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Sample records for contrasting physical exercise

  1. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities. PMID:25458104

  2. Epilepsy and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, José; Tojal, Raquel; Morgado, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurologic diseases and has always been associated with stigma. In the interest of safety, the activities of persons with epilepsy (PWE) are often restricted. In keeping with this, physical exercise has often been discouraged. The precise nature of a person's seizures (or whether seizures were provoked or unprovoked) may not have been considered. Although there has been a change in attitude over the last few decades, the exact role of exercise in inducing seizures or aggravating epilepsy still remains a matter of discussion among experts in the field. Based mainly on retrospective, but also on prospective, population and animal-based research, the hypothesis that physical exercise is prejudicial has been slowly replaced by the realization that physical exercise might actually be beneficial for PWE. The benefits are related to improvement of physical and mental health parameters and social integration and reduction in markers of stress, epileptiform activity and the number of seizures. Nowadays, the general consensus is that there should be no restrictions to the practice of physical exercise in people with controlled epilepsy, except for scuba diving, skydiving and other sports at heights. Whilst broader restrictions apply for patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, individual risk assessments taking into account the seizure types, frequency, patterns or triggers may allow PWE to enjoy a wide range of physical activities.

  3. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  4. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  5. From exercise to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Speck, Barbara J

    2002-10-01

    Recommendations for regular exercise have been evident in the nursing literature since the early 1900s. Health professionals and popular media have promoted vigorous exercise for positive health benefits since the 1960s. The concept of exercise as it appeared in the nursing literature during the early part of the 20th century is closer to the concept of physical activity of today--regular, moderate-intensity activities that become part of one's lifestyle. Nurses are in a unique position to counsel individuals, families, and communities on the importance of regular physical activity and to correct misconceptions that only vigorous exercise has health benefits. PMID:12465215

  6. [Insulin and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1987-04-01

    Secretion of some pituitary hormones and sympatho-adrenal activity increase very early during exercise. Sympathetic activation is of major importance in cardiovascular adaptation, thermoregulation, etc. Furthermore among the hormonal consequences of such activation those related to insulin are capital. In animal and human subjects basal insulin level decrease during prolonged and progressive exercise. With habitual exercise, both basal and stimulated insulin levels are reduced. It seems that the reduced basal level could be due to alpha-adrenergic inhibition of the islets of Langerhans, while the reduced stimulated response could be the consequence of increased clearance. In trained subjects, in spite of reduced insulin secretion tolerance to glucose is normal due to increased sensitivity to insulin. Sensitivity to insulin is particularly enhanced at the muscular tissue level; it is accompanied by increased hexokinase and glycogen synthetase activity. As a consequence glucose uptake remains optimal at the muscular level. In the liver, both insulin sensitivity and glucokinase activity are reduced, so that glucose is spared and the muscular glycogen store can be restored. At the adipocyte level, metabolic adaptations are such that triglyceride turnover is greatly increased, favouring fuel supply and resaturation of stores.

  7. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  8. Exercises in Practical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Arthur; Lees, Charles H.

    2015-10-01

    Preface; Preface to the fifth edition; Part I. Preliminary: 1. Treatment of observations; 2. Measurement of length; 3. Measurement of intervals of time; 4. Calibration of a spirit level; 5. Calibration of a graduated tube; Part II. General Physics: 6. The balance; 7. Accurate weighing with the balance; 8. Density of a solid; 9. Density of a liquid; 10. Moments of inertia; 11. Gravitational acceleration by reversible pendulum; 12. Young's modulus by the bending of beams; 13. Modulus of rigidity; 14. Viscosity; 15. Surface tension; Part III. Heat: 16. Coefficient of expansion of a solid; 17. Thermal expansion of a liquid; 18. Coefficient of increase of pressure of a gas with temperature; 19. Coefficient of expansion of a gas as constant pressure; 20. Effect of pressure on the boiling point of a liquid; 21. Laws of cooling; 22. Cooling correction in calorimetry; 23. Specific heat of quartz; 24. Latent heat of water; 25. Latent heat of steam; 26. Heat of solution of a salt; 27. The mechanical equivalent of heat; Part IV. Sound: 28. Frequency of a tuning fork by the syren; 29. The velocity of sound in air and other bodies by Kundt's method; 30. Study of vibrations of tuning forks by means of Lissajous' figures; Part V. Light: 31. Angles by the optical method; 32. The sextant; 33. Curvatures and powers of lenses; 34. Index of refraction by total reflection; 35. Resolving power of a lens; 36. The prism spectroscope; 37. Reduction of spectroscopic measurements to an absolute scale; 38. The spectrometer; 39. Refractive index and dispersion of a solid by the spectrometer; 40. Refractive index and dispersion of a liquid. Specific refractive powers; 41. Photometry; 42. Interference of light. The biprism; 43. Newton's rings; 44. Wave length of light by the diffraction grating; 45. Rotation of plane by polarisation; 46. Saccharimetry; Part VI. Magnetism and Electricity: 47. Horizontal components of magnetic fields; 48. Magnetic dip; 49. Magnetisation curves; 50. The water

  9. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  10. Physical Exercise as a Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baird, M. Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Provides an integrative review of the literature on the relationship between physical exercise and three psychological variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem). Proposes guidelines for using exercise as a counseling intervention, and makes suggestions for evaluating exercise interventions. (Author/GCP)

  11. Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, N I; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A

    2010-01-01

    Any bodily activity or movement that enhances and maintains overall health and physical fitness is called physical exercise. Habit of regular physical exercise has got numerous benefits. Exercise is of various types such as aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and flexibility exercise. Aerobic exercise moves the large muscle groups with alternate contraction and relaxation, forces to deep breath, heart to pump more blood with adequate tissue oxygenation. It is also called cardiovascular exercise. Examples of aerobic exercise are walking, running, jogging, swimming etc. In anaerobic exercise, there is forceful contraction of muscle with stretching, usually mechanically aided and help to build up muscle strength and muscle bulk. Examples are weight lifting, pulling, pushing, sprinting etc. Flexibility exercise is one type of stretching exercise to improve the movements of muscles, joints and ligaments. Walking is a good example of aerobic exercise, easy to perform, safe, effective, does not require any training or equipment and less chance of injury. Regular 30 minutes brisk walking in the morning with 150 minutes per week is a good exercise. Regular exercise improves the cardiovascular status, reduces the risk of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and cerebrovascular disease. It reduces body weight, improves insulin sensitivity, helps in glycemic control, prevents obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is helpful for relieving anxiety, stress, brings a sense of well being and overall physical fitness. Global trend is mechanization, labor savings and leading to epidemic of long term chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases etc. All efforts should be made to create public awareness promoting physical activity, physically demanding recreational pursuits and providing adequate facilities. PMID:20046192

  12. Differential Physical and Psychological Effects of Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfley, Denise; Kunce, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of an individualized exercise program for "normal" adults. Differences between program completers and dropouts on persistence, fitness, and physical self-concept are reprinted. A number of special strategies to motivate clients who may benefit most from therapeutic exercise programs as an adjunct…

  13. Aqua Dynamics. Physical Conditioning through Water Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Swimming is recognized as America's most popular active sport. It is one of the best physical activities for people of all ages and for people who are physically handicapped. Vigorous water exercises can increase a person's flexibility, strength, and cardio-vascular endurance. Exercises requiring flexibility are performed more easily in water…

  14. Cognitive Aging and Physical Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Ellen; Sharps, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    Younger (n=58) and older (n=49) adults completed the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and recall tests of verbal and visual stimuli with maximum and minimum semantic support. Category support did not help young adults who exercised less. Older adults' exercise had no effect on use of category support; less-frequent exercisers had poorer results…

  15. [Physical exercise and bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Endre, László

    2016-06-26

    An article was published in the Lancet in 1935 about the therapy of asthmatic patients, using a special breathing exercise (the authors used a control group, too). Swimming, as a complementary therapy for asthmatic children, was first recommended in 1968, by authors from the United States. In Hungary, regular swimming training for asthmatic children is in use since August, 1981. As the result of this exercise, the physical fitness of asthmatic children (using this method regularly for years) increased dramatically, and it is much better compared to that found in the non asthmatic, non swimming children of the same age group. The requirement for asthma medication decreased, and the severity of their disease significantly decreased, also. On the other hand, asthma is not a rarity even among elite athletes. It is most frequent in the endurance sports (for example in Northern Europe among cross-country skiers its prevalence is between 14-54%, among long distance runners 15-24%, and among swimmers 13-44%). The possible reason is related to the fact that elite athletes inspire 200 liter air/minute (mostly through the mouth). Air pollution and allergens can penetrate in the lower respiratory tract. The air causes cooling and drying of the mucosa of the airways and, as a consequence, mediators are liberated which produce oedema of the mucosa, and bronchoconstriction. Beta-2-receptor agonists inhalation can prevent (or decrease significantly) this phenomenon. These agents are used regularly by elite athletes, too. The non-medical possibilities for prevention include wearing a special mask, frequent ventilation of the swimming pool's air, consumption of omega-3-fatty acid, and inhalation of dry salt (very small, and very clear sodiumchloride particles). PMID:27319382

  16. [Physical exercise and bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Endre, László

    2016-06-26

    An article was published in the Lancet in 1935 about the therapy of asthmatic patients, using a special breathing exercise (the authors used a control group, too). Swimming, as a complementary therapy for asthmatic children, was first recommended in 1968, by authors from the United States. In Hungary, regular swimming training for asthmatic children is in use since August, 1981. As the result of this exercise, the physical fitness of asthmatic children (using this method regularly for years) increased dramatically, and it is much better compared to that found in the non asthmatic, non swimming children of the same age group. The requirement for asthma medication decreased, and the severity of their disease significantly decreased, also. On the other hand, asthma is not a rarity even among elite athletes. It is most frequent in the endurance sports (for example in Northern Europe among cross-country skiers its prevalence is between 14-54%, among long distance runners 15-24%, and among swimmers 13-44%). The possible reason is related to the fact that elite athletes inspire 200 liter air/minute (mostly through the mouth). Air pollution and allergens can penetrate in the lower respiratory tract. The air causes cooling and drying of the mucosa of the airways and, as a consequence, mediators are liberated which produce oedema of the mucosa, and bronchoconstriction. Beta-2-receptor agonists inhalation can prevent (or decrease significantly) this phenomenon. These agents are used regularly by elite athletes, too. The non-medical possibilities for prevention include wearing a special mask, frequent ventilation of the swimming pool's air, consumption of omega-3-fatty acid, and inhalation of dry salt (very small, and very clear sodiumchloride particles).

  17. Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-03-01

    There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity. PMID:26646070

  18. Physical exercise, neuroplasticity, spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Cassilhas, Ricardo C; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-03-01

    There has long been discussion regarding the positive effects of physical exercise on brain activity. However, physical exercise has only recently begun to receive the attention of the scientific community, with major interest in its effects on the cognitive functions, spatial learning and memory, as a non-drug method of maintaining brain health and treating neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric conditions. In humans, several studies have shown the beneficial effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in adult and geriatric populations. More recently, studies employing animal models have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity related to physical exercise-induced spatial learning and memory improvement, even under neurodegenerative conditions. In an attempt to clarify these issues, the present review aims to discuss the role of physical exercise in the improvement of spatial learning and memory and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuroplasticity.

  19. [How to prescribe physical exercise in rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Maddali Bongi, S; Del Rosso, A

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise, aiming to improve range of movement, muscle strength and physical well being, lately substituted the immobilization previously prescribed in rheumatic diseases. International guidelines, recommendations of Scientific Societies, and structured reviews regard physical exercise as of pivotal importance in treating rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia syndrome, osteoporosis, and to be considered in connective tissue diseases. Therapeutic exercise should: aim to improve firstly local symptoms and then general health; respect the pain threshold; be a part of a treatment including pharmacological therapies and other rehabilitation techniques, be administered by skilled physiotherapist under the guide of a rheumatologist, be different according to different diseases, disease phases and patient expectations.

  20. Preparing Prospective Physical Educators in Exercise Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Mohr, Derek J.; Carson, Linda M.; Robert, Darren L.; Wiegand, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the need for continued assessment of course content and instructional methods employed within physical education teacher education programs to deliver theoretical and applied information from the foundational subdiscipline of exercise physiology, describing an innovative course at one university (Exercise for School-Aged Children) which…

  1. Strengthening physical self-perceptions through exercise.

    PubMed

    Caruso, C M; Gill, D L

    1992-12-01

    Two studies examined the effects of physical activity/exercise on physical self-perceptions, self-efficacy, body satisfaction, fitness and relationships among these variables. In study 1, 34 female undergraduates participated in a 10-week exercise/activity program. Participants were selected from existing classes forming a weight training, aerobic exercise and activity control group. Results revealed changes in physical self-perceptions, strength, and body composition over the 10-weeks. Improvements in physical self-perceptions and fitness occurred independent of exercise/activity group. Groups differed in the perceived importance attached to physical self-perceptions. Correlations among the measures revealed relationships among physical self-perceptions, body satisfaction, global self-esteem, and fitness. In study 2, we hypothesized that weight training would have a greater effect on physical self-perceptions and body image perceptions than physical education activity classes. Thirty-seven males and 28 females were selected from existing classes forming a weight training and activity group. Results revealed no significant changes in physical self-perceptions, body image, or global self-esteem over the 10-week program, while strength and physical self-efficacy improved. Correlations among measures from both studies offer preliminary support for Sonstroem and Morgan's model for the examination of self-esteem in exercise settings. PMID:1293426

  2. Parathyroid Hormone and Physical Exercise: a Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Bouassida, Anissa; Latiri, Imed; Bouassida, Semi; Zalleg, Dalenda; Zaouali, Monia; Feki, Youssef; Gharbi, Najoua; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhair

    2006-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the major hormone regulating calcium metabolism and is involved in both catabolic and anabolic actions on bone. Intermittent PTH exposure can stimulate bone formation and bone mass when PTH has been injected. In contrast, continuous infusion of PTH stimulates bone resorption. PTH concentration may be affected by physical exercise and our review was designed to investigate this relationship. The variation in PTH concentration appears to be influenced by both exercise duration and intensity. There probably exists a stimulation threshold of exercise to alter PTH. PTH regulation is also influenced by the initial bone mineral content, age, gender, training state, and other hormonal and metabolic factors (catecholamines, lactic acid and calcium concentrations). Key Points Physical exercise can improve PTH secretion. Parathyroid hormone has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone: intermittent treatment of PTH is anabolic whereas continuous treatment is catabolic. PMID:24353453

  3. Impact of Physical Exercise on Endocrine Aging.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Joseph A M J L

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise may be vital to the maintenance of the endocrine system with aging and its helps to restore loss of activity of the endocrine system with aging. There is evidence that physical exercise induces activity of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis and so produces anabolic effects in skeletal muscles. Mechano growth factor (MGF), a locally produced isoform of IGF-1, has been hypothesized to be important for the maintenance of skeletal muscles with aging. Short-term high-resistance exercise results in an increase of MGF mRNA in young but not in elderly subjects. Reported changes in levels of circulating sex steroid hormones in men after different types of (acute and chronic) physical exercise are mixed and not consistent. In addition, physical exercise may increase local effects of sex steroid hormones, and this may be more important than levels of circulating sex steroids for the maintenance and function of skeletal muscles. In elderly women, both increased physical exercise and reduced body fat may decrease levels of circulating sex hormones. Aging is further associated with changes in the dynamic functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but these changes may be attenuated/modified by aerobic training. Chronic exercise does not alter circulating cortisol levels in elderly subjects. PMID:27348867

  4. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  5. Graphical Response Exercises for Teaching Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Scott

    2007-01-01

    What is physics without graphs and diagrams? The web is becoming ubiquitous, but how can one expect students to make graphs and diagrams on the web? The solution is to extend functionality through Java applets. Four examples of exercises using the Physics Applets for Drawing (PADs) will illustrate how these can be used for physics instruction to…

  6. Exercise and physical activity of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lugo, L; Calderón, C; Visbal, G; Martínez, V

    1990-05-01

    Multiple studies point toward the beneficial role of regular exercise in preventing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of physical activity and exercise among adolescents from the only high school in Cataño, Puerto Rico. An open-ended, multiple choice questionnaire was administered to 106 students who were randomly chosen. Questions included frequency of exercise, type of sports which they practiced and would like to practice. Results were statistically analyzed. The study revealed that 53% of the participants did not exercise regularly, exercising less than once a week. Those who did exercise were involved in a competitive team sport (35% of females: volleyball; 65.8% of males: basketball). Approximately 1/3 of the females and of the males replied they would like to practice noncompetitive sports which should be incorporated into their lifestyles through early intervention in the school, home and through the primary care physician.

  7. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  8. Role of physical exercise in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEI-WEI; ZHANG, XIA; HUANG, WEN-JUAN

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on the brain and general wellness are well recognised, but not particularly well known to the general public. Understanding the importance of integrating active behavior for overall health is crucial at any age and particularly for the elderly who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease mainly affecting individuals aged >65 years. AD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular senile plaques of amyloid-β, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of the protein tau, brain atrophy and dementia. The beneficial effects of physical exercise have been observed on the maintenance of brain size and efficiency for the prevention of AD risks, such as obesity, hypertension and stroke. These effects are extended to individuals with, or at risk of dementia and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, although extensive studies are required to fully understand the mechanisms by which physical exercise procures beneficial effects, data suggest the relevance of integrating physical exercise in the prevention and/or cure of AD, disease whose incidence is predicted to increase in the future. Such an increase, may pose medical, social and economical challenges for populations and the health care system worldwide. In the present review we assess the positive aspects of physical exercise with regard to prevention and cure of AD. PMID:27073621

  9. Diabetes, Oxidative Stress and Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Mustafa; Laaksonen, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Oxidative stress, an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defense capacity of the body, is closely associated with aging and a number of diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and diabetic complications. Several mechanisms may cause oxidative insult in diabetes, although their exact contributions are not entirely clear. Accumulating evidence points to many interrelated mechanisms that increase production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species or decrease antioxidant protection in diabetic patients. In modern medicine, regular physical exercise is an important tool in the prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes. Although acute exhaustive exercise increases oxidative stress, exercise training has been shown to up regulate antioxidant protection. This review aims to summarize the mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and with respect to acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24672266

  10. An update: salivary hormones and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; De Palo, E F

    2011-04-01

    Saliva contains cells and compounds, of local and non-local oral origin, namely inorganic, organic non-protein, protein/polypeptide, and lipid molecules. Moreover, some hormones, commonly assayed in plasma, such as steroids, are detectable in oral fluid and peptide/protein, and non-steroid hormones have been investigated. The sports practice environment and athletes' availability, together with hormone molecule characteristics in saliva and physical exercise behavior effects, confirm this body fluid as an alternative to serum. This review focuses on the relation between salivary steroids and psycho-physiological stress and underlines how the measurement of salivary cortisol provides an approach of self-report psychological indicator and anxiety change in relation to exercise performance. The correlation between salivary and plasma steroid hormone (cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) levels, observed during exercise, has been considered, underlining how the type, duration, and intensity of the exercise influence the salivary steroid concentrations in the same way as serum-level variations. Training conditions have been considered in relation to the salivary hormonal response. This review focuses on studies related to salivary hormone measurements, mainly steroids, in physical exercise. Saliva use in physical disciplines, as a real alternative to serum, could be a future perspective.

  11. Physical exercise reduces risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Kaoru; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takezaki, Toshiro; Miura, Shigeto; Tajima, Kazuo

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of physical exercise on breast cancer risk, a large-scale case-referent study of 2376 incident breast cancer cases and 18,977 non-cancer referents was conducted using data from the hospital-based epidemiologic research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). To adjust appropriately for possible confounders, we examined the effects within subgroups of the study population. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.94) for twice a week or more regular exercise. We observed a decreased risk of breast cancer for women who regularly exercised for health twice a week or more, irrespective of menopausal status, and were able to detect greater risk reductions within particular subgroups, including women who were parous, without a family history or non-drinkers. Among premenopausal women, a particularly strong protective effect of physical exercise was observed (OR=0.57, 95%CI: 0.28-1.15) for those women whose body mass index (BMI) was high (BM > or = 25). In contrast, risk reduction was found (OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.50-1.01) among postmenopausal women whose BMI was medium (BMI: 22-25). Stratification of history of stomach cancer screening to adjust modifying effects of healthy consciousness allows a more precise assessment of the protective effect of exercise twice a week or more, independent of stomach cancer screening history. This study provides evidence that physical exercise, especially exercise twice a week or more, reduces the risk of breast cancer among Japanese women.

  12. Simulation of General Physics laboratory exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, P.; Hernández-Aceituno, J.; Hernández-Cabrera, A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are an important part of general Physics teaching, both during the last years of high school and the first year of college education. Due to the need to acquire enough laboratory equipment for all the students, and the widespread access to computers rooms in teaching, we propose the development of computer simulated laboratory exercises. A representative exercise in general Physics is the calculation of the gravity acceleration value, through the free fall motion of a metal ball. Using a model of the real exercise, we have developed an interactive system which allows students to alter the starting height of the ball to obtain different fall times. The simulation was programmed in ActionScript 3, so that it can be freely executed in any operative system; to ensure the accuracy of the calculations, all the input parameters of the simulations were modelled using digital measurement units, and to allow a statistical management of the resulting data, measurement errors are simulated through limited randomization.

  13. Mastery-style exercises in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Noah D.

    Mastery learning employs repeated cycles of instructional support and formative assessment to help students achieve desired skills. Instructional objectives are broken into small pieces, and students master those pieces in successive order by performing to a set standard on an assessment for each objective. If a student cannot master an objective, instructional support is provided, and the student is reassessed. Mastery learning has been proved effective in many subject areas, but comparatively little research has been done on applying it in physics instruction. This dissertation details the path taken that culminated in the use of mastery-inspired exercises to teach students basic skills in introductory physics courses. The path that led to our choice of mastery began with an attempt to provide students with extra practice and formative assessment through weekly practice tests with corresponding solutions, with the goal of helping them better prepare for summative exams in an introductory physics course. No effect was seen, and participation was very low. Investigating how students learn from solutions revealed that they are poor evaluators of their understanding of provided solutions and struggle to retain the skills taught in those solutions. In a follow-up clinical experiment that provided students with solutions, required them to recall the solutions from memory, and re-presented the solutions for restudy, students showed strong retention as well as the ability to transfer information from the solutions to new situations. These results inspired the formal use of mastery learning as an instructional paradigm due to its requirement that students repeatedly recall information from solutions and apply it to new situations. Mastery-style exercises were first created and tested in clinical trials, followed by two in-course implementations. In the clinical trials, students completed a set of questions on a particular skill, and if they failed to master that skill

  14. [Pulmonary obstructive chronic disease and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    António, Carla; Gonçalves, Ana Paula; Tavares, Alcina

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease that can be prevented and treated, with a pulmonary component and with significant systemic effects that contribute to the severity of clinical manifestations. COPD causes a number of changes, including those which lead to exercise tolerance limitation and to a progressive deterioration of life quality of the patients. Respiratory rehabilitation (RR) represents a key part of the treatment. The benefits of RR are independent of sex, age and disease severity. At the end of the program, the patient should have acquired a life style as independent and healthy as possible. With this article the authors intend to review the benefits of physical exercise in rehabilitation of patients with COPD and the different types of training used in the respiratory rehabilitation program established for each patient. PMID:20700562

  15. Physical exercise and diabetes during childhood.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Cosimo; Mohn, A; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    Active life and physical fitness may represent the most effective strategies to prevent chronic diseases and to improve growth and development for children, including those with diabetes. Observational studies have demonstrated the association between life style and prevention of chronic diseases in the general population. These studies have been showed a reduction of morbidity for vascular diseases in trained subjects who present adequate cardiovascular fitness and practise regular exercise. The exercise-related protective effects may be mediated in part through components of the metabolic syndrome: improved insulin sensitivity, decreased weight and visceral fat accumulation, reduced low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides, increased high density lipoprotein (HDL), decreased blood pressure. These effects are more significant in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), because hyperglycemia-related morbidity and mortality are associated with chronic complications. In particular, improved insulin sensitivity may determine a better glucose profile which in turn may positively influence the diabetes-related microvascular complications. Furthermore, improved blood pressure and normalization of lipid profile may also contribute to the prevention of vascular complications. Nonetheless, physical activity can improve psychological well-being by increasing self-esteem and enhancing quality of life. Although patients with T1DM may participate in all kind of sports and physical activities, there are several potential adverse events, including hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic episodes, that can occur. Thus, patients and health professionals have to know in details the physiological effect of physical exercise and its metabolic events in order sport to be healthy and enjoyable for all children, adolescents and young adults with T1DM.

  16. Reactions of immune system to physical exercises.

    PubMed

    Pershin, Boris B; Geliev, Anatoly B; Tolstov, Dmitry V; Kovalchuk, Leonid V; Medvedev, Vladimir Ya

    2002-04-01

    The great attention to reactions of immune system to the physical exercises in sportsmen is linked to the growth of training volumes, to the increase of competition numbers and to the elevation of morbidity. Immune deficiency may be considered as the detonator of pathological processes among which acute respiratory diseases (ARD) are investigated most completely in sports medicine. Other pathologies require long-term observations, but it is not so simple to do due to the frequent renewal of sports groups. Besides ARD, there are reports about the growth of cases of poliomyelitis, endotoxemia, allergic and autoimmune disorders. Immune reactions in sportsmen are developed at the background of fever, impaired balance of ergotrophic hormone activity and in a number of cases under conditions of systemic endotoxemia. We have described the extreme type of immune deficiency in sportsmen, in which we could not determine different isotypes of Ig. The phenomenon of Ig disappearance is reproduced under the experimental conditions that opened the way to study its mechanisms. Physical exercises decrease function of immunocompetent cells, their antiviral resistance, antigen presentation and expression of class II MHC molecules. With the involvement of macrophages hyperproduction of IL-6 is developed in muscle tissues. After physical exercises other cytokines also change the state of immunity. Also, neuropeptides getting in touch the links between endocrine and immune systems may make a contribution to immunosuppression. The immunosuppression may be prevented by use of special carbohydrate diets and by administration of complexed preparations. The prophylaxis is capable to control the morbidity, profoundly to increase the training volumes and to enhance the labor efficiency.

  17. PROXIMITY TO AN EXERCISE FACILITY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Ani, Ruopeng; Zheng, Jiakun

    2014-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for premature morbidity and mortality. We studied the relationship between proximity to an exercise facility and leisure time physical activity in China. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey of 10 provinces in China during 2012 among 5,000 respondents with a completion rate of 82.1%. Respondents were asked about leisure time physical activity, defined as any exercise during the week. Respondents were also asked if they lived within 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility. The association between proximity to an exercise facility and physical activity were examined with multivariate regression analysis while attempting to control for sociodemographic factors and province of residence. Proximity to an exercise facility was found to be positively associated with leisure time physical activity. Individuals living within 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility were 6.79% (95% confidence interval: 3.67-10.01) more likely to have any leisure time physical activity than those who lived more than 10 minutes walking distance from an exercise facility. Physical exercise among females, younger adults, people with a higher education and urban residents appeared to have a greater association with distance to an exercise facility. Improving accessibility to an exercise facility might increase the likelihood of leisure time physical activity, especially among working-age urban Chinese.

  18. Exercise Counseling--How Physical Educators Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthitt, Vicki L.; Harvey, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    To teach students to maintain active lifestyles, physical educators must know what motivates students to exercise. The article discusses factors contributing to youth inactivity, what physical educators can do about the problem, and what research says about exercise motivation and adherence. Six recommendations for physical educators are included.…

  19. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  20. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers. PMID:25455431

  1. Exercise treadmill saline contrast echocardiography for the detection of patent foramen ovale in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Brett E; Freeman, Andrew M; Silveira, Lori; Buckner, J Kern; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Carroll, John D

    2015-12-01

    Percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder placement improves dyspnea and oxygen requirement in hypoxic patients with PFO-mediated right-to-left shunt (RTLS). Although saline contrast echocardiography (SCE) in the resting state can identify PFO RTLS, SCE performed with exercise stress testing may provide incremental diagnostic yield compared to rest SCE. We evaluated the ability of exercise SCE to predict PFO presence and size using intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) as a gold standard in a hypoxic cohort. Thirty-three hypoxic patients with suspected PFO RTLS who underwent rest, Valsalva, and exercise stress SCE prior to ICE were evaluated retrospectively. PFO RTLS was defined by ICE findings including PFO anatomy, RTLS by saline contrast and color Doppler, and probe patency. SCE shunt severity was compared to the presence of ICE-defined PFO RTLS and PFO size. Exercise SCE for the detection of PFO RTLS performed with an area under the curve of 0.77, sensitivity of 73%, and specificity of 86%. Among 26 patients with PFO RTLS, exercise SCE identified four additional patients with PFO that had negative rest SCE and two patients with negative Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE had a stronger correlation with PFO size than resting or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE detects PFO RTLS and predicts PFO size in a hypoxic cohort. In addition, exercise SCE can identify PFO RTLS that is otherwise undetected with rest or Valsalva SCE. Exercise SCE may be appropriate when a clinical suspicion for PFO RTLS persists despite negative rest and Valsalva SCE.

  2. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; McGough, Ellen L

    2014-01-01

    In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.

  3. Sex differences in the association between physical exercise and IQ.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J

    2012-10-01

    Previous research suggests that physical exercise may have beneficial effects on cognitive performance in children and the elderly, but little research has yet examined these associations in healthy adults. It was hypothesized that self-reported frequency and duration of physical exercise would correlate positively with measured intelligence on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence in healthy young to middle aged adults (25 men, 28 women). Although there was a modest positive association between physical exercise and intelligence (IQ) for the group as a whole, when examined separately by sex, greater physical activity was associated with higher intelligence scores for women, whereas exercise level was essentially unrelated to intelligence among men. These associations remained consistent even after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors. The association between exercise and IQ appears to be moderated by sex in healthy adults, possibly through its effects on glucoregulation, insulin sensitivity, or other factors that differ between men and women.

  4. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury.

  5. Therapeutic physical exercise in neural injury: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kanghui; Lee, Seunghoon; Hong, Yunkyung; Park, Sookyoung; Choi, Jeonghyun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Joo-Heon; Hong, Yonggeun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The intensity of therapeutic physical exercise is complex and sometimes controversial in patients with neural injuries. This review assessed whether therapeutic physical exercise is beneficial according to the intensity of the physical exercise. [Methods] The authors identified clinically or scientifically relevant articles from PubMed that met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Exercise training can improve body strength and lead to the physiological adaptation of skeletal muscles and the nervous system after neural injuries. Furthermore, neurophysiological and neuropathological studies show differences in the beneficial effects of forced therapeutic exercise in patients with severe or mild neural injuries. Forced exercise alters the distribution of muscle fiber types in patients with neural injuries. Based on several animal studies, forced exercise may promote functional recovery following cerebral ischemia via signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions. [Conclusions] This review describes several types of therapeutic forced exercise and the controversy regarding the therapeutic effects in experimental animals versus humans with neural injuries. This review also provides a therapeutic strategy for physical therapists that grades the intensity of forced exercise according to the level of neural injury. PMID:26834383

  6. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises. PMID:27044898

  7. Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  8. Thymus recovery after intensive physical exercise under conditions of immunocorrection and without it.

    PubMed

    Sapin, M R; Tkachuk, M G

    2005-11-01

    Exogenous antioxidants, e.g. tocopherol, prevent undesirable changes in the thymus and accelerate its recovery after intensive physical exercise. Four weeks after the end of training (swimming) the general structure of the thymus and content of LPO products in rats treated with tocopherol corresponded to the control values, in contrast to animals receiving no correction.

  9. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  10. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans.

  11. [Effectiveness of physical exercise programs in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cano-De La Cuerda, Roberto; Aguila-Maturana, Ana María; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2009-02-14

    Clinical studies with methodological rigor have shown that the strategies for lifestyle modification and drug therapies can prevent or at least delay the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in individuals at high risk. Combination of regular physical exercise and diet is more effective than each one separately to achieve modest weight loss and improve metabolic control in patients with DM. Our objective is to describe the role of exercise in patients with DM and the exercise programs in relation to the previous considerations, taking into account the intensity of the exercise, components of the program, duration, frequency and precautions. PMID:19211086

  12. [Effectiveness of physical exercise programs in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cano-De La Cuerda, Roberto; Aguila-Maturana, Ana María; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2009-02-14

    Clinical studies with methodological rigor have shown that the strategies for lifestyle modification and drug therapies can prevent or at least delay the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in individuals at high risk. Combination of regular physical exercise and diet is more effective than each one separately to achieve modest weight loss and improve metabolic control in patients with DM. Our objective is to describe the role of exercise in patients with DM and the exercise programs in relation to the previous considerations, taking into account the intensity of the exercise, components of the program, duration, frequency and precautions.

  13. Comparative analysis of the effects of physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Angyán, L; Téczely, T; Karsai, I; Petofi, A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess anthropometrical, somatomotor, and cardio respiratory characteristics of athletes and non-athletes subjects to establish which effects of the organized physical training discriminate well between them. Subjects were 61 athlete and non-athlete medical students. Four groups were formed relying upon gender and physical activity. Body measures were computed. The motor abilities were tested by a set of static and dynamic motor tests, and cardio respiratory functions were recorded. No statistically significant differences were obtained from the comparisons of the body measures of basketball players and non-athlete medical students, except the body height. In contrast, significant differences were found both between the motor performances and between the cardio respiratory functions of the athlete and non-athlete groups. The body mass index (BMI) and the body fat (%) correlated negatively with static hanging, vertical jumping, and balance capability. On the contrary, BMI and body fat correlated positively with systolic blood pressure and vital capacity. The present results show that the effects of regular physical exercise on motor performances and cardio respiratory functions differentiate better between the athlete and non-athlete subjects than the changes in body measures.

  14. Physical activity, smoking, and exercise-induced fatigue.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Crow, R S; Jacobs, D R; Mittelmark, M B; Leon, A S

    1984-06-01

    This study determined whether persons with coronary risk factors have increased fatigue during or after exercise. Ratings of perceived exertion were first shown to be a valid measure of fatigue; i.e., ratings of perceived exertion correlated with heart rate both during and after exercise and at each of three exercise tests (all within-subjects r greater than 0.88). Physical inactivity and smoking were associated with increased fatigue. Inactive men and smokers had higher levels of fatigue during both exercise and recovery conditions and at each of three exercise test. The increased fatigue of men who were inactive and smoked was not entirely due to their lower level of fitness. The risk factors of age, Type A behavior pattern, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, serum high-density lipoprotein, and obesity were not associated with increased fatigue. The increased fatigue experienced by inactive persons and smokers may account for their decreased compliance to exercise programs.

  15. Physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Kristin

    2012-09-01

    Arthritis in childhood can be associated with low levels of physical activity and poor physical fitness. Children with arthritis may have decreased aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscle weakness, low bone mass, and low bone strength. Suboptimal physical activity and exercise capacity may contribute to further deconditioning and disability, placing children with arthritis at risk for poor health outcomes. Recent studies suggest that exercise therapy is safe and does not worsen arthritis. Exercise therapy may improve function, quality of life, and physical fitness. However, little is known about the exercise prescription that is most effective to improve clinical outcomes in children with arthritis. This article reviews the current literature on physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  16. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. PMID:26987496

  17. [Recommendations for physical exercise practice during pregnancy: a critical review].

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz

    2014-09-01

    Physical exercise is recommended for all healthy pregnant women. Regular practice of exercises during pregnancy can provide many physical and psychological benefits, with no evidence of adverse outcomes for the fetus or the newborn when exercise is performed at mild to moderate intensity. However, few pregnant women engage in this practice and many still have fears and doubts about the safety of exercise. The objective of the present study was to inform the professionals who provide care for Brazilian pregnant women about the current recommendations regarding physical exercise during pregnancy based on the best scientific evidence available. In view of the perception that few systematic models are available about this topic and after performing several studies in this specific area, we assembled practical information of interest to both the professionals and the pregnant women. We also provide recommendations about the indications, contraindications, modalities (aerobics, resistance training, stretching and pelvic floor training), frequency, intensity and duration indicated for each gestational trimester. The review addresses physical exercise recommendation both for low risk pregnant women and for special populations, such as athletes and obese, hypertensive and diabetic subjects. The advantages of an active and healthy lifestyle should be always reinforced during and after gestation since pregnancy is an appropriate period to introduce new habits because pregnant women are usually more motivated to adhere to recommendations. Thus, routine exams, frequent returns and supervision are recommended in order to provide new guidelines that will have long-term beneficial effects for both mother and child.

  18. Physical exercise and osteoporosis: effects of different types of exercises on bone and physical function of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Oliveira, Mônica Longo de; Lirani-Galvão, Ana Paula; Marin-Mio, Rosângela Villa; Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco dos; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise is an important stimulus for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, it is not clear yet which modality would be better to stimulate bone metabolism and enhance physical function of postmenopausal women. This review paper aims to summarize and update present knowledge on the effects of different kinds of aquatic and ground physical exercises on bone metabolism and physical function of postmenopausal women. Moderate to intense exercises, performed in a high speed during short intervals of time, in water or on the ground, can be part of a program to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mechanical vibration has proven to be beneficial for bone microarchitecture, improving bone density and bone strength, as well as increasing physical function. Although impact exercises are recognized as beneficial for the stimulation of bone tissue, other variables such as muscle strength, type of muscle contraction, duration and intensity of exercises are also determinants to induce changes in bone metabolism of postmenopausal women. Not only osteoanabolic exercises should be recommended; activities aimed to develop muscle strength and body balance and improve the proprioception should be encouraged to prevent falls and fractures.

  19. Effects of exercise and physical activity on knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Esser, Stephan; Bailey, Allison

    2011-12-01

    Exercise is one of the most discussed and controversial nonpharmacologic management strategies for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Health care providers and patients share varied and often pseudoscientific beliefs regarding the effects of exercise on knee OA formulated on outdated notions of the etiology, pathophysiology, and progression of the condition. Based on the contemporary literature, regular light to moderate physical activity has both preventive and therapeutic benefits for individuals with knee OA. Exercise regimens with strong evidence of benefit include those that focus on aerobic/cardiovascular conditioning and lower extremity strength training. Health care providers should confidently incorporate exercise recommendations into clinical management and offer patients evidence-based and individually tailored exercise prescriptions to help manage the painful and often disabling symptoms of this condition.

  20. Taking Exercise: Cultural Diversity and Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Doune; Abbott, Rebecca; Knez, Kelly; Nelson, Alison

    2009-01-01

    "Taking exercise", whether it be recreational walking, participating in club sport, or joining in a physical education (PE) lesson, is a culturally loaded behaviour. We all see, do and talk about physical activity differently, yet, there has been relatively little research or theorising around difference in race, ethnicity, cultural diversity and…

  1. Pharmacological properties of physical exercise in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Vina, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Martinez-Bello, Vladimir E; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Gambini, Juan; Ingles, Marta; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Scientific evidence links physical activity to several benefits. Recently, we proposed the idea that exercise can be regarded as a drug. As with many drugs, dosage is of great importance. However, to issue a public recommendation of physical activity in aging is not an easy task. Exercise in the elderly needs to be carefully tailored and individualized with the specific objectives of the person or group in mind. The beneficial effects of exercise in two of the main age-related diseases, sarcopenia and Alzheimer's Disease, are dealt with at the beginning of this report. Subsequently, dosage of exercise and the molecular signaling pathways involved in its adaptations are discussed. Exercise and aging are associated with oxidative stress so the paradox arises, and is discussed, as to whether exercise would be advisable for the aged population from an oxidative stress point of view. Two of the main redox-sensitive signaling pathways altered in old skeletal muscle during exercise, NF-κB and PGC-1α, are also reviewed. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to the age-associated diseases in which exercise is contraindicated. Finally, we address the option of applying exercise mimetics as an alternative for disabled old people. The overall denouement is that exercise is so beneficial that it should be deemed a drug both for young and old populations. If old adults adopted a more active lifestyle, there would be a significant delay in frailty and dependency with clear benefits to individual well-being and to the public's health.

  2. Effects of current physical activity on affective response to exercise: physical and social-cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Affective responses during exercise are often important determinants of exercise initiation and maintenance. Current physical activity may be one individual difference that is associated with the degree to which individuals have positive (or negative) affective experiences during exercise. The objective of this study was to explore physical and cognitive explanations of the relationship between current activity status (more versus less active) and affective response during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Participants reported their current level of physical activity, exercise self-efficacy and affect during a 30-minute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. More active individuals experienced higher levels of positive affect and tranquillity and lower levels of negative affect and fatigue during exercise. Multivariate models for each affective state indicated separate processes through which physical activity may be associated with changes in affect during exercise. These models indicate that affect experienced during physical activity is related to the current activity level and these relationships can be partially explained by the physical and cognitive factors explored in this study. Recommendations for future research to elucidate whether positive affective response to physical activity improves as a function of becoming more active over time are discussed.

  3. Physical exercise as therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Stefano; Sacchetti, Massimo; Haxhi, Jonida; Orlando, Giorgio; D'Errico, Valeria; Fallucca, Sara; Menini, Stefano; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of physical activity (PA) for health, and recent evidence now points to the positive improvements associated with exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few physicians are willing to prescribe exercise as a therapy for diabetic patients. In addition, there is a lack of information on how to implement exercise therapy especially in long-term exercise regimens. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize standards of exercise therapy for patients with T2DM, both in terms of prescribing and monitoring, according to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association guidelines. We present details of the exercise therapies used in long-term studies, describing how the parameters for exercise prescription were applied in clinical practice. These parameters are described in terms of frequency, intensity, duration, mode and rate of progression in long-term therapeutic prescriptions. Individual responses to exercise dose are discussed, and critical issues to be considered in patients with underlying disease and in T2DM patients are highlighted.

  4. Potential benefits and hazards of physical activity and exercise on the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, H; DE VRIES, W R; VANBERGE-HENEGOUW..., G; AKKERMANS, L

    2001-01-01

    G P VANBERGE-HENEGOUWEN, L M A AKKERMANS Gastrointestinal Research Unit
Departments of Surgery and Gastroenterology
University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
 This review describes the current state of knowledge on the hazards of exercise and the potential benefits of physical activity on the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, acute strenuous exercise may provoke gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn or diarrhoea. A substantial part (20-50%) of endurance athletes are hampered by these symptoms which may deter them from participation in training and competitive events. Nevertheless, these acute symptoms are transient and do not hamper the athlete's health in the long term. The only exception is repeated gastrointestinal bleeding during training and competition, which in the long term may occasionally lead to iron deficiency and anaemia. In contrast, repetitive exercise periods at a relatively low intensity may have protective effects on the gastrointestinal tract. There is strong evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of colon cancer by up to 50%. Less convincing evidence exists for cholelithiasis and constipation. Physical activity may reduce the risk of diverticulosis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and inflammatory bowel disease although this cannot be substantiated firmly. Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine alterations, increased gastrointestinal motility, and mechanical bouncing during exercise are postulated. Future research on exercise associated digestive processes should give more insight into the relationship between physical activity and the function of the gastrointestinal tract.

