm in diet) or vehicle groups. The progression of blood pressure and albuminuria during the treatment period (approximately 6 weeks) was decreased by 12 and 60%, respectively, in the SFD + SB-239063 versus SFD control group. Renal perfusion and filtration were assessed by in vivo MRI at the end of the study. Relative cortical perfusion was increased in the SFD + SB-239063 group compared with the SFD control group as reflected by a 29% decrease in time to peak of contrast agent in the cortex. Additionally, the regional renal glomerular filtration rate index (Kcl) was increased by 39% in the SFD + SB-239063 versus SFD control group and was normalized to the ND control group. Greater functional heterogeneity was observed in the SFD control versus SFD + SB-239063 or ND control group. All alterations of renal function were supported by histopathological findings. In conclusion, chronic treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB-239063, attenuates functional and structural renal degeneration in a hypertensive model of established renal dysfunction.

  12. Noninvasive Monitoring of Microvascular Changes With Partial Irradiation Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lin, Yi-Ping; Lee, Chung-Chi; Wai, Yau-Yau; Ng, Shu-Hang; Wu, Yi-Ming; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: The microvasculature of a tumor plays an important role in its response to radiation therapy. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI are both sensitive to vascular characteristics. The present study proposed a partial irradiation approach to a xenograft tumor to investigate the intratumoral response to radiation therapy using DCE and BOLD MRI. Methods and Materials: TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in C57BL/6J mice. Partial irradiation was performed on the distal half of the tumor with a single dose of 15 Gy. DCE MRI was performed to derive the endothelium transfer constant, K{sup trans}, using pharmacokinetic analysis. BOLD MRI was performed using quantitative R2* measurements with carbogen breathing. The histology of the tumor was analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and CD31 staining to detect endothelial cells. The differences between the irradiated and nonirradiated regions of the tumor were assessed using K{sup trans} values, ΔR2* values in response to carbogen and microvascular density (MVD) measurements. Results: A significantly increased K{sup trans} and reduced BOLD response to carbogen were found in the irradiated region of the tumor compared with the nonirradiated region (P<.05). Histologic analysis showed a significant aggregation of giant cells and a reduced MVD in the irradiated region of the tumor. The radiation-induced difference in the BOLD response was associated with differences in MVD and K{sup trans}. Conclusions: We demonstrated that DCE MRI and carbogen-challenge BOLD MRI can detect differential responses within a tumor that may potentially serve as noninvasive imaging biomarkers to detect microvascular changes in response to radiation therapy.

  13. The diagnostic sensitivity of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and breast-specific gamma imaging in women with calcified and non-calcified DCIS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sil; Lee, Sang Min; Cha, Eun Suk

    2014-07-01

    Early detection of breast cancer reduces mortality. Therefore, diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is important. To compare the sensitivities of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in pathologically proven calcified and non-calcified DCIS. Thirty-five patients with pathologically diagnosed DCIS from 1 June 2009 through 31 December 2011, underwent a protocol involving both breast MRI and BSGI. Each image was assessed by a separate dedicated breast radiologist. All lesions were divided into two groups; with or without microcalcifications on mammograms. In cases without microcalcifications, we recorded the mass, asymmetry, or negative findings on mammography. On MRI, the enhancement pattern was categorized as mass or non-mass-like enhancement. On BSGI, the uptake pattern was analyzed. The histopathological features of the lesions were obtained. Statistical analysis of the sensitivity of each modality was performed using McNemar's test. Thirty-five women with a mean age of 48 years (range, 26-69 years) were enrolled in the study. The total sensitivities of MRI and BSGI in the 35 cases were 91.4% (32 of 35 DCIS) and 68.6% (24 of 35 DCIS), respectively. Eighteen cases with DCIS displayed microcalcifications on mammography, while 17 cases did not. Of these 17 cases without microcalcifications on mammography, 88.2% (15 of 17 DCIS) were detected by MRI and 52.9% (9 of 17 DCIS) by BSGI. Of 18 cases with microcalcifications on mammography, 94.4% (17 of 18 DCIS) were detected by MRI and 83.3% (15 of 19 DCIS) by BSGI. MRI showed a higher sensitivity for the detection of calcified and non-calcified DCIS and is more helpful than BSGI in cases without microcalcifications on mammography. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Right and Left Ventricular Function and Mass in Male Elite Master Athletes: A Controlled Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Philipp; Schneider, Günther; Linneweber, Lutz; Rentzsch, Axel; Krämer, Nadine; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim; Scharhag, Jürgen

    2016-05-17

    It is under debate whether the cumulative effects of intensive endurance exercise induce chronic cardiac damage, mainly involving the right heart. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac structure and function in long-term elite master endurance athletes with special focus on the right ventricle by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Thirty-three healthy white competitive elite male master endurance athletes (age range, 30-60 years) with a training history of 29±8 years, and 33 white control subjects pair-matched for age, height, and weight underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography including tissue-Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Indexed left ventricular mass and right ventricular mass (left ventricular mass/body surface area, 96±13 and 62±10 g/m(2); P<0.001; right ventricular mass/body surface area, 36±7 and 24±5 g/m(2); P<0.001) and indexed left ventricular end-diastolic volume and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (left ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 104±13 and 69±18 mL/m(2); P<0.001; right ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 110±22 and 66±16 mL/m(2); P<0.001) were significantly increased in athletes in comparison with control subjects. Right ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between athletes and control subjects (52±8 and 54±6%; P=0.26). Pathological late enhancement was detected in 1 athlete. No correlations were found for left ventricular and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitive troponin was negative in all subjects. Based on our results, chronic right ventricular damage in elite endurance master athletes with lifelong high training volumes seems to be unlikely. Thus, the hypothesis of an exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has to be questioned. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Prostate Postbrachytherapy Seed Distribution: Comparison of High-Resolution, Contrast-Enhanced, T1- and T2-Weighted Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Versus Computed Tomography: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, B. Nicolas Lenkinski, Robert E.; Helbich, Thomas H.; Ngo, Long; Oismueller, Renee; Jaromi, Silvia; Kubin, Klaus; Hawliczek, Robert; Kaplan, Irving D.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To compare contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (CEMR) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2MR) with computed tomography (CT) for prostate brachytherapy seed location for dosimetric calculations. Methods and Materials: Postbrachytherapy prostate MRI was performed on a 1.5 Tesla unit with combined surface and endorectal coils in 13 patients. Both CEMR and T2MR used a section thickness of 3 mm. Spiral CT used a section thickness of 5 mm with a pitch factor of 1.5. All images were obtained in the transverse plane. Two readers using CT and MR imaging assessed brachytherapy seed distribution independently. The dependency of data read by both readers for a specific subject was assessed with a linear mixed effects model. Results: The mean percentage ({+-} standard deviation) values of the readers for seed detection and location are presented. Of 1205 implanted seeds, CEMR, T2MR, and CT detected 91.5% {+-} 4.8%, 78.5% {+-} 8.5%, and 96.1% {+-} 2.3%, respectively, with 11.8% {+-} 4.5%, 8.5% {+-} 3.5%, 1.9% {+-} 1.0% extracapsular, respectively. Assignment to periprostatic structures was not possible with CT. Periprostatic seed assignments for CEMR and T2MR, respectively, were as follows: neurovascular bundle, 3.5% {+-} 1.6% and 2.1% {+-} 0.9%; seminal vesicles, 0.9% {+-} 1.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.7%; periurethral, 7.1% {+-} 3.3% and 5.8% {+-} 2.9%; penile bulb, 0.6% {+-} 0.8% and 0.3% {+-} 0.6%; Denonvillier's Fascia/rectal wall, 0.5% {+-} 0.6% and 0%; and urinary bladder, 0.1% {+-} 0.3% and 0%. Data dependency analysis showed statistical significance for the type of imaging but not for reader identification. Conclusion: Both enumeration and localization of implanted seeds are readily accomplished with CEMR. Calculations with MRI dosimetry do not require CT data. Dose determinations to specific extracapsular sites can be obtained with MRI but not with CT.

  16. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: first-pass arterial enhancement as a function of gadolinium-chelate concentration, and the saline chaser volume and injection rate.

    PubMed

    Husarik, Daniela B; Bashir, Mustafa R; Weber, Paul W; Nichols, Eli B; Howle, Laurens E; Merkle, Elmar M; Nelson, Rendon C

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the contrast medium (CM) concentration and the saline chaser volume and injection rate on first-pass aortic enhancement characteristics in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using a physiologic flow phantom. Imaging was performed on a 3.0-T magnetic resonance system (MAGNETOM Trio, Siemens Healthcare Solutions, Inc, Erlangen, Germany) using a 2-dimensional fast low angle shot T1-weighted sequence (repetition time, 500 milliseconds; echo time, 1.23 milliseconds; flip angle, 8 degrees; 1 frame/s × 60 seconds). The following CM concentrations injected at 2 mL/s were used with 3 different contrast agents (gadolinium [Gd]-BOPTA, Gd-HP-DO3A, Gd-DTPA): 20 mL of undiluted CM (100%) and 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, 5%, and 2.5% of the full amount, all diluted in saline to a volume of 20 mL to ensure equal bolus volume. The CM was followed by saline chasers of 20 to 60 mL injected at 2 mL/s and 6 mL/s. Aortic signal intensity (SI) was measured, and normalized SI versus time (SI/Tn) curves were generated. The maximal SI (SI(max)), bolus length, and areas under the SI/Tn curve were calculated. Decreasing the CM concentration from 100% to 40% resulted in a decrease of SI(max) to 86.1% (mean). Further decreasing the CM concentration to 2.5% decreased SI(max) to 5.1% (mean). Altering the saline chaser volume had no significant effect on SI(max). Increasing the saline chaser injection rate had little effect (mean increase, 2.2%) on SI(max) when using ≥40% of CM. There was a larger effect (mean increase, 19.6%) when ≤20% of CM were used. Bolus time length was significantly shorter (P < 0.001), and area under the SI/T(n) curve was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) for the CM protocols followed by a saline chaser injected at 6 mL/s compared with a saline chaser injected at 2 mL/s. With 40% of CM and a fast saline chaser, SImax close to that with undiluted CM can be achieved. An increased saline chaser injection rate has a more pronounced effect on

  17. Usefulness of double dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for clear delineation of gross tumor volume in stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning of metastatic brain tumors: a dose comparison study.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Kalloo Sharma; Takahashi, Takeo; Yamano, Takafumi; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the size and clearness of gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of metastatic brain tumors on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images between a single dose contrast administration protocol and a double dose contrast administration protocol to determine the optimum dose of contrast-enhancement for clear delineation of GTV in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). A total of 28 small metastatic brain tumors were evaluated in 13 patients by intra-individual comparison of GTV measurements using single dose and double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice (1-mm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had confirmed histological types of primary tumors and had undergone hypo-fractionated SRT for metastatic brain tumors. The mean tumor diameter with single dose and double dose contrast-enhancement was 12.0 ± 1.1 mm and 13.2 ± 1.1 mm respectively (P < 0.001). The mean incremental ratio (MIR) obtained by comparing mean tumor diameters was 11.2 ± 0.02 %. The mean volume of GTV-1 (single dose contrast-enhancement) and GTV-2 (double dose contrast-enhancement) was 1.38 ± 0.41 ml and 1.59 ± 0.45 ml respectively (P < 0.01). The MIR by comparing mean tumor volumes was 32.3 ± 0.4 %. The MIR of GTV-1 with < 1 ml volume and GTV-1 with > 1 ml volume was 41.8 ± 0.05 % and 12.4 ± 0.03 % respectively (P < 0.001). We conclude that double dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI is a more useful technique than single dose contrast-enhanced thin-slice MRI, especially for clear delineation of GTVs of small metastatic brain tumors in treatment planning of highly precise SRT.

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound using SonoVue® (sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles) compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the characterisation of focal liver lesions and detection of liver metastases: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Westwood, M; Joore, M; Grutters, J; Redekop, K; Armstrong, N; Lee, K; Gloy, V; Raatz, H; Misso, K; Severens, J; Kleijnen, J

    2013-04-01

    Medical imaging techniques are important in the management of many patients with liver disease. Unenhanced ultrasound examinations sometimes identify focal abnormalities in the liver that may require further investigation, primarily to distinguish liver cancers from benign abnormalities. One important factor in selecting an imaging test is the ability to provide a rapid diagnosis. Options for additional imaging investigations include computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy when the diagnosis remains uncertain. CT and MRI usually require referral with associated waiting time and are sometimes contraindicated. The use of contrast agents may improve the ability of ultrasound to distinguish between liver cancer and benign abnormalities and, because it can be performed at the same appointment as unenhanced ultrasound, more rapid diagnoses may be possible. To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using SonoVue(®) with that of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) for the assessment of adults with focal liver lesions (FLLs) in whom previous liver imaging is inconclusive. Eight bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from 2000 to September/October 2011. Research registers and conference proceedings were also searched. Systematic review methods followed published guidance. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of the QUADAS-2 tool. Results were stratified by clinical indication for imaging (characterisation of FLLs detected on ultrasound surveillance of cirrhosis patients, detection of liver metastases, characterisation of incidentally detected FLLs, assessment of treatment response). For incidental FLLs, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity, with 95% CIs, were calculated using a

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging parameters correlate with advanced revised-ISS and angiopoietin-1/angiopoietin-2 ratio in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Terpos, Evangelos; Matsaridis, Dimitris; Koutoulidis, Vassilis; Zagouri, Flora; Christoulas, Dimitrios; Fontara, Sophia; Panourgias, Evangelia; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Kastritis, Efstathios; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Moulopoulos, Lia A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the value of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) who were treated with novel anti-myeloma agents. We studied 60 previously untreated MM patients at diagnosis, 14 with smoldering MM (SMM) and 5 with MGUS. All patients underwent MRI of the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis before the administration of any kind of therapy, and DCE-MRI was performed. The MRI perfusion parameters evaluated were wash-in (WIN), washout (WOUT), time-to-peak (TTPK), time-to-maximum slope (TMSP), and the WIN/TMSP ratio. The following serum levels of angiogenic cytokines were measured on the day of MRI: VEGF, angiogenin (Ang), angiopoietin-1 (Angp-1), and -2 (Angp-2). Symptomatic MM patients had increased WIN compared to SMM (p < 0.05) and MGUS patients (p = 0.001). TTPK was decreased, and WIN/TMSP was increased in both symptomatic and SMM patients compared to MGUS patients (p < 0.05). Symptomatic MM patients had decreased TMSP compared to MGUS patients. The Angp-1/Angp-2 ratio was reduced in symptomatic MM compared to SMM (p = 0.017) and MGUS patients (p < 0.001). TTPK correlated with Angp-1/Angp-2 ratio and importantly with R-ISS. Patients with R-ISS-3 had lower TTPK median value (23 s, range 18-29 s) compared to patients with R-ISS-2 (48 s, range 27-68 s) and patients with R-ISS-1 MM (54 s, range 42-76 s; p ANOVA = 0.01). A subset of patients with low TTPK (lower quartile) had shorter time to progression compared to all other patients. These data suggest that certain DCE-MRI parameters correlate with R-ISS and adverse prognostic features of angiogenesis, such as the ratio of Angp-1/Angp-2.

  20. Coronary artery angiography and myocardial viability imaging: a 3.0-T contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance coronary artery angiography with Gd-BOPTA.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hong; Jin, Hang; Yang, Shan; Huang, Dong; Chen, Zhang-wei; Zeng, Meng-su

    2014-01-01

    With improving MR sequence, phase-array coil and image quality, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a promising method for a comprehensive non-invasive evaluation of coronary artery and myocardial viability. The study aimed to evaluate contrast-enhanced whole-heart coronary MR angiography (CE WH-CMRA) at 3.0-Tesla for the diagnosis of significant stenosis (≥50%) and detection of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). CE WH-CMRA was performed in consecutive 70 patients with suspected CAD by using a 3.0-T MR system. A respiratory-gated, electrocardiography-triggered, inversion-recovery, segmented fast low angle shot sequence (TI = 200 ms) was used. Data acquisition began 60 s after the slow injection of Gd-BOPTA (0.2 mmol/kg body weight, at an injection rate 0.3 ml/s). At last, breath-hold 2D-PSIR-SSFP sequence was performed. Diagnostic accuracy of CE WH-CMRA in detecting significant stenosis (≥50%) was evaluated using invasive coronary angiography as the referenced standard. The MI region appearing as high signal intensity visualized on CEWH-CMRA and 2D-PSIR-SSFP images were compared and analyzed. CE WH-CMRA correctly identified 42 of 44 patients with significant CAD. The overall sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and accuracy for diagnosing significant CAD was 83.6, 95.8, 96.0, 82.8 and 93.4% respectively. The MI region detected by WH-CMRA and 2D-PSIR-SSFP were consistent in 10 patients and these segments manifested with transmural or subendocardial enhancement patterns. Only one MI patient was judged inconsistent between WH-CMRA and 2D-PSIR-SSFP, who was confirmed by clinical and electrocardiogram results. The enhancement pattern in this patient was spotted and focal in 2D-PSIR-SSFP, but was dismissed by WH-CMRA. It is feasible to obtain information about coronary artery stenosis and myocardial viability in a single CE WH-CMRA with administration of Gd-BOPTA.

  1. Influence of amplitude-related perfusion parameters in the parotid glands by non-fat-saturated dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Su-Chin; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Liu, Yi-Jui; Hsu, Hsian-He; Juan, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: To verify whether quantification of parotid perfusion is affected by fat signals on non-fat-saturated (NFS) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and whether the influence of fat is reduced with fat saturation (FS). Methods: This study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective study analyzed DCE-MRI data previously acquired on different patients using NFS (n = 18) or FS (n = 18) scans. Second, a phantom study simulated the signal enhancements in the presence of gadolinium contrast agent at six concentrations and three fat contents. Finally, a prospective study recruited nine healthy volunteers to investigate the influence of fat suppression on perfusion quantification on the same subjects. Parotid perfusion parameters were derived from NFS and FS DCE-MRI data using both pharmacokinetic model analysis and semiquantitative parametric analysis. T tests and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis with correction for multiple comparisons. Results: NFS scans showed lower amplitude-related parameters, including parameter A, peak enhancement (PE), and slope than FS scans in the patients (all with P < 0.0167). The relative signal enhancement in the phantoms was proportional to the dose of contrast agent and was lower in NFS scans than in FS scans. The volunteer study showed lower parameter A (6.75 ± 2.38 a.u.), PE (42.12% ± 14.87%), and slope (1.43% ± 0.54% s{sup −1}) in NFS scans as compared to 17.63 ± 8.56 a.u., 104.22% ± 25.15%, and 9.68% ± 1.67% s{sup −1}, respectively, in FS scans (all with P < 0.005). These amplitude-related parameters were negatively associated with the fat content in NFS scans only (all with P < 0.05). Conclusions: On NFS DCE-MRI, quantification of parotid perfusion is adversely affected by the presence of fat signals for all amplitude-related parameters. The influence could be reduced on FS scans.

  2. Influence of amplitude-related perfusion parameters in the parotid glands by non-fat-saturated dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Su-Chin; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Liu, Yi-Jui; Hsu, Hsian-He; Juan, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-01

    To verify whether quantification of parotid perfusion is affected by fat signals on non-fat-saturated (NFS) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and whether the influence of fat is reduced with fat saturation (FS). This study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective study analyzed DCE-MRI data previously acquired on different patients using NFS (n = 18) or FS (n = 18) scans. Second, a phantom study simulated the signal enhancements in the presence of gadolinium contrast agent at six concentrations and three fat contents. Finally, a prospective study recruited nine healthy volunteers to investigate the influence of fat suppression on perfusion quantification on the same subjects. Parotid perfusion parameters were derived from NFS and FS DCE-MRI data using both pharmacokinetic model analysis and semiquantitative parametric analysis. T tests and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis with correction for multiple comparisons. NFS scans showed lower amplitude-related parameters, including parameter A, peak enhancement (PE), and slope than FS scans in the patients (all with P < 0.0167). The relative signal enhancement in the phantoms was proportional to the dose of contrast agent and was lower in NFS scans than in FS scans. The volunteer study showed lower parameter A (6.75 ± 2.38 a.u.), PE (42.12% ± 14.87%), and slope (1.43% ± 0.54% s(-1)) in NFS scans as compared to 17.63 ± 8.56 a.u., 104.22% ± 25.15%, and 9.68% ± 1.67% s(-1), respectively, in FS scans (all with P < 0.005). These amplitude-related parameters were negatively associated with the fat content in NFS scans only (all with P < 0.05). On NFS DCE-MRI, quantification of parotid perfusion is adversely affected by the presence of fat signals for all amplitude-related parameters. The influence could be reduced on FS scans.

  3. Application of imaging fusion combining contrast-enhanced ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in detection of hepatic cellular carcinomas undetectable by conventional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Mao, Feng; Ji, Zheng-Biao; Huang, Bei-Jian

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the value of volume navigation image fusion-assisted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in detection for radiofrequency ablation guidance of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), which were undetectable on conventional ultrasound. From May 2012 to May 2014, 41 patients with 49 HCCs were included in this study. All lesions were detected by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and planned for radiofrequency ablation but were undetectable on conventional ultrasound. After a bolus injection of 2.4 ml SonoVue® (Bracco, Italy), LOGIQ E9 ultrasound system with volume navigation system (version R1.0.5, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA) was used to fuse CEUS and MRI images. The fusion time, fusion success rate, lesion enhancement pattern, and detection rate were analyzed. Image fusions were conducted successfully in 49 HCCs, the technical success rate was 100%. The average fusion time was (9.2 ± 2.1) min (6-12 min). The mean diameter of HCCs was 25.2 ± 5.3 mm (mean ± SD), and mean depth was 41.8 ± 17.2 mm. The detection rate of HCCs using CEUS/MRI imaging fusion (95.9%, 47/49) was significantly higher than CEUS (42.9%, 21/49) (P < 0.05). For small HCCs (diameter, 1-2 cm), the detection rate using imaging fusion (96.9%, 32/33) was also significantly higher than CEUS (18.2%, 6/33) (P < 0.01). All HCCs displayed a rapid wash-in pattern in the arterial phase of CEUS. Imaging fusion combining CEUS and MRI is a promising technique to improve the detection, precise localization, and accurate diagnosis of undetectable HCCs on conventional ultrasound, especially small and atypical HCCs. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Functional imaging of the angiogenic switch in a transgenic mouse model of human breast cancer by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Consolino, Lorena; Longo, Dario Livio; Dastrù, Walter; Cutrin, Juan Carlos; Dettori, Daniela; Lanzardo, Stefania; Oliviero, Salvatore; Cavallo, Federica; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-15

    Tumour progression depends on several sequential events that include the microenvironment remodelling processes and the switch to the angiogenic phenotype, leading to new blood vessels recruitment. Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of functional alterations in tumour vascularity and cellularity. The aim of this work was to detect functional changes in vascularisation and cellularity through Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) and Diffusion Weighted (DW) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) modalities during breast cancer initiation and progression of a transgenic mouse model (BALB-neuT mice). Histological examination showed that BALB-neuT mammary glands undergo a slow neoplastic progression from simple hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma, still preserving normal parts of mammary glands. DCE-MRI results highlighted marked functional changes in terms of vessel permeability (K(trans) , volume transfer constant) and vascularisation (vp , vascular volume fraction) in BALB-neuT hyperplastic mammary glands if compared to BALB/c ones. When breast tissue progressed from simple to atypical hyperplasia, a strong increase in DCE-MRI biomarkers was observed in BALB-neuT in comparison to BALB/c mice (K(trans)  = 5.3 ± 0.7E-4 and 3.1 ± 0.5E-4; vp  = 7.4 ± 0.8E-2 and 4.7 ± 0.6E-2 for BALB-neuT and BALB/c, respectively) that remained constant during the successive steps of the neoplastic transformation. Consistent with DCE-MRI observations, microvessel counting revealed a significant increase in tumour vessels. Our study showed that DCE-MRI estimates can accurately detect the angiogenic switch at early step of breast cancer carcinogenesis. These results support the view that this imaging approach is an excellent tool to characterize microvasculature changes, despite only small portions of the mammary glands developed neoplastic lesions in a transgenic mouse model. © 2016 UICC.

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer using diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, H D; Zhang, Y Q

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the predictive values of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in evaluating the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. Between September 2011 and December 2014, a total of 174 patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with NAC were selected for this study. Conventional CT and MRI examinations (DWI and DCE-MRI) were performed in all patients before NAC (T0), after the first course (T1) and after the whole course (T2) of NAC. According to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), patients were divided into the effective [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] and ineffective groups [stable disease (SD) + disease progression (DP)]. The Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), maximum tumor diameter, the early-phase enhancement rate (Ee), maximal enhanced rate of tumor (E max), maximal linear slope (S max), maximal excretion rate (E wash), signal intensity (SI), maximal signal rise velocity (V max) and area under the curve (AUC) of Cho before and after NAC were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and the AUC of change rate of ADC values and semi-quantitative parameter were utilized to analyze the diagnostic performance of them for evaluating the efficacy of NAC for breast cancer. There were 135 patients in the effective group, with 52 cases of CR and 83 cases of PR; 39 patients were in the ineffective group, with 14 cases of PD and 25 cases of SD. The effective rate of NAC for breast cancer was 77.6%. The ADC values of the two groups significantly increased but the maximum tumor diameter, E e, E max, S max, E wash and AUC of Cho greatly decreased. The effective group had higher ADC values, its change rate and tumor regression rate than the ineffective group. However, the maximum tumor diameter, E e, E max, S max, E wash, AUC of Cho, SI and V max in the effective group were remarkably lower

  6. Differentiation Between Luminal-A and Luminal-B Breast Cancer Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroko; Miyati, Tosiaki; Ohno, Naoki; Ohno, Masako; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Hiroko; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can differentiate luminal-B from luminal-A breast cancer MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biexponential analyses of IVIM and DCE MRI were performed using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, involving 134 patients with 137 pathologically confirmed luminal-type invasive breast cancers. Luminal-type breast cancer was categorized as luminal-B breast cancer (LBBC, Ki-67 ≧ 14%) or luminal-A breast cancer (LABC, Ki-67 < 14%). Quantitative parameters from IVIM (pure diffusion coefficient [D], perfusion-related diffusion coefficient [D*], and fraction [f]) and DCE MRI (initial percentage of enhancement and signal enhancement ratio [SER]) were calculated. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was also calculated using monoexponential fitting. We correlated these data with the Ki-67 status. The D and ADC values of LBBC were significantly lower than those of LABC (P = 0.028, P = 0.037). The SER of LBBC was significantly higher than that of LABC (P = 0.004). A univariate analysis showed that a significantly lower D (<0.847 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s), lower ADC (<0.960 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s), and higher SER (>1.071) values were associated with LBBC (all P values <0.01), compared to LABC. In a multivariate analysis, a higher SER (>1.071; odds ratio: 3.0099, 95% confidence interval: 1.4246-6.3593; P = 0.003) value and a lower D (<0.847 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; odds ratio: 2.6878, 95% confidence interval: 1.0445-6.9162; P = 0.040) value were significantly associated with LBBC, compared to LABC. The SER derived from DCE MRI and the D derived from IVIM are associated independently with the Ki-67 status in patients with luminal-type breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of breast cancer therapy response: a multicenter data analysis challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Li, Xin; Chen, Yiyi; Li, Xia; Chang, Ming-Ching; Oborski, Matthew J; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Muzi, Mark; Jajamovich, Guido H; Fedorov, Andriy; Tudorica, Alina; Gupta, Sandeep N; Laymon, Charles M; Marro, Kenneth I; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Miller, James V; Barbodiak, Daniel P; Chenevert, Thomas L; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Mountz, James M; Kinahan, Paul E; Kikinis, Ron; Taouli, Bachir; Fennessy, Fiona; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree

    2014-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) time-course data allows estimation of quantitative parameters such as K (trans) (rate constant for plasma/interstitium contrast agent transfer), v e (extravascular extracellular volume fraction), and v p (plasma volume fraction). A plethora of factors in DCE-MRI data acquisition and analysis can affect accuracy and precision of these parameters and, consequently, the utility of quantitative DCE-MRI for assessing therapy response. In this multicenter data analysis challenge, DCE-MRI data acquired at one center from 10 patients with breast cancer before and after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were shared and processed with 12 software tools based on the Tofts model (TM), extended TM, and Shutter-Speed model. Inputs of tumor region of interest definition, pre-contrast T1, and arterial input function were controlled to focus on the variations in parameter value and response prediction capability caused by differences in models and associated algorithms. Considerable parameter variations were observed with the within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV) values for K (trans) and v p being as high as 0.59 and 0.82, respectively. Parameter agreement improved when only algorithms based on the same model were compared, e.g., the K (trans) intraclass correlation coefficient increased to as high as 0.84. Agreement in parameter percentage change was much better than that in absolute parameter value, e.g., the pairwise concordance correlation coefficient improved from 0.047 (for K (trans)) to 0.92 (for K (trans) percentage change) in comparing two TM algorithms. Nearly all algorithms provided good to excellent (univariate logistic regression c-statistic value ranging from 0.8 to 1.0) early prediction of therapy response using the metrics of mean tumor K (trans) and k ep (=K (trans)/v e, intravasation rate constant) after the first therapy cycle and the corresponding

  8. Intraindividual quantitative and qualitative comparison of gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol in time-resolved contrast-enhanced 4-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch Reza; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus; Weibrecht, Martin; Perkuhn, Michael; Boschewitz, Jack Maria; Keil, Vera Catharina; Träber, Frank; Kukuk, Guido Matthias; Schild, Hans Heinz; Willinek, Winfried Albert

    2014-07-01

    The concentration and relaxivities of contrast agents affect quantitative and qualitative image quality in contrast-enhanced time-resolved 4-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (4D-MRA). Gadobutrol has a high relaxivity and is the only gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent approved for clinical use at a 1 M concentration. This promises to confer superior bolus characteristics by generating a steeper and shorter bolus with a higher peak Gd concentration. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine bolus characteristics of 1 M gadobutrol compared with 0.5 M gadopentetate dimeglumine and to evaluate image quality in thoracoabdominal 4D-MRA. A total of 7 Goettingen minipigs received dynamic computed tomography (CT) on a clinical 64-slice CT (transverse slices, 80 kV, 20 seconds, 0.3 s/dynamic frame) and 4D-MRA (time-resolved imaging with stochastic trajectories; 1. transverse slices, 30 seconds, 0.49 s/frame; 2. coronal slices, 70 seconds, 1.3 s/frame) on a 1.5-T clinical whole-body magnetic resonance imaging under general anesthesia using gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol in an intraindividual comparative study. Computed tomography attenuations were converted into Gd concentrations on the basis of previous phantom experiments. Quantitative analysis included measurements of the full width at half maximum, time-to-peak intervals, and peak of each bolus in dynamic CT and transverse 4D-MRA. These studies were carried out at equivalent contrast agent flow rates of 1 mL/s. Quantitative analysis (7 arteries and veins) and qualitative image analysis were performed on coronal thoracoabdominal 4D-MRA studies carried out at flow rates of 1 mL/s and, in the case of gadopentetate dimeglumine, also at molarity-adjusted flow rates of 2 mL/s. The bolus in both transverse 4D-MRA and dynamic CT was significantly narrower (full width at half maximum), earlier (time to peak), and higher (signal intensity enhancement in 4D-MRA, Gd concentration in dynamic CT) when

