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Sample records for control cell sensitivity

  1. Organic photovoltaic cells with controlled polarization sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Awartani, Omar; O'Connor, Brendan T.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2014-03-03

    In this study, we demonstrate linearly polarized organic photovoltaic cells with a well-controlled level of polarization sensitivity. The polarized devices were created through the application of a large uniaxial strain to the bulk heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) film and printing the plastically deformed active layer onto a PEDOT:PSS and indium tin oxide coated glass substrate. The P3HT:PCBM layer is processed such that it is able to accommodate high strains (over 100%) without fracture. After printing the strained films, thermal annealing is used to optimize solar cell performance while maintaining polarization sensitivity. A dichroic ratio and short circuit current ratio of ≈6.1 and ≈1.6 were achieved, respectively.

  2. Inhibitory masking controls the threshold sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Toychiev, Abduqodir; Zhang, Yi; Atlasz, Tamas; Ramakrishnan, Hariharasubramanian; Roy, Kaushambi; Völgyi, Béla; Akopian, Abram; Bloomfield, Stewart A

    2016-11-15

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in dark-adapted retinas show a range of threshold sensitivities spanning ∼3 log units of illuminance. Here, we show that the different threshold sensitivities of RGCs reflect an inhibitory mechanism that masks inputs from certain rod pathways. The masking inhibition is subserved by GABAC receptors, probably on bipolar cell axon terminals. The GABAergic masking inhibition appears independent of dopaminergic circuitry that has been shown also to affect RGC sensitivity. The results indicate a novel mechanism whereby inhibition controls the sensitivity of different cohorts of RGCs. This can limit and thereby ensure that appropriate signals are carried centrally in scotopic conditions when sensitivity rather than acuity is crucial. The responses of rod photoreceptors, which subserve dim light vision, are carried through the retina by three independent pathways. These pathways carry signals with largely different sensitivities. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the output neurons of the retina, show a wide range of sensitivities in the same dark-adapted conditions, suggesting a divergence of the rod pathways. However, this organization is not supported by the known synaptic morphology of the retina. Here, we tested an alternative idea that the rod pathways converge onto single RGCs, but inhibitory circuits selectively mask signals so that one pathway predominates. Indeed, we found that application of GABA receptor blockers increased the sensitivity of most RGCs by unmasking rod signals, which were suppressed. Our results indicate that inhibition controls the threshold responses of RGCs under dim ambient light. This mechanism can ensure that appropriate signals cross the bottleneck of the optic nerve in changing stimulus conditions. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  3. Prestress and Adhesion Site Dynamics Control Cell Sensitivity to Extracellular Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Féréol, S.; Fodil, R.; Laurent, V.M.; Balland, M.; Louis, B.; Pelle, G.; Hénon, S.; Planus, E.; Isabey, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at improving the understanding of mechanisms responsible for cell sensitivity to extracellular environment. We explain how substrate mechanical properties can modulate the force regulation of cell sensitive elements primarily adhesion sites. We present a theoretical and experimental comparison between two radically different approaches of the force regulation of adhesion sites that depends on their either stationary or dynamic behavior. The most classical stationary model fails to predict cell sensitivity to substrate stiffness whereas the dynamic model predicts extracellular stiffness dependence. This is due to a time dependent reaction force in response to actomyosin traction force exerted on cell sensitive elements. We purposely used two cellular models, i.e., alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages exhibiting respectively stationary and dynamic adhesion sites, and compared their sensitivity to theoretical predictions. Mechanical and structural results show that alveolar epithelial cells exhibit significant prestress supported by evident stress fibers and lacks sensitivity to substrate stiffness. On the other hand, alveolar macrophages exhibit low prestress and exhibit sensitivity to substrate stiffness. Altogether, theory and experiments consistently show that adhesion site dynamics and cytoskeleton prestress control cell sensitivity to extracellular environment with an optimal sensitivity expected in the intermediate range. PMID:19254561

  4. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    PubMed Central

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-01-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism. PMID:27440452

  5. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-07-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism.

  6. Rod vision is controlled by dopamine-dependent sensitization of rod bipolar cells by GABA.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Rolf; Heflin, Stephanie J; Hammond, Timothy; Lee, Bowa; Wang, Jing; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G; Eggers, Erika D; Frishman, Laura J; McCall, Maureen A; Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2011-10-06

    Dark and light adaptation of retinal neurons allow our vision to operate over an enormous light intensity range. Here we report a mechanism that controls the light sensitivity and operational range of rod-driven bipolar cells that mediate dim-light vision. Our data indicate that the light responses of these cells are enhanced by sustained chloride currents via GABA(C) receptor channels. This sensitizing GABAergic input is controlled by dopamine D1 receptors, with horizontal cells serving as a plausible source of GABA release. Our findings expand the role of dopamine in vision from its well-established function of suppressing rod-driven signals in bright light to enhancing the same signals under dim illumination. They further reveal a role for GABA in sensitizing the circuitry for dim-light vision, thereby complementing GABA's traditional role in providing dynamic feedforward and feedback inhibition in the retina.

  7. Position in cell cycle controls the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to nitric oxide-dependent programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Jarry, Anne; Charrier, Laetitia; Bou-Hanna, Chantal; Devilder, Marie-Claire; Crussaire, Véronique; Denis, Marc G; Vallette, Geneviève; Laboisse, Christian L

    2004-06-15

    Mounting evidence suggests that the position in the cell cycle of cells exposed to an oxidative stress could determine their survival or apoptotic cell death. This study aimed at determining whether nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death in colon cancer cells might depend on their position in the cell cycle, based on a clone of the cancer cell line HT29 exposed to an NO donor, in combination with the manipulation of the cell entry into the cell cycle. We show that PAPA NONOate (pNO), from 10(-4) m to 10(-3) m, exerted early and reversible cytostatic effects through ribonucleotide reductase inhibition, followed by late resumption of cell growth at 5 x 10(-4) m pNO. In contrast, 10(-3) m pNO led to late programmed cell death that was accounted for by the progression of cells into the cell cycle as shown by (a) the accumulation of apoptotic cells in the G(2)-M phase at 10(-3) m pNO treatment; and (b) the prevention of cell death by inhibiting the entry of cells into the cell cycle. The entry of pNO-treated cells into the G(2)-M phase was associated with actin depolymerization and its S-glutathionylation in the same way as in control cells. However, the pNO treatment interfered with the build-up of a high reducing power, associated in control cells with a dramatic increase in reduced glutathione biosynthesis in the G(2)-M phase. This oxidative stress prevented the exit from the G(2)-M phase, which requires a high reducing power for actin deglutathionylation and its repolymerization. Finally, our demonstration that programmed cell death occurred through a caspase-independent pathway is in line with the context of a nitrosative/oxidative stress. In conclusion, this work, which deciphers the connection between the position of colonic cancer cells in the cell cycle and their sensitivity to NO-induced stress and their programmed cell death, could help optimize anticancer protocols based on NO-donating compounds.

  8. CK2 controls TRAIL and Fas sensitivity by regulating FLIP levels in endometrial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Llobet, D; Eritja, N; Encinas, M; Llecha, N; Yeramian, A; Pallares, J; Sorolla, A; Gonzalez-Tallada, F J; Matias-Guiu, X; Dolcet, X

    2008-04-17

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has emerged as a promising antineoplastic agent because of its ability to selectively kill tumoral cells. However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that in endometrial carcinoma cells such resistance is caused by elevated FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP) levels. The present study focuses on the mechanisms by which FLIP could be modulated to sensitize endometrial carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We find that inhibition of casein kinase (CK2) sensitizes endometrial carcinoma cells to TRAIL- and Fas-induced apoptosis. CK2 inhibition correlates with a reduction of FLIP protein, suggesting that CK2 regulates resistance to TRAIL and Fas by controlling FLIP levels. FLIP downregulation correlates with a reduction of mRNA and is prevented by addition of the MG-132, suggesting that CK2 inhibition results in a proteasome-mediated degradation of FLIP. Consistently, forced expression of FLIP restores resistance to TRAIL and Fas. Moreover, knockdown of either FADD or caspase-8 abrogates apoptosis triggered by inhibition of CK2, indicating that CK2 sensitization requires formation of functional DISC. Finally, because of the possible role of both TRAIL and CK2 in cancer therapy, we demonstrate that CK2 inhibition sensitizes primary endometrial carcinoma explants to TRAIL apoptosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CK2 regulates endometrial carcinoma cell sensitivity to TRAIL and Fas by regulating FLIP levels.

  9. B-cell receptor triggers drug sensitivity of primary CLL cells by controlling glucosylation of ceramides.

    PubMed

    Schwamb, Janine; Feldhaus, Valeska; Baumann, Michael; Patz, Michaela; Brodesser, Susanne; Brinker, Reinhild; Claasen, Julia; Pallasch, Christian P; Hallek, Michael; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Frenzel, Lukas P

    2012-11-08

    Survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is triggered by several stimuli, such as the B-cell receptor (BCR), CD40 ligand (CD40L), or interleukin-4 (IL-4). We identified that these stimuli regulate apoptosis resistance by modulating sphingolipid metabolism. Applying liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we revealed a significant decrease of proapoptotic ceramide in BCR/IL-4/CD40L-stimulated primary CLL cells compared with untreated controls. Antiapoptotic glucosylceramide levels were significantly increased after BCR cross-linking. We identified BCR engagement to catalyze the crucial modification of ceramide to glucosylceramide via UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG). Besides specific UGCG inhibitors, our data demonstrate that IgM-mediated UGCG expression was inhibited by the novel and highly effective PI3Kδ and BTK inhibitors CAL-101 and PCI-32765, which reverted IgM-induced resistance toward apoptosis of CLL cells. Sphingolipids were recently shown to be crucial for mediation of apoptosis via mitochondria. Our data reveal ABT-737, a mitochondria-targeting drug, as interesting candidate partner for PI3Kδ and BTK inhibition, resulting in synergistic apoptosis, even under protection by the BCR. In summary, we identified the mode of action of novel kinase inhibitors CAL-101 and PCI-32765 by controlling the UGCG-mediated ceramide/glucosylceramide equilibrium as a downstream molecular switch of BCR signaling, also providing novel targeted treatment options beyond current chemotherapy-based regimens.

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  11. A new mussel-inspired polydopamine sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells: controlled synthesis and charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Boeun; Ko, Min Jae; Jin, Mingshi; Kim, Ji Man; Jung, Duk-Young

    2012-10-29

    The efficient electron injection by direct dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer and strong adhesion of mussel-inspired synthetic polydopamine (PDA) dyes with TiO(2) electrode is demonstrated. Spontaneous self-polymerization of dopamine using dip-coating (DC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in basic buffer solution were applied to TiO(2) layers under a nitrogen atmosphere, which offers a facile and reliable synthetic pathway to make the PDA dyes, PDA-DC and PDA-CV, with conformal surface and perform an efficient dye-to-TiO(2) charge transfer. Both synthetic methods led to excellent photovoltaic results and the PDA-DC dye exhibited larger current density and efficiency values than those in the PDA-CV dye. Under simulated AM 1.5 G solar light (100 mW cm(-2)), a PDA-DC dye exhibited a short circuit current density of 5.50 mW cm(-2), corresponding to an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.2 %, which is almost 10 times that of the dopamine dye-sensitized solar cell. The PDA dyes showed strong adhesion with the nanocrystalline TiO(2) electrodes and the interface engineering of a dye-adsorbed TiO(2) surface through the control of the coating methods, reaction times and solution concentration maximized the overall conversion efficiency, resulting in a remarkably high efficiency. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Inner Layer Control of Performance in a Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrosynthesis Cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Degao; Farnum, Byron H; Sheridan, Matthew V; Marquard, Seth L; Sherman, Benjamin D; Meyer, Thomas J

    2017-10-04

    Interfacial charge transfer and core-shell structures play important roles in dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells (DSPEC) for water splitting into H2 and O2. An important element in the design of the photoanode in these devices is a core/shell structure which controls local electron transfer dynamics. Here, we introduce a new element, an internal layer of Al2O3 lying between the Sb:SnO2/TiO2 layers in a core/shell electrode which can improve photocurrents by up to 300%. In these structures, the results of photocurrent, transient absorption, and linear scan voltammetry measurements point to an important role for the Al2O3 layer in controlling internal electron transfer within the core/shell structure.

  13. Controlled growth of semiconductor nanofilms within TiO₂ nanotubes for nanofilm sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaojia; Yu, Dongqi; Xiong, Feng-Qiang; Li, Mingrun; Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Li, Can

    2014-04-28

    Anodized TiO2 nanotubes were decorated by II-VI semiconductor nanofilms via atomic layer deposition (ALD) and further employed as photoanodes of semiconductor nanofilm sensitized solar cells (NFSCs) exhibiting superior photovoltaic performance.

  14. Morphology control of ZnO nanostructures for high efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Jiawen; Fan, Huiqing; Tian, Hailin; Dong, Guangzhi

    2015-10-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated based on different ZnO nanostructures with controllable morphologies synthesized via capping agent-assisted hydrothermal method. The capping agent hindered the growth along (001) direction, so the morphology evolved from rods to nanosheets with increasing the amounts of capping agents. The kinetics of the photoelectrochemical properties in DSSCs were also evaluated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with focusing on exploring the electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and effective diffusion length of the cells in a quantitative manner based on an equivalent circuit model. The physical properties, such as specific surface area, photoluminescence and ultraviolet–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), were also extensively characterized in detail. DSSCs fabricated with ZnO nanosheets/rod hierarchical structures as photoanodes showed significantly improved photovoltaic performance with open-circuit voltage increasing from 0.45 V to 0.73 V, as well as the overall conversion efficiency 5.69 times better than that of ZnO rod. It was attributed to higher surface area (21.96 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}) and more efficient light absorption, as well as more efficient electron transfer process. - Highlights: • Controlled morphologies from rods to nanosheets were manipulated by hydrothermal method. • Different ZnO morphologies based DSSCs were investigated by IV and EIS with forward biases. • DSSCs based on nano hierarchical structures yield 5.67 times higher of power conversion efficiency than that of rods.

  15. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induced Allergic Airway Sensitization Is Controlled by Regulatory T-Cells and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crother, Timothy R.; Schröder, Nicolas W. J.; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2−/−, and TLR4−/− mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2−/− mice, but not in TLR4−/− mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2−/− mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4−/− mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  16. Improved photovoltaic response of nanocrystalline CdS-sensitized solar cells through interface control.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Sang-A; Lee, Yong Hui; Seok, Sang-Il

    2010-05-01

    Nanocrystalline CdS-sensitized solar cells (CdS-SSCs) based on mesoporous TiO(2) were fabricated by the spray pyrolysis deposition method. The energy conversion efficiency of these cells was drastically increased (156%) by modifying the junction structure through post-treatment that included soaking in a dilute TiCl(4) aqueous solution and subsequent thermal annealing. We propose that the post-treatment is responsible for an increased number of interconnections between TiO(2) and CdS, as well as surface passivation of the CdS sensitizer. The increase in the cell efficiency is attributed to the improved charge carrier transport, suppression of photoelectron recombination with holes both in the same sensitizer particle and in nearby ones, and suppression of photoelectron capture by the electrolyte.

  17. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  18. A redox-controlled electrolyte for plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuqiao; Ng, Siu-Pang; Qiu, Guangyu; Hung, Tak-Fu; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2017-08-03

    Plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with metallic nanostructures suffer from corrosion problems, especially with the presence of the iodine/triiodide redox couple in the electrolyte. Herein, we introduce an alternative approach by compensating the corrosion with a modified liquid electrolyte. In contrast to the existing method of surface preservation for plasmonic nanostructures, the redox-controlled electrolyte (RCE) contains iodoaurate intermediates, i.e. gold(i) diiodide (AuI2(-)) and gold(iii) tetraiodide (AuI4(-)) with optimal concentrations, such that these intermediates are readily reduced to gold nanoparticles during the operation of DSSCs. As corrosion and redeposition of gold occur simultaneously, it effectively provides corrosion compensation to the plasmonic gold nanostructures embedded in the photoanode. Cycling tests of the specific amount of gold contents in the RCE of DSSCs support the fact that the dissolution and deposition of gold are reversible and repeatable. This gold deposition on the TiO2 photoanode results in forming a Schottky barrier (SB) at the metal-semiconductor interface and effectively inhibits the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Therefore, the RCE increases the short-circuit current, amplifies the open-circuit voltage, and reduces the impedance of the TiO2/dye interface. The power conversion efficiency of DSSCs was improved by 57% after incorporating the RCE.