 PMID:11171839

  5. Physical exercise and brain responses to images of high-calorie food.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Tkachenko, Olga; Preer, Lily; Gogel, Hannah; Bark, John S; Mundy, Elizabeth A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical exercise has many health benefits, including improved cardiovascular fitness, lean muscle development, increased metabolism, and weight loss, as well as positive effects on brain functioning and cognition. Recent evidence suggests that regular physical exercise may also affect the responsiveness of reward regions of the brain to food stimuli. We examined whether the total number of minutes of self-reported weekly physical exercise was related to the responsiveness of appetite and food reward-related brain regions to visual presentations of high-calorie and low-calorie food images during functional MRI. Second, we examined whether such responses would correlate with self-reported food preferences. While undergoing scanning, 37 healthy adults (22 men) viewed images of high-calorie and low-calorie foods and provided desirability ratings for each food image. The correlation between exercise minutes per week and brain responses to the primary condition contrast (high-calorie>low-calorie) was evaluated within the amygdala, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, brain regions previously implicated in responses to food images. Higher levels of exercise were significantly correlated with lower responsiveness within the medial orbitofrontal cortex and left insula to high-calorie foods. Furthermore, activation of these regions was positively correlated with preference ratings for high-calorie foods, particularly those with a savory flavor. These findings suggest that physical exercise may be associated with reduced activation in food-responsive reward regions, which are in turn associated with reduced preferences for unhealthy high-calorie foods. Physical exercise may confer secondary health benefits beyond its primary effects on cardiovascular fitness and energy expenditure.

  6. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments. PMID:21850535

  7. Andrological aspects of physical exercise and sport medicine.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Appropriate physical activity is one of the bases of healthy lifestyle. In fact, physical exercise and playing sport may be associated with both improvements and injury to both general and reproductive health. A biologically normal testosterone secretion appears fundamental in males to guarantee both a physiological exercise adaptation and safe sport participation. The reproductive system is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise-related stress and the reproductive hormones may both increase and decrease after different acute or chronic exercises. Exercise and sport participation may positively or negatively influence andrological health status depending on the type, intensity and duration of performed physical activity and on individual health status. In addition, prohibited substances administration (e.g. androgenic-anabolic steroids, and so forth) in competitive and non-competitive athletes represents the main cause of iatrogenic andrological diseases. Preventing and treating andrological problems in active healthy and unhealthy individuals is as important as promoting a correct lifestyle. Physicians need to be educated on the relationships between the male reproductive system and sport participation and on the great role of the pre-participation physical examination in the prevention of andrological diseases.

  8. Physical exercise alleviates ADHD symptoms: regional deficits and development trajectory.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous, chronic, and proliferating aspect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbidities covers heritability, cognitive, emotional, motor, and everyday behavioral domains that place individuals presenting the condition at some considerable disadvantage. Disruption of "typical developmental trajectories" in the manifestation of gene-environment interactive predispositions implies that ADHD children and adolescents may continue to perform at defective levels as adults with regard to academic achievement, occupational enterprises, and interpersonal relationships, despite the promise of pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Physical exercise provides a plethora of beneficial effects against stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect and behavior, poor impulse control, and compulsive behavior concomitant with improved executive functioning, working memory and positive affect, as well as improved conditions for relatives and care-givers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential element in normal brain development that promotes health-associated behaviors and quality-of-life, though reduced in ADHD, is increased markedly by the intervention of regular physical exercise. Functional, regional, and biomarker deficits, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disruptions, have been improved through regular and carefully applied exercise programs. In view of the complications involving ADHD with co-morbidities, such as obesity, the influence of regular physical exercise has not been found negligible. Physical exercise bestows a propensity for eventual manifestation of "redifferentiated" developmental trajectories that may equip ADHD adults with a prognosis that is more adaptive functionally, independent of the applications of other therapeutic agents and treatments.

  9. Physical exercise and quantitative lower limb collateral function

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Stoller, David; Seiler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that global physical activity and physical performance parameters are directly related to invasively obtained left superficial femoral artery (SFA) collateral flow index (CFI). Background So far, the association between different measures of physical exercise activity and quantitative lower limb collateral function has not been investigated. Methods The primary study end point was pressure-derived CFI as obtained during a 3 min left SFA balloon occlusion. CFI is the ratio of simultaneously recorded mean SFA distal occlusive pressure divided by mean aortic pressure, both subtracted by central venous pressure. As independent variables, the items of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and physical exercise performance (maximal workload in watts) as achieved during a bicycle or treadmill exercise test were determined. The secondary study end point was transcutaneous left calf partial oxygen pressure (PO2 in mm Hg) divided by transcutaneous PO2 at a non-ischaemic reference site as obtained simultaneously to CFI measurement. Results Of the 110 study patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, 79 belonged to the group without and 31 with engagement in regular intensive leisure time physical activity according to GPAQ. Left SFA CFI tended to be lower in the group without than with intensive leisure time physical activity: 0.514 ±0.141 vs 0.560 ±0.184 (p =0.0566). Transcutaneous PO2 index was associated with simultaneous left SFA CFI: CFI =018 +0.57 PO2 index; p<0.0001. Maximal physical workload was directly associated with left SFA CFI: CFI =0.40 +0.0009 maximal workload; p =0.0044. Conclusions Quantitative left SFA collateral function is directly reflected by maximal physical workload as achieved during an exercise test. Trial registration number NCTO02063347. PMID:26977310

  10. In Physics Class, Exercises Can Also Cause Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johsua, Samuel; Dupin, Jean-Jacques

    1991-01-01

    French tenth grade physics classes were observed as they studied electric circuits over a one-year period. An analysis is presented of tests taken during the year. The main point separating "average" students from "good" ones is their performances in "implicitly difficult exercises," that is, in what appears beforehand to be a minor deviation from…

  11. Teaching Physiology of Exercise to Reluctant Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawbridge, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Exercise physiology seems to be a course that students love or hate. Many physical education students and others involved in the related areas of health, teaching, recreation, dance, athletic training, fitness, and motor learning and development find this course a requirement at some point in their curriculum. Inquiry-based learning is an…

  12. Physiology of Exercise for Physical Education and Athletics. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Herbert A.

    This three-part text, which is concerned with human functions under stress of muscular activity, provides a basis for the study of physical fitness and athletic training. Part 1 reviews pertinent areas of basic physiology. Muscles, the nervous system, the heart, respiratory system, exercise metabolism, and the endocrine system are reviewed. Part 2…

  13. Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise among Children. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    This Digest discusses the importance of and ways to foster activity and exercise in children. Following an introduction, the Digest is organized into four sections. The first section deals with the significant health benefits of physical activity, including: reduction in chronic disease risk; lowered risk of colon cancer; increase in bone density;…

  14. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE) study

    PubMed Central

    Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Peeters, Petra HM; Schuit, Albertine J

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s) underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE) study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060 PMID:17767724

  15. Physical fitness improvements and occupational low-back loading - an exercise intervention study with firefighters.

    PubMed

    Beach, Tyson A C; Frost, David M; McGill, Stuart M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2014-01-01

    The impact of exercise on firefighter job performance and cardiorespiratory fitness has been studied extensively, but its effect on musculoskeletal loading remains unknown. The aim of this study was to contrast the physical fitness and low-back loading outcomes of two groups of firefighters who completed different exercise programmes. Before and after 12 weeks of exercise, subjects performed a physical fitness test battery, the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) and simulated job tasks during which peak L4/L5 joint compression and reaction shear forces were quantified using a dynamic biomechanical model. Subjects who exercised exhibited statistically significant improvements (p < 0.05) in body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, power, endurance and flexibility, but FMS scores and occupational low-back loading measures were not consistently affected. Firefighters who are physically fit are better able to perform essential job duties and avoid cardiac events, but short-term improvements in physical fitness may not necessarily translate into reduced low-back injury risk. PMID:24689834

  16. Cookbook Procedures in MBL Physics Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royuk, Brent; Brooks, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of a controlled experiment comparing the conceptual mechanics learning gains as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) between two laboratory groups. One group completed cookbook labs while the other completed Interactive-Engagement (IE) labs in RealTime Physics. Suggests that laboratory activities should engage students in…

  17. Relationships between Physical Activity and the Proximity of Exercise Facilities and Home Exercise Equipment Used by Undergraduate University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.; Phillips, D. Allen

    2005-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling procedures to investigate the relationships among physical activity (PA), the proximity of exercise facilities, and the quantity of home exercise equipment in a sample of 411 undergraduates. To examine the data they collected from the modified Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Home…

  18. Physical exercise for patients with cystic fibrosis: a review.

    PubMed

    Stanghelle, J K

    1988-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited, chronic disease which mainly affects the lungs and the nutrition. Intensive treatment has gradually improved the outcome for the patients. Exercise therapy has been increasingly advocated to be included in the CF regimen. Our own studies indicate that both short-term and long-term training ameliorate the physical conditions for CF patients, that there is no danger for well-trained CF patients--both boys and girls--to take part even in vigorous, prolonged exercises, and that CF patients might have a positive attitude toward physical activities. Of course, all physical activities have to be individually designed. A review of the literature is also given: The specific ventilatory factors in CF, the limitations of exercise, the problem with exercise-induced asthma, the training effect on lung drainage, on lung function, on infections, on biochemical and hormonal variables, on nutrition and the gastrointestinal tract, on the musculoskeletal apparatus, and on the mind. Nearly all these reports are favorable for a carefully monitored, high activity in CF patients. Practical considerations for activities are given.

  19. Role of the pediatric exercise scientist in physical education, sports training and physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kemper, H C

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the research devoted to the relations of physical activity in children and exercise. The results of experimental studies on the benefits of extra, more intensive physical activity or with different styles of teaching are summarized. Most valid studies using the school environment do not reveal significant and beneficial effects. Longitudinal studies contrasting physically active and inactive children always show higher physiological characteristics in the highly active groups; however, these results are not conclusive because self-selection may have caused the differences. Training studies on aerobic power and on muscle strength show always significant improvements in both sexes, regardless of their level of biologic maturation. The general lack of physical activity in youths nowadays needs strategies to promote physical activity. Motivationally oriented programs with emphasis on the determinants of physical activity behavior of children are supposed to be the most effective and also to be long lasting.

  20. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Ching; Lin, Ching-I; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ting; Huang, Wei-Kai; Huang, Hui-Yu; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Chicken essence (CE) is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue. PMID:25045938

  1. [Physical exercise in the frail elderly: an update].

    PubMed

    Casas Herrero, Álvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L; Martínez Velilla, Nicolás; Izquierdo Redin, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of vulnerability that involves an increased risk of adverse events and disability in older adults. It is a condition with a complex etiology and pathophysiology. Skeletal muscle power decreases earlier than muscle strength with advancing age and is more strongly associated with functional capacity than muscle strength in frail elderly populations. Multicomponent exercise programs, and especially resistance exercise that includes muscle power training, are currently the most relevant interventions to slow down disability and other adverse outcomes, even in the oldest-old. Moreover, these programs are valuable interventions in other frailty domains, such as falls and cognitive decline. Physical exercise, in the frail elderly, should be prescribed with a progressive individualized plan and just like other medical treatments.

  2. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Physical Exercise for Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Paes, Flávia; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Cheniaux, Elie; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are observed in a variety of domains in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). These deficits are attributed to neurobiological, functional and structural brain factors, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, cortical alterations in each phase (mania/hypomania, euthymia and depression) are also present. A growing basis of evidence supports aerobic exercise as an alternative treatment method for BD symptoms. Its benefits for physical health in healthy subjects and some psychiatric disorders are fairly established; however evidence directly addressed to BD is scant. Lack of methodological consistency, mainly related to exercise, makes it difficult accuracy and extrapolation of the results. Nevertheless, mechanisms related to BD physiopathology, such as hormonal and neurotransmitters alterations and mainly related to brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) can be explored. BDNF, specially, have a large influence on brain ability and its gene expression is highly responsive to aerobic exercise. Moreover, aerobic exercise trough BDNF may induce chronic stress suppression, commonly observed in patients with BD, and reduce deleterious effects caused by allostatic loads. Therefore, it is prudent to propose that aerobic exercise plays an important role in BD physiopathological mechanisms and it is a new way for the treatment for this and others psychiatric disorders.

  3. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Physical Exercise for Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Paes, Flávia; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Lattari, Eduardo; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Cheniaux, Elie; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are observed in a variety of domains in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). These deficits are attributed to neurobiological, functional and structural brain factors, particularly in prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, cortical alterations in each phase (mania/hypomania, euthymia and depression) are also present. A growing basis of evidence supports aerobic exercise as an alternative treatment method for BD symptoms. Its benefits for physical health in healthy subjects and some psychiatric disorders are fairly established; however evidence directly addressed to BD is scant. Lack of methodological consistency, mainly related to exercise, makes it difficult accuracy and extrapolation of the results. Nevertheless, mechanisms related to BD physiopathology, such as hormonal and neurotransmitters alterations and mainly related to brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) can be explored. BDNF, specially, have a large influence on brain ability and its gene expression is highly responsive to aerobic exercise. Moreover, aerobic exercise trough BDNF may induce chronic stress suppression, commonly observed in patients with BD, and reduce deleterious effects caused by allostatic loads. Therefore, it is prudent to propose that aerobic exercise plays an important role in BD physiopathological mechanisms and it is a new way for the treatment for this and others psychiatric disorders. PMID:26556085

  4. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments.

  5. Effects of physical exercise on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Orio, F; Muscogiuri, G; Ascione, A; Marciano, F; Volpe, A; La Sala, G; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Palomba, S

    2013-09-01

    The excess in physical activity could be closely linked to considerable negative consequences on the whole body. These dysfunctions called as "female athlete triad"' by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) include amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disorder eating. The female athlete triad poses serious health risks, both on the short and on the long term, to the overall well-being of affected individuals. Sustained low energy availability can impair health, causing many medical complications within skeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive and central nervous system. On the contrary, several studies have shown, that physical activity improves cardiovascular risk factors, hormonal profile and reproductive function. These improvements include a decrease in abdominal fat, blood glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance, as well as improvements in menstrual cyclicity, ovulation and fertility, decreases in testosterone levels and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and increases in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Other studies reported that physical activity improved self-esteem, depression and anxiety. Thus, the aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of physical exercise on female reproductive system and viceversa the impact of hormonal status on physical activity and metabolism. In addition this review supports the idea that physical exercise is a helpful tool for the management of obesity, prevention of cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and female reproductive organs related diseases (e.g. breast cancer). When the excess in physical activity leads up to the female athlete triad, it is imperative to treat each component of the triad by employing both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments. PMID:24126551

  6. Exercise and Physical Fitness - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... برنامج تمارين رياضية - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Starting an Exercise Program Započinjanje Programa Vježbi - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Energize Your Life with Physical ...

  7. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes.

  8. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. PMID:23906116

  9. Short-term effects of selected exercise and load in contrast training on vertical jump performance.

    PubMed

    Smilios, Ilias; Pilianidis, Theophilos; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Antonakis, Manolis; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2005-02-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of loaded half squats (HSs) and loaded jump squats (JSs) with low and moderate loads on the squat jump (SJ) and the countermovement jump (CMJ) performance using a contrast training approach. Ten men (mean +/- SD age, 23 +/- 1.8 years) performed the HS and JS exercises twice with loads of 30% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (HS30% and JS30%, respectively) and 60% of 1RM (HS60% and JS60%, respectively). On each occasion, 3 sets of 5 repetitions with 3 minutes of rest were performed as fast as possible. Vertical jump performance was measured before exercise, 1 minute after each set, and at the fifth and 10th minutes of recovery. The CMJ increased significantly after the first and second set (3.9%; p < 0.05) compared with preexercise values following the JS30% protocol and 3.3% after the second and third sets of the JS60% protocol. Following the HS60% protocol, CMJ increased after the first and the second sets (3.6%; p < 0.05) compared with preexercise values, whereas SQ increased only after the first set (4.9%; p < 0.05) in this condition. These data show that contrast loading with the use of low and moderate loads can cause a short-term increase in CMJ performance. The applied loads do not seem to present different short-term effects after loaded JSs. When the classic form of dynamic HS exercise is performed, however, at least a moderate load (60% of 1RM) needs to be applied.

  10. Changes in the concentrations of urinary proteins after physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Miyai, T; Ogata, M

    1990-10-01

    The influence of physical exercise on the urinary excretion of proteins was examined in 17 male high school baseball players. Their urine was collected before and after exercise to determine the concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta 2-microglobulin and creatinine along with the activity of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30). Concentrations of total protein, albumin, beta 2-microglobulin and creatinine increased significantly (p less than 0.01) after exercise, while N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity did not increase. Similar results were obtained when the concentrations of these urinary components were calculated on the basis of a urinary density of 1.024, and when they were expressed relative to the amount of creatinine. Positive correlations were seen among total protein, albumin, beta 2-microglobulin and creatinine concentrations, but not between the beta 2-microglobulin concentration and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity. Isoenzyme activities of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in the urine were determined by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate plates. After exercise, the A-form increased slightly, and the B-form decreased slightly, but these changes were not statistically significant.

  11. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely

  12. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    White, W B

    1991-12-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure recorders have two potential advantages over standard casual blood pressure measurements; they are able to take multiple recordings automatically throughout the day and night and also during the activities of normal daily living. At present, the general recommendations for validation of blood pressure recorders do not include assessment during motion. In order to obtain accurate information on an ambulatory blood pressure recorder's capabilities during exercise or physical activity, the blood pressure standard must use direct (intra-arterial) measurements. Data from some of the existing ambulatory blood pressure recorders suggest that many are accurate during resting measurements but lose their precision when the subjects are walking or during exercise. If ambulatory recorders are to be used in ambulant conditions with a moving arm, the device should be validated for accuracy and reliability during motion, using simultaneous direct measurements for comparison. PMID:1795196

  14. "Exercise is Medicine": curbing the burden of chronic disease and physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Jeff S; Law, Jen; Lancashire, Bill; Fassett, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    An exercise program designed to improve fitness is essential for most adults. Exercise decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers, depression, and anxiety. Most fail to achieve recommended exercise levels. Only 1.3% of Australian general practice (GP) consultations provide exercise counseling and advice. Australia provides Medicare reimbursement for consultations with Accredited Exercise Physiologists through allied health care plans initiated through primary care. Exercise Is Medicine is an initiative to equip primary care providers with resources, education, and strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. The objective of Exercise Is Medicine is to improve the health and well-being of our nation. We describe Exercise Is Medicine and encourage primary care providers to discuss physical activity and exercise with their patients and provide them with resources to encourage this activity and referral pathways to train exercise professionals. This will assist primary care providers in treating their patients.

  15. Aerobic exercise capacity remains normal despite impaired endothelial function in the micro- and macrocirculation of physically active IDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Veves, A; Saouaf, R; Donaghue, V M; Mullooly, C A; Kistler, J A; Giurini, J M; Horton, E S; Fielding, R A

    1997-11-01

    (91 +/- 49 vs. 122 +/- 41% flux increase over baseline; P < 0.05). In contrast, no differences existed among the three diabetic groups or between the two control groups. Similarly, in macrocirculation, a reduced response during reactive hyperemia was observed in the diabetic patients compared with control subjects (7.0 +/- 4.5 vs. 11.2 +/- 6.6% diameter increase; P < 0.05), whereas again no difference existed among the three diabetic groups or between the two control groups. These data suggest that diabetes per se does not affect aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max) in physically active individuals, but is reduced in the presence of neuropathy. In addition, regular exercise training involving the lower extremities does not improve the endothelial function in the micro- and macrocirculation of the nonexercised upper extremity in type 1 diabetic patients. PMID:9356035

  16. Contribution of Structured Exercise Class Participation and Informal Walking for Exercise to Daily Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, C.; Jones, G. R.; Myers, A. M.; Paterson, D. H.; Ecclestone, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the physical activity and exercise habits of independent-living older adults from a structured exercise program, noting the contribution of formal and informal exercise participation relative to total daily physical activity measured using pedometer and daily activity logs. Participation in structured exercise was an important contributor…

  17. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  18. Effects of physical exercise on the elasticity and elastic components of the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, M; Nosaka, T; Sato, M; Ohshima, N

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise on aortic wall elasticity and elastic components, young male rats underwent various exercise regimes for 16 weeks. In the exercised rats, the aortic incremental elastic modulus decreased significantly when under physiological strain. The aortic content of elastin increased significantly and the calcium content of elastin decreased significantly in the exercised group. The accumulated data from the exercised and sedentary groups revealed that the elastin calcium content was related positively to the incremental elastic modulus. We concluded that physical exercise from an early age decreases the calcium deposit in aortic wall elastin and that this effect probably produced in the exercised rats a distensible aorta.

  19. [Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and mental health].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Ohira, Masako; Toda, Masahiro; Den, Rei; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Tai Chi, which is one of the Chinese traditional martial arts, has been receiving attention. The main feature of Tai Chi is its flowing movements including loosening up, relaxing, and practicing meditation with slow abdominal respiration. Tai Chi is widely taken as part of health-promotion activities or rehabilitation training, and significant mental and physical effects have been reported so far. In this review report, Tai Chi was confirmed to be beneficial not only as a rehabilitation training for old people or patients with various diseases but also as an exercise for healthy people. These findings suggest the potential of Tai Chi as a complementary and alternative therapy.

  20. Metabolic effects of atenolol and doxazosin in healthy volunteers during prolonged physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Cosenzi, A; Sacerdote, A; Bocin, E; Molino, R; Mangiarotti, M; Bellini, G

    1995-01-01

    Nonselective beta-blockers may reduce exercise performance, not only through hemodynamic but also through metabolic effects. During prolonged physical exertion, lipolysis induced by plasma epinephrine occurs through beta-adrenoceptors of adipocytes. Therefore, beta-blockade may reduce release of free fatty acids (FFA) from adipocytes and consequently the energy supply for muscle cells. In this single-blind study, we compared the metabolic effects of atenolol with those of doxazosin, an alpha 1-blocker, during exercise in 26 young volunteers (age 20-35 years). All subjects performed an exercise test on a bicycle ergometer 5 h after consuming a standard breakfast. The starting workload of 50 W was increased by 30 W every 3 min until maximal heart rate (HR) was achieved; after a 2-min recovery period at 50 W the test was continued for 15 min at 60% maximal workload. Before and at the end of the test, blood samples were taken for glucose, lactate, and FFA determination. After 1 week, the test was repeated; the volunteers randomly received atenolol or doxazosin for 2 days before the second test. Exercise performance, plasma glucose, and lactate were not affected by either drug. The concentration of FFA was unchanged in subjects treated with doxazosin but was significantly reduced after the test in subjects treated with atenolol. Our data demonstrate that neither doxazosin nor atenolol impairs exercise performance in young volunteers. Atenolol reduces plasma FFA concentration possibly by inhibiting lipolysis. Doxazosin, in contrast, does not alter this parameter. Therefore, doxazosin may be a antihypertensive drug of potential benefit in treatment of hypertensive patients engaging in sports or undergoing a program of physical training.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  2. Physical exercise and epigenetic adaptations of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, P; Bloch, W

    2015-05-01

    During the last decade, epigenetics became one of the fastest growing research fields in numerous clinical and basic science disciplines. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications (e.g., histone modifications and DNA methylation) as well as the expression of micro-RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. On the one hand, they are involved in the development of general risk factors like chronic inflammation, but on the other hand, epigenetic modifications are conducive to smooth muscle cell, cardiomyocyte, and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation as well as to extracellular matrix processing and endothelial function (e.g., endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Therefore, epigenetic medical drugs have gained increased attention and provided the first promising results in the context of cardiovascular malignancies. Beside other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to cardiovascular health and regeneration. In this review we focus on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator that has the potential to counteract pathophysiological alterations in almost all the aforementioned cardiovascular cells and tissues. As with epigenetic medical drugs, more knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose-response relationships of exercise is needed to optimize the outcome of preventive and rehabilitative exercise programs and recommendations.

  3. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging.

  4. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p < 0.01). Non-exercise moderate-to-vigorous PA, however, decreased on aerobic exercise days (-148 ± 161 kcal/d; p = 0.03). There was no change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  5. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  6. Analysis of basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle function according to indoor horse riding exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Hong, Chul Un; Kang, Seung Rok; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the effect of indoor horse riding exercise on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The subjects included were 20 healthy females, who participated in the horse riding exercise using SRider (Rider Co. & ChonbuK National Univ, Korea) for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, over a period of 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows, with 10 subjects in each group: Postural Balance Exercise mode (PBE), Abdomen Exercise mode (ADE), Whole body Exercise mode (WBE), and Multiple Exercise (MTE). Isokinetic muscular function test was performed before and after the horse riding exercise, to assess the effect of horse riding on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The test result on basal physical exercise and isokinetic muscular function showed improvements with variable degree in the back muscle strength, maximum joint torque, total work, and muscular acceleration time. The result signifies that the horse riding is an antagonistic exercise mainly performed on waist and abdomen area, and the machine induces persistent muscle contraction and causes myotonic induction enhancing the muscle strength. Indoor horse riding exercise proved its effectiveness for senior or the disabled people who need muscle exercises but have difficulties performing outdoor activities.

  7. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  8. Promotion Considerations for Exercise and Physical Activity in Mentally Impaired, Diseased, and Disabled Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizzell, Linda Bane

    This paper reports evidence indicating that adapted exercise has a preventive effect on the incidence and progression of chronic diseases which are often related to the aging process. Exercise is known to preserve many physiological responses in the healthy elderly, yet those with physical impairments are often discouraged from exercising because…

  9. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  10. Physical Exercise and Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Regester, April; Ence, Whitney; Smith, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Studies involving physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed. Systematic search procedures identified 18 studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) type of exercise, (c) procedures used to increase exercise, (d) outcomes,…

  11. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  12. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  13. Perceptions of older Latino adults regarding physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Melillo, K D; Williamson, E; Houde, S C; Futrell, M; Read, C Y; Campasano, M

    2001-09-01

    Healthy People 2000 has identified the importance of physical activity for healthy aging, but little is known about what motivates older individuals, older Latino adults, in particular, to be physically active. The purpose of this research was to examine the perceptions of older Latino adults toward physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise. This study used a qualitative focus group design. The sample of Latino adults age 60 and older resided in Northeast Massachusetts and was recruited from community settings which serve older Latino adults. Three focus groups, consisting of four to eight individuals in each group, were conducted and audiotaped. Data analysis used a combination of open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Focus group participants viewed physical fitness as being able to do anything; the mind and body working together; and feeling "light," being healthy. Support was viewed as a motivator of physical activity and exercise and included community resources, group support, cultural unity, and health provider assistance Barriers of fear and a feeling of inappropriateness were identified by focus group participants. Although the study was exploratory and the sample size small, it provides useful cultural knowledge and information for community health and gerontological nurses. Knowledge about older Latino adults' perceptions of motivators and barriers to physical activity and exercise is a necessary first step for nurses to prescribe activities that will help improve functional independence and quality of life. Nurses can serve as links for older Latino adults in accessing community resources. Sociocultural factors that influence Latino adult perceptions must be assessed if health promotion program planning is to be tailored to meet individual and group needs.

  14. The effect of erythropoietin on lactate, pyruvate and excess lactate under physical exercise in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Meierhenrich, R; Jedicke, H; Voigt, A; Lange, H

    1996-02-01

    To investigate EPO-induced increase of hemoglobin on energy metabolism plasma concentrations of lactate (L), pyruvate (P) and excess lactate (XL) were determined in ten dialysis patients at rest, immediately after 6 minutes of ergometric exercise as well as after recovery for 15 and 30 min. The investigations were performed before EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 7.5 +/- 0.9 g/dl and under EPO-therapy at a mean Hb = 10.0 +/- 0.6 g/dl and at a mean Hb = 11.9 +/- 0.8 g/dl. Ten healthy subjects were subjected to the same investigation at Hb = 14.7 +/- 1.1 g/dl. There was a significant rise of L and XL in all patient groups under ergometric exercise. The increase of hemoglobin from 7.5 g/dl to 10.0 g/dl led to significantly (p < 0.01) lower L and XL concentrations immediately after exercise (L = 4.62 vs 3.23 mmol/l, XL = 2.37 vs 1.38 mmol/l). The further decrease of the mean L and XL values (L = 2.88 mmol/l, XL = 1.05 mmol/l) associated with the rise of hemoglobin to 11.9 g/dl could not be confirmed statistically. In contrast to all patient groups, there was no significant rise in XL in the healthy control subjects under physical exercise. The present results make it evident that patients with renal anemia react even to light physical exercise with pronounced tissue hypoxia in contrast to healthy subjects. The increase of the hemoglobin content under the EPO-therapy leads to a marked reduction of the tissue hypoxia and consequently of anaerobic energy production. A further rise of the hemoglobin content above and beyond 10.5 g/dl will have an additional positive effect on oxygen supply only in occasional cases. The comparison with healthy subjects shows that despite a very large degree of normalization of the hemoglobin content, no normalization of energy metabolism can be attained.

  15. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  16. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science (MPEES): Accomplishments and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuanlong

    2007-01-01

    This year marks the 10th year of publication for "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" (MPEES). As we are forging into future, it would be very helpful to evaluate the role MPEES has played in the evolution of the research in physical education and exercise science. In this issue, the authors address the challenges that MPEES…

  17. Changes in Short-Term Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise of University Personal Wellness Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Mick G.; Shaddox, Lea Ann

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes toward physical activity and exercise of university students enrolled in Personal Wellness classes. 1,625 undergraduate students completed the Attitudes Toward Exercise and Physical Activity (ATEPA) inventory on the first and last day of the class. Paired-samples t test results comparing the mean pretest ATEPA…

  18. Physical Exercise Enhances Cognitive Flexibility as Well as Astrocytic and Synaptic Markers in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Brockett, Adam T.; LaMarca, Elizabeth A.; Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances a wide range of cognitive functions in humans. Running-induced cognitive enhancement has also been demonstrated in rodents but with a strong emphasis on tasks that require the hippocampus. Additionally, studies designed to identify mechanisms that underlie cognitive enhancement with physical exercise have focused on running-induced changes in neurons with little attention paid to such changes in astrocytes. To further our understanding of how the brain changes with physical exercise, we investigated whether running alters performance on cognitive tasks that require the prefrontal cortex and whether any such changes are associated with astrocytic, as well as neuronal, plasticity. We found that running enhances performance on cognitive tasks known to rely on the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, we found no such improvement on a cognitive task known to rely on the perirhinal cortex. Moreover, we found that running enhances synaptic, dendritic and astrocytic measures in several brain regions involved in cognition but that changes in the latter measures were more specific to brain regions associated with cognitive improvements. These findings suggest that physical exercise induces widespread plasticity in both neuronal and nonneuronal elements and that both types of changes may be involved in running-induced cognitive enhancement. PMID:25938418

  19. Physical exercise as an epigenetic modulator: Eustress, the "positive stress" as an effector of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Garcia-Gimenez, Jose Luis; Perez-Quilis, Carme; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Pallardo, Federico V; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Physical exercise positively influences epigenetic mechanisms and improves health. Several issues remain unclear concerning the links between physical exercise and epigenetics. There is growing concern about the negative influence of excessive and persistent physical exercise on health. How an individual physically adapts to the prevailing environmental conditions might influence epigenetic mechanisms and modulate gene expression. In this article, we put forward the idea that physical exercise, especially long-term repetitive strenuous exercise, positively affects health, reduces the aging process, and decreases the incidence of cancer through induced stress and epigenetic mechanisms. We propose herein that stress may stimulate genetic adaptations through epigenetics that, in turn, modulate the link between the environment, human lifestyle factors, and genes.

  20. Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Among Appalachian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Erwin, Heather; Davis, Rian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most children in the United States receive far less physical activity (PA) than is optimal. In rural, under resourced areas of Appalachian Kentucky, physical inactivity rates are significantly higher than national levels. We sought to understand children’s perceptions of PA, with the goal of developing culturally appropriate programming to increase PA. Methods During 11 focus groups, we explored perspectives on PA among 63 Appalachian children, ages 8–17. Sessions were tape recorded, transcribed, content analyzed, and subjected to verification procedures. Results Several perspectives on PA emerged among these rural Appalachian youth, including the clear distinction between PA (viewed as positive) and exercise (viewed as negative) and an emphasis on time and resource factors as barriers to adequate PA. Additional PA determinants expressed in the focus groups are similar to those of other populations. We include children’s recommendations for appealing PA programs. Conclusions Appalachian and other rural residents contend with the loss of rural health advantages (due to declines in farming/other occupational and avocational transitions). At the same time, Appalachian residents have not benefitted from urban PA facilitators (sidewalks, recreational facilities, clubs and organized leisure activities). Addressing low PA levels requires extensive community input and creative programming. PMID:22397810

  1. Gut Microbiota Modification: Another Piece in the Puzzle of the Benefits of Physical Exercise in Health?

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Begoña; Pérez, Margarita; Pérez-Santiago, Jennifer D.; Tornero-Aguilera, Jose F.; González-Soltero, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise provides many health benefits, protecting against the development of chronic diseases, and improving quality of life. Some of the mechanisms by which exercise provides these effects are the promotion of an anti-inflammatory state, reinforcement of the neuromuscular function, and activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it has been proposed that physical exercise is able to modify gut microbiota, and thus this could be another factor by which exercise promotes well-being, since gut microbiota appears to be closely related to health and disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent findings on gut microbiota modification by exercise, proposing several mechanisms by which physical exercise might cause changes in gut microbiota. PMID:26924990

  2. Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health benefits of regular physical activity and exercise have been widely acknowledged. Unfortunately, a decline in physical activity is observed in older adults. Knowledge of the determinants of physical activity (unstructured activity incorporated in daily life) and exercise (structured, planned and repetitive activities) is needed to effectively promote an active lifestyle. Our aim was to systematically review determinants of physical activity and exercise participation among healthy older adults, considering the methodological quality of the included studies. Methods Literature searches were conducted in PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO/OVID for peer reviewed manuscripts published in English from 1990 onwards. We included manuscripts that met the following criteria: 1) population: community dwelling healthy older adults, aged 55 and over; 2) reporting determinants of physical activity or exercise. The outcome measure was qualified as physical activity, exercise, or combination of the two, measured objectively or using self-report. The methodological quality of the selected studies was examined and a best evidence synthesis was applied to assess the association of the determinants with physical activity or exercise. Results Thirty-four manuscripts reporting on 30 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which two were of high methodological quality. Physical activity was reported in four manuscripts, exercise was reported in sixteen and a combination of the two was reported in fourteen manuscripts. Three manuscripts used objective measures, twenty-two manuscripts used self-report measures and nine manuscripts combined a self-report measure with an objective measure. Due to lack of high quality studies and often only one manuscript reporting on a particular determinant, we concluded "insufficient evidence" for most associations between determinants and physical activity or exercise. Conclusions Because physical activity was reported in four manuscripts

  3. Beyond metaphor: contrasting mechanisms of social and physical pain.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Salomons, Tim V; Moayedi, Massieh; Mouraux, André; Davis, Karen D

    2013-08-01

    Physical pain can be clearly distinguished from other states of distress. In recent years, however, the notion that social distress is experienced as physically painful has permeated the scientific literature and popular media. This conclusion is based on the overlap of brain regions that respond to nociceptive input and sociocultural distress. Here we challenge the assumption that underlies this conclusion - that physical pain can be easily inferred from a particular pattern of activated brain regions - by showing that patterns of activation commonly presumed to constitute the 'pain matrix' are largely unspecific to pain. We then examine recent analytical advances that may improve the specificity of imaging for parsing pain from a broad range of perceptually unique human experiences.

  4. CORRECTED ERROR VIDEO VERSUS A PHYSICAL THERAPIST INSTRUCTED HOME EXERCISE PROGRAM: ACCURACY OF PERFORMING THERAPEUTIC SHOULDER EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Kamesh; Hopp, Jennifer; Stanley, Laura; Spores, Ken; Braunreiter, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The accurate performance of physical therapy exercises can be difficult. In this evolving healthcare climate it is important to continually look for better methods to educate patients. The use of handouts, in-person demonstration, and video instruction are all potential avenues used to teach proper exercise form. The purpose of this study was to examine if a corrected error video (CEV) would be as effective as a single visit with a physical therapist (PT) to teach healthy subjects how to properly perform four different shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design This was a prospective, single-blinded interventional trial. Methods Fifty-eight subjects with no shoulder complaints were recruited from two institutions and randomized into one of two groups: the CEV group (30 subjects) was given a CEV comprised of four shoulder exercises, while the physical therapy group (28 subjects) had one session with a PT as well as a handout of how to complete the exercises. Each subject practiced the exercises for one week and was then videotaped performing them during a return visit. Videos were scored with the shoulder exam assessment tool (SEAT) created by the authors. Results There was no difference between the groups on total SEAT score (13.66 ± 0.29 vs 13.46 ± 0.30 for CEV vs PT, p = 0.64, 95% CI [−0.06, 0.037]). Average scores for individual exercises also showed no significant difference. Conclusion/Clinical Relevance These results demonstrate that the inexpensive and accessible CEV is as beneficial as direct instruction in teaching subjects to properly perform shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Level of Evidence 1b PMID:27757288

  5. Estimation of Exercise Intensity in “Exercise and Physical Activity Reference for Health Promotion”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro

    To maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens is quite important for Japan. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are estimated using 3D accelerometer for 25 daily activities. As the result, the exercise intensities were estimated to be within the root mean square error of 0.83 METs for all 25 activities.

  6. Physical exercise can reverse the deficit in fear memory induced by maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mello, Pâmela Billig; Benetti, Fernando; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-10-01

    Maternal deprivation during the first 10 days of life induces significant behavioral alterations in rodents which persist through adulthood. Physical exercise reduces the cognitive deficits associated with pharmacologic and pathological conditions. Here we investigated whether forced physical exercise alters memory deficits caused by postnatal maternal deprivation. Male rats were divided into four groups: (1) control, (2) deprived, (3) exercised, and (4) deprived+exercised. In groups 2 and 4, pups were deprived from their mothers for 3h/day during the first 10 days post-birth. In groups 3 and 4, from postnatal day 45 (PND-45) on, animals were submitted to forced treadmill exercise. At adulthood, animals were submitted to four different behavioral tasks: open field, Morris water maze (MWM), object recognition (OR) and inhibitory avoidance (IA). Maternal deprivation had no effect on open field behavior, but disrupted memory in the three other tasks. Physical exercise alone had no effect, except for a slight enhancement of MWM learning. Importantly, physical exercise reversed the deficit of IA and reduced the deficit of spatial memory but not that of OR seen in deprived animals. It is possible that physical exercise may counteract the influence of maternal deprivation on neurohumoral or hormonal memory modulatory systems related to stress. Indeed, the decreasing order of the effect of exercise on the memory disturbances induced by deprivation roughly follows the descending degree of stress associated with each task (IA>MWM>OR). Maternal deprivation is known to hinder hormonal mechanisms involved in coping with stress.

  7. [PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER STROKE: EFFECTS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND BARRIERS].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Razi, Gal

    2016-06-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for physical training (PTr) post-stroke. In addition, perceived benefits/barriers to PTr post-stroke are reviewed. PTr is an important post-stroke rehabilitation goal. Before beginning a PTr program it is recommended to conduct a physical examination. There is evidence that aerobic training post-stroke has a positive effect on gait and on risk factors for recurrent stroke. Similarly, strength training is also safe and effective. However, this training modality does not improve.gait functions. Neuromuscular training post-stroke is also a recommended training method. In the various studies conducted, there was diversity with regard to duration and frequency of PTr. It is recommended that individuals post-stroke engage in aerobic training 3-5 days a week. During the acute phase, the rating of perceived exertion should be "fairly light" (less or equal to 11 on the Borg scale, which ranges 6-20). In more advanced phases of recovery, one ca exercise at a higher intensity of up to "somewhat hard" (rating of perceived exertion 11-14; 55-80% of maximal heart rate). It is also recommended to conduct strength training (2-3 days per week, 1-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions), and flexibility and neuromuscular training (2-3 days per week). In order to encourage individuals post-stroke to conduct PTr there is a need for social support (from caregivers and family) and to provide PTr consultation. PTr barriers consist of both personal (e.g., depression, knowledge regarding physical activity centers) and environmental (e.g., lack of transportation) factors. PMID:27544993

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise during hemodialysis on physical functional performance and depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueh-Min; Chung, Yu-Chu; Chang, Jung-San; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have concluded that exercise training is beneficial to patients on hemodialysis (HD). Results, however, have shown that differences in the type, intensity, and frequency of physical exercise lead to variability in its effects on physical functional performance and depression. Further research is thus warranted. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on physical functional performance and depression during HD. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, we recruited HD patients and nonrandomly assigned them to an exercise group (n = 13) that completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program during HD or a control group (n = 11) that did no exercise during HD. The primary outcome measures were physical functional performance, as evaluated by the 6-min walk test and the sit-to-stand test, and depression, as evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II. The secondary outcome measures were albumin and triglyceride levels and hematocrit. Results revealed significant between-group differences in physical functional performance and depression but not in albumin level, hematocrit, or triglyceride level. Findings suggest that exercise may play a critical role in physical functional performance and may decrease depression. Exercise should be encouraged and performed during HD in HD centers.

  9. Physical exercise-induced protection on ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Li, Mei; Dong, Fang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is any bodily activity to enhance or maintain physical fitness and overall health and wellness. A series of associated studies have demonstrated that physical exercise could alleviate the infarct volume, increase the collateral circulation, promote endothelial progenitor cells, improve cerebral blood flow after cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In this review, we summed up the protective effects of physical exercise on cerebral blood flow (CBF), vascular endothelium, vascular vasodilation, endothelial progenitor cells and collateral circulation. An awareness of the exercise intervention benefits for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases may encourage more patients with cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction and people with high risk factors to accept exercise interventions for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:26884896

  10. An exercise performance test does not measure physical fitness for the average person.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W G; Robinson, S M

    1988-08-10

    One hundred and thirty five members of the public who attended a medical school open day and who volunteered for a physical fitness assessment were asked to rate their own physical fitness and to give a reason for their rating; subjects then performed a submaximal exercise test for an estimation of maximum oxygen uptake. More than two-thirds of the reasons given for self-rating of fitness were related to level of regular exercise, while physical exercise performance, health or obesity each accounted for 10% or less of the reasons given. There was no significant correlation between self-rating of fitness and maximum oxygen uptake. It is concluded that for the average person an estimate of the level of regular exercise is likely to be a more appropriate measure of physical fitness than performance in an exercise test.