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA for Detection Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Comparative Study with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT)

    PubMed Central

    Imbriaco, Massimo; De Luca, Serena; Coppola, Milena; Fusari, Mario; Klain, Michele; Puglia, Marta; Mainenti, Pierpaolo; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Maurea, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To compare the diagnostic accuracy of hepato-biliary (HB) phase with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCEMRI) and contrast-enhanced CT (DCECT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection. Material/Methods 73 patients underwent DCECT and Gd-EOB-DTPA-3T-MR. Lesions were classified using a five-point confidence scale. Reference standard was a combination of pathological evidence and tumor growth at follow-up CT/MR at 12 months. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were obtained. Results A total of 125 lesions were confirmed in 73 patients. As many as 74 were HCCs and 51 were benign. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.984 for DCEMRI+HB phase vs. 0.934 for DCEMRI (p<0.68) and 0.852 for DCECT (p<0.001). For lesions >20 mm (n.40), AUC was 0.984 for DCEMRI+HB phase, 0.999 for DCEMRI, and 0.913 for DCECT, (p=n.s.). For lesions <20 mm (n.85) AUC was 0.982 for DCEMRI+HB phase vs. 0.910 for DCEMRI (p<0.01) and 0.828 for DCECT (p<0.001). Conclusions The addition of HB phase to DCEMRI provides an incremental accuracy of 4.5% compared to DCEMRI and DCECT for HCC detection. The accuracy of Gd-EOB-DTPA-3T-MR significantly improves for lesions <20 mm. No significant improvement is observed for lesions >20 mm and patients with Child-Pugh class B or C. PMID:28217239

  10. Treatment response assessment of breast masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance scans using fuzzy c-means clustering and level set segmentation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Helvie, Mark; Chenevert, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an automated method to segment breast masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) scans and to evaluate its potential for estimating tumor volume on pre- and postchemotherapy images and tumor change in response to treatment. A radiologist experienced in interpreting breast MR scans defined a cuboid volume of interest (VOI) enclosing the mass in the MR volume at one time point within the sequence of DCE-MR scans. The corresponding VOIs over the entire time sequence were then automatically extracted. A new 3D VOI representing the local pharmacokinetic activities in the VOI was generated from the 4D VOI sequence by summarizing the temporal intensity enhancement curve of each voxel with its standard deviation. The method then used the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm followed by morphological filtering for initial mass segmentation. The initial segmentation was refined by the 3D level set (LS) method. The velocity field of the LS method was formulated in terms of the mean curvature which guaranteed the smoothness of the surface, the Sobel edge information which attracted the zero LS to the desired mass margin, and the FCM membership function which improved segmentation accuracy. The method was evaluated on 50 DCE-MR scans of 25 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Each patient had pre- and postchemotherapy DCE-MR scans on a 1.5 T magnet. The in-plane pixel size ranged from 0.546 to 0.703 mm and the slice thickness ranged from 2.5 to 4.5 mm. The flip angle was 15 degrees, repetition time ranged from 5.98 to 6.7 ms, and echo time ranged from 1.2 to 1.3 ms. Computer segmentation was applied to the coronal T1-weighted images. For comparison, the same radiologist who marked the VOI also manually segmented the mass on each slice. The performance of the automated method was quantified using an overlap measure, defined as the ratio of the intersection of the computer and the manual segmentation

  11. Validation of Perfusion Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle.

    PubMed

    Hindel, Stefan; Sauerbrey, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a 3D gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each dynamic sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and dynamic images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in 3D into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles, as measured by the

  12. Validation of Perfusion Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hindel, Stefan; Sauerbrey, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a 3D gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each dynamic sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and dynamic images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in 3D into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles, as measured by the

  13. Validation of Blood Volume Fraction Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Porcine Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Söhner, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Möllmann, Dorothe; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of fractional blood volume (vb) estimates in low-perfused and low-vascularized tissue using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The results of different MRI methods were compared with histology to evaluate the accuracy of these methods under clinical conditions. vb was estimated by DCE-MRI using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space undersampling in five muscle groups in the hind leg of 9 female pigs. Two gadolinium-based contrast agents (CA) were used: a rapidly extravasating, extracellular, gadolinium-based, low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA, gadoterate meglumine) and an extracellular, gadolinium-based, albumin-binding, slowly extravasating blood pool contrast agent (BPCA, gadofosveset trisodium). LMCA data were evaluated using the extended Tofts model (ETM) and the two-compartment exchange model (2CXM). The images acquired with administration of the BPCA were used to evaluate the accuracy of vb estimation with a bolus deconvolution technique (BD) and a method we call equilibrium MRI (EqMRI). The latter calculates the ratio of the magnitude of the relaxation rate change in the tissue curve at an approximate equilibrium state to the height of the same area of the arterial input function (AIF). Immunohistochemical staining with isolectin was used to label endothelium. A light microscope was used to estimate the fractional vascular area by relating the vascular region to the total tissue region (immunohistochemical vessel staining, IHVS). In addition, the percentage fraction of vascular volume was determined by multiplying the microvascular density (MVD) with the average estimated capillary lumen, π(d2)2, where d = 8μm is the assumed capillary diameter (microvascular density estimation, MVDE). Except for ETM values, highly significant correlations were found between most of the MRI methods investigated. In the cranial thigh, for example, the vb medians (interquartile range

  14. Validation of Blood Volume Fraction Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Porcine Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Hindel, Stefan; Söhner, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Möllmann, Dorothe; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of fractional blood volume (vb) estimates in low-perfused and low-vascularized tissue using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The results of different MRI methods were compared with histology to evaluate the accuracy of these methods under clinical conditions. vb was estimated by DCE-MRI using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space undersampling in five muscle groups in the hind leg of 9 female pigs. Two gadolinium-based contrast agents (CA) were used: a rapidly extravasating, extracellular, gadolinium-based, low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA, gadoterate meglumine) and an extracellular, gadolinium-based, albumin-binding, slowly extravasating blood pool contrast agent (BPCA, gadofosveset trisodium). LMCA data were evaluated using the extended Tofts model (ETM) and the two-compartment exchange model (2CXM). The images acquired with administration of the BPCA were used to evaluate the accuracy of vb estimation with a bolus deconvolution technique (BD) and a method we call equilibrium MRI (EqMRI). The latter calculates the ratio of the magnitude of the relaxation rate change in the tissue curve at an approximate equilibrium state to the height of the same area of the arterial input function (AIF). Immunohistochemical staining with isolectin was used to label endothelium. A light microscope was used to estimate the fractional vascular area by relating the vascular region to the total tissue region (immunohistochemical vessel staining, IHVS). In addition, the percentage fraction of vascular volume was determined by multiplying the microvascular density (MVD) with the average estimated capillary lumen, [Formula: see text], where d = 8μm is the assumed capillary diameter (microvascular density estimation, MVDE). Except for ETM values, highly significant correlations were found between most of the MRI methods investigated. In the cranial thigh, for example, the vb medians

  15. MRI of the human eye using magnetization transfer contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lizak, M J; Datiles, M B; Aletras, A H; Kador, P F; Balaban, R S

    2000-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of using magnetization transfer contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track cataractous lens changes. A fast spin-echo sequence was modified to include a magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) preparation pulse train. This consisted of twenty 8.5-msec sinc pulses, 1200 Hz upfield from the water resonance and 1.2-Hz power. The MTC preparation pulse was followed by acquisition through fast spin-echo imaging. The imaging parameters were number of excitations (NEX) = 1, echo time (TE) = 14 msec, recovery time (TR) = 2 sec, echo train length of eight echos, and a matrix size of 256 x 160. To reduce motion artifacts, the volunteers were asked to fixate on a blinking LED. Normal and MTC-enhanced images were acquired from normal volunteers and volunteers with nuclear or cortical cataracts. The eye was adequately imaged, with few motion artifacts appearing. The lens was well resolved, despite the short T(2). The cornea and ciliary body were also clearly visible. In the lens, resolution of the epithelium and cortex were enhanced with MTC. In addition, contrast-to-noise ratios were measured for each image. Examination of the contrast-to-noise ratio confirmed that MTC increased the contrast between the nucleus and cortex. Unenhanced MRIs showed significant differences between the cortex of normal volunteers and volunteers with cataracts. MTC-enhanced images improved the sensitivity to changes in the nucleus. In this preliminary study, we were able to use MTC-enhanced MRI to obtain high-contrast images of the human lens. Regular and enhanced MRIs detected statistically significant differences between normal and cataractous lenses.

  16. Dixon-Type and Subtraction-Type Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography: A Theoretical and Experimental Comparison of SNR and CNR

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, Eric G.; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Weavers, Paul T.; Riederer, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work is to compare the behavior of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in contrast-enhanced MR angiography with background suppression performed by either a Dixon-type or subtraction-type method. Theory and Methods Theoretical expressions for the SNR and CNR for both background suppression techniques were derived. The theoretical Dixon:subtraction SNR and CNR ratios were compared to empirical ratios measured from phantom and in vivo studies for Dixon techniques utilizing one, two, and three echoes. Specifically, the SNR and CNR ratios were compared as the concentration of contrast material in the blood changed. Results Empirical measurements of the SNR and CNR ratios compared favorably with the ratios predicted by theory. As the contrast concentration was reduced, the SNR advantage of the Dixon techniques increased asymptotically. In the ideal case, the SNR improvement over subtraction contrast-enhanced MR angiography was at least twofold for one- and two-echo Dixon techniques and at least a factor of 6 for the three-echo Dixon technique. Conclusion: Expressions showing a contrast concentration-dependent SNR and CNR improvement of at least a factor of two when Dixon-type contrast-enhanced MR angiography is used in place of subtraction-type contrast-enhanced MR angiography were derived and validated with phantom and in vivo experiments. PMID:25043453

  17. Technical innovation in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal tumors: an MR angiographic sequence using a sparse k-space sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Laura M; Mugera, Charles; Soldatos, Theodoros; Flammang, Aaron; del Grande, Filippo

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the clinical use of an MR angiography sequence performed with sparse k-space sampling (MRA), as a method for dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and apply it to the assessment of sarcomas for treatment response. Three subjects with sarcomas (2 with osteosarcoma, 1 with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas) underwent MRI after neoadjuvant therapy/prior to surgery, with conventional MRI (T1-weighted, fluid-sensitive, static post-contrast T1-weighted sequences) and DCE-MRI (MRA, time resolution = 7-10 s, TR/TE 2.4/0.9 ms, FOV 40 cm(2)). Images were reviewed by two observers in consensus who recorded image quality (1 = diagnostic, no significant artifacts, 2 = diagnostic, <25 % artifacts, 3 = nondiagnostic) and contrast enhancement characteristics by static MRI (presence/absence of contrast enhancement, percentage of enhancement) and DCE-MRI (presence/absence of arterial enhancement with time-intensity curves). Results were compared with histological response (defined as <5 % viable tumor [soft tissue sarcoma] or <10 % [bone sarcoma] following resection). Diagnostic quality for all conventional and DCE-MRI sequences was rated as 1. In 2 of the 3 sarcomas, there was good histological response (≤5 % viable tumor); in 1 there was poor response (50 % viable tumor). By static post-contrast T1-weighted sequences, there was enhancement in all sarcomas, regardless of response (up to >75 % with good response, >75 % with poor response). DCE-MRI findings were concordant with histological response (arterial enhancement with poor response, no arterial enhancement with good response). Unlike conventional DCE-MRI sequences, an MRA sequence with sparse k-space sampling is easily integrated into a routine musculoskeletal tumor MRI protocol, with high diagnostic quality. In this preliminary work, tumor enhancement characteristics by DCE-MRI were used to assess treatment response.

  18. [A study on the predictive and evaluational value of molecular subtypes and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-qing; Ye, Jing-ming; Xu, Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Jian-xin; Duan, Xue-ning; Liu, Yin-hua

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the predictive value of molecular subtypes and the evaluational value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. From January 2010 to December 2011, the 79 patients diagnosed as primary invasive breast cancer, having received 6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and finished the mastectomy or the breast conserving surgery entered this study. A total of 79 patients participated in this prospective study. There were 6 (7.6%) luminal A cases, 42 (53.2%) luminal B cases, 14 HER-2 (17.7%) positive cases and 17 (21.5%) triple negative cases. The associations between molecular subtypes and clinical response as well as the pathological response were analyzed. The predictive value of molecular subtypes for the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was studied. Clinical effective rate was 85.3% (66/79). There was no statistical correlation between molecular subtypes and clinical effective rate. Pathologic effective rate was 79.7% (63/79). There was no statistical correlation between molecular subtypes and pathologic effective rate. Twenty-seven case achieved pathologic complete remission (pCR) in all the patients. No case achieved pCR in the patients classified as Luminal A. Twelve cases (28.6%, 12/42) achieved pCR in the luminal B patients.Five cases (5/14) achieved pCR in the HER-2 overexpression patients. Ten cases (10/17) achieved pCR in the triple-negative patients. There was a statistical correlation between the molecular subtypes and the pCR rate (P = 0.039), and between clinical evaluation by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and evaluation of pathological response (r = 0.432, P = 0.000). Molecular subtypes and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI have a good value of predicting and evaluating the response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on breast cancer.

  19. Perilesional Inflammation in Neurocysticercosis - Relationship Between Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Evans Blue Staining and Histopathology in the Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Calcina, Juan; Vargas-Calla, Ana; Suarez, Diego; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Chacaltana, Juan; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.; García, Hector H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease manifestations in neurocysticercosis (NCC) are frequently due to inflammation of degenerating Taenia solium brain cysts. Exacerbated inflammation post anthelmintic treatment is associated with leakage of the blood brain barrier (BBB) using Evans blue (EB) staining. How well EB extravasation into the brain correlates with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium (Gd) enhancement as a contrast agent and pericystic inflammation was analyzed in pigs harboring brain cysts of Taenia solium. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of 4 naturally infected pigs were assessed. The first and second groups were treated with both praziquantel plus albendazole and sacrificed two and five days post treatment, respectively. A third untreated group remained untreated. Pigs were injected with EB two hours prior to evaluation by Gd-enhanced T1-MRI, and euthanized. The EB staining for each cyst capsule was scored (EB grades were 0: 0%; 1: up to 50%; 2: over 50% but less than 100%; 3: 100%). Similarly, the Gd enhancement around each cyst was qualitatively and quantitatively scored from the MRI. The extent of pericystic inflammation on histology was scored in increasing severity as IS1, IS2, IS3 and IS4. Grade 3 EB staining and enhancement was only seen in treated capsules. Also, treated groups had higher Gd intensity than the untreated group. Grades of enhancement correlated significantly with Gd enhancement intensity. EB staining was correlated with Gd enhancement intensity and with IS4 in the treated groups. These correlations were stronger in internally located cysts compared to superficial cysts in treated groups. Significance EB staining and Gd enhancement strongly correlate. The intensity of enhancement determined by MRI is a good indication of the degree of inflammation. Similarly, EB staining highly correlates with the degree of inflammation and may be applied to study inflammation in the pig model of NCC. PMID:27459388

  20. Perilesional Inflammation in Neurocysticercosis - Relationship Between Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Evans Blue Staining and Histopathology in the Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Cangalaya, Carla; Bustos, Javier A; Calcina, Juan; Vargas-Calla, Ana; Suarez, Diego; Gonzalez, Armando E; Chacaltana, Juan; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E; García, Hector H

    2016-07-01

    Disease manifestations in neurocysticercosis (NCC) are frequently due to inflammation of degenerating Taenia solium brain cysts. Exacerbated inflammation post anthelmintic treatment is associated with leakage of the blood brain barrier (BBB) using Evans blue (EB) staining. How well EB extravasation into the brain correlates with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using gadolinium (Gd) enhancement as a contrast agent and pericystic inflammation was analyzed in pigs harboring brain cysts of Taenia solium. Three groups of 4 naturally infected pigs were assessed. The first and second groups were treated with both praziquantel plus albendazole and sacrificed two and five days post treatment, respectively. A third untreated group remained untreated. Pigs were injected with EB two hours prior to evaluation by Gd-enhanced T1-MRI, and euthanized. The EB staining for each cyst capsule was scored (EB grades were 0: 0%; 1: up to 50%; 2: over 50% but less than 100%; 3: 100%). Similarly, the Gd enhancement around each cyst was qualitatively and quantitatively scored from the MRI. The extent of pericystic inflammation on histology was scored in increasing severity as IS1, IS2, IS3 and IS4. Grade 3 EB staining and enhancement was only seen in treated capsules. Also, treated groups had higher Gd intensity than the untreated group. Grades of enhancement correlated significantly with Gd enhancement intensity. EB staining was correlated with Gd enhancement intensity and with IS4 in the treated groups. These correlations were stronger in internally located cysts compared to superficial cysts in treated groups. EB staining and Gd enhancement strongly correlate. The intensity of enhancement determined by MRI is a good indication of the degree of inflammation. Similarly, EB staining highly correlates with the degree of inflammation and may be applied to study inflammation in the pig model of NCC.

  1. Resting myocardial blood flow quantification using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the presence of stenosis: A computational fluid dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Karsten E-mail: Schreiber-L@ukw.de; Bernat, Dominik; Schmidt, Regine; Breit, Hanns-Christian; Schreiber, Laura M. E-mail: Schreiber-L@ukw.de

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The extent to which atherosclerotic plaques affect contrast agent (CA) transport in the coronary arteries and, hence, quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unclear. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of plaque induced stenosis both on CA transport and on the accuracy of MBF quantification. Methods: Computational fluid dynamics simulations in a high-detailed realistic vascular model were employed to investigate CA bolus transport in the coronary arteries. The impact of atherosclerosis was analyzed by inserting various medium- to high-grade stenoses in the vascular model. The influence of stenosis morphology was examined by varying the stenosis shapes but keeping the area reduction constant. Errors due to CA bolus transport were analyzed using the tracer-kinetic model MMID4. Results: Dispersion of the CA bolus was found in all models and for all outlets, but with a varying magnitude. The impact of stenosis was complex: while high-grade stenoses amplified dispersion, mild stenoses reduced the effect. Morphology was found to have a marked influence on dispersion for a small number of outlets in the post-stenotic region. Despite this marked influence on the concentration–time curves, MBF errors were less affected by stenosis. In total, MBF was underestimated by −7.9% to −44.9%. Conclusions: The presented results reveal that local hemodynamics in the coronary vasculature appears to have a direct impact on CA bolus dispersion. Inclusion of atherosclerotic plaques resulted in a complex alteration of this effect, with both degree of area reduction and stenosis morphology affecting the amount of dispersion. This strong influence of vascular transport effects impairs the accuracy of MRI-based MBF quantification techniques and, potentially, other bolus-based perfusion measurement techniques like computed tomography perfusion imaging.

  2. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of experimentally collagen-induced arthritis in rats using the nonspecific dye tetrasulfocyanine in comparison with gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, histology, and clinical score

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemeinhardt, Ines; Puls, Dorothee; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Schnorr, Beatrix; Licha, Kai; Schirner, Michael; Ebert, Bernd; Petzelt, Diethard; Macdonald, Rainer; Schnorr, Jörg

    2012-10-01

    Using 15 rats with collagen-induced arthritis (30 joints) and 7 control rats (14 joints), we correlated the intensity of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) of the nonspecific dye tetrasulfocyanine (TSC) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histopathology, and clinical score. Fluorescence images were obtained in reflection geometry using a NIRF camera system. Normalized fluorescence intensity (INF) was determined after intravenous dye administration on different time points up to 120 min. Contrast-enhanced MRI using gadodiamide was performed after NIRF imaging. Analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. Histopathological and clinical scores were determined for each ankle joint. INF of moderate and high-grade arthritic joints were significantly higher (p<0.005) than the values of control and low-grade arthritic joints between 5 and 30 min after TSC-injection. This result correlated well with post-contrast MRI signal intensities at about 5 min after gadodiamide administration. Furthermore, INF and signal increase on contrast-enhanced MRI showed high correlation with clinical and histopathological scores. Sensitivities and specificities for detection of moderate and high-grade arthritic joints were slightly lower for NIRF imaging (89%/81%) than for MRI (100%/91%). NIRF imaging using TSC, which is characterized by slower plasma clearance compared to indocyanine green (ICG), has the potential to improve monitoring of inflamed joints.

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of osseous spine metastasis before and 1 hour after high-dose image-guided radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Saha, Atin; Peck, Kyung K; Zatcky, Joan; Zelefsky, Michael J; Yamada, Yoshiya; Holodny, Andrei I; Bilsky, Mark H; Karimi, Sasan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE High-dose image-guided radiation therapy (HD IGRT) has been instrumental in mitigating some limitations of conventional RT. The recent emergence of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI to investigate tumor physiology can be used to verify the response of human tumors to HD IGRT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near-immediate effects of HD IGRT on spine metastases through the use of DCE MRI perfusion studies. METHODS Six patients with spine metastases from prostate, thyroid, and renal cell carcinoma who underwent HD IGRT were studied using DCE MRI prior to and 1 hour after HD IGRT. The DCE perfusion parameters plasma volume (Vp) and vascular permeability (Ktrans) were measured to assess the near-immediate and long-term tumor response. A Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to compare significant changes (at p ≤ 0.05) in perfusion parameters before and after RT. RESULTS The authors observed a precipitous drop in Vp within 1 hour of HD IGRT, with a mean decrease of 65.2%. A significant difference was found between Vp values for before and 1 hour after RT (p ≤ 0.05). No significant change was seen in Vp (p = 0.31) and Ktrans (p = 0.1) from 1 hour after RT to the first follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The data suggest that there is an immediate effect of HD IGRT on the vascularity of spine metastases, as demonstrated by a precipitous decrease in Vp. The DCE MRI studies can detect such changes within 1 hour after RT, and findings are concordant with existing animal models.

  4. High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (CE-MRA) using Compressed Sensing with Magnitude Image Subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Rapacchi, Stanislas; Han, Fei; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Kroeker, Randall; Plotnik, Adam; Lehman, Evan; Sayre, James; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul; Hu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We propose a compressed-sensing (CS) technique based on magnitude image subtraction for high spatial and temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). Methods Our technique integrates the magnitude difference image into the CS reconstruction to promote subtraction sparsity. Fully sampled Cartesian 3D CE-MRA datasets from 6 volunteers were retrospectively under-sampled and three reconstruction strategies were evaluated: k-space subtraction CS, independent CS, and magnitude subtraction CS. The techniques were compared in image quality (vessel delineation, image artifacts, and noise) and image reconstruction error. Our CS technique was further tested on 7 volunteers using a prospectively under-sampled CE-MRA sequence. Results Compared with k-space subtraction and independent CS, our magnitude subtraction CS provides significantly better vessel delineation and less noise at 4X acceleration, and significantly less reconstruction error at 4X and 8X (p<0.05 for all). On a 1–4 point image quality scale in vessel delineation, our technique scored 3.8±0.4 at 4X, 2.8±0.4 at 8X and 2.3±0.6 at 12X acceleration. Using our CS sequence at 12X acceleration, we were able to acquire dynamic CE-MRA with higher spatial and temporal resolution than current clinical TWIST protocol while maintaining comparable image quality (2.8±0.5 vs. 3.0±0.4, p=NS). Conclusion Our technique is promising for dynamic CE-MRA. PMID:23801456

  5. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in high-risk smokers and smoking-related COPD: correlations with pulmonary function tests and quantitative computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi; Guan, Yu; Fan, Li; Liu, Shi-Yuan; Yu, Hong; Zhao, Li-Ming; Li, Bing

    2014-09-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR perfusion imaging, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and volume quantitative CT in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine the value of DCE-MR perfusion imaging and CT volumetric imaging on the assessment of smokers. According to the ATS/ERS guidelines, 51 male smokers were categorized into five groups: At risk for COPD (n = 8), mild COPD (n = 9), moderate COPD (n = 12), severe COPD (n = 10), and very severe COPD (n = 12). Maximum slope of increase (MSI), positive enhancement integral (PEI), etc. were obtained from MR perfusion data. The signal intensity ratio (RSI) of the PDs and normal lung was calculated (RSI = SIPD/SInormal). Total lung volume (TLV), total emphysema volume (TEV) and emphysema index (EI) were obtained from volumetric CT data. For "at risk for COPD," the positive rate of PDs on MR perfusion images was higher than that of abnormal changes on non-enhanced CT images (p < 0.05). Moderate-to-strong positive correlations were found between all the PFT parameters and SIPD, or RSI (r range 0.445∼0.683, p ≤ 0.001). TEV and EI were negatively correlated better with FEV1/FVC than other PFT parameters (r range -0.48 --0.63, p < 0.001). There were significant differences in RSI and SIPD between "at risk for COPD" and "very severe COPD," and between "mild COPD" and "very severe COPD". Thus, MR perfusion imaging may be a good approach to identify early evidence of COPD and may have potential to assist in classification of COPD.

  6. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Predictor of Outcome in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients With Nodal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla-Dave, Amita; Lee, Nancy Y.; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Thaler, Howard T.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Snehal G.; Moreira, Andre L.; Sherman, Eric; Karimi, Sasan; Wang, Ya; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.; and others

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can provide information regarding tumor perfusion and permeability and has shown prognostic value in certain tumors types. The goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment DCE-MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with nodal disease undergoing chemoradiation therapy or surgery. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma and neck nodal metastases were eligible for the study. Pretreatment DCE-MRI was performed on a 1.5T MRI. Clinical follow-up was a minimum of 12 months. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using the Tofts model. DCE-MRI parameters were related to treatment outcome (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]). Patients were grouped as no evidence of disease (NED), alive with disease (AWD), dead with disease (DOD), or dead of other causes (DOC). Prognostic significance was assessed using the log-rank test for single variables and Cox proportional hazards regression for combinations of variables. Results: At last clinical follow-up, for Stage III, all 12 patients were NED. For Stage IV, 43 patients were NED, 4 were AWD, 11 were DOD, and 4 were DOC. K{sup trans} is volume transfer constant. In a stepwise Cox regression, skewness of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant) was the strongest predictor for Stage IV patients (PFS and OS: p <0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows that skewness of K{sup trans} was the strongest predictor of PFS and OS in Stage IV HNSCC patients with nodal disease. This study suggests an important role for pretreatment DCE-MRI parameter K{sup trans} as a predictor of outcome in these patients.

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging measurements in renal cell carcinoma: effect of region of interest size and positioning on interobserver and intraobserver variability.