  19. Depolarization Controls TRAIL-Sensitization and Tumor-Selective Killing of Cancer Cells: Crosstalk with ROS

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Uchida, Mayumi; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2014-01-01

    Conventional genotoxic anti-cancer drugs target the proliferative advantage of tumor cells over normal cells. This kind of approach lacks the selectivity of treatment to cancer cells, because most of the targeted pathways are essential for the survival of normal cells. As a result, traditional cancer treatments are often limited by undesirable damage to normal cells (side-effects). Ideal anti-cancer drugs are expected to be highly effective against malignant tumor cells with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal cells. Such selective killing can be achieved by targeting pathways essential for the survival of cancer cells, but not normal cells. As cancer cells are characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, selective apoptosis induction is a promising approach for selective killing of cancer cells. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising tumor-selective anti-cancer drug. However, the congenital and acquired resistance of some cancer cell types, including malignant melanoma cells, currently impedes effective TRAIL therapy, and an innovative approach that can override TRAIL resistance is urgently required. Apoptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage caused by disruption of the maintenance of the normal physiological concentrations of K+ and Na+ and intracellular ion homeostasis. The disrupted ion homeostasis leads to depolarization and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that depolarization is an early and prerequisite event during TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, diverse natural products and synthetic chemicals capable of depolarizing the cell membrane exhibit tumor-selective killing and TRAIL-sensitizing effects. Here, we discuss the role of depolarization in selective killing of cancer cells in connection with the emerging concept that oxidative stress is a critical mediator of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunctions and serves as a tumor-selective target in cancer treatment. PMID:24910845

  20. Karyopherin alpha2: a control step of glucose-sensitive gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemain, Ghislaine; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cassany, Aurélia; Loizeau, Martine; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Leturque, Armelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose is required for an efficient expression of the glucose transporter GLUT2 and other genes. We have shown previously that the intracytoplasmic loop of GLUT2 can divert a signal, resulting in the stimulation of glucose-sensitive gene transcription. In the present study, by interaction with the GLUT2 loop, we have cloned the rat karyopherin alpha2, a receptor involved in nuclear import. The specificity of the binding was restricted to GLUT2, and not GLUT1 or GLUT4, and to karyopherin alpha2, not alpha1. When rendered irreversible by a cross-linking agent, this transitory interaction was detected in vivo in hepatocytes. A role for karyopherin alpha2 in the transcription of two glucose-sensitive genes was investigated by transfection of native and inactive green fluorescent protein-karyopherin alpha2 in GLUT2-expressing hepatoma cells. The amount of inactive karyopherin alpha2 receptor reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA levels by competition with endogenous active receptor. In contrast, the overexpression of karyopherin alpha2 did not significantly stimulate GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA accumulation in green fluorescent protein-sorted cells. The present study suggests that, in concert with glucose metabolism, karyopherin alpha2 transmits a signal to the nucleus to regulate glucose-sensitive gene expression. The transitory tethering of karyopherin alpha2 to GLUT2 at the plasma membrane might indicate that the receptor can load the cargo to be imported locally. PMID:11988093

  1. Karyopherin alpha2: a control step of glucose-sensitive gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Ghislaine; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cassany, Aurélia; Loizeau, Martine; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Leturque, Armelle

    2002-05-15

    Glucose is required for an efficient expression of the glucose transporter GLUT2 and other genes. We have shown previously that the intracytoplasmic loop of GLUT2 can divert a signal, resulting in the stimulation of glucose-sensitive gene transcription. In the present study, by interaction with the GLUT2 loop, we have cloned the rat karyopherin alpha2, a receptor involved in nuclear import. The specificity of the binding was restricted to GLUT2, and not GLUT1 or GLUT4, and to karyopherin alpha2, not alpha1. When rendered irreversible by a cross-linking agent, this transitory interaction was detected in vivo in hepatocytes. A role for karyopherin alpha2 in the transcription of two glucose-sensitive genes was investigated by transfection of native and inactive green fluorescent protein-karyopherin alpha2 in GLUT2-expressing hepatoma cells. The amount of inactive karyopherin alpha2 receptor reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA levels by competition with endogenous active receptor. In contrast, the overexpression of karyopherin alpha2 did not significantly stimulate GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA accumulation in green fluorescent protein-sorted cells. The present study suggests that, in concert with glucose metabolism, karyopherin alpha2 transmits a signal to the nucleus to regulate glucose-sensitive gene expression. The transitory tethering of karyopherin alpha2 to GLUT2 at the plasma membrane might indicate that the receptor can load the cargo to be imported locally.

  2. Redox Active Compounds in Controlled Radical Polymerization and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Mutual Solutions to Disparate Problems.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Nicholas; Mecerreyes, David; Asua, José M

    2015-12-14

    Controlled radical polymerization (CRP) and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are two fields of research that at an initial glance appear to have little in common. However, despite their obvious differences, both in application and in scientific nature, a closer look reveals a striking similarity between many of the compounds widely used as control agents in radical polymerization and as redox couples in dye-sensitized solar cells. Herein, we review the various redox active compounds used and examine the characteristics that give them the ability to perform this dual function. In addition we explore the advances in the understanding of the structural features that enhance their activity in both CRP and DSSCs. It is hoped that such a comparison will be conducive to improving process performance in both fields.

  3. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  4. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-03-16

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  5. Chlorophyll sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, D. F.

    1984-06-01

    The photovoltaic properties of the green plant pigment chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were investigated in photoelectrochemical and solid state solar cells. Both types of cells utilized a thin film of Chl-a electro-deposited on a SnO2 optically transparent electrode. Solid state cells were fabricated by vapor depositing a thin layer of metal on top of the Chl-A to produce a SnO2/Chl-a/metal sandwich cell. Photoelectrochemical cells were assembled by immersing the SnO2/Chl-a electrode in an aqueous electrolyte solution along with a counter electrode. Both types of Chl-a cells were generally characterized by a strong dependence of he photoactivity on the other cell components and a surprisingly large photovoltage. Photoelectrochemical cells of SnO2/l-a/aq.AlCl3 were seen to produce photovoltages as high as 1.1 V and photocurrents of 1.1 micro A/sq cm while a solid state cell of SnO2/Chl-a/Al could produce 1.4 V and an initial photocurrent of 200 micro A/sq cm. This photoactivity was strongly time dependent in both configurations. Despite this fact, these cells are the most powerful Chl-a sensitized solar cells yet reported.

  6. Azidothymidine Sensitizes Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cells to Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Specific CD4+ T Cell Control and Inhibits vIRF3 Function

    PubMed Central

    Stürzl, Michael; Sabbah, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked with the development of Kaposi sarcoma and the B lymphocyte disorders primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multi-centric Castleman disease. T cell immunity limits KSHV infection and disease, however the virus employs multiple mechanisms to inhibit efficient control by these effectors. Thus KSHV-specific CD4+ T cells poorly recognize most PEL cells and even where they can, they are unable to kill them. To make KSHV-infected cells more sensitive to T cell control we treated PEL cells with the thymidine analogue azidothymidine (AZT), which sensitizes PEL lines to Fas-ligand and TRAIL challenge; effector mechanisms which T cells use. PELs co-cultured with KSHV-specific CD4+ T cells in the absence of AZT showed no control of PEL outgrowth. However in the presence of AZT PEL outgrowth was controlled in an MHC-restricted manner. To investigate how AZT sensitizes PELs to immune control we first examined BJAB cells transduced with individual KSHV-latent genes for their ability to resist apoptosis mediated by stimuli delivered through Fas and TRAIL receptors. This showed that in addition to the previously described vFLIP protein, expression of vIRF3 also inhibited apoptosis delivered by these stimuli. Importantly vIRF3 mediated protection from these apoptotic stimuli was inhibited in the presence of AZT as was a second vIRF3 associated phenotype, the downregulation of surface MHC class II. Although both vFLIP and vIRF3 are expressed in PELs, we propose that inhibiting vIRF3 function with AZT may be sufficient to restore T cell control of these tumor cells. PMID:27893813

  7. Enhanced performance of PbS-sensitized solar cells via controlled successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Muhammad A; Basit, Muhammad A; Park, Tae Joo; Bang, Jin Ho

    2015-04-21

    Despite the potential of PbS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), achieving a high photocurrent density over 30 mA cm(-2) remains a challenging task in PbS-sensitized solar cells. In contrast to previous attempts, where Hg(2+)-doping or multi-step post-treatment is necessary, we are capable of achieving a high photocurrent exceeding 30 mA cm(-2) simply by manipulating the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. We show that controlling temperature at which SILAR is performed is critical to obtain a higher and more uniform coverage of PbS QDs over a mesoporous TiO2 film. The deposition of a CdS inter-layer between TiO2 and PbS is found to be an effective means of ensuring high photocurrent and stability. Not only does this modification improve the light absorption capability of the photoanode, but it also has a significant effect on charge recombination and electron injection efficiency at the PbS/TiO2 interface according to our in-depth study using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The implication of subtle changes in the interfacial events via modified SILAR conditions for PbS-sensitized solar cells is discussed.

  8. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C.; Nasiri, Ali R.; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J.; Green, Michael R.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  9. Single Cell Transcriptomics of Hypothalamic Warm Sensitive Neurons that Control Core Body Temperature and Fever Response

    PubMed Central

    Eberwine, James; Bartfai, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    We report on an ‘unbiased’ molecular characterization of individual, adult neurons, active in a central, anterior hypothalamic neuronal circuit, by establishing cDNA libraries from each individual, electrophysiologically identified warm sensitive neuron (WSN). The cDNA libraries were analyzed by Affymetrix microarray. The presence and frequency of cDNAs was confirmed and enhanced with Illumina sequencing of each single cell cDNA library. cDNAs encoding the GABA biosynthetic enzyme. GAD1 and of adrenomedullin, galanin, prodynorphin, somatostatin, and tachykinin were found in the WSNs. The functional cellular and in vivo studies on dozens of the more than 500 neurotransmitter -, hormone- receptors and ion channels, whose cDNA was identified and sequence confirmed, suggest little or no discrepancy between the transcriptional and functional data in WSNs; whenever agonists were available for a receptor whose cDNA was identified, a functional response was found.. Sequencing single neuron libraries permitted identification of rarely expressed receptors like the insulin receptor, adiponectin receptor2 and of receptor heterodimers; information that is lost when pooling cells leads to dilution of signals and mixing signals. Despite the common electrophysiological phenotype and uniform GAD1 expression, WSN- transcriptomes show heterogenity, suggesting strong epigenetic influence on the transcriptome. Our study suggests that it is well-worth interrogating the cDNA libraries of single neurons by sequencing and chipping. PMID:20970451

  10. Control Sensitivity Study for a Hybrid Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    Banta, Larry; Absten, Jason; Tsai, Alex; Gemmen, R.S.; Tucker, D.A.

    2008-06-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has developed a hardware simulator to test the operating characteristics of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid systems. The Hybrid Performance (HyPer) simulator has been described previously, and has contributed to the understanding of SOFC/GT system operation. HyPer contains not only the requisite elements of gas turbine/compressor/generator, recuperator, combustor, and associated piping, but also several air flow control valves that are proposed as system control mechanisms. It is necessary to know how operation of these valves affects the various entities such as cathode air flow, turbine speed, and various temperatures important to the safe and efficient operation of fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid systems. To determine the interactions among key variables, a series of experiments was performed in which the effect of modulating each of the key manipulated variables was recorded. This document outlines the test methods used and presents some of the data from those tests, along with analysis and interpretation of that data in the context of control system design.

  11. Dendritic cells' death induced by contact sensitizers is controlled by Nrf2 and depends on glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    El Ali, Zeina; Deloménie, Claudine; Botton, Jérémie; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2017-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are known to play a major role during contact allergy induced by contact sensitizers (CS). Our previous studies showed that Nrf2 was induced in DC and controlled allergic skin inflammation in mice in response to chemicals. In this work, we raised the question of the role of Nrf2 in response to a stress provoked by chemical sensitizers in DC. We used two well-described chemical sensitizers, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and cinnamaldehyde (CinA), known to have different chemical reactivity and mechanism of action. First, we performed a RT-qPCR array showing that CinA was a higher inducer of immune and detoxification genes compared to DNCB. Interestingly, in the absence of Nrf2, gene expression was dramatically affected in response to DNCB but was slightly affected in response to CinA. These observations prompted us to study DC's cell death in response to both chemicals. DNCB and CinA increased apoptotic cells and decreased living cells in the absence of Nrf2. The characterization of DC apoptosis induced by both CS involved the mitochondrial-dependent caspase pathway and was regulated via Nrf2 in response to both chemicals. Oxidative stress induced by DNCB, and leading to cell death, was regulated by Nrf2. Unlike CinA, DNCB treatment provoked a significant reduction of intracellular GSH levels and up-regulated bcl-2 gene expression, under the control of Nrf2. This work underlies that chemical reactivity may control Nrf2-dependent gene expression leading to different cytoprotective mechanisms in DC.

  12. Protein kinase CK2 controls T-cell polarization through dendritic cell activation in response to contact sensitizers.

    PubMed

    de Bourayne, Marie; Gallais, Yann; El Ali, Zeina; Rousseau, Philippe; Damiens, Marie-Hélène; Cochet, Claude; Filhol, Odile; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2017-03-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease caused by chemicals present in the daily or professional environment. NiSO4 and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) are 2 chemicals involved in ACD. These contact sensitizers are known to induce an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and cytokine secretion in dendritic cells (DCs; professional APCs), leading to the generation of CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17 and CD4(+) Th1/Th17 effector T cells. In the present study, using a peptide array approach, we identified protein kinase CK2 as a novel kinase involved in the activation of human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in response to NiSO4 and DNCB. Inhibition of CK2 activity in MoDCs led to an altered mature phenotype with lower expression of CD54, PDL-1, CD86, and CD40 in response to NiSO4 or DNCB. CK2 activity also regulated proinflammatory cytokine production, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-23 in MoDCs. Moreover, in a DC/T cell coculture model in an allogeneic setup, CK2 activity in MoDCs played a major role in Th1 polarization in response to NiSO4 and DNCB. CK2 inhibition in MoDCs led to an enhanced Th2 polarization in the absence of contact sensitizer stimulation.

  13. Control of morphology and defect density in zinc oxide for improved dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul Ah; Abbas, Muhammad Awais; Lee, Lanlee; Kang, Byungwuk; Kim, Hahkjoon; Bang, Jin Ho

    2016-11-09

    While zinc oxide (ZnO) with a mesoporous network has long been explored for adsorption of dyes and as an electron-transporting medium in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the performance of ZnO-based DSSCs remains unsatisfactory. Despite the importance of understanding the surface characteristics of ZnO in DSSC applications, most of the studies relevant to ZnO-based DSSCs are focused on the synthesis of unique nanostructures of ZnO. In this study, we not only introduce a novel disk-shaped ZnO nanostructure, but also provide insight into the distinctive surface properties of ZnO and its influence on DSSC performance. When utilized in DSSCs, the mesoporous ZnO nanodisk yields 60% better power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to commercial ZnO nanoparticles, which is attributed to less surface and bulk trap densities as concluded by an in-depth open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD) analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Another aspect that contributes to the higher PCE is the better connectivity of primary particles that join together to form secondary disk-shaped particles. Furthermore, a 40% improvement in the PCE was observed by coating the mesoporous ZnO nanodisk with TiO2, which results from the passivation of the surface defects that aid in suppressing the interfacial charge recombination.

  14. Controllable synthesis of hierarchical SnO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Li, Xi-Fei; Li, De-Jun; Sun, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Xian-Xi

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical SnO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a rapid sonochemical reaction followed by a facile solvothermal process. The resultant samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that the hierarchical SnO2 microspheres (∼2.2 μm) consist of nanoparticles (∼23-30 nm). These samples are used to fabricate photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effects of different samples on the photovoltaic performance were studied based on photocurrent-voltage (J-V), intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) and intensity-modulated voltage spectroscopy (IMVS). It is found that the highest power conversion efficiency of 6.25% has been achieved based on the hierarchical SnO2 microspheres film photoanode with thickness of ∼13.5 μm, and the corresponding photovoltaic parameters are 14.11 mA cm-2 in short-circuit current density, 803 mV in open-circuit voltage and 0.55 in fill factor, respectively.