  11. Effects of Physical Exercise on Individual Resting State EEG Alpha Peak Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Boris; Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Przyklenk, Axel; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both acute and chronic physical exercises can induce positive effects on brain function and this is associated with improvements in cognitive performance. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive processing are not well understood. This study examined the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise as well as four weeks of exercise training on the individual resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a neurophysiological marker of the individual's state of arousal and attention, in healthy young adults. The subjects completed a steady state exercise (SSE) protocol or an exhaustive exercise (EE) protocol, respectively, on two separate days. EEG activity was recorded for 2 min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 10 min of rest. All assessments were repeated following four weeks of exercise training to investigate whether an improvement in physical fitness modulates the resting state iAPF and/or the iAPF response to an acute bout of SSE and EE. The iAPF was significantly increased following EE (P = 0.012) but not following SSE. It is concluded that the iAPF is increased following intense exercise, indicating a higher level of arousal and preparedness for external input. PMID:25759762

  12. Effects of physical exercise on individual resting state EEG alpha peak frequency.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Boris; Mierau, Andreas; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Hildebrand, Carolin; Przyklenk, Axel; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both acute and chronic physical exercises can induce positive effects on brain function and this is associated with improvements in cognitive performance. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive processing are not well understood. This study examined the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise as well as four weeks of exercise training on the individual resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a neurophysiological marker of the individual's state of arousal and attention, in healthy young adults. The subjects completed a steady state exercise (SSE) protocol or an exhaustive exercise (EE) protocol, respectively, on two separate days. EEG activity was recorded for 2 min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and after 10 min of rest. All assessments were repeated following four weeks of exercise training to investigate whether an improvement in physical fitness modulates the resting state iAPF and/or the iAPF response to an acute bout of SSE and EE. The iAPF was significantly increased following EE (P = 0.012) but not following SSE. It is concluded that the iAPF is increased following intense exercise, indicating a higher level of arousal and preparedness for external input.

  13. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging.

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, J Eric; Geda, Yonas E; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2011-09-01

    A rapidly growing literature strongly suggests that exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, may attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce dementia risk. We used PubMed (keywords exercise and cognition) and manuscript bibliographies to examine the published evidence of a cognitive neuroprotective effect of exercise. Meta-analyses of prospective studies documented a significantly reduced risk of dementia associated with midlife exercise; similarly, midlife exercise significantly reduced later risks of mild cognitive impairment in several studies. Among patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) documented better cognitive scores after 6 to 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls. Meta-analyses of RCTs of aerobic exercise in healthy adults were also associated with significantly improved cognitive scores. One year of aerobic exercise in a large RCT of seniors was associated with significantly larger hippocampal volumes and better spatial memory; other RCTs in seniors documented attenuation of age-related gray matter volume loss with aerobic exercise. Cross-sectional studies similarly reported significantly larger hippocampal or gray matter volumes among physically fit seniors compared with unfit seniors. Brain cognitive networks studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging display improved connectivity after 6 to 12 months of exercise. Animal studies indicate that exercise facilitates neuroplasticity via a variety of biomechanisms, with improved learning outcomes. Induction of brain neurotrophic factors by exercise has been confirmed in multiple animal studies, with indirect evidence for this process in humans. Besides a brain neuroprotective effect, physical exercise may also attenuate cognitive decline via mitigation of cerebrovascular risk, including the contribution of small vessel disease to dementia. Exercise should not be overlooked as an important therapeutic strategy.

  14. Physical exercise in southern Germany: a cross-sectional study of an urban population

    PubMed Central

    Rupps, Elli; Haenle, Mark Martin; Steinacker, Juergen; Mason, Richard Andrew; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Steiner, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of physical exercise and self-assessment of physical fitness (PF) and their relationship to health- and behaviour-specific factors in a randomly selected sample of an urban population in southern Germany. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting In the southern German city of Leutkirch. Participants 2187 subjects randomly selected from the registry of inhabitants. Of the selected group, aged 18–65 years, 52.1% were women and 47.9% men. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants were asked how many hours per week they spent on physical exercise and sports. They were also asked to rate their own performance and/or PF. Results Overall, 38.9% of the participants reported no physical exercise. Men reported a higher level of physical exercise than did women. Less exercise was reported by subjects with diabetes, high body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio and by those who were underweight. Alcohol consumption, smoker status and higher educational level showed a positive association with physical exercise. A negative trend with respect to moderate physical exercise was observed for those with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension and hepatic steatosis, but this was statistically significant only for subjects with diabetes. In both men and women, there was a relationship between self-assessed ‘good’ PF and high physical exercise. Conclusions The data show that a large proportion of the study population is not physically active; specific risk groups (overweight subjects, older subjects, smokers or subjects with low educational level) are even less active. The data suggest that there is a great potential for measures promoting physical exercise in these groups. PMID:22403342

  15. Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercises Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  16. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sosa, P M; Schimidt, H L; Altermann, C; Vieira, A S; Cibin, F W S; Carpes, F P; Mello-Carpes, P B

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  17. Physical exercise prevents motor disorders and striatal oxidative imbalance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, P.M.; Schimidt, H.L.; Altermann, C.; Vieira, A.S.; Cibin, F.W.S.; Carpes, F.P.; Mello-Carpes, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the third most common cause of death worldwide, and most stroke survivors present some functional impairment. We assessed the striatal oxidative balance and motor alterations resulting from stroke in a rat model to investigate the neuroprotective role of physical exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to 4 groups: a) control, b) ischemia, c) physical exercise, and d) physical exercise and ischemia. Physical exercise was conducted using a treadmill for 8 weeks. Ischemia-reperfusion surgery involved transient bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for 30 min. Neuromotor performance (open-field and rotarod performance tests) and pain sensitivity were evaluated beginning at 24 h after the surgery. Rats were euthanized and the corpora striata was removed for assay of reactive oxygen species, lipoperoxidation activity, and antioxidant markers. Ischemia-reperfusion caused changes in motor activity. The ischemia-induced alterations observed in the open-field test were fully reversed, and those observed in the rotarod test were partially reversed, by physical exercise. Pain sensitivity was similar among all groups. Levels of reactive oxygen species and lipoperoxidation increased after ischemia; physical exercise decreased reactive oxygen species levels. None of the treatments altered the levels of antioxidant markers. In summary, ischemia-reperfusion resulted in motor impairment and altered striatal oxidative balance in this animal model, but those changes were moderated by physical exercise. PMID:26222650

  18. Physical, occupational, speech and swallowing therapies and physical exercise in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ransmayr, G

    2011-05-01

    Former studies on the effects of physical exercise, physical and occupational therapy (PT, OT) and speech and swallowing therapy (ST, SwT) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have demonstrated little or uncertain effects. New pathophysiological concepts have been developed. Recent controlled high-level studies demonstrate improvement of mobility and balance after training of muscular strength and endurance, trunk control, and amplitude and rhythmicity of movements (treadmill). Attentional and cognitive strategies were found to enforce body awareness and improve movement sequences. Dance, sensory (auditory, visual, tactile) and cognitive cueing are effective for problems of gait and balance. Whether PT and OT reduce the risk of falls remains uncertain. ST including Lee Silverman Voice Treatment has been shown to relieve speech problems. SwT and OT are frequently applied, however, further studies are necessary. Therapeutic interventions need to be evaluated with regard to consistency, intensity, frequency, duration, side effects, home versus institution based and standardized versus individualized training, quality standards, practicability in real life, and cost-effectiveness. Parkinson patients should resume or continue physical exercise as long as possible. There is hope that regular sport may modify PD risk and progression. PMID:21461962

  19. Roles of sedentary aging and lifelong physical activity in exchange of glutathione across exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Mortensen, Stefan P; Cabo, Helena; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Viña, Jose; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules with regulatory functions, and in young and adult organisms, the formation of ROS is increased during skeletal muscle contractions. However, ROS can be deleterious to cells when not sufficiently counterbalanced by the antioxidant system. Aging is associated with accumulation of oxidative damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Given the pro-oxidant effect of skeletal muscle contractions, this effect of age could be a result of excessive ROS formation. We evaluated the effect of acute exercise on changes in blood redox state across the leg of young (23 ± 1 years) and older (66 ± 2 years) sedentary humans by measuring the whole blood concentration of the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of the antioxidant glutathione. To assess the role of physical activity, lifelong physically active older subjects (62 ± 2 years) were included. Exercise increased the venous concentration of GSSG in an intensity-dependent manner in young sedentary subjects, suggesting an exercise-induced increase in ROS formation. In contrast, venous GSSG levels remained unaltered during exercise in the older sedentary and active groups despite a higher skeletal muscle expression of the superoxide-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase. Arterial concentration of GSH and expression of antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle of older active subjects were increased. The potential impairment in exercise-induced ROS formation may be an important mechanism underlying skeletal muscle and vascular dysfunction with sedentary aging. Lifelong physical activity upregulates antioxidant systems, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying the lack of exercise-induced increase in GSSG.

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  1. Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have separately reported the effects of physical exercise and yoga in children, showing physical, cognitive and emotional benefits. Objectives The present randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of yoga or physical exercise on physical fitness, cognitive performance, self-esteem, and teacher-rated behavior and performance, in school children. Methods 98 school children between 8 to 13 years were randomized as yoga and physical exercise groups {n = 49 each; (yoga: 15 girls, group mean age 10.4 ± 1.2 years), (physical exercise: 23 girls, group mean age 10.5 ± 1.3 years)}. Both groups were blind assessed after allocation, using: (i) the Eurofit physical fitness test battery, (ii) Stroop color-word task for children, (iii) Battle’s self-esteem inventory and (iv) the teachers’ rating of the children’s obedience, academic performance, attention, punctuality, and behavior with friends and teachers. After assessments the yoga group practiced yoga (breathing techniques, postures, guided relaxation and chanting), 45 minutes each day, 5 days a week. During this time the physical exercise group had jogging-in-place, rapid repetitive movements and relay races or games. Both groups were assessed at the end of 3 months. Data were analyzed with RM ANOVA and post-hoc tests were Bonferroni adjusted. Results There was one significant difference between groups. This was in social self-esteem which was higher after physical exercise compared to yoga (p < 0.05). All the changes reported below are based on after-before comparisons, within each group. Both groups showed an increase in BMI, and number of sit-ups (p < 0.001). Balance worsened in the physical exercise group, while plate tapping improved in the yoga group (p < 0.001). In the Stroop task both groups showed improved color, word- and color-word naming (p < 0.01), while the physical exercise group showed higher interference scores. Total, general and

  2. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation—A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L.; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program. PMID:27313948

  3. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation-A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Avril; Knorr, Svetlana; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L; Middleton, Laura; Biasin, Louis; Brunton, Karen; Howe, Jo-Anne; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge's g ≥ 0.5). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program.

  4. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  5. Clinically Relevant Physical Benefits of Exercise Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Amy A; Bland, Kelcey A; Sayyari, Sarah; Campbell, Kristin L; Davis, Margot K

    2016-02-01

    Evidence is currently limited for the effect of exercise on breast cancer clinical outcomes. However, several of the reported physical benefits of exercise, including peak oxygen consumption, functional capacity, muscle strength and lean mass, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone health, have established associations with disability, cardiovascular disease risk, morbidity, and mortality. This review will summarize the clinically relevant physical benefits of exercise interventions in breast cancer survivors and discuss recommendations for achieving these benefits. It will also describe potential differences in intervention delivery that may impact outcomes and, lastly, describe current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors. PMID:26769117

  6. Exercise can improve physical self perceptions in adolescents with low motor competence.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Fleur; Chivers, Paola; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Hands, Beth

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with low motor competence have diminished perceptions of their physical self and tend to avoid physical activities. This study examined the outcomes of an exercise intervention that focused on improving aerobic fitness, strength, and self-perceptions in the physical domain in adolescents with poor motor coordination. The sample included 35 adolescents with low motor competence, comprising boys (n = 25) and girls (n = 10) ranging in age from 13 to 17 years, who attended two sessions per week in the 13 week exercise intervention study (AMP it up). Physical self-perceptions were measured before and after the intervention using the Physical Self Perception Profile and Perceived Importance Profile. Significant improvements in perceived Physical Condition, Attractive Body and Physical Strength sub domain scores were identified between pre and post-test. Adjusting for age, gender, BMI and attendance, regression analyses revealed that Attractive Body was the strongest predictor of Physical Self Worth at pre-test, joined by Physical Condition at post-test. This exercise intervention had a positive impact on adolescent physical self-perceptions, in particular males, with improvements in those sub domains specifically related to the exercise program. Changes in specific aspects of Physical Self Worth can be facilitated by exercise interventions, after a relatively short period of time, in adolescents with poor motor coordination.

  7. A self-assessment tool to measure older adults' perceptions regarding physical fitness and exercise activity.

    PubMed

    Devereaux Melillo, K; Williamson, E; Futrell, M; Chamberlain, C

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualitatively generate and psychometrically assess an instrument which assesses the self-perceived physical fitness and exercise activity levels of community-dwelling older adults and examines perceived factors which enhance or impede their exercise activity level. This research was carried out in two stages: qualitative and quantitative. Items for the instrument were generated through qualitative interviews with 23 community-dwelling older adults, 9 males and 14 females, with an age range of 63 to 82 years. From this qualitative study, 50 items were generated, representing nine categories of elements which enhance or impede physical activity. The 50 items were incorporated into a 4-point, forced-choice, Likert format instrument which was pilot tested for clarity and ease of administration with a convenience sample of community-dwelling older adults. Following the pilot testing, 41 items were retained. The 41-item instrument, entitled Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale, was categorized into the following subscales: Physical Fitness, Barriers, Motivators, and Exercise Frequency. Initial testing of the Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale seems to indicate adequate validity and reliability. Correlation coefficients for the total instrument, as well as the subscales, were significantly positive for both stability and internal consistency. Results with respect to predictive validity were mixed. The Physical Fitness and Motivators subscales were significant predictors of Exercise Frequency. Although the correlation between the Barriers subscale and Exercise Frequency was negative, it was non-significant.

  8. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  9. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  10. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  11. Effects of a 12-Week Resistance Exercise Program on Physical Self-Perceptions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Mitchell, Nathanael G.; Bibeau, Wendy S.; Bartholomew, John B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level…

  12. Use of Role-playing Exercises in Teaching Undergraduate Astronomy and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Paul J.; Byrne, Aidan P.

    1999-08-01

    The use of role-playing exercises in the teaching of university astronomy and physics can enliven lectures, deepen student understanding and dramatically increase the level of classroom interaction. A series of case studies is presented, illustrating the nature of this technique, its advantages and some of its pitfalls. Several ready-to-run exercises are included.

  13. Differences in the Intensity and Duration of Adolescents' Sports and Exercise across Physical and Social Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Berrigan, David; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Perna, Frank; Graubard, Barry I.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2012-01-01

    We used data from the American Time Use Survey (years 2003-06) to analyze whether the intensity and duration of high school students' (ages 15-18 years) sports and exercise bouts differed across physical and social environments. Boys' sports and exercise bouts were more likely to reach a vigorous intensity when taking place at school and with…

  14. Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems. PMID:22403029

  15. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  16. Physical exercise affects attentional orienting behavior through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T; Bucci, David J

    2015-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), a commonly used animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a nonreinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, is not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders.

  17. Physical Exercise Affects Attentional Orienting Behavior through Noradrenergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrea M.; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), a commonly-used animal model of ADHD, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a non-reinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, was not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  18. Exercise Pills: At the Starting Line.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills.

  19. Acute physical exercise improves shifting in adolescents at school: evidence for a dopaminergic contribution

    PubMed Central

    Berse, Timo; Rolfes, Kathrin; Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan; Kuhlenbäumer, Gregor; Völker, Klaus; Winter, Bernward; Wittig, Michael; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The executive function of shifting between mental sets demands cognitive flexibility. Based on evidence that physical exercise fostered cognition, we tested whether acute physical exercise can improve shifting in an unselected sample of adolescents. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed to gain more insight into possibly contributing neurophysiological processes. We examined 297 students aged between 13 and 17 years in their schools. Physical exercise was manipulated by an intense incremental exercise condition using bicycle ergometers and a control condition which involved watching an infotainment cartoon while sitting calm. The order of conditions was counterbalanced between participants. Shifting was assessed by a switching task after both conditions. Acute intense physical exercise significantly improved shifting as indicated by reduced switch costs. Exercise-induced performance gains in switch costs were predicted by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targeting the Dopamine Transporter (DAT1/SLCA6A3) gene suggesting that the brain dopamine system contributed to the effect. The results demonstrate the potential of acute physical exercise to improve cognitive flexibility in adolescents. The field conditions of the present approach suggest applications in schools. PMID:26283937

  20. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  1. Effects of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements such as housework, walking and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health, indeed inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, optimizing both physical and mental health, enhancing energy, decreasing fatigue and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with rheumatic diseases aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, to increase muscle strength and endurance, and to improve mood and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. In this editorial I describe the benefits of the exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases that seem to have a short and long-term effectiveness. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords based on the present editorial. PMID:26601057

  2. Physical exercise in rats with epilepsy is protective against seizures: evidence of animal studies.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Terra, Vera Cristina; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2009-12-01

    People with epilepsy have been discouraged from participating in physical activity due to the fear that it will exacerbate seizures. Clinical and animal studies indicate a reduction of seizure frequency as well as decrease susceptibility to subsequently evoked seizures after an exercise program. Analyses from experimental studies of animals with epilepsy submitted to physical training programs were performed. In all studies the physical training was able to reduce the number of spontaneous seizures in rats with epilepsy. Seizure occurrence during exercise was relatively absent in the majority of studies. No death was found in animals with epilepsy during 1680 h of exercise. Based on these results it is plausible encouraging persons with epilepsy to non-pharmacological treatments and preventative measures such as physical exercise.

  3. A Laboratory Exercise in Physics: Determining Single Capacitances and Series and Parallel Combinations of Capacitance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a series of physics experiments which allow students to determine the value of unknown electrical capacitors. The exercises include both parallel and series connected capacitors. (SL)

  4. Effects of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-11-18

    Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements such as housework, walking and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health, indeed inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, optimizing both physical and mental health, enhancing energy, decreasing fatigue and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with rheumatic diseases aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, to increase muscle strength and endurance, and to improve mood and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. In this editorial I describe the benefits of the exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in rheumatic diseases that seem to have a short and long-term effectiveness. A literature review was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using appropriate keywords based on the present editorial. PMID:26601057

  5. Examining cerebral angiogenesis in response to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Berggren, Kiersten L; Kay, Jacob J M; Swain, Rodney A

    2014-01-01

    Capillary growth and expansion (angiogenesis) is a prerequisite for many forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. It is commonly observed in both brain and muscle of aerobically exercising animals. As such, several histological methods have been used to quantify capillary density, including perfusion with India ink, various Nissl stains, and immunohistochemistry. In this chapter, we will describe these histological procedures and describe the stereological analysis used to quantify vessel growth in response to aerobic exercise. PMID:24510862

  6. Motivating Visually Impaired and Deaf-Blind People to Perform Regular Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surakka, Airi; Kivela, Tero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the different ways in which visually impaired and deaf-blind people can be motivated to perform regular physical exercises through the use of a physical training programme. The programme was designed for visually impaired and deaf-blind people with the aim of reducing their most common physical problems: those…

  7. Carbohydrates and Physical/Mental Performance during Intermittent Exercise to Fatigue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Ralph S.; Davis, J. Mark; Burke, Jean R.; Williams, Harriet G.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO) ingestion on physical and mental function associated with performing high-intensity exercise. Physically active adults completed physical activities while researchers assessed them. CHO or placebo drinks were consumed before starting and at halftime. CHO ingestion resulted in 37 percent…

  8. Role of physical exercise as complementary treatment for epilepsy and other brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2013-01-01

    The impact of exercise on mental health, on cognition, brain function and brain structure as well as the possible underlying molecular systems important for maintaining neural function and plasticity has been extensively examined. Moreover, numerous studies have reinforced t the important and beneficial role of exercise for those with neurological disorders. This article reviews general aspects of physical exercise against neurodegenerative diseases and the relevant contributions of physical exercise programs as complementary therapy for epilepsy. We first give an overview of the plasticity induced by exercise in the damaged brain, the impact of exercise in reducing brain injury as well as in delaying onset of and decline in several neurodegenerative diseases. We address the relationship between epilepsy and exercise and report the neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic effects of exercise on epilepsy based on experimental and clinical studies. Overall, we conclude that physical or sport activities represent an exciting intervention that should be integrated with conventional therapy for the improvement of brain function and resistance to neurodegenerative diseases as well as a complementary non-pharmacological treatment of epilepsy.

  9. Current perspectives on physical activity and exercise for youth with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Jacklyn A; Taplin, Craig E; Riddell, Michael C

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) for youth with diabetes improves cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, bone health, insulin sensitivity, and psychosocial well-being. However many youth with diabetes or pre-diabetes fail to meet minimum PA guidelines and a large percentage of youth with diabetes are overweight or obese. Active youth with type 1 diabetes tend to have lower HbA1c levels and reduced insulin needs, whereas activity in adolescents at-risk for type 2 diabetes improves various measures of metabolism and body composition. Insulin and nutrient adjustments for exercise in type 1 diabetes is complex because of varied responses to exercise type and because of the different times of day that exercise is performed. This review highlights the benefits of exercise and the established barriers to exercise participation in the pediatric diabetes population. A new exercise management algorithm for insulin and carbohydrate intake strategies for active youth with type 1 diabetes is presented.

  10. Efficacy of physical conditioning exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Minor, M A; Hewett, J E; Webel, R R; Anderson, S K; Kay, D R

    1989-11-01

    A group of 120 patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis volunteered to be subjects for this study of aerobic versus nonaerobic exercise. Patients were stratified by diagnosis and randomized into an exercise program of aerobic walking, aerobic aquatics, or nonaerobic range of motion (controls). The retention rate for the 12-week program was 83%. Exercise tolerance, disease-related measures, and self-reported health status were assessed. The aquatics and walking exercise groups showed significant improvement over the control group in aerobic capacity, 50-foot walking time, depression, anxiety, and physical activity after the 12-week exercise program. There were no significant between-group group differences in the change scores for flexibility, number of clinically active joints, duration of morning stiffness, or grip strength. Our findings document the feasibility and efficacy of conditioning exercise for people who have rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis.

  11. Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho; Paik, Il-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Jee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio). Materials and Methods Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress. PMID:26331134

  12. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  13. The Pleiotropic Effect of Physical Exercise on Mitochondrial Dynamics in Aging Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Elena; Agostini, Deborah; Polidori, Emanuela; Potenza, Lucia; Guescini, Michele; Lucertini, Francesco; Annibalini, Giosuè; Stocchi, Laura; De Santi, Mauro; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    Decline in human muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is one of the principal hallmarks of the aging process. Regular physical exercise and training programs are certain powerful stimuli to attenuate the physiological skeletal muscle alterations occurring during aging and contribute to promote health and well-being. Although the series of events that led to these muscle adaptations are poorly understood, the mechanisms that regulate these processes involve the “quality” of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Aerobic/endurance exercise helps to maintain and improve cardiovascular fitness and respiratory function, whereas strength/resistance-exercise programs increase muscle strength, power development, and function. Due to the different effect of both exercises in improving mitochondrial content and quality, in terms of biogenesis, dynamics, turnover, and genotype, combined physical activity programs should be individually prescribed to maximize the antiaging effects of exercise. PMID:25945152

  14. Influence of physical exercise on human preferences for various taste solutions.

    PubMed

    Horio, T; Kawamura, Y

    1998-08-01

    The effects of physical exercise on preference for various sapid solutions was studied in 58 healthy university students. After 30 min of exercise using a bicycle ergometer at 50% VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake) intensity, a rating scale test on taste hedonic tone and the triangle test for taste absolute threshold were done. The test solutions were sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, caffeine and monosodium glutamate (MSG). Preference scale values for sucrose and citric acid increased after exercise, whereas the values for NaCl, caffeine and MSG were not changed. The absolute thresholds for all the sapid solutions did not differ for pre- and post-exercise. These findings indicate that in humans preference for sucrose and citric acid increase after physical exercise. PMID:9759528

  15. Exercises are problems too: implications for teaching problem-solving in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Kristina; Garmendia, Mikel; Barragués, José-Ignacio; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2016-09-01

    Frequently, in university-level general physics courses, after explaining the theory, exercises are set based on examples that illustrate the application of concepts and laws. Traditionally formulated numerical exercises are usually solved by the teacher and students through direct replacement of data in formulae. It is our contention that such strategies can lead to the superficial and erroneous resolution of such exercises. In this paper, we provide an example that illustrates that students tend to solve problems in a superficial manner, without applying fundamental problem-solving strategies such as qualitative analysis, hypothesis-forming and analysis of results, which prevents them from arriving at a correct solution. We provide evidence of the complexity of an a priori simple exercise in physics, although the theory involved may seem elementary at first sight. Our aim is to stimulate reflection among instructors to follow these results when using examples and solving exercises with students.

  16. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  17. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  18. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  19. Fish oil supplementation and physical exercise program: distinct effects on different memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Rachetti, A L F; Arida, R M; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Fernades-Santos, L; Frussa-Filho, R; Gomes da Silva, S; Scorza, F A; Cysneiros, R M

    2013-01-15

    Both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise are able to induce benefits to mental health by providing an improvement in cognitive performance and enhancing neuroplasticity and protection against neurological lesions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cognitive effects in rats of the: (1) a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation (85 mg/kg/day) initiated from prenatal period to the midlife (300 day/old); (2) moderate physical exercise in treadmill initiated from adolescent period to midlife and (3) association of fish oil supplementation and moderate physical exercise protocol during the same period. Animals were submitted to the habituation in the open-field, object recognition and to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. Our results demonstrated that a diary and prolonged fish oil supplementation can facilitate the persistence of the long-term habituation and recognition memories without, however, affecting the discriminative avoidance memory. Conversely, although the program of physical exercise exerted no effects on habituation or objects recognition, it was able to potentiate the persistence of the discriminative avoidance memory. Such promnestic effects (induced by both fish oil supplementation and physical exercise) were not accompanied by alterations in emotionality or locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation, initiated from prenatal period to midlife, and physical exercise program applied throughout the life induced distinctly a better cognitive performance.

  20. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    PubMed

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  1. Beneficial influence of physical exercise following status epilepticus in the immature brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, F G Novaes; Gomes Da Silva, S; Cavalheiro, E A; Arida, R M

    2014-08-22

    Studies in adult animals have demonstrated a beneficial effect of physical exercise on epileptic insults. Although the effects of physical exercise on the mature nervous system are well documented, its influence on the developing nervous system subjected to injuries in childhood has been little explored. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a physical exercise program applied during brain development could influence the hippocampal plasticity of rats submitted to status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine model at two different ages of the postnatal period. Male Wistar rats aged 18 (P18) and 28 (P28) days were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CTRL), Exercise (EX), SE (SE) and SE Exercise (SE/EX) (n=17 per group). After the aerobic exercise program, histological and behavioral (water maze) analyses were performed. Our results showed that only animals subjected to pilocarpine-induced SE at P28 presented spontaneous seizures during the observational period. A significant reduction in seizure frequency was observed in the SE/EX group compared to the SE group. In adulthood, animals submitted to early-life SE displayed impairment in long-term memory in the water maze task, while the exercise program reversed this deficit. Reduced mossy fiber sprouting in the dentate gyrus was noted in animals that presented spontaneous seizures (SE/EX vs SE). Exercise increased cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining) and anti-apoptotic response (bcl-2 staining) and reduced pro-apoptotic response (Bax staining) in animals of both ages of SE induction (P18/28). Exercise also modified the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in EX and SE/EX animals. Our findings indicate that in animals subjected to SE in the postnatal period a physical exercise program brings about beneficial effects on seizure frequency and hippocampal plasticity in later stages of life.

  2. Preventing weight gain through exercise and physical activity in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mareike D; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    This review examines the role of exercise and physical activity for preventing weight gain in older people. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for January 2000 to June 2011, identifying weight gain and exercise or physical activity as study topics, and aged adults as target group. In study selection, all types of exercise and physical activity and any measure of weight change in aged adults (≥65 years) or postmenopausal women were considered. N=9 primary studies were identified. All were conducted in the US, with one study additionally including samples from Canada and the UK. Three studies focused on aged adults, while six concentrated specifically on postmenopausal women. Forms of exercise or physical activity comprised self-reported exercise history in four studies and low, moderate or high intensity exercise interventions in five studies. Four studies combined exercise with a hypocaloric diet and included comparison groups receiving either diet only, health education, stretching or a delayed intervention (one study each). Exercise was associated with weight loss (1.1-6 kg) in all intervention studies, all of which studied an overweight sample, and with weight maintenance in most observational studies, all of which studied a general population or otherwise overweight-unspecific sample. In sum, exercise and physical activity can effectively prevent weight gain in older adults and postmenopausal women either in terms of weight loss or maintenance. They can preserve lean body mass and thus are important for the balance between potentially positive and negative effects of weight reduction in later life. In addition, since all intervention studies were conducted with an overweight sample, it seems that primordial prevention (in terms of preventing the development of risk factors such as excess weight in the first place) might be a neglected issue in geriatric and postmenopausal prevention.

  3. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  4. Effectiveness of therapeutic physical exercise in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alba-Martín, Pablo; Gallego-Izquierdo, T; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of conservative treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome with physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] A computer-based review conducted of four databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PEDro, and the University Library) was completed based on the inclusion criteria of patellofemoral pain syndrome patients treated with physical exercise methods and examination with self-reported pain and/or functional questionnaires. [Results] The findings of ten clinical trials of moderate to high quality were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of physical exercise as conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Conclusion] The intervention programs that were most effective in relieving pain and improving function in patellofemoral pain syndrome included proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and strengthening exercises for the hip external rotator and abductor muscles and knee extensor muscles. PMID:26311988

  5. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  6. Influence of physical exercise on traumatic brain injury deficits: scaffolding effect.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor

    2012-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be due to a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts normal brain function; it presents an ever-growing, serious public health problem that causes a considerable number of fatalities and cases of permanent disability annually. Physical exercise restores the healthy homeostatic regulation of stress, affect and the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Physical activity attenuates or reverses the performance deficits observed in neurocognitive tasks. It induces anti-apoptotic effects and buttresses blood-brain barrier intactness. Exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. Exercise intervention protects against vascular risk factors that include hypertension, diabetes, cellular inflammation, and aortic rigidity. It induces direct changes in cerebrovasculature that produce beneficial changes in cerebral blood flow, angiogenesis and vascular disease improvement. The improvements induced by physical exercise regimes in brain plasticity and neurocognitive performance are evident both in healthy individuals and in those afflicted by TBI. The overlap and inter-relations between TBI effects on brain and cognition as related to physical exercise and cognition may provide lasting therapeutic benefits for recovery from TBI. It seems likely that some modification of the notion of scaffolding would postulate that physical exercise reinforces the adaptive processes of the brain that has undergone TBI thereby facilitating the development of existing networks, albeit possibly less efficient, that compensate for those lost through damage.

  7. Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivation is a critical factor in supporting sustained exercise, which in turn is associated with important health outcomes. Accordingly, research on exercise motivation from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT) has grown considerably in recent years. Previous reviews have been mostly narrative and theoretical. Aiming at a more comprehensive review of empirical data, this article examines the empirical literature on the relations between key SDT-based constructs and exercise and physical activity behavioral outcomes. Methods This systematic review includes 66 empirical studies published up to June 2011, including experimental, cross-sectional, and prospective studies that have measured exercise causality orientations, autonomy/need support and need satisfaction, exercise motives (or goal contents), and exercise self-regulations and motivation. We also studied SDT-based interventions aimed at increasing exercise behavior. In all studies, actual or self-reported exercise/physical activity, including attendance, was analyzed as the dependent variable. Findings are summarized based on quantitative analysis of the evidence. Results The results show consistent support for a positive relation between more autonomous forms of motivation and exercise, with a trend towards identified regulation predicting initial/short-term adoption more strongly than intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation being more predictive of long-term exercise adherence. The literature is also consistent in that competence satisfaction and more intrinsic motives positively predict exercise participation across a range of samples and settings. Mixed evidence was found concerning the role of other types of motives (e.g., health/fitness and body-related), and also the specific nature and consequences of introjected regulation. The majority of studies have employed descriptive (i.e., non-experimental) designs but similar results are found across cross

  8. Physical disability from knee osteoarthritis: the role of exercise as an intervention.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, W H; Afable, R F

    1994-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a common, nonfatal, chronic condition that causes pain and physical disability in older people. Persons with knee OA report difficulty with activities that require ambulation and transfer from the sitting to the standing position. Physical disability from knee OA is the result of a complex interplay among the severity of disease, pain, comorbid conditions, psychosocial factors, and deficits in physical capacity such as low aerobic work capacity and lower extremity muscle weakness. These deficits in physical capacity may be correctable with exercise training. Short-term studies indicate that persons with knee OA show gains in physical capacity and report less pain and disability with exercise training. However, the long-term effectiveness and safety of exercise in persons with knee OA remains unknown.

  9. Enjoyment of exercise moderates the impact of a school-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A school-based physical activity intervention designed to encourage adolescent girls to be more active was more effective for some participants than for others. We examined whether baseline enjoyment of exercise moderated response to the intervention. Methods Adolescent girls with a low level of baseline activity who participated in a controlled trial of an intervention to promote increased physical activity participation (n = 122) self-reported their enjoyment of exercise and physical activity participation at baseline, mid-way through the intervention, and at the end of the 9-month intervention period. At all three time points, participants also underwent assessments of cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak) and body composition (percent body fat). Repeated measures analysis of variance examined the relationship of baseline enjoyment to change in physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, body composition and enjoyment of exercise. Results A significant three-way interaction between time, baseline enjoyment, and group assignment (p < .01) showed that baseline enjoyment moderated the effect of the intervention on vigorous activity. Within the intervention group, girls with low enjoyment of exercise at baseline increased vigorous activity from pre-to post-intervention, and girls with high baseline enjoyment of exercise showed no pre-post change in vigorous activity. No differences emerged in the comparison group between low-and high-enjoyment girls. Conclusion Adolescent girls responded differently to a physical activity promotion intervention depending on their baseline levels of exercise enjoyment. Girls with low enjoyment of exercise may benefit most from a physical-education based intervention to increase physical activity that targets identified barriers to physical activity among low-active adolescent girls. PMID:21689396

  10. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  11. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans. PMID:27437149

  12. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans. PMID:27437149

  13. Physical exercise down-regulated locomotor side effects induced by haloperidol treatment in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; de Senna, Priscylla Nunes; Paim, Mariana Fontoura; Saur, Lisiani; Blank, Martina; do Nascimento, Patricia; Ilha, Jocemar; Vianna, Mônica Ryff Moreira; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Achaval, Matilde; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2013-03-01

    Extra-pyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as akinesia, dystonia, gait alteration and tremors are observed when dopamine D2-receptors are blocked by pharmacological agents such as haloperidol. These alterations produce a Parkinson disease-like state (PLS). Physical exercise has been proven to improve gait and locomotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; we sought to elucidate the effects of physical exercise on PLS induced by chronic administration of haloperidol in rats. We used 48 rats distributed into four groups: Control, Exercise, Haloperidol, and Hal+Exe. All the animals received a daily injection of saline or haloperidol for 30 days, and the exercise groups underwent a daily 30-minute exercise protocol for 20 days. The animals were subjected to the ink-paw test, bar test and open-field test throughout the training period. The haloperidol-induced akinesia increased throughout the days of injections, but exercise was shown to alleviate it. The assessment showed shortened stride length and increased stance width with the use of haloperidol, which were significantly alleviated by exercise. These results indicate that exercise could be an interesting approach towards reducing unwanted EPS caused by haloperidol.

  14. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  15. Intraocular pressure and glaucoma: Is physical exercise beneficial or a risk?

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles William

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure may become elevated with muscle exertion, changes in body position and increased respiratory volumes, especially when Valsalva manoeuver mechanisms are involved. All of these factors may be present during physical exercise, especially if hydration levels are increased. This review examines the evidence for intraocular pressure changes during and after physical exercise. Intraocular pressure elevation may result in a reduction in ocular perfusion pressure with the associated possibility of mechanical and/or ischaemic damage to the optic nerve head. A key consideration is the possibility that, rather than being beneficial for patients who are susceptible to glaucomatous pathology, any intraocular pressure elevation could be detrimental. Lower intraocular pressure after exercise may result from its elevation causing accelerated aqueous outflow during exercise. Also examined is the possibility that people who have lower frailty are more likely to exercise as well as less likely to have or develop glaucoma. Consequently, lower prevalence of glaucoma would be expected among people who exercise. The evidence base for this topic is deficient and would be greatly improved by the availability of tonometry assessment during dynamic exercise, more studies which control for hydration levels, and methods for assessing the potential general health benefits of exercise against any possibility of exacerbated glaucomatous pathology for individual patients who are susceptible to such changes.

  16. Physical exercise and reduction of pain in adults with lower limb osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Silva, Antonio J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease. The knee and hip joints are the most frequently affected. Treatments fall into three main categories: pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and surgical. Treatments can be applied alone or in combination. In the last few years, within the non-pharmacological category have been a growing importance of physical exercise programs aimed to reduce pain in knee and hip joints. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness and structure of exercise programs on pain in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis. To that end, several databases were searched, retrieving 33 studies that evaluated the influence of different exercise programs on pain. These studies were grouped according to the characteristics of the exercise program: land-based intervention (strength program, Tai Chi, aerobic program), aquatic intervention (hydrotherapy), and mixed exercise programs. The main conclusions drawn were: (i) despite recommendations for the use of exercise programs as pain therapy in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis, very few randomized clinical studies were conducted; (ii) the structure of the exercise programs (content, duration, frequency and duration of the session) is very heterogeneous; (iii) on overall, exercise programs based on Tai Chi have better results than mixed exercise programs, but without clear differences.

  17. Physical exercise as a treatment for adult and juvenile myositis.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, H

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence to support the safety and efficacy of exercise in patients with adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Five randomized controlled trials including adult patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (DM) and additional open studies have demonstrated reduced impairment and activity limitation as well as improved quality of life. In addition, recent studies have shown reduced disease activity assessed by consensus disease activity measures and reduced expression of genes regulating inflammation and fibrosis. Furthermore, exercise could improve muscle aerobic capacity as shown by increased mitochondrial enzyme activity. These data suggest that intensive aerobic exercise and resistance training could reduce disease activity and inflammation and improve muscle metabolism. Encouraging results have been reported from available open studies including patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM, indicating reduced impairment, activity limitation and improved quality of life also in these patients. Larger studies are needed to increase understanding of the effects of exercise in patients with active, recent-onset polymyositis and DM as well as in patients with IBM and juvenile DM.

  18. Phat Exercise: How Young Adults Enjoy and Sustain Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimiecik, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…

  19. Aging and physical fitness are more important than obesity in determining exercise-induced generation of GH.

    PubMed

    Holt, R I; Webb, E; Pentecost, C; Sönksen, P H

    2001-12-01

    Exercise is a potent stimulus for GH secretion. Aging and obesity are associated with a diminution of GH secretion. We wanted to determine whether age or fat mass is more important in regulating the GH response to exercise. Four groups of healthy men were studied: seven lean young men [age, <40 yr; body mass index (BMI), <25 kg/m(2)], six overweight young men (age, <40 yr; BMI, >27.5), seven lean older men (age, >60 yr; BMI, <25), and 6 overweight older men (age, 60 yr; BMI, >27.5). The men performed a maximal exercise test. GH secretion was higher in the younger men than in the older men. Peak GH was higher in the older lean men than in the older overweight men. There was no difference between the young groups. Fitness correlated negatively with age and positively with peak GH. In young men, there was no relation between BMI, bioimpedance, or leptin and GH secretion. In contrast, in older men there was an inverse correlation between measures of fat mass and GH secretion. Age and physical fitness are more important than body fat in regulating exercise-induced GH secretion. These findings have important clinical implications if we are to prevent the frailty and morbidity associated with aging.

  20. The impact of time cost of physical exercise on health outcomes by older adults: the DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Valtonen, Hannu; Komulainen, Pirjo; Hassinen, Maija; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    When the motivation for exercise is high and people are retired, the cost of time used for physical exercise may be lower and individuals may exercise more compared to individuals with a low motivational level and in working life. The aim was to study the effect of time cost of physical exercise on the amount of physical exercise and on health-related quality of life. We used 2-year data (n = 1,292) from a 4-year randomised controlled trial in a population-based sample of Eastern Finnish men and women, 57-78 years of age at baseline, in 2005-2006. In the statistical analysis, physical exercise and health outcomes were assumed to be endogenous variables explained with a set of exogenous variables. The statistical modelling was done by panel data instrumental variable regressions. Health-related quality of life was evaluated by the RAND 36-item survey and motives for exercise with a questionnaire. Joy as the motivation for physical exercise and retirement increased the amount of physical exercise per week (p < 0.001). A higher amount of exercise was associated with physical (p < 0.001) and mental (p < 0.001) components of quality of life. Moreover, a higher amount of physical exercise decreased the metabolic risk factor score (p < 0.001). The motivation and extra time, i.e. retirement, have a significant impact on the time spent on physical exercise (p < 0.001). Our data agree with the theory that high motivation and retirement lower the time cost of physical exercise. The results emphasise that motivation and the labour market position are important in determining the cost of physical exercise.

  1. Reproductive profile of physically active men after exhaustive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, D; Da Silva, M E; Poblador, M S; Lancho, J L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study on non-professional (recreational) athletes was two-fold: 1) to determine if endurance exercise (EE) routinely used by professional athletes would produce reproductive changes in the general population, and 2) to assess reversion. Short-term exhaustive endurance exercise (EEE) can produce alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with subsequent fertility changes. Sixteen healthy adult male volunteers were divided into experimental (8) and control (8) groups for the exercise period. A cycloergometer provided EEE for a period of 2 weeks. The experimental group exercised four times a week; controls were without EEE. The hormonal and seminological profiles of all subjects were evaluated. Two weeks of EEE produced hormonal and seminological values in the experimental group that were statistically different from their own pre-treatment values (FSH: 3.33 +/- 1.7; LH: 3.73 +/- 1.36; sperm concentration/ml: 42.50 +/- 29.46; type a velocity: 25.23 +/- 10.9; type d velocity: 46.18 +/- 15.81; % of normal forms: 10.42 +/- 1.97) as well as from the pre- and post-treatment control group values. The measured parameters almost returned to pre-treatment levels in the experimental group 2 - 3 days after EEE ended. From this study we concluded that when subjected to EEE, individuals drawn from a recreational exercising life style experienced changes similar to those observed in studies done with athletes, and short-term EEE induced a reversible alteration to the HPG axis.