    PubMed

    Braunagel, Margarita; Radler, Elisabeth; Ingrisch, Michael; Staehler, Michael; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Rist, Carsten; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Notohamiprodjo, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of region of interest (ROI) size and positioning on perfusion and permeability parameters as well as on interobserver and intraobserver variability of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI) of primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases. Thirty-nine DCE-MRI examinations of 34 patients with primary RCC and 20 examinations of 9 patients with RCC metastases obtained at 1.5 T were evaluated. Pretreatment and posttreatment analysis with antiangiogenic therapy was performed in 4 patients with primary RCCs and 5 patients with metastases. The ROIs of the whole tumor (wROI), the circular edge (cROI), a user-defined arbitrary small region (sROI), and a semiautomated segmented ROI were independently defined by 2 readers on 1 slice on arterial phase DCE-MRI images or on parametric plasma-flow maps. Analysis with a 2-compartment exchange model provided 4 parameters: plasma flow (FP), plasma volume (vp), permeability-surface product (PS), and extravascular-extracellular volume (ve). Interobserver and intraobserver parameter correlations were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient, and within-subject variability were considered on the basis of the coefficient of variation. Differences in measurement values of variable ROI size were assessed with paired t test. Mean values of FP and vp with sROIs were significantly higher than those with wROI, cROI, and semiautomated segmented ROI placement in tumor or metastases. Values of ve showed no significant difference between ROI sizes. The highest interobserver and intraobserver correlation with 0.99/0.98 for metastases and 0.97/0.98 for primary RCCs, respectively, was observed for all parameters when defining wROIs on dynamic images. Perfusion parameters of wROI measurements for FP (dynamic, 0.97; parametric maps, 0.96) and vp (0.95/0.89) showed higher interobserver correlation than did permeability parameters ve (0.64/0.6) and PS (0.79/0.5) in primary RCCs. The w

  8. The Impact of Arterial Input Function Determination Variations on Prostate Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pharmacokinetic Modeling: A Multicenter Data Analysis Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Yiyi; Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xia; Jajamovich, Guido H.; Malyarenko, Dariya I.; Aryal, Madhava P.; LaViolette, Peter S.; Oborski, Matthew J.; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Abramson, Richard G.; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Afzal, Aneela; Tudorica, Alina; Moloney, Brendan; Gupta, Sandeep N.; Besa, Cecilia; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Mountz, James M.; Laymon, Charles M.; Muzi, Mark; Schmainda, Kathleen; Cao, Yue; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Taouli, Bachir; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Fennessy, Fiona; Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has been widely used in tumor detection and therapy response evaluation. Pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI time-course data allows estimation of quantitative imaging biomarkers such as Ktrans(rate constant for plasma/interstitium contrast reagent (CR) transfer) and ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction). However, the use of quantitative DCE-MRI in clinical prostate imaging islimited, with uncertainty in arterial input function (AIF, i.e., the time rate of change of the concentration of CR in the blood plasma) determination being one of the primary reasons. In this multicenter data analysis challenge to assess the effects of variations in AIF quantification on estimation of DCE-MRI parameters, prostate DCE-MRI data acquired at one center from 11 prostate cancer patients were shared among nine centers. Each center used its site-specific method to determine the individual AIF from each data set and submitted the results to the managing center. Along with a literature population averaged AIF, these AIFs and their reference-tissue-adjusted variants were used by the managing center to perform pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data sets using the Tofts model (TM). All other variables including tumor region of interest (ROI) definition and pre-contrast T1 were kept the same to evaluate parameter variations caused by AIF variations only. Considerable pharmacokinetic parameter variations were observed with the within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV) of Ktrans obtained with unadjusted AIFs as high as 0.74. AIF-caused variations were larger in Ktrans than ve and both were reduced when reference-tissue-adjusted AIFs were used. The parameter variations were largely systematic, resulting in nearly unchanged parametric map patterns. The CR intravasation rate constant, kep (= Ktrans/ve), was less sensitive to AIF variation than Ktrans (wCV for unadjusted AIFs: 0.45 for kep vs. 0.74 for Ktrans), suggesting that it

  9. The Impact of Arterial Input Function Determination Variations on Prostate Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pharmacokinetic Modeling: A Multicenter Data Analysis Challenge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Yiyi; Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xia; Jajamovich, Guido H; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Aryal, Madhava P; LaViolette, Peter S; Oborski, Matthew J; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Abramson, Richard G; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Afzal, Aneela; Tudorica, Alina; Moloney, Brendan; Gupta, Sandeep N; Besa, Cecilia; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Mountz, James M; Laymon, Charles M; Muzi, Mark; Schmainda, Kathleen; Cao, Yue; Chenevert, Thomas L; Taouli, Bachir; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Fennessy, Fiona; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has been widely used in tumor detection and therapy response evaluation. Pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI time-course data allows estimation of quantitative imaging biomarkers such as K(trans)(rate constant for plasma/interstitium contrast reagent (CR) transfer) and ve (extravascular and extracellular volume fraction). However, the use of quantitative DCE-MRI in clinical prostate imaging islimited, with uncertainty in arterial input function (AIF, i.e., the time rate of change of the concentration of CR in the blood plasma) determination being one of the primary reasons. In this multicenter data analysis challenge to assess the effects of variations in AIF quantification on estimation of DCE-MRI parameters, prostate DCE-MRI data acquired at one center from 11 prostate cancer patients were shared among nine centers. Each center used its site-specific method to determine the individual AIF from each data set and submitted the results to the managing center. Along with a literature population averaged AIF, these AIFs and their reference-tissue-adjusted variants were used by the managing center to perform pharmacokinetic analysis of the DCE-MRI data sets using the Tofts model (TM). All other variables including tumor region of interest (ROI) definition and pre-contrast T1 were kept the same to evaluate parameter variations caused by AIF variations only. Considerable pharmacokinetic parameter variations were observed with the within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV) of K(trans) obtained with unadjusted AIFs as high as 0.74. AIF-caused variations were larger in K(trans) than ve and both were reduced when reference-tissue-adjusted AIFs were used. The parameter variations were largely systematic, resulting in nearly unchanged parametric map patterns. The CR intravasation rate constant, kep (= K(trans)/ve), was less sensitive to AIF variation than K(trans) (wCV for unadjusted AIFs: 0.45 for kepvs. 0.74 for K

  10. Comparison of self-gated and prospectively triggered fast low angle shot (FLASH) sequences for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver at 9.4 T in a rat model of colorectal cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Fries, Peter; Seidel, Roland; Müller, Andreas; Matthes, Kathrin; Denda, Gero; Massmann, Alexander; Menger, Michael D; Sperling, Jens; Morelli, John N; Altmeyer, Katrin; Schneider, Günther; Buecker, Arno

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a retrospectively self-gated fast low angle shot sequence (RSG-FLASH) with a prospectively triggered fast low angle shot sequence (PT-FLASH) using an external trigger device for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver at 9.4 T in a rat model of colorectal cancer metastases. In 10 rats with hepatic metastases, we acquired an axial RSG-FLASH sequence through the liver. A FLASH sequence with prospective triggering (PT-FLASH) using an external trigger device was acquired at the same location with the same imaging parameters. After intravenous injection of 0.2 mmol/kg body weight of Gd-DTPA, alternating acquisitions of both sequences were performed at 4 consecutive time points.Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and lesion enhancement were obtained for liver tumors and parenchyma. In addition, we assessed the total acquisition times of the different imaging approaches for each acquisition, including triggering and gating. Two independent readers performed a qualitative evaluation of each sequence. Statistical analyses included paired t tests and Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank tests. No statistically significant differences in SNR, CNR, or lesion enhancement were observed. Qualitative assessments of the sequences were comparable. However, acquisition times of PT-FLASH were significantly longer (mean [SD], 160.6 [25.7] seconds; P < 0.0001) and markedly variable (minimum, 120 seconds; maximum, 209 seconds), whereas the RSG-FLASH approach demonstrated a constant mean (SD) acquisition time of 59.0 (0) seconds. The RSG-FLASH and PT-FLASH sequences do not differ qualitatively or quantitatively regarding SNR, CNR, and lesion enhancement for magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in the rats at 9.4 T. However, the variability of acquisition times for the PT-FLASH sequences is a major factor of inconsistency, and we therefore consider this approach as inappropriate for dynamic contrast-enhanced

  11. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in rabbits: evaluation of the gadolinium-based agent p846 and the iron-based blood pool agent p904 in comparison with gadoterate meglumine.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Sonja; Maderwald, Stefan; Parohl, Nina; Albert, Juliane; Corot, Claire; Robert, Philippe; Barkhausen, Jörg; Vogt, Florian M

    2011-08-01

    : To evaluate the performance of a gadolinium-based contrast compound (P846) as well as an ultra-small particle of iron oxide agent (P904) in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in rabbits and to compare those agents with gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA) for first pass and steady state imaging. : A total of 6 rabbits underwent contrast-enhanced MRA of the aorta and its branches at 3 different time points. All examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR (Siemens HealthCare, Magnetom Espree), and the contrast agents were applied in random order. Image data were acquired using a time-resolved MRA sequence (time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories) during the first pass to assess the bolus phase and a high-resolution MRA sequence followed by repetitive measurements over the next 10 minutes for all 3 agents to evaluate the postbolus phase. Two radiologists reviewed the images in consensus blinded to the contrast agent used. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio for three-dimensional high-resolution MRA were calculated for each time point and agent. Image quality was consensually evaluated on a 4-point Likert scale. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison with P < 0.05 as level of statistical significance. : All agents led to diagnostic MR angiograms in all 6 rabbits. The time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories datasets provided detailed information about the bolus phase for all the 3 agents. During the first pass, P904 and P846 proved to be superior to Gd-DOTA with the highest peak enhancement for P846. In the postbolus phase up to 10 minutes postcontrast injection, P904 proved to be superior to the other agents. All the agents led to excellent image quality, with no statistical difference to a maximum of 3 minutes postinjection, whereas thereafter images with Gd-DOTA and P846 were assessed as nondiagnostic. : P846 and P904 proved to be superior to Gd-DOTA for time-resolved MRA. The ultra

  12. Serial Assessment of Therapeutic Response to a New Radiosensitization Treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II), in Patients with Stage I/II Breast Cancer Using Breast Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yaogawa, Shin; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Morita-Tokuhiro, Shiho; Tsuzuki, Akira; Akima, Ryo; Itoh, Kenji; Morio, Kazuo; Yasunami, Hiroaki; Onogawa, Masahide; Kariya, Shinji; Nogami, Munenobu; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have developed a new radiosensitization treatment called Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II). Using KORTUC II, we performed breast-conserving treatment (BCT) without any surgical procedure for elderly patients with breast cancer in stages I/II or patients refusing surgery. Since surgery was not performed, histological confirmation of the primary tumor region following KORTUC II treatment was not possible. Therefore, to precisely evaluate the response to this new therapy, a detailed diagnostic procedure is needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic response to KORTUC II treatment in patients with stage I/II breast cancer using annual breast contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Twenty-one patients with stage I/II breast cancer who were elderly and/or refused surgery were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent MRI prior to and at 3 to 6 months after KORTUC II, and then approximately biannually thereafter. Findings from MRI were compared with those from other diagnostic modalities performed during the same time period. Results: KORTUC II was well tolerated, with minimal adverse effects. All of 21 patients showed a clinically complete response (cCR) on CE MRI. The mean period taken to confirm cCR on the breast CE MRI was approximately 14 months. The mean follow-up period for the patients was 61.9 months at the end of October 2014. Conclusions: The therapeutic effect of BCT using KORTUC II without surgery could be evaluated by biannual CE MRI evaluations. Approximately 14 months were required to achieve cCR in response to this therapy. PMID:26703733

  13. Screening for brain metastases in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer: Is there additive value of magnetic resonance imaging above a contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the brain?

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Lizza E L; Bootsma, Gerben P; de Ruysscher, Dirk K M; Scheppers, Nicole A M; Hofman, Paul A M; Brans, Boudewijn T; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C

    2013-06-01

    Stage III NSCLC patients are candidates for treatment with curative intent. Current guidelines advise post contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) of the brain in these patients to exclude brain metastases (BM). In previous small studies MRI was reported to be superior to CE-CT. However, CT and MR technology have evolved and 18F-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography (18FDG-PET) has been implemented in staging of NSCLC. If CE-CT, performed together with 18FDG-PET-CT shows the same yield of BM detection as an additionally performed MRI, substantial gain in time and resources is expected. All NSCLC patients who underwent a staging 18FDG-PET-CT between January 2008 and September 2011 were reviewed. Neurological asymptomatic patients with stage III NSCLC who were eligible for treatment with curative intent were selected, without taking into account the results of brain MRI. CT was compared to MRI to investigate whether additional BM were detected on MRI. Development of BM within a year after negative MRI was recorded. 97/429 NSCLC patients who underwent a PET-CT had stage III disease. Three otherwise stage III patients already had occult BM on CE-CT. 77/97 (79%) patients underwent MRI, 45/77 (58%) CE-CT and 32/77 (42%) LD-CT. In none of the CE-CT, but in 5/32 (16%) LD-CT patients BM were detected on MRI. 9/72 patients (13%) without BM on MRI at diagnosis developed BM within a year. This retrospective study suggests that there is no additive value of MRI to 18FDG-PET-CT with CE-CT in screening for BM in neurological asymptomatic patients with stage III NSCLC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the assessment of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy of a U87-derived glioma model in the athymic nude rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anka, Ali; Thompson, Paul; Mott, Eric; Sharma, Rahul; Zhang, Ruozhen; Cross, Nathan; Sun, Jiayang; Flask, Chris A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2010-02-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) may provide a means of tracking the outcome of Pc 4-sensitized photodynamic therapy (PDT) in deeply placed lesions (e.g., brain tumors). We previously determined that 150 μL of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA) produces optimal enhancement of U87-derived intracerebral tumors in an athymic nude rat glioma model. We wish to determine how consistently DCE-MRI enhancement will detect an increase in Gd-enhancement of these tumors following Pc 4-PDT. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 6 athymic nude rats. After 7-8 days pre-Pc 4 PDT peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0T microMRI scanner before and after administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated on Days 11, 12, and 13 following Pc 4-PDT (Day 8 or 9). Results: Useful DCE-MRI data were obtained for these animals before and after Pc 4- PDT. In the pre-Pc 4-PDT DCE-MRI scans an average normalized peak Gd enhancement was observed in tumor tissue that was 1.297 times greater than baseline (0.035 Standard Error [SE]). The average normalized peak Gd enhancement in the tumor tissue in the scan following PDT (Day 11) was 1.537 times greater than baseline (0.036 SE), a statistically significant increase in enhancement (p = 0.00584) over the pre-PDT level. Discussion: A 150 μL Gd dose appears to provide an unambiguous increase in signal indicating Pc 4-PDT-induced necrosis of the U87-derived tumor. Our DCEMRI protocol may allow the development of a clinically robust, unambiguous, non-invasive technique for the assessment of PDT outcome.

  15. Dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of photodynamic therapy (PDT) outcome and associated changes in the blood-brain barrier following Pc 4-PDT of glioma in an athymic nude rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Vaijayantee; Anka, Ali; Cross, Nathan; Thompson, Paul; Mott, Eric; Sharma, Rahul; Gray, Kayla; Zhang, Ruozhen; Xu, Yueshuo; Sun, Jiayang; Flask, Chris A.; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) appears to provide an unambiguous means of tracking the outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of brain tumors with the photosensitizer Pc 4. The increase in Gd enhancement observed after Pc 4-PDT may be due to a temporary opening of the blood-brain-barrier which, as noted by others, may offer a therapeutic window. Methods: We injected 2.5 x 105 U87 cells into the brains of 9 athymic nude rats. After 8-9 days peri-tumor DCE-MRI images were acquired on a 7.0 T microMRI scanner before and after the administration of 150 μL Gd. DCE-MRI scans were repeated three times following Pc 4-PDT. Results: The average, normalized peak enhancement in the tumor region, approximately 30-90 seconds after Gd administration, was 1.31 times greater than baseline (0.03 Standard Error [SE]) prior to PDT and was 1.44 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the first Post-PDT scans (Day 11), a statistically significant (p ~ 0.014, N=8) increase over the Pre- PDT scans, and was 1.38 (0.02 SE) times baseline in the second scans (Day 12), also a statistically significant (p ~ 0.008, N=7) increase. Observations were mixed in the third Post-PDT scans (Day 13), averaging 1.29 (0.03 SE) times baseline (p ~ 0.66, N=7). Overall a downward trend in enhancement was observed from the first to the third Post-PDT scans. Discussion: DCE-MRI may provide an unambiguous indication of brain tumor PDT outcome. The initial increase in DCE-MRI signal may correlate with a temporary, PDT-induced opening of the blood-brain-barrier, creating a potential therapeutic window.

  16. Comparing the Detectability of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by C-Arm Dual-Phase Cone-Beam Computed Tomography During Hepatic Arteriography With Conventional Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Loffroy, Romaric; Lin, MingDe; Rao, Pramod; Bhagat, Nikhil; Noordhoek, Niels; Radaelli, Alessandro; Blijd, Jaerl; Geschwind, Jean-Francois

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of dual-phase cone-beam computed tomography during hepatic arteriography (CBCTHA) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by comparing it with the diagnostic imaging 'gold standard': contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight HCC lesions (mean diameter 3.9 {+-} 3.3 cm) in 20 patients (13 men, mean age 61.4 years [range 50 to 80]), who sequentially underwent baseline diagnostic liver CE-MRI and then underwent early arterial- and delayed portal venous-phase CBCTHA during drug eluting-bead transarterial chemoembolization, were evaluated. Dual-phase CBCTHA findings of each tumor in terms of conspicuity were compared with standard CE-MR images and classified into three grades: optimal, suboptimal, and nondiagnostic. Results: Seventy-seven (mean diameter 4.2 {+-} 3.4 cm [range 0.9 to 15.9]) (93.9%) of 82 tumors were detected. Sensitivity of arterial-phase (71.9%) was lower than that of venous-phase CBCTHA (86.6%) for the detection of HCC lesions. Of the 82 tumors, 33 (40.2%) and 52 (63.4%), 26 (31.7%) and 19 (23.2%), and 23 (28%) and 11 (13.4%) nodules were classed as optimal, suboptimal, and nondiagnostic on arterial- and venous-phase CBCTHA images, respectively. Seventeen (73.9%) of the 23 tumors that were not visible on arterial phase were detected on venous phase. Six (54.5%) of the 11 tumors that were not visible on venous phase were detected on arterial phase. Conclusions: Dual-phase CBCTHA has sufficient image quality to detect the majority of HCC lesions compared with the imaging 'gold standard': CE-MRI of the liver. Moreover, dual-phase CBCTHA is more useful and reliable than single-phasic imaging to depict HCC nodules.

  17. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Rapidly Indicates Vessel Regression in Human Squamous Cell Carcinomas Grown in Nude Mice Caused by VEGF Receptor 2 Blockade with DC1011

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Fabian; Farhan, Nabeel; Lichy, Matthias P; Vosseler, Silvia; Heilmann, Melanie; Krix, Martin; Bohlen, Peter; Miller, Dan W; Mueller, Margareta M; Semmler, Wolfhard; Fusenig, Norbert E; Stefan, Delorme

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of our study was the investigation of early changes in tumor vascularization during antiangiogenic therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 antibody (DC101) using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI). Subcutaneous heterotransplants of human skin squamous cell carcinomas in nude mice were treated with DC101. Animals were examined before and repeatedly during 2 weeks of antiangiogenic treatment using Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted MRI. With a two-compartment model, dynamic data were parameterized in “amplitude” (increase of signal intensity relative to precontrast value) and kep (exchange rate constant). Data obtained by MRI were validated by parallel examinations of histological sections immunostained for blood vessels (CD31). Already 2 days after the first DC101 application, a decrease of tumor vascularization was observed, which preceded a reduction of tumor volume. The difference between treated tumors and controls became prominent after 4 days, when amplitudes of treated tumors were decreased by 61% (P = .02). In line with change of microvessel density, the decrease in amplitudes was most pronounced in tumor centers. On day 7, the mean tumor volumes of treated (153 ± 843 mm3) and control animals (596 ± 384 mm3) were significantly different (P = .03). After 14 days, treated tumors showed further growth reduction (83 ± 93 mm3), whereas untreated tumors (1208 ± 822 mm3) continued to increase (P = .02). Our data underline the efficacy of DC101 as antiangiogenic treatment in human squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in nude mice and indicate DCE MRI as a valuable tool for early detection of treatment effects before changes in tumor volume become apparent. PMID:15153333

  18. Comparison of Fenestra VC Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging with gadopentetate dimeglumine and ferucarbotran magnetic resonance imaging for the in vivo evaluation of murine liver damage after ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Lizak, Martin; Schimel, Daniel; Helmberger, Thomas; Ward, Jerrold M; Despres, Daryl; Kaufmann, Ines; Bruns, Christiane; Löhe, Florian; Ohta, Akio; Sitkovsky, Michael V; Klaunberg, Brenda; Thiel, Manfred

    2008-02-01

    Comparison of intravenous Fenestra VC-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with gadopentetate dimeglumine and Ferucarbotran contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the in vivo imaging of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a murine model. After induction of hepatic IRI by left liver lobe (LLL) ischemia (30, 45, and 75 minutes) and reperfusion (4 hours and 24 hours), a total of 130 mice were imaged either by Fenestra VC-enhanced 3-D CT or by dynamic, T1-weighed gadopentetate dimeglumine or static, T2*-weighed Ferucarbotran 2-D MRI (4.7 T). Detection of liver tissue damage as a consequence of IRI was not possible by CT or MRI without the use of contrast media. (1) Mice subjected to liver IRI (45 minutes of ischemia) and injected with Fenestra VC showed a distinct liver enhancement of the viable liver tissue or a nonenhancement of the necrotic tissue. The Fenestra VC CT-unenhanced liver volume increased as a function of time of ischemia and reperfusion. The unenhanced liver volume also correlated positively with serum liver enzyme activities and damage scores from liver histology. (2) The signal intensities (SI) between normal liver tissue and livers subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia were not different on dynamic gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance images. More severe IRI as induced by 45 or 75 minutes of ischemia was characterized by (a) early hyperenhancement of regions in the LLL with rapid increase of SI higher than that observed in the undamaged liver within the first few minutes and (b) delayed hyperenhancement in the later course after gadopentetate dimeglumine injection, respectively. (3) Ferucarbotran MRI detected signs of IRI after only 30 minutes of liver ischemia and hence detected IRI earlier than Fenestra VC or gadopentetate dimeglumine. With longer duration of ischemia, Ferucarbotran SI increased in the LLL, but viable and necrotic tissues were not clearly distinguishable. MicroCT with Fenestra VC enhancement and

  19. Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Schoeder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Wang Ya; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Senehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among {sup 1}H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K{sup trans}]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v{sub e}]; and redistribution rate constant [k{sub ep}]), and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG ({rho} = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v{sub e}) ({rho} = -0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k{sub ep}) ({rho} = -0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume ({rho} = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K{sup trans}) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p < 0.07). Conclusion: Pretreatment multimodality imaging using {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

  20. Quantification of myocardium at risk in ST- elevation myocardial infarction: a comparison of contrast-enhanced steady-state free precession cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance with coronary angiographic jeopardy scores.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Rodney; Sörensson, Peder; Verouhis, Dinos; Pernow, John; Saleh, Nawzad

    2017-07-27

    Clinical outcome following acute myocardial infarction is predicted by final infarct size evaluated in relation to left ventricular myocardium at risk (MaR). Contrast-enhanced steady-state free precession (CE-SSFP) cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is not widely used for assessing MaR. Evidence of its utility compared to traditional assessment methods and as a surrogate for clinical outcome is needed. Retrospective analysis within a study evaluating post-conditioning during ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with coronary intervention (n = 78). CE-SSFP post-infarction was compared with angiographic jeopardy methods. Differences and variability between CMR and angiographic methods using Bland-Altman analyses were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were compared to MaR and extent of infarction. MaR showed correlation between CE-SSFP, and both BARI and APPROACH scores of 0.83 (p < 0.0001) and 0.84 (p < 0.0001) respectively. Bias between CE-SSFP and BARI was 1.1% (agreement limits -11.4 to +9.1). Bias between CE-SSFP and APPROACH was 1.2% (agreement limits -13 to +10.5). Inter-observer variability for the BARI score was 0.56 ± 2.9; 0.42 ± 2.1 for the APPROACH score; -1.4 ± 3.1% for CE-SSFP. Intra-observer variability was 0.15 ± 1.85 for the BARI score; for the APPROACH score 0.19 ± 1.6; and for CE-SSFP -0.58 ± 2.9%. Quantification of MaR with CE-SSFP imaging following STEMI shows high correlation and low bias compared with angiographic scoring and supports its use as a reliable and practical method to determine myocardial salvage in this patient population. Clinical trial registration information for the parent clinical trial: Karolinska Clinical Trial Registration (2008) Unique identifier: CT20080014. Registered 04(th) January 2008.

  1. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) Combined with Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography (PET-CT) and Video-Electroencephalography (VEEG) Have Excellent Diagnostic Value in Preoperative Localization of Epileptic Foci in Children with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Long, Wei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Guang-Yin; Lu, Ji-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has on surgical decision making relative to video-electroencephalography (VEEG) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and if the differences in these variables translates to differences in surgical outcomes. Material/Methods A total of 166 children with epilepsy undergoing preoperative DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT examinations, surgical resection of epileptic foci, and intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) monitoring were enrolled. All children were followed up for 12 months and grouped by Engles prognostic classification for epilepsy. Based on intraoperative ECoG as gold standard, the diagnostic values of DCE-MRI, VEEG, PET-CT, DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT, and combined application of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT in preoperative localization for epileptic foci were evaluated. Results The sensitivity of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT was 59.64%, 76.51%, and 93.98%, respectively; the accuracy of DCE-MRI, VEEG, PET-CT, DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, and DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT was 57.58%, 67.72%, 91.03%, 91.23%, and 96.49%, respectively. Localization accuracy rate of the combination of DCE-MRI, VEEG, and PET-CT was 98.25% (56/57), which was higher than that of DCE-MRI combined with VEEG and of DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT. No statistical difference was found in the accuracy rate of localization between these three combined techniques. During the 12-month follow-up, children were grouped into Engles grade I (n=106), II (n=31), III (n=21), and IV (n=8) according to postoperative conditions. Conclusions All DCE-MRI combined with VEEG, DCE-MRI combined with PET-CT, and DCE-MRI combined with VEEG and PET-CT examinations have excellent accuracy in preoperative localization of epileptic foci and present excellent postoperative efficiency, suggesting that these combined imaging methods are suitable for serving as the

  2. Usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for predicting treatment response to vinorelbine-cisplatin with or without recombinant human endostatin in bone metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Yue-Hua; Lu, Yao-Hong; Wang, Shuai; Yu, Wen-Xi; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease is a frequent complication of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and causes skeletal-related events, which result in a poor prognosis. Currently, no standard method has been developed to precisely assess the therapeutic response of bone metastases (BM) and the early efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy, which does not conform to the concept of precision medicine. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for precise evaluation of the response to chemotherapy with anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC patients with BM. Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group (vinorelbine + cisplatin [NP] + recombinant human endostatin [rh-endostatin]) or a control group (NP + placebo). All patients were evaluated before treatment and after 2 cycles of treatment using DCE-MRI quantitative analysis technology for BM lesions and chest computed tomography (CT). Correlations between changes in the DCE-MRI quantitative parameters and treatment effect were analyzed. We enrolled 33 patients, of whom 28 were evaluable (20 in the treatment group and 8 in the control group). The results suggested a higher objective response rate (30% vs. 0%), better overall survival (21.44 ± 17.28 months vs. 7.71 ± 4.68 months), and a greater decrease in the transport constant (Ktrans) value (60% vs. 4.4%) in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The Ktrans values in the “partial remission plus stable disease (PR + SD)” group were significantly lower after treatment (P < 0.05). Patients with a decrease of > 50% in the Ktrans value showed a significantly better overall survival than those with a decrease of ≤ 50% (13.2 vs. 9.8 months, P < 0.05). Ktrans as a DEC-MRI quantitative parameter could be used for the precise evaluation of BM lesions after anti-angiogenic therapy and as a predictor of survival. In addition, we reconfirmed the anti-angiogenic effect of rh-endostatin in

  3. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Haesung; Yoon, Dahye; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Ji Soo; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Joon; Koo, Ja Seung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters. Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32-75 years) with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1) were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US), 2) were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) 3) underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and 4) had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER), maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters. In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in all cases. Multiple metabolites showed

  4. Prediction of High-Grade Pediatric Meningiomas: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features Based on T1-Weighted, T2-Weighted, and Contrast-Enhanced T1-Weighted Images.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhao, Meng; Jiao, Yuming; Ge, Peicong; Li, Zhicen; Ma, Ji; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of high-grade meningiomas before surgery is essential to determine optimal treatment strategies; however, the relationship between radiologic features and malignancy of meningiomas in pediatric patients has not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative magnetic resonance imaging features that are significantly correlated with high risk of high-grade pediatric meningiomas. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative magnetic resonance imaging features and histopathologic diagnosis according to the 2007 World Health Organization classification system for intracranial tumors of 79 pediatric meningiomas from 2005 to 2015. World Health Organization grade II and III meningiomas were defined as high-grade meningiomas. The relationship between the radiologic findings and incidence of high-grade meningiomas was assessed initially with univariate analysis and then corrected by multivariate analysis. According to univariate analysis, heterogeneous tumor enhancement, an unclear tumor-brain interface, tumor cyst, type of dural attachment, lateral location, positive capsular enhancement, and irregular shape of tumor were strong predictive factors for high-grade meningiomas. When corrected by multivariate analysis, an unclear tumor-brain interface (P < 0.001; odds ratio = 10.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-37.0), lateral location (P = 0.014; odds ratio = 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-17.6), and narrow base (P = 0.001; odds ratio = 8.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-27.1) were strong independent predictive factors for high-grade meningiomas. In pediatric patients, meningiomas with an unclear tumor-brain interface, lateral location, and narrow base on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging are more likely to be high-grade meningiomas. Our results may be helpful in decision making regarding therapeutic strategies for pediatric patients with meningiomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-dimensional multiphase time-resolved low-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using TWIST on a 32-channel coil at 3 T: a quantitative and qualitative comparison of a conventional gadolinium chelate with a high-relaxivity agent.

    PubMed

    Giesel, Frederik L; Runge, Val; Kirchin, Miles; Mehndiratta, Amit; Gerigk, Lars; Corell, Body; von Gall, Carl; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Essig, Marco

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate low-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at high temporal and spatial resolution for imaging of abdominal vascular structures. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (TWIST [time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories]) was performed in 8 male New Zealand white rabbits at 3 T using a prototype 32-channel coil. Gadoteridol (Gd-HP-DO3A, ProHance; Bracco Imaging SpA, Milan, Italy) and the high-relaxivity agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging SpA), each at a dose of 0.04 mmol/kg body weight, were used in an intraindividual comparison. Quantitative analysis of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was performed in regions of interest placed in the aorta and the adjacent tissues. The image quality in the aorta, external iliac artery, and vena cava was categorized by 2 independent blinded readers from excellent (1) to poor (3). A significantly (P < 0.001) higher CNR was obtained with gadobenate dimeglumine. The improved CNR led to a better delineation of the external iliac arteries. Qualitative rating showed the image quality to be excellent for gadobenate dimeglumine and adequate for gadoteridol. Time-resolved CE-MRA performed at 3 T with a 32-channel volume coil can be improved using the high-relaxivity agent gadobenate dimeglumine, which increases quality and quantity of vessel enhancement.

  6. Catheter-directed contrast-enhanced coronary MR angiography in swine using magnetization-prepared True-FISP.

    PubMed

    Green, Jordin D; Omary, Reed A; Schirf, Brian E; Tang, Richard; Li, Debiao

    2003-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE) coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) following intraarterial (IA) injection of contrast agent was compared using two sequences in swine: magnetization-prepared fast imaging with steady-state precession (True-FISP), and magnetization-prepared fast low-angle shot (FLASH). Thick-slice projection images were acquired with submillimeter in-plane spatial resolution (0.9 x 0.8 mm(2)). The magnetization-preparation scheme provided a clear delineation of the major coronary arteries with excellent background suppression. The True-FISP acquisition resulted in an increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by approximately a factor of 2 over FLASH (P < 0.05). Magnetization-prepared True-FISP is a promising technique for catheter-directed CE thick-slice projection coronary MRA. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A Metric for Reducing False Positives in the Computer-Aided Detection of Breast Cancer from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Screening Examinations of High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Levman, Jacob E D; Gallego-Ortiz, Cristina; Warner, Ellen; Causer, Petrina; Martel, Anne L

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-enabled cancer screening has been shown to be a highly sensitive method for the early detection of breast cancer. Computer-aided detection systems have the potential to improve the screening process by standardizing radiologists to a high level of diagnostic accuracy. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. This study compares the performance of a proposed method for computer-aided detection (based on the second-order spatial derivative of the relative signal intensity) with the signal enhancement ratio (SER) on MRI-based breast screening examinations. Comparison is performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis as well as free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis. A modified computer-aided detection system combining the proposed approach with the SER method is also presented. The proposed method provides improvements in the rates of false positive markings over the SER method in the detection of breast cancer (as assessed by FROC analysis). The modified computer-aided detection system that incorporates both the proposed method and the SER method yields ROC results equal to that produced by SER while simultaneously providing improvements over the SER method in terms of false positives per noncancerous exam. The proposed method for identifying malignancies outperforms the SER method in terms of false positives on a challenging dataset containing many small lesions and may play a useful role in breast cancer screening by MRI as part of a computer-aided detection system.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Annual, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural volume of Magnetic Resonance Annual includes reviews of MRI of the posterior fossa, cerebral neoplasms, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. A chapter on contrast materials outlines the mechanisms of paramagnetic contrast enhancement and highlights several promising contrast agents.