  15. Generation of glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells from human embryonic stem cells by incorporating a synthetic lineage-control network.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratik; Bojar, Daniel; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-10-10

    We previously reported novel technology to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells by engineering a synthetic lineage-control network regulated by the licensed food additive vanillic acid. This genetic network was able to program intricate expression dynamics of the key transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3, OFF-ON-OFF), Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, ON-OFF-ON) and MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A, OFF-ON) to guide the differentiation of IPSC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells to beta-like cells. In the present study, we show for the first time that this network can also program the expression dynamics of Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and drive differentiation of these cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells. Therefore, synthetic lineage-control networks appear to be a robust methodology for differentiating pluripotent stem cells into somatic cell types for basic research and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accurate control of multishelled ZnO hollow microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhenghong; Lai, Xiaoyong; Halpert, Jonathan E; Yang, Nailiang; Yi, Luoxin; Zhai, Jin; Wang, Dan; Tang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-02-21

    A series of multishelled ZnO hollow microspheres with controlled shell number and inter-shell spacing have been successfully prepared by a simple carbonaceous microsphere templating method, whose large surface area and complex multishelled hollow structure enable them load sufficient dyes and multi-reflect the light for enhancing light harvesting and realize a high conversion efficiency of up to 5.6% when used in dye-sensitized solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Spatial and temporal organization of multi-protein assemblies: achieving sensitive control in information-rich cell-regulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Wu, Qian; Ochi, Takashi; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Sibanda, Bancinyane Lynn; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-06-28

    The regulation of cellular processes in living organisms requires signalling systems that have a high signal-to-noise ratio. This is usually achieved by transient, multi-protein complexes that assemble cooperatively. Even in the crowded environment of the cell, such assemblies are unlikely to form by chance, thereby providing a sensitive regulation of cellular processes. Furthermore, selectivity and sensitivity may be achieved by the requirement for concerted folding and binding of previously unfolded components. We illustrate these features by focusing on two essential signalling pathways of eukaryotic cells: first, the monitoring and repair of DNA damage by non-homologous end joining, and second, the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint, which detects and corrects defective attachments of chromosomes to the kinetochore. We show that multi-protein assemblies moderate the full range of functional complexity and diversity in the two signalling systems. Deciphering the nature of the interactions is central to understanding the mechanisms that control the flow of information in cell signalling and regulation.

  18. Star-PAP controls HPV E6 regulation of p53 and sensitizes cells to VP-16.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Anderson, R A

    2014-02-13

    Cervical cancer is the most common genital malignancy and the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV type 16, 18 and 31, and so on) are major agents for its cause. A key switch for the onset of cervical cancers by HPVs is the cellular degradation of the tumor-suppressor p53 that is mediated by the HPV-generated E6 protein. E6 forms a complex with the E3 ubiquitin-ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) leading to p53 degradation. The components that control E6 expression and the mechanisms for regulation of the expression in host cells remain undefined. Here we show that the nuclear noncanonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) speckle targeted PIPKIα regulated PAP (Star-PAP) controls E6 mRNA polyadenylation and expression and modulates wild-type p53 levels as well as cell cycle profile in high-risk HPV-positive cells. In the absence of Star-PAP, treatment of cells with the chemotherapeutic drug VP-16 dramatically reduced E6 and increased p53 levels. This diminished both cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth required for cancer progression, indicating a synergism between VP-16 treatment and the loss of Star-PAP. This identifies Star-PAP as a potential drug target for the treatment of HPV-positive cancer cells. These data provide a mechanistic basis for increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancers that have low levels of wild-type p53.

  19. Sensitive cells: enabling tools for static and dynamic control of microbial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Trantas, Emmanouil A; Ververidis, Filippos; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos Ag

    2015-12-01

    Natural metabolic pathways are dynamically regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and protein levels. Despite this, traditional pathway engineering has relied on static control strategies to engender changes in metabolism, most likely due to ease of implementation and perceived predictability of design outcome. Increasingly in recent years, however, metabolic engineers have drawn inspiration from natural systems and have begun to harness dynamically controlled regulatory machinery to improve design of engineered microorganisms for production of specialty and commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent enabling technologies for engineering static control over pathway expression levels, and we discuss state-of-the-art dynamic control strategies that have yielded improved outcomes in the field of microbial metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we emphasize design of a novel class of genetically encoded controllers that will facilitate automatic, transient tuning of synthetic and endogenous pathways.

  20. Inflammation Controls Sensitivity of Human and Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Cecilia I; Gobbi, Rodrigo Papa; Smaldini, Paola; Delgado, María Lucía Orsini; Candia, Martín; Zanuzzi, Carolina; Sambuelli, Alicia; Rocca, Andrés; Toscano, Marta A; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Docena, Guillermo H

    2016-07-01

    Galectins play key roles in the inflammatory cascade. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of galectin-1 (Gal-1) in the function of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) isolated from healthy and inflamed mucosa. IECs isolated from mice or patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) were incubated with different pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Gal-1 binding, secretion of homeostatic factors and viability were assessed. Experimental models of food allergy and colitis were used to evaluate the in vivo influence of inflammation on Gal-1 binding and modulation of IECs. We found an enhanced binding of Gal-1 to: (a) murine IECs exposed to IL-1β, TNF, and IL-13; (b) IECs from inflamed areas in intestinal tissue from IBD patients; (c) small bowel of allergic mice; and (d) colon from mice with experimental colitis. Our results showed that low concentrations of Gal-1 favored a tolerogenic micro-environment, whereas high concentrations of this lectin modulated viability of IECs through mechanisms involving activation of caspase-9 and modulation of Bcl-2 protein family members. Our results showed that, when added in the presence of diverse pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-13 and IL-5, Gal-1 differentially promoted the secretion of growth factors including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), IL-10, IL-25, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 ). In conclusion, we found an augmented binding of Gal-1 to IECs when exposed in vitro or in vivo to inflammatory stimuli, showing different effects depending on Gal-1 concentration. These findings highlight the importance of the inflammatory micro-environment of mucosal tissues in modulating IECs susceptibility to the immunoregulatory lectin Gal-1 and its role in epithelial cell homeostasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode for improving dye-sensitized solar cells performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jimmy; Lin, Chih-Min; Yin, Stuart (.

    2015-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode with density-controlled abilities are presented in this paper. This nanocomposite photoanode is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed into densitycontrolled vertically aligned ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays. The density-controlled ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were synthesized directly onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using an innovative two-step wet chemical route. First, the density-controlled ZnO nanorod arrays were formed by applying a ZnO hydrothermal process from a TiO2 nanocrystals template. Second, the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were formed by depositing a TiO2 shell layer from a sol-gel process. The major advantages of a density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode include (1) providing a better diffusion path from ZnO nanorod arrays and (2) reducing the recombination loss by introducing an energy barrier layer TiO2 conformal shell coating. To validate the advantages of a density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode, DSSCs based on a ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode were fabricated, in which N719 dye was used. The average dimensions of the ZnO nanorod arrays were 20 μm and 650 nm for the length and the diameter, respectively, while the designated spacing between each nanorod was around 5 μm. The performance of the solar cell was tested by using a standard AM 1.5 solar simulator from Newport Corporation. The experimental results confirmed that an open-circuit voltage, 0.93 V, was achieved, which was much higher than the conventional TiO2 nanoparticles thin film structure for the same thickness. Thus, density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanodes could improve the performance of DSSCs by offering a better electron diffusion path.

  2. Electric Fields Control TiO2(e(-)) + I3(-) → Charge Recombination in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Renato N; O'Donnell, Ryan M; Barr, Timothy J; Meyer, Gerald J

    2014-09-18

    The electric fields generated by excited-state electron injection into anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites are screened by cations present in the external electrolyte. With some assumptions, a newly discovered electroabsorption signature enables quantification of the electric field strength experienced by surface-anchored dye molecules. Here, it was found that the fields increased in the order Na(+) < Li(+) < Mg(2+) < Ca(2+), with magnitudes of 1.1 MV/cm for Na(+) and 2.2 MV/cm for Ca(2+), values that were insensitive to whether the anion was iodide or perchlorate. The magnitude of the field was directly related to average TiO2(e(-)) + I3(-) → charge recombination rate constants abstracted from time-resolved kinetic data. Extrapolation to zero field provided an estimate of recombination dynamics when diffusion alone controlled I3(-) mass transport, k = 300 s(-1). The decreased rate constants measured after excited-state injection were attributed to migration of I3(-) away from the TiO2. Cation transference coefficients were tabulated that ranged from t = 0.97 for Ca(2+) to 0.40 for Na(+) and represented the ability of the unscreened electric field to block the TiO2(e(-)) + I3(-) → charge recombination reaction. This data provides the first compelling evidence that the anionic nature of I3(-) inhibits unwanted charge recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  3. Size-controlled anatase titania single crystals with octahedron-like morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Jia-Wei; Lan, Chi-Ming; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Hui-Ping; Huang, Wei-Kai; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2012-12-21

    A simple hydrothermal method with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a chelating agent enabled growth in the presence of a base (diethylamine, DEA) of anatase titania nanocrystals (HD1-HD5) of controlled size. DEA played a key role to expedite this growth, for which a biphasic crystal growth mechanism is proposed. The produced single crystals of titania show octahedron-like morphology with sizes in a broad range of 30-400 nm; a typical, extra large, octahedral single crystal (HD5) of length 410 nm and width 260 nm was obtained after repeating a sequential hydrothermal treatment using HD3 and then HD4 as a seed crystal. The nanocrystals of size ~30 nm (HD1) and ~300 nm (HD5) served as active layer and scattering layer, respectively, to fabricate N719-sensitized solar cells. These HD devices showed greater V(OC) than devices of conventional nanoparticle (NP) type; the overall device performance of HD attained an efficiency of 10.2% power conversion at a total film thickness of 28 μm, which is superior to that of a NP-based reference device (η = 9.6%) optimized at a total film thickness of 18-20 μm. According to results obtained from transient photoelectric and charge extraction measurements, this superior performance of HD devices relative to their NP counterparts is due to the more rapid electron transport and greater TiO(2) potential.

  4. Controllable Electrochemical Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin-Film Constructed as Efficient Photoanode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Soon Weng; Lai, Chin Wei; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2016-01-01

    A controllable electrochemical synthesis to convert reduced graphene oxide (rGO) from graphite flakes was introduced and investigated in detail. Electrochemical reduction was used to prepare rGO because of its cost effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and ability to produce rGO thin films in industrial scale. This study aimed to determine the optimum applied potential for the electrochemical reduction. An applied voltage of 15 V successfully formed a uniformly coated rGO thin film, which significantly promoted effective electron transfer within dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Thus, DSSC performance improved. However, rGO thin films formed in voltages below or exceeding 15 V resulted in poor DSSC performance. This behavior was due to poor electron transfer within the rGO thin films caused by poor uniformity. These results revealed that DSSC constructed using 15 V rGO thin film exhibited high efficiency (η = 1.5211%) attributed to its higher surface uniformity than other samples. The addition of natural lemon juice (pH ~ 2.3) to the electrolyte accelerated the deposition and strengthened the adhesion of rGO thin film onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses. PMID:28787869

  5. Cell Cycle Control and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Cells of the Immune System are Sensitive to Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, O.; Paulsen, K.; Thiel, C.; Herrmann, K.; Sang, C.; Han, G.; Hemmersbach, R.; von der Wiesche, M.; Kroll, H.; Zhuang, F.; Grote, K. H.; Cogoli, A.; Zipp, F.; Engelmann, F.

    2008-06-01

    Life on earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Thus, it is a fundamental biological question, whether gravity is required for cellular functions and signal transduction in mammalian cells. Since the first Spacelab-Mission 20 years ago, it is known that activation and function of T lymphocytes is severely suppressed in microgravity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not elucidated. Experiments have been performed using ground-based facilities such as fast-rotating clinostat and hyper-g-centrifuges, and real microgravity provided by parabolic flights. We found that 1.) cells of the immune system responded cell type specifically to altered gravity, 2.) microgravity induced a multitude of initial alterations in signal transduction, whereas 3.) hypergravity of 1.8g did not induce any changes of the pathways tested, and that 4.) most of the initially altered pathways in microgravity adapted to "normal" levels within 15min. However, some pathways remained altered and could explain cell cycle arrest of T lymphocytes as observed in several long-term space experiments.

  6. ER-mitochondria contacts control surface glycan expression and sensitivity to killer lymphocytes in glioma stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Kasahara, Atsuko; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Boydell, Emma; Zamorano, Sebastian; Riccadonna, Cristina; Pellegatta, Serena; Hulo, Nicolas; Dutoit, Valérie; Derouazi, Madiha; Dietrich, Pierre Yves; Walker, Paul R; Martinvalet, Denis

    2017-03-10

    Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous aggressive primary brain tumor, with the glioma stem-like cells (GSC) being more sensitive to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing than glioma differentiated cells (GDC). However, the mechanism behind this higher sensitivity is unclear. Here, we found that the mitochondrial morphology of GSCs modulates the ER-mitochondria contacts that regulate the surface expression of sialylated glycans and their recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. GSCs displayed diminished ER-mitochondria contacts compared to GDCs. Forced ER-mitochondria contacts in GSCs increased their cell surface expression of sialylated glycans and reduced their susceptibility to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Therefore, mitochondrial morphology and dynamism dictate the ER-mitochondria contacts in order to regulate the surface expression of certain glycans and thus play a role in GSC recognition and elimination by immune effector cells. Targeting the mitochondrial morphology, dynamism, and contacts with the ER could be an innovative strategy to deplete the cancer stem cell compartment to successfully treat glioblastoma.

  7. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  8. Control of dark current in photoelectrochemical (TiO2/I--I3-)) and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seigo; Liska, Paul; Comte, Pascal; Charvet, Raphaël; Péchy, Peter; Bach, Udo; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Kay, Andreas; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael

    2005-09-14

    The ruthenium complex bis-tetrabutylammonium cis-dithiocyanato-N,N'-bis-2,2'-bipyridine-4-carboxylic acid, 4'-carboxylate ruthenium(II), N-719, was found to block the dark current of dye sensitized solar cells (DSC), based on mesoporous TiO2 films deposited on a F-doped tin oxide electrode and the effect was compared to surface treatment by TiCl4 and the introduction of a compact TiO2 blocking layer.

  9. Nanocomposite enables sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuyal, Dibya D.

    cell for the possibility of co-sensitization, thereby extending the absorption of light in the visible and NIR. The first phase of the thesis involves the synthesis and characterization of the materials used for the cell. We successfully synthesized TiO2 nanowires and nanotubes and characterized them for the use as the photoanode. Both one-dimensional structures proved to have low resistivity, chemical stability, and high density. We also synthesized lead (II) sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) and explored at modifying their diameter in order to properly control their light harvesting potential into the NIR region. The electron transport kinetics proved to be faster in one-dimensional nanostructure due to their high crystallinity order and reduced elastic scattering of the electrons during transport. Furthermore, quantum dots were synthesized such that their band-gap allowed for the absorption of NIR light. This result extended the harvesting potential of our solar cell and suggests the possibility for co-sensitization in DSSCs using dye molecules and quantum dots. Hence, the focus of this thesis work is to systematically explore a transformative way to fundamentally enhance charge transport and extend light absorption by in the incorporation of two sensitizing agents.

  10. Long-term activation of PKA in β-cells provides sustained improvement to glucose control, insulin sensitivity and body weight.

    PubMed

    Levine, Joshua A; Kaihara, Kelly A; Layden, Brian T; Wicksteed, Barton

    2016-09-02

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and β-cell failure. Therapeutic aims are to reduce adiposity, improve insulin sensitivity and enhance β-cell function. However, it has been proposed that chronically increasing insulin release leads to β-cell exhaustion and failure. We previously developed mice to have increased activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), specifically in β-cells (β-caPKA mice). β-caPKA mice have enhanced acute phase insulin release, which is the primary determinant of the efficacy of glucose clearance. Here these mice were used to determine the sustainability of enhanced insulin secretion, and to characterize peripheral effects of enhanced β-cell function. Increased PKA activity was induced by tamoxifen administration at 10 weeks of age. Male mice were aged to 12 months of age and female mice to 16 months. Glucose control in both male and female β-caPKA mice was significantly improved relative to littermate controls with ad libitum feeding, upon refeeding after fasting, and in glucose tolerance tests. In female mice insulin release was both greater and more rapid than in controls. Female mice were more insulin sensitive than controls. Male and female β-caPKA mice had lower body weights than controls. DEXA analysis of male mice revealed that this was due to reduced adiposity and not due to changes in lean body mass. This study indicates that targeting β-cells to enhance insulin release is sustainable, maintains insulin sensitivity and reduces body weight. These data identify β-cell PKA activity as a novel target for obesity therapies.

  11. Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2012-09-07

    Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic "tree" and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells.

  12. Controllable growth of dendritic ZnO nanowire arrays on a stainless steel mesh towards the fabrication of large area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Qi; Li, Zhengdao; Bao, Chunxiong; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2012-08-01

    Well-defined ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with controlled dendritic structures were successfully built on a stainless steel mesh and utilized as photoanodes for the fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dendritic nanostructure proves favorable for the improvement of the overall light conversion efficiency of the DSSC. An optimized etching time for the affixion of ZnO seeds on the ZnO backbone of the dendritic ``tree'' and the controlled growth conditions of the branch NW are critical to achieve high conversion efficiency solar cells.