  2. Effects of Physical Exercise on Working Memory and Prefrontal Cortex Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Moriya, M; Aoki, C; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in healthy older adults, but it is not clear whether this remains the case in post-stroke patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in post-stroke patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke patients. The patients performed Sternberg-type working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 % of maximal oxygen uptake) with a cycling ergometer for 15 min. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We evaluated behavioral performance (response time and accuracy) of the working memory task. It was found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition (p < 0.01). In addition, NIRS analysis indicated that physical exercise enhanced prefrontal cortex activation, particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05), during the working memory task compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in post-stroke patients. PMID:27526144

  3. Effects of Physical Exercise on Working Memory and Prefrontal Cortex Function in Post-Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Moriya, M; Aoki, C; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in healthy older adults, but it is not clear whether this remains the case in post-stroke patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in post-stroke patients using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We studied 11 post-stroke patients. The patients performed Sternberg-type working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 % of maximal oxygen uptake) with a cycling ergometer for 15 min. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We evaluated behavioral performance (response time and accuracy) of the working memory task. It was found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition (p < 0.01). In addition, NIRS analysis indicated that physical exercise enhanced prefrontal cortex activation, particularly in the right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.05), during the working memory task compared with the control condition. These findings suggest that the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise enhances prefrontal cortex activity and improves working memory performance in post-stroke patients.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  5. Effects of Exercise on Physical Fitness in Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubovic, Spela; Maksimovic, Jasna; Golubovic, Boris; Glumbic, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which examined the effects of carefully designed physical exercise programs on the development of physical fitness in children with ID. The study sample consisted of 42 children with ID and 45 typically developing children. All the participants were assessed using Eurofit Test Battery. The results were…

  6. Eminence in Physical Therapy with Special Reference to Exercise Therapy--A Textbook Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Elizabeth; Rose, Suzanne

    1986-01-01

    The study explored the frequency with which authors were cited in the most recent edition of "Therapeutic Exercise," an internationally recognized text in physical therapy. Citation trends across three editions were also used as an index of long-term professional influence. Implications for the physical therapy profession are discussed. (JW)

  7. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  8. Exercise Is Medicine Initiative: Physical Activity as a Vital Sign and Prescription in Adult Rehabilitation Practice.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Rachel E

    2016-09-01

    To support rehabilitation health care professionals' efforts to increase physical activity levels among their outpatient rehabilitation and postdischarge patients, we review the Exercise is Medicine (EIM) initiative. The EIM initiative was launched in 2007 jointly by the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association. Three principles underlie the EIM initiative. First, physical activity should be monitored as a vital sign; second, physical activity is an effective medical modality and should be prescribed; and third, success of their vision requires top down and bottom up efforts by 3 key stakeholder groups: health care providers, exercise professionals, and the community. The target weekly physical activity level is 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, as established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization. Persons falling below the weekly target physical activity level should be prescribed physical activity and/or referred to an exercise professional for implementation support. Selection of an exercise professional for referral is based on the patient's risk stratification and need to participate in clinically supervised physical activity. PMID:27470321

  9. An Evaluation of the Local Exercise Action Pilots and Impact on Moderate Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Gilson, Nick; McKenna, Jim; Cooke, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identifying community physical activity interventions that facilitate increases in moderate physical activity (MPA) is important in meeting targets set in government health policy. This study evaluated community interventions that aimed to increase levels of MPA. Intervention themes included exercise referral, classes and groups, peer…

  10. Exercise Programming for Cardiacs--A New Direction for Physical Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutin, Bernard

    This speech begins with the presentation of a conceptual scheme of the physical working capacity of a person starting a training program. The scheme shows that after exercise, when recovery begins and sufficient time elapses, the individual recovers and adapts to a level of physical working capacity which is higher than his starting level. From…

  11. Physical Activity of Depressed Patients and Their Motivation to Exercise: Nordic Walking in Family Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suija, Kadri; Pechter, Ulle; Kalda, Ruth; Tahepold, Heli; Maaroos, Jaak; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to find out how motivated depressed patients are to exercise regularly, to measure the physical activity of depressed patients and to find out how regular Nordic Walking affects the mood and physical fitness of depressed patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Three years after the Prediction of Primary…

  12. Effects of Physical Exercise on Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Michelle; Meulenbroek, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    It is generally agreed that regular physical exercise promotes physical and mental health, but what are the benefits in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? This meta-analysis evaluates 16 behavioural studies reporting on a total of 133 children and adults with various variants of the syndrome who were offered structured physical…

  13. Physical exercise is associated with less neurocognitive impairment among HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Catherine A; Marquine, Maria J; Fazeli, Pariya L; Henry, Brook L; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J

    2013-10-01

    Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) remains prevalent in HIV infection. Randomized trials have shown that physical exercise improves NCI in non-HIV-infected adults, but data on HIV-infected populations are limited. Community-dwelling HIV-infected participants (n = 335) completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery that was utilized to define both global and domain-specific NCI. Participants were divided into "exercise" (n = 83) and "no exercise" (n = 252) groups based on whether they self-reported engaging in any activity that increased heart rate in the last 72 h or not. We also measured and evaluated a series of potential confounding factors, including demographics, HIV disease characteristics, substance use and psychiatric comorbidities, and physical functioning. Lower rates of global NCI were observed among the exercise group (15.7 %) as compared to those in the no exercise group (31.0 %; p < 0.01). A multivariable logistic regression controlling for potential confounds (i.e., education, AIDS status, current CD4+ lymphocyte count, self-reported physical function, current depression) showed that being in the exercise group remained significantly associated with lower global NCI (odds ratio = 2.63, p < 0.05). Similar models of domain-specific NCI showed that exercise was associated with reduced impairment in working memory (p < 0.05) and speed of information processing (p < 0.05). The present findings suggest that HIV-infected adults who exercise are approximately half as likely to show NCI as compared to those who do not. Future longitudinal studies might be best suited to address causality, and intervention trials in HIV-infected individuals will determine whether exercise can prevent or ameliorate NCI in this population.

  14. Hysteresis of electrocardiographic depolarization-repolarization intervals during dynamic physical exercise and subsequent recovery.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M J; Short, A L

    2006-02-01

    The post-exercise electrocardiographic QT interval is shortened relative to that at similar heart rates during exercise or pre-exercise rest. This lag in QT adaptation to the recovering heart rate is described as "hysteresis". No previous studies have quantified the influence of ECG electrode placement on hysteresis following physical exercise. Six males and six females of similar age, mass and aerobic fitness undertook progressive sub-maximal bicycle exercise. A three-channel ECG was recorded continuously during pre-exercise, exercise and recovery. Beat-to-beat NN (cardiac interval) and QT(a) interval (Q wave onset to T wave apex) data were measured for each sinus heart beat. QT(a)-NN hysteresis was calculated as the difference in QT(a) magnitude at identical heart rates during the rest/exercise and post-exercise recovery periods. There were some significant (p < 0.05) between-channel and between-gender differences in calculated hysteresis values. Hysteresis was generally greatest during the second or third minute post-exercise; ranges of means for all channels were 10.9 +/- 11.7 ms to 25.5 +/- 16.8 ms (males) and 19.1 +/- 10.3 ms to 28.4 +/- 3.0 ms (females). For males only, hysteresis values calculated using channel 1 between 1 and 3 min post-exercise were generally significantly (p < 0.05) different to those between 4 and 10 min. Similar trends were observed in females. QT(a)-NN hysteresis is significantly affected by the locations of the ECG electrodes used to record the surface ECG. These results emphasize the need for standardization of ECG electrode placement in future investigations.

  15. Simulated physical inventory verification exercise at a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, D.; Augustson, R.

    1985-01-01

    A physical inventory verification (PIV) was simulated at a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility. Safeguards inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducted the PIV exercise to test inspection procedures under ''realistic but relaxed'' conditions. Nondestructive assay instrumentation was used to verify the plutonium content of samples covering the range of material types from input powders to final fuel assemblies. This paper describes the activities included in the exercise and discusses the results obtained. 5 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  16. Physical exercise and quality of life following cancer diagnosis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Courneya, K S; Friedenreich, C M

    1999-01-01

    With almost 8 million Americans alive today who have been through the cancer experience, it is important to develop interventions to maintain quality of life (QOL) following cancer diagnosis. Physical exercise is an intervention that may address the broad range of QOL issues following cancer diagnosis including physical, functional, psychological, emotional, and social well-being. The purpose of the present article was to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the topic and to offer suggestions for future research. The review located 24 empirical studies published between 1980 and 1997. Eighteen of the studies were interventions (i.e. quasi-experimental or experimental) but most of these were preliminary efficacy studies that suffered from the common limitations of such designs. Overall, however, the studies have consistently demonstrated that physical exercise has a positive effect on QOL following cancer diagnosis, including physical and functional well-being (e.g. functional capacity, muscular strength, body composition, nausea, fatigue) and psychological and emotional well-being (e.g. personality functioning, mood states, self-esteem, and QOL). Besides overcoming the limitations of past research, recommendations for future research included: (a) extending the research beyond breast and early-stage cancers; (b) comparing and integrating physical exercise with other QOL interventions; (c) examining resistance exercises, the timing of the intervention, and contextual factors; (d) expanding the breadth of the QOL indicators examined; and (e) investigating the rates and determinants of recruitment and adherence to an exercise program following cancer diagnosis. PMID:10499138

  17. Analysis of physical exercises and exercise protocols for space transportation system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill was made so that informed management decisions regarding the role of this treadmill in operational flight crew exercise programs could be made. Specific tasks to be completed were: The Thornton-Whitmore passive treadmill as an exercise device at one-g was evaluated. Hardware, harness and restraint systems for use with the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in the laboratory and in Shuttle flights were established. The quantitative and qualitative performance of human subjects on the Thorton-Whitmore treadmill with forces in excess of one-g, was evaluated. The performance of human subjects on the Thornton-Whitmore treadmill in weightlessness (onboard Shuttle flights) was also determined.

  18. How contrast situations affect the assignment of causality in symmetric physical settings

    PubMed Central

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In determining the prime cause of a physical event, people often weight one of two entities in a symmetric physical relation as more important for bringing about the causal effect than the other. In a broad survey (Bender and Beller, 2011), we documented such weighting effects for different kinds of physical events and found that their direction and strength depended on a variety of factors. Here, we focus on one of those: adding a contrast situation that—while being formally irrelevant—foregrounds one of the factors and thus frames the task in a specific way. In two experiments, we generalize and validate our previous findings by using different stimulus material (in Experiment 1), by applying a different response format to elicit causal assignments, an analog rating scale instead of a forced-choice decision (in Experiment 2), and by eliciting explanations for the physical events in question (in both Experiments). The results generally confirm the contrast effects for both response formats; however, the effects were more pronounced with the force-choice format than with the rating format. People tended to refer to the given contrast in their explanations, which validates our manipulation. Finally, people’s causal assignments are reflected in the type of explanation given in that contrast and property explanations were associated with biased causal assignments, whereas relational explanations were associated with unbiased assignments. In the discussion, we pick up the normative questions of whether or not these contrast effects constitute a bias in causal reasoning. PMID:25620937

  19. How contrast situations affect the assignment of causality in symmetric physical settings.

    PubMed

    Beller, Sieghard; Bender, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In determining the prime cause of a physical event, people often weight one of two entities in a symmetric physical relation as more important for bringing about the causal effect than the other. In a broad survey (Bender and Beller, 2011), we documented such weighting effects for different kinds of physical events and found that their direction and strength depended on a variety of factors. Here, we focus on one of those: adding a contrast situation that-while being formally irrelevant-foregrounds one of the factors and thus frames the task in a specific way. In two experiments, we generalize and validate our previous findings by using different stimulus material (in Experiment 1), by applying a different response format to elicit causal assignments, an analog rating scale instead of a forced-choice decision (in Experiment 2), and by eliciting explanations for the physical events in question (in both Experiments). The results generally confirm the contrast effects for both response formats; however, the effects were more pronounced with the force-choice format than with the rating format. People tended to refer to the given contrast in their explanations, which validates our manipulation. Finally, people's causal assignments are reflected in the type of explanation given in that contrast and property explanations were associated with biased causal assignments, whereas relational explanations were associated with unbiased assignments. In the discussion, we pick up the normative questions of whether or not these contrast effects constitute a bias in causal reasoning.

  20. Physical Exercise Preserves Adult Visual Plasticity in Mice and Restores it after a Stroke in the Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Hüppe, Janika M.; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    The primary visual cortex (V1) is widely used to study brain plasticity, which is not only crucial for normal brain function, such as learning and memory, but also for recovery after brain injuries such as stroke. In standard cage (SC) raised mice, experience-dependent ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in V1 declines with age and is compromised by a lesion in adjacent and distant cortical regions. In contrast, mice raised in an enriched environment (EE), exhibit lifelong OD plasticity and are protected from losing OD plasticity after a stroke-lesion in the somatosensory cortex. Since SC mice with an access to a running wheel (RW) displayed preserved OD plasticity during aging, we investigated whether physical exercise might also provide a plasticity promoting effect after a cortical stroke. To this end, we tested if adult RW-raised mice preserved OD plasticity after stroke and also if short-term running after stroke restored OD plasticity to SC mice. Indeed, unlike mice without a RW, adult RW mice continued to show OD plasticity even after stroke, and a 2 weeks RW experience after stroke already restored lost OD plasticity. Additionally, the experience-enabled increase of the spatial frequency and contrast threshold of the optomotor reflex of the open eye, normally lost after a stroke, was restored in both groups of RW mice. Our data suggest that physical exercise alone can not only preserve visual plasticity into old age, but also restore it after a cortical stroke. PMID:27708575

  1. The benefits of exercise for patients with haemophilia and recommendations for safe and effective physical activity.

    PubMed

    Negrier, C; Seuser, A; Forsyth, A; Lobet, S; Llinas, A; Rosas, M; Heijnen, L

    2013-07-01

    Most health care professionals involved in the management of people with haemophilia (PWH) believe that exercise is beneficial and its practice is widely encouraged. This article aims to demonstrate that appropriate exercise (adapted to the special needs of the individual PWH) may be beneficial for all PWH through improved physical, psychosocial and medical status. Based on evidence gathered from the literature, many PWH, particularly those using long-term prophylaxis or exhibiting a mild/moderate bleeding phenotype, are as active as their healthy peers. PWH experience the same benefits of exercise as the general population, being physically healthier than if sedentary and enjoying a higher quality of life (QoL) through social inclusion and higher self-esteem. PWH can also gain physically from increased muscle strength, joint health, balance and flexibility achieved through physiotherapy, physical activity, exercise and sport. Conversely, very little data exist on activity levels of PWH in countries with limited resources. However, regarding specific exercise recommendations in PWH, there is a lack of randomized clinical trials, and consequently formal, evidence-based guidelines have not been produced. Based on published evidence from this review of the literature, together with the clinical experience of the authors, a series of recommendations for the safe participation of PWH in regular physical activities, exercises and sport are now proposed. In summary, we believe that appropriately modified programmes can potentially allow all PWH to experience the physical and psychosocial benefits of being physically active which may ultimately lead to an improved QoL. PMID:23534844

  2. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  3. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  4. The effect of glutamine supplementation and physical exercise on neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Lagranha, C J; Levada-Pires, A C; Sellitti, D F; Procopio, J; Curi, R; Pithon-Curi, T C

    2008-04-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Its primary source is skeletal muscle, from where it is released into the bloodstream and transported to a variety of tissues. Several studies have shown that glutamine is important for rat and human neutrophil function and that these cells utilize glutamine at high rates. Physical exercise has also been shown to induce considerable changes in neutrophil metabolism and function. As neutrophils represent 50-60% of the total circulating leukocyte pool and play a key role in inflammation, both physical exercise and glutamine might be expected to regulate the inflammatory process. In this review, the changes in neutrophil function induced by physical exercise and glutamine supplementation are compared. PMID:17928941

  5. The importance of supporting adolescents' autonomy in promoting physical-sport exercise.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Hernández, Elisa Huéscar

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted toward the objective of analyzing certain factors that influence physical activity in Spanish adolescent students using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000) as a framework. Participants included 698 physical education students whose perception of the autonomy support provided by their teachers was assessed in and out of the class context. Also assessed were social goals of responsibility and relationship with others, basic psychological needs, and intrinsic motivation, which is part of self-determination theory (SDT). Finally, the "intention" factor posited by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and students' rate of exercise in the last twelve months were considered. The results of structural equations modeling suggest autonomy education, autonomy support, and social goals positively predicted certain psychological mediators, which in turn positively predicted students' intrinsic motivation, which was a positive predictor of intention, and that of rate of exercise. The results also highlight the benefit of promoting autonomy to enhance students' physical exercise practice.

  6. Could physical exercises modulate Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Abreu, C C; Cardozo, L F M F; Mafra, D

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have various metabolic disorders caused by a chronic state of oxidative stress and inflammation, and recently, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has emerged as a factor that plays a significant role in cellular protection against oxidative stress and inflammation. This transcription factor when activated can regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cellular responses leading to the expression of detoxifying enzymes. Studies have shown that Nrf2 expression can be modulated by several factors, such as bioactive compounds and physical exercise. In fact, exercise in CKD patients can bring many benefits; however, there are no studies correlating physical activity and Nrf2 expression in CKD patients. This review aims to discuss whether there is any evidence to justify a recommendation of physical exercise in CKD patients as a non-pharmacological option to activate the Nrf2 pathway. PMID:25466297

  7. Non-exercise physical activity attenuates motor symptoms in Parkinson disease independent from nigrostriatal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jon; Müller, Martijn L.T.M; Kotagal, Vikas; Koeppe, Robert A; Scott, Peter J.H.; Frey, Kirk A; Albin, Roger L.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between time spent in non-exercise and exercise physical activity and severity of motor functions in Parkinson disease (PD). Background Increasing motor impairments of PD incline many patients to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the relationship between duration of both non-exercise and exercise physical activity over a 4-week period using the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire and severity of clinical motor symptoms in PD. We accounted for the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Methods Cross-sectional study. PD subjects, n=48 (40M); 69.4±7.4 (56–84) years old; 8.4±4.2 (2.5–20) years motor disease duration, mean UPDRS motor score 27.5 ± 10.3 (7–53) and mean MMSE score 28.4 ± 1.9 (22–30) underwent [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) PET imaging to assess nigrostriatal denervation and completed the CHAMPS questionnaire and clinical assessment. Results Bivariate correlations showed an inverse relationship between motor UPDRS severity scores and duration of non-exercise physical activity (R= −0.37, P=0.0099) but not with duration of exercise physical activity (R= −0.05, P= 0.76) over 4 weeks. Multiple regression analysis using UPDRS motor score as outcome variable demonstrated a significant regressor effect for duration of non-exercise physical activity (F=6.15, P=0.017) while accounting for effects of nigrostriatal degeneration (F=4.93, P=0.032), levodopa-equivalent dose (LED; F=1.07, P=0.31), age (F=4.37, P=0.043) and duration of disease (F=1.46, P=0.23; total model (F=5.76, P=0.0004). Conclusions Non-exercise physical activity is a correlate of motor symptom severity in PD independent of the magnitude of nigrostriatal degeneration. Non-exercise physical activity may have positive effects on functional performance in PD. PMID:26330028

  8. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible. PMID:25993596

  9. Healthy brain aging: role of exercise and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Yves; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that physical activity has a protective effect on brain functioning in older people. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has shown that regular physical activity prevents dementia, but recent RCTs suggests an improvement of cognitive functioning in persons involved in aerobic programs, and evidence is accumulating from basic research. Future prevention of Alzheimer disease may depend on lifestyle habits such as physical activity.

  10. Exercise, physical fitness, and dietary habits of first-year female nursing students.

    PubMed

    Irazusta, Amaia; Gil, Susana; Ruiz, Fátima; Gondra, Juan; Jauregi, Andoni; Irazusta, Jon; Gil, Javier

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the practice of regular physical exercise, the anthropometrical and physiological characteristics, and the dietary habits of a group of female nursing students (n=46) and of a control group of female students from other disciplines (n=58) attending the University of the Basque Country. To this end, diets and leisure-time physical exercise were analyzed and the following variables were measured: body mass index, body composition, blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), and explosive muscle strength. Results show that the percentage of sedentary students was higher among first-year nursing students (50%) than among other matched students (43.6%). Regular physical exercise in nursing students was found to be positively correlated with higher absolute (p < .01) and relative VO2 max (p < 0.05) and with lower diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Analysis of the diets of the nursing students showed that their energetic intake was deficient and was very low in carbohydrates and very high in fat and protein. Statistically significant differences between the two groups in anthropometric indices were not observed. The competence to provide adequate nutritional and preventive physical exercise recommendations was higher among active final-year nursing students than among sedentary final-year nursing students. Overall, the results of the present study highlight the need for a greater emphasis on the benefits of regular physical exercise and an adequate nutritional education early in the nursing educational program to encourage students to adopt healthier behaviors and to provide more effective preventive physical exercise and nutritional counseling for their future patients. PMID:16552945

  11. [Physical exercise and yoga in prevention and treatment of addictive diseases].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K

    2005-01-01

    Prevention of addictive diseases should be complex and systematic and it should include training of social skills, decision-making skills, family intervention, etc. Similarly, effective treatment is usually long-term, systematic and complex. Physical exercise and yoga can be useful components of comprehensive prevention and treatment programmes. On the other hand, competitive professional sport rather increases the number of risk factors for substance-related problems. Practical experience with the use of yoga in substance dependent patients and pathological gambles are mentioned. One of the advantages of yoga is the integration of physical exercise and relaxation.

  12. Application of machine learning techniques to analyse the effects of physical exercise in ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Juan; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Bataller, Manuel; Serrano, Antonio J; Such-Miquel, Luis; Vila-Francés, Joan; Guerrero, Juan F

    2014-02-01

    This work presents the application of machine learning techniques to analyse the influence of physical exercise in the physiological properties of the heart, during ventricular fibrillation. To this end, different kinds of classifiers (linear and neural models) are used to classify between trained and sedentary rabbit hearts. The use of those classifiers in combination with a wrapper feature selection algorithm allows to extract knowledge about the most relevant features in the problem. The obtained results show that neural models outperform linear classifiers (better performance indices and a better dimensionality reduction). The most relevant features to describe the benefits of physical exercise are those related to myocardial heterogeneity, mean activation rate and activation complexity.

  13. [Physical exercise in the rehabilitation of dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Gołebiowski, Tomasz; Weyde, Wacław; Kusztal, Mariusz; Szymczak, Maciej; Madziarska, Katarzyna; Penar, Józef; Watorek, Ewa; Krajewska, Magdalena; Strempska, Beata; Klinger, Marian

    2009-02-06

    A sedentary lifestyle is one of the main causes of low physical capacity and an independent risk factor for death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD). The physical capacity of ESRD patients is 60% of an age-matched population with normal kidney function. Although muscular dysfunction is of crucial significance in low physical capacity, its etiology is more complex. The influence of uremic toxins, vitamin D3 deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, anemia, insulin resistance, androgen deficiency, mitochondrial dysfunction, malnutrition, inflammation, and cachexia are all taken into consideration. Physical rehabilitation improves physical proficiency, the performance of daily activities, and quality of life. In this review possible methods of rehabilitation and their advantages, disadvantages, and possible complications are presented.

  14. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  15. The effects of physical exercises to mental state and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Acil, A A; Dogan, S; Dogan, O

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of physical exercises programme on mental states and quality of life (QOL) of individuals with schizophrenia. The study involved 30 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia who were assigned randomly into aerobic exercise (n = 15) group and control (n = 15) group, participated to the study voluntarily. There were no personal differences such as age, gender, disorder duration, medication use between the both groups. An aerobic exercise programme was applied to the subject group, the periods of 10 weeks as 3 days in a week. Data were collected by using the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and to the both group before and after the exercise programme. After the 10-week aerobic exercise programmes the subjects in the exercise programme showed significantly decreases in the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory points and their World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Turkish Version points were increased than controls. These results suggest that mild to moderate aerobic exercise is an effective programme for decreasing psychiatric symptoms and for increasing QOL in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Physical Exercise and Brain Mitochondrial Fitness: The Possible Role Against Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, T C; Marques-Aleixo, I; Beleza, J; Oliveira, P J; Ascensão, A; Magalhães, J

    2016-09-01

    Exercise is one of the most effective strategies to maintain a healthy body and mind, with particular beneficial effects of exercise on promoting brain plasticity, increasing cognition and reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Moreover, the beneficial effects resulting from increased physical activity occur at different levels of cellular organization, mitochondria being preferential target organelles. The relevance of this review article relies on the need to integrate the current knowledge of proposed mechanisms, focus mitochondria, to explain the protective effects of exercise that might underlie neuroplasticity and seeks to synthesize these data in the context of exploring exercise as a feasible intervention to delay cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative conditions, particularly Alzheimer disease. PMID:27328058

  17. Framing Honors Physical Geology around Critical Thinking and Communication Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The honors section of freshman geology at LSU has 20-35 highly motivated students with ACT scores above 30. They are usually non-majors and have had no exposure to geosciences in high school. Teaching geology in Louisiana is challenging because there are virtually no rocks exposed at the surface and students with creationist beliefs are common. In addition to exams, this course requires a series of projects: plate reconstruction, minerals in the home, a metaphor for geologic time, volcano research paper, group project on volcanoes, water resources, and a comparison essay on Hurricane Katrina and the 1927 flood of the Mississippi river. The purpose of the projects is to promote critical thinking and communication skills as well as allow students to explore in greater depth topics relevant to their every day lives such as hurricanes. Critical thinking skills emphasized are interrelated processes and systems, variable temporal/spatial scales, and analysis of controversial topics such as the age of the Earth. This course is certified by LSU's Communication across the Curriculum (CxC) program as communication intensive in written and visual communication. CxC certification requires that 40% of grading depend on communication activities. Written communication exercises focus on organization, audience, incorporation and coordination of visual elements, and proper citation of sources. Visual communication exercises include working with maps, charts and graphs, and a group project where they create a poster and/or stand alone slide presentation on volcanoes geared to a middle school audience. Topics such as origin and quality of tap water, how much copper ore is used to build their home, and local geoharzards such as the Baton Rouge Fault generate a higher interest level and higher retention of information. Preliminary assessment is positive including improved exam results, higher student evaluations, recruitment of geology majors, and anecdotal evidence of long term

  18. Non-exercise estimation of VO2max using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as well as submaximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO2max estimation equation derived from the IPAQ-Short Form (IPAQ-S). College-aged males and females (n = 80) completed the IPAQ-S and performed a maximal exercise test. The estimation equation was created with multivariate regression in a gender-balanced subsample of participants, equally representing five levels of fitness (n = 50) and validated in the remaining participants (n = 30). The resulting equation explained 43% of the variance in measured VO2max (SEE = 5.45 ml·kg-1·min-1). Estimated VO2max for 87% of individuals fell within acceptable limits of error observed with submaximal exercise testing (20% error). The IPAQ-S can be used to successfully estimate VO2max as well as submaximal exercise tests. Development of other population-specific estimation equations is warranted. PMID:21927551

  19. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD. PMID:25738234

  20. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  1. Inflammation During Gestation Induced Spatial Memory and Learning Deficits: Attenuated by Physical Exercise in Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajan, Rajesh; Rai, Kiranmai. S.; Gopalakrishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Background Gestational infections induced inflammation (GIII) is a cause of various postnatal neurological deficits in developing countries. Such intra uterine insults could result in persistent learning-memory disabilities. There are no studies elucidating the efficacy of adolescence exercise on spatial learning- memory abilities of young adult rats pre-exposed to inflammatory insult during fetal life. Aims and Objectives The present study addresses the efficacy of physical (running) exercise during adolescent period in attenuating spatial memory deficits induced by exposure to GIII in rats. Materials and Methods Pregnant Wistar dams were randomly divided into control and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, injected intra peritoneally (i.p) with saline (0.5ml) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5mg/kg) on alternate days from gestation day 14 (GD 14) till delivery. After parturition, pups were divided into 3 groups (n=6/group) a) Sham control and LPS group divided into 2 subgroups- b) LPS and c) LPS exercise group. Running exercise was given only to LPS exercise group during postnatal days (PNDs) 30 to 60 (15min/day). Spatial learning and memory performance was assessed by Morris water maze test (MWM), on postnatal day 61 to 67 in all groups. Results Young rats pre-exposed to GIII and subjected to running exercise through juvenile period displayed significant decrease in latency to reach escape platform and spent significant duration in target quadrant in MWM test, compared to age matched LPS group. Results of the current study demonstrated that exercise through juvenile/adolescent period effectively mitigates gestational inflammation-induced cognitive deficits in young adult rats. Conclusion Inflammation during gestation impairs offspring’s spatial memory and learning abilities. Whereas, early postnatal physical exercise attenuates, to higher extent, cognitive impairment resulted from exposure to LPS induced inflammation during intrauterine growth period. PMID:26266117

  2. A 'compare and contrast' exercise: wrapping versus personalised external aortic root support (PEARS).

    PubMed

    Treasure, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Wrapping of the aorta and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) both have the purpose of preventing further expansion of the ascending aorta in order to reduce the risk of aortic dissection and to spare the patient the disastrous consequences of aortic rupture. For the first time, Plonek and colleagues have reported systematically the CT appearances of a series of cases of wrapping. They illustrate the important finding that there are residual spaces between the aorta and the wrap. PEARS by contrast is intimately in contact with the aorta due to its personalised design and is fully incorporated due it construction from a porous mesh. A limitation of PEARS is that it is, of its nature, a planned and elective operation while wrapping can be undertaken during an emergency operation and can be used without prior planning as an intraoperative decision. PMID:27406033

  3. A Comparative Study Evaluating the Impact of Physical Exercise on Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Xhima, Kristiana; Aubert, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that physical exercise can serve as a preventive strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, much less is known about the impact of exercise when it is introduced after cognitive deficits are established. Using the TgCRND8 mouse model of amyloidosis, we compared the effects of exercise as an intervention strategy aimed at altering disease progression. Voluntary running for 1 month or 2 months was introduced in 3-month-old TgCRND8 mice, which exhibit amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaque pathology and cognitive deficits at this age. Specifically, we examined Aβ plaque load, spatial memory, and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. After 1 month of running, TgCRND8 mice spent more time in the novel arm of the Y-maze compared to the familiar arms, indicating improved memory. The levels of doublecortin (a marker of immature neurons) were increased in TgCRND8 mice running for 1 month, but with no significant difference in the number of new mature neurons or plaque burden. As the disease progressed, running prevented further deficits in the Y-maze performance and hippocampal neurogenesis and it reduced plaque load pathology in TgCRND8 mice running for 2 months, compared to non-running transgenics. Therefore, the impact of running on memory, neurogenesis, and amyloid pathology was of greater significance when sustained through later stages of the disease. PMID:27163797

  4. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ristow, Michael; Zarse, Kim; Oberbach, Andreas; Klöting, Nora; Birringer, Marc; Kiehntopf, Michael; Stumvoll, Michael; Kahn, C. Ronald; Blüher, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Exercise promotes longevity and ameliorates type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. However, exercise also increases mitochondrial formation of presumably harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). Antioxidants are widely used as supplements but whether they affect the health-promoting effects of exercise is unknown. We evaluated the effects of a combination of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) and vitamin E (400 IU/day) on insulin sensitivity as measured by glucose infusion rates (GIR) during a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in previously untrained (n = 19) and pretrained (n = 20) healthy young men. Before and after a 4 week intervention of physical exercise, GIR was determined, and muscle biopsies for gene expression analyses as well as plasma samples were obtained to compare changes over baseline and potential influences of vitamins on exercise effects. Exercise increased parameters of insulin sensitivity (GIR and plasma adiponectin) only in the absence of antioxidants in both previously untrained (P < 0.001) and pretrained (P < 0.001) individuals. This was paralleled by increased expression of ROS-sensitive transcriptional regulators of insulin sensitivity and ROS defense capacity, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and PPARγ coactivators PGC1α and PGC1β only in the absence of antioxidants (P < 0.001 for all). Molecular mediators of endogenous ROS defense (superoxide dismutases 1 and 2; glutathione peroxidase) were also induced by exercise, and this effect too was blocked by antioxidant supplementation. Consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, exercise-induced oxidative stress ameliorates insulin resistance and causes an adaptive response promoting endogenous antioxidant defense capacity. Supplementation with antioxidants may preclude these health-promoting effects of exercise in humans. PMID:19433800

  5. Therapeutically relevant structural and functional mechanisms triggered by physical and cognitive exercise

    PubMed Central

    Suo, C; Singh, M F; Gates, N; Wen, W; Sachdev, P; Brodaty, H; Saigal, N; Wilson, G C; Meiklejohn, J; Singh, N; Baune, B T; Baker, M; Foroughi, N; Wang, Y; Mavros, Y; Lampit, A; Leung, I; Valenzuela, M J

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive exercise may prevent or delay dementia in later life but the neural mechanisms underlying these therapeutic benefits are largely unknown. We examined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain changes after 6 months of progressive resistance training (PRT), computerized cognitive training (CCT) or combined intervention. A total of 100 older individuals (68 females, average age=70.1, s.d.±6.7, 55–87 years) with dementia prodrome mild cognitive impairment were recruited in the SMART (Study of Mental Activity and Resistance Training) Trial. Participants were randomly assigned into four intervention groups: PRT+CCT, PRT+SHAM CCT, CCT+SHAM PRT and double SHAM. Multimodal MRI was conducted at baseline and at 6 months of follow-up (immediately after training) to measure structural and spontaneous functional changes in the brain, with a focus on the hippocampus and posterior cingulate regions. Participants' cognitive changes were also assessed before and after training. We found that PRT but not CCT significantly improved global cognition (F(90)=4.1, P<0.05) as well as expanded gray matter in the posterior cingulate (Pcorrected <0.05), and these changes were related to each other (r=0.25, P=0.03). PRT also reversed progression of white matter hyperintensities, a biomarker of cerebrovascular disease, in several brain areas. In contrast, CCT but not PRT attenuated decline in overall memory performance (F(90)=5.7, P<0.02), mediated by enhanced functional connectivity between the hippocampus and superior frontal cortex. Our findings indicate that physical and cognitive training depend on discrete neuronal mechanisms for their therapeutic efficacy, information that may help develop targeted lifestyle-based preventative strategies. PMID:27001615

  6. Effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of cancer-related fatigue: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van Vulpen, Jonna K; Peeters, Petra H M; Velthuis, Miranda J; van der Wall, Elsken; May, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    Cancer-related fatigue has a multidimensional nature and complaints typically increase during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Physical exercise might prevent or reduce cancer-related fatigue. So far, no meta-analysis has investigated the effects of physical exercise on different dimensions of fatigue. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of fatigue. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library in June 2015. Randomised controlled trials reporting the effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on different dimensions of fatigue were included. Pooled effects of 6 exercise programmes (including 784 patients) showed significant beneficial exercise effects on general fatigue (ES: -0.22, 95% CI -0.38; -0.05) and physical fatigue (ES: -0.35, 95% CI -0.49; -0.21). Effects on fatigue subscales 'reduced activity' (ES: -0.22, 95% CI -0.38; -0.05) and 'reduced motivation' (ES: -0.18, 95% CI -0.35; -0.01) were also in favour of physical exercise. No effects were found on cognitive and affective fatigue. Including only the supervised exercise programmes (n=4 studies), slightly larger pooled effect estimates were found on general fatigue (ES: -0.25, 95% CI -0.47; -0.04) and physical fatigue (-0.39, 95% CI -0.56; -0.23). In conclusion, physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment has beneficial effects on general fatigue, physical fatigue, 'reduced activity' and 'reduced motivation', but did not show effects on cognitive and affective fatigue. Largest effect sizes are found for physical fatigue, suggesting that this is the fatigue dimension most sensitive to physical exercise.

  7. Possible Cognitive Benefits of Acute Physical Exercise in Children With ADHD: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Viviane; Alves, Marcus Vinicius; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2014-03-12

    Objective: Studies have suggested that even a single session of physical exercise enhances executive functions. ADHD is among the most common developmental disorders in childhood, but little is known about alternative treatments for this disorder. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of the literature to analyze articles that evaluated the executive functions of children with ADHD after an acute exercise session. Method: We reviewed articles indexed in the PubMed, American Psychiatric Association (APA) psychNET, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases between 1980 and 2013. Results: Of 231 articles selected, only three met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Based on these 3 articles, we concluded that 30 min of physical exercise reportedly improved the executive functions of children with ADHD. Due to the small number of articles selected, further studies are needed to confirm these benefits. PMID:24621460

  8. Possible Cognitive Benefits of Acute Physical Exercise in Children With ADHD: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Viviane; Alves, Marcus Vinicius; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2014-03-12

    Objective: Studies have suggested that even a single session of physical exercise enhances executive functions. ADHD is among the most common developmental disorders in childhood, but little is known about alternative treatments for this disorder. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of the literature to analyze articles that evaluated the executive functions of children with ADHD after an acute exercise session. Method: We reviewed articles indexed in the PubMed, American Psychiatric Association (APA) psychNET, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases between 1980 and 2013. Results: Of 231 articles selected, only three met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Based on these 3 articles, we concluded that 30 min of physical exercise reportedly improved the executive functions of children with ADHD. Due to the small number of articles selected, further studies are needed to confirm these benefits.

  9. The effect of exercise on psychological & physical health outcomes: preliminary results from a Norwegian forensic hospital.

    PubMed

    Tetlie, Trine; Eik-Nes, Norgils; Palmstierna, Tom; Callaghan, Patrick; Nøttestad, Jim A

    2008-07-01

    People with mental illness are more likely to experience physical health problems and die prematurely than are comparable populations. This study evaluated whether exercise, when offered as part of routine treatment, affects the psychological and physical health of patients in a high-secure forensic unit in Norway. Thirteen patients completed a structured exercise program lasting 8 to 12 weeks. After completion of the program, resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure after treadmill testing were significantly improved. In addition, patients' subjective feelings of well-being and safety improved significantly. This study shows that structured exercise is possible to perform with noticeable improvements and low attrition among patients with complex conditions. Implications for future studies and practice are discussed.

  10. Physical exercise during adolescence versus adulthood: differential effects on object recognition memory and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, M E; Nitecki, R; Bucci, D J

    2011-10-27

    It is well established that physical exercise can enhance hippocampal-dependent forms of learning and memory in laboratory animals, commensurate with increases in hippocampal neural plasticity (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] mRNA/protein, neurogenesis, long-term potentiation [LTP]). However, very little is known about the effects of exercise on other, non-spatial forms of learning and memory. In addition, there has been little investigation of the duration of the effects of exercise on behavior or plasticity. Likewise, few studies have compared the effects of exercising during adulthood versus adolescence. This is particularly important since exercise may capitalize on the peak of neural plasticity observed during adolescence, resulting in a different pattern of behavioral and neurobiological effects. The present study addressed these gaps in the literature by comparing the effects of 4 weeks of voluntary exercise (wheel running) during adulthood or adolescence on novel object recognition and BDNF levels in the perirhinal cortex (PER) and hippocampus (HP). Exercising during adulthood improved object recognition memory when rats were tested immediately after 4 weeks of exercise, an effect that was accompanied by increased BDNF levels in PER and HP. When rats were tested again 2 weeks after exercise ended, the effects of exercise on recognition memory and BDNF levels were no longer present. Exercising during adolescence had a very different pattern of effects. First, both exercising and non-exercising rats could discriminate between novel and familiar objects immediately after the exercise regimen ended; furthermore there was no group difference in BDNF levels. Two or four weeks later, however, rats that had previously exercised as adolescents could still discriminate between novel and familiar objects, while non-exercising rats could not. Moreover, the formerly exercising rats exhibited higher levels of BDNF in PER compared to HP, while the reverse was

  11. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  12. Benefits of Physical Exercise on Executive Functions in Older People with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Katia; de Quadros, Antonio Carlos, Jr.; Santos, Ruth Ferreira; Stella, Florindo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature, but the potential benefits to slow the eventual decline in executive functioning (EF) caused by neurodegeneration from Parkinson's Disease (PD) have rarely been studied. Thus the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal…

  13. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  14. A Laboratory Exercise Using a Physical Model for Demonstrating Countercurrent Heat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, Catherine; Davis-Berg, Elizabeth C.; Botz, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    A physical model was used in a laboratory exercise to teach students about countercurrent exchange mechanisms. Countercurrent exchange is the transport of heat or chemicals between fluids moving in opposite directions separated by a permeable barrier (such as blood within adjacent blood vessels flowing in opposite directions). Greater exchange of…

  15. Exercise Program for the Developmentally Disabled: Improving and Maintaining Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Lawrence; And Others

    The manual is designed as a guide for the development of a physical fitness program for handicapped persons. An introduction emphasizes the role of fitness and provides an overview of the 45-minute developmental exercise program described in the following sections. Instructional information adresses such concerns as equipment, vocabulary,…

  16. Guidelines for Undergraduate Exercise Physiology in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program. Guidance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A course in Exercise Physiology is a common requirement among undergraduate students preparing for a career in physical education, adult fitness, or athletic training. Often, such courses are taught to an assortment of students from a variety of disciplines (Van Donselaar & Leslie, 1990) with an emphasis on physiological principles applied to…

  17. Use of Microscale Landforms to Teach Introductory Physical Geography: Planning a Local Field Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    States that firsthand observations of the dynamic process that shapes landforms are important to understanding physical geography. Posits that locally planned, short-duration field exercises to study miniature or fourth-order landforms will enhance instruction about these fundamental geographic concepts. (DB)

  18. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  19. State/Trait Anxiety and Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Physical Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine anxiolytic effects of acute physical exertions in relation to the initial anxiety state and trait in women. Material and methods: A group of 163 women aged 16-56 years, attending fitness clubs in Warsaw, participated in the study. They selected a single exercise to perform--strength, aerobic or mixed, lasting 30 to over 60…

  20. Effects of Integrated Physical Exercises and Gestures on Preschool Children's Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Okely, Anthony D.; Chandler, Paul; Cliff, Dylan P.; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that integrating human movement into a cognitive learning task can be effective for learning due to its cognitive and physiological effects. In this study, the learning effects of enacting words through whole-body movements (i.e., physical exercise) and part-body movements (i.e., gestures) were investigated in a foreign language…

  1. Modified Delphi Investigation of Exercise Science in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulger, Sean M.; Housner, Lynn D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the critical exercise science competencies and associated instructional methods recommended for inclusion in the physical education teacher education curriculum. The two-round modified Delphi procedure involved the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a small panel of content experts. The Delphi…

  2. Self-Regulation of Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Attitudes towards Exercise and Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in self-regulation of attitudes towards engaging in exercise and eating a healthy diet between physical education teacher education (PETE) students and general education (GE) students, and between male students and female students. Participants were university students (n = 194) at a university…

  3. Physical exercise or micronutrient supplementation for the wellbeing of the frail elderly? A randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chin, A; de Jong, N; Schouten, E; van Staveren, W A; Kok, F

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of 17 weeks of physical exercise and micronutrient supplementation on the psychological wellbeing of 139 independently living, frail, elderly subjects (inactive, body mass index ≤25 or experiencing weight loss). Methods: Participants (mean (SD) age 78.5 (5.7)) were randomly assigned to: (a) comprehensive, moderate intensity, group exercise; (b) daily micronutrient enriched foods (25–100% recommended daily amount); (c) both; (d) neither. A social programme and identical regular foods were offered as attention control and placebo. Results: At baseline, moderate to low but significant correlations were found between general wellbeing scores and physical fitness (r = 0.28), functional performance (r = 0.37), and blood concentrations of pyridoxine (r = 0.20), folate (r = 0.25), and vitamin D (r = 0.23) (all p values ≤0.02), but not with physical activity levels and other blood vitamin concentrations. General wellbeing score and self rated health were not responsive to 17 weeks of exercise or nutritional intervention. Conclusion: Psychological wellbeing in frail elderly people was not responsive to 17 weeks of intervention with exercise and/or micronutrient enriched foods. The moderate but significant correlations between wellbeing and physical fitness and several blood vitamin concentrations at baseline suggest that changes in wellbeing may occur after long term interventions. PMID:11916896

  4. Effects of synergistic massage and physical exercise on the expression of angiogenic markers in rat tendons.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, Waldemar; Kassolik, Krzysztof; Dziegiel, Piotr; Pula, Bartosz; Ratajczak-Wielgomas, Katarzyna; Jablonska, Karolina; Kurpas, Donata; Halski, Tomasz; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise and massage are regarded as key factors in regulating tendon structure. However, information on the mechanism through which massage influences the structure and biology of a tendon is scarce. In this study, we attempted to define the impact of these two activities on rat tendons by using morphological and molecular techniques, determining the expression of VEGF-A, FGF-2, and CD34 in the tendons of rats subjected to 10 weeks of physical exercise (running) with massage of varied duration. The group of rats that was trained and massaged during the entire study was characterized by the highest expression of these markers, compared to the rats subjected to massage before training and to the control group subjected to physical exercises only. The greatest significant differences, compared to the control, were noted in the expression of all the studied markers at mRNA level, and in the case of VEGF-A, at protein level, in the third and fifth weeks of the experiment. The results of this study could point to the synergistic impact of simultaneous massage and physical exercise on the expression of angiogenesis markers in rat tendons.