  9. Quantification of myocardium at risk in myocardial perfusion SPECT by co-registration and fusion with delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging--an experimental ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Ugander, Martin; Soneson, Helen; Engblom, Henrik; van der Pals, Jesper; Erlinge, David; Heiberg, Einar; Arheden, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) can be used to assess myocardium at risk in occlusive coronary ischaemia. The aim was to develop a method to quantify myocardium at risk as perfusion defect size on ex vivo MPS using co-registration and fusion with ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pigs (n = 19) were injected 99mTc-tetrofosmin prior to concluding 40 min of coronary artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion and MRI contrast injection. The excised heart was imaged with T1-weighted MRI and MPS, and images were co-registered using freely available software (Segment v1.8, http://segment.heiberg.se). The left ventricle was semi-automatically delineated in MRI and copied to MPS. The threshold for a MPS perfusion defect was defined as the mean counts in the MPS image at the MRI-determined border between remote myocardium and air. The threshold was measured using count maxima set to the 100th-95th percentile of counts within the myocardium. The count maximum that gave the lowest threshold variability (SD) was considered the most robust. A count maximum using the 100th percentile yielded a threshold of (mean ± SD) 55 ± 6·2%. This method showed the lowest SD compared to 99th-95th percentile count maxima (6·6-7·2%). We describe a method for objective quantification of myocardium at risk as perfusion defect size on MPS using knowledge of the anatomy of the myocardium from co-registered MRI. This enables simultaneous quantification of myocardium at risk by MPS and infarct size by MRI for the evaluation of treatments for myocardial infarction. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  10. Perfusion Estimated With Rapid Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates Inversely With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Pimonidazole Staining in Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, Stephanie B.; Betts, Guy; Bonington, Suzanne C.; Homer, Jarrod J.; Slevin, Nick J.; Kershaw, Lucy E.; Valentine, Helen; West, Catharine M.L.; Buckley, David L.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze, in a pilot study, rapidly acquired dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI data with a general two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model and correlate parameters obtained with measurements of hypoxia and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Eight patients were scanned before surgery. The DCE-MRI data were acquired with 1.5-s temporal resolution and analyzed using the two-compartment exchange tracer kinetic model to obtain estimates of parameters including perfusion and permeability surface area. Twelve to 16 h before surgery, patients received an intravenous injection of pimonidazole. Samples taken during surgery were used to determine the level of pimonidazole staining using immunohistochemistry and VEGF expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Correlations between the biological and imaging data were examined. Results: Of the seven tumors fully analyzed, those that were poorly perfused tended to have high levels of pimonidazole staining (r = -0.79, p = 0.03) and VEGF expression (r = -0.82, p = 0.02). Tumors with low permeability surface area also tended to have high levels of hypoxia (r = -0.75, p = 0.05). Hypoxic tumors also expressed higher levels of VEGF (r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Estimates of perfusion obtained with rapid DCE-MRI data in patients with head-and-neck cancer correlate inversely with pimonidazole staining and VEGF expression.

  11. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Spontaneous Splenorenal Shunt in Liver Cirrhosis: A Retrospective Observational Study Based on Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scans.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xingshun; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yongguo; Shao, Xiaodong; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Yongji; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Xintong; Deng, Han; Hou, Feifei; Li, Jing; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2017-05-25

    BACKGROUND This is a retrospective observational study evaluating the prevalence and clinical characteristics of spontaneous splenorenal shunt in liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included a total of 105 cirrhotic patients who were admitted to our hospital between June 2012 and December 2013 and underwent contrast-enhanced CT and/or MRI scans at admissions. Spontaneous splenorenal shunt was identified. Clinical and laboratory data were compared between cirrhotic patients with and without spontaneous splenorenal shunt. RESULTS The prevalence of spontaneous splenorenal shunt was 10.5% (11/105). The prevalence of hepatic encephalopathy was higher in patients with spontaneous splenorenal shunt than in those without spontaneous splenorenal shunt (18.2% vs. 4.3%, p=0.062), but the difference between them was not statistically significant. The prevalence of acute upper-gastrointestinal bleeding was lower in patients with spontaneous splenorenal shunt than in those without spontaneous splenorenal shunt (0% vs. 18.1%, p=0.205), but the difference between them was not statistically significant. Patients with spontaneous splenorenal shunt had significantly higher Child-Pugh scores (9.50±1.65 vs. 7.43±2.02, p=0.002) and MELD scores (11.26±7.29 vs. 5.67±6.83, p=0.017) than those without spontaneous splenorenal shunt. In-hospital mortality was similar between them (0% vs. 4.3%, p=1.000). CONCLUSIONS Spontaneous splenorenal shunt might be associated with worse liver function in liver cirrhosis, but not with in-hospital mortality.

  12. Contrast Enhancement for Thermal Acoustic Breast Cancer Imaging via Resonant Stimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Wang, “Time-domain reconstruction for thermoa- coustic tomography in a speherical geometry,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 814–822, Jul...comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...excited into resonance via EM stimulation, the effective acoustic scattering cross-section may increase by a factor in excess of 100 based on

  13. Facile non-hydrothermal synthesis of oligosaccharides coated sub-5 nm magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with dual MRI contrast enhancement effect.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Liya; Zhong, Xiaodong; Li, Yuancheng; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine sub-5 nm magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oligosaccharides (SIO) with dual T1-T2 weighted contrast enhancing effect and fast clearance has been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Excellent water solubility, biocompatibility and high stability of such sub-5 nm SIO nanoparticles were achieved by using the "in-situ polymerization" coating method, which enables glucose forming oligosaccharides directly on the surface of hydrophobic iron oxide nanocrystals. Reported ultrafine SIO nanoparticles exhibit a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4.1 mM(-1)s(-1) and a r1/r2 ratio of 0.25 at 3 T (clinical field strength), rendering improved T1 or "brighter" contrast enhancement in T1-weighted MRI in addition to typical T2 or "darkening" contrast of conventional iron oxide nanoparticles. Such dual contrast effect can be demonstrated in liver imaging with T2 "darkening" contrast in the liver parenchyma but T1 "bright" contrast in the hepatic vasculature. More importantly, this new class of ultrafine sub-5 nm iron oxide nanoparticles showed much faster body clearance than those with larger sizes, promising better safety for clinical applications.

  14. Cardiac magnetic resonance for prediction of arrhythmogenic areas

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Esra Gucuk; Nazarian, Saman

    2015-01-01

    Catheter ablation has been widely used to manage recurrent atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. It has been established that contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance can accurately characterize the myocardium. In this review, we summarize the role of cardiac magnetic resonance in identification of arrhythmogenic substrates, and the potential utility of cardiac magnetic resonance for catheter ablation of complex atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:25937045

  15. Magnetic resonance urography.

    PubMed

    Leyendecker, John R; Gianini, John W

    2009-07-01

    Excellent contrast resolution and lack of ionizing radiation make magnetic resonance urography (MRU) a promising technique for noninvasively evaluating the entire urinary tract. While MRU currently lags behind CT urography (CTU) in spatial resolution and efficiency, new hardware and sequence developments have contributed to a resurgence of interest in MRU techniques. By combining unenhanced sequences with multiphase contrast-enhanced and excretory phase imaging, a comprehensive assessment of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and surrounding structures is possible with image quality rivaling that obtained with other techniques. At the same time, formidable challenges remain to be overcome and further clinical validation is necessary before MRU can replace other forms of urography. In this article, we demonstrate the current potential of MRU to demonstrate a spectrum of urologic pathology involving the kidneys, ureters, and bladder while discussing the limitations and current status of this evolving technique.

  16. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the thoracic aorta using cardiac and navigator-gated magnetization-prepared three-dimensional steady-state free precession.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yasuo; Takahama, Katsuya; Kumita, Shinichiro

    2008-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography using cardiac and navigator-gated magnetization-prepared three-dimensional (3D) steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging for the diagnosis of diseases of the thoracic aorta. Twenty-two patients with diseases of the thoracic aorta were examined using a 1.5 Tesla unit. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography was done using parasagittal 3D SSFP combined with cardiac-gating and k-space weighted navigator-gating techniques, using T2-prepared and fat-suppression pulses. Imaging quality and the diagnostic capability of this technique were compared with the imaging quality of 2D SSFP or contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography and with final diagnoses. Non-contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography provided signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of the thoracic aorta comparable to non-contrast-enhanced 2D or contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (P > 0.17). This imaging technique gave accurate diagnoses in 19 of the 22 patients. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography using cardiac and navigator-gated magnetization-prepared 3D SSFP technique was useful for the diagnosis of diseases of the thoracic aorta.

  17. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM).

    PubMed

    Daniaux, Martin; De Zordo, Tobias; Santner, Wolfram; Amort, Birgit; Koppelstätter, Florian; Jaschke, Werner; Dromain, Clarisse; Oberaigner, Willi; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is one of the latest developments in breast care. Imaging with contrast agents in breast cancer was already known from previous magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography studies. However, high costs, limited availability-or high radiation dose-led to the development of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). We reviewed the current literature, present our experience, discuss the advantages and drawbacks of CESM and look at the future of this innovative technique.

  18. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making ...

  19. Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging versus Contrast-enhanced US: A Comparison in Glioblastoma Surgery by Using Intraoperative Fusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Prada, Francesco; Vitale, Valerio; Del Bene, Massimiliano; Boffano, Carlo; Sconfienza, Luca Maria; Pinzi, Valentina; Mauri, Giovanni; Solbiati, Luigi; Sakas, Georgios; Kolev, Velizar; D'Incerti, Ludovico; DiMeco, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To compare contrast material enhancement of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) versus that with preoperative gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging by using real-time fusion imaging. Materials and Methods Ten patients with GBM were retrospectively identified by using routinely collected, anonymized data. Navigated contrast-enhanced US was performed after intravenous administration of contrast material before tumor resection. All patients underwent tumor excision with navigated intraoperative US guidance with use of fusion imaging between real-time intraoperative US and preoperative MR imaging. With use of fusion imaging, glioblastoma contrast enhancement at contrast-enhanced US (regarding location, morphologic features, margins, dimensions, and pattern) was compared with that at gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Results Fusion imaging for virtual navigation enabled matching of real-time contrast-enhanced US scans to corresponding coplanar preoperative gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in all cases, with a positional discrepancy of less than 2 mm. Contrast enhancement of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging and contrast-enhanced US was superimposable in all cases with regard to location, margins, dimensions, and morphologic features. The qualitative analysis of contrast enhancement pattern demonstrated a similar distribution in contrast-enhanced US and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging in nine patients: Seven lesions showed peripheral inhomogeneous ring enhancement, and two lesions showed a prevalent nodular pattern. In one patient, the contrast enhancement pattern differed between the two modalities: Contrast-enhanced US showed enhancement of the entire bulk of the tumor, whereas gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated peripheral contrast enhancement. Conclusion Glioblastoma contrast enhancement with contrast-enhanced US is

  20. Comparison of the Specificity of MR-EIT and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    used in classification. Current conductivity imaging techniques can only provide low-resolution images and fail in extreme cases. Magnetic resonance ...procedures for dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) that will be used in the comparative studies in the last year of the...tomography (EIT), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), breast cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  1. Contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging of claustrophobic or oversized patients using an open low-field magnet.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, M; Brizzi, D; Carbonaro, L; Chiaramondia, M; Kirchin, M A; Sardanelli, F

    2009-03-01

    A number of women who should undergo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the breast cannot use this diagnostic tool due to claustrophobia or excessive body size for the restricted confines of standard closed MR systems. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of open low-field magnet breast MR imaging in such patients using a high-relaxivity contrast agent. Of 397 consecutive patients undergoing breast MR imaging, 379 (95.5%) were studied at 1.5 T. Due to claustrophobia (n=15) or large body size (n=3), 18 patients (4.5%) were studied on a 0.2-T open magnet using a body coil. A 3D dynamic T1-weighted gradient-echo 94-s sequence was acquired with intravenous injection of gadobenate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). The standard of reference was pathological examination for 16 lesions classified with a maximal Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) score from 3 to 5, fine-needle aspiration cytology and >or=2-year follow-up for two lesions classified as BI-RADS 3, and >or=2-years follow-up for five lesions classified as BI-RADS 2. Diagnostic MR image quality was achieved for 20/23 lesions in 15/18 patients. Three lesions (two invasive cancers and a cyst) were not assessed due to patient movement and considered as two false negatives and one false positive. Thus, an 86% sensitivity [13/15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 70%-100%], an 87% specificity (7/8; 95% CI: 65%-100%) and an 87% accuracy (20/23; 95% CI: 73%-100%) were obtained. The intraclass correlation coefficient between MR and pathologic lesion size was 0.845. In claustrophobic or oversized patients, open low-field breast MR with gadobenate dimeglumine yields good diagnostic performance.

  2. [Comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Meladze, N V; Ternovoĭ, S K; Sharia, M A; Solopova, A E

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of diagnosis of breast tumors by comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involving dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Eighty-seven women aged 32 to 75 years with breast neoplasms were examined. MRM was performed on a Philips Achieva 3.0T TX scanner. The MRI protocol consisted of axial fat-suppressed T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and 8 postcontrast dynamic series. Changes in contrast-enhanced MRI of breast cancer (BC) were estimated by constructing the signal intensity-time curves. MRS was carried out using a PRESS sequence. Dynamic MRM determined type III signal intensity-time curve in 83.9% of the patients with BC and type II curve in 16.1% of those with breast malignancies and in 33.3% of those with breast fibroadenomas. Type I signal intensity-time curve was identified in 66.7% of the cases of fibroadenomas. Elevated choline concentrations in the malignancies were detected in 17.7% of cases. Their tumors were larger than 2 cm. The choline peak in the malignancies could not be revealed in the other cases, which was associated to the large voxel size exceeding the mass size. There was a drastic fall in the signal-to-noise ratio with smaller voxel sizes. Furthermore, higher choline levels were determined in 9.5% of the fibroadenoma cases. Comparison of MRS findings before and after contrast injection revealed the advantage of the latter, which is primarily attributed to the more accurate voxel position on the tumor than that during non-contrast-enhanced MRS. Dynamic intravenous contrast-enhanced MRM is an effective method for the differential diagnosis of breast masses. MRS cannot be included in the standard study protocol for women with breast masses for the present.

  3. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the penis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K; De Mouy, E H; Lee, B E

    1994-04-01

    To determine the enhancement patterns of the penis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sequential contrast material-enhanced MR images of the penis in a flaccid state were obtained in 16 volunteers (12 with normal penile function and four with erectile dysfunction). Subjects with normal erectile function showed gradual and centrifugal enhancement of the corpora cavernosa, while those with erectile dysfunction showed poor enhancement with abnormal progression. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging provides additional morphologic information for the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for imaging of adrenal masses.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Ignee, A; Barreiros, A P; Schreiber-Dietrich, D; Sienz, M; Bojunga, J; Braden, B

    2010-04-01

    The number of incidentally discovered adrenal masses is growing due to the increased use of modern high-resolution imaging techniques. However, the characterization and differentiation of benign and malignant adrenal lesions is challenging. This study aimed to evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the characterization of adrenal masses. We studied 58 patients with adrenal masses detected with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasound. 7 patients had bilateral adrenal lesions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed using high-resolution ultrasound (3.5 - 7 MHz) and intravenous injection of 2.4 ml SonoVue. The contrast enhancement pattern of all adrenal lesions was documented. The 18 malignant adrenal tumors were significantly larger at the time of diagnosis compared to the 40 benign lesions (p < 0.03). The majority of benign adrenal lesions (37 / 40) had a nonspecific type of contrast enhancement (24 / 40) or a peripheral to central contrast filling (13 / 40) described as the iris phenomenon. Similar findings were observed in malignant adrenal tumors: most malignant lesions also showed nonspecific (6 / 18) or peripheral to central contrast filling (9 / 18). Peripheral to central contrast filling had 50 % sensitivity (26 - 74 %) and 68 % specificity (51 - 81 %) for indicating malignancy. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound facilitates the visualization of vascularization even in small adrenal masses, but it does not help to distinguish malignant and benign lesions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  5. An open source software for analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance images: UMMPerfusion revisited.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Frank G; Daab, Markus; Sourbron, Steven P; Schad, Lothar R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Weisser, Gerald

    2016-01-14

    Perfusion imaging has become an important image based tool to derive the physiological information in various applications, like tumor diagnostics and therapy, stroke, (cardio-) vascular diseases, or functional assessment of organs. However, even after 20 years of intense research in this field, perfusion imaging still remains a research tool without a broad clinical usage. One problem is the lack of standardization in technical aspects which have to be considered for successful quantitative evaluation; the second problem is a lack of tools that allow a direct integration into the diagnostic workflow in radiology. Five compartment models, namely, a one compartment model (1CP), a two compartment exchange (2CXM), a two compartment uptake model (2CUM), a two compartment filtration model (2FM) and eventually the extended Toft's model (ETM) were implemented as plugin for the DICOM workstation OsiriX. Moreover, the plugin has a clean graphical user interface and provides means for quality management during the perfusion data analysis. Based on reference test data, the implementation was validated against a reference implementation. No differences were found in the calculated parameters. We developed open source software to analyse DCE-MRI perfusion data. The software is designed as plugin for the DICOM Workstation OsiriX. It features a clean GUI and provides a simple workflow for data analysis while it could also be seen as a toolbox providing an implementation of several recent compartment models to be applied in research tasks. Integration into the infrastructure of a radiology department is given via OsiriX. Results can be saved automatically and reports generated automatically during data analysis ensure certain quality control.

  6. Non-Invasive Detection of Axiliary Nodes by Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    were injected with FreundOs adjuvant to induce an inflammatory response in popliteal lymph nodes and similarly imaged. Conventional spin echo (CSE... lymph nodes to grow, or when they did grow they were small, < 2 mm). Thus the second year of the project focused on the study proposed for the...ratios (CNR) relative to muscle were calculated for each sequence and histopathologic correlation was obtained for all lymph nodes . Findings

  7. Quantitative imaging of tumour blood flow by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pahernik, S; Griebel, J; Botzlar, A; Gneiting, T; Brandl, M; Dellian, M; Goetz, A E

    2001-01-01

    Tumour blood flow plays a key role in tumour growth, formation of metastasis, and detection and treatment of malignant tumours. Recent investigations provided increasing evidence that quantitative analysis of tumour blood flow is an indispensable prerequisite for developing novel treatment strategies and individualizing cancer therapy. Currently, however, methods for noninvasive, quantitative and high spatial resolution imaging of tumour blood flow are rare. We apply here a novel approach combining a recently established ultrafast MRI technique, that is T 1-relaxation time mapping, with a tracer kinetic model. For validation of this approach, we compared the results obtained in vivo with data provided by iodoantipyrine autoradiography as a reference technique for the measurement of tumour blood flow at a high resolution in an experimental tumour model. The MRI protocol allowed quantitative mapping of tumour blood flow at spatial resolution of 250 × 250 μm2. Correlation of data from the MRI method with the iodantipyrine autoradiography revealed Spearman's correlation coefficients of Rs = 0.851 (r = 0.775, P < 0.0001) and Rs = 0.821 (r = 0.72, P = 0.014) for local and global tumour blood flow, respectively. The presented approach enables noninvasive, repeated and quantitative assessment of microvascular perfusion at high spatial resolution encompassing the entire tumour. Knowledge about the specific vascular microenvironment of tumours will form the basis for selective antivascular cancer treatment in the future. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11742483

  8. Prototype vein contrast enhancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Vrancken, Carlos

    2004-07-01

    A proof-of-principle prototype Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) has been designed and constructed. The VCE is an instrument that makes vein access easier by capturing an infrared image of peripheral veins, enhancing the vein-contrast using software image processing, and projecting the enhanced vein-image back onto the skin using a modified commercial projector. The prototype uses software alignment to achieve alignment accuracy between the captured infrared image and the projected visible image of better than 0.06 mm. Figure 1 shows the prototype demonstrated in our laboratory.

  9. Fast contrast enhanced imaging with projection reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Dana Ceceilia

    The use of contrast agents has lead to great advances in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Here we present the first application of projection reconstruction to contrast enhanced MRA. In this research the limited angle projection reconstruction (PR) trajectory is implemented to acquire higher resolution images per unit time than with conventional Fourier transform (FT) imaging. It is well known that as FOV is reduced in conventional spin- warp imaging, higher resolution per unit time can be obtained, but aliasing may appear as a replication of outside material within the FOV. The limited angle PR acquisition also produces aliasing artifacts. This method produced artifacts which were unacceptable in X-ray CT but which appear to be tolerable in MR Angiography. Resolution throughout the FOV is determined by the projection readout resolution and not by the number of projections. As the number of projections is reduced, the resolution is unchanged, but low intensity artifacts appear. Here are presented the results of using limited angle PR in phantoms and contrast-enhanced angiograms of humans.

  10. In vivo imaging of melanoma-implanted magnetic nanoparticles using contrast-enhanced magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2016-06-01

    We conducted an initial feasibility study using real-time magneto-motive optical Doppler tomography (MM-ODT) with enhanced contrast to investigate the detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) magnetic nanoparticles implanted into in vivo melanoma tissue. The MM-ODT signals were detected owing to the phase shift of the implanted magnetic nanoparticles, which occurred due to the action of an applied magnetic field. An amplifier circuit-based solenoid was utilized for generating high-intensity oscillating magnetic fields. The MM-ODT system was confirmed as an effective in vivo imaging method for detecting melanoma tissue, with the performance comparable to those of conventional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography methods. Moreover, the optimal values of the SPIO nanoparticles concentration and solenoid voltage for obtaining the uppermost Doppler velocity were derived as well. To improve the signal processing speed for real-time imaging, we adopted multithread programming techniques and optimized the signal path. The results suggest that this imaging modality can be used as a powerful tool to identify the intracellular and extracellular SPIO nanoparticles in melanoma tissues in vivo.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Solitary Hypothalamitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jing; Wu, Yue; Tang, Ying; Tao, Ran; Ye, Hongying; Yao, Zhenwei

    The study aimed to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solitary hypothalamitis and evaluate their clinical value in diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, of 8 biopsy-proven hypothalamitis lesions were retrospectively analyzed along with MRI features including size, shape, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, correlation with adjacent tissues, and changes in infundibular stalk and sella turcica. Of 8 patients, 5 were diagnosed with lymphoplasmacytic proliferative inflammation, 2 with Langerhans cell histocytosis, and 1 with Rosai-Dorfman disease. Solitary hypothalamitis predominantly demonstrated mild hypointensity/isointensity in T1WI and mild hyperintensity in T2-weighted imaging. In contrast-enhanced T1WI, all lesions showed heterogeneous but primarily peripheral enhancement patterns. Seven cases showed the polygon sign. In T1WI, the normal high signal intensity of neurohypophysis was absent from all patients, with no infundibular stalk thickening. Seven patients presented with optic chiasma edema, and 5 with edema-like changes along the optic tract (OTE), but most showed no visual impairment (n = 7). Magnetic resonance imaging, particularly postcontrast MRI, is the optimal modality for assessment of hypothalamic lesions. Peripheral enhancement with polygon sign and optic tract or chiasm edema without visual impairment are highly suggestive of hypothalamitis.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rümenapp, Christine; Gleich, Bernhard; Haase, Axel

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Paramagnetic contrast agents have been used for a long time, but more recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) have been discovered to influence MRI contrast as well. In contrast to paramagnetic contrast agents, SPIOs can be functionalized and size-tailored in order to adapt to various kinds of soft tissues. Although both types of contrast agents have a inducible magnetization, their mechanisms of influence on spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation of protons are different. A special emphasis on the basic magnetism of nanoparticles and their structures as well as on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance is made. Examples of different contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images are given. The potential use of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic tracers is explored. Additionally, SPIOs can be used in diagnostic magnetic resonance, since the spin relaxation time of water protons differs, whether magnetic nanoparticles are bound to a target or not.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory rheumatoid diseases.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Mróz, Joanna; Ostrowska, Monika; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is used more and more frequently to diagnose changes in the musculoskeletal system in the course of rheumatic diseases, at their initial assessment, for treatment monitoring and for identification of complications. The article presents the history of magnetic resonance imaging, the basic principles underlying its operation as well as types of magnets, coils and MRI protocols used in the diagnostic process of rheumatic diseases. It enumerates advantages and disadvantages of individual MRI scanners. The principles of MRI coil operation are explained, and the sequences used for MR image analysis are described, particularly in terms of their application in rheumatology, including T1-, T2-, PD-weighted, STIR/TIRM and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Furthermore, views on the need to use contrast agents to optimise diagnosis, particularly in synovitis-like changes, are presented. Finally, methods for the assessment of MR images are listed, including the semi-quantitative method by RAMRIS and quantitative dynamic examination.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Epidemic Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jonathan C.; Miller, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Most clinicians would agree that there is no reason to obtain a magnetic resonance (MR) scan to evaluate a patient with viral conjunctivitis. We scheduled a patient for an annual MR scan to monitor his optic nerve meningiomas. By coincidence, he had florid viral conjunctivitis the day the scan was performed. It showed severe eyelid edema, contrast enhancement of the anterior orbit, enlargement of the lacrimal gland, and obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. Adenovirus produces deep orbital inflammation, in addition to infection of the conjunctival surface. PMID:26022084

  16. Magnetic resonance annual, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kressel, H.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This book features reviews of high-resolution MRI of the knee, MRI of the normal and ischmeic hip, MRI of the heart, and temporomandibular joint imaging, as well as thorough discussion on artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Contributors consider the clinical applications of gadolinium-DTPA in magnetic resonance imaging and the clinical use of partial saturation and saturation recovery sequences. Timely reports assess the current status of rapid MRI and describe a new rapid gated cine MRI technique. Also included is an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid flow effects during MRI of the central nervous system.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Kaipia, A; Ryymin, P; Mäkelä, E; Aaltonen, M; Kähärä, V; Kangasniemi, M

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of contrast enhanced (CE)-dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of testicular torsion induced hypoperfusion in an experimental rat model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral testicular torsion of 360 or 720 degrees. After 1 h, the tail veins of the anaesthetized rats were cannulated and T2 -, diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted CE-dynamic MRI were subsequently performed by a 1.5 T MRI scanner. On apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images, the region of interest values of the ischaemic and control testes was compared. From CE-dynamic MR images, the maximal slopes of contrast enhancement were calculated and compared. In testicular torsion of 360 degrees, the maximal slope of contrast enhancement was 0.072%/s vs. 0.47%/s in the contralateral control testis (p < 0.001). A torsion of 720 degrees diminished the slope of contrast enhancement to 0.046%/s vs. 0.37%/s in the contralateral testis (p < 0.001). Diminished blood flow during torsion also followed in decreased ADC values in both 360 degrees (12.4% decrease; p < 0.05) and 720 degrees (10.8% decrease; p < 0.001) of torsion. Torsion of the testis causes ipsilateral hypoperfusion and decreased gadolinium uptake in a rat model that can be easily detected and quantified by CE-dynamic MRI. In diffusion-weighted MRI images, acute hypoperfusion results in a slight decrease of ADC values. Our results suggest that CE-dynamic MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to detect compromised blood flow due to acute testicular torsion.

  18. Fundamentals of tracer kinetics for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Koh, Tong San; Bisdas, Sotirios; Koh, Dow Mu; Thng, Choon Hua

    2011-12-01

    Tracer kinetic methods employed for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) share common roots with earlier tracer studies involving arterial-venous sampling and other dynamic imaging modalities. This article reviews the essential foundation concepts and principles in tracer kinetics that are relevant to DCE MRI, including the notions of impulse response and convolution, which are central to the analysis of DCE MRI data. We further examine the formulation and solutions of various compartmental models frequently used in the literature. Topics of recent interest in the processing of DCE MRI data, such as the account of water exchange and the use of reference tissue methods to obviate the measurement of an arterial input, are also discussed. Although the primary focus of this review is on the tracer models and methods for T(1) -weighted DCE MRI, some of these concepts and methods are also applicable for analysis of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI data.

  19. Velocity-selective magnetization-prepared non-contrast-enhanced cerebral MR angiography at 3 Tesla: Improved immunity to B0/B1 inhomogeneity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Shin, Taehoon; Schär, Michael; Guo, Hua; Chen, Hanwei; Qiao, Ye

    2016-03-01

    To develop a Fourier-transform based velocity-selective (VS) pulse train that offers improved robustness to B0/B1 inhomogeneity for non-contrast-enhanced cerebral MR angiography (MRA) at 3 Tesla (T). VS pulse train I and II with different saturation bands are proposed to incorporate paired and phase cycled refocusing pulses. Their sensitivity to B0/B1 inhomogeneity was estimated through simulation and compared with a single refocused VS pulse train. The implementation was compared to standard time of flight (TOF) among eight healthy subjects. In contrast to single refocused VS pulse train, the simulated VS profiles from proposed pulse trains indicate much improved immunity to field inhomogeneity in the brain at 3T. Successive application of two identical VS pulse trains yields a better suppression of static tissue at the cost of 20 ∼ 30% signal loss within large vessels. Average relative contrast ratios of major cerebral arterial segments applying both pulse train I and II with two preparations are 0.81 ± 0.06 and 0.81 ± 0.05, respectively, significantly higher than 0.67 ± 0.07 of TOF-MRA. VS MRA, in particular, the pulse train II with the narrower saturation band, depicts more small vessels with slower flow. VS magnetization-prepared cerebral MRA was demonstrated among normal subjects on a 3T scanner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection of affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of therapeutic effect. PMID:11563438

  1. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Myocardial Infarction, Viability, and Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    West, Amy M.; Kramer, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides the opportunity for a truly comprehensive evaluation of patients with a history of MI, with regards to characterizing the extent of disease, impact on LV function and degree of viable myocardium. The use of contrast-enhanced CMR for first-pass perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement is a powerful technique for delineating areas of myocardial ischemia and infarction. Using a combination of T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced CMR images, information about the acuity of an infarct can be obtained. There is an extensive amount of literature using contrast-enhanced CMR to predict myocardial functional recovery with revascularization in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathies. In addition, CMR imaging in patients with cardiomyopathies can distinguish between ischemic and non-ischemic etiologies, with the ability to further characterize the underlying pathology for non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. PMID:20197150

  2. Single spin magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution.

  3. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  4. Single spin magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wrachtrup, Jörg; Finkler, Amit

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have improved the sensitivity of either electron or nuclear magnetic resonance to the single spin level. For optical detection it has essentially become routine to observe a single electron spin or nuclear spin. Typically, the systems in use are carefully designed to allow for single spin detection and manipulation, and of those systems, diamond spin defects rank very high, being so robust that they can be addressed, read out and coherently controlled even under ambient conditions and in a versatile set of nanostructures. This renders them as a new type of sensor, which has been shown to detect single electron and nuclear spins among other quantities like force, pressure and temperature. Adapting pulse sequences from classic NMR and EPR, and combined with high resolution optical microscopy, proximity to the target sample and nanoscale size, the diamond sensors have the potential to constitute a new class of magnetic resonance detectors with single spin sensitivity. As diamond sensors can be operated under ambient conditions, they offer potential application across a multitude of disciplines. Here we review the different existing techniques for magnetic resonance, with a focus on diamond defect spin sensors, showing their potential as versatile sensors for ultra-sensitive magnetic resonance with nanoscale spatial resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  7. Resonant magnetic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Decanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine

    2003-04-01

    By using the complex angular momentum method, we provide a semiclassical analysis of electron scattering by a magnetic vortex of Aharonov-Bohm type. Regge poles of the S matrix are associated with surface waves orbiting around the vortex and supported by a magnetic field discontinuity. Rapid variations of sharp characteristic shapes can be observed on scattering cross sections. They correspond to quasibound states which are Breit-Wigner-type resonances associated with surface waves and which can be considered as quantum analogues of acoustic whispering-gallery modes. Such a resonant magnetic vortex could provide a different kind of artificial atom while the semiclassical approach developed here could be profitably extended in various areas of the physics of vortices.