  13. A programmable synthetic lineage-control network that differentiates human IPSCs into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratik; Heng, Boon Chin; Bai, Peng; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-04-11

    Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON). This designer network consisting of different network topologies orchestrating the timely control of transgenic and genomic Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA variants is able to programme human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells, whose glucose-stimulated insulin-release dynamics are comparable to human pancreatic islets. Synthetic lineage-control networks may provide the missing link to genetically programme somatic cells into autologous cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine.

  14. A programmable synthetic lineage-control network that differentiates human IPSCs into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pratik; Heng, Boon Chin; Bai, Peng; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON). This designer network consisting of different network topologies orchestrating the timely control of transgenic and genomic Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA variants is able to programme human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells, whose glucose-stimulated insulin-release dynamics are comparable to human pancreatic islets. Synthetic lineage-control networks may provide the missing link to genetically programme somatic cells into autologous cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine. PMID:27063289

  15. Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-01-07

    Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance.

  16. Increased Quantum Dot Loading by pH Control Reduces Interfacial Recombination in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Katherine E; Herron, Steven M; Bent, Stacey F

    2015-08-25

    The power conversion efficiency of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) hinges on interfacial charge transfer. Increasing quantum dot (QD) loading on the TiO2 anode has been proposed as a means to block recombination of electrons in the TiO2 to the hole transport material; however, it is not known whether a corresponding increase in QD-mediated recombination processes might lead to an overall higher rate of recombination. In this work, a 3-fold increase in PbS QD loading was achieved by the addition of an aqueous base to negatively charge the TiO2 surface during Pb cation deposition. Increased QD loading improved QDSSC device efficiencies through both increased light absorption and an overall reduction in recombination. Unexpectedly, we also found increased QD size had the detrimental effect of increasing recombination. Kinetic modeling of the effect of QD size on interfacial charge transfer processes provided qualitative agreement with the observed variation in recombination lifetimes. These results demonstrate a robust method of improving QD loading, identify the specific mechanisms by which increased QD deposition impacts device performance, and provide a framework for future efforts optimizing the device architecture of QDSSCs.

  17. A synthetic cGMP-sensitive gene switch providing Viagra(®)-controlled gene expression in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeuk; Folcher, Marc; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a universal second messenger that is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and hydrolyzed into guanosine monophosphate (GMP) by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Small-molecule drugs that induce high cGMP levels in specialized tissues by boosting GC activity or inhibiting PDE activity have become the predominant treatment strategy for a wide range of medical conditions, including congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis-based claudication and erectile dysfunction. By fusing the cGMP receptor protein (CRP) of Rhodospirillum centenum to the Herpes simplex-derived transactivation domain VP16, we created a novel synthetic mammalian cGMP-sensing transcription factor (GTA) that activates synthetic promoters (PGTA) containing newly identified GTA-specific operator sites in a concentration-dependent manner. In cell lines expressing endogenous natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) (HeLa), GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression was induced by B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; Nesiritide(®)) in a concentration-dependent manner, which activated NPR-A׳s intracellular GC domain and triggered a corresponding cGMP surge. Ectopic expression of NPR-A in NPR-A-negative cell lines (HEK-293T) produced high cGMP levels and mediated maximum GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression, which was suppressed by co-expression of PDEs (PDE-3A, PDE-5A and PDE-9A) and was re-triggered by the corresponding PDE inhibitor drugs (Pletal(®), Perfan(®), Primacor(®) (PDE-3A), Viagra(®), Levitra(®), Cialis(®) (PDE-5A) and BAY73-6691 (PDE-9A)). Mice implanted with microencapsulated designer cells co-expressing the GTA/PGTA device with NPR-A and PDE-5A showed control of blood SEAP levels through administration of sildenafil (Viagra(®)). Designer cells engineered for PDE inhibitor-modulated transgene expression may provide a cell-based PDE-targeting drug discovery platform and enable drug-adjusted gene- and cell

  18. Near-infrared sensitization in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyung; Viscardi, Guido; Barolo, Claudia; Barbero, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are a low cost and colorful promising alternative to standard silicon photovoltaic cells. Though many of the highest efficiencies have been associated with sensitizers absorbing only in the visible portion of the solar radiation, there is a growing interest for NIR sensitization. This paper reviews the efforts made so far to find sensitizers able to absorb efficiently in the far-red NIR region of solar light. Panchromatic sensitizers as well as dyes absorbing mainly in the 650-920 nm region have been considered.

  19. Controlled interfacial electron dynamics in highly efficient Zn2 SnO4 -based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Hwang, Daesub; Suk, Jae Ho; Oh, Lee Seul; Han, Byung Suh; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jin Young; Hong, Kug Sun

    2014-02-01

    Among ternary oxides, Zn2 SnO4 (ZSO) is considered for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of its wide bandgap, high optical transmittance, and high electrical conductivity. However, ZSO-based DSSCs have a poor performance record owing largely to the absence of systematic efforts to enhance their performance. Herein, general strategies are proposed to improve the performance of ZSO-based DSSCs involving interfacial engineering/modification of the photoanode. A conformal ZSO thin film (blocking layer) deposited at the fluorine-doped tin oxide-electrolyte interface by pulsed laser deposition suppressed the back-electron transfer effectively while maintaining a high optical transmittance, which resulted in a 22 % improvement in the short-circuit photocurrent density. Surface modification of ZSO nanoparticles (NPs) resulted in an ultrathin ZnO shell layer, a 9 % improvement in the open-circuit voltage, and a 4 % improvement in the fill factor because of the reduced electron recombination at the ZSO NPs-electrolyte interface. The ZSO-based DSSCs exhibited a faster charge injection and electron transport than their TiO2 -based counterparts, and their superior properties were not inhibited by the ZnO shell layer, which indicates their feasibility for highly efficient DSSCs. Each interfacial engineering strategy could be applied to the ZSO-based DSSC independently to lead to an improved conversion efficiency of 6 %, a very high conversion efficiency for a non-TiO2 based DSSC. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis through regulation of MiD49 protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Cherok, Edward; Das, Shweta; Li, Sunan; Roelofs, Brian A.; Ge, Shealinna X.; Polster, Brian M.; Boyman, Liron; Lederer, W. Jonathan; Wang, Chunxin; Karbowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM)-associated degradation (OMMAD) is critical for mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis. However, the scope and molecular mechanisms of the OMMAD pathways are still not well understood. We report that the OMM-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. MARCH5 knockout selectively inhibited ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of MiD49, a mitochondrial receptor of Drp1, and consequently led to mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation in MARCH5−/− cells was not associated with inhibition of mitochondrial fusion or bioenergetic defects, supporting the possibility that MARCH5 is a negative regulator of mitochondrial fission. Both MARCH5 re-expression and MiD49 knockout in MARCH5−/− cells reversed mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. These findings and data showing MARCH5-dependent degradation of MiD49 upon stress support the possibility that MARCH5 regulation of MiD49 is a novel mechanism controlling mitochondrial fission and, consequently, the cellular response to stress. PMID:26564796

  1. Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis through regulation of MiD49 protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan; Cherok, Edward; Das, Shweta; Li, Sunan; Roelofs, Brian A; Ge, Shealinna X; Polster, Brian M; Boyman, Liron; Lederer, W Jonathan; Wang, Chunxin; Karbowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-15

    Ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM)-associated degradation (OMMAD) is critical for mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis. However, the scope and molecular mechanisms of the OMMAD pathways are still not well understood. We report that the OMM-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. MARCH5 knockout selectively inhibited ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of MiD49, a mitochondrial receptor of Drp1, and consequently led to mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation in MARCH5(-/-) cells was not associated with inhibition of mitochondrial fusion or bioenergetic defects, supporting the possibility that MARCH5 is a negative regulator of mitochondrial fission. Both MARCH5 re-expression and MiD49 knockout in MARCH5(-/-) cells reversed mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. These findings and data showing MARCH5-dependent degradation of MiD49 upon stress support the possibility that MARCH5 regulation of MiD49 is a novel mechanism controlling mitochondrial fission and, consequently, the cellular response to stress.

  2. Nanostructure control of graphene-composited TiO2 by a one-step solvothermal approach for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ziming; Guai, Guanhong; Liu, Jing; Guo, Chunxian; Loo, Joachim Say Chye; Li, Chang Ming; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2011-11-01

    We present a one-step solvothermal approach to prepare uniform graphene-TiO(2) nanocomposites with delicately controlled TiO(2) nanostructures, including ultra-small 2 nm nanoparticles, 12 nm nanoparticles and nanorods. Using three composites as photoanode materials, the effect of nanostructure of graphene-composited TiO(2) on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated, and results showed that the ultra-small 2 nm TiO(2)-graphene composite based photoanode exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.25%.

  3. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  5. Control of translational activation by PIM kinase in activated B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma confers sensitivity to inhibition by PIM447

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Tara L.; Li, Lingxiao; Tula-Sanchez, Ana A.; Pongtornpipat, Praechompoo; Schatz, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    The PIM family kinases promote growth and survival of tumor cells and are expressed in a wide variety of human cancers. Their potential as therapeutic targets, however, is complicated by overlapping activities with multiple other pathways and remains poorly defined in most clinical scenarios. Here we explore activity of the new pan-PIM inhibitor PIM447 in a variety of lymphoid-derived tumors. We find strong activity in cell lines derived from the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Sensitive lines show lost activation of the mTORC1 signaling complex and subsequent lost activation of cap-dependent protein translation. In addition, we characterize recurrent PIM1 protein-coding mutations found in DLBCL clinical samples and find most preserve the wild-type protein's ability to protect cells from apoptosis but do not bypass activity of PIM447. Pan-PIM inhibition therefore may have an important role to play in the therapy of selected ABC-DLBCL cases. PMID:27556513

  6. Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Spitler, Mark T.; Ehret, Anne; Stuhl, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.

  7. Highly efficient CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cells controlled by the structural properties of compact porous TiO2 photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanxin; Guo, Xiaozhi; Huang, Xiaoming; Huang, Shuqing; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro; Meng, Qingbo

    2011-03-14

    At present, the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is still much lower than conventional DSCs. Appropriate porous TiO(2) photoanodes for QDSCs need to be further investigated, and optimization of the nanoparticle-based photoanodes is highly desirable as well. In this article, the influence of the structural properties of various TiO(2) photoanodes on CdS/CdSe-sensitized solar cells have been systematically studied. Quantitative analyses of light-harvesting efficiency (LHE) and electron-transfer yield (Φ(ET)) for the QDSCs are investigated for the first time. It is revealed that the LHE increases in the long wavelength region with the addition of large size TiO(2) particles to the transparent film. In the meantime, the balance between the light scattering and surface area also needs to be controlled, which can significantly restrain the dark current of the device. A double-layer photoanodic structure can give 4.92% of light-to-electricity conversion efficiency with a photoactive area of 0.15 cm(2).

  8. Controlling the texture and crystallinity of evaporated lead phthalocyanine thin films for near-infrared sensitive solar cells.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, Karolien; Broch, Katharina; Ayzner, Alexander L; Rand, Barry P; Cheyns, David; Frank, Christian; Schreiber, Frank; Toney, Michael F; Froyen, Ludo; Heremans, Paul

    2013-09-11

    To achieve organic solar cells with a broadened spectral absorption, we aim to promote the growth of the near-infrared (NIR)-active polymorph of lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) on a relevant electrode for solar cell applications. We studied the effect of different substrate modification layers on PbPc thin film structure as a function of thickness and deposition rate (rdep). We characterized crystallinity and orientation by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and correlated these data to the performance of bilayer solar cells. When deposited onto a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) or a molybdenum oxide (MoO3) buffer layer, the crystallinity of the PbPc films improves with thickness. The transition from a partially crystalline layer close to the substrate to a more crystalline film with a higher content of the NIR-active phase is enhanced at low rdep, thereby leading to solar cells that exhibit a higher maximum in short circuit current density (JSC) for thinner donor layers. The insertion of a CuI layer induces the formation of strongly textured, crystalline PbPc layers with a vertically homogeneous structure. Solar cells based on these templated donor layers show a variation of JSC with thickness that is independent of rdep. Consequently, without decreasing rdep we could achieve JSC=10 mA/cm2, yielding a bilayer solar cell with a peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 35% at 900 nm, and an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.9%.

  9. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W.

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. In-situ microfluidic controlled, low temperature hydrothermal growth of nanoflakes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jia; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil; Hu, Ping An; Child, David; Gibson, Desmond; Fu, Yong Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an in-situ microfluidic control unit (MCU) was designed and applied in a hydrothermal synthesis process, which provides an easy way to localize liquid-phase reaction and realize selective synthesis and direct growth of nanostructures as well as their morphology, all in a low-temperature and atmospheric environment. The morphology was controlled through controlling the amount of additivities using the MCU. This achieved a facile fabrication of Al doped ZnO (AZO) nanoflakes vertically grown on flexible polymer substrates with enhanced light scattering and dye loading capabilities. Flexible DSSCs with a significant enhancement (410% compare to ZnO NRs based devices) in power conversion efficiency were obtained using AZO nanoflake photoanodes of 6 μm thick, due to the enhancement in electron mobility and reduction in recombination. This hydrothermal synthesis using the in-situ MCU provides an efficient and scalable technique to synthesize controllable nanostructures with characteristics of easy set-up, low energy consumption and low cost. PMID:26631685

  11. In-situ microfluidic controlled, low temperature hydrothermal growth of nanoflakes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jia; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil; Hu, Ping An; Child, David; Gibson, Desmond; Fu, Yong Qing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an in-situ microfluidic control unit (MCU) was designed and applied in a hydrothermal synthesis process, which provides an easy way to localize liquid-phase reaction and realize selective synthesis and direct growth of nanostructures as well as their morphology, all in a low-temperature and atmospheric environment. The morphology was controlled through controlling the amount of additivities using the MCU. This achieved a facile fabrication of Al doped ZnO (AZO) nanoflakes vertically grown on flexible polymer substrates with enhanced light scattering and dye loading capabilities. Flexible DSSCs with a significant enhancement (410% compare to ZnO NRs based devices) in power conversion efficiency were obtained using AZO nanoflake photoanodes of 6 μm thick, due to the enhancement in electron mobility and reduction in recombination. This hydrothermal synthesis using the in-situ MCU provides an efficient and scalable technique to synthesize controllable nanostructures with characteristics of easy set-up, low energy consumption and low cost.

  12. Role of AKT and ERK pathways in controlling sensitivity to ionizing radiation and adaptive response induced by low-dose radiation in human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Sun; You, Ga Eun; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Ji Young; An, Sungkwan; Song, Jie-Young; Lee, Su-Jae; Lim, Young-Khi; Nam, Seon Young

    2015-12-01

    Despite many studies of the effect of ionizing radiation, biological mechanisms of action might differ greatly depend on dose, dose rate, and cell type. This study was performed to explore the effects of low- and high-dose radiation in human immune cell lines. We examined cell sensitivity after irradiation with 0.05, 0.1, or 2Gy in two normal cell lines and three tumor cell lines. Low-dose radiation of 0.05 and 0.1Gy had no effect on cell survival in any tested cell line, with the exception of IM-9 cells, whose viability was transiently increased. However, IM-9 and C1R-sB7 cells were very sensitive to high-dose radiation-induced cell death, whereas Jurkat and JM1 cells showed moderate sensitivity, and THP-1 cells were completely resistant. This radiosensitivity was correlated with basal AKT activation, which is induced by phosphorylation. In radiosensitive IM-9 cells, priming with chronic low-dose irradiation blocked cell death induced by high-dose radiation challenge via inhibition of caspase activation and PARP cleavage. AKT phosphorylation was not altered in IM-9 cells, but ERK phosphorylation was greatly elevated immediately after chronic low-dose irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that the different responses of normal and tumor cells to low-dose and high-dose radiation depend on AKT activation, which is regulated by protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). In radiosensitive normal cells lacking basal AKT activity, chronic low-dose radiation increases activation of the ERK pathway, which plays an important role in the adaptive response to radiation, providing a very important insight into understanding the effects of ionizing radiation on health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Active Polymer Microfiber with Controlled Polarization Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Wang, Ruxue; Liu, Yingying; Cheng, Junjie; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Polarization Sensitivity of an active polymer microfiber has been proposed and realized with the electrospun method. The fluorescence intensity guiding through this active polymer microfiber shows high sensitivity to the polarization state of the excitation light. What is more, the fluorescence out-coupled from tip of the microfiber can be of designed polarization state. Principle of these phenomena lies on the ordered and controlled orientation of the polydiacetylene (PDA) main chains inside polymer microfiber. PMID:27099828

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  15. Control of protein synthesis in herpesvirus-infected cells: analysis of the polypeptides induced by wild type and sixteen temperature-sensitive mutants of HSV strain 17.