  5. Fitness Load and Exercise Time in Secondary Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao Jun; Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the effect of secondary school physical education on fitness load: the product of the mean heart rate above threshold (144 bpm) and the time duration of heart rate above that threshold. Highly and moderately skilled students achieved fitness load more frequently than their lower skilled colleagues. (GLR)

  6. Exercising Your Rights: Eliminating Sex Bias in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Katrin, Susan E.

    A module on sex stereotyping and its effect on physical education is described. This unit is a part of a series of instructional modules on sex-role stereotyping in education. Designed to be used independently or to supplement an existing instructional unit, the module is composed of a 25-minute tape, five transparency masters, three handouts, and…

  7. Physical Education Curriculum Priorities: "Safe" Exercise Is Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing physical activity among America's youth is critical in helping to combat chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, finding the right sporting activities for the youth is important, as is making appropriate biomechanical adjustments or behavior modifications that create a safer means of participation. In this article, the…

  8. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  9. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  10. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed

    Duzel, Emrah; van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it's potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry-brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability. PMID:26912638

  11. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed

    Duzel, Emrah; van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it's potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry-brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer's disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability.

  12. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  13. Can physical exercise in old age improve memory and hippocampal function?

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, Henriette; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise can convey a protective effect against cognitive decline in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. While the long-term health-promoting and protective effects of exercise are encouraging, it’s potential to induce neuronal and vascular plasticity in the ageing brain is still poorly understood. It remains unclear whether exercise slows the trajectory of normal ageing by modifying vascular and metabolic risk factors and/or consistently boosts brain function by inducing structural and neurochemical changes in the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe circuitry—brain areas that are important for learning and memory. Hence, it remains to be established to what extent exercise interventions in old age can improve brain plasticity above and beyond preservation of function. Existing data suggest that exercise trials aiming for improvement and preservation may require different outcome measures and that the balance between the two may depend on exercise intensity and duration, the presence of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease pathology, vascular and metabolic risk factors and genetic variability. PMID:26912638

  14. Relations of body esteem factors with exercise session attendance in women initiating a physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2005-06-01

    Based on tenets of cognitive behavioral and social cognitive theory, the association of change in body-esteem factors and attendance in a newly initiated, 12-wk. cardiovascular exercise program was estimated in women (age range=21 to 60 years, M=41.4, SD= 12.2). For the group given the exercise program (n=48), there were significant positive changes on the Weight Control and Physical Condition scores of the Body Esteem Scale at 12 weeks, but not on Sexual Attractiveness scores. For the no-exercise control group (n=30), no significant changes were found on any of the Body Esteem Scale subscales. For the exercise group, regression analyses indicated between 8% and 9% of the variance in exercise session attendance was accounted for by the changes in scores on each of the three subscales. Entering age into multiple regression equations did not increase the explained variances in attendance. The fit of the findings within behavioral theory, implications for change in exercise behavior, and the need for replication and extension were discussed. PMID:16158686

  15. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based) versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength), in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360) are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at the Netherlands Trial

  16. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  17. The possible role of physical exercise on the treatment of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Bonfá, Eloísa; Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2009-03-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that share some symptoms such as muscular weakness and inflammation of skeletal muscle. Complete recovery of muscle function with pharmacological treatment does not always occur, suggesting that physical inability is a great concern for these patients. In this context, it has been speculated that physical exercise could result in functional benefits to patients with IIM, leading to an improvement in quality of life. In fact, recent studies of polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) support the notion that exercise training improves or at least stabilizes muscle strength and functional ability without inducing disease flares. Importantly, these benefits were observed not only during the chronic phase, but also in the course of active disease. This positive effect was found to be long term, as demonstrated by a six-month significant improvement in exercise capacity and strength. Together, these findings indicate that a well controlled exercise program can be recommended for patients with DM and PM. The optimal exercise modality training and the underlying mechanism for this encouraging response remain to be determined in future studies.

  18. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training.

    PubMed

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-06-27

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire -2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks' λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p < 0.001, η(2) = 0.01]. The hypothesized structural equation model, which considered the self-determination theory, showed a good fit to the data (S-B χ(2) = 234.703; p= .001; df = 52; χ(2)/df = 4.514; SRMS = .049; NNFI = .906; CFI = .926; RMSEA = .077; RMSEA 90% CI = .067 - .088). However, in the comparative analysis, the perception of autonomy support, relatedness and competence were significantly higher in the context of personal training, while the amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies.

  19. Art of preserving health: studies on the medical supervision of physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Alan J

    2009-12-01

    To the ancient Greeks, physical exercise was an essential part of life, especially during adolescence and young adulthood. Long after the end of the Classical Greek era, Roman conquest brought a shift towards martial training, increased professionalism in athletic competition and a weak strand of restorative gymnastics kept barely intact by the likes of Galen. While the crux of these teachings was the use of exercise, among other things, to promote and maintain health, the emphasis began to shift to concerns about the health of athletes and the medical problems brought about by exercise. Fashions in athletic training began to change in the mid-nineteenth century, but the mystique associated with athletic training pervaded much of the thinking and still persists today where, in this modern scientific period of exercise and health, physiologists, physical educators and physicians have become involved in seeking to apply the scientific method to what has become known as exercise science. The modern concept of sports medicine tends to emphasize the training and welfare of the elite athlete.

  20. Patients' mental models and adherence to outpatient physical therapy home exercise programs.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Jon

    2015-05-01

    Within physical therapy, patient adherence usually relates to attending appointments, following advice, and/or undertaking prescribed exercise. Similar to findings for general medical adherence, patient adherence to physical therapy home exercise programs (HEP) is estimated between 35 and 72%. Adherence to HEPs is a multifactorial and poorly understood phenomenon, with no consensus regarding a common theoretical framework that best guides empirical or clinical efforts. Mental models, a construct used to explain behavior and decision-making in the social sciences, may serve as this framework. Mental models comprise an individual's tacit thoughts about how the world works. They include assumptions about new experiences and expectations for the future based on implicit comparisons between current and past experiences. Mental models play an important role in decision-making and guiding actions. This professional theoretical article discusses empirical research demonstrating relationships among mental models, prior experience, and adherence decisions in medical and physical therapy contexts. Specific issues related to mental models and physical therapy patient adherence are discussed, including the importance of articulation of patients' mental models, assessment of patients' mental models that relate to exercise program adherence, discrepancy between patient and provider mental models, and revision of patients' mental models in ways that enhance adherence. The article concludes with practical implications for physical therapists and recommendations for further research to better understand the role of mental models in physical therapy patient adherence behavior. PMID:25585516

  1. Relationship of physical characteristics and life habits to treadmill exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Leon, A S; Jacobs, D R; DeBacker, G; Taylor, H L

    1981-06-01

    Apparently healthy middle-aged men (n = 175) were recruited from a population sample and completed questionnaires about habitual physical activity, smoking, beverage consumption and sleep habits. Body mass index (BMI), heart rate and blood pressure were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise; frequency of ventricular premature beats (VPB) on an ECG rhythm strip; hand grip strength; and serum cholesterol. These characteristics were correlated with duration of treadmill exercise by the Bruce protocol. Univariate analysis indicated that treadmill performance was significantly and positively correlated with leisure-time physical activity and personal reports of sweating and/or dyspnea occurring regularly during such physical activity. Performance was negatively correlated with age, BMI, resting heart rate, cigarette smoking, and consumption of caffeine-containing beverages, but was insignificantly related to job physical activity, hand grip strength, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, blood pressure, cigar smoking, serum cholesterol, and the frequency of VPB. A 0.75 multiple correlation coefficient was found between treadmill performance and 11 of the above variables and the r is increased to 0.81 by adding heart rate during submaximal exercise. It is concluded that substantial prediction of work capacity and physical fitness of population is achieved by questionnaires and easily obtained, noninvasive physical measures.

  2. The effects of empowered motivation on exercise adherence and physical fitness in college women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sook-Jung; Cho, Bok-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of exercise adherence when exercise motivation was empowered. It was planned as a pretest-posttest nonequivalent quasi-experimental design. The study subjects were female college students who wanted exercise and agreed to participate in the Jane Fonda Workout Program (1982) for a period of six months. The subject sample was divided into an experimental group and a control group by college department to prevent contamination of the intervention, which promotes long-term exercise-program adherence through the EMPOWER Step Program. All subjects’ body composition and physical fitness were measured using the Inbody (520) Body Composition Analyzer and Helmas (Korea) measuring equipment. Cronbach’s α, t-test, odds ratio and analysis of covariance were used to analyze the data using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program. According to the results the experimental group showed a 66.66% exercise adherence success rate and the control group showed only a 26.31% success rate (OR= 5.60, P= 0.01; t= 2.932, P= 0.006). Skeletal muscle mass was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (F= 8.45, P= 0.006). Body fat mass decreased significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group (F= 6.08 P= 0.01). Empowered motivation has positive effects on adherence to exercise regimes and physical fitness in female college students. Therefore it is suggested to actively utilize the EMPOWER Step Program to foster long-term exercise. PMID:24278872

  3. Perioperative physical exercise interventions for patients undergoing lung cancer surgery: What is the evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Mainini, Carlotta; Rebelo, Patrícia FS; Bardelli, Roberta; Kopliku, Besa; Tenconi, Sara; Costi, Stefania; Tedeschi, Claudio; Fugazzaro, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection appears to be the most effective treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Recent studies suggest that perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves functional capacity, reduces mortality and postoperative complications and enhances recovery and quality of life in operated patients. Our aim is to analyse and identify the most recent evidence-based physical exercise interventions, performed before or after surgery. We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. We included randomised controlled trials aimed at assessing efficacy of exercise-training programmes; physical therapy interventions had to be described in detail in order to be reproducible. Characteristics of studies and programmes, results and outcome data were extracted. Six studies were included, one describing preoperative rehabilitation and three assessing postoperative intervention. It seems that the best preoperative physical therapy training should include aerobic and strength training with a duration of 2–4 weeks. Although results showed improvement in exercise performance after preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation, it was not possible to identify the best preoperative intervention due to paucity of clinical trials in this area. Physical training programmes differed in every postoperative study with conflicting results, so comparison is difficult. Current literature shows inconsistent results regarding preoperative or postoperative physical exercise in patients undergoing lung resection. Even though few randomised trials were retrieved, treatment protocols were difficult to compare due to variability in design and implementation. Further studies with larger samples and better methodological quality are urgently needed to assess efficacy of both preoperative and postoperative exercise programmes. PMID:27803808

  4. Physical exercise improves arterial stiffness after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Hubli, Michèle; Currie, Katharine D.; West, Christopher R.; Gee, Cameron M.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective/background Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), the gold-standard assessment of central arterial stiffness, has prognostic value for cardiovascular disease risk in able-bodied individuals. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV in athletes and non-athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Cross-sectional comparison. Methods Aortic PWV was assessed in 20 individuals with motor-complete, chronic SCI (C2–T5; 18 ± 8 years post-injury) using applanation tonometry at the carotid and femoral arterial sites. Ten elite hand-cyclists were matched for sex to 10 non-athletes; age and time since injury were comparable between the groups. Heart rate and discrete brachial blood pressure measurements were collected throughout testing. Outcome measures Aortic PWV, blood pressure, heart rate. Results Aortic PWV was significantly lower in athletes vs. non-athletes (6.9 ± 1.0 vs. 8.7 ± 2.5 m/second, P = 0.044). There were no significant between-group differences in resting supine mean arterial blood pressure (91 ± 19 vs. 81 ± 10 mmHg) and heart rate (60 ± 10 vs. 58 ± 6 b.p.m.). Conclusion Athletes with SCI exhibited improved central arterial stiffness compared to non-athletes, which is in agreement with the previous able-bodied literature. This finding implies that chronic exercise training may improve arterial health and potentially lower cardiovascular disease risk in the SCI population. PMID:24976366

  5. Influence of the composition of a meal taken after physical exercise on mood, vigilance, performance.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Lagarde, D; Batejat, D; Maitre, J F

    1998-06-01

    The metabolic and behavioral effects of nutrients after exercise on vigilance level, performance, and mood have been minimally studied and have given contradictory results. In order to increase the understanding of the relationships between nutrition, exercise and performance, this experiment compared the effects on mood and performance of a protein- rich meal and a protein- poor meal, eaten just after an acute session of exercise. Vigilance and mood were evaluated by visual analog scales, and memory was measured by memory search task from the AGARD STRES battery, based on the Sternberg paradigm. Forty-two subjects were involved in this experiment. All subjects participated in the study of the effect of exercise after two kinds of meals (protein and nonprotein). Two groups of fourteen subjects we used to evaluate the effect of the exercise and the effect of the delay of meal intake after exercise in the two kinds of diet. The results show no difference in memory performance between exercise and rest conditions, nor between "protein" and "no protein" meal groups. They do show, however, that subjects feel happier after a meal with protein than after a meal without protein. The effects of the "no protein" meal on drowsiness differ with the glucide content of the meal. Subjects are less drowsy when they eat between 125 and 150 g of glucide than when they eat more than 150 g. The rousing effect induced by physical exercise is counterbalanced when subjects eat more than 150 g of carbohydrate. The anxiolytic effect of glucide is re-established.

  6. Healthy food choices and physical activity opportunities in two contrasting Alabama cities.

    PubMed

    Bovell-Benjamin, A C; Hathorn, C S; Ibrahim, S; Gichuhi, P N; Bromfield, E M

    2009-06-01

    Food and physical activity access and availability in two contrasting cities in Alabama were investigated. An in-outlet, observational, cross-sectional design was utilized to assess the opportunities for healthy food choices and physical activity. Thirty retail food outlets and 29 physical activity outlets were inventoried. None of the convenience stores carried frozen, low-sodium or dark-green, yellow vegetables, low-fat milk or yogurt, low-sodium and low-fat cheese, while none of the supermarkets in Tuskegee stocked low-sodium vegetables. In Tuskegee, the single public recreational area, which offered activities such as basketball, fees ranged from $25 to $35/month. Tuskegee has a shortage of "chain" supermarkets and a dominance of convenience stores which stocked few healthy foods. Overall, there are limited opportunities for healthy food and physical activity choices, which could be a barrier for chronic disease prevention efforts.

  7. Free fall of a cat—freshman physics exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studnička, Filip; Šlégr, Jan; Štegner, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculation of the terminal velocity of falling cat, taking the air drag into account. The results show that a fall from the seventh floor is critical for the cat so we introduce a new quantity called the ‘coefficient of the cat’s fear’ during free fall. A subsequent experiment with a model of a cat carrying the accelerometer confirmed this conclusion. This calculation and experiment can act as a strong motivational factor during introductory physics courses.

  8. Acute effects of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Komatsu, Kazutoshi; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    We examined the acute effect of physical exercise on prefrontal cortex activity in older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Fourteen older adults visited our laboratory twice: once for exercise and once for the control condition. On each visit, subjects performed working memory tasks before and after moderate intensity exercise with a cycling ergo-meter. We measured the NIRS response at the prefrontal cortex during the working memory task. We found that physical exercise improved behavioral performance of the working memory task compared with the control condition. Moreover, NIRS analysis showed that physical exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity, especially in the left hemisphere, during the working memory task. These findings suggest that the moderate intensity exercise enhanced the prefrontal cortex activity associated with working memory performance in older adults.

  9. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for <7.5, 7.5 to <16.5, and ≥16.5 metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  10. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  11. Effects of a DVD-Delivered Exercise Intervention on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the rapidly increasing demographic of older adults, it is vital to implement effective behavioral strategies to improve physical function to maintain activities of daily living. However, changing physical activity in older adults remains extremely difficult. The current trial tested the efficacy of a novel, 6-month, home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program focusing on flexibility, balance, and toning on the physical function of older adults. Methods. Older adults (N = 307) were recruited from 83 towns and cities throughout central Illinois. The trial consisted of 4 waves of recruitment and randomization from May 2010 through January 2012. Inclusion criteria included being inactive, at least 65 years of age, English speaking, providing physician’s consent, and willingness to be randomized. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment conditions: the exercise intervention or a healthy aging, attentional control. Functional assessments were completed at baseline and following the 6-month DVD intervention. Measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery, assessments of flexibility and strength, and self-reported functional limitations. Results. Participants in the DVD intervention condition demonstrated significant improvements in the Short Physical Performance Battery (p = .005), lower extremity flexibility (p = .04), and upper body strength (p = .003). There were no effects of the intervention on self-reported functional limitations. Conclusions. The exercise intervention produced a clinically significant improvement in the Short Physical Performance Battery and improvements in flexibility and strength, demonstrating the effectiveness of a low-cost DVD exercise program in improving physical function in older adults. PMID:23401566

  12. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted. PMID:25764792

  13. [Physical exercise and mental health: cognition, anxiety, depression and self-concept].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Wang, John; Yao, Jia-Xin; Ji, Cheng-Shu; Dai, Qun; Jin, Ya-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the benefits of regular physical activity participation have mainly focused on cognitive functioning, anxiety and depression, and self-concept. It is well documented that ex- ercise can enhance cognitive functioning, improve executive function at old age, and improve mental abil- ity of children labeled as educational subnormal or disability. Regular exercise has been used to reduce stress and ward off anxiety and feelings of depression. In addition, exercise can improve self-esteem and positive outlook in life. Studies in these three main areas were reviewed and issues and future directions were highlighted.

  14. Effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms and biomarkers in depression.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Josefsson, Torbjorn; Lindwall, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Regular physical exercise/activity has been shown repeatedly to promote positive benefits in cognitive, emotional and motor domains concomitant with reductions in distress and negative affect. It exerts a preventative role in anxiety and depressive states and facilitates psychological well-being in both adolescents and adults. Not least, several meta-analyses attest to improvements brought about by exercise. In the present treatise, the beneficial effects of exercise upon cognitive, executive function and working memory, emotional, self-esteem and depressed mood, motivational, anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, and somatic/physical, sleep disturbances and chronic aches and pains, categories of depression are discussed. Concurrently, the amelioration of several biomarkers associated with depressive states: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis homeostasis, anti-neurodegenerative effects, monoamine metabolism regulation and neuroimmune functioning. The notion that physical exercise may function as "scaffolding" that buttresses available network circuits, anti-inflammatory defences and neuroreparative processes, e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), holds a certain appeal. PMID:25470398

  15. [MicroRNAs: circulating biomarkers in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Banoy, Nicolás; Mockus, Ismena

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding molecules with a crucial function in the cell´s biologic regulation. Circulating levels of miRNAs may be useful biomarkers in metabolic diseases such as type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), which alters the circulating concentrations of several types of miRNA. Specific serum profiles of these molecules have been identified in high-risk patients before the development of DM2 and its chronic complications. Most importantly, these profiles can be modified with physical exercise, which is crucial in the treatment of metabolic diseases. Acute physical activity alone can induce changes in tissue specific miRNAs, and responses are different in aerobic or non-aerobic training. Muscle and cardiovascular miRNAs, which may play an important role in the adap tation to exercise, are predominantly altered. Even further, there is a correlation between serum levels of miRNAs and fitness, suggesting a role for chronic exercise in their regulation. Thus, miRNAs are molecules of growing importance in exercise physiology, and may be involved in the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of physical activity for patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:27299822

  16. Dizziness, Physical Exercise, Falls, and Depression in Adults and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Wender, Mariane Heckmann; Gonçalves, Andréa Kruger; Freitas, Cíntia de La Rocha; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dizziness is a symptom that can lead to falls, which, in turn, undermine onés independence and autonomy, leading to several comorbidities. The practice of physical exercise, however, can help prevent falls. Objective The objective of this study is to confirm the association between physical exercise, dizziness, probability of falling, and depressive symptoms in a group of middle-aged adults and seniors. Methods The authors evaluated subjects based on history, the Geriatric Depression Scale, and functional reach test. Results The sample consisted of 90 individuals with a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.8 years. The authors found that 37.8% had been practicing exercise, 33.7% had depressive symptoms, and their probability of falling was above average in the functional reach test. Conclusion The results of this study indicated an association between dizziness, exercise practice and depressive symptoms, indicating that physical activity is a beneficial factor for the aging population. PMID:27096016

  17. Effects of a 12-week resistance exercise program on physical self-perceptions in college students.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Mitchell, Nathanael G; Bibeau, Wendy S; Bartholomew, John B

    2011-06-01

    There is an increase in literature suggesting exercise can promote positive changes in physical self-perceptions that can manifest as an increase in global self-esteem. In the present study, we assessed self-esteem using the hierarchical framework of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) along with cognitive facets at the subdomain level (e.g., competence, certainty, importance, and ideal self-discrepancy). This allowed for an analysis of cognitive facets as possible contributors to changes in physical self-perceptions. We addressed these aims with a sample of 120 college-age adults who completed a 12-week resistance exercise program. Results indicated significant improvements in self-perception constructs at all levels of the EXSEM. The hierarchical structure of the EXSEM was partially supported, as we observed successively smaller improvements at each level of the model (e.g., self-esteem showed lesser improvements than physical self-worth). In addition, a path model developed to explain the impact of strength changes on self-esteem proved a good fit for the data. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of self-perception, potential mediators of exercise on self-esteem, and the need to consider cognitive facets of self-perception. PMID:21699109

  18. Oxidative Stress Is a Central Target for Physical Exercise Neuroprotection Against Pathological Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    García-Mesa, Yoelvis; Colie, Sandra; Corpas, Rubén; Cristòfol, Rosa; Comellas, Francesc; Nebreda, Angel R; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is suggested for preventing or delaying senescence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have examined its therapeutic value in the advanced stage of AD-like pathology in 3xTg-AD female mice through voluntary wheel running from 12 to 15 months of age. Mice submitted to exercise showed improved body fitness, immunorejuvenation, improvement of behavior and cognition, and reduced amyloid and tau pathology. Brain tissue analysis of aged 3xTg-AD mice showed high levels of oxidative damage. However, this damage was decreased by physical exercise through regulation of redox homeostasis. Network analyses showed that oxidative stress was a central event, which correlated with AD-like pathology and the AD-related behaviors of anxiety, apathy, and cognitive loss. This study corroborates the importance of redox mechanisms in the neuroprotective effect of physical exercise, and supports the theory of the crucial role of oxidative stress in the switch from normal brain aging to pathological aging and AD.

  19. Effects of physical exercise on spatial memory and astroglial alterations in the hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    de Senna, Priscylla Nunes; Ilha, Jocemar; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; do Nascimento, Patrícia Severo; Leite, Marina Concli; Paim, Mariana Fontoura; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Achaval, Matilde; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2011-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction and astrogliosis. Physical exercise prevents cognitive impairments and induces important brain modifications. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise on spatial memory and astrocytic function in the hippocampus of a T1DM model. Fifty-seven Wistar rats were divided into four groups: trained control (TC) (n = 15), non-trained control (NTC) (n = 13), trained diabetic (TD) (n = 14) and non-trained diabetic (NTD) (n = 15). One month after streptozotocin-induced diabetes, exercise groups were submitted to 5 weeks of physical training, and then, all groups were assessed in the novel object-placement recognition task. Locomotor activity was analyzed in the open field apparatus using Any-maze software. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B in hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid were measured using ELISA assay, and hippocampal GFAP immunoreactivity was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry and optical densitometry. The results showed that physical exercise prevents and/or reverts spatial memory impairments observed in NTD animals (P < 0.01). Decreased locomotor activity was observed in both the NTD and TD groups when compared with controls (P < 0.05). ELISA and immunohistochemistry analyzes showed there was a reduction in GFAP levels in the hippocampus of NTD animals, which was not found in TD group. ELISA also showed an increase in S100B levels in the cerebrospinal fluid from the NTD group (P < 0.01) and no such increase was found in the TD group. Our findings indicate that physical exercise prevents and/or reverts the cognitive deficits and astroglial alterations induced by T1DM.

  20. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered. PMID:24154584

  1. The redox-associated adaptive response of brain to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Radak, Z; Ihasz, F; Koltai, E; Goto, S; Taylor, A W; Boldogh, I

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated during metabolism. ROS are involved in redox signaling, but in significant concentrations they can greatly elevate oxidative damage leading to neurodegeneration. Because of the enhanced sensitivity of brain to ROS, it is especially important to maintain a normal redox state in brain and spinal cord cell types. The complex effects of exercise benefit brain function, including functional enhancement as well as its preventive and therapeutic roles. Exercise can induce neurogenesis via neurotrophic factors, increase capillarization, decrease oxidative damage, and enhance repair of oxidative damage. Exercise is also effective in attenuating age-associated loss in brain function, which suggests that physical activity-related complex metabolic and redox changes are important for a healthy neural system.

  2. Unobtrusive heart rate estimation during physical exercise using photoplethysmographic and acceleration data.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Patrick; Kanzler, Christoph M; Lorch, Benedikt; Schroeder, Lea; Winkler, Ludwig; Laich, Larissa; Riedel, Frederik; Richer, Robert; Luckner, Christoph; Leutheuser, Heike; Eskofier, Bjoern M; Pasluosta, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive, inexpensive and unobtrusive method to achieve heart rate monitoring during physical exercises. Motion artifacts during exercise challenge the heart rate estimation from wrist-type PPG signals. This paper presents a methodology to overcome these limitation by incorporating acceleration information. The proposed algorithm consisted of four stages: (1) A wavelet based denoising, (2) an acceleration based denoising, (3) a frequency based approach to estimate the heart rate followed by (4) a postprocessing step. Experiments with different movement types such as running and rehabilitation exercises were used for algorithm design and development. Evaluation of our heart rate estimation showed that a mean absolute error 1.96 bpm (beats per minute) with standard deviation of 2.86 bpm and a correlation of 0.98 was achieved with our method. These findings suggest that the proposed methodology is robust to motion artifacts and is therefore applicable for heart rate monitoring during sports and rehabilitation. PMID:26737687

  3. Possible synergism of physical exercise and ghrelin-agonists in patients with cachexia associated with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, M; Carda, S; Cisari, C

    2014-08-01

    The occurrence of cachexia of multifactorial etiology in chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common and underestimated condition that usually leads to poor outcome and low survival rates, with high direct and indirect costs for the Health Care System. Recently, a consensus definition on cachexia has been reached, leading to a growing interest by the scientific community in this condition, which characterizes the last phase of many chronic diseases (i.e., cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). The etiology of cachexia is multifactorial and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are essentially the following: anorexia and malnourishment; immune overactivity and systemic inflammation; and endocrine disorders (anabolic/catabolic imbalance and resistance to growth hormone). In this paper, we review the main pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CHF cachexia, focusing also on the broad spectrum of actions of ghrelin and ghrelin agonists, and their possible use in combination with physical exercise to contrast CHF cachexia.

  4. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Henning; Othman, Ahmed; Mueckter, Sarah; Scheef, Lukas; Pensel, Max; Daamen, Marcel; Jankowski, Jakob; Schild, Hh; Tölle, Tr; Schreckenberger, M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective attempts to outline the emerging role of positron emission tomography (PET) ligand activation studies in human exercise research. By focusing on the endorphinergic system and its acclaimed role for exercise-induced antinociception and mood enhancement, we like to emphasize the unique potential of ligand PET applied to human athletes for uncovering the neurochemistry of exercise-induced psychophysiological phenomena. Compared with conventional approaches, in particular quantification of plasma beta-endorphin levels under exercise challenges, which are reviewed in this article, studying opioidergic effects directly in the central nervous system (CNS) with PET and relating opioidergic binding changes to neuropsychological assessments, provides a more refined and promising experimental strategy. Although a vast literature dating back to the 1980s of the last century has been able to reproducibly demonstrate peripheral increases of beta-endorphin levels after various exercise challenges, so far, these studies have failed to establish robust links between peripheral beta-endorphin levels and centrally mediated behavioral effects, ie, modulation of mood and/or pain perception. As the quantitative relation between endorphins in the peripheral blood and the CNS remains unknown, the question arises, to what extent conventional blood-based methods can inform researchers about central neurotransmitter effects. As previous studies using receptor blocking approaches have also revealed equivocal results regarding exercise effects on pain and mood processing, it is expected that PET and other functional neuroimaging applications in athletes may in future help uncover some of the hitherto unknown links between neurotransmission and psychophysiological effects related to physical exercise. PMID:24198554

  5. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Skishahr, Farnaz; Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr; Babaei, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  6. Physical Training Status Determines Oxidative Stress and Redox Changes in Response to an Acute Aerobic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT), moderately trained (MT), and untrained (UT) groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS), and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs) were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p = 0.001) and Cys/CySS (p = 0.005) were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p = 0.860), while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p = 0.003) and elevation (p = 0.007) in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases. PMID:27064342

  7. Effects of acute and chronic physical exercise and stress on different types of memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Mello, Pâmela Billig; Benetti, Fernando; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2008-06-01

    Here we study the effect of acute and chronic physical exercise in a treadmill and of daily stress (because forced exercise involves a degree of stress) during 2 or 8 weeks on different types of memory in male Wistar rats. The memory tests employed were: habituation in an open field, object recognition and spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Daily foot-shock stress enhanced habituation learning after 2 but not after 8 weeks; it hindered both short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) of the recognition task at 2 weeks but only STM after 8 weeks and had no effect on spatial learning after either 2 or 8 weeks. Acute but not chronic exercise also enhanced habituation in the open field and hindered STM and LTM in the recognition task. Chronic exercise enhanced one important measure of spatial learning (latency to escape) but not others. Our findings indicate that some care must be taken when interpreting effects of forced exercise on brain parameters since at least part of them may be due to the stress inherent to the training procedure.

  8. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Skeletal Muscle Sequelae after Stroke: Role of Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Coelho Junior, Hélio José; Gambassi, Bruno Bavaresco; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Fernandes, Isabela Maia da Cruz; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in poststroke patients remain poorly understood. Thus, in this study we analyze the candidate mechanisms associated with muscle atrophy in stroke patients, as well as the modulatory effect of inflammation in this condition. Later, we suggest the two strongest anti-inflammatory candidate mechanisms, myokines and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which may be activated by physical exercise and may contribute to a decrease in proinflammatory markers of poststroke patients. PMID:27647951

  9. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Skeletal Muscle Sequelae after Stroke: Role of Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Coelho Junior, Hélio José; Gambassi, Bruno Bavaresco; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Fernandes, Isabela Maia da Cruz; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in poststroke patients remain poorly understood. Thus, in this study we analyze the candidate mechanisms associated with muscle atrophy in stroke patients, as well as the modulatory effect of inflammation in this condition. Later, we suggest the two strongest anti-inflammatory candidate mechanisms, myokines and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which may be activated by physical exercise and may contribute to a decrease in proinflammatory markers of poststroke patients.

  10. Inflammatory Mechanisms Associated with Skeletal Muscle Sequelae after Stroke: Role of Physical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Coelho Junior, Hélio José; Gambassi, Bruno Bavaresco; Diniz, Tiego Aparecido; Fernandes, Isabela Maia da Cruz; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are increased systematically and locally (e.g., skeletal muscle) in stroke patients. Besides being associated with cardiovascular risk factors, proinflammatory cytokines seem to play a key role in muscle atrophy by regulating the pathways involved in this condition. As such, they may cause severe decrease in muscle strength and power, as well as impairment in cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, physical exercise (PE) has been widely suggested as a powerful tool for treating stroke patients, since PE is able to regenerate, even if partially, physical and cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical exercise in poststroke patients remain poorly understood. Thus, in this study we analyze the candidate mechanisms associated with muscle atrophy in stroke patients, as well as the modulatory effect of inflammation in this condition. Later, we suggest the two strongest anti-inflammatory candidate mechanisms, myokines and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which may be activated by physical exercise and may contribute to a decrease in proinflammatory markers of poststroke patients. PMID:27647951

  11. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Spontaneous Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Overweight Boys: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Paravidino, Vitor Barreto; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of different exercise intensities on spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure in overweight adolescents. Methods A crossover study was developed with a control session, followed by moderate and vigorous exercise sessions, with six days of monitoring each. Twenty-four adolescents, 11–13 years old, male and overweight were selected. Spontaneous physical activity energy expenditure was assessed by accelerometers. Linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate the differences per session across time. Results Energy expenditure during the 1st hour was different between all three sessions, with averages of 82, 286 and 343 kcal to the control, moderate and vigorous sessions, respectively (p <0.001). The same pattern of difference in energy expenditure between the sessions remained after 24 hours (704 vs 970 vs 1056 kcal, p <0.001). However, energy expenditure during the six days indicates compensation from second to the sixth day, although small differences remained at the end of the 6-day period (5102 vs 5193 vs 5271 kcal, p <0.001). Conclusions A single aerobic session seems to modify the spontaneous physical activities in overweight adolescents but still keeping the vigorous session with higher total energy expenditure during the follow-up period. Despite the observed compensatory effect, the greater energy expenditure observed in both moderate and vigorous exercise sessions indicates that physical activity should be recommended to promote an increased energy expenditure in adolescents. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 02272088 PMID:26771742

  12. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance. PMID:25803290

  13. Measurement of the Effect of Physical Exercise on the Concentration of Individuals with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Alessandro P.; Prado, Sueli O. S.; Scardovelli, Terigi A.; Boschi, Silvia R. M. S.; Campos, Luiz C.; Frère, Annie F.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance. PMID:25803290

  14. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O S; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R M S; Campos, Luiz C; Frère, Annie F

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF) and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF). After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE) and 14 without these symptoms (GC). The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF) showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE). The (GE-EF) group showed similar performance (2.5% difference) with the volunteers in the (GC) group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance.

  15. TNF-α, IL6, and IL10 polymorphisms and the effect of physical exercise on inflammatory parameters and physical performance in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Mateo, Elvis Cristian Cueva; de Queiroz, Bárbara Zille; Assumpção, Alexandra Miranda; Miranda, Aline Silva; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; da Cruz dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2013-12-01

    High levels of inflammatory mediators are associated with reduced physical capabilities and muscle function in the elderly. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect the expression and synthesis of these molecules, thus influencing the intensity of the inflammatory response and susceptibility to certain diseases. Physical exercise may attenuate age-related chronic inflammation and improve physical performance. This study evaluated the interaction between the SNP rs1800629 in TNF-α, rs1800795 in IL6, and rs1800896 in IL10 and the effect of physical exercise on physical performance and inflammation in elderly women. There was a significant interaction between rs1800629 and the effect of exercise on physical performance and between the combined 3-SNP genotype and changes in physical performance in response to exercise. These SNPs did not influence the effect of exercise on inflammatory parameters. Elderly women with a combination of genotypes associated with an anti-inflammatory profile (low TNF-α and IL-6 production, high IL-10 production) showed better physical performance independent of exercise modality, evidence of an interactive influence of genetic and environmental factors on improving physical performance in elderly women.

  16. Physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Sculley, Dean V; Hodson, Jacob A; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether different levels of hypoxia affect physical performance during high-intensity resistance exercise or subsequent cardiovascular and perceptual responses. Twelve resistance-trained young men (age, 25.3 ± 4.3 years; height, 179.0 ± 4.5 cm; body mass, 83.4 ± 9.1 kg) were tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the back squat and deadlift. Following this, participants completed 3 separate randomized trials of 5 × 5 repetitions at 80% 1RM, with 3 minutes rest between sets, in normoxia (NORM; fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 0.21), moderate-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.16), or high-level hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.13) by a portable hypoxic unit. Peak and mean force and power variables were monitored during exercise. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed immediately following each set. No differences in force or power variables were evident between conditions. Similar trends were evident in these variables across each set and across the exercise session in each condition. SpO2 was lower in hypoxic conditions than in NORM, whereas HR was higher following sets performed in hypoxia. There were no differences between conditions in RPE. These results indicate that a hypoxic stimulus during high-intensity resistance exercise does not alter physical performance during repetitions and sets or affect how strenuous exercise is perceived to be. This novel training strategy can be used without adversely affecting the physical training dose experienced and may provide benefits over the equivalent training in NORM. PMID:25226332

  17. We need to move more: Neurobiological hypotheses of physical exercise as a treatment for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato S; Cevada, Thais; Oliveira, Bruno R R; Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo M M; Carvalho, Alessandro; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in the world. The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and chronic inflammation impair specific brain areas, which in turn result in lesser motor control, behavioral changes and cognitive decline. Nowadays, drug-treatments are the foremost approaches in treating PD. However, exercise has been shown to have powerful effects on PD, based on several neurobiological mechanisms. These effects may decrease the risk of developing PD by 33%. However, these mechanisms are unclear and little explored. Among several mechanisms, we propose two specific hypotheses: 1. Physical exercise reduces chronic oxidative stress and stimulates mitochondria biogenesis and up-regulation of authophagy in PD patients. Moreover, antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase) become more active and effective in response to physical exercise. 2. Exercise stimulates neurotransmitter (e.g. dopamine) and trophic factors (BDNF, GDNF, FGF-2, IGF-1, among others) synthesis. These neurochemical phenomena promote neuroplasticity, which, in turn, decreases neural apoptosis and may delay the neurodegeneration process, preventing or decreasing PD development and symptoms, respectively. PMID:26209418

  18. Impact of Treadmill Exercise on Efficacy Expectations, Physical Activity, and Stroke Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Shaughnessy, Marianne; Michael, Kathleen; Resnick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors are at high risk for cardiovascular mortality which can be in part mitigated by increasing physical activity. Self–efficacy for exercise is known to play a role in adoption of exercise behaviors. This study examines self-reported psychological outcomes in a group of 64 stroke survivors randomized to either a 6-month treadmill training program or a stretching program. Results indicated that regardless of group, all study participants experienced increased self efficacy (F=2.95, p=0.09) and outcome expectations for exercise (F= 13.23, p<0.001), and improvements in activities of daily living as reported on the Stroke Impact Scale (F=10.97, p=0 .002). No statistically significant between-group differences were noted, possibly due to the fact that specific interventions designed to enhance efficacy beliefs were not part of the study. Theoretically based interventions should be tested to clarify the role of motivation and potential influence on exercise and physical activity in the post-stroke population. PMID:22210302

  19. Protective Effects of Physical Exercise in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Rolland, Yves; de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are devastating, frequent, and still incurable neurodegenerative diseases that manifest as cognitive and motor disorders. Epidemiological data support an inverse relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) undertaken and the risk of developing these two diseases. Beyond this preventive role, exercise may also slow down their progression. Several mechanisms have been suggested for explaining the benefits of PA in the prevention of AD. Aerobic physical exercise (PE) activates the release of neurotrophic factors and promotes angiogenesis, thereby facilitating neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, which in turn improve memory and cognitive functions. Research has shown that the neuroprotective mechanisms induced by PE are linked to an increased production of superoxide dismutase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and a reduction in the production of free radicals in brain areas such as the hippocampus, which is particularly involved in memory. Other mechanisms have also been reported in the prevention of PD. Exercise limits the alteration in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and contributes to optimal functioning of the basal ganglia involved in motor commands and control by adaptive mechanisms involving dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission. AD and PD are expansive throughout our ageing society, and so even a small impact of nonpharmacological interventions, such as PA and exercise, may have a major impact on public health. PMID:26174783

  20. Previous physical exercise slows down the complications from experimental diabetes in the calcaneal tendon

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; da Silva Nery, Cybelle; de Castro Silveira, Patrícia Verçoza; de Mesquita, Gabriel Nunes; de Gomes Figueiredo, Thainá; Teixeira, Magno Felipe Holanda Barboza Inácio; de Moraes, Silvia Regina Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background the complications caused by diabetes increase fragility in the muscle-tendon system, resulting in degeneration and easier rupture. To avoid this issue, therapies that increase the metabolism of glucose by the body, with physical activity, have been used after the confirmation of diabetes. We evaluate the biomechanical behavior of the calcaneal tendon and the metabolic parameters in rats induced to experimental diabetes and submitted to pre- and post-induction exercise. Methods 54-male-Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control Group (CG), Swimming Group (SG), Diabetic Group (DG), and Diabetic Swimming Group (DSG). The trained groups were submitted to swimming exercise, while unexercised groups remained restricted to the cages. Metabolic and biomechanical parameters were assessed. Results the clinical parameters of DSG showed no change due to exercise protocol. The tendon analysis of the DSG showed increased values for the elastic modulus (p<0.01) and maximum tension (p<0.001) and lowest value for transverse area (p<0.001) when compared to the SG, however it showed no difference when compared to DG. Conclusion the homogeneous values presented by the tendons of the DG and DSG show that physical exercise applied in the pre- and post-induction wasn’t enough to promote a protective effect against the tendinopathy process, but prevent the progress of degeneration. PMID:27331036

  1. Effects of Home Exercise on Physical Function and Activity in Home Care Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Hideyuki; Tsushima, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of guidance in home exercise on physical function and the amount of activity in home care patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects and Methods] A 2-month home exercise intervention consisting of self-administered exercise by patients (self-exercise) and home visit exercise therapy guided by a physical therapist (home visit exercise) was conducted in 10 home care patients with PD to compare changes in physical function, activities of daily living, and postural status between before and after the intervention. [Results] A decreased number of chief complaints and alleviation of fear of falling were observed after the intervention. In terms of physical function, a significant increase in flexibility and muscle strength were observed, although no significant changes were found in activities of daily living, gait, and balance. Although there was no significant change in the total amount of daily physical activity, the analysis of daily posture changes revealed a significant reduction in the percentage of time spent lying down and a significant increase in the percentage of time spent sitting after the intervention. [Conclusion] Guidance in home exercise in home care patients with PD can be effective in making self-exercise a habit, improving range of motion and muscle strength, and reducing the time spent in a supine position. PMID:25435681

  2. Exercise and depressive symptoms: a comparison of aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Penninx, Brenda W J H; Rejeski, W Jack; Pandya, Jasma; Miller, Michael E; Di Bari, Mauro; Applegate, William B; Pahor, Marco

    2002-03-01

    This study examines and compares the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on emotional and physical function among older persons with initially high or low depressive symptomatology. Data are from the Fitness, Arthritis and Seniors Trial, a trial among 439 persons 60 years or older with knee osteoarthritis randomized to health education (control), resistance exercise, or aerobic exercise groups. Depressive symptoms (assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression scale) and physical function (disability, walking speed, and pain) were assessed at baseline and after 3, 9, and 18 months. Compared with results for the control group, aerobic exercise significantly lowered depressive symptoms over time. No such effect was observed for resistance exercise. The reduction in depressive symptoms with aerobic exercise was found both among the 98 participants with initially high depressive symptomatology and among the 340 participants with initially low depressive symptomatology and was the strongest for the most compliant persons. Aerobic and resistance exercise significantly reduced disability and pain and increased walking speed both, and to an equal extent, in persons with high depressive symptomatology and persons with low depressive symptomatology.