  8. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Hulya; Pourbagher, Aysin; Colakoglu, Tamer

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign breast disease with unknown etiology which can mimic breast carcinoma, both clinically and radiologically. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of IGM have been previously described; however there is no study evaluating diffusion-weighted MRI findings of IGM. To analyze conventional, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and diffusion-weighted MRI signal characteristics of IGM by comparing it with the contralateral normal breast parenchyma. A total of 39 patients were included in the study. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the distribution and enhancement patterns of the lesions were evaluated. We also detected the frequencies of involving quadrants, retroareolar involvement, accompanying abscess, and skin edema. T2-weighted (T2W) and STIR signal intensities and both mean and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared with the contralateral normal parenchyma. IGM showed significantly lower mean and minimum ADC values when compared with the normal parenchyma. Signal intensities on T2W and STIR sequences of the lesion were significantly higher than the normal parenchyma. On dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 7.7% of the patients had mass-like contrast enhancement, 92.3% of the patients had non-mass-like contrast enhancement. Abscess was positive in 33.3% of the patients. As a result, IGM showed commonly non-mass-like lesions with restricted diffusion. Although it is a benign pathology, it may show clustered ring-like enhancement like malignant lesions. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  9. Ultrasound Despeckling for Contrast Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Peter C.; Garson, Christopher D.; Acton, Scott T.; Hossack, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

  10. Magnetic Resonance Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  11. Gadolinium-free MR in coarctation-can contrast-enhanced MR angiography be replaced?

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Peter I; Koestenberger, Martin; Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich

    2016-01-01

    To determine the difference in vessel measurements, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and voxel size between contrast-enhanced and noncontrast magnetic resonance techniques in patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA). In 39 patients, vessel size, SNR, and voxel size were compared in cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gadolinium-free magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-free MRA), and contrast-enhanced MRA (ce-MRA). There was no significant difference in measurement and SNR, but there was a significant difference in voxel size (P<.001). Our results show that, in CoA patients, monitoring of vessel size using cine MRI and Gd-free MRA is equivalent to ce-MRA while being less invasive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cavity- and waveguide-resonators in electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Cavity resonators are widely used in electron paramagnetic resonance, very high field magnetic resonance microimaging and also in high field human imaging. The basic principles and designs of different forms of cavity resonators including rectangular, cylindrical, re-entrant, cavity magnetrons, toroidal cavities and dielectric resonators are reviewed. Applications in EPR and MRI are summarized, and finally the topic of traveling wave MRI using the magnet bore as a waveguide is discussed.

  13. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, design, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  16. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is concluding the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the NMRG including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program. General performance results from phases 3 and 4 will also be presented.

  17. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  18. Management of incidental renal masses: Time to consider contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Di Vece, Francesca; Tombesi, Paola; Ermili, Francesca; Sartori, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Proliferation of imaging studies for different clinical purposes and continuous improvement of imaging technology have led to an increasing number of incidental findings of renal masses. It is estimated that over 50% of patients older than 50 years have at least one renal mass. The majority of incidental renal masses are simple cysts that can be easily diagnosed by conventional ultrasonography. However, some incidental renal masses are not simple cysts, and differentiation between benign and malignant entities requires further imaging modalities. In the past, multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were considered the primary imaging modalities used to characterize and stage complex cystic and solid renal lesions. Currently, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography represents a novel alternative to contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography employs microbubble contrast agents that allow the study of different enhancement phases of the kidney without risk of nephrotoxicity and radiation exposure. The diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of complex renal cysts is comparable to that of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and several studies have demonstrated its reliability also in identifying solid lesions such as pseudotumors, typical angiomyolipomas, and clear cell renal carcinomas. Considering the high incidence of incidental renal masses and the need for rapid and reliable diagnosis, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography could be proposed as the first step in the diagnostic work-up of renal masses because of its safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for the characterization of cystic and solid renal masses.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging for characterizing myocardial diseases.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Maythem; Liu, Hui; Liang, Chang-Hong; Wilson, Mark W

    2017-03-31

    The National Institute of Health defined cardiomyopathy as diseases of the heart muscle. These myocardial diseases have different etiology, structure and treatment. This review highlights the key imaging features of different myocardial diseases. It provides information on myocardial structure/orientation, perfusion, function and viability in diseases related to cardiomyopathy. The standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences can reveal insight on left ventricular (LV) mass, volumes and regional contractile function in all types of cardiomyopathy diseases. Contrast enhanced MRI sequences allow visualization of different infarct patterns and sizes. Enhancement of myocardial inflammation and infarct (location, transmurality and pattern) on contrast enhanced MRI have been used to highlight the key differences in myocardial diseases, predict recovery of function and healing. The common feature in many forms of cardiomyopathy is the presence of diffuse-fibrosis. Currently, imaging sequences generating the most interest in cardiomyopathy include myocardial strain analysis, tissue mapping (T1, T2, T2*) and extracellular volume (ECV) estimation techniques. MRI sequences have the potential to decode the etiology by showing various patterns of infarct and diffuse fibrosis in myocarditis, amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and hypertension. Integrated PET/MRI system may add in the future more information for the diagnosis and progression of cardiomyopathy diseases. With the promise of high spatial/temporal resolution and 3D coverage, MRI will be an indispensible tool in diagnosis and monitoring the benefits of new therapies designed to treat myocardial diseases.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance blood flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Battocletti, J.H.; Halbach, R.E.; Antonich, F.J.; Sances, A. Jr.; Knox, T.A.

    1986-09-23

    An improved nuclear magnetic resonance blood flowmeter is described for non-invasively measuring blood flow in a human limb comprising; polarizing magnet means for generating a substantially uniform magnetic field; a limb receiving lumen for supporting a human limb within the field generated by the polarizing magnet means so that blood molecules within the limb are magnetically polarized thereby; transmitter means located adjacent the lumen for inducing a nuclear magnetic resonance response in the blood molecules of the human limb disposed within the lumen; scanning means including: first means for generating a first pair of opposing magnetic fields within the lumen for cancelling the nuclear magnetic resonance response induced by the transmitter means everywhere except within a first null plane along which the first opposing magnetic fields cancel each other; second means for generating a second pair of opposing magnetic fields; and control means coupled to the first and second means for generating the first and second pair of opposing magnetic fields.

  1. Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With recent improvement in hardware and software techniques, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has undergone significant changes in technique and approach. The advent of 3.0 T magnets has allowed reduction in exogenous contrast dose without compromising overall image quality. The use of novel intravascular contrast agents substantially increases the image windows and decreases contrast dose. Additionally, the lower risk and cost in non-contrast enhanced (NCE) MRA has sparked renewed interest in these methods. This article discusses the current state of both contrast-enhanced (CE) and NCE-MRA. New CE-MRA methods take advantage of dose reduction at 3.0 T, novel contrast agents, and parallel imaging methods. The risks of gadolinium-based contrast media, and the NCE-MRA methods of time-of-flight, steady-state free precession, and phase contrast are discussed. PMID:21388544

  2. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory rheumatoid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mróz, Joanna; Ostrowska, Monika; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is used more and more frequently to diagnose changes in the musculoskeletal system in the course of rheumatic diseases, at their initial assessment, for treatment monitoring and for identification of complications. The article presents the history of magnetic resonance imaging, the basic principles underlying its operation as well as types of magnets, coils and MRI protocols used in the diagnostic process of rheumatic diseases. It enumerates advantages and disadvantages of individual MRI scanners. The principles of MRI coil operation are explained, and the sequences used for MR image analysis are described, particularly in terms of their application in rheumatology, including T1-, T2-, PD-weighted, STIR/TIRM and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Furthermore, views on the need to use contrast agents to optimise diagnosis, particularly in synovitis-like changes, are presented. Finally, methods for the assessment of MR images are listed, including the semi-quantitative method by RAMRIS and quantitative dynamic examination. PMID:27826171

  4. nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Karwacki, F. A.; Griffin, J.

    1985-04-02

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope which derives angular rotation thereof from the phases of precessing nuclear moments utilizes a single-resonance cell situated in the center of a uniform DC magnetic field. The field is generated by current flow through a circular array of coils between parallel plates. It also utilizes a pump and read-out beam and associated electronics for signal processing and control. Encapsulated in the cell for sensing rotation are odd isotopes of Mercury Hg/sup 199/ and Hg/sup 201/. Unpolarized intensity modulated light from a pump lamp is directed by lenses to a linear polarizer, quarter wave plate combination producing circularly polarized light. The circularly polarized light is reflected by a mirror to the cell transverse to the field for optical pumping of the isotopes. Unpolarized light from a readout lamp is directed by lenses to another linear polarizer. The linearly polarized light is reflected by another mirror to the cell transverse to the field and orthogonal to the pump lamp light. The linear light after transversing the cell strikes an analyzer where it is converted to an intensity-modulated light. The modulated light is detected by a photodiode processed and utilized as feedback to control the field and pump lamp excitation and readout of angular displacement.

  5. Imaging Modalities for Assessment of Treatment Response to Nonsurgical Hepatocellular Carcinoma Therapy: Contrast-Enhanced US, CT, and MRI.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-03-01

    Tumor response and time to progression have been considered pivotal for surrogate assessment of treatment efficacy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent advancements in imaging modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are playing an important role in assessing the therapeutic effects of HCC treatments. According to some HCC clinical guidelines, post-therapeutic evaluation of HCC patients is based exclusively on contrast-enhanced dynamic imaging criteria. The recommended techniques are contrast-enhanced CT or contrast-enhanced MRI. Contrast-enhanced US is employed more in the positive diagnosis of HCC than in post-therapeutic monitoring. Although contrast enhancement is an important finding on imaging, enhancement does not necessarily depict the same phenomenon across modalities. We need to become well acquainted with the characteristics of each modality, including not only contrast-enhanced CT and MRI but also contrast-enhanced US. Many nonsurgical treatment options are now available for unresectable HCC, and accurate assessment of tumor response is essential to achieve favorable outcomes. For the assessment of successful radiofrequency ablation (RFA), the achievement of a sufficient ablation margin as well the absence of tumor vascular enhancement is essential. To evaluate the response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), enhanced tumor shrinkage is relied on as a measure of antitumor activity. Here, we give an overview of the current status of imaging assessment of HCC response to nonsurgical treatments including RFA and TACE.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  7. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  9. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-01-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density. PMID:28186135

  10. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R

    2017-02-10

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  11. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  12. New magnetic resonance imaging modalities for Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Joseph H; Oto, Aytekin

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography has an increasing role in the evaluation of the small bowel in patients with Crohn disease. MR enterography is accurate for disease assessment and can influence the choice of therapy. Functional sequences may increase the role of MR enterography in Crohn disease. Techniques such as high-resolution MR enterography, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, magnetization transfer, and MR motility imaging may allow better assessment of disease extent, activity, and severity. Quantitative analysis using these advanced techniques as well as the standard techniques may provide methods for evaluating and following the disease in the future.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Mirijanian, James; Pavell, James

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) is being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC). Cold and hot atom interferometer based gyroscopes have suffered from Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) challenges and limits in bandwidth, scale factor stability, dead time, high rotation rate, vibration, and acceleration. NMRG utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as a reference for determining rotation, providing continuous measurement, high bandwidth, stable scale factor, high rotation rate measurement, and low sensitivity to vibration and acceleration in a low SWaP package. The sensitivity to vibration has been partially tested and demonstrates no measured sensitivity within error bars. Real time closed loop implementation of the sensor significantly decreases environmental and systematic sensitivities and supports a compact and low power digital signal processing and control system. Therefore, the NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost SWaP package. The poster will describe the history, operation, and design of the NMRG. General performance results will also be presented along with recent vibration test results.

  14. Ependymal and periventricular magnetic resonance imaging changes in four dogs with central nervous system blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Timothy; Reese, Michael J; Heng, Hock Gan; Lin, Tsang Long; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Fauber, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Rapid detection of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is important for dogs with blastomycosis, as this can affect antifungal drug selection and has been associated with an increased risk of death. Previous reports describing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of canine CNS blastomycosis primarily identified mass lesions. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine whether other MRI characteristics of CNS blastomycosis may also occur. Medical records of the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital were searched and four dogs met inclusion criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics included periventricular edema, periventricular and meningeal contrast enhancement, and ventriculomegaly. Periventricular lesions most commonly involved the rostral horn of the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle. Increased meningeal contrast enhancement involved the cerebrum, thalamus, sella turcica, and brainstem. Findings indicated that, in addition to mass lesions, MRI characteristics of periventricular hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, and ventriculomegaly may also occur in dogs with CNS blastomycosis. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings associated with necrotizing encephalitis in two Yorkshire terriers.

    PubMed

    von Praun, Ferdinand; Matiasek, Kaspar; Grevel, Vera; Alef, Michaele; Flegel, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Two young adult Yorkshire terriers had neurologic signs consistent with forebrain and brainstem involvement or forebrain involvement alone. On magnetic resonance imaging studies there were asymmetric bilateral lesions mainly in the cerebral cortex, and in the diencephalon. These areas were hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images, but hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted images. Lesions had a varying degree of contrast enhancement. Areas which were isointense on T1-weighted images had no contrast enhancement or only foci of contrast enhancement. Lesions with hypointensity in T1-weighted images had no enhancement or more frequently ring-like enhancement around the lesion. Necrotizing encephalitis was confirmed pathohistologically in both dogs. The degree of contrast enhancement appeared to be related to the degree of lymphohistiocytic inflammation on histologic examination.

  16. In vivo imaging of the rat anatomy with nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hansen, G; Crooks, L E; Davis, P; De Groot, J; Herfkens, R; Margulis, A R; Gooding, C; Kaufman, L; Hoenninger, J; Arakawa, M; McRee, R; Watts, J

    1980-09-01

    Live rats were imaged by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These images demonstrated fine detail and high object contrast. Motion artifacts are not apparent in 4-minute images, and major blood vessels are demonstrated as regions of low signal intensity because of blood flow. Selective contrast enhancement is possible by varying NMR imager accumulation parameters.

  17. Prostate Cancer: The Role of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dias, João Lopes; Pina, João Magalhães; João, Raquel; Fialho, Joana; Carmo, Sandra; Leal, Cecília; Bilhim, Tiago; Marques, Rui Mateus; Pinheiro, Luís Campos

    2015-01-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly used for detection, localization and staging of prostate cancer over the last years. It combines high-resolution T2 weighted-imaging and at least two functional techniques, which include dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy. Although the combined use of a pelvic phased-array and an endorectal coil is considered the state-of-the-art for magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of prostate cancer, endorectal coil is only absolute mandatory for magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy at 1.5 T. Sensitivity and specificity levels in cancer detection and localization have been improving with functional technique implementation, compared to T2 weighted-imaging alone. It has been particularly useful to evaluate patients with abnormal PSA and negative biopsy. Moreover, the information added by the functional techniques may correlate to cancer aggressiveness and therefore be useful to select patients for focal radiotherapy, prostate sparing surgery, focal ablative therapy and active surveillance. However, more studies are needed to compare the functional techniques and understand the advantages and disadvantages of each one. This article reviews the basic principles of prostatic mp-magnetic resonance imaging, emphasizing its role on detection, staging and active surveillance of prostate cancer.

  18. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) appearances of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma in a child with Von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Al Bunni, Faise; Deganello, Annamaria; Sellars, Maria E; Schulte, Klaus-Martin; Al-Adnani, Mudher; Sidhu, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    A phaeochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-secreting tumour arising from the chromaffin cells. We describe a case of a child with Von Hippel-Lindau disease, with an adrenal phaeochromocytoma who presented with severe dilated cardiomyopathy driven by secondary hypertension. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings are described and compared with both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography imaging.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuhs, Bradley L.; Simsek, Senay

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique with a wide variety of applications. It may be used for complex structural studies, for protocol or process development, or as a simple quality assay for which structural information is important. It is nondestructive, and high-quality data may be obtained from milligram, even microgram, quantities of sample. Whereas other spectroscopy techniques may be used to determine the nature of the functional groups present in a sample, only NMR spectroscopy can provide the data necessary to determine the complete structure of a molecule. The applicability of NMR to food analysis has increased over the last three decades. In addition to improved instrumentation and much lower costs, very complex and specialized NMR techniques can now be routinely performed by a student or technician. These experiments can be set up with the click of a button/icon, as all the basic parameters are embedded into default experiment files listed in the data/work station software, and the results are obtained in a short time.

  2. Pediatric magnetic resonance urography.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard A; Grattan-Smith, J Damien; Little, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) is a powerful clinical tool that fuses anatomic information with functional data in a single test without the use of ionizing radiation. This article provides an overview of the technical aspects, as well as common clinical applications with an emphasis on the evaluation of hydronephrosis. A fluid challenge is an essential part of our MRU protocol and enables the definition of compensated or decompensated kidneys within the spectrum of hydronephrosis. This classification may have prognostic implications when surgery is being considered. In addition, underlying uropathy can be identified on the anatomical scans and renal scarring can be seen on both the anatomical and dynamic scans. MRU can identify and categorize dysmorphic kidneys in vivo and may provide insight into congenital abnormalities seen in conjunction with vesicoureteric reflux. MRU is still in its infancy and as the technique develops and becomes widely available, it seems likely that it will supplant renal scintigraphy in the evaluation of renal tract disorders in children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  5. Introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Mlynárik, Vladimír

    2016-05-19

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a useful tool for studying normal and pathological biochemical processes in tissues. In this review, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance and methods of obtaining nuclear magnetic resonance spectra are briefly outlined. The origin of the most important spectroscopic parameters-chemical shifts, coupling constants, longitudinal and transverse relaxation times, and spectroscopic line intensities-is explained, and the role of these parameters in interpretation of spectra is addressed. Basic methodological concepts of localized spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging for the study of tissue metabolism in vivo are also described.

  6. Medical image visual appearance improvement using bihistogram Bezier curve contrast enhancement: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hong-Seng; Swee, Tan Tian; Abdul Karim, Ahmad Helmy; Sayuti, Khairil Amir; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Tham, Weng-Kit; Wong, Liang-Xuan; Chaudhary, Kashif T; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined image can assist user to identify region of interest during segmentation. However, complex medical image is usually characterized by poor tissue contrast and low background luminance. The contrast improvement can lift image visual quality, but the fundamental contrast enhancement methods often overlook the sudden jump problem. In this work, the proposed bihistogram Bezier curve contrast enhancement introduces the concept of "adequate contrast enhancement" to overcome sudden jump problem in knee magnetic resonance image. Since every image produces its own intensity distribution, the adequate contrast enhancement checks on the image's maximum intensity distortion and uses intensity discrepancy reduction to generate Bezier transform curve. The proposed method improves tissue contrast and preserves pertinent knee features without compromising natural image appearance. Besides, statistical results from Fisher's Least Significant Difference test and the Duncan test have consistently indicated that the proposed method outperforms fundamental contrast enhancement methods to exalt image visual quality. As the study is limited to relatively small image database, future works will include a larger dataset with osteoarthritic images to assess the clinical effectiveness of the proposed method to facilitate the image inspection.

  7. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  8. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  9. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... the area being scanned include: Metallic spinal rod Plates, pins, screws, or metal mesh used to repair ...

  11. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The chronic nature of Crohn's disease (CD) implicates necessity of multiple control assessments throughout patient's life. It is accepted that in patients with CD requiring disease monitoring, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) are--apart from endoscopy--imaging studies of first choice. In practice, diagnostic imaging of patients with CD is troublesome, since MRE is an expensive and complicated study, and CTE exposes patients to high doses of ionizing radiation. Therefore, there is a need for new, both non-invasive and effective, methods of imaging in CD. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is a relatively new method using gas-filled microbubbles serving as contrast agent. It allows for detailed assessment of blood perfusion within intestine wall and peri-intestinal tissues, which enables detection and monitoring of inflammation and its qualitative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to describe CEUS examination technique and its clinical applications in patients with Crohn's disease.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal masses in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Fredric A

    2005-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) plays a unique role in the diagnosis and management of pediatric abdominal masses. The "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) radiation dose of CT is zero when substituted by MR. Whole body MR may also compete with PET imaging to stage abdominal tumors. Specific advantages of MR include determination of resectability of hepatic tumors using MRI and MRA; staging of neuroblastoma in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, and spinal canal; response of bilateral Wilms tumor and nephroblastomatosis; detection of pelvic tumors with sagittal sectioning, and peritoneal tumors with contrast enhancement.

  13. Intravascular contrast agents suitable for magnetic resonance imaging. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Clanton, J.A.; Herzer, W.A.; Gibbs, S.J.; Price, A.C.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Two paramagnetic chelates, chromium EDTA and gadolinium DTPA, were evaluated as potential intravenous contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. After evaluating both agents in vitro, in vivo studies were conducted in dogs to document changes in renal appearance produced by contrast injection. Acute splenic and renal infarction were diagnosed with contrast-enhanced MR and confirmed by gamma camera imaging following administration of Tc-99m-labeled DMSA and sulfur colloid. The authors conclude that intravenous paramagnetic contrast agents presently offer the best mechanism for assessment of tissue function and changes in perfusion with MR.

  14. Dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic model of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Li; Yang, Li-Ming; Zhang, Min-Ming; Wang, Bo-Yin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Bao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of a dual-input two-compartment tracer kinetic model for evaluating tumorous microvascular properties in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: From January 2014 to April 2015, we prospectively measured and analyzed pharmacokinetic parameters [transfer constant (Ktrans), plasma flow (Fp), permeability surface area product (PS), efflux rate constant (kep), extravascular extracellular space volume ratio (ve), blood plasma volume ratio (vp), and hepatic perfusion index (HPI)] using dual-input two-compartment tracer kinetic models [a dual-input extended Tofts model and a dual-input 2-compartment exchange model (2CXM)] in 28 consecutive HCC patients. A well-known consensus that HCC is a hypervascular tumor supplied by the hepatic artery and the portal vein was used as a reference standard. A paired Student’s t-test and a nonparametric paired Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the equivalent pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the two models, and Pearson correlation analysis was also applied to observe the correlations among all equivalent parameters. The tumor size and pharmacokinetic parameters were tested by Pearson correlation analysis, while correlations among stage, tumor size and all pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS: The Fp value was greater than the PS value (FP = 1.07 mL/mL per minute, PS = 0.19 mL/mL per minute) in the dual-input 2CXM; HPI was 0.66 and 0.63 in the dual-input extended Tofts model and the dual-input 2CXM, respectively. There were no significant differences in the kep, vp, or HPI between the dual-input extended Tofts model and the dual-input 2CXM (P = 0.524, 0.569, and 0.622, respectively). All equivalent pharmacokinetic parameters, except for ve, were correlated in the two dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic models; both Fp and PS in the dual-input 2CXM were correlated with Ktrans derived from the dual-input extended Tofts model (P = 0.002, r = 0.566; P = 0.002, r = 0.570); kep, vp, and HPI between the two kinetic models were positively correlated (P = 0.001, r = 0.594; P = 0.0001, r = 0.686; P = 0.04, r = 0.391, respectively). In the dual input extended Tofts model, ve was significantly less than that in the dual input 2CXM (P = 0.004), and no significant correlation was seen between the two tracer kinetic models (P = 0.156, r = 0.276). Neither tumor size nor tumor stage was significantly correlated with any of the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the two models (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: A dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic model (a dual-input extended Tofts model and a dual-input 2CXM) can be used in assessing the microvascular physiopathological properties before the treatment of advanced HCC. The dual-input extended Tofts model may be more stable in measuring the ve; however, the dual-input 2CXM may be more detailed and accurate in measuring microvascular permeability. PMID:27053857

  15. Assessing response in breast cancer with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: are signal intensity-time curves adequate?

    PubMed

    Woolf, David K; Padhani, Anwar R; Taylor, N Jane; Gogbashian, Andrew; Li, Sonia P; Beresford, Mark J; Ah-See, Mei-Lin; Stirling, James; Collins, David J; Makris, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters including K(trans) (transfer constant min(-1)) can predict both response and outcome in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Quantitative methods are time-consuming to calculate, requiring expensive software and interpretive expertise. For diagnostic purposes, signal intensity-time curves (SITCs) are used for tissue characterisation. In this study, we compare the ability of NAC-related changes in SITCs with K(trans) to predict response and outcomes. 73 women with primary breast cancer underwent DCE-MRI studies before and after two cycles of NAC. Patients received anthracycline and/or docetaxel-based chemotherapy. At completion of NAC, patients had local treatment with surgery & radiotherapy and further systemic treatments. SITCs for paired DCE-MRI studies were visually scored using a five-curve type classification schema encompassing wash-in and wash-out phases and correlated with K(trans) values and to the endpoints of pathological response, OS and DFS. 58 paired patients studies were evaluable. The median size by MRI measurement for 52 tumours was 38 mm (range 17-86 mm) at baseline and 26 mm (range 10-85 mm) after two cycles of NAC. Median baseline K(trans) (min(-1)) was 0.214 (range 0.085-0.469), and post-two cycles of NAC was 0.128 (range 0.013-0.603). SITC shapes were significantly related to K(trans) values both before (χ (2) = 43.3, P = 0.000) and after two cycles of NAC (χ (2) = 60.5, P = 0.000). Changes in curve shapes were significantly related to changes in K(trans) (χ (2) = 53.5, P = 0.000). Changes in curve shape were significantly correlated with clinical (P = 0.005) and pathological response (P = 0.005). Reductions in curve shape of ≥1 point were significant for overall improved survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis with a 5-year OS of 80.9 versus 68.6 % (P = 0.048). SITCs require no special software to generate and provide a useful method of assessing the effectiveness of NAC for primary breast cancer.

  16. [Feasibility of non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for diagnosis of renal artery stenosis in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xian; An, Ningyu; Chen, Suihui; Li, Xue; Jiang, Bo; Han, Shaojun; Liu, Xinqiu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of IFIR-FIESTA technique in detecting renal artery stenosis in elderly patients. Twenty-seven aged patients underwent both IFIR-FIESTA and 3D CE-MRA examinations. The imaging quality and renal artery stenosis grades were evaluated. Kappa test was used to assess the consistency between the two methods. With CE-MRA as the reference, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV for IFIR-FIESTA were calculated in detecting renal artery stenosis. The images by the two methods were 100% qualified for diagnosis, although the image quality of CE-MRA was significantly better. IFIR-FIESTA and CE-MRA showed excellent consistency in detecting renal artery stenosis. With CE-MRA as the reference, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV for IFIR-FIESTA were 97.1%, 100%, 98.1%, 100%, and 95% in detecting renal artery stenosis, respectively. IFIR-FIESTA is feasible as a routine examination for detecting renal artery stenosis in elderly patients.

  17. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z.; Suh, B.J.; Roukes, M.L.; Midzor, M.; Wigen, P.E.; Childress, J.R.

    1999-06-03

    Our objectives were to develop the Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope (MRFM) into an instrument capable of scientific studies of buried structures in technologically and scientifically important electronic materials such as magnetic multilayer materials. This work resulted in the successful demonstration of MRFM-detected ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as a microscopic characterization tool for thin magnetic films. Strong FMR spectra obtained from microscopic Co thin films (500 and 1000 angstroms thick and 40 x 200 microns in lateral extent) allowed us to observe variations in sample inhomogeneity and magnetic anisotropy field. We demonstrated lateral imaging in microscopic FMR for the first time using a novel approach employing a spatially selective local field generated by a small magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet. These successful applications of the MRFM in materials studies provided the basis for our successful proposal to DOE/BES to employ the MRF M in studies of buried interfaces in magnetic materials.

  19. Early History of Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, N. F.

    1999-06-01

    The early history of magnetic resonance to around 1950 is discussed from the point of view of a participant in it. I. I. Rabi's theory of space quantization in a gyrating magnetic field and his molecular beam experiments in the 1930s laid the foundation of the magnetic resonance method, which he and his associates subsequently pursued and developed further at Columbia University, leading eventually to the development of NMR after World War II and the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method in 1950.

  20. Basics of magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oldendorf, W.; Oldendorf, W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning with the behavior of a compass needle in a magnetic field, this text uses analogies from everyday experience to explain the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and how it is used for imaging. Using a minimum of scientific abbreviations and symbols, the basics of tissue visualization and characterization are presented. A description of the various types of magnets and scanners is followed by the practical advantages and limitations of MRI relative to x-ray CT scanning.

  1. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Schuch, Alice; Hochhegger, Bruno; Gross, Jefferson Luiz; Chojniak, Rubens; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    In the investigation of tumors with conventional magnetic resonance imaging, both quantitative characteristics, such as size, edema, necrosis, and presence of metastases, and qualitative characteristics, such as contrast enhancement degree, are taken into consideration. However, changes in cell metabolism and tissue physiology which precede morphological changes cannot be detected by the conventional technique. The development of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques has enabled the functional assessment of the structures in order to obtain information on the different physiological processes of the tumor microenvironment, such as oxygenation levels, cellularity and vascularity. The detailed morphological study in association with the new functional imaging techniques allows for an appropriate approach to cancer patients, including the phases of diagnosis, staging, response evaluation and follow-up, with a positive impact on their quality of life and survival rate.

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology: state of the art*

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Schuch, Alice; Hochhegger, Bruno; Gross, Jefferson Luiz; Chojniak, Rubens; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    In the investigation of tumors with conventional magnetic resonance imaging, both quantitative characteristics, such as size, edema, necrosis, and presence of metastases, and qualitative characteristics, such as contrast enhancement degree, are taken into consideration. However, changes in cell metabolism and tissue physiology which precede morphological changes cannot be detected by the conventional technique. The development of new magnetic resonance imaging techniques has enabled the functional assessment of the structures in order to obtain information on the different physiological processes of the tumor microenvironment, such as oxygenation levels, cellularity and vascularity. The detailed morphological study in association with the new functional imaging techniques allows for an appropriate approach to cancer patients, including the phases of diagnosis, staging, response evaluation and follow-up, with a positive impact on their quality of life and survival rate. PMID:25741058

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

  5. Contrast-enhanced MRI in preoperative assessment of myometrial and cervical invasion, and lymph node metastasis: diagnostic value and error analysis in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Ying-Mei; Yu, Jing; Lang, Xu; Tian, Wen-Yan; Jiang, Chang-Xin; Xue, Feng-Xia

    2015-03-01

    To determine the ability of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to predict myometrial invasion, cervical invasion, and pelvic lymph node metastasis in endometrial carcinoma and to analyze factors that lead to errors in this identification. A retrospective study. University general hospital. A total of 167 women diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma. All patients received a preoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scan. Histopathological findings were used as the definitive diagnosis. The results were compared with histopathological findings, factors that make accurate assessment of myometrial invasion, cervical invasion, and pelvic lymph node metastasis difficult by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were 90.9, 91.8, 91.6, 73.2 and 97.6%, respectively, for identifying deep myometrial invasion; 84.2, 96.0, 94.6, 72.7 and 97.9%, respectively, for identifying cervical invasion; and 45.0, 91.2, 85.6, 40.9 and 92.4%, respectively, for identifying pelvic lymph node metastasis. The main causes of error in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were myomas, cornual lesions, deep myometrial invasion, large tumor size, non-endometrioid tumor type, and lower tumor grade. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging has a high accuracy and a low tendency to produce false-negative predictive values. Gynecological oncologists should combine the imaging data and clinical information to make therapeutic decisions and avoid diagnostic errors. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. GHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, T.A.; Drobny, G.; Trewhella, J.