    PubMed

    Marsden, H S; Crombie, I K; Subak-Sharpe, J H

    1976-06-01

    The polypeptides induced in cells infected with a Glasgow isolate of HSV-I (17 syn+) have been characterized by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Study of the kinetics of synthesis in three cell lines has detected a total of 52 polypeptides, 33 of which can be identified in polypeptide profiles of purified virions. These include six low mol. wt. polypeptides that have not been previously reported. Several polypeptides were labelled with glucosamine in infected BHK cells. The different polypeptide patterns obtained at permissive (31 degrees C) and nonpermissive (38 degrees C) temperature in cells infected with 16 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants are reported. The effect of multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) on the polypeptide profile has been examined for two of the DNA -ve mutants: below ten, the profile varied with the m.o.i. whereas above ten it was constant. All mutants were therefore examined at an m.o.i. of approx. 20. Mutants from the same complementation group showed very similar profiles. A number of general conclusions concerning control of protein synthesis in HSV infected cells can be made: (I) As most of the 16 ts mutants affected the synthesis of several or many polypeptides it follows that a large proportion of genome specifies controlling functions. (2) The high frequency with which some polypeptides were affected suggests they are at or near the terminus of biosynthetic pathways which are under multiple control. (3) Conversely, some polypeptides were affected with a low frequency suggesting that their synthesis is not dependent on the expression of many virus functions. (4) Several individual ts mutations lead to the synthesis of increased amounts of different large polypeptides. (5) Analysis of every band detectably affected by at least one ts mutation has disclosed nine classes of dependence relationship between polypeptide synthesis and the DNA phenotype of the mutants, illustrating that this relationship is complex and different for

  16. Risk-Sensitivity in Sensorimotor Control

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Daniel A.; Nagengast, Arne J.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in theoretical neuroscience suggest that motor control can be considered as a continuous decision-making process in which uncertainty plays a key role. Decision-makers can be risk-sensitive with respect to this uncertainty in that they may not only consider the average payoff of an outcome, but also consider the variability of the payoffs. Although such risk-sensitivity is a well-established phenomenon in psychology and economics, it has been much less studied in motor control. In fact, leading theories of motor control, such as optimal feedback control, assume that motor behaviors can be explained as the optimization of a given expected payoff or cost. Here we review evidence that humans exhibit risk-sensitivity in their motor behaviors, thereby demonstrating sensitivity to the variability of “motor costs.” Furthermore, we discuss how risk-sensitivity can be incorporated into optimal feedback control models of motor control. We conclude that risk-sensitivity is an important concept in understanding individual motor behavior under uncertainty. PMID:21283556

  17. Controlled fabrication of mesoporous TiO2 hierarchical structures as scattering layers to enhance the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Kue; Sung, Shi-Joon

    2016-11-09

    To meet the nanofabrication requirements, such as control of structure and scalability, we investigated an electrospray-based method to manufacture scattering layers (SLs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TiO2 spherical and disk-shaped particles with a large surface area, high crystallinity, uniform nanostructure and good light scattering properties were fabricated via a simple electrospray method. We showed how the morphology and structure of the resulting films can be controlled by varying the droplet evaporation rates before impact on the substrate. Thus, by tuning the process conditions, high-quality TiO2 spheres and disks were obtained. Then, these mesoporous TiO2 particles were used as the SLs in photoelectrodes, which resulted in enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE). Compared with conventional SLs (8.45%), DSSCs based on spherical and disk-shaped particle SLs yield higher PCEs of 9.0% and 9.53%, respectively. This is because the generated TiO2 spheres and disks provide a large surface area and exhibit excellent light scattering capabilities, allowing a low total internal resistance and a long electron lifetime.

  18. Behavior sensitivities for control augmented structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, R. A.; Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    During the past few years it has been recognized that combining passive structural design methods with active control techniques offers the prospect of being able to find substantially improved designs. These developments have stimulated interest in augmenting structural synthesis by adding active control system design variables to those usually considered in structural optimization. An essential step in extending the approximation concepts approach to control augmented structural synthesis is the development of a behavior sensitivity analysis capability for determining rates of change of dynamic response quantities with respect to changes in structural and control system design variables. Behavior sensitivity information is also useful for man-machine interactive design as well as in the context of system identification studies. Behavior sensitivity formulations for both steady state and transient response are presented and the quality of the resulting derivative information is evaluated.

  19. Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Sumit; Lin, Jiann T

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on our work on metal-free sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Sensitizers based on D-A'-π-A architecture (D is a donor, A is an acceptor, A' is an electron-deficient entity) exhibit better light harvesting than D-π-A-type sensitizers. However, appropriate molecular design is needed to avoid excessive aggregation of negative charge at the electron-deficient entity upon photoexcitation. Rigidified aromatics, including aromatic segments comprising fused electron-excessive and -deficient units in the spacer, allow effective electronic communication, and good photoinduced charge transfer leads to excellent cell performance. Sensitizers with two anchors/acceptors, D(-π-A)2 , can more efficiently harvest light, inject electrons, and suppress dark current compared with congeners with a single anchor. Appropriate incorporation of heteroaromatic units in the spacer is beneficial to DSSC performance. High-performance, aqueous-based DSSCs can be achieved with a dual redox couple comprising imidazolium iodide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl, and/or using dyes of improved wettability through the incorporation of a triethylene oxide methyl ether chain.

  20. Gene sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have found that a gene, Schlafen-11 (SLFN11), sensitizes cells to substances known to cause irreparable damage to DNA.  As part of their study, the researchers used a repository of 60 cell types to identify predictors of cancer cell respons

  1. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength.

  2. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F; Mane, Rajaram S; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-shim

    2016-02-09

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  3. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  4. Morphology-controlled cactus-like branched anatase TiO2 arrays with high light-harvesting efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Guo, Xin-Dong; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2014-08-01

    The present work establishes a facile process for one-step hydrothermal growth of vertically aligned anatase cactus-like branched TiO2 (CBT) arrays on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate. Various CBT morphologies are obtained by adjusting the potassium titanium oxide oxalate (PTO) reactant concentration (from 0.05 M to 0.15 M) and this yields a morphologically-controllable branched TiO2 arrays geometry. The CBT arrays consist of a vertically oriented nanowire (NW) or nanosheet (NS) stem and a host of short nanorod (NR) branches. The hierarchical CBT arrays demonstrate their excellent candidatures as photoanodes, which are capable of exhibiting high light-harvesting efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Consequently, DSSCs based on 7 μm long optimized CBT arrays (0.05 M PTO), which are assembled with high density and high aspect-ratio NR branches, exhibit an impressive power conversion efficiency of 6.43% under AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The high performance can be attributed to the prominent light-harvesting efficiency, resulting from larger surface area and superior light-scattering capability.

  5. Thickness-self-controlled synthesis of porous transparent polyaniline-reduced graphene oxide composites towards advanced bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shin-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Tsung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Yang, Shin-Yi; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2014-08-01

    A powerful synthesis strategy is proposed for fabricating porous polyaniline-reduced graphene oxide (PANI-RGO) composites with transparency up to 80% and thickness from 300 to 1000 nm for the counter electrode (CE) of bifacial dye-sensitizing solar cells (DSSCs). The first step is to combine the in-situ positive charge transformation of graphene oxide (GO) through aniline (ANI) prepolymerization and the electrostatic adsorption of ANI oligomer-GO to effectively control the thickness of ultrathin PANI-GO films by adjusting pH of the polymerization media. In the second step, PANI-GO films are reduced with hydroiodic acid to simultaneously enhance the apparent redox activity for the I3-/I- couple and their electronic conductivity. Incorporating the RGO increases the transparency of PANI and facilitates the light-harvesting from the rear side. A DSSC assembled with such a transparent PANI-RGO CE exhibits an excellent efficiency of 7.84%, comparable to 8.19% for a semi-transparent Pt-based DSSC. The high light-harvesting ability of PANI-RGO enhances the efficiency retention between rear- and front-illumination modes to 76.7%, compared with 69.1% for a PANI-based DSSC. The higher retention reduces the power-to-weight ratio and the total cost of bifacial DSSCs, which is also promising in other applications, such as windows, power generators, and panel screens.

  6. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-02-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  7. Size-controlled synthesis of anisotropic TiO2 single nanocrystals using microwave irradiation and their application for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Manseki, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Yosuke; Ban, Takayuki; Sugiura, Takashi; Yoshida, Tsukasa

    2013-03-14

    A microwave hydrothermal reaction of colloidal titanates is presented as a cost-effective synthesis to produce TiO(2) single nanocrystals. The photoelectrode consisting of anisotropic nanorods and V-shaped twins has a significant advantage for achieving an appreciable incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 85.6% for the dye-sensitized solar cell.

  8. Current trends in materials for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Ricardo; Fernández-Werner, Luciana; Pardo, Helena; Mombré, Alvaro W

    2011-01-01

    Here, we intend to review those patents related with the technology of dye sensitized solar cells. In particular we discuss patents and papers that enable metal oxide layer to be more controllable and feasible for applications, and new and innovative dyes, sensitizers and electrolytes with promising features. Finally various methods were reviewed for fabricating semiconductor layers and complete DSSC devices focusing on the mass production of photovoltaic cells.

  9. Targeting tumor cells by enhancing radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    McKenna, W Gillies; Muschel, Ruth J

    2003-12-01

    The work of Al Knudson created the paradigm in which we see cancer as a result of the accumulation of multiple mutations. Our goal has been to exploit these mutations to develop strategies to enhance therapy for cancer by targeting the malignant cell while sparing the normal tissue. In studying the RAS oncogene, we observed that its expression when activated resulted in enhanced radioresistance. Conversely, inhibition of RAS made cells with activated RAS more radiosensitive. Hence, we postulated that it would be possible to sensitize tumors with RAS mutations to radiation without affecting the sensitivity of the normal tissue in patients with such tumors. This proved to be the case in animal models and has led to current clinical trials. These studies raised the question of identifying the downstream effectors of RAS that are responsible for altering the radiosensitivity of cells. We have found that phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3 kinase) is a critical component of this pathway. Blocking PI3 kinase enhanced the radiation response in vitro or in vivo of cells actively signaling through that pathway, but did not affect cells not actively signaling through PI3 kinase at the time of irradiation. Identification of tumors with active signaling in this pathway by immunohistochemical staining for phosphorylated AKT, the downstream target of PI3 kinase correlated with those patients for which radiation failed to achieve local control. Thus, characterization of the active signaling pathways in a given tumor might enable the selection of patients likely to respond to radiation. Pathways upstream from RAS may also be useful targets to consider for enhancing radiation therapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of PI3 kinase, may also mediate resistance through a common pathway. In addition to EGFR and RAS, PTEN can also regulate the PI3 kinase pathway. Identifying a common signal for EGFR, RAS, and PTEN that results in radiation resistance may uncover

  10. Fruit based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ung, M. C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Liow, K. S.; Kulip, J.; Mansa, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) was first discovered in 1991 by O’regan and Gratzel. This new type of solar cell was reported to have lower production cost with efficiency as high as 12% which is comparable to conventional silicon solar cell. Initially, it uses ruthenium dye as light sensitizer for the operation. However, DSSC with ruthenium dyes are facing environment friendly issues due to the toxic chemicals and costly purification in processing ruthenium dye. Regardless of the poor performance in DSSC, natural dyes which are easy to prepare, cheap and environmental friendly still appear to be an alternative as dye sensitizer. In this study, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using anthocyanin source dyes extracted from several local fruits. All the extracts absorb a wide range of the visible light and ultraviolet spectrum. Therefore, all of the natural dyes show light absorption properties which is important for a dye sensitizer. A DSSC is comprised of conductive substrate, nanoporous semiconductor TiO2 layer, dye sensitizer, electrolyte with redox couple and a counter electrode with catalyst. In this study, the effect of different light source and different counter electrode are been investigated. However, it is vital to know that further research need to do more on the locally Borneo sourced dyes to evaluate and enhance their performance in Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

  11. Optimal control concepts in design sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belegundu, Ashok D.

    1987-01-01

    A close link is established between open loop optimal control theory and optimal design by noting certain similarities in the gradient calculations. The resulting benefits include a unified approach, together with physical insights in design sensitivity analysis, and an efficient approach for simultaneous optimal control and design. Both matrix displacement and matrix force methods are considered, and results are presented for dynamic systems, structures, and elasticity problems.

  12. Sensitive-cell-based fish chromatophore biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Thomas K.; Chaplen, Frank W.; Jovanovic, Goran; Kolodziej, Wojtek; Trempy, Janine E.; Willard, Corwin; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V.; Paul, Brian K.

    2004-07-01

    A sensitive biosensor (cytosensor) has been developed based on color changes in the toxin-sensitive colored living cells of fish. These chromatophores are highly sensitive to the presence of many known and unknown toxins produced by microbial pathogens and undergo visible color changes in a dose-dependent manner. The chromatophores are immobilized and maintained in a viable state while potential pathogens multiply and fish cell-microbe interactions are monitored. Low power LED lighting is used to illuminate the chromatophores which are magnified using standard optical lenses and imaged onto a CCD array. Reaction to toxins is detected by observing changes is the total area of color in the cells. These fish chromatophores are quite sensitive to cholera toxin, Staphococcus alpha toxin, and Bordatella pertussis toxin. Numerous other toxic chemical and biological agents besides bacterial toxins also cause readily detectable color effects in chromatophores. The ability of the chromatophore cell-based biosensor to distinguish between different bacterial pathogens was examined. Toxin producing strains of Salmonella enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus induced movement of pigmented organelles in the chromatophore cells and this movement was measured by changes in the optical density over time. Each bacterial pathogen elicited this measurable response in a distinctive and signature fashion. These results suggest a chromatophore cell-based biosensor assay may be applicable for the detection and identification of virulence activities associated with certain air-, food-, and water-borne bacterial pathogens.

  13. The Distinctive Sensitivity to Microgravity of Immune Cell Subpopulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Luo, Haiying; Liu, Jing; Wang, Peng; Dong, Dandan; Shang, Peng; Zhao, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Immune dysfunction in astronauts is well documented after spaceflights. Microgravity is one of the key factors directly suppressing the function of immune system. However, it is unclear which subpopulations of immune cells including innate and adaptive immune cells are more sensitive to microgravity We herein investigated the direct effects of modeled microgravity (MMg) on different immune cells in vitro. Mouse splenocytes, thymocytes and bone marrow cells were exposed to MMg for 16 hrs. The survival and the phenotypes of different subsets of immune cells including CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), B cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer cells (NK) were determined by flow cytometry. After splenocytes were cultured under MMg for 16h, the cell frequency and total numbers of monocytes, macrophages and CD4+Foxp3+T cells were significantly decreased more than 70 %. MMg significantly decreased the cell numbers of CD8+ T cells, B cells and neutrophils in splenocytes. The cell numbers of CD4+T cells and NK cells were unchanged significantly when splenocytes were cultured under MMg compared with controls. However, MMg significantly increased the ratio of mature neutrophils to immature neutrophils in bone marrow and the cell number of DCs in splenocytes. Based on the cell survival ability, monocytes, macrophages and CD4+Foxp3+Treg cells are most sensitive to microgravity; CD4+T cells and NK cells are resistant to microgravity; CD8+T cells and neutrophils are impacted by short term microgravity exposure. Microgravity promoted the maturation of neutrophils and development of DCs in vitro. The present studies offered new insights on the direct effects of MMg on the survival and homeostasis of immune cell subsets.