  3. Different Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Responses to Acute Exercise Between Physically Active and Sedentary Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nofuji, Yu; Suwa, Masataka; Sasaki, Haruka; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Nishichi, Reiko; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2012-01-01

    Although circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level is affected by both acute and chronic physical activity, the interaction of acute and chronic physical activity was still unclear. In this study, we compared the serum and plasma BDNF responses to maximal and submaximal acute exercises between physically active and sedentary subjects. Eight active and 8 sedentary female subjects participated in the present study. Both groups performed 3 exercise tests with different intensities, i.e. 100% (maximal), 60% (moderate) and 40% (low) of their peak oxygen uptake. In each exercise test, blood samples were taken at the baseline and immediately, 30 and 60 min after the test. The serum BDNF concentration was found to significantly increase immediately after maximal and moderate exercise tests in both groups. In maximal exercise test, the pattern of change in the serum BDNF concentration was different between the groups. While the serum BDNF level for the sedentary group returned to the baseline level during the recovery phase, the BDNF levels for the active group decreased below the baseline level after the maximal exercise test. No group differences were observed in the pattern of plasma BDNF change for all exercise tests. These findings suggest that regular exercise facilitates the utilization of circulating BDNF during and/or after acute exercise with maximal intensity. Key points In maximal exercise test, the pattern of change in the serum BDNF concentration was different between the groups. While the serum BDNF level for the sedentary group returned to the baseline level during the recovery phase, the BDNF levels for the active group decreased below the baseline level after the maximal exercise test. No group differences were observed in the pattern of serum BDNF change for moderate or low exercise tests. No group differences were observed in the pattern of plasma BDNF change for all exercise tests. PMID:24137066

  4. Meal-feeding and physical effort. 1. Metabolic changes induced by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Curi, R; Hell, N S; Timo-Iaria, C

    1990-05-01

    To evaluate the consequences of the combination of meal-feeding (which causes in the long term several adaptations that lead to saving stored energetic substrates), rats subjected to a 2-hr feeding/22-hr fasting schedule were forced to swim 30 min everyday at a fixed hour during four weeks. The results indicate that meal-fed exercised rats: 1) increase food intake above that found in the nonexercising and the corresponding (nonfood-restricted) controls; 2) did not lose weight (in contrast to the controls); 3) initially had a high glycogen mobilization but at the end of the fourth week started to save hepatic glycogen again, despite the intense energy demanding exercise; 4) maintained a slight hyperglycemia; 5) mobilized less free fatty acids than the nonexercising meal-fed rats, probably due to higher insulinemia; 6) had a lower content of ascorbic acid in the adrenal glands in comparison to the control exercising rats; this suggests that the exercise was less stressful in the latter group. PMID:2201982

  5. The effects of physical exercise on plasma prebeta-1 high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahtab; Leaf, David Alexander; Macrae, Holden; Kasem, Julie; O'conner, Patricia; Pullinger, Clive; Malloy, Marry; Kane, John P

    2003-04-01

    The impact of physical exercise on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism is recognized as a major mechanism of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction. Prebeta-1 HDL subparticle species play a pivotal role in initiating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We examined the effect of acute physical exercise on plasma prebeta-1 HDL levels. Nineteen nonsmoking, healthy men (n = 11) and women (n = 8) not receiving lipid-altering medications completed dietary surveys, and had percent body fat determinations, and fasting blood drawn for measurements of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and absolute and percent prebeta-1 HDL. Each subject completed cardiopulmonary exercise stress testing to Vo(2max) followed by a 4-km course of run-jogging. Laboratory measurements were repeated from blood drawn immediately after exercise. Mean +/- SD values were determined for age, percent body fat, dietary calories, dietary cholesterol, dietary fat, and plasma lipids, lipoproteins, Apo A-I, and absolute and percent prebeta-1 HDL using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). One-way ANOVA comparisons were made for measurements of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, Apo A-I, and absolute and percent prebeta HDL measurements taken before and after exercise for all subjects combined. Entry characteristics showed the following (mean +/-SD): age, 24 +/- 5.8 years; body mass index (BMI), 22.4 +/- 2.6; percent body fat, 13 +/- 5.7; and Vo(2max), 49.1 +/- 7.9 mL O(2)/kg/min. Exercise significantly increased absolute plasma prebeta HDL (0.10 +/- 0.05 to 0.130 +/- 0.07 microg/mL, P =.039) and decreased plasma HDL-triglycerides (23.3 +/- 10.8 to 12.5 +/- 5.6 mg/dL, P =.012). Our findings indicate that prebeta-1 HDL and HDL-triglyceride metabolism are significant components of the effect of acute exercise on RCT. These findings have important relevance for studies pertaining to exercise-related effects on HDL metabolism as pertains to CAD risk reduction. PMID:12701055

  6. Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Mathematical Computation Depending on the Parts of the Training in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Adamović, Tatjana; Madić, Dejan; Popović, Boris

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether acute physical exercise may increase the ability to quickly solve basic mathematical operations in young children. In this way, the children acquired the means to activate a larger area of the brain when necessary. The research sample of 38 preschool and 18 schoolchildren was tested in basic mathematical operations before and after physical exercise. The results showed that children's computational performance was enhanced significantly during exercise and remained stable after relaxation part of their physical training. PMID:26434008

  7. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour. PMID:26219268

  8. Perceived Barriers, Facilitators and Benefits for Regular Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S; Rouse, Peter C; Hale, Elizabeth D; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Metsios, George S; Duda, Joan L; Kitas, George D

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which not only affects the joints but can also impact on general well-being and risk for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity and exercise in patients with RA have numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the majority of patients with RA are physically inactive. This indicates that people with RA might experience additional or more severe barriers to physical activity or exercise than the general population. This narrative review provides an overview of perceived barriers, benefits and facilitators of physical activity and exercise in RA. Databases were searched for articles published until September 2014 using the terms 'rheumatoid arthritis', 'physical activity', 'exercise', 'barriers', 'facilitators', 'benefits', 'motivation', 'motivators' and 'enablers'. Similarities were found between disease-specific barriers and benefits of physical activity and exercise, e.g. pain and fatigue are frequently mentioned as barriers, but reductions in pain and fatigue are perceived benefits of physical activity and exercise. Even though exercise does not influence the existence of barriers, physically active patients appear to be more capable of overcoming them. Therefore, exercise programmes should enhance self-efficacy for exercise in order to achieve long-term physical activity and exercise behaviour. Encouragement from health professionals and friends/family are facilitators for physical activity and exercise. There is a need for interventions that support RA patients in overcoming barriers to physical activity and exercise and help sustain this important health behaviour.

  9. Naloxone decreases the inhibitory effect of ethanol on the release of arginine-vasopressin induced by physical exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Coiro, Vittorio; Casti, A; Volta, E; Melani, A; Maffei, M L; Rubino, P; Vacca, P; Saccani-Jotti, G; Volpi, R; Chiodera, P

    2009-09-01

    To establish whether ethanol and/or endogenous opioids play a role in the control of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) response to physical exercise, six healthy men underwent six bicycle-ergometer tests until exhaustion [exercise control test; exercise plus ethanol (50 of 110 ml proof whiskey orally), exercise plus naloxone (2 mg injected plus 5 mg infused or 4 mg injected plus 10 mg infused intravenously] or exercise plus ethanol plus naloxone). Plasma AVP levels, physiological and biochemical variables were measured during tests. Physiological and biochemical variables were similar in all tests. During the control test, exercise significantly increased plasma AVP levels, with a peak value five times higher than baseline. The AVP response to exercise was similar in the presence of naloxone, whereas it was abolished by ethanol. When ethanol tests were repeated in the presence of naloxone, at both lower and higher dose, ethanol inhibition on AVP secretion was only partial, with mean peak responses 2.5 times higher than basal values. Results indicate an ethanol involvement in regulation of the AVP response to physical exercise. Furthermore, naloxone-sensitive endogenous opioids appear to play a role in the mechanism underlying ethanol inhibitory action, but not in mediation of the AVP response to physical exercise. PMID:19649691

  10. Physical exercise related improvement in obstructive sleep apnea. Look for the rostral fluid shift.

    PubMed

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E

    2013-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and underdiagnosed medical disorder. OSA is associated with the symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). These patients typically follow a sedentary lifestyle, and sedentary behavior is related to impaired fluid dynamics in the lower body, particularly the legs. In a supine position this fluid can move towards the neck, with a subsequent increase in upper airway (UA) resistance and UA collapse. Several studies have shown that rostral fluid shift worsens OSA; however, whether physical activity can influence this has not been tested. Physical activity related improvement in OSA severity cannot be fully explained by a weight loss in the performed studies, which is of particular importance. One of the potential additional pathways is via an improvement in leg fluid dynamics, with a subsequent decrease in the supine fluid shift toward the neck, since physical activity improves leg fluid dynamics. It is likely that patients with fluid overload states such as heart failure, chronic kidney disease and resistant arterial hypertension, as well as patients with EDS are likely to benefit the most from physical exercise in terms of better leg fluid clearance, and potentially in terms of OSA severity. However, none of the studies have directly assessed the potential effect of physical activity on the leg fluid volume, and more importantly on the supine fluid shift and OSA severity. These questions should be addressed in future studies of the effects of physical exercise on OSA severity.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: The Possible Role of Physical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Passos, Emanuel; Ascensão, António; Martins, Maria João; Magalhães, José

    2015-07-01

    Sedentary lifestyle coupled with excessive consumption of high caloric food has been related to the epidemic increase of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis and, eventually, may culminate in hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the progression of NASH are not completely understood, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction seems to play a key role in the process. Hepatic ER stress has been associated to hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress and hepatocyte death, contributing to liver dysfunction. Physical exercise seems to be the most effective preventive and therapeutic non-pharmacological strategy to mitigate several features related to NASH, possibly targeting most of the referred mechanisms associated with the pathophysiology of ER-related NASH. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of physical exercise on NASH-related ER stress. In this review, we will discuss the ER stress associated to NASH conditions and highlight the possible benefits of physical exercise in the attenuation and/or reversion of NASH-related ER stress. PMID:25838034

  12. Understanding nutritional interventions and physical exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, R; Carbajo-Pescador, S; Mauriz, J L; Gonzalez-Gallego, J

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in adults and its prevalence is rising around the world. This pathology is characterized by accumulation of liver fat, which exceeds 5% of liver weight in absence of alcohol consumption, viral infection or other hepatic etiology. Since NAFLD has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes or alteration of lipid profiles, it is considered as the liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD have not been clearly elucidated, but different events such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are involved. Modifications in lifestyle constitute the first line for the management of NAFLD. Nutritional interventions include low fat and carbohydrate diet with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion. Moreover, supplementation with antioxidant and cytoprotective agents could be useful to decrease oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Physical activity enables to reduce the expression of lipogenic genes, fat accumulation, or insulin resistance and improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Benefits have been found following both aerobic exercise and resistance training, and remain even after exercise cessation. However, more studies are required to analyze the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in nutritional and physical intervention, and to define the volume of activity required and its association with weight loss. In this paper, we offer an updated overview of the mechanisms implicated in the progression of NAFLD, and analyze the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions and physical exercise in the prevention and treatment of this condition. PMID:25601465

  13. On sweat analysis for quantitative estimation of dehydration during physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of water loss during physical exercise is of importance because dehydration can impair both muscular strength and aerobic endurance. A physiological indicator for deficit of total body water (TBW) might be the concentration of electrolytes in sweat. It has been shown that concentrations differ after physical exercise depending on whether water loss was replaced by fluid intake or not. However, to the best of our knowledge, this fact has not been examined for its potential to quantitatively estimate TBW loss. Therefore, we conducted a study in which sweat samples were collected continuously during two hours of physical exercise without fluid intake. A statistical analysis of these sweat samples revealed significant correlations between chloride concentration in sweat and TBW loss (r = 0.41, p <; 0.01), and between sweat osmolality and TBW loss (r = 0.43, p <; 0.01). A quantitative estimation of TBW loss resulted in a mean absolute error of 0.49 l per estimation. Although the precision has to be improved for practical applications, the present results suggest that TBW loss estimation could be realizable using sweat samples.

  14. Brain Temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Physical Exercise in Temperate and Warm Environments.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Lucas Rios; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Campos, Helton Oliveira; Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira de; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Natali, Antônio José; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain temperature (Tbrain) changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to two different physical exercise protocols in temperate or warm environments. We also investigated whether hypertension affects the kinetics of exercise-induced increases in Tbrain relative to the kinetics of abdominal temperature (Tabd) increases. Male 16-week-old normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs) and SHRs were implanted with an abdominal temperature sensor and a guide cannula in the frontal cortex to enable the insertion of a thermistor to measure Tbrain. Next, the animals were subjected to incremental-speed (initial speed of 10 m/min; speed was increased by 1 m/min every 3 min) or constant-speed (60% of the maximum speed) treadmill running until they were fatigued in a temperate (25°C) or warm (32°C) environment. Tbrain, Tabd and tail skin temperature were measured every min throughout the exercise trials. During incremental and constant exercise at 25°C and 32°C, the SHR group exhibited greater increases in Tbrain and Tabd relative to the NWR group. Irrespective of the environment, the heat loss threshold was attained at higher temperatures (either Tbrain or Tabd) in the SHRs. Moreover, the brain-abdominal temperature differential was lower at 32°C in the SHRs than in the NWRs during treadmill running. Overall, we conclude that SHRs exhibit enhanced brain hyperthermia during exercise and that hypertension influences the kinetics of the Tbrain relative to the Tabd increases, particularly during exercise in a warm environment. PMID:27214497

  15. Autophagy is required for exercise training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation and improvement of physical performance.

    PubMed

    Lira, Vitor A; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Zhang, Mei; Greene, Nicholas P; Laker, Rhianna C; Breen, David S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Yan, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Pathological and physiological stimuli, including acute exercise, activate autophagy; however, it is unknown whether exercise training alters basal levels of autophagy and whether autophagy is required for skeletal muscle adaptation to training. We observed greater autophagy flux (i.e., a combination of increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and LC3-II levels and reduced p62 protein content indicating a higher rate of initiation and resolution of autophagic events), autophagy protein expression (i.e., Atg6/Beclin1, Atg7, and Atg8/LC3) and mitophagy protein Bnip3 expression in tonic, oxidative muscle compared to muscles of either mixed fiber types or of predominant glycolytic fibers in mice. Long-term voluntary running (4 wk) resulted in increased basal autophagy flux and expression of autophagy proteins and Bnip3 in parallel to mitochondrial biogenesis in plantaris muscle with mixed fiber types. Conversely, exercise training promoted autophagy protein expression with no significant increases of autophagy flux and mitochondrial biogenesis in the oxidative soleus muscle. We also observed increased basal autophagy flux and Bnip3 content without increases in autophagy protein expression in the plantaris muscle of sedentary muscle-specific Pgc-1α transgenic mice, a genetic model of augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings reveal that endurance exercise training-induced increases in basal autophagy, including mitophagy, only take place if an enhanced oxidative phenotype is achieved. However, autophagy protein expression is mainly dictated by contractile activity independently of enhancements in oxidative phenotype. Exercise-trained mice heterozygous for the critical autophagy protein Atg6 showed attenuated increases of basal autophagy flux, mitochondrial content, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, along with impaired improvement of endurance capacity. These results demonstrate that increased basal autophagy is required for endurance exercise training-induced skeletal

  16. Brain Temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Physical Exercise in Temperate and Warm Environments

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Lucas Rios; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Campos, Helton Oliveira; de Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Natali, Antônio José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain temperature (Tbrain) changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to two different physical exercise protocols in temperate or warm environments. We also investigated whether hypertension affects the kinetics of exercise-induced increases in Tbrain relative to the kinetics of abdominal temperature (Tabd) increases. Male 16-week-old normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs) and SHRs were implanted with an abdominal temperature sensor and a guide cannula in the frontal cortex to enable the insertion of a thermistor to measure Tbrain. Next, the animals were subjected to incremental-speed (initial speed of 10 m/min; speed was increased by 1 m/min every 3 min) or constant-speed (60% of the maximum speed) treadmill running until they were fatigued in a temperate (25°C) or warm (32°C) environment. Tbrain, Tabd and tail skin temperature were measured every min throughout the exercise trials. During incremental and constant exercise at 25°C and 32°C, the SHR group exhibited greater increases in Tbrain and Tabd relative to the NWR group. Irrespective of the environment, the heat loss threshold was attained at higher temperatures (either Tbrain or Tabd) in the SHRs. Moreover, the brain-abdominal temperature differential was lower at 32°C in the SHRs than in the NWRs during treadmill running. Overall, we conclude that SHRs exhibit enhanced brain hyperthermia during exercise and that hypertension influences the kinetics of the Tbrain relative to the Tabd increases, particularly during exercise in a warm environment. PMID:27214497

  17. Brain Temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats during Physical Exercise in Temperate and Warm Environments.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Lucas Rios; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Vaz, Filipe Ferreira; Campos, Helton Oliveira; Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira de; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Natali, Antônio José; Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate brain temperature (Tbrain) changes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) subjected to two different physical exercise protocols in temperate or warm environments. We also investigated whether hypertension affects the kinetics of exercise-induced increases in Tbrain relative to the kinetics of abdominal temperature (Tabd) increases. Male 16-week-old normotensive Wistar rats (NWRs) and SHRs were implanted with an abdominal temperature sensor and a guide cannula in the frontal cortex to enable the insertion of a thermistor to measure Tbrain. Next, the animals were subjected to incremental-speed (initial speed of 10 m/min; speed was increased by 1 m/min every 3 min) or constant-speed (60% of the maximum speed) treadmill running until they were fatigued in a temperate (25°C) or warm (32°C) environment. Tbrain, Tabd and tail skin temperature were measured every min throughout the exercise trials. During incremental and constant exercise at 25°C and 32°C, the SHR group exhibited greater increases in Tbrain and Tabd relative to the NWR group. Irrespective of the environment, the heat loss threshold was attained at higher temperatures (either Tbrain or Tabd) in the SHRs. Moreover, the brain-abdominal temperature differential was lower at 32°C in the SHRs than in the NWRs during treadmill running. Overall, we conclude that SHRs exhibit enhanced brain hyperthermia during exercise and that hypertension influences the kinetics of the Tbrain relative to the Tabd increases, particularly during exercise in a warm environment.

  18. A Comparison of Attitudes and Exercise Habits of Alumni from Colleges with Varying Degrees of Physical Education Activity Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.; Brynteson, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Study compared the exercise attitudes and habits of alumni from four colleges with varying physical education activity (PEA) requirements. Survey results indicated the type of PEA programs offered influenced alumni attitudes toward fitness and exercise behaviors. Students from colleges with higher PEA requirements had more positive exercise…

  19. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    PubMed Central

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG), land group (LG), and control group (CG). AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C) while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05), with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05), while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05), and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05). In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05). In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. PMID:24009416

  20. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  1. Physical exercise improves properties of bone and its collagen network in growing and maturing mice.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Hanna; Tolvanen, Viivi; Finnilä, Mikko A J; Iivarinen, Jarkko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Seppänen, Kari; Arokoski, Jari P A; Brama, Pieter A; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Helminen, Heikki J

    2009-09-01

    This study characterized bone structure, composition, and mechanical properties in growing male mice. The development of the collagen network during maturation was monitored, and the effect of voluntary physical exercise was investigated. We hypothesized that increased bone loading from exercise would increase the amount and improve the properties of the collagen network during growth and maturation. Half of the mice (total n = 168) had access to running wheels, while half were kept sedentary. Weight and running activity were recorded, and groups of mice were killed at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The collagen network was assessed by biochemical evaluation of collagen content and cross-links and by tensile testing of decalcified bone. Mineralized femur was analyzed with pQCT and three-point-bending and femoral neck-strength tests. After 6 months, the exercising mice had 10% lower body weight than the sedentary group. There was no difference in the amount of collagen or collagen cross-links, while tensile testing had higher breaking force and stiffness of the collagen network in runners after 4 months but not after 6 months. The bone mineral density and cross-sectional area were higher in the running group after 6 months. Runners also showed higher breaking force and stiffness of the diaphysis and the femoral neck at 2 and 6 months. The significant modulation of mechanical properties of the collagen network without any change in collagen content indicates that physical exercise improves properties of the collagen network in maturing bone. The improvement after exercise of the properties of mineralized bone appears to be more pronounced and long-lasting compared to the early improved properties of the collagen network.

  2. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL. PMID:23239872

  3. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL.

  4. Physical Exercise Performed Four Hours after Learning Improves Memory Retention and Increases Hippocampal Pattern Similarity during Retrieval.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Eelco V; Kersten, Ingrid H P; Wagner, Isabella C; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-07-11

    Persistent long-term memory depends on successful stabilization and integration of new memories after initial encoding [1, 2]. This consolidation process is thought to require neuromodulatory factors such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [3-7]. Without the release of such factors around the time of encoding, memories will decay rapidly [3, 5, 6, 8]. Recent studies have shown that physical exercise acutely stimulates the release of several consolidation-promoting factors in humans [9-14], raising the question of whether physical exercise can be used to improve memory retention [15-17]. Here, we used a single session of physical exercise after learning to exogenously boost memory consolidation and thus long-term memory. Three groups of randomly assigned participants first encoded a set of picture-location associations. Afterward, one group performed exercise immediately, one 4 hr later, and the third did not perform any exercise. Participants otherwise underwent exactly the same procedures to control for potential experimental confounds. Forty-eight hours later, participants returned for a cued-recall test in a magnetic resonance scanner. With this design, we could investigate the impact of acute exercise on memory consolidation and retrieval-related neural processing. We found that performing exercise 4 hr, but not immediately, after encoding improved the retention of picture-location associations compared to the no-exercise control group. Moreover, performing exercise after a delay was associated with increased hippocampal pattern similarity for correct responses during delayed retrieval. Our results suggest that appropriately timed physical exercise can improve long-term memory and highlight the potential of exercise as an intervention in educational and clinical settings. PMID:27321998

  5. Adolescent Physical Self-Perceptions, Sport/Exercise and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, N. D.; Cooke, C. B.; Mahoney, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Domain and sub-domain physical self-perceptions have been associated with adolescent moderate intensity physical activity although the association with different types of adolescent moderate intensity physical activity remains unclear. This study seeks to examine the relationship between personal self-perceptions and adolescent…

  6. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  7. Physical Exercise for the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Alzheimer's Dementia: Possible Mechanisms, Current Evidence and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Matura, Silke; Carvalho, André F; Alves, Gilberto S; Pantel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), also known as neuropsychiatric or non-cognitive symptoms are common and often distressing features of Alzheimer's Dementia. BPSD significantly increase patient suffering, early institutionalization and caregiver's burden. The clinical management of BPSD is dominated by a pharmacological approach, although these medications often come with serious adverse side-effects. There are only few nonpharmacological treatment strategies for BPSD. A substantial amount of intervention studies that have investigated non-pharmacological treatment options for BPSD have focused on physical exercise. Although these studies are very heterogeneous in terms of type and severity of dementia, as well as type and duration of the exercise intervention, the overall picture shows a positive effect of physical exercise in alleviating BPSD. There is evidence that numerous mechanisms contribute to the positive effect of physical exercise on BPSD. No attempt has been undertaken so far to give an overview of the existing knowledge regarding these mechanisms. Therefore, the current review aims to integrate the existing evidence on psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the beneficial effects of physical exercise in ameliorating BPSD in Alzheimer's dementia. A discussion of psychological mechanisms such as improved sleep and stress reduction will be followed by a discussion of neurobiological mechanisms including the exercise induced change in neurotransmitter concentrations, increased synthesis of neurotrophins and immune activation. The review closes with recommendations for future research to overcome the shortcomings of existing studies and broaden the current knowledge on the positive effects of physical exercise on BPSD.

  8. Physical exercise during encoding improves vocabulary learning in young female adults: a neuroendocrinological study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Deusser, Marie; Thiel, Christian; Otterbein, Sascha; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Banzer, Winfried; Kaiser, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Acute physical activity has been repeatedly shown to improve various cognitive functions. However, there have been no investigations comparing the effects of exercise during verbal encoding versus exercise prior to encoding on long-term memory performance. In this current psychoneuroendocrinological study we aim to test whether light to moderate ergometric bicycling during vocabulary encoding enhances subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest and encoding after being physically active. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum which has been previously shown to correlate with learning performance. We also controlled for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. We found better vocabulary test performance for subjects that were physically active during the encoding phase compared to sedentary subjects. Post-hoc tests revealed that this effect was particularly present in initially low performers. BDNF in serum and BDNF genotype failed to account for the current result. Our data indicates that light to moderate simultaneous physical activity during encoding, but not prior to encoding, is beneficial for subsequent recall of new items.

  9. [Effect of physical exercise on endothelial function, indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Madry, Edyta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-02-01

    Endothelium plays an important role in regulation of the activity of inflammation and oxidative stress. Numerous studies have shown that physical training affects endothelial function. It is proven that regular physical activity reduces the seventy of inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular events. Changes observed in effect of physical activity include increase in production of nitric oxide (NO), a decrease of plaque volume, a decrease in vascular wall viscosity and an increase in diastolic coronary perfusion. It has been shown that exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in subjects with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease and hypertension, as well as in healthy people. In above populations the benefits result from improved endothelial function. It has been proven that regular physical activity improves enzymatic antioxidant systems and the immune response. It is a result of the stimulating effect of muscle tissue micro-injuries and recruitment of various cell types of the inflammatory response and their migration deeper into the tissues. The biggest changes in the immune response are observed in prolonged aerobic exercise. Physical activity has a significant impact on endothelial function, intensity of inflammatory processes and exponents of oxidative stress. There is a need for further researches, in particular in order to determine the optimal model of training.

  10. PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER KNEE ARTHROPLASTY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF CONTROLLED TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, F.; Snyder-Mackler, L.; Zeni, J.

    2014-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the gold standard treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Most patients report successful long-term outcomes and reduced pain after TKA, but recovery is variable and the majority of patients continue to demonstrate lower extremity muscle weakness and functional deficits compared to age-matched control subjects. Given the potential positive influence of post-operative rehabilitation and the lack of established standards for prescribing exercise paradigms after TKA, the purpose of this study was to systematically review randomized, controlled studies to determine the effectiveness of post-operative outpatient care on short- and long-term functional recovery. Nineteen studies were identified as highly relevant for the review and four categories of post-operative intervention were discussed 1) Strengthening Exercises, 2) Aquatic Therapy, 3) Balance Training, and 4) Clinical Environment. Optimal outpatient physical therapy protocols should include: strengthening and intensive functional exercises given through land-based or aquatic programs, the intensity of which is increased based on patient progress. Due to the highly individualized characteristics of these types of exercises, outpatient physical therapy performed in a clinic under the supervision of a trained physical therapist may provide the best long-term outcomes after the surgery. Supervised or remotely supervised therapy may be effective at reducing some of the impairments following TKA, but several studies without direct oversight produced poor results. Most studies did not accurately describe the “usual care” or control groups and information about the dose, frequency, intensity and duration of the rehabilitation protocols were lacking from several studies. PMID:24172642

  11. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E.; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing. PMID:26190989

  12. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01). The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01). Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01) predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a) Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  13. Mandatory physical exercise for the prevention of mental illness in medical students.

    PubMed

    Bitonte, Robert A; DeSanto, Donald Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Medical students experience higher rates of mental illness than the general population. With competition rising for success in medical school, and residency, increasing incidence of distress are leading this population to experience higher rates of thoughts of dropping out of school, and even suicide. Since many stigmas deter medical students from receiving mental health counseling, such as the perceived inability to handle the stresses of medical school, and the potential lack of competitiveness for residencies if reported, prevention of mental illness may be a better course to take in reducing prevalence in this population. Regular exercise has demonstrated a positive effect on not only promoting physical health, but also mental health. Exercise encourages a healthy mood, positive self esteem, and better cognition, while decreasing the chances of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Implementing exercise time into medical school curriculums, just like the basic sciences, albeit for less time in the day, could provide a feasible way to ensure that all students are taking time to partake in this important activity for their well being. Though medical schools are rigid with attempts to make changes in their curriculum, thirty minutes a day, three to five times a week of exercise of the students' choice not only is more cost effective than counseling, but it also reduces the chances that they will experience burnout, which if left untreated could transcend into a compromised training experience. PMID:25553235

  14. Physical Exercise Counteracts Stress-induced Upregulation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone in the Brain and Stress-induced Persisting Anxiety-like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed. Despite these lasting behavioral changes, wheel-running exercise treatment for 1 h daily from post-stress days 1 - 21 counteracted anxiety-like behaviors, and these anxiolytic effects of exercise persisted for more than 2 months, suggesting that anxiolytic effects of exercise stably induced. Repeated restraint treatment up-regulated the expression of the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, the brain regions important for emotional behaviors. In an in vitro study, treatment of HT22 hippocampal cells with glucocorticoid increased MCH expression, suggesting that MCH upregulation can be initially triggered by the stress hormone, corticosterone. In contrast, post-stress treatment with wheel-running exercise reduced the stress-induced increase in MCH expression to control levels in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Administration of an MCH receptor antagonist (SNAP94847) to stress-treated mice was therapeutic against stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that repeated stress produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors and upregulates MCH in the brain, while exercise counteracts stress-induced MCH expression and persisting anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:27574483

  15. Physical Exercise Counteracts Stress-induced Upregulation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone in the Brain and Stress-induced Persisting Anxiety-like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed. Despite these lasting behavioral changes, wheel-running exercise treatment for 1 h daily from post-stress days 1 - 21 counteracted anxiety-like behaviors, and these anxiolytic effects of exercise persisted for more than 2 months, suggesting that anxiolytic effects of exercise stably induced. Repeated restraint treatment up-regulated the expression of the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, the brain regions important for emotional behaviors. In an in vitro study, treatment of HT22 hippocampal cells with glucocorticoid increased MCH expression, suggesting that MCH upregulation can be initially triggered by the stress hormone, corticosterone. In contrast, post-stress treatment with wheel-running exercise reduced the stress-induced increase in MCH expression to control levels in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Administration of an MCH receptor antagonist (SNAP94847) to stress-treated mice was therapeutic against stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that repeated stress produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors and upregulates MCH in the brain, while exercise counteracts stress-induced MCH expression and persisting anxiety-like behaviors. PMID:27574483

  16. Physical Exercise Counteracts Stress-induced Upregulation of Melanin-concentrating Hormone in the Brain and Stress-induced Persisting Anxiety-like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-08-01

    Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed. Despite these lasting behavioral changes, wheel-running exercise treatment for 1 h daily from post-stress days 1 - 21 counteracted anxiety-like behaviors, and these anxiolytic effects of exercise persisted for more than 2 months, suggesting that anxiolytic effects of exercise stably induced. Repeated restraint treatment up-regulated the expression of the neuropeptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, the brain regions important for emotional behaviors. In an in vitro study, treatment of HT22 hippocampal cells with glucocorticoid increased MCH expression, suggesting that MCH upregulation can be initially triggered by the stress hormone, corticosterone. In contrast, post-stress treatment with wheel-running exercise reduced the stress-induced increase in MCH expression to control levels in the lateral hypothalamus, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala. Administration of an MCH receptor antagonist (SNAP94847) to stress-treated mice was therapeutic against stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors. These results suggest that repeated stress produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors and upregulates MCH in the brain, while exercise counteracts stress-induced MCH expression and persisting anxiety-like behaviors.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2009-03-01

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past 25 years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved—given that their diameter is on the order of microns—nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium.

  18. Ultrasound contrast microbubbles in imaging and therapy: physical principles and engineering

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Caskey, Charles F; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2010-01-01

    Microbubble contrast agents and the associated imaging systems have developed over the past twenty-five years, originating with manually-agitated fluids introduced for intra-coronary injection. Over this period, stabilizing shells and low diffusivity gas materials have been incorporated in microbubbles, extending stability in vitro and in vivo. Simultaneously, the interaction of these small gas bubbles with ultrasonic waves has been extensively studied, resulting in models for oscillation and increasingly sophisticated imaging strategies. Early studies recognized that echoes from microbubbles contained frequencies that are multiples of the microbubble resonance frequency. Although individual microbubble contrast agents cannot be resolved—given that their diameter is on the order of microns—nonlinear echoes from these agents are used to map regions of perfused tissue and to estimate the local microvascular flow rate. Such strategies overcome a fundamental limitation of previous ultrasound blood flow strategies; the previous Doppler-based strategies are insensitive to capillary flow. Further, the insonation of resonant bubbles results in interesting physical phenomena that have been widely studied for use in drug and gene delivery. Ultrasound pressure can enhance gas diffusion, rapidly fragment the agent into a set of smaller bubbles or displace the microbubble to a blood vessel wall. Insonation of a microbubble can also produce liquid jets and local shear stress that alter biological membranes and facilitate transport. In this review, we focus on the physical aspects of these agents, exploring microbubble imaging modes, models for microbubble oscillation and the interaction of the microbubble with the endothelium. PMID:19229096

  19. Benefits of physical exercises in developing certain fitness levels in children with hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Golubović, S; Milutinović, D; Golubović, B

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of participating in regular physical activity on the fitness of children with hyperactivity. The study compared a sample of children who were assessed as hyperactive with the same number of children rated as non-hyperactive. The Conners' Rating Scale was used for hyperactivity evaluation, while fitness levels were assessed using a battery of six motor tests prior to and following the completion of the physical exercise programme. The findings indicated that while overall fitness levels of both groups improved, the differences were not statistically significant. However, improvements shown within the group of hyperactive children with regard to coordination of the whole body, trunk strength and agility were statistically significant. Physical activity may be associated with enhanced levels of some aspects of physical fitness. PMID:23701503

  20. Benefits of physical exercises in developing certain fitness levels in children with hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Golubović, S; Milutinović, D; Golubović, B

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of participating in regular physical activity on the fitness of children with hyperactivity. The study compared a sample of children who were assessed as hyperactive with the same number of children rated as non-hyperactive. The Conners' Rating Scale was used for hyperactivity evaluation, while fitness levels were assessed using a battery of six motor tests prior to and following the completion of the physical exercise programme. The findings indicated that while overall fitness levels of both groups improved, the differences were not statistically significant. However, improvements shown within the group of hyperactive children with regard to coordination of the whole body, trunk strength and agility were statistically significant. Physical activity may be associated with enhanced levels of some aspects of physical fitness.

  1. Exercise as Medicine: Key Concepts in Discussing Physical Activity with Patients who have Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Marni J; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-12-01

    People with type 2 diabetes stand to benefit substantially from being physically active. Practice guidelines consistently recommend that people with diabetes obtain at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise per week. Although the message of 150 minutes per week is important, there are several other key messages regarding physical activity that may not be communicated as often or as clearly. This article gives an overview of the importance of resistance training, the dose-response relationship between physical activity and health outcomes, and the emerging evidence concerning the role of sedentary behavior in people with type 2 diabetes. This article provides valuable content for healthcare providers that will help to inform their discussions about physical activity with patients who have type 2 diabetes.

  2. [Life-long regular physical exercise is crucial in coronary disease].

    PubMed

    Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-09-23

    Coronary heart disease, i.e. angina pectoris or myocardial infarction, is one of our most common diseases. Age, gender and heredity, as well as smoking, hypertension, physical inactivity, diabetes, overweight and stress are risk factors for the disease. Regular physical activity and exercise training positively influences several of these risk factors at the same time. The prescription for physical activity and training is life long and should include fitness as well as strength and endurance training. It is of great importance that the first period of rehabilitation, after an acute event, is carried out under supervision, preferably by a specialised physiotherapist. When the condition is stabilised, in most of the cases after 2-3 months, the training may be continued outside the hospital. Suitable activities are daily walks, jogging, cycling, swimming, aerobics, dance, ballgames etc depending on interest and physical condition. PMID:15493636

  3. [Effect of therapeutic exercise on physical fitness in a school health program for obese children].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Tatsumi, M

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determined characteristics of physical fitness in obese children, and to examine the effect of a diet-exercise program, developed in our laboratory, on the physical fitness of these children. To accomplish the first objective, a physical fitness test consisting of 11 items was administered on 126 obese and normal weight children (boys 83, girls 43) matched for age, sex, and stature. The children, 9-10 years of age, were pupils from 11 public elementary schools in Morioka, Iwate, Japan. To accomplish the second objective, 92 obese children participated in a study. The children were divided into experimental and control groups. Children in the experimental group (n = 50) participated in a diet-exercise program for three months, while children in the control group (n = 42) were left alone without taking part in the program. The results of this study are summarized as follows; 1. The obese children were found to be significantly inferior to the normal-weight children in fitness items such as standing long jump, pull-ups, sit-ups, step test, and total fitness scores. While no differences in lying trunk extension and standing trunk flexion for body flexibility were observed, the obese children were found to be superior to the normal weight children in static strength such as grip and back strengths. 2. The poor physical fitness of the obese children was found to be negatively affected by their excess body fat, rather than body weight, and that this trend was more pronounced for boys than for girls. 3. The intervention study clearly demonstrated that children in the experimental group improved in physical fitness for most items, especially in abdominal muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, and total physical fitness. 4. It was shown that the diet-exercise program, which comprised guidance on physical exercise and individual nutrition counseling was very useful, because the participants should decrease a considerable in percent overweight

  4. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim,, Eon-ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60–80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:27390411

  6. Combined effects of physical exercise and education on age-related cortical thinning in cognitively normal individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin San; Shin, Hee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Jang, Young Kyoung; Jung, Na-Yeon; Lee, Juyoun; Kim, Yeo Jin; Chun, Phillip; Yang, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Min; Kang, Mira; Park, Key-Chung; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between self-reported physical exercise and cortical thickness in a large sample of cognitively normal individuals. We also determined whether a combination of physical exercise and education had more protective effects on age-related cortical thinning than either parameter alone. A total of 1,842 participants were included in this analysis. Physical exercise was assessed using a questionnaire regarding intensity, frequency, and duration. Cortical thickness was measured using a surface-based method. Longer duration of exercise (≥1 hr/day), but not intensity or frequency, was associated with increased mean cortical thickness globally (P-value = 0.013) and in the frontal regions (P-value = 0.007). In particular, the association of exercise with cortical thinning had regional specificity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal, precuneus, left postcentral, and inferior parietal regions. The combination of higher exercise level and higher education level showed greater global and frontal mean thickness than either parameter alone. Testing for a trend with the combination of high exercise level and high education level confirmed this finding (P-value = 0.001–0.003). Our findings suggest that combined exercise and education have important implications for brain health, especially considering the paucity of known protective factors for age-related cortical thinning. PMID:27063336

  7. Psychotropic drugs have contrasting skeletal effects that are independent of their effects on physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Warden, Stuart J; Hassett, Sean M; Bond, Julie L; Rydberg, Johanna; Grogg, Jamie D; Hilles, Erin L; Bogenschutz, Elizabeth D; Smith, Heather D; Fuchs, Robyn K; Bliziotes, M Michael; Turner, Charles H

    2010-04-01

    Popular psychotropic drugs, like the antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and the mood stabilizer lithium, may have skeletal effects. In particular, preclinical observations suggest a direct negative effect of SSRIs on the skeleton. A potential caveat in studies of the skeletal effects of psychotropic drugs is the hypoactive (skeletal unloading) phenotype they induce. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of physical inactivity to the skeletal effects of psychotropic drugs by studying bone changes in cage control and tail suspended mice treated with either vehicle, SSRI, TCA or lithium. Tail suspension was used to control for drug differences on physical activity levels by normalizing skeletal loading between groups. The psychotropic drugs were found to have contrasting skeletal effects which were independent of drug effects on animal physical activity levels. The latter was evident by an absence of statistical interactions between the activity and drug groups. Pharmacological inhibition of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) using a SSRI reduced in vivo gains in lower extremity BMD, and negatively altered ex vivo measures of femoral and spinal bone density, architecture and mechanical properties. These effects were mediated by a decrease in bone formation without a change in bone resorption suggesting that the SSRI had anti-anabolic skeletal effects. In contrast, glycogen synthase kinase-3[beta] (GSK-3[beta]) inhibition using lithium had anabolic effects improving in vivo gains in BMD via an increase in bone formation, while TCA-mediated inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter had minimal skeletal effect. The observed negative skeletal effect of 5-HTT inhibition, combined with recent findings of direct and indirect effects of 5-HT on bone formation, are of interest given the frequent prescription of SSRIs for the treatment of depression and other affective

  8. Let's get physical: a contemporary review of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety and its disorders.