    1994-12-01

    For the past dozen years, 500- and 600-MHz spectrometers have become available in many laboratories. The first 600-MHz NMR spectrometer (at Carnegie Mellon University) was commissioned more than 15 years ago and, until 1994, represented the highest field available for high-resolution NMR. This year, we have witnessed unprecedented progress in the development of very high field magnets for NMR spectroscopy, including the delivery of the first commercial 750-MHz NMR spectrometers. In addition, NMR signals have been obtained from 20-Tesla magnets (850 MHz for {sup 1}H`s) at both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Florida State University in the NHMFL (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory). These preliminary experiments have been performed in magnets with 100-ppm homogeneity, but a 20-Tesla magnet developed for the NHMFL will be brought to field this year with a projected homogeneity of 0.1 ppm over a 1-cm-diam spherical volume.

  7. Wall Shear Stress Measurement Using Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Arteriovenous Polytetrafluoroethylene Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sanjay; Fu, Alex A.; Misra, Khamal D.; Glockner, James F.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present article was to determine the changes in luminal vessel area, blood flow, and wall shear stress in both the inflow artery and the venous stenosis of arteriovenous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Methods and materials Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were placed from the carotid artery to the ipsilateral jugular vein in 8 castrated juvenile male pigs. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 2 weeks after graft placement. Results The mean wall shear stress at the venous stenosis was 4 times higher than the control vein, while the inflow artery was only 2-fold higher. By day 14, venous stenosis had formed, which was characterized by narrowed area and elevated blood flow. Conclusion By day 14, there is venous stenosis formation in porcine arteriovenous PTFE grafts with increased shear stress with decreased area when compared to control vein. PMID:19625275

  8. Wall shear stress measurement using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging with phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography in arteriovenous polytetrafluoroethylene grafts.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sanjay; Fu, Alex A; Misra, Khamal D; Glockner, James F; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to determine the changes in luminal vessel area, blood flow, and wall shear stress in both the inflow artery and the venous stenosis of arteriovenous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were placed from the carotid artery to the ipsilateral jugular vein in 8 castrated juvenile male pigs. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 2 weeks after graft placement. The mean wall shear stress at the venous stenosis was 4 times higher than the control vein, while the inflow artery was only 2-fold higher. By day 14, venous stenosis had formed, which was characterized by narrowed area and elevated blood flow. By day 14, there is venous stenosis formation in porcine arteriovenous PTFE grafts with increased shear stress with decreased area when compared to control vein.

  9. Contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for pulmonary diseases: basics and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Miura, Sachiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of regional pulmonary perfusion as well as nodule and tumor perfusions in various pulmonary diseases are currently performed by means of nuclear medicine studies requiring radioactive macroaggregates, dual-energy computed tomography (CT), and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques and unenhanced and dynamic first-pass contrast enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as time-resolved three-dimensional or four-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Perfusion scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and SPECT fused with CT have been established as clinically available scintigraphic methods; however, they are limited by perfusion information with poor spatial resolution and other shortcomings. Although positron emission tomography with 15O water can measure absolute pulmonary perfusion, it requires a cyclotron for generation of a tracer with an extremely short half-life (2 min), and can only be performed for academic purposes. Therefore, clinicians are concentrating their efforts on the application of CT-based and MRI-based quantitative and qualitative perfusion assessment to various pulmonary diseases. This review article covers 1) the basics of dual-energy CT and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques, 2) the basics of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI, and 3) clinical applications of contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for patients with pulmonary nodule, lung cancer, and pulmonary vascular diseases. We believe that these new techniques can be useful in routine clinical practice for not only thoracic oncology patients, but also patients with different pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:27523813

  10. Contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for pulmonary diseases: basics and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Koyama, Hisanobu; Lee, Ho Yun; Miura, Sachiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of regional pulmonary perfusion as well as nodule and tumor perfusions in various pulmonary diseases are currently performed by means of nuclear medicine studies requiring radioactive macroaggregates, dual-energy computed tomography (CT), and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques and unenhanced and dynamic first-pass contrast enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as time-resolved three-dimensional or four-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Perfusion scintigraphy, single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and SPECT fused with CT have been established as clinically available scintigraphic methods; however, they are limited by perfusion information with poor spatial resolution and other shortcomings. Although positron emission tomography with 15O water can measure absolute pulmonary perfusion, it requires a cyclotron for generation of a tracer with an extremely short half-life (2 min), and can only be performed for academic purposes. Therefore, clinicians are concentrating their efforts on the application of CT-based and MRI-based quantitative and qualitative perfusion assessment to various pulmonary diseases. This review article covers 1) the basics of dual-energy CT and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion CT techniques, 2) the basics of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA and dynamic first-pass contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI, and 3) clinical applications of contrast-enhanced CT- and MRI-based perfusion assessment for patients with pulmonary nodule, lung cancer, and pulmonary vascular diseases. We believe that these new techniques can be useful in routine clinical practice for not only thoracic oncology patients, but also patients with different pulmonary vascular diseases.

  11. Progesterone-Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Probes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Determination of progesterone receptor (PR) status in hormone-dependent diseases is essential in ascertaining disease prognosis and monitoring treatment response. The development of a noninvasive means of monitoring these processes would have significant impact on early detection, cost, repeated measurements, and personalized treatment options. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely recognized as a technique that can produce longitudinal studies, and PR-targeted MR probes may address a clinical problem by providing contrast enhancement that reports on PR status without biopsy. Commercially available MR contrast agents are typically delivered via intravenous injection, whereas steroids are administered subcutaneously. Whether the route of delivery is important for tissue accumulation of steroid-modified MRI contrast agents to PR-rich tissues is not known. To address this question, modification of the chemistry linking progesterone with the gadolinium chelate led to MR probes with increased water solubility and lower cellular toxicity and enabled administration through the blood. This attribute came at a cost through lower affinity for PR and decreased ability to cross the cell membrane, and ultimately it did not improve delivery of the PR-targeted MR probe to PR-rich tissues or tumors in vivo. Overall, these studies are important, as they demonstrate that targeted contrast agents require optimization of delivery and receptor binding of the steroid and the gadolinium chelate for optimal translation in vivo. PMID:25019183

  12. Segmentation of neuroanatomy in magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrew; Arridge, Simon R.; Barker, G. J.; Tofts, Paul S.

    1992-06-01

    Segmentation in neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for feature extraction, volume measurement and for the three-dimensional display of neuroanatomy. Automated and semi-automated methods offer considerable advantages over manual methods because of their lack of subjectivity, their data reduction capabilities, and the time savings they give. We have used dual echo multi-slice spin-echo data sets which take advantage of the intrinsically multispectral nature of MRI. As a pre-processing step, a rf non-uniformity correction is applied and if the data is noisy the images are smoothed using a non-isotropic blurring method. Edge-based processing is used to identify the skin (the major outer contour) and the eyes. Edge-focusing has been used to significantly simplify edge images and thus allow simple postprocessing to pick out the brain contour in each slice of the data set. Edge- focusing is a technique which locates significant edges using a high degree of smoothing at a coarse level and tracks these edges to a fine level where the edges can be determined with high positional accuracy. Both 2-D and 3-D edge-detection methods have been compared. Once isolated, the brain is further processed to identify CSF, and, depending upon the MR pulse sequence used, the brain itself may be sub-divided into gray matter and white matter using semi-automatic contrast enhancement and clustering methods.

  13. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Patrick M; Caruthers, Shelton D; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2010-11-03

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) molecular imaging aims to identify and map the expression of important biomarkers on a cellular scale utilizing contrast agents that are specifically targeted to the biochemical signatures of disease and are capable of generating sufficient image contrast. In some cases, the contrast agents may be designed to carry a drug payload or to be sensitive to important physiological factors, such as pH, temperature or oxygenation. In this review, examples will be presented that utilize a number of different molecular imaging quantification techniques, including measuring signal changes, calculating the area of contrast enhancement, mapping relaxation time changes or direct detection of contrast agents through multi-nuclear imaging or spectroscopy. The clinical application of CMR molecular imaging could offer far reaching benefits to patient populations, including early detection of therapeutic response, localizing ruptured atherosclerotic plaques, stratifying patients based on biochemical disease markers, tissue-specific drug delivery, confirmation and quantification of end-organ drug uptake, and noninvasive monitoring of disease recurrence. Eventually, such agents may play a leading role in reducing the human burden of cardiovascular disease, by providing early diagnosis, noninvasive monitoring and effective therapy with reduced side effects.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Hsieh, H.C.H.; Jackson, J.W.; Damadian, R.V.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a medical NMR scanner comprising a primary field magnet assembly including: (a) a ferromagnetic frame defining a patient-receiving space adapted to receive a human body, the frame having a pair of opposed polar regions aligned on a polar axis and disposed on opposite sides of the patient-receiving space, and the frame including a substantially continuous ferro-magnetic flux return path extending between the polar regions remote from the patient-receiving space; (b) flux-generating means including superconductive windings and cryostat means for maintaining the windings at superconducting temperatures; and (c) support means for maintaining the windings in proximity to the frame so that when a current passes through the windings magnetic flux emanating from the windings produces a magnetic field within the patient-receiving space and at least a portion of the flux passes into the patient-receiving space by way of the polar regions.

  15. Magnetic Resonance (MR) Defecography

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  16. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. ... tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholangiopancreatography or MRCP uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to evaluate the liver, gallbladder, ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...

  18. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. R.

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Imaging, now more commonly referred to as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), developed into an important clinical modality between the years of 1978 and 1985. In 1945 it was demonstrated independently by Bloch(F. Bloch, The Principle of Nuclear Induction, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962 New York, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) and Purcell(E.M. Purcell, Research in Nuclear Magnetism, Nobel Lectures in Physics: 1946-1962, New York. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1964.) that magnetic nuclei in a sample when placed in a static magnetic field exhibit a characteristic resonance frequency which is proportional to the field strength and unique to nuclei of the same type and same environment. The net magnetization of the sample when irradiated by an RF wave at the resonance frequency could thus be manipulated to produce an induced "NMR signal" in a conducting loop placed near the sample. In the early 1970's, methods were developed whereby the NMR signal could be spatially encoded in both frequency and phase by means of superimposed linear magnetic field gradients to produce NMR images. NMR image contrast is a function of nuclear concentration and magnetic relaxation times (T1 and T2). MRI became the first medical imaging modality to provide both high resolution and high contrast images of soft tissue. Current clinical MRI systems produce images of the distribution of ^1H nuclei (primarily water) within the body. Other biologically important nuclei (^13C, ^23N, ^31P), as well as the imaging of hyperpolarized inert gases (^3He, ^129Xe) are under investigation. Recent developments in ^1H-MRI have included chemical shift imaging (hydrogen containing metabolites), blood flow imaging (MR angiography), ultra high-speed imaging (Echo Planar), and imaging of brain function based upon magnetic susceptibility differences resulting from blood oxygenation changes during brain activity.

  19. Stereoelectroencephalography Using Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Avascular Trajectory Planning: Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Krasimir; Gabrovski, Kaloyan; Penkov, Marin; Todorov, Yuri; Tanova, Rositsa; Milenova, Yoana; Romansky, Kiril; Dimova, Petia

    2017-10-01

    Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) requires high-quality angiographic studies because avascular trajectory planning is a prerequisite for the safety of this procedure. Some epilepsy surgery groups have begun to use computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance T1-weighted sequence with contrast enhancement for this purpose. To present the first series of patients with avascular trajectory planning of SEEG based on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Thirty-six SEEG explorations for drug-resistant focal epilepsy were performed from January 2013 to December 2015. A retrospective analysis of this consecutive surgical series was then performed. Magnetic resonance imaging included MRA with a modified contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (MRV) protocol with a short acquisition delay, which allowed simultaneous arterial and venous visualization. Our criteria for satisfactory MRA were the visualization of at least first-order branches of the angular artery, paracentral and calcarine artery, and third-order tributaries of the superficial Sylvian vein, vein of Labbe, and vein of Trolard. Thirty-four patients underwent 36 SEEG explorations with 369 electrodes carrying 4321 contacts. Contrast-enhanced MRA using the MRV protocol was judged satisfactory for SEEG planning in all explorations. Postoperative complications were not observed in our series of 36 SEEG explorations, which included 50 transopercular insular trajectories. MRA using an MRV protocol may be applied for avascular trajectory planning during SEEG procedures. This technique provides a simultaneous visualization of cortical arteries and veins without the need for additional radiation exposure or intra-arterial catheter placement.

  20. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  1. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

    2003-07-01

    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  2. The assessment of antiangiogenic and antivascular therapies in early-stage clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging: issues and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M O; Brindle, K M; Evelhoch, J L; Griffiths, J R; Horsman, M R; Jackson, A; Jayson, G C; Judson, I R; Knopp, M V; Maxwell, R J; McIntyre, D; Padhani, A R; Price, P; Rathbone, R; Rustin, G J; Tofts, P S; Tozer, G M; Vennart, W; Waterton, J C; Williams, S R; Workman, P

    2005-01-01

    Vascular and angiogenic processes provide an important target for novel cancer therapeutics. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is being used increasingly to noninvasively monitor the action of these therapeutics in early-stage clinical trials. This publication reports the outcome of a workshop that considered the methodology and design of magnetic resonance studies, recommending how this new tool might best be used. PMID:15870830

  3. Magnetic resonance segmentation with the bubble wave algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Harvey E.; Ludke, Siegwalt

    2003-05-01

    A new bubble wave algorithm provides automatic segmentation of three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of both the peripheral vasculature and the brain. Simple connectivity algorithms are not reliable in these medical applications because there are unwanted connections through background noise. The bubble wave algorithm restricts connectivity using curvature by testing spherical regions on a propagating active contour to eliminate noise bridges. After the user places seeds in both the selected regions and in the regions that are not desired, the method provides the critical threshold for segmentation using binary search. Today, peripheral vascular disease is diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging with a timed contrast bolus. A new blood pool contrast agent MS-325 (Epix Medical) binds to albumen in the blood and provides high-resolution three-dimensional images of both arteries and veins. The bubble wave algorithm provides a means to automatically suppress the veins that obscure the arteries in magnetic resonance angiography. Monitoring brain atrophy is needed for trials of drugs that retard the progression of dementia. The brain volume is measured by placing seeds in both the brain and scalp to find the critical threshold that prevents connections between the brain volume and the scalp. Examples from both three-dimensional magnetic resonance brain and contrast enhanced vascular images were segmented with minimal user intervention.

  4. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Jasper A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1982-01-01

    Means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial component of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  5. Medical Image Visual Appearance Improvement Using Bihistogram Bezier Curve Contrast Enhancement: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Hong-Seng; Swee, Tan Tian; Abdul Karim, Ahmad Helmy; Sayuti, Khairil Amir; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Tham, Weng-Kit; Wong, Liang-Xuan; Chaudhary, Kashif T.; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined image can assist user to identify region of interest during segmentation. However, complex medical image is usually characterized by poor tissue contrast and low background luminance. The contrast improvement can lift image visual quality, but the fundamental contrast enhancement methods often overlook the sudden jump problem. In this work, the proposed bihistogram Bezier curve contrast enhancement introduces the concept of “adequate contrast enhancement” to overcome sudden jump problem in knee magnetic resonance image. Since every image produces its own intensity distribution, the adequate contrast enhancement checks on the image's maximum intensity distortion and uses intensity discrepancy reduction to generate Bezier transform curve. The proposed method improves tissue contrast and preserves pertinent knee features without compromising natural image appearance. Besides, statistical results from Fisher's Least Significant Difference test and the Duncan test have consistently indicated that the proposed method outperforms fundamental contrast enhancement methods to exalt image visual quality. As the study is limited to relatively small image database, future works will include a larger dataset with osteoarthritic images to assess the clinical effectiveness of the proposed method to facilitate the image inspection. PMID:24977191

  6. Magnetic Resonance Image Wavelet Enhancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    1Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica , UAM Iztapalapa, Mexico−DF, 09340, Mexico email:arog@xanum.uam.mx. Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics...Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica , UAM Iztapalapa, Mexico-DF

  7. Magnetic resonance apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, J.A.; Cooper, R.K.

    1980-10-10

    The patent consists of means for producing a region of homogeneous magnetic field remote from the source of the field, wherein two equal field sources are arranged axially so their fields oppose, producing a region near the plane perpendicular to the axis midway between the sources where the radial correspondent of the field goes through a maximum. Near the maximum, the field is homogeneous over prescribed regions.

  8. The principles of magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Longmore, D B

    1989-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR), which has no known biological hazard, is capable of producing high resolution thin tomographic images in any plane and blocks of 3-dimensional information. It can be used to study blood flow and to gain information about the composition of important materials seen and quantified on dimensionally accurate images. The MR image is a thin tomographic slice or a true three dimensional block of data which can be reconstructed in any desired way rather than a shadowgram of all the structures in the beam. It is the only imaging technique which can acquire data in a 3-dimensional format. CT images can be reconstructed to form a pseudo 3-D image or a hologram but the flexibility conferred by acquiring the data as a true 3-D block gives many advantages. The spatial resolution of MR images are theoretically those of low powered microscopy, the practical limits with the present generation of equipment are voxel sizes of one third by one third by two millimetres. The term Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is used commonly, particularly in the USA, avoiding association with the term, nuclear, and emphasizing the imaging potential of the technique. The terms Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or Magnetic Resonance (MR) more correctly describe the most powerful diagnostic instrument yet devised. The simplified description of the phenomena involved in MR which follows is intended to be comprehensive and does not require foreknowledge of classical physics, quantum mechanics, fluency with mathematical formulae or an understanding of image reconstruction. There are many explanations of MR, some omitting the more difficult concepts. An accurate, comprehensive description is found on the textbook on MR by Gadian, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its Applications for Living Systems (Oxford University Press, 1982).

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain KidsHealth > For Parents > Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Brain ... child may be given headphones to listen to music or earplugs to block the noise, and will ...

  10. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info ... I’d like to talk with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. ...

  11. Proton magnetic resonance spectrum of polywater.

    PubMed

    Petsko, G A

    1970-01-09

    With the aid of a time average computer, the proton magnetic resonance spectrum of anomalous water (polywater) is obtained. The spectrum conisists of a single broad resonance shifted approximately 300 hertz downfield from the resonance of ordinary water.

  12. Optimization of pulse sequences in magnetic resonance lymphography of axillary lymph nodes using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Sarkar, Saeed; Amirmohseni, Saeedeh; Ghanaati, Hossein

    2009-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences have an important role in detection of lymph nodes using magnetic nanoparticles as a contrast agent. Current imaging sequences lack an optimum pulse sequence based on lymph node relaxation times after accumulation of magnetic nanoparticles. This deficiency is due to the limited information regarding the particle uptake in tissues, and their related magnetic properties used by magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study is to optimize the imaging pulse sequences based on in vivo measurement of relaxation times for obtaining the best contrast-enhanced images of axillary lymph nodes. In vivo studies were performed on normal rats on a 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The used contrast agent was dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 20 nm. Relaxation time measurements were performed for enhanced (after injection) and nonenhanced axillary lymph nodes, and the surrounding tissue. Since magnetic resonance signal depends highly on tissue parameters; T1, T2, and T2*, as well as magnetic resonance acquisition parameters; repetition time and echo time, knowing the tissue characteristics is important in order to design a right magnetic resonance protocol for each application. Based on our proposed approach, the relaxivity characteristic of the lymph node after accumulation of a contrast agent and its corresponding relaxation rate is used to define optimum imaging parameters (i.e., repetition time and echo time) for maximum contrast. According to these imaging parameter values, various T1, T2, T2* and proton density weighted sequences were applied. Optimum pulse sequences were found to be T2*-weighted fast gradient echo, T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient echo and proton density-weighted fast spin echo sequences.

  13. Initial Clinical Experience with Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sara C.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Albert, Michael; Conant, Emily F.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE and OBJECTIVES Contrast-enhanced digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis are 2 imaging techniques that attempt to increase malignant breast lesion conspicuity. The combination of these into a single technique, contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DBT), could potentially integrate the strengths of both. The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical feasibility of CE-DBT as an adjunct to digital mammography, and to correlate lesion enhancement characteristics and morphology obtained with CE-DBT to digital mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance (MR). MATERIALS and METHODS CE-DBT (GE Senographe 2000D, Milwaukee, WI) was performed as a pilot study in an ongoing NCI-funded grant (P01 CA85484) studying multimodality breast imaging. 13 patients with ACR BI-RADS category 4 or 5 breast lesions underwent imaging with digital mammography, ultrasound, MR, and CE-DBT. CE-DBT was performed at 45-49 kVp with a rhodium target and a 0.27 mm copper (Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA) filter. Pre- and post-injection DBT image sets were acquired in the MLO projection with slight compression. Each image set consists of 9 images acquired over a 50° arc and was obtained with a mean glandular x-ray dose comparable to two conventional mammographic views. Between the pre- and post-contrast DBT image sets, a single bolus of iodinated contrast agent (1 ml/kg at 2 ml/s; Omnipaque-300, Amersham Health Inc., Princeton, NJ) was administered. Images were reconstructed using filtered-backprojection in 1 mm increments, and transmitted to a clinical PACS workstation. RESULTS Initial experience suggests that CE-DBT provides morphologic and vascular characteristics of breast lesions qualitatively concordant with that of digital mammography and MR. CONCLUSION As an adjunct to digital mammography, CE-DBT may be a potential alternative tool for breast lesion morphologic and vascular characterization. PMID:17236995

  14. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dalla Palma, L; Pozzi-Mucelli, R S

    1992-02-01

    The evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based upon ultrasonography (US) which has proved to have a high sensitivity and is also extremely useful in guiding the percutaneous needle biopsy. The main role of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is to supplement US in evaluating the extent of HCC. The Authors discuss the different techniques of examinations of the liver both for CT and MRI as far as the modalities of contrast enhancement, site of injection, and type of contrast agents are concerned. The differences between low field and high field magnets are also discussed. The main CT and MRI findings are illustrated, depending upon the technique of examination. Finally the role of these techniques is discussed. Based upon personal experience and the data in CT literature, and if performed with updated technology and intraarterial injection (lipiodol), CT is the method of choice in order to supplement US in the evaluation of HCC.

  15. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  16. Optimization of on-resonant magnetization transfer contrast in coronary vein MRI.

    PubMed

    Stoeck, Christian T; Hu, Peng; Peters, Dana C; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Goepfert, Lois; Ngo, Long; Manning, Warren J; Kozerke, Sebastian; Nezafat, Reza

    2010-12-01

    Magnetization transfer contrast has been used commonly for endogenous tissue contrast improvements in angiography, brain, body, and cardiac imaging. Both off-resonant and on-resonant RF pulses can be used to generate magnetization transfer based contrast. In this study, on-resonant magnetization transfer preparation using binomial pulses were optimized and compared with off-resonant magnetization transfer for imaging of coronary veins. Three parameters were studied with simulations and in vivo measurements: flip angle, pulse repetitions, and binomial pulse order. Subsequently, first or second order binomial on-resonant magnetization transfer pulses with eight repetitions of 720° and 240° flip angle were used for coronary vein MRI. Flip angles of 720° yielded contrast enhancement of 115% (P < 0.0006) for first order on-resonant and 95% (P < 0.0006) for off-resonant magnetization transfer. There was no statistically significance difference between off-resonant and on-resonant first order binomial Magnetization transfer at 720°. However, for off-resonance pulses, much more preparation time is needed when compared with the binomials but with considerably reduced specific absorption rate.

  17. Morphological image processing for quantitative shape analysis of biomedical structures: effective contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kimori, Yoshitaka

    2013-11-01

    Image processing methods significantly contribute to visualization of images captured by biomedical modalities (such as mammography, X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and light and electron microscopy). Quantitative interpretation of the deluge of complicated biomedical images, however, poses many research challenges, one of which is to enhance structural features that are scarcely perceptible to the human eye. This study introduces a contrast enhancement approach based on a new type of mathematical morphology called rotational morphological processing. The proposed method is applied to medical images for the enhancement of structural features. The effectiveness of the method is evaluated quantitatively by the contrast improvement ratio (CIR). The CIR of the proposed method is 12.1, versus 4.7 and 0.1 for two conventional contrast enhancement methods, clearly indicating the high contrasting capability of the method.

  18. Shiftless nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin H; Opella, Stanley J

    2008-02-07

    The acquisition and analysis of high resolution one- and two-dimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra without chemical shift frequencies are described. Many variations of shiftless NMR spectroscopy are feasible. A two-dimensional experiment that correlates the dipole-dipole and dipole-dipole couplings in the model peptide , (15)N labeled N-acetyl-leucine is demonstrated. In addition to the resolution of resonances from individual sites in a single crystal sample, the bond lengths and angles are characterized by the two-dimensional powder pattern obtained from a polycrystalline sample.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of luxury perfusion of the optic nerve head in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yovel, Oren S; Katz, Miriam; Leiba, Hana

    2012-09-01

    A 49-year-old woman with painless reduction in visual acuity in her left eye was found to have nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Fluorescein angiography revealed optic disc capillary leakage consistent with "luxury perfusion." Contrast-enhanced FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed marked enhancement of the left optic disc. Resolution of the optic disc edema and the MRI abnormalities followed a similar time course. This report appears unique in documenting the MRI findings of luxury perfusion in NAION.

  20. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  1. Subsecond magnetic resonance angiography and the evaluation of abnormal arteriovasuclar communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachariah, Anish B.; Pereles, F. S.; Kaliney, Ryan; Carr, James C.; Collins, Jeremy D.; Wood, Cecil; Finn, John P.

    2003-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography is becoming widely accepted in the diagnosis of vascular diseases. When used for evaluation of arterial stenoses, aneurysm, thrombosis, or occlusion, MR angiography is a robust and accurate technique. Traditional techniques for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) offer the benefit of high spatial resolution in characterizing vascular malformations, but have lacked the temporal resolution to describe dynamic flow events. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the potential role of a novel technique, sub-second MRA, in the evaluation of abdominal arteriovenous malformation.

  2. Neurilemmoma of the glans penis: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Chul; Hwang, Sung Il; Jung, Sung Il; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2006-01-01

    Neurilemmoma of the glans penis is rare, and no imaging findings have been reported. A case of neurilemmoma of the glans penis is presented. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined small mass in the glans penis. The mass appeared hypoechoic on gray-scale US and hypervascular on color Doppler US. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity of the mass on a T2-weighted image and strong enhancement on a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image.

  3. Overcoming the concentration-dependence of responsive probes for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ekanger, Levi A.

    2015-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, contrast agents are molecules that increase the contrast-to-noise ratio of non-invasively acquired images. The information gained from magnetic resonance imaging can be increased using responsive contrast agents that undergo chemical changes, and consequently changes to contrast enhancement, for example in response to specific biomarkers that are indicative of diseases. A major limitation with modern responsive contrast agents is concentration-dependence that requires the concentration of contrast agent to be known: an extremely challenging task in vivo. Here, we review advances in several strategies aimed at overcoming the concentration-dependent nature of responsive contrast agents. PMID:25579206

  4. Technical Aspects of Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography: Current Status and New Applications.

    PubMed

    Riederer, Stephen J; Stinson, Eric G; Weavers, Paul T

    2017-08-31

    This article is based on a presentation at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine in September 2016. The purpose is to review the technical developments which have contributed to the current status of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and to indicate related emerging areas of study. Technical developments include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics-based innovations as well as improvements in MRI engineering. These have collectively addressed not only early issues of timing and venous suppression but more importantly have led to an improvement in spatiotemporal resolution of CE-MRA of more than two orders of magnitude compared to early results. This has allowed CE-MRA to be successfully performed in virtually all vascular territories of the body. Contemporary technical areas of study include improvements in implementation of high rate acceleration, extension of high performance first-pass CE-MRA across multiple imaging stations, expanded use of compressive sensing techniques, integration of Dixon-based fat suppression into CE-MRA sequences, and application of CE-MRA sequences to dynamic-contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging.

  5. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information.

  6. Fast fetal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Lall, Chandana; Aisen, Alex A; Rajesh, Arumugam; Cohen, Mervyn D

    2005-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a problem-solving tool when ultrasonic findings are equivocal. The role of fetal MRI has increased as obstetricians become aware of its potential and in utero therapy for anomalies becomes increasingly sophisticated. In this pictorial essay, we present a wide range of anomalies diagnosed or confirmed using MRI and discuss findings that help in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood-brain barrier permeability in ischemic stroke using diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Yash V; Lu, Jianfei; Shen, Qiang; Cerqueira, Bianca; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging has recently been proposed to quantify the rate of water exchange (Kw) across the blood-brain barrier in humans. This study aimed to evaluate the blood-brain barrier disruption in transient (60 min) ischemic stroke using Kw magnetic resonance imaging with cross-validation by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology in the same rats. The major findings were: (i) at 90 min after stroke (30 min after reperfusion), group Kw magnetic resonance imaging data showed no significant blood-brain barrier permeability changes, although a few animals showed slightly abnormal Kw. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed this finding in the same animals. (ii) At two days after stroke, Kw magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant blood-brain barrier disruption. Regions with abnormal Kw showed substantial overlap with regions of hyperintense T2 (vasogenic edema) and hyperperfusion. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue histology confirmed these findings in the same animals. The Kw values in the normal contralesional hemisphere and the ipsilesional ischemic core two days after stroke were: 363 ± 17 and 261 ± 18 min(-1), respectively (P < 0.05, n = 9). Kw magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive to blood-brain barrier permeability changes in stroke, consistent with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and Evans blue extravasation. Kw magnetic resonance imaging offers advantages over existing techniques because contrast agent is not needed and repeated measurements can be made for longitudinal monitoring or averaging.