  14. Albendazole sensitizes cancer cells to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Brain metastases afflict approximately half of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and represent the direct cause of death in 60 to 70% of those affected. Standard of care remains ineffective in both types of cancer with the challenge of overcoming the blood brain barrier (BBB) exacerbating the clinical problem. Our purpose is to determine and characterize the potential of albendazole (ABZ) as a cytotoxic and radiosensitizing agent against MM and SCLC cells. Methods Here, ABZ's mechanism of action as a DNA damaging and microtubule disrupting agent is assessed through analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation and cell cyle progression. The cytotoxicity of ABZ alone and in combination with radiation therapy is determined though clonogenic cell survival assays in a panel of MM and SCLC cell lines. We further establish ABZ's ability to act synergistically as a radio-sensitizer through combination index calculations and apoptotic measurements of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Results ABZ induces DNA damage as measured by increased H2AX phosphorylation. ABZ inhibits the growth of MM and SCLC at clinically achievable plasma concentrations. At these concentrations, ABZ arrests MM and SCLC cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 12 hours of treatment. Exploiting the notion that cells in the G2/M phase are the most sensitive to radiation therapy, we show that treatment of MM and SCLC cells treated with ABZ renders them more sensitive to radiation in a synergistic fashion. Additionally, MM and SCLC cells co-treated with ABZ and radiation exhibit increased apoptosis at 72 hours. Conclusions Our study suggests that the orally available antihelminthic ABZ acts as a potent radiosensitizer in MM and SCLC cell lines. Further evaluation of ABZ in combination with radiation as a potential treatment for MM and SCLC brain metastases is warranted. PMID:22094106

  15. Exo1 phosphorylation status controls the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerases delta and zeta.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, Lillian; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2014-12-01

    Exo1 belongs to the Rad2 family of structure-specific nucleases and possesses 5'-3' exonuclease activity on double-stranded DNA substrates. Exo1 interacts physically with the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2 and Mlh1 and is involved in the excision of the mispaired nucleotide. Independent of its role in MMR, Exo1 contributes to long-range resection of DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends to facilitate their repair by homologous recombination (HR), and was recently identified as a component of error-free DNA damage tolerance pathways. Here, we show that Exo1 activity increases the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking Pol32, a subunit of DNA polymerases δ and ζ. Both, phospho-mimicking and dephospho-mimicking exo1 mutants act as hypermorphs, as evidenced by an increase in HU sensitivity of pol32Δ cells, suggesting that they are trapped in an active form and that phosphorylation of Exo1 at residues S372, S567, S587, S692 is necessary, but insufficient, for the accurate regulation of Exo1 activity at stalled replication forks. In contrast, neither phosphorylation status is important for Exo1's role in MMR or in the suppression of genome instability in cells lacking Sgs1 helicase. This ability of an EXO1 deletion to suppress the HU hypersensitivity of pol32Δ cells is in contrast to the negative genetic interaction between deletions of EXO1 and POL32 in MMS-treated cells as well as the role of EXO1 in DNA-damage treated rad53 and mec1 mutants.

  16. Stretchable, wearable dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhibin; Deng, Jue; Sun, Xuemei; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-05-01

    A stretchable, wearable dye-sensitized solar-cell textile is developed from elastic, electrically conducting fiber as a counter electrode and spring-like titanium wire as the working electrode. Dyesensitized solar cells are demonstrated with energy-conversion efficiencies up to 7.13%. The high energy-conversion efficiencies can be well maintained under stretch by 30% and after stretch for 20 cycles.

  17. Impact of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function and glycaemic control on initiation of second-line glucose-lowering treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Wolfgang; Strassburger, Klaus; Bongaerts, Brenda; Bobrov, Pavel; Kuss, Oliver; Müssig, Karsten; Markgraf, Daniel F; Szendroedi, Julia; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function or glycaemic control at diagnosis predict initiation of second-line treatment in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes patients (n = 138) undergoing initial metformin monotherapy (age [mean ± SD], 52 ± 10 years; 67% males; BMI, 32 ± 6 kg/m(2) ) from the prospective German Diabetes Study cohort (n = 398) were included. Patients remained under care of their general practitioners, yet underwent detailed metabolic characterization after diabetes diagnosis for study purposes (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, M value; i.v. glucose tolerance test, incremental C-peptide area under the curve0-60 minutes, CP iAUC). The associations of baseline M value, CP iAUC, fasting glucose and HbA1c with time to second-line therapy were assessed using parametric survival analysis, accounting for interval-censoring. Second-line treatment was initiated in 26% of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients within the first 3.3 years after diagnosis, using mostly DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists (64%). In age-, sex- and BMI-adjusted survival models, higher baseline HbA1c and fasting glucose values were associated with earlier treatment intensification. Lower baseline M value and C-peptide secretion (CP iAUC) were also related to an earlier initiation of second-line treatment. In the best multivariable model, baseline HbA1c ≥ 7% (hazard ratio, HR; 95% CI: 3.18; 1.35-7.50) and fasting glucose ≥140 mg/dL (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.04-5.78) were associated with shorter time to second-line therapy, adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Baseline hyperglycaemia is a strong predictor of requirement of early intensification of glucose-lowering therapy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Morphology control studies of TiO2 microstructures via surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekphet, Woranan; Ke, Tsai-Chyuan; Su, Chaochin; Kathirvel, Sasipriya; Sireesha, Pedaballi; Akula, Suri Babu; Li, Wen-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The controlled morphological TiO2 particles have gained great importance in a wide variety of applications due to their promising physico-chemical properties. In this study, TiO2 microstructures with various shapes to utilize as scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were successfully synthesized via different hydrothermal conditions. The effects of the versatile preparation parameters including the amount of titania precursor and surfactant, the addition of ethanol/water, and the hydrothermal process temperature and time on the TiO2 morphology were investigated. The structural and morphological analysis clearly shown that the preparation conditions played crucial roles in the morphology, particle size, and crystalline phase of the TiO2 microparticles. Different kinds of shapes such as rice- (∼1.10 μm (l) and ∼0.41 μm (w)), star- (∼3.60 μm) and flower-like (3.75 μm) TiO2 morphological structures were obtained. The morphology and size of the TiO2 particles were mainly governed by the concentrations of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor, amounts of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) surfactant and hydrothermal temperatures and durations. The as-prepared rice-shaped TiO2 was composed of mixed anatase and brookite binary phases, whereas the star- and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were consisted of ternary anatase, rutile, and brookite crystalline TiO2 phases. The three different rice-, star-, and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were employed as scattering layers for photoanodes in DSSCs. Among them, the star-like TiO2 photoanode based DSSC exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.56%, which was also better than those of the devices fabricated without scattering layer (a-TiO2, 8.38%) and with commercial P25 as scattering layer (a-TiO2/P25-TiO2, 8.52%) at the same film thickness of ∼14 μm.

  19. High efficiency porphyrin sensitized mesoscopic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Fabrizio; Yi, Chenyi; Teuscher, Joël.; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) represents a reliable technology, ready for the market and able to compete with silicon solar cells for specific fields of application. Porphyrin dyes allow reaching high power conversion efficiency in conjunction with cobalt redox electrolytes due to larger open circuit potentials. The bigger size of the cobalt complexes compared to standard iodide/triiodide redox couple hampers its percolation through the meso-porous TiO2 network, thus impairing the regeneration process. In case of porphyrin dyes mass transport problems in the electrolyte need to be carefully handled, due to the large size of the sensitizing molecule and the bulky cobalt complexes. Herein we report the study of structural variations on porphyrin sensitizers and their influence on the DSSC performance with cobalt based redox electrolyte.

  20. Nanocarbon counterelectrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Easwaramoorthi; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Dong Yoon; Song, Jae Sung

    2007-04-23

    Nanosize carbon powders were deposited on conducting glass substrate for counterelectrode application in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Electrochemical impedance measurement shows that charge transfer resistance of carbon electrode in liquid electrolyte is 0.74 {omega} cm{sup -2}, which is two times less than that of screen printed platinum. Using such counterelectrode and dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode, DSSC was fabricated. Under one sun illumination (AM1.5, P{sub in} of 100 mW cm{sup -2}), carbon counterelectrode DSSC shows 6.73% overall energy conversion efficiency with good stability.

  1. Improved photovoltaic performance and stability of quantum dot sensitized solar cells using Mn-ZnSe shell structure with enhanced light absorption and recombination control.

    PubMed

    Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, M; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-08-07

    To make quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies are necessary. In the present study, ZnSe was used as an alternative to ZnS, one of the most widely used passivation materials in QDSSCs. ZnSe was deposited on a TiO2-CdS-CdSe photoanode to form a core-shell structure, which was more efficient in terms of reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The development of an efficient passivation layer is a requirement for preventing recombination processes in order to attain high-performance and stable QDSSCs. A layer of inorganic Mn-ZnSe was applied to a QD-sensitized photoanode to enhance the adsorption and strongly inhibit interfacial recombination processes in QDSSCs, which greatly improved the power conversion efficiency. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the combined Mn doping with ZnSe treatment reduces interfacial recombination and increases charge collection efficiency compared with Mn-ZnS, ZnS, and ZnSe. A solar cell based on the CdS-CdSe-Mn-ZnSe photoanode yielded excellent performance with a solar power conversion efficiency of 5.67%, Voc of 0.584 V, and Jsc of 17.59 mA cm(-2). Enhanced electron transport and reduced electron recombination are responsible for the improved Jsc and Voc of the QDSSCs. The effective electron lifetime of the device with Mn-ZnSe was higher than those with Mn-ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnS, leading to more efficient electron-hole separation and slower electron recombination.

  2. Current opinions on the control and role of vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, calcium sensitization, and the cytoskeleton in vascular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lemus, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    Vascular smooth muscle contraction and relaxation play a preponderant role on the active (acute) and structural (long-term) control of vascular diameter. This editorial overview summarizes and highlights the opinions expressed in seven reviews contained in this special topic issue of Microcirculation. The reviews address diverse aspects of the mechanisms that influence cell adhesion, calcium homeostasis, and cytoskeletal remodeling, and how these mechanisms affect vascular structure and function at different levels of the circulation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  4. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-31

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future.

  5. Single cell transcriptomics of hypothalamic warm sensitive neurons that control core body temperature and fever response Signaling asymmetry and an extension of chemical neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Eberwine, James; Bartfai, Tamas

    2011-03-01

    We report on an 'unbiased' molecular characterization of individual, adult neurons, active in a central, anterior hypothalamic neuronal circuit, by establishing cDNA libraries from each individual, electrophysiologically identified warm sensitive neuron (WSN). The cDNA libraries were analyzed by Affymetrix microarray. The presence and frequency of cDNAs were confirmed and enhanced with Illumina sequencing of each single cell cDNA library. cDNAs encoding the GABA biosynthetic enzyme Gad1 and of adrenomedullin, galanin, prodynorphin, somatostatin, and tachykinin were found in the WSNs. The functional cellular and in vivo studies on dozens of the more than 500 neurotransmitters, hormone receptors and ion channels, whose cDNA was identified and sequence confirmed, suggest little or no discrepancy between the transcriptional and functional data in WSNs; whenever agonists were available for a receptor whose cDNA was identified, a functional response was found. Sequencing single neuron libraries permitted identification of rarely expressed receptors like the insulin receptor, adiponectin receptor 2 and of receptor heterodimers; information that is lost when pooling cells leads to dilution of signals and mixing signals. Despite the common electrophysiological phenotype and uniform Gad1 expression, WSN transcriptomes show heterogeneity, suggesting strong epigenetic influence on the transcriptome. Our study suggests that it is well-worth interrogating the cDNA libraries of single neurons by sequencing and chipping.

  6. Sensitizers for Aqueous-Based Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Ryan Yeh-Yung; Lin, Jiann T

    2017-03-02

    Aqueous dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are attractive due to their sustainability, the use of water as a safe solvent for the redox mediators, and their possible applications in photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, the higher tendency of dye leaching by water and the lower wettability of dye molecules are two major obstacles that need to be tackled for future applications of aqueous DSSCs. Sensitizers designed for aqueous DSSCs are discussed based on their functions, such as modification of the molecular skeleton and the anchoring group for better stability against dye leaching by water, and the incorporation of hydrophilic entities into the dye molecule or the addition of a surfactant to the system to increase the wettability of the dye for more facile dye regeneration. Surface treatment of the photoanode to deter dye leaching or improve the wettability of the dye molecule is also discussed. Redox mediators designed for aqueous DSSCs are also discussed. The review also includes quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, with a focus on improvements in QD loading and suppression of interfacial charge recombination at the photoanode.

  7. AG490 and PF431396 Sensitive Tyrosine Kinase Control the Population Heterogeneity of Basal STAT1 Activity in Ube1l Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Now, Hesung; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    A population often contains distinct sub-populations, thereby increasing the complexity of the overall heterogeneity. However, the cellular origin and biological relevance of sub-populations in cell population have not been clearly identified. Here we demonstrated the novel roles of ISGylation, which is an IFN-induced post-translational modification, controlling heterogeneity at the population level in cultured adherent cells. Without UBE1L, an E1 enzyme of ISGylation, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibited low viral resistance despite high STAT1 and ISG expression compared with the wild-type MEF. We observe that Ube1l−/− MEF populations consist of two behaviorally distinguishable sub-populations with distinct basal STAT1 activity, while wild-type MEF populations are unimodal. This population heterogeneity in Ube1l knock-out cells was perturbed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, AG490 and PF431396. In contrast, the neutralization of type I IFN did not affect population heterogeneity. Based on these results, we concluded that UBE1L functions to adjust basal immunological states with the regulation of population heterogeneity. PMID:27427993

  8. Alkylindole-sensitive receptors modulate microglial cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Susan; Cherry, Allison E.; Xu, Cong; Stella, Nephi

    2015-01-01

    Ligands targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed by microglia have been shown to regulate distinct components of their activation process, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into M1 or M2 phenotypes. Cannabinoids, including the active component of the Cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the synthetic alkylindole (AI) compound, WIN55212-2 (WIN-2), activate two molecularly identified GPCRs: CB1 and CB2. Previous studies reported that WIN-2 activates an additional unknown GPCR that is not activated by plant-derived cannabinoids, and evidence indicates that microglia express these receptors. Detailed studies on the role of AI-sensitive receptors in microglial cell activation were difficult as no selective pharmacological tools were available. Here, three newly-developed AI analogues allowed us to determine if microglia express AI-sensitive receptors and if so, study how they regulate the microglial cell activation process. We found that mouse microglia in primary culture express functional AI-sensitive receptors as measured by radioligand binding and changes in intracellular cAMP levels, and that these receptors control both basal and ATP-stimulated migration. AI analogues inhibit cell proliferation stimulated by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) without affecting basal cell proliferation. Remarkably, AI analogues do not control the expression of effector proteins characteristic of M1 or M2 phenotypes; yet activating microglia with M1 and M2 cytokines reduces the microglial response to AI analogues. Our results suggest that microglia express functional AI-sensitive receptors that control select components of their activation process. Agonists of these novel targets might represent a novel class of therapeutics to influence the microglial cell activation process. PMID:25914169

  9. High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Morphology-Controllable Synthesis of ZnO–ZnS Heterostructure Nanocone Photoanodes

    PubMed Central

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Mahmud, Shahrom; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2015-01-01

    High-density and well-aligned ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanocone arrays were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate using a facile and cost-effective two-step approach. In this synthetic process, the ZnO nanocones act as the template and provide Zn2+ ions for the ZnS shell formation. The photoluminescence spectrum indicates remarkably enhanced luminescence intensity and a small redshift in the UV region, which can be associated with the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between ZnO and ZnS. The obtained diffuse reflectance spectra show that the nanocone-based heterostructure reduces the light reflection in a broad spectral range and is much more effective than the bare ZnO nanocone and nanorod structures. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on the heterostructure ZnO–ZnS nanocones are assembled, and high conversion efficiency (η) of approximately 4.07% is obtained. The η improvement can be attributed primarily to the morphology effect of ZnO nanocones on light-trapping and effectively passivating the interface surface recombination sites of ZnO nanocones by coating with a ZnS shell layer. PMID:25875377

  10. Controlled seeding of laser deposited Ta:TiO2 nanobrushes and their performance as photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yukihiro; Garvey, Timothy; Alibabaei, Leila; Ghosh, Rudresh; Lopez, Rene

    2013-12-26

    Hexagonal patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) with a height of 1.5 μm was fabricated on fluorinated SnO2 (FTO) substrate via nanoimprint lithography and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Tantalum doped TiO2 was deposited on the patterned substrate by PLD. The film of Ta:TiO2 grew vertically and separately on the patterned ITO and formed a brush-like structure. Dye-sensitized solar cells with the Ta:TiO2 film deposited on the patterned substrate as well as flat FTO substrate for comparison were fabricated and tested. The device with the patterned substrate showed a 25% increase in short circuit current (Jsc) compared to the one with flat FTO substrate. Optical and photoelectrochemical characterization techniques were performed to investigate the improvement. The increase of Jsc was attributed to the enhancements of light absorption in the 600-750 nm range and collection of excited electrons by the brush-like structure and the patterned ITO, respectively.