    PubMed

    Asmundson, Gordon J G; Fetzner, Mathew G; Deboer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper A J

    2013-04-01

    Research over the past few decades has focused on the therapeutic effects of physical exercise among those affected by mood disorders. Only recently has attention turned to maladaptive and persistent expressions of anxiety, with a growing body of evidence indicating promise for exercise as an effective treatment for some of the anxiety disorders. The current review provides a comprehensive account of contemporary research examining the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety disorders. We synthesize pertinent research regarding the effects of various types of exercise within the different anxiety disorders, consider impact of various types of exercise regimens on anxiety, and examine potential anxiolytic mechanisms responsible for positive mental health gains. We conclude with important considerations for implementing exercise as a treatment for clinically significant anxiety as well as future research directions. PMID:23300122

  9. Let's get physical: a contemporary review of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety and its disorders.

    PubMed

    Asmundson, Gordon J G; Fetzner, Mathew G; Deboer, Lindsey B; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Smits, Jasper A J

    2013-04-01

    Research over the past few decades has focused on the therapeutic effects of physical exercise among those affected by mood disorders. Only recently has attention turned to maladaptive and persistent expressions of anxiety, with a growing body of evidence indicating promise for exercise as an effective treatment for some of the anxiety disorders. The current review provides a comprehensive account of contemporary research examining the anxiolytic effects of exercise for anxiety disorders. We synthesize pertinent research regarding the effects of various types of exercise within the different anxiety disorders, consider impact of various types of exercise regimens on anxiety, and examine potential anxiolytic mechanisms responsible for positive mental health gains. We conclude with important considerations for implementing exercise as a treatment for clinically significant anxiety as well as future research directions.

  10. Cornu cervi pantotrichum supplementation improves exercise performance and protects against physical fatigue in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Chao, Hui-Ling; Ho, Chin-Shan; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2014-01-01

    Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP) is a well-known yang-invigorating agent used in traditional Chinese medicine that can nourish the blood, tonify qi, and invigorate bones and tendons with multifunctional bioactivities. However, evidence on the effects of CCP on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of ethanolic extract from CCP on ergogenic and antifatigue functions following a physiological challenge. Male ICR mice from four groups (n=8 per group) were orally administered CCP for 14 days at 0, 2054, and 4108 mg/kg/day, and were respectively designated as the vehicle, CCP-1X, and CCP-2X groups. The physical performance and antifatigue function were evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as serum levels of lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after a 15-min swimming exercise. The results indicated that CCP-1X supplementation significantly improved grip strength; reduced fatigue-associated biochemical indices, including lactate and ammonia levels; and ameliorated skeletal muscle injury induced by acute exercise challenge. A trend analysis revealed that CCP supplementation significantly increased grip strength and dose-dependently reduced serum alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, triacylglycerol, and glucose levels in healthy mice. Therefore, CCP is a potential agent with an antifatigue pharmacological effect. PMID:24739929

  11. The Intervention Effects of Acupuncture on Fatigue Induced by Exhaustive Physical Exercises: A Metabolomics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haifeng; Liu, Xia; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Naixia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antifatigue effects of acupuncture had been investigated at the metabolic level on the young male athletes with exhaustive physical exercises. After a series of exhaustive physical exercises and a short-term rest, the athletes either were treated with needling acupuncture on selected acupoints (TA group) or enjoyed an extended rest (TR group). NMR-based metabolomics analysis was then applied to depict the metabolic profiles of urine samples, which were collected from the athletes at three time points including the time before exercises, the time before and after the treatment of acupuncture, or taking the extended rest. The results from multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the recoveries of disturbed metabolites in the athletes treated with acupuncture were significantly faster than in those only taking rest. After the treatment with acupuncture, the levels of distinguished metabolites, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, lactate, pyruvate, citrate, dimethylglycine, choline, glycine, hippurate, and hypoxanthine were recovered at an accelerated speed in the TA group in comparison with the TR group. The above-mentioned results indicated that the acupuncture treatment ameliorated fatigue by backregulating the perturbed energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and attenuating the ROS-induced stress at an accelerated speed, which demonstrated that acupuncture could serve as an alternative fatigue-relieving approach. PMID:26442121

  12. Can physical exercise or food deprivation cause release of fat-stored cannabinoids?

    PubMed

    Westin, Andreas Austgulen; Mjønes, George; Burchardt, Ola; Fuskevåg, Ole Martin; Slørdal, Lars

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether physical exercise or food deprivation may increase cannabinoid levels in serum or urine in abstinent chronic cannabis users. The study took place in a drug detoxification ward parallel to study participants receiving treatment. Six chronic, daily cannabis users (one female, five males, average age 30.0 years; BMI 20.8) were exposed to a 45-min. moderate-intensity workout and a 24-hr period of food deprivation. Serum samples were drawn prior to and after interventions and analysed for ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS), and all voided urine was tested for THCCOOH by LCMSMS and normalized to the creatinine levels, yielding ng/mg ratios. There were no major differences in the measured cannabinoid levels in serum or urine before and after physical exercise or food deprivation. We conclude that exercise and/or food deprivation are unlikely to cause sufficient cannabinoid concentration changes to hamper correct interpretations in drug testing programmes. PMID:24674455

  13. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Singh, Amika S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10–13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  14. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance. PMID:27242629

  15. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Flodin, P; Martinsen, S; Mannerkorpi, K; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Kosek, E; Fransson, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity. PMID:26413476

  16. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy.

    PubMed

    Flodin, P; Martinsen, S; Mannerkorpi, K; Löfgren, M; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I; Kosek, E; Fransson, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity.

  17. Normalization of aberrant resting state functional connectivity in fibromyalgia patients following a three month physical exercise therapy

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, P.; Martinsen, S.; Mannerkorpi, K.; Löfgren, M.; Bileviciute-Ljungar, I.; Kosek, E.; Fransson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most efficient interventions to mitigate chronic pain symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM). However, little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms mediating these effects. In this study we investigated resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after a 15 week standardized exercise program supervised by physical therapists. Our aim was to gain an understanding of how physical exercise influences previously shown aberrant patterns of intrinsic brain activity in FM. Fourteen FM patients and eleven healthy controls successfully completed the physical exercise treatment. We investigated post- versus pre-treatment changes of brain connectivity, as well as changes in clinical symptoms in the patient group. FM patients reported improvements in symptom severity. Although several brain regions showed a treatment-related change in connectivity, only the connectivity between the right anterior insula and the left primary sensorimotor area was significantly more affected by the physical exercise among the fibromyalgia patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that previously observed aberrant intrinsic brain connectivity patterns in FM are partly normalized by the physical exercise therapy. However, none of the observed normalizations in intrinsic brain connectivity were significantly correlated with symptom changes. Further studies conducted in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate the precise relationship between improvements in fibromyalgia symptoms and changes in intrinsic brain activity. PMID:26413476

  18. Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Rimes, Ridson Rosa; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Manochio, João; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Wegner, Mirko; Budde, Henning; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Rocha, Joana; Tavares, João Manuel R S; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia. Although still little is known about the benefits of exercise on mental health, cognitive and brain functioning of schizophrenic patients, exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial intervention in the control and reduction of disease severity. Type of training, form of execution, duration and intensity need to be better studied as the effects on physical and mental health, cognition and brain activity depend exclusively of interconnected factors, such as the combination of exercise and medication. However, one should understand that exercise is not only an effective nondrug alternative, but also acts as a supporting linking up interventions to promote improvements in process performance optimization. In general, the positive effects on mental health, cognition and brain activity as a result of an exercise program are quite evident. Few studies have been published correlating effects of exercise in patients with schizophrenia, but there is increasing evidence that positive and negative symptoms can be improved. Therefore, it is important that further studies be undertaken to expand the knowledge of physical exercise on mental health in people with schizophrenia, as well as its dose-response and the most effective type of exercise. PMID:26556069

  19. Effects of Exercise on Physical and Mental Health, and Cognitive and Brain Functions in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Rimes, Ridson Rosa; de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Manochio, João; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Mura, Gioia; Wegner, Mirko; Budde, Henning; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Rocha, Joana; Tavares, João Manuel R S; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Exercise promotes several health benefits, such as cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory improvements. It is believed that the practice of exercise in individuals with psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, can cause significant changes. Schizophrenic patients have problematic lifestyle habits compared with general population; this may cause a high mortality rate, mainly caused by cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate changes in physical and mental health, cognitive and brain functioning due to the practice of exercise in patients with schizophrenia. Although still little is known about the benefits of exercise on mental health, cognitive and brain functioning of schizophrenic patients, exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial intervention in the control and reduction of disease severity. Type of training, form of execution, duration and intensity need to be better studied as the effects on physical and mental health, cognition and brain activity depend exclusively of interconnected factors, such as the combination of exercise and medication. However, one should understand that exercise is not only an effective nondrug alternative, but also acts as a supporting linking up interventions to promote improvements in process performance optimization. In general, the positive effects on mental health, cognition and brain activity as a result of an exercise program are quite evident. Few studies have been published correlating effects of exercise in patients with schizophrenia, but there is increasing evidence that positive and negative symptoms can be improved. Therefore, it is important that further studies be undertaken to expand the knowledge of physical exercise on mental health in people with schizophrenia, as well as its dose-response and the most effective type of exercise.

  20. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  1. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  2. Capitalizing on the Teachable Moment: Osteoarthritis Physical Activity and Exercise Net for Improving Physical Activity in Early Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lineker, Sydney; Cibere, Jolanda; Crooks, Valorie A; Jones, Catherine A; Kopec, Jacek A; Lear, Scott A; Pencharz, James; Rhodes, Ryan E; Esdaile, John M

    2013-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines emphasize the use of exercise and weight reduction as the first line of management for knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, less than half of the people with mild OA participate in moderate intensity physical activity. Given that physical activities have been shown to reduce pain, improve quality of life, and have the potential to reduce the progression of joint damage, many people with OA are missing the benefits of this inexpensive intervention. Objective The objectives of this study are (1) to develop a behavioral theory-informed Internet intervention called Osteoarthritis Physical Activity & Exercise Net (OPEN) for people with previously undiagnosed knee OA, and (2) to assess the efficacy of the OPEN website for improving physical activity participation through a proof-of-concept study. Methods OPEN was developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Efficacy of this online intervention is being assessed by an ongoing proof-of-concept, single-blind randomized controlled trial in British Columbia, Canada. We are currently recruiting participants and plan to recruit a total of 252 sedentary people with previously undiagnosed knee OA using a set of validated criteria. Half of the participants will be randomized to use OPEN and receive an OA education pamphlet. The other half only will receive the pamphlet. Participants will complete an online questionnaire at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months about their participation in physical activities, health-related quality of life, and motivational outcomes. In addition, we will perform an aerobic fitness test in a sub-sample of participants (n=20 per study arm). In the primary analysis, we will use logistic regression to compare the proportion of participants reporting being physically active at or above the recommended level in the 2 groups, adjusting for baseline measurement, age, and sex. Results This study evaluates a theory-informed behavioral intervention at a time when people affected

  3. Heart Rate Tracking using Wrist-Type Photoplethysmographic (PPG) Signals during Physical Exercise with Simultaneous Accelerometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boloursaz Mashhadi, Mahdi; Asadi, Ehsan; Eskandari, Mohsen; Kiani, Shahrzad; Marvasti, Farokh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the problem of casual heart rate tracking during intensive physical exercise using simultaneous 2 channel photoplethysmographic (PPG) and 3 dimensional (3D) acceleration signals recorded from wrist. This is a challenging problem because the PPG signals recorded from wrist during exercise are contaminated by strong Motion Artifacts (MAs). In this work, a novel algorithm is proposed which consists of two main steps of MA Cancellation and Spectral Analysis. The MA cancellation step cleanses the MA-contaminated PPG signals utilizing the acceleration data and the spectral analysis step estimates a higher resolution spectrum of the signal and selects the spectral peaks corresponding to HR. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/hour showed that the proposed algorithm achieves an average absolute error of 1.25 beat per minute (BPM). These experimental results also confirm that the proposed algorithm keeps high estimation accuracies even in strong MA conditions.

  4. Effectiveness of exercise at workplace in physical fitness: uncontrolled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Antônio José; Silva, Valter; Parra, Sérgio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of workplace exercise for employee health by means of health-related physical activity components. Methods: A randomized uncontrolled study with 20 workers was carried out during three months to evaluate a workplace exercise program. The selected outcomes were flexibility, body mass, fat percentage, lean mass, blood pressure, and heart rate. For statistical analysis, the paired t test and the intent-to-treat analysis were used. Results: There was a significant increase in weight, fat percentage, blood pressure, and heart rate. However the clinical significance was 10% in the size of the effect. Conclusion: The changes verified in the outcomes analyzed were not significant; the variables are within normality ranges proposed by academic organizations PMID:24728247

  5. [PHYSICAL EXERCISE FOR PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: EFFECTS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND BARRIERS].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Achiron, Anat

    2016-06-01

    This review summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for physical training (PTr) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, perceived benefits and barriers to PTr in this population are reviewed. One of the primary aims of rehabilitation for patients with MS is to increase their levels of activity and independence. PTr is a central component in the rehabilitation process. Nonetheless, the use of PTr in the rehabilitation of patients with MS has been a controversial issue for years. Nowadays, strong evidence exists that aerobic training in individuals with MS has a positive effect on overall physical conditioning, gait speed, fatigue, depression and cognition. Unlike aerobic training, the number of studies that investigated strength training effects in this population is limited. However, the available data show that resistance training also has beneficial effects on MS patients. It is important to note, that PTr has no deleterious effects in MS patients. In the various studies, there was diversity with regard to the duration and the frequency of PTr, while intensity was often poorly described. It is recommended that individuals with MS engage in aerobic training (at 60-80% of maximal heart rate), strength training (1-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions), the range of motion, balance and ambulation exercises. Awareness of the benefits of physical activity and sense of achievement are not sufficient to promote exercise participation in persons with MS. Factors relating to physical exertion, sports facilities availability and self-efficacy play an important role in promoting exercise participation. PMID:27544990

  6. Mineralization of human bone tissue under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Verentsov, Grigori E.; Abratov, Nikolai I.

    It has been suggested that physical exercise and calcium supplements may be used to prevent demineralization of bone tissue under hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine mineral content of bones of 12 physically healthy men aged 19-24 years under 90 days of hypokinesia and intensive physical exercise (PE) with calcium lactate (C) supplements. They were divided into experimental and control groups with 6 men in each. The experimental group of men were subjected to hypokinesia (HK) and intensive PE and took 650 mg C 6 times per day; the control group was placed under pure HK, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures. The mineral content of different bone tissues was measured with a densitometric X-ray method in milligrams of calcium per 1 mm 3 before and after exposure to HK. The level of bone density of the examined bone tissues decreased by 7-9% and 5-7% for the control and experimental groups of men, respectively. A statistical analysis revealed that the reduction of bone mineralization was significant with P < 0.01 in both groups of men. A comparison between bone density changes in the control and experimental groups of men failed to demonstrate significant differences. It was concluded that the level of mineralization of bone tissues decreased under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements. Experimental studies of hypokinetic physiology are generally based on the assumption that diminished muscular activity (progressive reduction of number of steps per day) is detrimental to animal and human organisms, since the entire animal kingdom had been formed in an environment of high motor activity which left its imprint on the evolution, structure, function and behaviour of animals and men. The impossibility of the body tissues to retain optimum amounts of fluid and electrolytes is the dominant hypokinetic effect.

  7. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  8. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: “Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?” Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods

  9. Health Professionals' Perspectives on Exercise Referral and Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care: Findings from a Process Evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Nafees U.; Moore, Graham F.; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians' experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals' perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise…

  10. Growing older with health and vitality: a nexus of physical activity, exercise and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Witard, Oliver C; McGlory, Chris; Hamilton, D Lee; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-06-01

    The preservation of skeletal muscle mass and strength with advancing age are, we propose, critical aspects of ageing with health and vitality. Physical inactivity and poor nutrition are known to accelerate the gradual age-related decline in muscle mass and strength-sarcopenia-however, both are subject to modification. The main purpose of this review is to present the latest, evidence-based recommendations for physical activity and exercise, as well as diet for older adults that would help in preserving muscle mass and strength. We take the position that future physical activity/exercise guidelines need to make specific reference to resistance exercise and highlight the benefits of higher-intensity aerobic exercise training, alongside advocating older adults perform aerobic-based physical activity and household tasks (e.g., carrying groceries). In terms of dietary recommendations, greater emphasis should be placed on optimal rather than minimum protein intakes for older adults. Indeed, guidelines that endorse a daily protein intake of 1.2-1.5 g/kg BM/day, which are levels 50-90 % greater than the current protein Recommendation Dietary Allowance (0.8 g/kg BM/day), are likely to help preserve muscle mass and strength and are safe for healthy older adults. Being cognisant of factors (e.g., reduced appetite) that may preclude older adults from increasing their total daily protein intake, we echo the viewpoint of other active researchers in advocating that protein recommendations for older adults be based on a per meal approach in order to maximize muscle protein synthesis (MPS). On this basis, assuming three meals are consumed daily, a protein dose of 0.4-0.5 g/kg BM should be contained in each meal. We are beginning to understand ways in which to increase the utilization of ingested protein for the stimulation of MPS, namely by increasing the proportion of leucine contained in a given dose of protein, co-ingesting other nutrients (e.g., carbohydrate and fat or

  11. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  12. Possible underestimation by sports medicine of the effects of early physical exercise practice on the prevention of diseases in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Romulo Araujo; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel Joao; Spiguel Lima, Manoel Carlos; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2015-01-01

    In modern society, combatting cardiovascular and metabolic diseases has been highlighted as an urgent global challenge. In recent decades, the scientific literature has identified that behavioral variables (e.g. smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity) are related to the development of these outcomes and, therefore, preventive actions should focus on the promotion of physical exercise practice and a healthy diet, as well as combatting the smoking habit from an early age. The promotion of physical exercise in the general population has been suggested as a relevant goal by significant health organizations around the world. On the other hand, recent literature has indicated that physical exercise performed in early life prevents the development of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension during adulthood, although this protective effect seems to be independent of the physical activity performed during adulthood. Apparently, the interaction between physical exercise and human growth in early life constitutes an issue which is not completely understood by sports medicine. The aim of the present review was therefore to discuss recent evidence on the effects of physical exercise performed during childhood and adolescence on cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in adulthood. PMID:25828743

  13. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.

  14. The Effects of Physical Exercise with Music on Cognitive Function of Elderly People: Mihama-Kiho Project

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Masayuki; Ogawa, Jun-ichi; Tokita, Tomoko; Nakaguchi, Noriko; Nakao, Koji; Kida, Hirotaka; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people. It is unknown, however, if combinations of non-pharmaceutical interventions can produce more benefits than single ones. This study aimed to identify if physical exercise combined with music improves cognitive function in normal elderly people more than exercise alone. Methods We enrolled 119 subjects (age 65–84 years old). Forty subjects performed physical exercise (once a week for an hour with professional trainers) with musical accompaniment (ExM group), developed by YAMAHA Music Foundation; 40 subjects performed the same exercise without music (Ex group); 39 subjects were the control group (Cont group). Before and after the year-long intervention, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries. MRIs were performed before and after intervention; the Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) was used to assess medial temporal lobe atrophy. Results Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was significant only in visuospatial function. The multiple comparison (ExM vs. Ex, ExM vs. Cont, Ex vs. Cont) was significant between the ExM and Cont group. Intra-group analyses before and after intervention revealed significant improvement in visuospatial function in the ExM group, and significant improvements in other batteries in all three groups. The VSRAD score significantly worsened in the ExM and Ex groups. Conclusions Physical exercise combined with music produced more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than exercise alone. We attributed this improvement to the multifaceted nature of combining physical exercise with music, which can act simultaneously as both cognitive and physical training. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000012148 PMID:24769624

  15. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on cardiovascular response to mental and physical challenge.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of a 12-week exercise intervention on the cardiovascular and autonomic response of males to mental and physical challenge. Thirty four young overweight males were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The exercise group completed a high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) program three times per week for 12weeks. Cardiovascular response to the Stroop task was determined before and after the intervention by assessing heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), arterial stiffness, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and skeletal muscle blood flow. The exercise group improved their aerobic fitness levels by 17% and reduced their body weight by 1.6kg. Exercisers compared to controls experienced a significant reduction in HR (p<0.001) and a significant increase in SV (p<0.001) at rest and during Stroop and exercise. For exercisers, arterial stiffness significantly decreased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01), whereas BRS was increased at rest and during Stroop (p<0.01). Forearm blood flow was significantly increased during the first two minutes of Stroop (p<0.05). HIIE induced significant cardiovascular and autonomic changes at rest and during mental and physical challenge after 12weeks of training. PMID:23220158

  16. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions. PMID:27539656

  17. Chronic stress and moderate physical exercise prompt widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2016-10-01

    Chronic stress in rodents produces depressive behaviors, whereas moderate physical exercise counteracts stress-induced depressive behaviors. Chronic stress and physical exercise appear to produce such opposing effects by changing the neural activity of specific brain regions. However, the detailed mechanisms through which the two different types of stimuli regulate brain function in opposite directions are not clearly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the neuroanatomical substrates mediating stress-induced behavioral changes and anti-depressant effects of exercise by examining stimulus-dependent c-Fos induction in the brains of mice that were exposed to repeated stress or exercise in a scheduled manner. Systematic and integrated analyses of c-Fos expression profiles indicated that various brain areas, including the prelimbic cortex, lateral septal area, and paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus were commonly and strongly activated by both stress and exercise, while the lateral habenula and hippocampus were identified as being preferentially activated by stress and exercise, respectively. Exercise-dependent c-Fos expression in all regions examined in the brain occurred in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that chronic stress and moderate exercise produce counteractive effects on mood behaviors, along with prompting widespread common activation and limited differential activation in specific brain regions.

  18. Lack of adequate appreciation of physical exercise's complexities can pre-empt appropriate design and interpretation in scientific discovery.

    PubMed

    Booth, F W; Laye, M J

    2009-12-01

    Two major issues are presented. First, a challenge is made by us that a misunderstanding of physiology has led to incomplete or wrong functional designations of genes in some cases. Normal physiological processes are dynamic, integrated and periodic, and, therefore, it is difficult to define normal physiological function by looking at a single time point or single process in a non-stressed subject. The ability of the organism to successfully respond to homeostatic disruptions defines normal physiology. Genes were selected for survival and to appropriately respond to stresses, such as physical activity. Omitting gene functions by restricting them to non-stressful conditions could lead to less than optimal primary preventions, treatments and cures for diseases. Physical exercise, as a stressor, should be used to better demonstrate the complete functional classifications of some genes. Second, the challenge from others of an 'exercise pill' as a mimetic of natural physical activity will be shown to be lacking a scientific basis. The concept of an 'exercise pill'/'exercise mimetic' demonstrates an inadequate appreciation of the complexities in integrating cell, tissue, organ and systems during both acute disruptions in homeostasis by a single bout of exercise, and longer-term chronic adaptations to different types of exercise such as resistance and endurance. It is our opinion that those promoting drugs targeting a single or few molecules should not redefine the term 'exercise' and exercise concepts in an attempt to sensationalize findings. Additionally, the scientific criteria that the authors demand to be met to legitimately use the terms 'exercise pill' and 'exercise mimetic' are presented. PMID:19723782

  19. Comparison of different computed radiography systems: Physical characterization and contrast detail analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Burani, Aldo; Acchiappati, Domenico

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: In this study, five different units based on three different technologies--traditional computed radiography (CR) units with granular phosphor and single-side reading, granular phosphor and dual-side reading, and columnar phosphor and line-scanning reading--are compared in terms of physical characterization and contrast detail analysis. Methods: The physical characterization of the five systems was obtained with the standard beam condition RQA5. Three of the units have been developed by FUJIFILM (FCR ST-VI, FCR ST-BD, and FCR Velocity U), one by Kodak (Direct View CR 975), and one by Agfa (DX-S). The quantitative comparison is based on the calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Noise investigation was also achieved by using a relative standard deviation analysis. Psychophysical characterization is assessed by performing a contrast detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images. Results: The most advanced units based on columnar phosphors provide MTF values in line or better than those from conventional CR systems. The greater thickness of the columnar phosphor improves the efficiency, allowing for enhanced noise properties. In fact, NPS values for standard CR systems are remarkably higher for all the investigated exposures and especially for frequencies up to 3.5 lp/mm. As a consequence, DQE values for the three units based on columnar phosphors and line-scanning reading, or granular phosphor and dual-side reading, are neatly better than those from conventional CR systems. Actually, DQE values of about 40% are easily achievable for all the investigated exposures. Conclusions: This study suggests that systems based on the dual-side reading or line-scanning reading with columnar phosphors provide a remarkable improvement when compared to conventional CR units and yield results in line with those obtained from most digital detectors for radiography.

  20. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  1. Internet-Supported Physical Exercise Training for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis—A Randomised, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Tallner, Alexander; Streber, René; Hentschke, Christian; Morgott, Marc; Geidl, Wolfgang; Mäurer, Mathias; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is effective in improving functional outcomes in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of internet-based exercise training (e-training) for pwMS on health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Secondary outcomes were muscle strength, aerobic capacity, lung function, physical activity, and fatigue. This is a randomised, controlled trial with a wait-list control group. Data were collected at baseline, after three and six months, and analysed using a hybrid linear model. One-hundred twenty-six pwMS participated in the home-based aerobic (1×/week) and strength training (2×/week) intervention that was supervised and documented via an internet-platform. The intervention group received e-training for six months, and the control group received e-training after a three months waiting period. Significant differences between the groups were only observed for muscle strength (knee flexion (effect size ES = 0.3, p = 0.003), knee extension (ES = 0.24, p = 0.015)), peak expiratory flow (ES = 0.2, p = 0.039), and sports activity (ES = 0.33, p = 0.001) after three months. E-training had no effect on HrQoL but did on muscle strength, lung function, and physical activity. It is a promising and feasible approach to facilitate large-scale, yet individual, training support. PMID:27706046

  2. Current Perspectives on Physical Activity and Exercise Recommendations for Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Pescatello, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that childhood obesity is increasing in children who are developing typically as well as in children with developmental disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Impairments specific to autism as well as general environmental factors could lead to an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy, leading to obesity. In this article, we describe the mechanisms by which autism-specific impairments contribute to obesity. The evidence on exercise interventions to improve physical fitness, address obesity, and reduce autism-specific impairments in children and adolescents with ASDs is discussed. Limited evidence is currently available for exercise interventions in individuals with ASDs. Therefore, literature on other pediatric developmental disabilities and children who are developing typically was reviewed to provide recommendations for clinicians to assess physical activity levels, to promote physical fitness, and to reduce obesity in children and adolescents with ASDs. There is a clear need for further systematic research to develop sensitive assessment tools and holistic multisystem and multifactorial obesity interventions that accommodate the social communication, motor, and behavioral impairments of individuals with ASDs. PMID:24525861

  3. Gender Inequality in the Couple Relationship and Leisure-Based Physical Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aims To analyse whether gender inequality in the couple relationship was related to leisure-based physical activity, after controlling for earlier physical activity and confounders. Methods Data drawn from the Northern Swedish Cohort of all pupils in their final year of compulsory schooling in a town in the North of Sweden. The sample consisted of 772 respondents (n = 381 men, n = 391 women) in the 26-year follow-up (in 2007, aged 42) who were either married or cohabiting. Ordinal regression, for men and women separately, was used to assess the association between gender inequality (measured as self-perceived equality in the couple relationship using dummy variables) and a measure of exercise frequency, controlling for prior exercise frequency, socioeconomic status, the presence of children in the home, and longer than usual hours in paid work. Results The perception of greater gender equality in the couple relationship was associated with higher levels of physical activity for both men and women. This remained significant when the other variables were controlled for. Amongst men the confidence intervals were high. Conclusions The results point to the potential of perceived gender equality in the couple relationship to counteract the general time poverty and household burden that often arises from the combination of paid work and responsibility for children and the home, especially for women. The high confidence intervals among men indicate the need for more research within the field with larger samples. PMID:26196280

  4. Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF), are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA) over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65–75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0) and post-training (month 12). Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (β = −0.36, p < 0.05); this association was unmitigated by the addition of covariates (β = −0.44, p < 0.05). As expected, EF did not predict changes in PA during the training period (p > 0.10). Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low. PMID:24904387

  5. Acute stress affects the global DNA methylation profile in rat brain: modulation by physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Gelson M; Toffoli, Leandro V; Manfredo, Marcelo H; Francis-Oliveira, José; Silva, Andrey S; Raquel, Hiviny A; Martins-Pinge, Marli C; Moreira, Estefânia G; Fernandes, Karen B; Pelosi, Gislaine G; Gomes, Marcus V

    2015-02-15

    The vulnerability of epigenetic marks of brain cells to environmental stimuli and its implication for health have been recently debated. Thus, we used the rat model of acute restraint stress (ARS) to evaluate the impact of stress on the global DNA methylation and on the expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes of hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Furthermore, we verified the potential of physical exercise to modulate epigenetic responses evoked by ARS. Sedentary male Wistar rats were submitted to ARS at the 75th postnatal day (PND), whereas animals from a physically active group were previously submitted to swimming sessions (35-74th PND) and to ARS at the 75th PND. Global DNA methylation profile was quantified using an ELISA-based method and the quantitative expression of the Dnmt1 and Bdnf genes was evaluated by real-time PCR. ARS induced a decrease in global DNA methylation in hippocampus, cortex and PAG of sedentary animals and an increased expression of Bdnf in PAG. No change in DNA methylation was associated with ARS in the exercised animals, although it was associated with abnormal expression of Dnmt1 and Bdnf in cortex, hypothalamus and PAG. Our data reveal that ARS evokes adaptive changes in global DNA methylation of rat brain that are independent of the expression of the Dnmt1 gene but might be linked to abnormal expression of the Bdnf gene in the PAG. Furthermore, our evidence indicates that physical exercise has the potential to modulate changes in DNA methylation and gene expression consequent to ARS.

  6. [Fitness symbols: the physical exercise programmes for health and beauty by famous actresses].

    PubMed

    del Díaz Montero, M

    1993-01-01

    In recent years we have seen the proliferation of books on some kinds of physical exercise whose supposed belief is that staying healthy is directly related to a socially acceptable physique. Health and beauty go hand in hand in these books, and they are presented as being a result of practising a technique which is advocted by some successful figure in society such as a film actress. Four different models are analysed, each one of which corresponds to a value set by western society--beauty, competitiveness ...--or other values such as --serenity and harmony--the perceived lack of which is both sought and taken from other cultures.

  7. Assessment of the effects of physical training in patients with chronic heart failure: the utility of effort-independent exercise variables.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Hareld M C; de Vries, Wouter R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Zonderland, Maria L; Hoogeveen, Adwin R; Thijssen, Eric J M; Schep, Goof

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, the effects of physical training in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are evaluated by changes in peak oxygen uptake (peak VO(2)). The assessment of peak VO(2), however, is highly dependent on the patients' motivation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of effort-independent exercise variables for detecting training effects in CHF patients. In a prospective controlled trial, patients with stable CHF were allocated to an intervention group (N = 30), performing a 12-week combined cycle interval and muscle resistance training program, or a control group (N = 18) that was matched for age, gender, body composition and left ventricular ejection fraction. The following effort-independent exercise variables were evaluated: the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), the V(E)/VCO(2) slope and the time constant of VO(2) kinetics during recovery from submaximal constant-load exercise (tau-rec). In addition to post-training increases in peak VO(2) and peak V(E), the intervention group showed significant within and between-group improvements in VAT, OUES and tau-rec. There were no significant differences between relative improvements of the effort-independent exercise variables in the intervention group. In contrast with VAT, which could not be determined in 9% of the patients, OUES and tau-rec were determined successfully in all patients. Therefore, we conclude that OUES and tau-rec are useful in clinical practice for the assessment of training effects in CHF patients, especially in cases of poor subject effort during symptom-limited exercise testing or when patients are unable to reach a maximal exercise level.

  8. Exercise referral: the public health panacea for physical activity promotion? A critical perspective of exercise referral schemes; their development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dugdill, Lindsey; Graham, Rebecca C; McNair, Fiona

    This review critically explores the development, impact and evaluation of exercise referral schemes (ERS) in the UK. A rapid expansion in the use of such ERSs has been recorded throughout leisure and primary care settings, but the evidence underpinning their implementation has been sparse and predominantly limited to randomized control trial (RCT) research design. Consequently, understanding of exercise referral as a 'real world' intervention has been limited. Considering the increasing importance being placed on evidence-based practice and clinical effectiveness, it is no longer sufficient for service providers of exercise referral to ignore the need to evaluate schemes. The guidelines on evaluation provided by the National Quality Assurance Framework for Exercise Referral are limited, hence practitioners are often unsure of the best measures to use when assessing effectiveness. Predominantly, exercise professionals focus on the collection of physiological data but tend to ignore relevant psychological and environmental parameters. Also, few UK studies have followed participants up in the long term, to see if physical activity behaviour is sustained over time. Here, evidence from two on-going, large-scale (n = 1600/annum) evaluation studies of exercise referral schemes, based in urban localities in the northwest of England, are described. A participatory action research framework for evaluation was utilized and incorporated multi-method research approaches for the assessment of both ERS participants and health professionals involved in intervention delivery. This framework is an appropriate methodology for the evaluation and development of complex interventions, and here incorporates case study, focus groups, interviews and survey questionnaires. Included was a 12-month tracking study of a cohort of exercise referral participants (n = 342), which measured leisure-time physical activity levels (Godin leisure time score), at baseline (entry to exercise referral) and

  9. Enhancing lifestyle for individuals with haemophilia through physical activity and exercise: the role of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wittmeier, K; Mulder, K

    2007-09-01

    For individuals with haemophilia, the benefits of many forms of physical activity outweigh their risks. Although activities with significant trauma risk should be avoided, persons who have haemophilia can participate in, enjoy and even excel in a variety of physical activities and sports. Both the National Hemophilia Foundation and the World Foundation of Hemophilia have produced documents to guide individuals with haemophilia and their healthcare professionals, coaches and parents in developing physical activity programmes and participation in sports. Physical activity guidelines for promoting health benefits exist worldwide and can be incorporated into individualized exercise programmes to ensure that a person with haemophilia is not only choosing appropriate activities, but also improving overall health and preparing the body to manage haemophilia better. Physiotherapy treatment is paramount in helping individuals prevent, manage and optimally recover from bleeds. Furthermore, the physical therapist, along with the haemophilia care team, can assist in preparing an individual to begin or progress to a physical activity programme that enhances fitness level, body composition and overall well-being. This article presents the unique role of the physiotherapist in facilitating safe participation in quality physical activity in the context of risks, benefits and activity recommendations. Participation in physical activity from an early age is ideal to facilitate the development of body awareness and capability and to foster the adoption of a physically active lifestyle; however, it is never too late to start. Consistent participation in quality physical activity beginning at any age is central to managing haemophilia and, equally important, to achieving overall health and well-being.

  10. Physical exercise, aortic blood pressure, and aortic wall elasticity and composition in rats.

    PubMed

    Niederhoffer, N; Kieffer, P; Desplanches, D; Lartaud-Idjouadiene, I; Sornay, M H; Atkinson, J

    2000-04-01

    With a training schedule (8 weeks' treadmill running at 30 m/min up a 10% incline 5 d/wk for 90 min/day), we investigated whether exercise modifies aortic wall dimensions, composition (calcium and elastin content), or stiffness in normotensive 6-month-old male Wistar WAG/Rij rats. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured in half of the rats (n=10 per group). Wall stiffness was evaluated in the other half (9 trained and 10 untrained) on the basis of changes in thoracoabdominal pressure pulse wave velocity and differences in amplitude between the peripheral and central aortic pressure signals. Experiments were performed in nonanesthetized, unrestrained rats and then after pithing. The impact of exercise on the oxidative capacity of the plantaris muscles was evaluated with the measurement of citrate synthase activity. Training increased maximal oxygen uptake by 34% and citrate synthase activity by 40%. Mean peripheral aortic pressure increased by 6% and 19% in trained rats, under awake and pithed conditions, whereas mean central aortic pressure increased by 16%, after pithing only. All indexes of aortic stiffness were similar in trained and control rats, as were aortic wall dimensions, composition, cardiac mass, and heart rate. In conclusion, physical exercise in young rats appears to have no effect on aortic stiffness. PMID:10775562

  11. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately. PMID:19437188

  12. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  13. The impact of 100 hours of exercise and sleep deprivation on cognitive function and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Anson, J Greg; Palmer, Craig D; Hellemans, Ien J; Cotter, James D

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of 96-125 h of competitive exercise on cognitive and physical performance. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Stroop test (n = 9) before, during, and after the 2003 Southern Traverse adventure race. Strength (MVC) and strength endurance (time to failure at 70% current MVC) of the knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles were assessed before and after racing. Changes in vertical jump (n = 24) and 30-s Wingate performance (n = 27) were assessed in a different group of athletes. Complex response times were affected by the race (16% slower), although not significantly so (P = 0.18), and were dependent on exercise intensity (less so at 50% peak power output after racing). Reduction of strength (P < 0.05) of the legs (17%) and arms (11%) was equivalent (P = 0.17). Reductions in strength endurance were inconsistent (legs 18%, P = 0.09; arms 13%, P = 0.40), but were equivalent between limbs (P = 0.80). Similar reductions were observed in jump height (-8 +/- 9%, P < 0.01) and Wingate peak power (-7 +/- 15%, P = 0.04), mean power (-7 +/- 11%, P < 0.01), and end power (-10 +/- 11%, P < 0.01). We concluded that: moderate-intensity exercise may help complex decision making during sustained stress; functional performance was modestly impacted, and the upper and lower limbs were affected similarly despite being used disproportionately.

  14. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  15. Using contrasting cases to improve self-assessment in physics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jax, Jared Michael

    Accurate self-assessment (SA) is widely regarded as a valuable tool for conducting scientific work, although there is growing concern that students present difficulties in accurately assessing their own learning. For students, the challenge of accurately self-assessing their work prevents them from effectively critiquing their own knowledge and skills, and making corrections when necessary to improve their performance. An overwhelming majority of researchers have acknowledged the importance of developing and practicing the necessary reflective skills SA in science, yet it is rarely a focus of daily instruction leading to students typically overestimate their abilities. In an effort to provide a pragmatic approach to overcoming these deficiencies, this study will demonstrate the effect of using positive and negative examples of solutions (contrasting cases) on performance and accuracy of SA when compared to student who are only shown positive examples of solutions. The work described here sought, first, to establish the areas of flawed SA that introductory high school physics students experience when studying circuitry, and, second, to examine how giving students Content Knowledge in addition to Positive and Negative Examples focused on helping them self-assess might help overcome these deficiencies. In doing so, this work highlights the positive impact that these types of support have in significantly increasing student performance, SA accuracy, and the ability to evaluate solutions in physics education.

  16. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT

  17. Effect of Regular Circus Physical Exercises on Lymphocytes in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Momesso dos Santos, Cesar Miguel; Sato, Fábio Takeo; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Guirado-Rodrigues, Silvia Helena; Caçula, Kim Guimaraes; Gonçalves Santos, Cristiane Cassoni; Hatanaka, Elaine; de Oliveira, Heloisa Helena; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Murata, Gilson; Borges-Silva, Cristina Neves; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Gorjão, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Obesity associated with a sedentary lifestyle can lead to changes in the immune system balance resulting in the development of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to compare lymphocyte activation mechanisms between overweight children practicing regular circus physical exercises with non-exercised children. The study comprised 60 pubescent children randomly divided into 4 groups: Overweight Children (OWC) (10.67 ± 0.22 years old), Overweight Exercised Children (OWE) (10.00 ± 0.41 years old), Eutrophic Children (EC) (11.00 ± 0.29 years old) and Eutrophic Exercised Children (EE) (10.60 ± 0.29 years old). OWE and EE groups practiced circus activities twice a week, for 4.3 ± 0.5 and 4.4 ± 0.5 months, respectively. Percentage of T regulatory cells (Treg) and the expression of CD95 and CD25 in CD4+ lymphocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferation capacity was measured by [14C]-thymidine incorporation and mRNA expression of IL-35, TGF-beta, IL-2 and IL-10 by real-time PCR. Lymphocyte proliferation was higher in OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC (3509 ± 887; 2694 ± 560, and 1768 ± 208 cpm, respectively) and EE (2313 ± 111 cpm) groups. CD95 expression on lymphocytes was augmented in the EC (953.9 ± 101.2) and EE groups (736.7 ± 194.6) compared with the OWC (522.1 ± 125.2) and OWE groups (551.6 ± 144.5). CTLA-4 expression was also lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. Percentage of Treg, IL-35, and IL-10 mRNA expression were lower in the OWC and OWE groups compared with the EC and EE groups. In conclusion, overweight children present altered immune system balance characterized by elevated lymphocyte proliferation due to a decrease in T regulatory cell percentage. These effects were partially reverted by moderate physical exercise, as demonstrated by decreased lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:25826263

  18. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers. PMID:24527440

  19. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. PMID:27195456

  20. Wii Fit™ exercise therapy for the rehabilitation of ankle sprains: Its effect compared with physical therapy or no functional exercises at all.