  8. Preoperative detection and localization of accessory pudendal artery with contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Whang, Shin Young; Sung, Deuk Jae; Lee, Seun Ah; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cheon, Jun

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography for preoperative detection and localization of accessory pudendal arteries (APAs) in patients with prostate cancer. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained. Between July 2007 and December 2010, 127 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography following prostate MR imaging at 3.0 T before robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). APAs were defined as any arteries located in the periprostatic region and anastomosed with the common penile artery or its branches; they were then subclassified into lateral and apical APAs. For detecting and localizing APAs, MR angiograms were evaluated prospectively by one reader and retrospectively by two independent blinded readers. Diagnostic performance was determined on a per-patient basis by using surgical findings as the reference standard. In addition, the origin of APAs identified at both surgery and contrast-enhanced MR angiography was determined by consensus of two retrospective readers. Interreader agreements were assessed by using k statistics. At surgery, 19 APAs (seven right apical, three left apical, four right lateral, and five left lateral) were detected in 16 patients, and 16 of these APAs were localized in 13 patients at preoperative contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Prospectively, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the localization of APAs were 81.3%, 93.7%, and 92.1%, while retrospectively they were 87.5%, 91.9%, and 91.3% for reader 2 and 75.0%, 90.1%, and 88.2% for reader 3, respectively. Overall interreader agreement was substantial (k = 0.795). Nine and seven APAs originated from the obturator artery and the inferior vesical artery, respectively. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography can be used for the preoperative detection of APAs in patients with prostate cancer. © RSNA, 2012.

  9. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    11-1-0229 TITLE: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Andrew Maidment...5 Introduction We propose a new technique for obtaining 4D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) im...seconds. One com plete tomosynthesis projection series consists of a set of projection im ages acquired at distinct angles. In the proposed m ethod

  10. Within-lesion differences in quantitative MRI parameters predict contrast enhancement in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jurcoane, Alina; Wagner, Marlies; Schmidt, Christoph; Mayer, Christoph; Gracien, Rene-Maxime; Hirschmann, Marc; Deichmann, Ralf; Volz, Steffen; Ziemann, Ulf; Hattingen, Elke

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) and contrast enhancement in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. We compared maps of T1 relaxation time, proton density (PD), and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) between lesions with and without contrast enhancement as quantified by the amount of T1 shortening postcontrast agent (CA). In 17 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 15 with progressive MS (PMS), and 17 healthy controls, T1, PD, and MTR were measured at 3T and T1-mapping was repeated after CA administration. Manually drawn MS-lesions (3D-FLAIR) were labeled as enhancing if post-CA T1-shortening exceeded mean T1-shortening in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) by at least 2 standard deviations. Precontrast T1, PD, and MTR were compared in enhancing lesions, nonenhancing lesions, NAWM, and gray matter. Precontrast T1, PD, and MTR differed significantly between enhancing and nonenhancing lesions in RRMS and PMS patients (all P < 0.01). In PMS patients, PD of NAWM, enhancing, and nonenhancing lesions and MTR and T1 of gray matter differed significantly from RRMS and controls. Only MTR of gray matter differed between RRMS and controls. Contrast enhancement in MS quantified by relative T1 shortening may be predicted by precontrast abnormalities of T1, PD, and MTR and likely represents blood-brain barrier damage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Vacuum Assisted and Core Needle Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Eren, Abdulkadir; Tunç, Necmettin; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Bakan, Selim; Aydoğan, Fatih; Çelik, Varol; Gazioğlu, Ertuğrul; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study to present the results of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided cutting needle biopsy procedures of suspicious breast lesions that can be solely detected on Magnetic resonance (MR) examination. The study included 48 patients with 48 lesions which were solely be observed in breast MRI, indistinguishable in ultrasonography and mammography, for MR guided vacuum-assisted cutting needle biopsy and 42 patients with 42 lesions for MR guided cutting needle biopsy for the lesions of the same nature. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-Tesla MRI device. Acquired MR images were determined and biopsy protocol was performed using computer-aided diagnosis system on the workstation. Vacuum biopsies were performed using 10 G or 12 G automatic biopsy systems, cutting needle biopsy procedures were performed using fully automated 12 G biopsy needle. All biopsy procedures were finalized successfully without major complications. The lesions were 54 mass (60%), 28 were non-mass contrast enhancement (31%) and 8 were foci (9%) in the MR examination. Histopathological evaluation revealed 18 malignant (invasive, in-situ ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma), 66 benign (apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis, fibroadenomatoid lesion, sclerosing adenosis, fibrocystic disease and mild-to-severe epithelial proliferation) and 6 high-risk (atypical ductal hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma, radial scar) lesions. Magnetic resonance guided vacuum and cutting needle biopsy methods are successful methods fort he evaluation of solely MRI detected suspicious breast lesions. There are several advantages relative to each other in both methods.

  12. Biventricular apical thrombi demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI following anteroapical STEMI and unsuccessful reperfusion therapy

    PubMed Central

    Keeble, William; VonderMuhll, Isabelle; Paterson, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can define the territory and extent of myocardial infarction from patterns of late gadolinium enhancement. Following failure to reperfuse with thrombolytic therapy, a case of myocardial infarction is described in which ongoing symptoms and an electrocardiogram change led to a diagnostic dilemma. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed an apical infarction, an aneurysm and acute pericarditis. In addition, late gadolinium enhancement unexpectedly revealed the presence of biventricular apical thrombi. The prevalence of cardiac thrombi and pulmonary emboli may be greater than generally appreciated. PMID:18685749

  13. A novel method for viability assessment by cinematographic and late contrast enhanced MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gang; Cockshott, Paul W.; Martin, Thomas N.; Foster, John E.; Elliott, Alex; Dargie, Henry; Groenning, Bjoern A.

    2004-04-01

    Using cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a combination of late contrast enhanced MR (ceMR) and cinematographic (CINE) images, a myocardial viability score can be derived. At present this score is produced by visual evaluation of wall motion abnormalities in combination with presence or absence of late hyper enhancement (LE) on ceMR. We set out to develop and validate image processing techniques derived from stereo vision capable of reducing the observer dependence and improving accuracy in the diagnosis of viable myocardium.

  14. What do we know about brain contrast enhancement patterns in neuromyelitis optica?☆

    PubMed Central

    Pekcevik, Yeliz; Orman, Gunes; Lee, In Ho; Mealy, Maureen A.; Levy, Michael; Izbudak, Izlem

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that usually presents with acute myelitis and/or optic neuritis. Recently, some brain magnetic resonance imaging findings have been described in NMO that are important in the differential diagnosis. Pencil-thin, leptomeningeal, and cloud-like enhancement may be specific to NMO. These patterns are usually seen during relapses. Recognizing these lesions and enhancement patterns may expedite the diagnosis and allows early effective treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the latest knowledge and to share our experience with the contrast enhancement patterns of NMO brain lesions. PMID:26615899

  15. Methotrexate-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for thermochemotherapy and magnetic resonance imaging of tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fuping; Yan, Zixing; Zhou, Jing; Cai, Yuanyuan; Tang, Jintian

    2012-10-01

    There is significant interest in recent years in developing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) having multifunctional characteristics with complimentary roles. In this study, methotrexate (MTX) was conjugated on the iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles surface via a poly(ethyleneimine) self-assembled monolayer (MTX-MNPs). The novel platform combined cancer chemotherapy, hyperthermia and potential monitoring of the progression of disease through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The conjugation of MTX on the magnetite surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and change of zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that MTX-MNPs were morphologically spherical. The average diameter of MTX-MNPs was 30.1 ± 5.2 nm determined by dynamic light scattering. Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturation magnetization of MTX-MNPs reached 68.8 emu/g and the nanoparticles were superparamagnetic. The MTX-MNPs had good heating properties in an alternating magnetic field. TEM results showed that a larger number of MTX-MNPs were internalized into the MCF-7 cellular cytoplasm compared with the MNPs. The MTX-MNPs demonstrated highly synergistic antiproliferative effects of simultaneous chemotherapy and hyperthermia in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A significant negative contrast enhancement was observed with magnetic resonance phantom imaging for MCF-7 cells over L929cells, when both were cultured with the nanoconjugate. The MTX-MNPs with combined characteristics of thermochemotherapy and MRI could be of high clinical significance in the treatment of tumor.

  16. Non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography using velocity-selective excitation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongchan; Seo, Hyunseok; Cho, Jaejin; Kwon, Kinam; Han, Yeji; Park, HyunWook

    2017-06-05

    To develop a new non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography that provides a high contrast angiogram without using electrocardiography triggering and saturation radiofrequency pulses. A velocity-selective excitation technique is used in conjunction with the golden-angle radial sampling scheme. The signal amplitude varies according to the velocity of the flow by the velocity-selective excitation technique. Because the arterial blood velocity varies depending on the cardiac phase, the acquired data can be classified into systolic and diastolic phase based on the signal amplitude of the artery. Two images are then reconstructed from the systolic and diastolic phase data, respectively, and an image reflecting the differences between the two images is obtained to eliminate background and vein signals. The performance of the proposed method was compared with the quiescent-interval single shot (QISS) in eight healthy subjects and an elderly subject. The proposed method generated fewer residual venous and background signals than the QISS. Furthermore, the maximum intensity projection images, the relative contrast, and the apparent contrast-to-noise ratio results showed that the proposed method produced a better contrast than the QISS. The proposed non-contrast-enhanced peripheral MR angiography technique can provide a high contrast angiogram without the use of electrocardiography triggering and saturation radiofrequency pulses. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. [Magnetic resonance and hepatic siderosis].

    PubMed

    Rocchi, E

    1994-09-01

    The principles of generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are resumed by briefly explaining the effects of an external magnetic field (EMF) on hydrogen nuclei and of pulses of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. The latter creates a resonant effect, and the same nuclei, moved from the external field axis, when RF pulse is stopped, will "relax" to their original alignment in the magnetic field and in so doing radiate the absorbed energy to their surroundings. This energy provides a signal that can be detected and spatially resolved by the receiver coil wrapped around the patient, through a computerized system. After briefly explaining also the distinctive parameters T2 and T1, the author presents his experience in the MRI detection of different degrees of siderosis of the liver--ranging from idiopathic and secondary haemochromatosis to milder siderosis of alcoholic liver disease and porphyria cutanea tarda. The results were accomplished by employing an equipment operating at an enhanced field strength (1.5 Tesla). Previous reports have validated this technique in order to distinguish idiopathic from secondary haemochromatosis. Furthermore, the present study shows that even low to moderate degrees of liver iron deposition can be appreciated and roughly quantitated by the decrease of the transverse relaxation time (T2), which resulted proportional to the amount of liver iron, under these operating conditions. Thus, MRI is proposed as an useful and non-invasive way to detect iron deposition and to follow up iron depletion treatments.

  18. Nanoparticles and nanostructured carriers for drug delivery and contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godage, Olga S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; German, Sergey V.; Zuev, Viktor V.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Gorin, Dmitry A.

    2016-04-01

    Currently, nanotechnologies are widely used in science and industry. It is known that the application of drug delivery nanostructured carriers for biomedicine is one of the promising areas of nanotechnology. Nanostructured carriers can be used in the diagnosis process for detecting a neoplastic tumor cells in peripheral blood, for contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as for targeted drug delivery to tumor tissues. Agents for the targeted delivery (nanoparticles, liposomes, microcapsules, and etc) can affect the healthy tissues and organs, cause side effects and have a toxic effect. Therefore, it necessary to study the morphological changes that occur not only in the "target", such as a tumor, but also the internal organs, taking place under the influence of both the agents for targeted drug delivery and physical impact induced remote controlled drug release. Thus , the aim of our work is selection of the most promising agents for targeted drug delivery to tumor and contrast agents for in vivo visualization of tumor tissue boundaries , as well as their impact on the organs and tissues as results of nanostructured object biodistribution.

  19. Motion correction of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Mariëlle J. A.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; van Leeuwen, Maarten S.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2017-02-01

    Motion correction of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRI) is a challenging task, due to changes in image appearance. In this study a groupwise registration, using a principle component analysis (PCA) based metric, is evaluated for clinical DCE MRI of the liver. The groupwise registration transforms the images to a common space, rather than to a reference volume as conventional pairwise methods do, and computes the similarity metric on all volumes simultaneously. This groupwise registration method is compared to a pairwise approach using a mutual information metric. Clinical DCE MRI of the abdomen of eight patients were included. Per patient one lesion in the liver was manually segmented in all temporal images (N=16). The registered images were compared for accuracy, spatial and temporal smoothness after transformation, and lesion volume change. Compared to a pairwise method or no registration, groupwise registration provided better alignment. In our recently started clinical study groupwise registered clinical DCE MRI of the abdomen of nine patients were scored by three radiologists. Groupwise registration increased the assessed quality of alignment. The gain in reading time for the radiologist was estimated to vary from no difference to almost a minute. A slight increase in reader confidence was also observed. Registration had no added value for images with little motion. In conclusion, the groupwise registration of DCE MR images results in better alignment than achieved by pairwise registration, which is beneficial for clinical assessment.

  20. Cerebellar dermoid cyst with contrast enhancement mural nodule: case report.

    PubMed

    Morina, Arsim; Kelmendi, Fatos; Morina, Qamile; Morina, Dukagjin

    2014-12-01

    Typical dermoid cysts are well-circumscribed fat-density masses with no associated contrast enhancement; rarely, they may appear hyperattenuating on CT scan. CT hyperattenuating dermoid cyst (CHADC) is very uncommon, with only nine case reports in the literature update, which occurs exclusively in the posterior fossa. CHADC with mural nodule is extremely rare and, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been documented previously in the literature. A 49-year-old farmer had a 2-month history of occipital headaches, which were not suggestive of raised intracranial pressure. During the last month, he experienced loss of balance, frequent falls, anorexia and loss of weight. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a huge mass from the tentorium to the foramen occipitale magnum with obliteration of the fourth ventricle; the lesion was well circumscribed. We completely removed the tumor and postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor. Epidermoid tumors with enhancing mural nodule on MRI and with hyperattenuating lesion on CT are extremely rare. Dermoid cysts are never associated with edema and extremely rarely cause obstructive hydrocephalus. MRI investigations are mandatory to diagnose these cases. The best curative treatment is total removal of the lesion.

  1. Prostate cancer - the role of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mocikova, Ingrid; Babela, Jozef; Balaz, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer diagnosis. Systematic scan of Pubmed, Ovid, Medline, Elsevier search engines was used, additional information was found through bibliographic review of relevant articles. Results. Substantial progress has been made in the imaging of prostate cancer in MR imaging, as well as in advanced MR spectroscopy. MRI is a non-invasive and direct imaging modality useful for cancer staging, therapy response, detection of recurrence and guided biopsy in previous negative biopsies. MRI with 3.0T system, whole-body MRI, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) have improved tumor staging, assessment of tumor volume, aggressiveness or recurrence. Implementation of endorectal/phased array superficial MRI findings on 1.5 or 3.0T systems into nomograms for prostate pretreatment prediction is warranted. Surface phasedarray coil MRI accurately defines prostate cancer with elevated risk of extraprostatic disease.

  2. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension - assessment by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Kunz, R Peter; Ley, Sebastian; Oberholzer, Katja; Neeb, Daniel; Gast, Klaus K; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Eberle, Balthasar; Mayer, Eckhard; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Düber, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe disease that has been ignored for a long time. However, with the development of improved therapeutic modalities, cardiologists and thoracic surgeons have shown increasing interest in the diagnostic work-up of this entity. The diagnosis and management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension require a multidisciplinary approach involving the specialties of pulmonary medicine, cardiology, radiology, anesthesiology and thoracic surgery. With this approach, pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) can be performed with an acceptable mortality rate. This review article describes the developments in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques for the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Techniques include contrast-enhanced MR angiography (ce-MRA), MR perfusion imaging, phase-contrast imaging of the great vessels, cine imaging of the heart and combined perfusion-ventilation MR imaging with hyperpolarized noble gases. It is anticipated that MR imaging will play a central role in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of patients with CTEPH.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of developmental venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, E; Acu, B; Beyhan, M; Celikyay, F; Celikyay, R

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated morphological features of developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The study also evaluated the factors affecting the visibility of DVAs on MRI. We reviewed contrast-enhanced MRIs of 75 patients with DVA. The images were selected from 1,165 consecutive cranial MRIs. The images were examined for the DVA location, the number of collecting veins, the collecting vein diameter, drainage veins and sinuses, any accompanying parenchymal abnormalities or lesions, and the DVA visibility on MRI. DVAs prevalence was determined as 6.4 %. A total of 88 DVAs were observed. Single DVAs were observed in 65 patients, two were observed in 7 patients and three were observed in 3 patients. The DVA caputs had deep localization most frequently in 54.5 % of patients. A total of 98 collecting veins were identified, with a single vein identified in 80 DVAs. A statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) was found in the diameter of the collecting veins between DVAs that were the visible and nonvisible on noncontrast MRI. Most frequently, a single DVA was observed in the patients. A DVA caput could be located in the deep, subcortical, juxtacortical or deep + subcortical and juxtacortical + subcortical regions. Increasing collecting vein diameter increased visibility on noncontrast MRI, and small DVAs could be overlooked, even with contrast-enhanced MRI series if the images were not examined carefully.

  4. Neuromorphometry of primary brain tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hevia-Montiel, Nidiyare; Rodriguez-Perez, Pedro I.; Lamothe-Molina, Paul J.; Arellano-Reynoso, Alfonso; Bribiesca, Ernesto; Alegria-Loyola, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique for the diagnosis and classification of brain tumors. Discrete compactness is a morphological feature of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects. This measure determines the compactness of a discretized object depending on the sum of the areas of the connected voxels and has been used for understanding the morphology of nonbrain tumors. We hypothesized that regarding brain tumors, we may improve the malignancy grade classification. We analyzed the values in 20 patients with different subtypes of primary brain tumors: astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and glioblastoma multiforme subdivided into the contrast-enhanced and the necrotic tumor regions. The preliminary results show an inverse relationship between the compactness value and the malignancy grade of gliomas. Astrocytomas exhibit a mean of 973±14, whereas oligodendrogliomas exhibit a mean of 942±21. In contrast, the contrast-enhanced region of the glioblastoma presented a mean of 919±43, and the necrotic region presented a mean of 869±66. However, the volume and area of the enclosing surface did not show a relationship with the malignancy grade of the gliomas. Discrete compactness appears to be a stable characteristic between primary brain tumors of different malignancy grades, because similar values were obtained from different patients with the same type of tumor. PMID:26158107

  5. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  6. Nerves on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.; Shaver, M. L.; Batra, P.; Brown, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nerves are often visualized on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the soft tissues on the chest and shoulder girdle. To learn the reasons for the contrast between the nerves and adjacent tissues, the authors obtained a fresh specimen containing part of the brachial plexus nerves from the left axilla and compared MRI with x-ray projections and photomicrographs of histologic sections. The results suggest that the high signals from the nerves stand out in contrast to the low signals from their rich vascular supply. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6A Figure 6B Figure 7 PMID:2733051

  7. Evanescent Waves Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Halidi, El Mohamed; Nativel, Eric; Akel, Mohamad; Kenouche, Samir; Coillot, Christophe; Alibert, Eric; Jabakhanji, Bilal; Schimpf, Remy; Zanca, Michel; Stein, Paul; Goze-Bac, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and imaging can be classified as inductive techniques working in the near- to far-field regimes. We investigate an alternative capacitive detection with the use of micrometer sized probes positioned at sub wavelength distances of the sample in order to characterize and model evanescent electromagnetic fields originating from NMR phenomenon. We report that in this experimental configuration the available NMR signal is one order of magnitude larger and follows an exponential decay inversely proportional to the size of the emitters. Those investigations open a new road to a better understanding of the evanescent waves component in NMR with the opportunity to perform localized spectroscopy and imaging. PMID:26751800

  8. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  9. Whole-brain black-blood imaging with magnetization-transfer prepared spin echo-like contrast: a novel sequence for contrast-enhanced brain metastasis screening at 3T.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Masami; Nakamura, Masanobu; Tabuchi, Takashi; Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Sawano, Seishi

    2013-07-01

    In contrast-enhanced (CE) brain metastasis screening, coexistence of enhanced blood vessel suppression and higher tumor-to-parenchyma contrast may improve radiologists' performances in detecting brain metastases compared with conventional sequences. In this study, we propose a new scheme, allowing both suppression of blood signals and improvement of tumor-to-parenchyma contrast, using motion-sensitized driven equilibrium prepared 3D low-refocusing flip-angle turbo spin echo (TSE) ("magnetization transfer prepared spin echo"-like contrast volume examination: MATLVE) for brain metastasis screening at 3.0 T, and we compare MATLVE to conventional three-dimensional (3D)-gradient recalled echo (GRE) and 3D-TSE sequences. With the use of MATLVE, the signal intensity of CE blood decreased substantially. Furthermore, the contrast ratio of tumor-to-white matter was significantly higher than in either conventional 3D-GRE or 3D-TSE. MATLVE can be used for 3D volumetric post-CE black-blood imaging, and it may be effective in detecting small brain metastases by selectively enhancing tumor signals while suppressing blood signals.

  10. Magnitude subtraction vs. complex subtraction in dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography: basic experiments and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, S; Ito, T; Iwayama, E; Fukatsu, H; Ishiguchi, T; Ishigaki, T; Ichinose, N

    1999-11-01

    Magnitude subtraction and complex subtraction in dynamic contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance (3D-MR) angiography were compared using a phantom and 23 human subjects. In phantom studies, complex subtraction showed far better performance than magnitude subtraction, especially for longer echo times, with thicker slices, and without fat suppression. With complex subtraction, non-fat-suppressed studies showed contrast-to-noise ratios comparable to those in fat-suppressed studies. In human subjects, complex subtraction was superior to magnitude subtraction in 9 subjects, but comparable to magnitude subtraction in 14 subjects. There were no cases in which magnitude subtraction was superior to complex subtraction. Although the differences observed in human studies when complex subtraction was applied with thinner slices, shorter echo times, and the fat-suppression technique were not as pronounced as those seen in phantom studies, complex subtraction should be performed in dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography because there are no drawbacks in complex subtraction. Further research is necessary to assess the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography without fat suppression in human subjects using complex subtraction, as suggested by the results of phantom studies. If it is found to be feasible, dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography without fat suppression using complex subtraction may prove to be a robust technique that eliminates the need for shimming and can reduce the acquisition time. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1999;10:813-820.

  11. Gynecologic masses: value of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hricak, H; Lacey, C; Schriock, E; Fisher, M R; Amparo, E; Dooms, G; Jaffe, R

    1985-09-01

    Forty-two women with gynecologic abnormalities were studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging correctly assessed the origin of the pelvic mass in all patients. In the evaluation of leiomyoma, magnetic resonance imaging accurately depicted the number, size, and location of the lesion. In the evaluation of endometrial carcinoma, magnetic resonance imaging depicted the location of the lesion, the presence of cervical extension, and the depth of myometrial penetration in the majority of the cases. In the analysis of adnexal cysts, magnetic resonance imaging was sensitive in localizing the lesion and was able to distinguish serous from hemorrhagic fluid. This preliminary report indicates that magnetic resonance imaging may become a valuable imaging modality in the diagnosis of gynecologic abnormalities.

  12. Contrast-Enhanced Image of Bellicia Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    In this contrast-enhanced infrared image of Bellicia Crater on the giant asteroid Vesta, scientists from NASA Dawn mission can see signs of the mineral olivine. Olivine was not expected to be found at Bellicia.

  13. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yungsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe-based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  14. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  15. Apparatus for investigating resonance with application to magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil; Jones, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean

    2015-11-01

    Resonance is typically studied in the context of either a pendulum or a mass on a spring. We have developed an apparatus that enables beginning students to investigate resonant behavior of changing magnetic fields, in addition to the properties of the magnetic field due to a wire and the superposition of magnetic fields. In this resonant system, a compass oscillates at a frequency determined by the compass's physical properties and an external magnetic field. While the analysis is mathematically similar to that of the pendulum, this apparatus has an advantage that the magnetic field is easily controlled, while it is difficult to control the strength of gravity. This apparatus has been incorporated into a teaching module on magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Ehman, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a rapidly developing technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue. The technology can be considered to be an imaging-based counterpart to palpation, commonly used by physicians to diagnose and characterize diseases. The success of palpation as a diagnostic method is based on the fact that the mechanical properties of tissues are often dramatically affected by the presence of disease processes such as cancer, inflammation, and fibrosis. MRE obtains information about the stiffness of tissue by assessing the propagation of mechanical waves through the tissue with a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. The technique essentially involves three steps: generating shear waves in the tissue,acquiring MR images depicting the propagation of the induced shear waves andprocessing the images of the shear waves to generate quantitative maps of tissue stiffness, called elastograms. MRE is already being used clinically for the assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases and is emerging as a safe, reliable and noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for staging hepatic fibrosis. MRE is also being investigated for application to pathologies of other organs including the brain, breast, blood vessels, heart, kidneys, lungs and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review article is to introduce this technology to clinical anatomists and to summarize some of the current clinical applications that are being pursued. PMID:20544947

  17. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM): phantom experiment and first clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Christiane; Facius, Mirijam; Muller, Serge L.; Benali, Karim; Malich, Ansgar; Kaiser, Werner

    2002-05-01

    The introduction of the Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) opens the way to a large range of future advanced applications. Among them, Contrast Enhanced Digital Mammography (CEDM) could be a fast and less expensive alternative to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for breast lesion characterization. In this work, we have investigated, first on phantom then on patients, the capability of a modified FFDM system to show the contrast enhancement of lesions after intra-venous injection of iodine. The uptake has been estimated from the difference between pre- and post-contrast images. Phantom results showed that 1) detectability thresholds of the contrast media were compatible with clinical conditions; 2) breast radiological thickness has a low impact on uptake detectability; 3) spatial and temporal analysis showed delayed margin contrast uptake of the simulated lesion and slow increase of contrast in the background. Preliminary results on patients have confirmed the phantom results and have shown a contrast uptake in all malignant lesions despite the observed patient motion artifacts, and some moderate signal variability. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the Contrast Enhanced Digital Mammography technique. Further investigations and clinical validations will have to be completed before it can be widely used in a daily routine practice.

  18. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    PubMed Central

    Hundley, W Gregory; Bluemke, David; Bogaert, Jan G; Friedrich, Matthias G; Higgins, Charles B; Lawson, Mark A; McConnell, Michael V; Raman, Subha V; van Rossum, Albert C; Flamm, Scott; Kramer, Christopher M; Nagel, Eike; Neubauer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations. PMID:19257889

  19. Advances in mechanical detection of magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Seppe; Hickman, Steven A.; Marohn, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention and initial demonstration of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) in the early 1990s launched a renaissance of mechanical approaches to detecting magnetic resonance. This article reviews progress made in MRFM in the last decade, including the demonstration of scanned probe detection of magnetic resonance (electron spin resonance, ferromagnetic resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance) and the mechanical detection of electron spin resonance from a single spin. Force and force-gradient approaches to mechanical detection are reviewed and recent related work using attonewton sensitivity cantilevers to probe minute fluctuating electric fields near surfaces is discussed. Given recent progress, pushing MRFM to single proton sensitivity remains an exciting possibility. We will survey some practical and fundamental issues that must be resolved to meet this challenge. PMID:18266413

  20. Torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Losby, J E; Fani Sani, F; Grandmont, D T; Diao, Z; Belov, M; Burgess, J A J; Compton, S R; Hiebert, W K; Vick, D; Mohammad, K; Salimi, E; Bridges, G E; Thomson, D J; Freeman, M R

    2015-11-13

    A universal, torque-mixing method for magnetic resonance spectroscopy is presented. In analogy to resonance detection by magnetic induction, the transverse component of a precessing dipole moment can be measured in sensitive broadband spectroscopy, here using a resonant mechanical torque sensor. Unlike induction, the torque amplitude allows equilibrium magnetic properties to be monitored simultaneously with the spin dynamics. Comprehensive electron spin resonance spectra of a single-crystal, mesoscopic yttrium iron garnet disk at room temperature reveal assisted switching between magnetization states and mode-dependent spin resonance interactions with nanoscale surface imperfections. The rich detail allows analysis of even complex three-dimensional spin textures. The flexibility of microelectromechanical and optomechanical devices combined with broad generality and capabilities of torque-mixing magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers great opportunities for development of integrated devices.

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging features of the normal central zone of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Hansford, Barry G; Karademir, Ibrahim; Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Karczmar, Gregory; Thomas, Stephen; Yousuf, Ambereen; Antic, Tatjana; Eggener, Scott; Oto, Aytekin

    2014-05-01

    Evaluate qualitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of normal central zone based on recently described central zone MRI features. Institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant study, 59 patients with prostate cancer, histopathology proven to not involve central zone or prostate base, underwent endorectal MRI before prostatectomy. Two readers independently reviewed T2-weighted images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps identifying normal central zone based on low signal intensity and location. Next, two readers drew bilateral central zone regions of interest on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images in consensus and independently recorded enhancement curve types as type 1 (progressive), type 2 (plateau), and type 3 (wash-out). Identification rates of normal central zone and enhancement curve type were recorded and compared for each reviewer. The institutional review board waiver was approved and granted 05/2010. Central zone identified in 92%-93% of patients on T2-weighted images and 78%-88% on ADC maps without significant difference between identification rates (P = .63 and P = .15 and inter-reader agreement (κ) is 0.64 and 0.29, for T2-weighted images and ADC maps, respectively). All central zones were rated either curve type 1 or curve type 2 by both radiologists. No statistically significant difference between the two radiologists (P = .19) and inter-reader agreement was κ = 0.37. Normal central zone demonstrates either type 1 (progressive) or type 2 (plateau) enhancement curves on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI that can be potentially useful to differentiate central zone from prostate cancer that classically demonstrates a type 3 (wash-out) enhancement curve. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gadolinium Contrast Enhancement Improves Confidence in Diagnosing Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma by MRI.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shinn-Huey S; Hippe, Daniel S; Lee, Amie Y; Scherer, Kurt; Porrino, Jack A; Davidson, Darin J; Chew, Felix S; Ha, Alice S

    2017-05-01

    To determine how utilization of postgadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) influenced reader accuracy and confidence at identifying postoperative soft tissue sarcoma (STS) recurrence among readers with various levels of expertise. This retrospective study was institutional review board approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. Postoperative MRI from 26 patients with prior STS resection (13 patients with confirmed recurrence, 13 without recurrence) was reviewed. Four blinded readers of varying expertise (radiology resident, fellow, attending, and orthopedic oncologist) initially evaluated only the precontrast images and rated each MRI for recurrence on a 5-point confidence scale. Assessment was repeated with the addition of contrast-enhanced sequences. Diagnostic accuracy based on confidence ratings was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Changes in confidence ratings were calculated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. All readers demonstrated good diagnostic accuracy both with and without contrast-enhanced images (AUC >0.98 for each reader). When contrast-enhanced images were made available, the resident recorded improved confidence with both assigning (P = 0.031) and excluding recurrence (P = 0.006); the fellow showed improved confidence only with assigning recurrence (P = 0.015); and the surgeon showed improved confidence in excluding recurrence (P = 0.003). The addition of contrast-enhanced images did not significantly influence the diagnostic confidence of the attending radiologist. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI was excellent in evaluating postoperative STS recurrence, and reader confidence improved depending on expertise when postgadolinium imaging was included in the assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 4D Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography with the Keyhole Technique in Children: Technique and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Bahouth, Sara M; Muthupillai, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Unlike in adults, contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the pediatric population raises unique challenges such as faster heart rates, more rapid arteriovenous transit, smaller structures, smaller volumes of contrast agent used, and more complex disease processes. A need exists for a rapid contrast-enhanced MR angiographic technique that can separate the arterial and venous phases of contrast enhancement in sedated pediatric patients breathing freely during the course of an examination. In time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography with the keyhole method (four-dimensional [4D] contrast-enhanced MR angiography), various spatial and temporal frequency undersampling schemes are used to substantially reduce the time of acquisition without markedly compromising spatial resolution. The keyhole method can be briefly described as an undersampling approach in which only a small region of the k-space (keyhole) around the center is repeatedly sampled while the periphery is sampled only once during acquisition. This method provides a wide range of options that can be used to overcome conventional limitations of contrast-enhanced MR angiography in children and opens the door for several new pediatric applications, including evaluation of congenital heart disease in neonates and infants, thoracic and extremity vascular pathologic conditions, high-flow vascular malformations, systemic vein thrombosis, and pediatric portal hypertension. This review provides a technical overview of 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography, outlines its advantages and pitfalls in the pediatric population, and also describes various applications in children, including modifications of the technique needed for each application. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  5. Microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Webb, A G

    2005-08-10

    In comparison with most analytical chemistry techniques, nuclear magnetic resonance has an intrinsically low sensitivity, and many potential applications are therefore precluded by the limited available quantity of certain types of sample. In recent years, there has been a trend, both commercial and academic, towards miniaturization of the receiver coil in order to increase the mass sensitivity of NMR measurements. These small coils have also proved very useful in coupling NMR detection with commonly used microseparation techniques. A further development enabled by small detectors is parallel data acquisition from many samples simultaneously, made possible by incorporating multiple receiver coils into a single NMR probehead. This review article summarizes recent developments and applications of "microcoil" NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases cause substantial changes in the mechanical properties of tissue and this provides motivation for developing methods to non-invasively assess the stiffness of tissue using imaging technology. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has emerged as a versatile MRI-based technique, based on direct visualization of propagating shear waves in the tissues. The most established clinical application of MRE in the abdomen is in chronic liver disease. MRE is currently regarded as the most accurate non-invasive technique for detection and staging of liver fibrosis. Increasing experience and ongoing research is leading to exploration of applications in other abdominal organs. In this review article, the current use of MRE in liver disease and the potential future applications of this technology in other parts of the abdomen are surveyed. PMID:25488346

  7. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keevil, Stephen F.