  11. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells based on morphology-controllable synthesis of ZnO-ZnS heterostructure nanocone photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Ooi, C H Raymond; Mahmud, Shahrom; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2015-01-01

    High-density and well-aligned ZnO-ZnS core-shell nanocone arrays were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate using a facile and cost-effective two-step approach. In this synthetic process, the ZnO nanocones act as the template and provide Zn2+ ions for the ZnS shell formation. The photoluminescence spectrum indicates remarkably enhanced luminescence intensity and a small redshift in the UV region, which can be associated with the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between ZnO and ZnS. The obtained diffuse reflectance spectra show that the nanocone-based heterostructure reduces the light reflection in a broad spectral range and is much more effective than the bare ZnO nanocone and nanorod structures. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on the heterostructure ZnO-ZnS nanocones are assembled, and high conversion efficiency (η) of approximately 4.07% is obtained. The η improvement can be attributed primarily to the morphology effect of ZnO nanocones on light-trapping and effectively passivating the interface surface recombination sites of ZnO nanocones by coating with a ZnS shell layer.

  12. Recent advances in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2009-11-17

    -intensive high vacuum and materials purification steps that are currently employed in the fabrication of all other thin-film solar cells. Organic materials are abundantly available, so that the technology can be scaled up to the terawatt scale without running into feedstock supply problems. This gives organic-based solar cells an advantage over the two major competing thin-film photovoltaic devices, i.e., CdTe and CuIn(As)Se, which use highly toxic materials of low natural abundance. However, a drawback of the current embodiment of OPV cells is that their efficiency is significantly lower than that for single and multicrystalline silicon as well as CdTe and CuIn(As)Se cells. Also, polymer-based OPV cells are very sensitive to water and oxygen and, hence, need to be carefully sealed to avoid rapid degradation. The research discussed within the framework of this Account aims at identifying and providing solutions to the efficiency problems that the OPV field is still facing. The discussion focuses on mesoscopic solar cells, in particular, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which have been developed in our laboratory and remain the focus of our investigations. The efficiency problem is being tackled using molecular science and nanotechnology. The sensitizer constitutes the heart of the DSC, using sunlight to pump electrons from a lower to a higher energy level, generating in this fashion an electric potential difference, which can exploited to produce electric work. Currently, there is a quest for sensitizers that achieve effective harnessing of the red and near-IR part of sunlight, converting these photons to electricity better than the currently used generation of dyes. Progress in this area has been significant over the past few years, resulting in a boost in the conversion efficiency of the DSC that will be reviewed.

  13. Dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  14. Effects of Combined Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Multi-Ethnic Vitamin D-Deficient Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Claudia; Daly, Robin M.; Carpentier, André; Lu, Zhong X.; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Sikaris, Ken; Jean, Sonia; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers. Design 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45). Intervention Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000–6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months. Measurements Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Results Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed. Conclusions Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell

  15. 9-{beta}-arabinofuranosyladenine preferentially sensitizes radioresistant squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, D.; Mustafi, R.; Schwartz, J.L. |

    1992-06-01

    The effect of 9-{beta}-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) on sensitivity to the deleterious effects of x-rays was studied in six squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Three lines were relatively radioresistant, having D{sub 0} values of 2.31 to 2.89 Gy, and the other three lines were relatively radiosensitive, having D{sub 0} values of between 1.07 and 1.45 Gy. Ara-A (50 or 500 {mu}M) was added to cultures 30 min prior to irradiation and removed 30 min after irradiation, and sensitivity was measured in terms of cell survival. The radiosensitizing effect of ara-A was very dependent on the inherent radiosensitivity of the tumor cell line. Fifty micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized only the two most radioresistant lines, SCC-12B.2 and JSQ-3. Five hundred micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized the more sensitive cell lines, SQ-20B and SQ-9G, but failed to have any effect on the radiation response of the two most sensitive cell lines, SQ-38 and SCC-61. Concentrations of ara-A as low as 10 {mu}M were equally efficient in inhibiting DNA synthesis in all six cell lines. These results suggest that the target for the radiosensitizing effect of ara-A is probably related to the factor controlling the inherent radiosensitivity of human tumor cells. Therefore, ara-A might be useful in overcoming radiation resistance in vivo.

  16. Investigating Parameters Controlling Nanoshell SPR Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Felicia; Moran, Crisitn; Halas, Naomi

    2004-03-01

    Recent studies on several types of metallic nanostructures have shown that the plasmon resonance frequency supported by these structures depends on the dielectric properties of the embedding medium. The sensitivity of this dependence is a function of nanoparticle size and geometry. Recently it was shown that the surface plasmon resonance frequency of hollow gold nanospheres is far more sensitive to changes in the properties of an embedding medium than equivalently sized solid spheres.(Y. Sun and Y. Xia, Anal. Chem. 74, 5297 (2002).) We have examined the size and geometry dependence of this effect in a dielectric (silica) core, metallic (gold) shell nanostructure, both theoretically and experimentally. Our data reveal that increasing the overall size of the nanoshell and decreasing the relative gold shell thickness can enhance SPR sensitivity. Experimental data obtained from nanoshells immobilized on a glass surface yield SPR sensitivities comparable to and greater than sensitivities obtained from similar nanoparticle films prepared from solid silver nanoparticles and hollow gold nanoshells.

  17. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of ZnO nanorod arrays for the performance improvement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yi-Mu; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2011-03-15

    High-transparency and high quality ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on the ITO substrates by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of processing parameters including reaction temperature (25-95 {sup o}C) and solution concentration (0.01-0.1 M) on the crystal growth, alignment, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. It has been found that these process parameters are critical for the growth, orientation and aspect ratio of the nanorod arrays, showing different structural and optical properties. Experimental results reveal that the hexagonal ZnO nanorod arrays prepared under reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C and solution concentration of 0.03 M possess highest aspect ratio of {approx}21, and show the well-aligned orientation and optimum optical properties. Moreover the ZnO nanorod arrays based heterojunction electrodes and the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) were fabricated with an improved optoelectrical performance. -- Graphical abstract: The ZnO nanorod arrays demonstrate well-alignment, high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21) and excellent optical transmittance by low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). Display Omitted Research highlights: > Investigate the processing parameters of CBD on the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays. > Optimization of CBD process parameters: 0.03 M solution concentration and reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C. > The prepared ZnO samples possess well-alignment and high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21). > An n-ZnO/p-NiO heterojunction: great rectifying behavior and low leakage current. > SS-DSSC has J{sub SC} of 0.31 mA/cm{sup 2} and V{sub OC} of 590 mV, and an improved {eta} of 0.059%.

  18. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  19. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  20. Recombination in quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mora-Seró, Iván; Giménez, Sixto; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Gómez, Roberto; Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro; Bisquert, Juan

    2009-11-17

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) have attracted significant attention as promising third-generation photovoltaic devices. In the form of quantum dots (QDs), the semiconductor sensitizers have very useful and often tunable properties; moreover, their theoretical thermodynamic efficiency might be as high as 44%, better than the original 31% calculated ceiling. Unfortunately, the practical performance of these devices still lags behind that of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this Account, we summarize the strategies for depositing CdSe quantum dots on nanostructured mesoporous TiO(2) electrodes and discuss the methods that facilitate improvement in the performance and stability of QDSCs. One particularly significant factor for solar cells that use polysulfide electrolyte as the redox couple, which provides the best performance among QDSCs, is the passivation of the photoanode surface with a ZnS coating, which leads to a dramatic increase of photocurrents and efficiencies. However, these solar cells usually show a poor current-potential characteristic, so a general investigation of the recombination mechanisms is required for improvements. A physical model based on recombination through a monoenergetic TiO(2) surface state that takes into account the effect of the surface coverage has been developed to better understand the recombination mechanisms of QDSCs. The three main methods of QD adsorption on TiO(2) are (i) in situ growth of QDs by chemical bath deposition (CBD), (ii) deposition of presynthesized colloidal QDs by direct adsorption (DA), and (iii) deposition of presynthesized colloidal QDs by linker-assisted adsorption (LA). A systematic investigation by impedance spectroscopy of QDSCs prepared by these methods showed a decrease in the charge-transfer resistance and increased electron lifetimes for CBD samples; the same result was found after ZnS coating because of the covering of the TiO(2) surface. The increase of the lifetime with the ZnS treatment

  1. Targeting SLUG sensitizes leukemia cells to ADR-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chang-Rong; Liu, Jun; Yu, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Slug is an E-cadherin repressor and a suppressor of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) and it has recently been demonstrated that Slug plays an important role in controlling apoptosis. In this study, we examined whether Slug's ability to silence expression suppresses the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells and/or sensitizes leukemia HL-60 cells to adriamycin (ADR) through induction of apoptosis. SLUG siRNA was transfected into the HL-60 and HL-60(ADR) cell lines (an adriamycin resistant cell line). The stably SLUG siRNA transfected HL-60 and HL-60(ADR) cells was transiently transfected with PUMA siRNA. The mRNA and protein expression of SLUG and PUMA were determined by Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assay. The effects of SLUG siRNA alone or combined with ADR or PUMA siRNA on growth and apoptosis in HL-60 and HL-60(ADR) cells was detected by MTT, ELISA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The results showed that SLUG was less expressed in the HL-60 cells, and high expressed in the HL-60(ADR) cells. Obvious down-regulation of SLUG mRNA and protein levels and up-regulation of PUMA mRNA and protein levels after SLUG siRNA transfection was showed in the HL-60(ADR) cells. Treatment with ADR induced SLUG mRNA and protein in the HL-60 cells. Significant positive correlation was observed between basal SLUG mRNA and protein and ADR sensitivity. SLUG gene silencing by SLUG siRNA transfection inhibited growth and induced apoptosis, and increased ADR killing of the HL-60 and HL-60(ADR) cell lines. After the SLUG siRNA transfected HL-60 and HL-60(ADR) cells was transiently transfected with PUMA siRNA, did not increase ADR killing of the HL-60 and HL-60(ADR) cell lines. SLUG level positively correlated with sensitivity to ADR. SLUG siRNA could effectively reduce SLUG expression and induce PUMA expression and restore the drug sensitivity of resistant leukemic cells to conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Nanomaterials Enabled Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pei

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as the third generation of solar cells, have attracted tremendous attention for their unique properties. The semi-transparent nature, low-cost, environmental friendliness, and convenient manufacturing conditions of this generation of solar cells are promising aspects of DSCs that make them competitive in their future applications. However, much improvement in many aspects of DSCs' is required for the realization of its full potential. In this thesis, various nanomaterials, such as graphene, multi wall carbon nanotubes, vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, hybrid structures and etc, have been used to improve the performance of DSCs. First, the application of graphene covered metal grids as transparent conductive electrodes in DSCs is explored. It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these flexible hybrid transparent electrodes, in both bending and stretching tests, are better than their oxide-based counter parts. Moreover, different kinds of carbon nanotubes, for instance vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, have been used as a replacement for traditional platinum counter electrodes, in both iodine electrolyte, and sulfide-electrolyte. Further, a flexible, seamlessly connected, 3-dimensional vertically-aligned few wall carbon nanotubes graphene hybrid structures on Ni foil as DSCs' counter electrodes improve their efficiency significantly. All these nanomaterials enabled DSCs architectures achieve a comparable or better performance than standard brittle platinum/fluorine doped tin oxide combination. The large surface area of such nanomaterials in addition to the high electrical conductivity and their mechanical robustness provides a platform for significant enhancements in DSCs' performance.

  3. Highly efficient photocathodes for dye-sensitized tandem solar cells.

    PubMed

    Nattestad, A; Mozer, A J; Fischer, M K R; Cheng, Y-B; Mishra, A; Bäuerle, P; Bach, U

    2010-01-01

    Thin-film dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on mesoporous semiconductor electrodes are low-cost alternatives to conventional silicon devices. High-efficiency DSCs typically operate as photoanodes (n-DSCs), where photocurrents result from dye-sensitized electron injection into n-type semiconductors. Dye-sensitized photocathodes (p-DSCs) operate in an inverse mode, where dye-excitation is followed by rapid electron transfer from a p-type semiconductor to the dye (dye-sensitized hole injection). Such p-DSCs and n-DSCs can be combined to construct tandem solar cells (pn-DSCs) with a theoretical efficiency limitation well beyond that of single-junction DSCs (ref. 4). Nevertheless, the efficiencies of such tandem pn-DSCs have so far been hampered by the poor performance of the available p-DSCs (refs 3, 5-15). Here we show for the first time that p-DSCs can convert absorbed photons to electrons with yields of up to 96%, resulting in a sevenfold increase in energy conversion efficiency compared with previously reported photocathodes. The donor-acceptor dyes, studied as photocathodic sensitizers, comprise a variable-length oligothiophene bridge, which provides control over the spatial separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. As a result, charge recombination is decelerated by several orders of magnitude and tandem pn-DSCs can be constructed that exceed the efficiency of their individual components.

  4. 48 CFR 952.204-71 - Sensitive foreign nations controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... controls. 952.204-71 Section 952.204-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES... Sensitive foreign nations controls. In accordance with 904.404(d)(3), the contracting officer shall include the following clause: Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls (MAR 2011) (a) In connection with...

  5. 48 CFR 952.204-71 - Sensitive foreign nations controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... controls. 952.204-71 Section 952.204-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES... Sensitive foreign nations controls. In accordance with 904.404(d)(3), the contracting officer shall include the following clause: Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls (MAR 2011) (a) In connection with...

  6. A quinoxaline-fused tetrathiafulvalene-based sensitizer for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Amacher, Anneliese; Yi, Chenyi; Yang, Jiabao; Bircher, Martin Peter; Fu, Yongchun; Cascella, Michele; Grätzel, Michael; Decurtins, Silvio; Liu, Shi-Xia

    2014-06-21

    A new quinoxaline-fused tetrathiafulvalene-based sensitizer has been prepared and characterized. The resulting power conversion efficiency of 6.47% represents the best performance to date for tetrathiafulvalene-sensitized solar cells.

  7. Prostate cancer marker panel with single cell sensitivity in urine.

    PubMed

    Nickens, Kristen P; Ali, Amina; Scoggin, Tatiana; Tan, Shyh-Han; Ravindranath, Lakshmi; McLeod, David G; Dobi, Albert; Tacha, David; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Srivastava, Shiv; Petrovics, Gyorgy

    2015-06-15

    Over one million men undergo prostate biopsies annually in the United States, a majority of whom due to elevated serum PSA. More than half of the biopsies turn out to be negative for prostate cancer (CaP). The limitations of both the PSA test and the biopsy procedure have led to the development for more precise CaP detection assays in urine (e.g., PCA3, TMPRSS2-ERG) or blood (e.g., PHI, 4K). Here, we describe the development and evaluation of the Urine CaP Marker Panel (UCMP) assay for sensitive and reproducible detection of CaP cells in post-digital rectal examination (post-DRE) urine. The cellular content of the post-DRE urine was captured on a translucent filter membrane, which is placed on Cytoclear slides for direct evaluation by microscopy and immuno-cytochemistry (ICC). Cells captured on the membrane were assayed for PSA and Prostein expression to identify prostate epithelial cells, and for ERG and AMACR to identify prostate tumor cells. Immunostained cells were analyzed for quantitative and qualitative features and correlated with biopsy positive and negative status for malignancy. The assay was optimized for single cell capture sensitivity and downstream evaluations by spiking a known number of cells from established CaP cell lines, LNCaP and VCaP, into pre-cleared control urine. The cells captured from the post-DRE urine of subjects, obtained prior to biopsy procedure, were co-stained for ERG, AMACR (CaP specific), and Prostein or PSA (prostate epithelium specific) rendering a whole cell based analysis and characterization. A feasibility cohort of 63 post-DRE urine specimens was assessed. Comparison of the UCMP results with blinded biopsy results showed an assay sensitivity of 64% (16 of 25) and a specificity of 68.8% (22 of 32) for CaP detection by biopsy. This pilot study assessing a minimally invasive CaP detection assay with single cell sensitivity cell-capture and characterization from the post-DRE urine holds promise for further development of this

  8. Post-bleaching sensitivity in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Guacyra M; Guedes, Verónica L; Luna, Maria do R Ml; Carneiro-Jr, Américo M; Stegun, Roberto C

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. This study analyzed the effectiveness of bleaching and tooth sensitivity after in-office bleaching in patients with SCD. Forty volunteers were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 patients each (five with the SCD and five healthy controls) and treated using in-office bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and different light activation protocols. No statistically significant difference was observed with relation to presence of tooth sensitivity, with or without use of a source of light for peroxide activation, and all bleaching therapies were effective, regardless of the technique employed and the presence/absence of sickle cell disease. The data showed that in-office dental bleaching is a viable alternative for improvement of oral esthetics for patients with SCD.