    PubMed

    Punt, I M; Ziltener, J-L; Monnin, D; Allet, L

    2016-07-01

    Lateral ankle sprains represent the most common sports-related injuries. The Nintendo Wii Fit™ could be useful in the treatment of ankle sprains. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of exercise training using the Wii Fit™ in ankle sprain patients: (a) with physical therapy; and (b) a control group not receiving any treatment. Ninety lateral ankle sprain patients were randomized to a Wii Fit™, physical therapy, or control group. We assessed the following outcome measures before, and 6 weeks after starting the allocated treatment: Foot and Ankle Ability Measure, pain during rest and walking, delay before return to sport, patient satisfaction, and effectiveness of the allocated treatment. Six weeks after the baseline measures, foot and ankle ability scores had improved in all groups, and pain had decreased during walking (P < 0.050). No between-group differences were detected between Wii Fit™ treatment, and both other groups (P > 0.050). In conclusion, the Wii Fit™ could be used as an exercise therapy to treat ankle sprain patients. However, Wii Fit™ was not more effective than only physical therapy, or no exercise therapy at all. Patients who did not receive treatment showed similar results as people who got any kind of exercise therapy. PMID:26076737

  1. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. PMID:27775591

  2. Process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise to reduce musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L; Zebis, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8-12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual at baseline (100% dose delivered and 100% dose received), and 59 and 57 participants, respectively, replied to the process evaluation questionnaire at 10-week follow-up. Results showed that in the 2 and 12 min groups, respectively, 82% and 81% of the participants completed more than 30 training sessions. However, two-thirds of the participants would have preferred more than a single exercise to vary between. In the 12 versus 2 min group more participants experienced the training sessions as too long (30% versus 5%). Most participants (67-92%) found the training diary and manual helpful, adequacy in a single instructional session, and satisfaction with the type of training. Among those with low adherence, lack of time (51%) and difficulties in starting exercising after illness (26%) were common barriers for regular training. Among those with low adherence, 52% felt that five training sessions per week were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees. PMID:25574172

  3. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  4. [Physical exercise in the diabetic. The importance of understanding endocrine and metabolic responses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Berger, M; Assal, J P; Jorgens, V

    1980-03-01

    During physical activity in normals, metabolic control is well regulated despite major changes in metabolic fuels, glucose and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Release of NEFA from adipose tissue is stimulated by a decrease of insulin and blood glucose as well as by an increase of growth hormone, catecholamines and adrenergic stimulation. The increase in glucose utilisation by muscle during physical activity is balanced by an increase in glucose production by the liver. This hepatic glucose production is due to glycogenolysis (beginning of exercise) and by gluconeogenesis (later in time). The metabolic pathways are favoured by decreased insulin and blood glucose levels induced by physical activity and by increased levels of epinephrine, cortisol and glucagon. On the other hand in insulin-dependent diabetics, these compensatory mechanisms might be seriously unbalanced because of non physiologic insulin levels. In well controlled diabetics, moderate physical activity induces the same changes in energetic fuels as in normal controls. When a diabetic exercises after insulin injection, the levels of circulating insulin are always higher than in non-diabetics where blood insulin levels decrease. In diabetics on insulin this supra-normal level of insulin during physical activity decreases hepatic glucose production and increases peripheral glucose uptake with a resultant tendency to hypoglycemia. On the other hand, in poorly controlled diabetics, physical activity can induce a rise in blood glucose. Increased hepatic glucose output, decreased peripheral utilisation of glucose and increased growth hormone, glucagon, epinephrine and cortisol levels might even lead to development of ketosis. Physical activity can disturb the stability of diabetes when insulin levels are either too low or too high leading to high and low blood glucose responses respectively. The benefit of physical activity in the diabetic will therefore depend upon the degree of diabetes control; ideal

  5. Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, M; Jørgensen, T; Jensen, ML; Juhl, M; Olsen, J; Andersen, PK; Nybo Andersen, A-M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Design Prospective study with elements of retrospective data collection. Setting Denmark 1996–2002. Population A total of 92 671 pregnant women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort and interviewed subsequently. Methods Data on exercise during pregnancy and potential confounders were obtained through computer-assisted telephone interviews either during pregnancy or after an early miscarriage. Outcome of pregnancy was identified by register linkage. Using Cox regression analysis, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) of miscarriage according to weekly amount of exercise and the type of exercise. The HR was estimated for <11, 11–14, 15–18, and 19–22 weeks of gestation, respectively. Main outcome measures Miscarriage, defined as fetal loss before 22 completed weeks of gestation. Results A stepwise increasing relation was found between amount of exercise and risk of miscarriage, where risk of miscarriage increased by amount of exercise up to HR = 3.7 (95% CI 2.9–4.7) for women who exercised more than 7 hours per week compared with nonexercisers. Particularly ‘high-impact exercise’ was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. No association was seen between exercise and risk of miscarriage after 18 weeks of gestation. Conclusions This study suggests that exercise early in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. The results should, however, be interpreted cautiously as potential bias arising from retrospective data collection may explain part of the association. Please cite this paper as: Madsen M, Jørgensen T, Jensen M, Juhl M, Olsen J, Andersen P, Nybo Andersen A. Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. BJOG 2007;114:1419–1426. PMID:17877774

  6. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Trabka, Bartosz; Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Bojke, Olgierd; Clarke, Anna; Wiacek, Magdalena; Latosik, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST) on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program. PMID:25414748

  7. Physical exercise and acute restraint stress differentially modulate hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts and epigenetic mechanisms in mice.

    PubMed

    Ieraci, Alessandro; Mallei, Alessandra; Musazzi, Laura; Popoli, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Physical exercise and stressful experiences have been shown to exert opposite effects on behavioral functions and brain plasticity, partly by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Although epigenetic modifications are known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of the different BDNF transcripts, it is poorly understood whether epigenetic mechanisms are also implied in the BDNF modulation induced by physical exercise and stress. Here, we show that total BDNF mRNA levels and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were reduced immediately after acute restraint stress (RS) in the hippocampus of mice, and returned to control levels 24 h after the stress session. On the contrary, exercise increased BDNF mRNA expression and counteracted the stress-induced decrease of BDNF transcripts. Physical exercise-induced up-regulation of BDNF transcripts was accounted for by increase in histone H3 acetylated levels at specific BDNF promoters, whereas the histone H3 trimethylated lysine 27 and dimethylated lysine 9 levels were unaffected. Acute RS did not change the levels of acetylated and methylated histone H3 at the BDNF promoters. Furthermore, we found that physical exercise and RS were able to differentially modulate the histone deacetylases mRNA levels. Finally, we report that a single treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors, prior to acute stress exposure, prevented the down-regulation of total BDNF and BDNF transcripts 1, 2, 3, and 6, partially reproducing the effect of physical exercise. Overall, these results suggest that physical exercise and stress are able to differentially modulate the expression of BDNF transcripts by possible different epigenetic mechanisms.

  8. Sudden cardiac death due to physical exercise in male competitive athletes. A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Z; Misigoj-Durakovic, M; Vuori, I; Skavic, J; Belicza, M

    2005-12-01

    In the period of 30 years, i.e. from 1973 to 2002, we noticed in Croatia 6 sudden and unexpected cardiac deaths in male athletes during or after training. Two were soccer players, 2 athletic runners, one was a rugby player and one was a basketball player. All of them were without cardiovascular symptoms. At the forensic autopsy, the first athlete, aged 29, had chronic myocarditis and thickened left ventricular wall of 15 mm. The second, aged 21, had an acute myocardial infarction of the posterior wall with normal coronaries and thickened left ventricular wall of 15 mm. The third aged 17, had hypoplastic right coronary artery and narrowed ascending aorta, suppurant tonsillitis and subacute myocarditis. Two athletes, aged 29 and 15, had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and normal coronaries, and one dilated aorta. The sixth, aged 24, had arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy of the right ventricle. All the 6 athletes died suddenly, obviously because of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. In Croatia the death rate among athletes reached 0.15/100 000, in others who practice exercise reached 0.74/100,000 and the difference is highly significant (c2=14.487, Poisson rates=3.81, P=0.00014) and in physicians-specialists reached 33.6/100,000. Preventive medical examinations are essential, especially in athletes before physical exercise, as are other investigations in every case suspicious of heart disease, including electrocardiogram (ECG), stress ECG, echocardiography and stress-echocardiography and other findings if indicated. Physical exercise is contraindicated in acute respiratory infection: in 2 of those cases had been a cause of death as a trigger.

  9. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss.

  10. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss. PMID:24438736

  11. [Physical exercise, muscle strength and the day-to-day activities of elderly women].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luciana Helena Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate relationships between muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs, physical exercise, and functionality to perform complex activities of day-to-day life in elderly women recruited from the community. 1538 elderly women with mean age = 72.07 ± 5.46 and average household income = 3.59 ± 3.96 MW, without cognitive deficit suggestive of dementia, were submitted to tests of grip strength and walking speed. They were asked to self-report on regular practice of physical exercise and performance of 13 social AADLs (e.g. working, travelling and church attendance) and 3 IADLs (handling money, doing the shopping and using public transport). The worst performance key factors were low grip strength and low gait speed in ADL (OR = 2.48 if both; OR = 1.66 if either were present), as well as low income (OR = 2.46 low income < 1 MW and = 2.45 to 1.1 and 3.0 MW) and sedentary life style (OR = 2.08). The functionality of elderly women is influenced by physiological aging, but also by contextual conditions and life style. PMID:22899157

  12. The Effects of Acute Intense Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Leineweber, Matthew J; Wyss, Dominik; Dufour, Sophie-Krystale; Gane, Claire; Zabjek, Karl; Bouyer, Laurent J; Maltais, Désirée B; Voisin, Julien I; Andrysek, Jan

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of intense physical exercise on postural stability of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Center of pressure (CoP) was measured in 9 typically developing (TD) children and 8 with CP before and after a maximal aerobic shuttle-run test (SRT) using a single force plate. Anteroposterior and mediolateral sway velocities, sway area, and sway regularity were calculated from the CoP data and compared between pre- and postexercise levels and between groups. Children with CP demonstrated significantly higher pre-SRT CoP velocities than TD children in the sagittal (18.6 ± 7.6 vs. 6.75 1.78 m/s) and frontal planes (15.4 ± 5.3 vs. 8.04 ± 1.51 m/s). Post-SRT, CoP velocities significantly increased for children with CP in the sagittal plane (27.0 ± 1.2 m/s), with near-significant increases in the frontal plane (25.0 ± 1.5m/s). Similarly, children with CP evidenced larger sway areas than the TD children both pre- and postexercise. The diminished postural stability in children with CP after short but intense physical exercise may have important implications including increased risk of falls and injury. PMID:27623610

  13. Hormonal response to exercise in humans: influence of hypoxia and physical training.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, M; Bangsbo, J; Lortie, G; Galbo, H

    1988-02-01

    Hypoxia and physical training alter the responses of glucoregulatory hormones to absolute work loads in opposite directions. These effects have tentatively been ascribed to changes in maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) and ensuing changes in relative work loads. However, hypoxia as well as training may more specifically influence the hormonal response. We therefore differentiated the influence of hypoxia, training, and VO2 max, respectively, on the hormonal response to bicycle exercise. Responses to hypoxia in a low-pressure chamber (PB = 465 vs. 730 Torr) were studied at given absolute and relative (85% VO2 max) work loads in seven endurance-trained athletes (T) and 7 age and weight-matched sedentary subjects (C). Concentrations in plasma of norepinephrine, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol were always closely related to the relative work load. However, the epinephrine response in T, but not in C, was at the same relative work load higher during hypoxia (5.84 +/- 0.83 nmol/l) than during normoxia (4.26 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05). These results indicate that the hormonal response is influenced by hypoxia and physical training, mainly via changes in the relative work load. However, in trained subjects both at rest and during exercise, an enhancing effect of hypoxia per se on the epinephrine response is seen, probably due to an increased adrenal medullary secretory responsiveness in long-term endurance-trained subjects.

  14. Physical exercise ameliorates the toxic effect of fluoride on the insulin-glucose system.

    PubMed

    Lombarte, Mercedes; Fina, Brenda L; Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília A; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-07-01

    Daily intake of water with fluoride concentrations >1.5 mg/l produces insulin resistance (IR). On the other hand, physical activity increases insulin sensitivity in the muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity on IR in rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n=10/group): Control (drinking water without NaF), NaF (drinking water with NaF 15 mg/l for 30 days), and Exercise (daily running on a treadmill for 60 min at 2.25 m/min and drinking water with NaF 15 mg/l for 30 days). IR was evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index using fasting plasma levels of glucose and insulin. IR increased in rats treated with 15 mg/l NaF in drinking water. A decrease in IR was observed in rats that performed physical activity and drank water with 15 mg/l NaF; the Exercise group also showed an increase in the amounts of bone fluoride. The variation in the HOMA-IR values could be the consequence of variation in the sensitivity of tissues to insulin or decrease in plasma fluoride levels due to bone fluoride intake. These findings indicate that the performance of daily physical activity could reduce the negative effects of the chronic ingestion of NaF on glucose homeostasis. PMID:23660080

  15. Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Vogel, Robert; Lavie, Carl J; Cordain, Loren

    2011-01-01

    A large proportion of the health woes beleaguering modern cultures are because of daily physical activity patterns that are profoundly different from those for which we are genetically adapted. The ancestral natural environment in which our current genome was forged via natural selection called for a large amount of daily energy expenditure on a variety of physical movements. Our genes that were selected for in this arduous and demanding natural milieu enabled our ancestors to survive and thrive, leading to a very vigorous lifestyle. This abrupt (by evolutionary time frames) change from a very physically demanding lifestyle in natural outdoor settings to an inactive indoor lifestyle is at the origin of many of the widespread chronic diseases that are endemic in our modern society. The logical answer is to replicate the native human activity pattern to the extent that this is achievable and practical. Recommendations for exercise mode, duration, intensity, and frequency are outlined with a focus on simulating the routine physical activities of our ancient hunter-gatherer ancestors whose genome we still largely share today. In a typical inactive person, this type of daily physical activity will optimize gene expression and help to confer the robust health that was enjoyed by hunter-gatherers in the wild. PMID:21545934

  16. Effects of combined exercise on physical fitness and neurotransmitters in children with ADHD: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Chung-Moo; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a jump rope and ball combined exercise program on the physical fitness the neurotransmitter (epinephrine, serotonin) levels of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 boys attending elementary school, whose grade levels ranged from 1-4. The block randomization method was used to distribute the participants between the combined exercise group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The program consisted of a 60-min exercise (10-min warm-up, 40-min main exercise, and 10-min cool down) performed three times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance and flexibility after 12 weeks. A significant increase in the epinephrine level was observed in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The 12-week combined exercise program in the current study (jump rope and ball exercises) had a positive effect on overall fitness level, and neurotransmission in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:26504324

  17. Effects of combined exercise on physical fitness and neurotransmitters in children with ADHD: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Lee, Chung-Moo; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a jump rope and ball combined exercise program on the physical fitness the neurotransmitter (epinephrine, serotonin) levels of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 12 boys attending elementary school, whose grade levels ranged from 1-4. The block randomization method was used to distribute the participants between the combined exercise group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The program consisted of a 60-min exercise (10-min warm-up, 40-min main exercise, and 10-min cool down) performed three times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] The exercise group showed a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance and flexibility after 12 weeks. A significant increase in the epinephrine level was observed in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The 12-week combined exercise program in the current study (jump rope and ball exercises) had a positive effect on overall fitness level, and neurotransmission in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  18. Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--a narrative review for FYSS (Swedish Physical Activity Exercise Prescription Book).

    PubMed

    Emtner, M; Wadell, K

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this review were to determine the level of evidence for exercise training in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and provide evidence-based recommendations on exercise training. This review was performed in PubMed and Cochrane Library. Included studies investigated patients with COPD who had been randomised to exercise training or no training. Six systematic reviews were included. The methodological quality was scored using a grading system (GRADE). The analysis showed that aerobic and resistance training in patients in a stable state of COPD results in improved health-related quality of life and decreased dyspnoea, anxiety and depression (moderately strong scientific evidence, grade +++), and increased physical capacity and decreased dyspnoea in daily activities (limited scientific evidence, grade ++). In patients with an acute exacerbation, aerobic and resistance training, performed directly after the exacerbation, results in improved health-related quality of life (moderately strong scientific evidence, grade +++), improved exercise capacity and decreased mortality and hospitalisation (limited scientific evidence, grade ++). Thus, patients with COPD should be recommended to take part in exercise training. PMID:26823440

  19. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation. PMID:21558579

  20. The effect of Baduanjin exercise for physical and psychological wellbeing of college students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world. Since they are in a significant transition period which presents opportunities and challenges in health promotion, it is important to improve their health in this period. As a traditional Chinese exercise form which combines movements with breath and mind, Baduanjin may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, evidence of Baduanjin exercise for college students has not been completely established. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students through a rigorous randomization, parallel-controlled design. Method/design We will conduct a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial. A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine who meet the eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated into Baduanjin training or usual exercise control group. Baduanjin training will last 12 weeks (1 h per day, 5 days per week). The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lumbar proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, will be evaluated by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). Discussion This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher-quality evidence to better inform the college students regarding their selection about whether to receive such exercise. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003329 Registration date

  1. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise. PMID:25569828

  2. [Regular physical activity and mental health. The role of exercise in the prevention of, and intervention in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Takács, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    In our review we examine the relationship between physical activity and mental health; especially we determine the effectiveness of exercise in the prevention and treatment of depression. Over the past two decades the literature in the area of physical activity and mental health has been growing. However it seems that the findings and evidences not being utilized by mental health agencies and health practitioners. Depression is the most common disorder in the world, generally has a higher prevalence among women. In our study we overview and demonstrate that the exercise is a powerful intervention for prevention and treatment not only in non-clinical but also in clinical levels of depression. In sub-clinical levels of depression the meta-analytic findings and population surveys suggest that the exercise is associated with a significant moderate reduction of depression in different groups by gender and age; as well as a physically active lifestyle associates with lower levels of depression. In clinical levels of depression the physical activity is an effective tool in the prevention, studies support an association between higher levels of physical activity and lower levels of depression. In the treatment of clinical depression the randomized-controlled trials suggest the clear positive effects of exercise. This effect is similar to psychotherapeutic interventions and it was appeared under relatively short time (4-8 weeks). The exercise is one of the most important preventive health-related behaviors. Our review suggests a protective effect from activity on the development of clinical levels of depression and depressive symptoms. In addition the randomized controlled trials support a causal connection between exercise and reduction of depression. In sum the reviewed studies clearly support the antidepressant effect of exercise.

  3. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death due to physical exercise in Croatia in a 27-year period.

    PubMed

    Duraković, Zijad; Duraković, Marjeta Misigoj; Skavić, Josip

    2011-12-01

    The paper deals with the sudden cardiac death during physical exercise in males in Croatia. The data are a part of a retrospective study dealing with 69 sudden death due to physical activity in men in Croatia during 27 years: from January 1, 1984 to December 31, 2010. Three of them suddenly died during training and two of them died during recreational physical exercise, probably because of malignant ventricular arrhythmia due to hyperthrophic cardiomyopathy. One had an obstructive form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with i.v. septum of 40 mm and four had a non-obstructive forms of hyperthrophic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular wall of 18-20-22-25 mm. First athlete was a short trails runner, aged 24, with no any previous physical discomforts, who suddenly collapsed and died during training. The second athlete was a soccer player aged 18, with no any previous physical discomfort, who suddenly collapsed and died during training. The third aged 15, was a school boy, basketball player, with no any previous physical discomfort, who collapsed and died during training. Two aged 25 and 34, were with no physical discomfort during exercise and died suddenly during recreational soccer games. A sudden cardiac death due to physical exercise in young athletes in Croatia suffered of hyperthropic cardiomyopathy reached 0.06/100 000 yearly (p = 0.00000) in 27 years, in teenagers 0.26/100 000 (p = 0.00226), in teenagers suffered of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reached 0.10/100 000 (p = 0.00000), in all young athletes suffered of other heart diseases reached 0.19/100 000 (p = 0.00005), and in the total male population aged 15 or more, engaged in sports and recreational physical exercise: 0.71/100.0000 (p = 0.00001).

  4. [Update on Current Care Guideline: Physical activity and exercise training for adults in sickness and in health].

    PubMed

    Rauramaa, Rainer; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Arokoski, Jari; Hohtari, Hannele; Ketola, Eeva; Kettunen, Jyrki; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kujala, Urho; Laukkanen, Jari; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Savela, Salla; Savonen, Kai; Tikkanen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the guideline is to promote physical activity in the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of diseases. Physical activity plays a key role in the management of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. In this guideline, the following diseases are discussed: endocrinological, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases, as well as depression and cancer. In addition, physical activity during pregnancy and in senior citizens is reviewed. Exercise counseling should be included as part of disease management and lifestyle guidance. PMID:27089621

  5. Physical Exercise Reduces the Expression of RANTES and Its CCR5 Receptor in the Adipose Tissue of Obese Humans

    PubMed Central

    Baturcam, Engin; Tiss, Ali; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Al-Ghimlas, Fahad; Al-Khairi, Irina; Cherian, Preethi; Elkum, Naser; John, Jeena; Kavalakatt, Sina; Lehe, Cynthia; Warsame, Samia; Behbehani, Kazem; Dermime, Said

    2014-01-01

    RANTES and its CCR5 receptor trigger inflammation and its progression to insulin resistance in obese. In the present study, we investigated for the first time the effect of physical exercise on the expression of RANTES and CCR5 in obese humans. Fifty-seven adult nondiabetic subjects (17 lean and 40 obese) were enrolled in a 3-month supervised physical exercise. RANTES and CCR5 expressions were measured in PBMCs and subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after exercise. Circulating plasma levels of RANTES were also investigated. There was a significant increase in RANTES and CCR5 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese compared to lean. In PBMCs, however, while the levels of RANTES mRNA and protein were comparable between both groups, CCR5 mRNA was downregulated in obese subjects (P < 0.05). Physical exercise significantly reduced the expression of both RANTES and CCR5 (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue of obese individuals with a concomitant decrease in the levels of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-6, and P-JNK. Circulating RANTES correlated negatively with anti-inflammatory IL-1ra (P = 0.001) and positively with proinflammatory IP-10 and TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, physical exercise may provide an effective approach for combating the deleterious effects associated with obesity through RANTES signaling in the adipose tissue. PMID:24895488

  6. Aerobic Physical Exercise Improved the Cognitive Function of Elderly Males but Did Not Modify Their Blood Homocysteine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Hanna Karen M.; De Mello, Marco Túlio; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Camargo Galdieri, Luciano; Amodeo Bueno, Orlando Francisco; Tufik, Sergio; D'Almeida, Vânia

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical exercise influences homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, cognitive function and the metabolic profile. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of regular physical exercise on Hcy levels, the metabolic profile and cognitive function in healthy elderly males before and after an endurance exercise program. Methods Forty-five healthy and sedentary volunteers were randomized into 2 groups: (1) a control group asked not to change their normal everyday activities and not to start any regular physical exercise program and (2) an experimental group trained at a heart rate intensity corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1) for 60 min/day 3 times weekly on alternate days for 6 months using a cycle ergometer. All volunteers underwent cognitive evaluations, blood sample analyses and ergospirometric assessments. Results A significant improvement in cognitive function was observed in the experimental group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). No significant changes in Hcy levels were observed in the experimental group (p > 0.05), but there was a significant increase in peak oxygen consumption and workload at VT-1 as well as a significant improvement in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, urea, T3, T4 and prostate-specific antigen compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The data suggest that a physical exercise program does not reduce Hcy levels in healthy elderly males, although it improves the cardiovascular and metabolic profile as well as cognitive function. PMID:25759715

  7. Effect of voluntary physical exercise and post-training epinephrine on acquisition of a spatial task in the barnes maze.

    PubMed

    Jacotte-Simancas, Alejandra; Costa-Miserachs, David; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2013-06-15

    A number of experiments have shown that physical exercise improves acquisition and retention for a variety of learning tasks in rodents. Most of these works have been conducted with tasks associated with a considerable level of stress, physical effort and/or food deprivation that might interact with exercise, thus hindering the interpretation of the results. On the other hand, it is well established that post-training epinephrine is able to facilitate memory consolidation, but only a few works have studied its effect on the process of acquisition. The present work was aimed at studying whether 17 days of voluntary physical exercise (running wheels) and/or post-training epinephrine (0.01 or 0.05 mg/kg) could improve the acquisition of a spatial task in the Barnes maze, and whether the combination of the two treatments have additive effects. Our results showed that exercise improved acquisition, and 0.01 mg/kg of epinephrine tended to enhance it, by reducing the distance needed to find the escape hole. The combination of both treatments failed to further improve the acquisition level. We concluded that both treatments exerted their effect on acquisition by enhancing the process of learning itself, and that exercise is able to improve acquisition even using tasks with a low level of stress and physical effort.

  8. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  9. Physical Fitness and Self-Image: An Evaluation of the Exercise Self-Schema Questionnaire Using Direct Measures of Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    THOMAS, JAFRA D.; VANNESS, J. MARK; CARDINAL, BRADLEY J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski’s exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session. Participants not meeting inclusion criteria for Kendzierski’s three original schema groups were categorized as “unschematic,” and were included within MANCOVA/ANCOVA analyses, where gender served as the covariate. Participants underwent lab-based fitness assessments administered in accordance with the 2013 American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. The hypothesis of this study was partially supported. Specifically, exerciser schematics were significantly leaner than aschematics (p = .002) and they had greater levels of upper-body muscular endurance compared to both aschematic and nonexerciser schematics (p = .002). However, no differences were observed for cardiovascular fitness (i.e., predicted V02Max p = .410). The findings of this study help to establish the construct validity of Kendizerski’s self-report exercise self-schema categorization scheme. Visual inspection of the data, as well as computed effect size measures suggest exercise self-schema is associated with dimensions of one’s physical fitness. PMID:27766132

  10. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age.

  11. Effects of physical exercise on the cartilage of ovariectomized rats submitted to immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Simas, José Martim Marques; Kunz, Regina Inês; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the effects of physical exercise on cartilage histomorphometry in osteoporosis-induced rats subjected to immobilization. Methods We used 36 Wistar rats that were separated into six groups: G1, G2 and G3 submitted to pseudo-oophorectomy, and G4, G5 and G6 submitted to oophorectomy. After 60 days at rest, G2, G3, G5 and G6 had the right hind limbs immobilized for 15 days, followed by the same period in remobilization, being free in the box to G2 and G5, and climb ladder to G3 and G6. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, their tibias bilaterally removed and submitted to histological routine. Results There was significant increase in thickness of the articular cartilage (F(5;29)=13.88; p<0.0001) and epiphyseal plate (F(5;29)=14.72; p<0.0001) as the number of chondrocytes (F(5;29)=5.11; p=0.0021) in ovariectomized rats, immobilized and submitted to exercise. In the morphological analysis, degeneration of articular cartilage with subchondral bone exposure, loss of cellular organization, discontinuity of tidemark, presence of cracks and flocculation in ovariectomized, immobilized and free remobilization rats were found. In ovariectomized and immobilized remobilization ladder rats, signs of repair of the cartilaginous structures in the presence of clones, pannus, subcortical blood vessel invasion in the calcified zone, increasing the amount of isogenous groups and thickness of the calcified zone were observed. Conclusion Exercise climb ladder was effective in cartilaginous tissue recovery process damaged by immobilization, in model of osteoporosis by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26761556

  12. Core temperature differences between males and females during intermittent exercise: physical considerations.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Daniel; Dorman, Lucy E; Jay, Ollie; Hardcastle, Stephen; Kenny, Glen P

    2009-02-01

    We examined differences in dynamic heat balance between males and females during intermittent exercise. Six males (M) and six females (F) performed three 30-min bouts of exercise (Ex1, Ex2, Ex3) at a constant rate of metabolic heat production (M - W) of approximately 500 W separated by three 15-min periods of inactive recovery. Rate of total heat loss (M - W) was measured by direct calorimetry, while M - W was determined by indirect calorimetry. Esophageal (T (es)) was measured continuously. Exercise at a constant M - W of approximately 500 W, was paralleled by a similar HL between sexes at the end of Ex1 (M: 462 +/- 30 W, F: 442 +/- 9 W, p = 0.117), Ex2 (M: 468 +/- 28 W, F: 508 +/- 18 W, p = 0.343), and Ex3 (M: 469 +/- 17 W, F: 465 +/- 13 W, p = 0.657). Consequently, changes in body heat content were comparable after Ex1 (M: 218 +/- 21 kJ, F: 287 +/- 35 kJ, p = 0.134), Ex2 (M: 109 +/- 18 kJ, F: 158 +/- 29 kJ, p = 0.179), and Ex3 (M: 92 +/- 19 kJ, F: 156 +/- 35 kJ, p = 0.136). However, females had greater overall increases in T (es) at the end of Ex3 (M: 0.55 +/- 0.25 degrees C, F: 0.97 +/- 0.26 degrees C, p physical characteristics, and not due to concurrent differences in whole-body thermoregulatory responses.

  13. Effect of orally administered soy milk fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 and physical exercise on murine immune responses.

    PubMed

    Appukutty, M; Ramasamy, K; Rajan, S; Vellasamy, S; Ramasamy, R; Radhakrishnan, A K

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits through the gastrointestinal microbiota. This nutritional supplement may benefit athletes who undergo rigorous training by maintaining their gastrointestinal functions and overall health. In this study the influence of moderate physical exercise using a graded treadmill exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soy product fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 (LAB12), on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) responses was investigated in a murine model. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of six mice each (control, exercise alone, LAB12 and LAB12 + exercise). Mice treated with the potential probiotic LAB12 were orally gavaged for 42 days. At autopsy, blood and spleen from the animals were collected. The splenocytes were cultured in the presence of a mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). The amount of TNF-α produced by the Con A-stimulated splenocytes was quantified using ELISA, while their proliferation was determined using the [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation method. This study shows that LAB12-supplemented and exercise-induced mice showed marked increase (P<0.05) in cell proliferation compared to the control animals. TNF-α production was suppressed (P<0.05) in the LAB12 group compared to the untreated mice. These results demonstrate that supplementation with LAB12 has immunomodulatory effects, under conditions of moderate physical exercise, which may have implications for human athletes. Further investigation in human trials is warranted to confirm and extrapolate these findings.

  14. Clinical trial to assess the effect of physical exercise on endothelial function and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is a common maternal disease that complicates 5 to 10% of pregnancies and remains as the major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. Cost-effective interventions aimed at preventing the development of preeclampsia are urgently needed. However, the pathogenesis of PE is not well known. Multiple mechanisms such as oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance may contribute to its development. Regular aerobic exercise recovers endothelial function; improves insulin resistance and decreases oxidative stress. Therefore the purpose of this clinical trial is to determine the effect of regular aerobic exercise on endothelial function, on insulin resistance and on pregnancy outcome. Methods and design 64 pregnant women will be included in a blind, randomized clinical trial, and parallel assignment. The exercise group will do regular aerobic physical exercise: walking (10 minutes), aerobic exercise (30 minutes), stretching (10 minutes) and relaxation exercise (10 minutes) in three sessions per week. Control group will do the activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, eating, and walking) without counselling from a physical therapist. Trial registration NCT00741312. PMID:19919718

  15. Physical Exercise and Weight Loss for Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis in Very Old Patients: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintrec, Jean-Laurent Le; Verlhac, Bernard; Cadet, Christian; Bréville, Philippe; Vetel, Jean M; Gauvain, Jean B; Jeandel, Claude; Maheu, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background : Rheumatologic and geriatric scholarly organisations recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, which emphasise the usefulness of non-pharmacological therapies, are not scaled according to patient’s age and physical condition. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on exercise and weight loss in hip and knee osteoarthritis in very old patients. Methods : Electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PASCAL database, systematic search of the Cochrane Reviews, manual search in guidelines, meta-analyses and identified relevant articles. Results : We identified 83 trials, with only 2 on patients aged ≥ 75 years; we therefore lowered the mean age threshold to 70 years and found 15 trials, mainly performed in knee osteoarthritis and outpatients. Physical exercise (8 trials): was effective on pain and function (4 controlled trials), with a persistent effect only in case of self-rehabilitation. Aquatic exercise (5 trials): was as effective as land-based exercise. Weight loss (2 trials): only patients under diet + exercise had significant improvement on symptoms. Conclusion : Our systematic review confirms that international recommendations on exercise for knee osteoarthritis also apply to subjects aged 70-80 years. Long-term effectiveness requires a maintenance strategy. Specific trials on very old patients with various comorbidities are mandatory, given that these subjects are more exposed to drug-related iatrogenesis. PMID:25489352

  16. Muscle Physiology Changes Induced by Every Other Day Feeding and Endurance Exercise in Mice: Effects on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Bies, Elizabeth; Santa-Cruz Calvo, Sara; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Peña Amaro, José; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J.; Carrión, Ángel M.; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Every other day feeding (EOD) and exercise induce changes in cell metabolism. The aim of the present work was to know if both EOD and exercise produce similar effects on physical capacity, studying their physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects on muscle. Male OF-1 mice were fed either ad libitum (AL) or under EOD. After 18 weeks under EOD, animals were also trained by using a treadmill for another 6 weeks and then analyzed for physical activity. Both, EOD and endurance exercise increased the resistance of animals to extenuating activity and improved motor coordination. Among the groups that showed the highest performance, AL and EOD trained animals, ALT and EODT respectively, only the EODT group was able to increase glucose and triglycerides levels in plasma after extenuating exercise. No high effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities or protein levels neither on coenzyme Q levels were found in gastrocnemius muscle. However, exercise and EOD did increase β-oxidation activity in this muscle accompanied by increased CD36 levels in animals fed under EOD and by changes in shape and localization of mitochondria in muscle fibers. Furthermore, EOD and training decreased muscle damage after strenuous exercise. EOD also reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation in muscle. Our results indicate that EOD improves muscle performance and resistance by increasing lipid catabolism in muscle mitochondria at the same time that prevents lipid peroxidation and muscle damage. PMID:21085477

  17. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O'Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5-6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. -5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (-5 ± 9 vs. -11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  18. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study †

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ives, Stephen J.; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O’Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  19. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI.

  20. DNA injury is acutely enhanced in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Tarperi, Cantor; Montagnana, Martina; Festa, Luca; Danese, Elisa; Benati, Marco; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Bonaguri, Chiara; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Schena, Federico

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage in response to increasing bulks of aerobic physical exercise. Fifteen adult and trained athletes performed four sequential trials with increasing running distance (5-, 10-, 21- and 42-km) in different periods of the year. The γ-H2AX foci parameters were analyzed before and 3h after the end of each trial. The values of all γ-H2AX foci parameters were enhanced after the end of each trial, with values gradually increasing from the 5- to the 42-km trial. Interestingly, a minor increase of γ-H2AX foci was still evident after 5- to 10-km running, but a much higher increase occurred when the running distance exceeded 21km. The generation of DNA injury was then magnified by running up to 42-km. The increase of each γ-H2AX foci parameter was then found to be associated with both running distance and average intensity. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the running distance was significantly associated with average intensity and post-run variation in the percentage of cells with γ-H2AX foci. We can hence conclude that aerobic exercise may generate an acute DNA damage in trained athletes, which is highly dependent upon running distance and average intensity. PMID:27374303

  1. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  2. How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

    2014-05-01

    When plant breeders develop modern cereal varieties for the sustainable intensification of agriculture, insufficient thought is given to the impact of tillage on soil physical conditions for crop production. In earlier work, we demonstrated that barley varieties that perform best in ploughed soil (the approach traditionally used for breeding trials) were not the same as those performing best under shallow non-inversion or zero-tillage. We also found that the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with improved phosphorus uptake, and hence useful for marker assisted breeding, were not robust between different tillage regimes. The impact of the soil environment had greater impact than the genetics in GxE interactions. It is obvious that soil tillage should be considered when breeding the next generation of crops. Tillage may also have important impacts on carbon storage, but we found that despite greater soil carbon at shallow depths under non-inversion tillage, the carbon stored throughout the soil profile was not affected by tillage. Studies on soil tillage impacts to crop productivity and soil quality are often performed in one season, on single sites that have had insufficient time to develop. Our current research explores multiple sites, on different soils, with temporal measurements of soil physical conditions under contrasting tillage regimes. We use the oldest established contemporary tillage experiments in the United Kingdom, with all sites sharing ploughed and shallow (7cm) non-inversion tillage treatments. In eastern Scotland (Mid Pilmore), the site also has zero tillage and deep ploughing (40 cm) treatments, and was established 11 years ago. In east England there are two sites, both also having a deep non-inversion tillage treatment, and they were established 6 (New Farm Systems) and 8 (STAR) years ago. We measure a range of crop and soil properties at sowing, one month after sowing and post-harvest, including rapid lab based assays that allow high

  3. [Physical activity can influence the course of early arthritis. Both strength training and aerobic exercise provide pain relief and functional improvement].

    PubMed

    Roos, Ewa

    2002-11-01

    There is no causal treatment for osteoarthritis. Instead treatment is aimed at decreasing pain and improving function. The base of osteoarthritis treatment is education and exercise. Exercise, both aerobic exercise and muscular strength training, have positive effects on pain and function. The minimum recommendations of exercise are equivalent to the recommendations of physical activity to obtain or maintain a good general health. Acupuncture is a safe and effective treatment for osteoarthritis pain. However, function is not automatically improved when pain is relieved.

  4. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian.

  5. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    PubMed

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. PMID:20621275

  6. Effects of prolonged physical exercise and fasting upon plasma testosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Ferre, P; Serrurier, B; Merino, D; Pesquies, P C

    1982-01-01

    Prolonged physical exercise and fasting in male rats were studied to determine the effect of these two treatments on plasma testosterone level. Blood and tissue samples were drawn after 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, and 7 h treadmill running, and after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of fasting. Both treatments resulted in a significant fall in plasma testosterone, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), plasma Insulin (IRI) and in liver and muscle glycogen stores. In the course of these two treatments the injection of a supra maximal dose of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) produced a rise in plasma testosterone similar to that in control rats. This indicates that the decrease of plasma LH may be responsible for the decrease in plasma testosterone, which is time-related with the decrease in glycogen stores. The possible metabolic role of the decrease in plasma testosterone is discussed. PMID:6889494

  7. Is physical exercise harmful to liver transplantation recipients? Review of literature.

    PubMed

    Moya-Nájera, Diego; Borreani, Sebastien; Moya-Herraiz, Ángel; Calatayud, Joaquin; López-Andújar, Rafael; Colado, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a treatment that significantly improves the patients' quality of life. However, we should be more ambitious and seek an improvement in their fitness through training protocols allowing them to fully return to daily activities. English and Spanish-language articles on PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched untill 2014. Articles were reviewed by 2 of the authors to determine if they were suitable for inclusion. It is shown a compilation of studies that included patients who have participated in aerobic, strength, or both combined training programs, without implying a risk for the graft function. There is a lack of studies with high scientific evidence that stablish a proper exercise program methodology, supervised by specialists in physical activity and sports.

  8. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  9. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  10. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements. PMID:27192196

  11. Oxygen Consumption and Usage During Physical Exercise: The Balance Between Oxidative Stress and ROS-Dependent Adaptive Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhongfu; Koltai, Erika; Ohno, Hideki; Atalay, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The complexity of human DNA has been affected by aerobic metabolism, including endurance exercise and oxygen toxicity. Aerobic endurance exercise could play an important role in the evolution of Homo sapiens, and oxygen was not important just for survival, but it was crucial to redox-mediated adaptation. The metabolic challenge during physical exercise results in an elevated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are important modulators of muscle contraction, antioxidant protection, and oxidative damage repair, which at moderate levels generate physiological responses. Several factors of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and SIRT1, are modulated by exercise-associated changes in the redox milieu. PGC-1α activation could result in decreased oxidative challenge, either by upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and/or by an increased number of mitochondria that allows lower levels of respiratory activity for the same degree of ATP generation. Endogenous thiol antioxidants glutathione and thioredoxin are modulated with high oxygen consumption and ROS generation during physical exercise, controlling cellular function through redox-sensitive signaling and protein–protein interactions. Endurance exercise-related angiogenesis, up to a significant degree, is regulated by ROS-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Moreover, the exercise-associated ROS production could be important to DNA methylation and post-translation modifications of histone residues, which create heritable adaptive conditions based on epigenetic features of chromosomes. Accumulating data indicate that exercise with moderate intensity has systemic and complex health-promoting effects, which undoubtedly involve regulation of redox homeostasis and signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1208–1246. PMID:22978553

  12. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Souza, Priscila Soares; dos Santos, Giulia Pedroso; Thirupathi, Anand; Menegali, Bruno T; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Valença, Samuel Santos; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30–35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure. PMID:27042047

  13. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice.

    PubMed

    Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Souza, Priscila Soares; Dos Santos, Giulia Pedroso; Thirupathi, Anand; Menegali, Bruno T; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Valença, Samuel Santos; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30-35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure. PMID:27042047

  14. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fabel, Klaus; Wolf, Susanne A; Ehninger, Dan; Babu, Harish; Leal-Galicia, Perla; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN) and environmental enrichment both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR) would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can "prime" the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  15. Pre-infection physical exercise decreases mortality and stimulates neurogenesis in bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Liebetanz, David; Gerber, Joachim; Schiffner, Christina; Schütze, Sandra; Klinker, Florian; Jarry, Hubertus; Nau, Roland; Tauber, Simone C

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to increase neurogenesis, to decrease neuronal injury and to improve memory in animal models of stroke and head trauma. Therefore, we investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on survival, neuronal damage and cell proliferation in a mouse model of pneumococcal meningitis. Mice were housed in cages equipped with voluntary running wheels or in standard cages before induction of bacterial meningitis by a subarachnoid injection of a Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 strain. 24 hours later antibiotic treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg twice daily). Experiments were terminated either 30 hours or 4 days (short-term) or 7 weeks (long-term) after infection, and the survival time, inflammatory cytokines and corticosterone levels, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the cognitive function were evaluated in surviving mice. Survival time was significantly increased in running mice compared to control animals (p = 0.0087 in short-term and p = 0.016 in long-term experiments, log-rank test). At the end of the long-term experiment, mortality was lower in trained than in sedentary animals (p = 0.031, Fisher's Exact test). Hippocampal neurogenesis--assessed by the density of doublecortin-, TUC-4- and BrdU + NeuN-colabeled cells--was significantly increased in running mice in comparison to the sedentary group after meningitis. However, Morris water maze performance of both groups 6 weeks after bacterial meningitis did not reveal differences in learning ability. In conclusion, physical exercise prior to infection increased survival in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis and stimulated neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation.

  16. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity and indices of plasmatic oxidative damage after acute physical exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Berzosa, C; Gómez-Trullén, E M; Piedrafita, E; Cebrián, I; Martínez-Ballarín, E; Miana-Mena, F J; Fuentes-Broto, L; García, J J

    2011-06-01

    Optima