    2001-11-01

    Over the past twenty years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important imaging modalities available to clinical medicine. It offers great technical flexibility, and is free of the hazards associated with ionizing radiation. In addition to its role as a routine imaging technique with a growing range of clinical applications, the pace of development in MRI methodology remains high, and new ideas with significant potential emerge on a regular basis. MRI is a prime example of the spin-off benefits of basic science, and is an area of medicine in which physical science continues to play a major role, both in supporting clinical applications and in developing new techniques. This article presents a brief history of MRI and an overview of the underlying physics, followed by a short survey of current and emerging clinical applications.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research.

  10. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S. )

    1990-10-15

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence.

  12. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  13. Advances in breast imaging: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bartella, Lia; Morris, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is rapidly becoming incorporated into clinical practice. Indications for breast MRI include staging of known breast cancer, monitoring response to chemotherapy, assessing recurrence, problem solving, and high-risk screening. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a promising technique that may decrease the number of benign biopsies generated by breast MRI in the clinical setting.

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  15. Clinical applications of magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Glazer, M; McCormack, J; Dross, P

    1992-08-01

    Recent technical advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now allow for the noninvasive study of blood flow in vessels, or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). We describe several case reports involving the use of MRA and discuss its advantages in evaluating patients for carotid artery stenosis, intracerebral aneurysms, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

  16. Magnetic resonance sees lesions of multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ziporyn, T.

    1985-02-15

    The value of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and quantitation of the progression of multiple sclerosis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging generates images that reflect differential density and velocity of hydrogen nuclei between cerebral gray and white matter, as well as between white matter and pathological lesions of the disease.

  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  18. Functional magnetic resonance: biomarkers of response in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance (MR) encompasses a spectrum of techniques that depict physiological and molecular processes before morphological changes are visible on conventional imaging. As understanding of the pathophysiological and biomolecular processes involved in breast malignancies evolves, newer functional MR techniques can be employed that define early predictive and surrogate biomarkers for monitoring response to chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly used in women with primary breast malignancies to down-stage the tumour and enable successful breast conservation surgery. It also plays a role in the treatment of undetected micrometastases. Cardinal physiological features of tumours that occur as a result of interactions between cancer cells, stromal cells and secreted factors and cytokines and how they change with treatment provide the opportunity to detect changes in the tumour microenvironment prior to any morphological change. Through sequential imaging, tumour response can be assessed and non-responders can be identified early to enable alternative therapies to be considered. This review summarises the functional magnetic resonance biomarkers of response in patients with breast cancer that are currently available and under development. We describe the current state of each biomarker and explore their potential clinical uses and limitations in assessing treatment response. With the aid of selected interesting cases, biomarkers related to dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, T2*/BOLD and MR spectroscopy are described and illustrated. The potential of newer approaches, such as MR elastography, are also reviewed. PMID:21392409

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Hayt, M W; Abrahams, J J; Blair, J

    2000-04-01

    The spectrum of disease that affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be varied. To differentiate among the diseases that cause pain and dysfunction, an intimate knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of this region is necessary. Due to the joint's complex anatomy and relationship to the skin, it has been difficult to image in the past. Magnetic resonance imaging is ideally suited for visualizing TMJ because of its superb contrast resolution when imaging soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging allows simultaneous bilateral visualization of both joints. The ability to noninvasively resolve anatomic detail can be performed easily and quickly using magnetic resonance imaging. The development of magnetic resonance imaging has greatly aided the diagnosis of TMJ disorders. An understanding of TMJ anatomy and pathogenesis of TMJ pain is crucial for interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent treatment.

  20. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography.

    PubMed

    Travieso Aja, M M; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Alayón Hernández, S; Vega Benítez, V; Luzardo, O P

    2014-01-01

    The degree of vascularization in breast lesions is related to their malignancy. For this reason, functional diagnostic imaging techniques have become important in recent years. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is a new, apparently promising technique in breast cancer that provides information about the degree of vascularization of the lesion in addition to the morphological information provided by conventional mammography. This article describes the state of the art for dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography. Based on 15 months' clinical experience, we illustrate this review with clinical cases that allow us to discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique.

  2. Visualizing implanted tumors in mice with magnetic resonance imaging using magnetotactic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Michael R; Mayer, Dirk; Barak, Yoram; Chen, Ian Y; Hu, Wei; Cheng, Zhen; Wang, Shan X; Spielman, Daniel M; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Matin, A

    2009-08-15

    To determine if magnetotactic bacteria can target tumors in mice and provide positive contrast for visualization using magnetic resonance imaging. The ability of the magnetotactic bacterium, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 (referred to from here as AMB-1), to confer positive magnetic resonance imaging contrast was determined in vitro and in vivo. For the latter studies, AMB-1 were injected either i.t. or i.v. Bacterial growth conditions were manipulated to produce small (approximately 25-nm diameter) magnetite particles, which were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Tumor targeting was confirmed using 64Cu-labeled bacteria and positron emission tomography and by determination of viable cell counts recovered from different organs and the tumor. We show that AMB-1 bacteria with small magnetite particles generate T1-weighted positive contrast, enhancing in vivo visualization by magnetic resonance imaging. Following i.v. injection of 64Cu-labeled AMB-1, positron emission tomography imaging revealed increasing colonization of tumors and decreasing infection of organs after 4 hours. Viable cell counts showed that, by day 6, the bacteria had colonized tumors but were cleared completely from other organs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 1.22-fold (P = 0.003) increased positive contrast in tumors on day 2 and a 1.39-fold increase (P = 0.0007) on day 6. Magnetotactic bacteria can produce positive magnetic resonance imaging contrast and colonize mouse tumor xenografts, providing a potential tool for improved magnetic resonance imaging visualization in preclinical and translational studies to track cancer.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Lumbar Spine (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... If You Have Questions en español Resonancia magnética: columna lumbar What It Is Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Cervical Spine Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap) Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in adolescent painful flexible flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Wong, Margaret W N; Griffith, James F

    2009-04-01

    The cause of navicular tuberosity pain in adolescents with flexible flatfeet is not well understood. We hypothesized that some of the navicular tuberosity pain may be related to insertional enthesopathy of the posterior tibial tendon at the navicular. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to look for abnormal signal changes in a series of patients. Consecutive adolescent patients presenting with flexible flatfeet and navicular tuberosity pain were prospectively recruited. A detailed foot examination and body fat analysis was performed. Standing radiographs and Tekscan pedobarograph of both feet were obtained. Magnetic resonance examinations were performed on a 1.5-T whole-body magnetic resonance imaging system utilizing a standard extremity coil. MRI abnormality was detected in 15 of the 36 feet in 18 adolescents examined. Abnormalities detected included thickening of the posterior tibial tendon insertion, marrow edema in the accessory navicular, marrow edema in the navicular tuberosity, and contrast enhancement at the posterior tibial tendon insertion site. Patients with MRI abnormalities were significantly taller, had a lower body mass index and a lower body fat percentage than those without MRI abnormality. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis identified low body fat percentage and presence of an accessory navicular as independent predictors for abnormality on MRI. MRI abnormality was frequently detected in adolescents with painful flexible flatfeet. The MRI signal changes indicated an enthesopathy like process occurring at the posterior tibial tendon insertion to the navicular which could explain the origin of pain in flexible flatfeet patients without an accessory navicular. Early identification and appropriate treatment to prevent progression may be helpful.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Vacuum Assisted and Core Needle Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Eren, Abdulkadir; Tunç, Necmettin; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Bakan, Selim; Aydoğan, Fatih; Çelik, Varol; Gazioğlu, Ertuğrul; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study to present the results of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided cutting needle biopsy procedures of suspicious breast lesions that can be solely detected on Magnetic resonance (MR) examination. Materials and Methods The study included 48 patients with 48 lesions which were solely be observed in breast MRI, indistinguishable in ultrasonography and mammography, for MR guided vacuum-assisted cutting needle biopsy and 42 patients with 42 lesions for MR guided cutting needle biopsy for the lesions of the same nature. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-Tesla MRI device. Acquired MR images were determined and biopsy protocol was performed using computer-aided diagnosis system on the workstation. Vacuum biopsies were performed using 10 G or 12 G automatic biopsy systems, cutting needle biopsy procedures were performed using fully automated 12 G biopsy needle. Results All biopsy procedures were finalized successfully without major complications. The lesions were 54 mass (60%), 28 were non-mass contrast enhancement (31%) and 8 were foci (9%) in the MR examination. Histopathological evaluation revealed 18 malignant (invasive, in-situ ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma), 66 benign (apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis, fibroadenomatoid lesion, sclerosing adenosis, fibrocystic disease and mild-to-severe epithelial proliferation) and 6 high-risk (atypical ductal hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma, radial scar) lesions. Conclusion Magnetic resonance guided vacuum and cutting needle biopsy methods are successful methods fort he evaluation of solely MRI detected suspicious breast lesions. There are several advantages relative to each other in both methods. PMID:28331727

  6. Prostate cancer ablation with transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound: assessment of tissue destruction with contrast-enhanced US.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Glas, Ludivine; Girouin, Nicolas; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Gelet, Albert; Dantony, Emmanuelle; Rabilloud, Muriel; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lyonnet, Denis

    2011-05-01

    To assess contrast material-enhanced ultrasonographic (US) findings seen after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of prostate cancer and correlate the US findings with post-HIFU biopsy findings. The study was ethics committee approved. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Twenty-eight patients referred for HIFU prostate cancer ablation underwent contrast-enhanced prostate US before treatment, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and repeat contrast-enhanced US 1-3 days after treatment, and contrast-enhanced US-guided biopsy 30-45 days after treatment. The contrast-enhanced US enhancement patterns of the biopsy sites--assigned a score of S0 for no enhancement, S1 for mild and/or patchy enhancement, or S2 for marked enhancement--were compared with corresponding biopsy findings, which were assigned a score of B0 for necrosis and/or fibrosis without viable prostate gland tissue, B1 for vascularized tissue without viable gland tissue, or B2 for viable gland tissue (benign or malignant). Then, six additional patients underwent contrast-enhanced prostate US 15-30 minutes and 1 day after HIFU ablation, and the results of these two US examinations were compared. Contrast-enhanced US performed on days 1-3 and days 30-45 after HIFU ablation depicted a large devascularized zone with peripheral enhancing areas that were localized anteriorly in all 28 patients, posteriorly in nine, laterally in five, and at the apex in 20 patients. MR findings were concordant. At biopsy, viable gland tissue was found at nine (6.2%) of 146 S0 sites, 10 (34%) of 29 S1 sites, and 44 (60%) of 73 S2 sites. The odds ratios for finding viable tissue (score B1 or B2) at S1 and S2 sites as opposed to S0 sites were 21 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6, 71) and 73 (95% CI: 22, 243), respectively (P < .0001). Contrast-enhanced US performed 15-30 minutes and 1 day after treatment in the six additional patients had similar findings. Contrast-enhanced US is a

  7. Magnetic resonance elastometry using a single-sided permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Carl S.; Marble, Andrew E.; Ono, Yuu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a magnetic resonance method of measuring material elasticity using a single-sided magnet with a permanent static field gradient. This method encodes sample velocity in a reciprocal space using Hahn spin-echoes with variable timing. The experimental results show a strong correlation between magnetic resonance signal attenuation and elasticity when an oscillating force is applied on the sample. This relationship in turn provides us with information about the displacement velocity experienced by the sample, which is inversely proportional to Young's modulus. The proposed method shows promise in offering a portable and cost-effective magnetic resonance elastography system.

  8. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  9. Stepped impedance resonators for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Can E; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high-field magnetic resonance imaging. In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections, referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), is investigated. Single-element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 T (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 T in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in a transmit magnetic field, as well as RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus specific absorption rate) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements.

  10. Magnetic resonance image guided brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Tanderup, Kari; Viswanathan, Akila N; Kirisits, Christian; Frank, Steven J

    2014-07-01

    The application of magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided brachytherapy has demonstrated significant growth during the past 2 decades. Clinical improvements in cervix cancer outcomes have been linked to the application of repeated MRI for identification of residual tumor volumes during radiotherapy. This has changed clinical practice in the direction of individualized dose administration, and resulted in mounting evidence of improved clinical outcome regarding local control, overall survival as well as morbidity. MRI-guided prostate high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapies have improved the accuracy of target and organs-at-risk delineation, and the potential exists for improved dose prescription and reporting for the prostate gland and organs at risk. Furthermore, MRI-guided prostate brachytherapy has significant potential to identify prostate subvolumes and dominant lesions to allow for dose administration reflecting the differential risk of recurrence. MRI-guided brachytherapy involves advanced imaging, target concepts, and dose planning. The key issue for safe dissemination and implementation of high-quality MRI-guided brachytherapy is establishment of qualified multidisciplinary teams and strategies for training and education.

  11. Use of magnetic resonance urography.

    PubMed

    Klein, L T; Frager, D; Subramanium, A; Lowe, F C

    1998-10-01

    Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) is a new technique that uses heavily weighted T2 coronal images with fat suppression pulse. Urine appears white on MRU, resembling an intravenous urogram (IVU). Contrast agents are not necessary. This study describes the use of MRU in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with hematuria. One hundred six patients with microscopic or gross hematuria and 6 normal volunteers underwent MRU between 1992 and 1995. A modified, heavily weighted T2 technique with intravenous administration of furosemide and ureteral compression was used. Thirty-two patients had other imaging techniques as well for comparison. MRU provided high-resolution images in almost all cases; 73 (69%) had a normal MRU. Significant findings in the 33 patients with abnormalities included renal cysts in 17 (51%), renal cell carcinoma in 6 (18%), transitional cell carcinoma in 5 (15%), ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 3 (9%), and stones causing obstruction in 6 (18%). Five patients with renal failure also had good visualization of the entire urinary tract. MRU was comparable to other imaging modalities except in identifying nonobstructing calculi. MRU provides an alternative to conventional imaging of the urinary tract, especially in those patients who have contraindications to ionizing radiation and contrast agents. Improvements in resolution, technique, and cost have to be addressed before it can be used regularly in urologic practice.

  12. [Presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Stippich, C

    2010-02-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important and novel neuroimaging modality for patients with brain tumors. By non-invasive measurement, localization and lateralization of brain activiation, most importantly of motor and speech function, fMRI facilitates the selection of the most appropriate and sparing treatment and function-preserving surgery. Prerequisites for the diagnostic use of fMRI are the application of dedicated clinical imaging protocols and standardization of the respective imaging procedures. The combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) also enables tracking and visualization of important fiber bundles such as the pyramidal tract and the arcuate fascicle. These multimodal MR data can be implemented in computer systems for functional neuronavigation or radiation treatment. The practicability, accuracy and reliability of presurgical fMRI have been validated by large numbers of published data. However, fMRI cannot be considered as a fully established modality of diagnostic neuroimaging due to the lack of guidelines of the responsible medical associations as well as the lack of medical certification of important hardware and software components. This article reviews the current research in the field and provides practical information relevant for presurgical fMRI.

  13. Clinical evaluation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography and contrast enhanced tomosynthesis--Comparison to contrast-enhanced breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chen-Pin; Lewin, John M; Chiang, Chia-Ling; Hung, Bao-Hui; Yang, Tsung-Lung; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Liao, Jia-Bin; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2015-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) and contrast-enhanced tomosynthesis (CET) to dynamic contrast enhanced breast MRI (DCE-MRI) using a multireader-multicase study. Institutional review board approval and informed consents were obtained. Total 185 patients (mean age 51.3) with BI-RADS 4 or 5 lesions were evaluated before biopsy with mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET and DCE-MRI. Mediolateral-oblique and cranio-caudal views of the target breast CEDM and CET were acquired at 2 and 4 min after contrast agent injection. A mediolateral-oblique view of the non-target breast was taken at 6 min. Each lesion was scored with forced BI-RADS categories by three readers. Each reader interpreted lesions in the following order: mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET, and DCE-MRI during a single reading session. Histology showed 81 cancers and 144 benign lesions in the study. Of the 81 malignant lesions, 44% (36/81) were invasive and 56% (45/81) were non-invasive. Areas under the ROC curve, averaged for the 3 readers, were as follows: 0.897 for DCE-MRI, 0.892 for CET, 0.878 for CEDM, 0.784 for tomosynthesis and 0.740 for mammography. Significant differences in AUC were found between the group of contrast enhanced modalities (CEDM, CET, DCE-MRI) and the unenhanced modalities (all p<0.05). No significant differences were found in AUC between DCE-MRI, CET and CEDM (all p>0.05). CET and CEDM may be considered as an alternative modality to MRI for following up women with abnormal mammography. All three contrast modalities were superior in accuracy to conventional digital mammography with or without tomosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of magnetic resonance imaging on implantable permanent magnets.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M L; Walker, G B; Dormer, K J

    1995-09-01

    Implantable permanent magnets are increasingly used in devices for otolaryngologic applications. It is likely that at least some of the patients with implanted magnets will be in need of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The effect of an MRI scan on the magnetic properties of implanted permanent magnets has not been previously demonstrated. Some of the basic concepts and descriptive terminology used in industry regarding permanent magnets are reviewed. Experiments presented show that the MRI scan is capable of demagnetizing permanent magnets. A case history is also presented that demonstrates demagnetizing of an implanted Audiant magnet by an MRI scan.

  15. Neuroimaging of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with and without immune reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Katchanov, Juri; Branding, Gordian; Jefferys, Laura; Arastéh, Keikawus; Stocker, Hartmut; Siebert, Eberhard

    2016-02-01

    To determine the frequency, imaging characteristics, neuroanatomical distribution and dynamics of magnetic resonance imaging findings in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients we compared patients without antiretroviral therapy with patients undergoing immune reconstitution. Neuroimaging and clinical data of 21 consecutive patients presenting to a German HIV centre in a 10-year period between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. We identified eight patients with magnetic resonance imaging findings related to cryptococcal disease: five patients without antiretroviral therapy and three patients receiving effective antiretroviral therapy resulting in immune reconstitution. The pattern of magnetic resonance imaging manifestations was different in the two groups. In patients not on antiretroviral therapy, pseudocysts (n = 3) and lacunar ischaemic lesions (n = 2) were detected. Contrast-enhancing focal leptomeningeal and/or parenchymal lesions were found in all patients under immune reconstitution (n = 3). Magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of leptomeningitis or meningoencephalitis were detected in all patients with a recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis under immune reconstitution, which differs from the classical magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients without antiretroviral therapy. In antiretroviral therapy-treated patients with past medical history of cryptococcal meningitis, detection of contrast-enhancing focal meningeal and/or parenchymal lesions should prompt further investigations for a recurrence of cryptococcal meningitis under immune reconstitution.

  16. Serial changes of (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in ischiopubic synchondrosis: comparison with contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kazunobu; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Tanizawa, Akihiko; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    A 3 years old female patient underwent resection and chemotherapy for a yolk sac tumor of the retroperitoneum. Two years later, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) showed high uptake in the right ischiopubic synchondrosis (IPS), which had a radiolucent structure on CT. The structure showed contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was a non-specific finding. Six weeks later, a follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed which showed no abnormal uptake in the IPS. The disappearance of (18)F-FDG uptake preceded that of contrast enhancement on MRI, which was seen 7 months after the initial (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan. This is the first report showing serial changes of (18)F-FDG uptake in IPS, in comparison to MRI findings.

  17. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography using 3D ECG-synchronized half-Fourier fast spin echo.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, M; Sugiura, S; Tateishi, F; Wada, H; Kassai, Y; Abe, H

    2000-11-01

    A non-contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique, which acquires images in a reasonably short scanning time and requires no contrast agent, is developed. An electrocardiographically (ECG) synchronized 3D half-Fourier fast spin-echo (FSE) technique with an appropriate ECG delay time for every slice encoding in 3D terms was used to examine the thoracic and iliac regions in 16 healthy volunteers at both 0.5 and 1.5 T. Prior to each 3D fresh blood imaging (FBI) experiment, an ECG preparation (ECG-prep) scan was acquired, and an appropriate ECG triggering time was selected for 3D FBI acquisition to optimize visualization of the vessel of interest. In the thoracic and abdominal regions, good-quality 3D MRA images were obtained. Furthermore, the weighted subtraction of two images in different phases provides contrast enhancement between arteries and veins.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Waugh, S A; Purdie, C A; Jordan, L B; Vinnicombe, S; Lerski, R A; Martin, P; Thompson, A M

    2016-02-01

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75%, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5%, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2%, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0%, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. • MR-derived entropy features, representing heterogeneity, provide important information on tissue composition. • Entropy features can differentiate between histological and immunohistochemical subtypes of breast cancer. • Differing entropy features between breast cancer subtypes implies differences in lesion heterogeneity. • Texture analysis of breast cancer

  19. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  20. Nebulized liposomal gadobenate dimeglumine contrast formulation for magnetic resonance imaging of larynx and trachea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohui; Wu, Huawei; Lu, Qing; Xu, Jianrong; Xu, Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop a lipid-stabilized contrast formulation containing gadobenate dimeglumine for clear visualization of the mucosal surfaces of the larynx and trachea for early diagnosis of disease by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods The contrast formulation was prepared by loading gadobenate dimeglumine into egg phosphotidylcholine, cholesterol, and sterylamine nanoliposomes using the dehydration-rehydration method. The liposomal contrast formulation was ultrasonically nebulized, and the deposition and coating pattern on explanted pig laryngeal and tracheal segments was examined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The sizes of the nebulized droplets were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy. The contrast-enhanced mucosal surface images of the larynx and trachea were obtained in a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner using a T1-weighted spectral presaturation inversion recovery sequence. Results Various cationic liposome formulations were compared for their stabilization effects on the droplets containing gadobenate dimeglumine. The liposomes composed of egg phosphotidylcholine, cholesterol, and sterylamine in a molar ratio of 1:1:1 were found to enable the most efficient nebulization and the resulting droplet sizes were narrowly distributed. They also resulted in the most even coating on the laryngeal and tracheal lumen surfaces and produced significant contrast enhancement along the mucosal surface. Such contrast enhancement could help clearer visualization of several disease states, such as intraluminal protrusions, submucosal nodules, and craters. Conclusion This lipid-stabilized magnetic resonance imaging contrast formulation may be useful for improving mucosal surface visualization and early diagnosis of disease originating in the mucosal surfaces of the larynx and trachea. PMID:22267923

  1. Indeterminate solid hepatic lesions identified on non-diagnostic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: assessment of the additional diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the non-cirrhotic liver.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio; De Paoli, Luca; Angileri, Roberta; Cabibbo, Biagio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2014-03-01

    To assess the additional diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the characterization of indeterminate solid hepatic lesions identified on non-diagnostic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Fifty-five solid hepatic lesions (1-4 cm in diameter) in 46 non-cirrhotic patients (26 female, 20 male; age±SD, 55±10 years) underwent CEUS after being detected on contrast-enhanced CT which was considered as non-diagnostic after on-site analysis. Two blinded independent readers assessed CT and CEUS scans and were asked to classify retrospectively each lesion as a malignant or benign based on reference diagnostic criteria for the different hepatic lesion histotypes. Diagnostic accuracy and confidence (area--Az--under ROC curve) were assessed by using gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (n=30 lesions), histology (n=7 lesions), or US follow-up (n=18 lesions) as the reference standards. Final diagnoses included 29 hemangiomas, 3 focal nodular hyperplasias, 1 hepatocellular adenoma, and 22 metastases. The additional review of CEUS after CT images improved significantly (P<.05) the diagnostic accuracy (before vs after CEUS review=49% [20/55] vs 89% [49/55]--reader 1 and 43% [24/55] vs 92% [51/55]--reader 2) and confidence (Az, 95% Confidence Intervals before vs after CEUS review=.773 [.652-.895] vs .997 [.987-1]--reader 1 and .831 [.724-.938] vs .998 [.992-1]--reader 2). CEUS improved the characterization of indeterminate solid hepatic lesions identified on non-diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT by identifying some specific contrast enhancement patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic liver disease: evaluation by magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Goldberg, H.I.; Moss, A.A.; Bass, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging distinguished hepatitis from fatty liver and cirrhosis in a woman with a history of alcohol abuse. Anatomic and physiologic manifestations of portal hypertension were also demonstrated by MR.

  3. Polywater: proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum.

    PubMed

    Page, T F; Jakobsen, R J; Lippincott, E R

    1970-01-02

    In the presence of water, the resonance of the strongly hydrogenbonded protons characteristic of polywater appears at 5 parts per million lower applied magnetic field than water. Polywater made by a new method confirms the infrared spectrum reported originally.

  4. Pocket atlas of cranial magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    This atlas illustrates normal cerebral anatomy in magnetic resonance images. From their studies in cerebral anatomy utilizing cryomicrotome and other techniques, the authors selected more than 100 high-resolution images that represent the most clinically useful scans.

  5. Coronary computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jörg; Gerber, Thomas C

    2009-04-01

    Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use.

  6. International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join the ISMRM Journals History & Mission Central Office Society Award Winners Strategic Plan Policies Corporate Members Contact ... E-Library Virtual Meetings Connect With Us International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 2300 Clayton Road, ...

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cryptorchid testis.

    PubMed

    Landa, H M; Gylys-Morin, V; Mattrey, R F; Krous, H F; Kaplan, G W; Packer, M G

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate seven patients with undescended testes. In six patients the presence or absence of testicular tissue was predicted correctly prior to surgery. Spermatic cord structures, if present, were accurately visualized in all patients.

  8. Coronary Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jörg; Gerber, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:19269527

  9. Miniature Magnet for Electron Spin Resonance Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, L. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes commercially available permanent magnets that have been incorporated in a compact and inexpensive structure providing both field sweep and modulation suitable for electron spin resonance at microwave frequencies. (MLH)

  10. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of glial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferda, Jirí; Kastner, Jan; Mukensnabl, Petr; Choc, Milan; Horemuzová, Jana; Ferdová, Eva; Kreuzberg, Boris

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the author's experience with the use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) on patients with glial tumors. A retrospective evaluation of a group of 24 patients with glial tumors was performed. There were eight patients with Grade II, eight patients with Grade III and eight patients with Grade IV tumors with a histologically proven diagnosis. All the patients underwent routine imaging including T2 weighted images, multidirectional diffusion weighted imaging (measured in 60 non-collinear directions) and T1 weighted non-enhanced and contrast enhanced images. The imaging sequence and evaluation software were produced by Massachusetts General Hospital Corporation (Boston, MA, USA). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were calculated in all patients. The white matter FA changes were assessed within the tumorous tissue, on the tumorous borderline and in the normally appearing white matter adjacent to the tumor. A three-dimensional model of the white matter tract was created to demonstrate the space relationship of the tumor and the capsula interna or corpus callosum in each case using the following fiber tracing parameters: FA step 0.25 and a tensor declination angle of 45 gr. An additional assessment of the tumorous tissue enhancement was performed. A uniform homogenous structure with sharp demargination of the Grade II tumors and the wide rim of the intermedial FA in all Grade III tumors respectively, were found during the evaluation of the FA maps. In Grade IV tumors a variable demargination was noted on the FA maps. The sensitivity and specificity for the discrimination of low- and high-grade glial tumors using FA maps was revealed to be 81% and 87% respectively. If the evaluation of the contrast enhancement was combined with the evaluation of the FA maps, both sensitivity and specificity were 100%. Although the evaluation of the fractional anisotropy maps is not sufficient for glioma grading, the combination of the contrast enhancement pattern

  11. Magnetic resonance force microscopy using ferromagnetic resonance of a magnetic tip excited by microwave transmission via a coaxial resonator.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yukinori; Li, Yanjun; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2017-10-04

    The present work proposes magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) based on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) modulation of a magnetic tip using microwave transmission via a coaxial resonator instead of using conventional microwave irradiation by an external antenna. In this MRFM, the coaxial resonator is electrically connected to the magnetic cantilever tip, which enables simple implementation of FMR excitation of a magnetic tip in conventional magnetic force microscopy. The FMR frequency of the tip can be easily extracted from the reflection spectrum of a transmission line connected to the magnetic tip. The excitation of tip FMR is confirmed from the microwave frequency dependence of the mechanical response of the tip oscillation. This MRFM is effective for extracting the magnetic interaction force near a sample surface without perturbation of its sample magnetic state. Nanometer-scale imaging of