  9. Silencing of Taxol-Sensitizer Genes in Cancer Cells: Lack of Sensitization Effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shang-Lang; Chao, Chuck C-K

    2015-06-16

    A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes identified (acrbp, atp6v0d2, fgd4, hs6st2, psma6, and tubgcp2) in nine other cancer cell types (including lung, cervical, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) that showed reduced cell viability in the presence of a sub-lethal concentration of taxol. Surprisingly, none of the genes studied increased sensitivity to taxol in the tested panel of cell lines. As observed in H1155 cells, SKOV3 cells displayed induction of five of the six genes studied in response to a cell killing dose of taxol. The other cell types were much less responsive to taxol. Notably, four of the five inducible taxol-sensitizer genes tested (acrbp, atp6v0d2, psma6, and tubgcp2) were upregulated in a taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. These results indicate that the previously identified taxol-sensitizer loci are not conserved genetic targets involved in inhibiting cell proliferation in response to taxol. Our findings also suggest that regulation of taxol-sensitizer genes by taxol may be critical for acquired cell resistance to the drug.

  10. Silencing of Taxol-Sensitizer Genes in Cancer Cells: Lack of Sensitization Effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shang-Lang; Chao, Chuck C.-K.

    2015-01-01

    A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes identified (acrbp, atp6v0d2, fgd4, hs6st2, psma6, and tubgcp2) in nine other cancer cell types (including lung, cervical, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) that showed reduced cell viability in the presence of a sub-lethal concentration of taxol. Surprisingly, none of the genes studied increased sensitivity to taxol in the tested panel of cell lines. As observed in H1155 cells, SKOV3 cells displayed induction of five of the six genes studied in response to a cell killing dose of taxol. The other cell types were much less responsive to taxol. Notably, four of the five inducible taxol-sensitizer genes tested (acrbp, atp6v0d2, psma6, and tubgcp2) were upregulated in a taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. These results indicate that the previously identified taxol-sensitizer loci are not conserved genetic targets involved in inhibiting cell proliferation in response to taxol. Our findings also suggest that regulation of taxol-sensitizer genes by taxol may be critical for acquired cell resistance to the drug. PMID:26086592

  11. Prostate cancer marker panel with single cell sensitivity in urine

    PubMed Central

    Nickens, Kristen P.; Ali, Amina; Scoggin, Tatiana; Tan, Shyh‐Han; Ravindranath, Lakshmi; McLeod, David G.; Dobi, Albert; Tacha, David; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Srivastava, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Over one million men undergo prostate biopsies annually in the United States, a majority of whom due to elevated serum PSA. More than half of the biopsies turn out to be negative for prostate cancer (CaP). The limitations of both the PSA test and the biopsy procedure have led to the development for more precise CaP detection assays in urine (e.g., PCA3, TMPRSS2‐ERG) or blood (e.g., PHI, 4K). Here, we describe the development and evaluation of the Urine CaP Marker Panel (UCMP) assay for sensitive and reproducible detection of CaP cells in post‐digital rectal examination (post‐DRE) urine. Methods The cellular content of the post‐DRE urine was captured on a translucent filter membrane, which is placed on Cytoclear slides for direct evaluation by microscopy and immuno‐cytochemistry (ICC). Cells captured on the membrane were assayed for PSA and Prostein expression to identify prostate epithelial cells, and for ERG and AMACR to identify prostate tumor cells. Immunostained cells were analyzed for quantitative and qualitative features and correlated with biopsy positive and negative status for malignancy. Results The assay was optimized for single cell capture sensitivity and downstream evaluations by spiking a known number of cells from established CaP cell lines, LNCaP and VCaP, into pre‐cleared control urine. The cells captured from the post‐DRE urine of subjects, obtained prior to biopsy procedure, were co‐stained for ERG, AMACR (CaP specific), and Prostein or PSA (prostate epithelium specific) rendering a whole cell based analysis and characterization. A feasibility cohort of 63 post‐DRE urine specimens was assessed. Comparison of the UCMP results with blinded biopsy results showed an assay sensitivity of 64% (16 of 25) and a specificity of 68.8% (22 of 32) for CaP detection by biopsy. Conclusions This pilot study assessing a minimally invasive CaP detection assay with single cell sensitivity cell‐capture and characterization from the

  12. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M.; Chen, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  13. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. ); Chen, D.S. . Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  14. Aqueous dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bella, Federico; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Barolo, Claudia; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-06-07

    Nowadays, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are the most extensively investigated systems for the conversion of solar energy into electricity, particularly for implementation in devices where low cost and good performance are required. Nevertheless, a key aspect is still to be addressed, being considered strongly harmful for a long time, which is the presence of water in the cell, either in the electrolyte or at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Here comes the present review, in the course of which we try our best to address the highly topical role of water in DSSCs, trying to figure out if it is a poisoner or the keyword to success, by means of a thoroughly detailed analysis of all the established phenomena in an aqueous environment. Actually, in the last few years the scientific community has suddenly turned its efforts in the direction of using water as a solvent, as demonstrated by the amount of research articles being published in the literature. Indeed, by means of DSSCs fabricated with water-based electrolytes, reduced costs, non-flammability, reduced volatility and improved environmental compatibility could be easily achieved. As a result, an increasing number of novel electrodes, dyes and electrolyte components are continuously proposed, being highly challenging from the materials science viewpoint and with the golden thread of producing truly water-based DSSCs. If the initial purpose of DSSCs was the construction of an artificial photosynthetic system able to convert solar light into electricity, the use of water as the key component may represent a great step forward towards their widespread diffusion in the market.

  15. Carbonaceous Dye‐Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar

    2015-01-01

    High photovoltaic efficiency is one of the most important keys to the commercialization of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in the quickly growing renewable electricity generation market. The heart of the DSSC system is a wide bandgap semiconductor based photoelectrode film that helps to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons away into the electrical circuit. However, charge recombination, poor light harvesting efficiency and slow electron transport of the nanocrystalline oxide photoelectrode film are major issues in the DSSC's performance. Recently, semiconducting composites based on carbonaceous materials (carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene) have been shown to be promising materials for the photoelectrode of DSSCs due to their fascinating properties and low cost. After a brief introduction to development of nanocrystalline oxide based films, this Review outlines advancements that have been achieved in the application of carbonaceous‐based materials in the photoelectrode of DSSCs and how these advancements have improved performance. In addition, several of the unsolved issues in this research area are discussed and some important future directions are also highlighted. PMID:27980926

  16. Carbonaceous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Biggs, Mark J; Shapter, Joseph G

    2015-03-01

    High photovoltaic efficiency is one of the most important keys to the commercialization of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in the quickly growing renewable electricity generation market. The heart of the DSSC system is a wide bandgap semiconductor based photoelectrode film that helps to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons away into the electrical circuit. However, charge recombination, poor light harvesting efficiency and slow electron transport of the nanocrystalline oxide photoelectrode film are major issues in the DSSC's performance. Recently, semiconducting composites based on carbonaceous materials (carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene) have been shown to be promising materials for the photoelectrode of DSSCs due to their fascinating properties and low cost. After a brief introduction to development of nanocrystalline oxide based films, this Review outlines advancements that have been achieved in the application of carbonaceous-based materials in the photoelectrode of DSSCs and how these advancements have improved performance. In addition, several of the unsolved issues in this research area are discussed and some important future directions are also highlighted.

  17. Highly sensitive magnetite nano clusters for MR cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingli; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2012-03-31

    High sensitivity and suitable sizes are essential for magnetic iron oxide contrast agents for cell imaging. In this study, we have fabricated highly MR sensitive magnetite nanoclusters (MNCs) with tunable sizes. These clusters demonstrate high MR sensitivity. Especially, water suspensions of the MNCs with average size of 63 nm have transverse relaxivity as high as 630 s-1mM-1, which is among the most sensitive iron oxide contrast agents ever reported. Importantly, such MNCs have no adverse effects on cells (RAW 264.7). When used for cell imaging, they demonstrate much higher efficiency and sensitivity than those of SHU555A (Resovist), a commercially available contrast agent, both in vitro and in vivo, with detection limits of 3,000 and 10,000 labeled cells, respectively. The studied MNCs are sensitive for cell imaging and promising for MR cell tracking in clinics.

  18. Highly sensitive magnetite nano clusters for MR cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High sensitivity and suitable sizes are essential for magnetic iron oxide contrast agents for cell imaging. In this study, we have fabricated highly MR sensitive magnetite nanoclusters (MNCs) with tunable sizes. These clusters demonstrate high MR sensitivity. Especially, water suspensions of the MNCs with average size of 63 nm have transverse relaxivity as high as 630 s-1mM-1, which is among the most sensitive iron oxide contrast agents ever reported. Importantly, such MNCs have no adverse effects on cells (RAW 264.7). When used for cell imaging, they demonstrate much higher efficiency and sensitivity than those of SHU555A (Resovist), a commercially available contrast agent, both in vitro and in vivo, with detection limits of 3,000 and 10,000 labeled cells, respectively. The studied MNCs are sensitive for cell imaging and promising for MR cell tracking in clinics. PMID:22462693

  19. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  20. Decentralized control of uncertain systems via sensitivity models

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Oezguener, U.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, we present a decentralized strategy for optimal control of interconnected systems exhibiting parametric uncertainty. First, we demonstrate that sensitivity models for linear interconnected systems can be generated at each subsystem using only locally available information. Second, we present an optimal control law that incorporates sensitivity functions in the feedback path. The control scheme is completely decentralized and is proposed as a means of making the closed loop system less sensitive to parameter deviations. Finally, we give an example of an interconnected system and show how this control strategy is implemented.

  1. Increased sensitivity of early apoptotic cells to complement-mediated lysis.

    PubMed

    Attali, Gitit; Gancz, Dana; Fishelson, Zvi

    2004-11-01

    Opsonization of apoptotic cells with complement proteins contributes to their clearance by phagocytes. Little is known about the lytic effects of complement on apoptotic cells. Sensitivity of cells treated with anti-Fas antibody (Jurkat cells), staurosporine or etoposide (Raji cells) to lysis by complement was examined. As shown here, early apoptotic cells are more sensitive to lysis by antibody and complement than control cells. More complement C3 and C9 bound to apoptotic than to control cells, even though antibody binding was similar. Enhanced killing and C3/C9 deposition were blocked by benzyloxy-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Complement-mediated lysis of early apoptotic cells was also prevented by inhibitors of caspases 6, 8, 9 or 10. In contrast, caspase inhibitors had no effect on the lysis of non-apoptotic Jurkat and Raji cells. Early apoptotic Jurkat cells were also more sensitive to lysis by the pore formers streptolysin O and melittin. Sensitivity of Jurkat Bcl-2 transfectants to lysis by complement was analyzed. Enhanced Bcl-2 expression was associated with reduced C3 deposition and lower sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis. These results demonstrate that at an early stage in apoptosis, following caspase activation, cells become sensitive to necrotic-type death by complement and other pore formers. Furthermore, they suggest that Bcl-2 is actively protecting Jurkat cells from complement-mediated lysis.

  2. Sensitivity control through attenuation of signal transfer efficiency by negative regulation of cellular signalling.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Yu; Kakuda, Hiroaki; Fujita, Kazuhiro A; Uda, Shinsuke; Kuroda, Shinya

    2012-03-13

    Sensitivity is one of the hallmarks of biological and pharmacological responses. However, the principle of controlling sensitivity remains unclear. Here we theoretically analyse a simple biochemical reaction and find that the signal transfer efficiency of the transient peak amplitude attenuates depending on the strength of negative regulation. We experimentally find that many signalling pathways in various cell lines, including the Akt and ERK pathways, can be approximated by simple biochemical reactions and that the same property of the attenuation of signal transfer efficiency was observed for such pathways. Because of this property, a downstream molecule should show higher sensitivity to an activator and lower sensitivity to an inhibitor than an upstream molecule. Indeed, we experimentally verify that S6, which lies downstream of Akt, shows lower sensitivity to an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor than Akt. Thus, cells can control downstream sensitivity through the attenuation of signal transfer efficiency by changing the expression level of negative regulators.

  3. Inhibition of Skp2 sensitizes lung cancer cells to paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tonghai; Yang, Lin; Wang, Guangsuo; Ding, Guanggui; Peng, Bin; Wen, Yuxin; Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and plays an important role in the control of cell cycle progression. Skp2 is upregulated in several cancers, including lung cancers, but the role of Skp2 in the tumorigenesis and anticancer drug resistance in human lung cancer remains to be determined. We report here that Skp2 positively regulated mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) expression and that inhibition of Skp2 sensitizes human lung cancer cells to paclitaxel. Knockdown of Skp2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased Mad2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in A549 and NCI-H1975 cells, accompanied with upregulation of p27 but decrease of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb). In contrast, ectopic overexpression of Skp2 increased Mad2 mRNA and protein levels and phosphorylation of Rb, while it decreased p27. Pharmacological inhibition of CDK1/2 by flavopiridol or E2F1 with HLM006474 led to downregulation of Mad2 expression and prevented the increase of Mad2 expression by Skp2. Most importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Skp2 sensitized A549 and NCI-H1299 cells to paclitaxel. Our results demonstrated that SKP2 positively regulates the gene expression of MAD2 through p27-CDKs-E2F1 signaling pathway and that inhibition of Skp2 sensitizes A549 and NCI-H1299 cells to paclitaxel, suggesting that small molecule inhibitors of Skp2 are potential agents for the treatment of lung cancer with upregulation of Skp2. PMID:28176922

  4. Inhibition of Skp2 sensitizes lung cancer cells to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tonghai; Yang, Lin; Wang, Guangsuo; Ding, Guanggui; Peng, Bin; Wen, Yuxin; Wang, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase and plays an important role in the control of cell cycle progression. Skp2 is upregulated in several cancers, including lung cancers, but the role of Skp2 in the tumorigenesis and anticancer drug resistance in human lung cancer remains to be determined. We report here that Skp2 positively regulated mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) expression and that inhibition of Skp2 sensitizes human lung cancer cells to paclitaxel. Knockdown of Skp2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased Mad2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in A549 and NCI-H1975 cells, accompanied with upregulation of p27 but decrease of the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb). In contrast, ectopic overexpression of Skp2 increased Mad2 mRNA and protein levels and phosphorylation of Rb, while it decreased p27. Pharmacological inhibition of CDK1/2 by flavopiridol or E2F1 with HLM006474 led to downregulation of Mad2 expression and prevented the increase of Mad2 expression by Skp2. Most importantly, pharmacological inhibition of Skp2 sensitized A549 and NCI-H1299 cells to paclitaxel. Our results demonstrated that SKP2 positively regulates the gene expression of MAD2 through p27-CDKs-E2F1 signaling pathway and that inhibition of Skp2 sensitizes A549 and NCI-H1299 cells to paclitaxel, suggesting that small molecule inhibitors of Skp2 are potential agents for the treatment of lung cancer with upregulation of Skp2.

  5. Chemically grown vertically aligned 1D ZnO nanorods with CdS coating for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC): a controlled synthesis route.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sawanta S; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-12-28

    In the present article, vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route on a fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. These nanorods were further sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized CdS coated ZnO nanorods were characterized for their structural and morphological properties with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Finally, prepared CdS coated 1D ZnO photoelectrodes were tested for their photoelectrochemical performance. Our results show that the sample deposited after 40 SILAR cycles shows 5.61 mA cm(-2) short current density (JSC) with η = 1.61% power conversion efficiency.

  6. Punishment sensitivity predicts the impact of punishment on cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Braem, Senne; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control theories predict enhanced conflict adaptation after punishment. However, no such effect was found in previous work. In the present study, we demonstrate in a flanker task how behavioural adjustments following punishment signals are highly dependent on punishment sensitivity (as measured by the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) scale): Whereas low punishment-sensitive participants do show increased conflict adaptation after punishment, high punishment-sensitive participants show no such modulation. Interestingly, participants with a high punishment-sensitivity showed an overall reaction time increase after punishments. Our results stress the role of individual differences in explaining motivational modulations of cognitive control.

  7. Space Station Freedom Beta Gimbal Control via Sensitivity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenwald, David A.; Ozguner, Umit; Graham, Ronald E.

    1993-01-01

    Tracking control of the Space Station Freedom solar array beta gimbals is investigated. Of particular interest is the issue of control in the presence of uncertainty in gimbal friction parameters. Sensitivity functions are incorporated into the feedback loop to desensitize the gimbal control law to parameter variations. Simulation results indicated that one such sensitivity function improves the closed-loop performance of the gimbals in the presence of unexpected friction parameter dispersions.

  8. One-Pot controlled synthesis of spongelike CuInS(2) microspheres for efficient counter electrode with graphene assistance in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingyang; Li, Guang; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2014-02-26

    Spongelike CuInS2 3D microspheres were synthesized through a solvothermal method employing CuCl, InCl3, and thiourea as Cu, In, and S sources, respectively, and PVP as surfactant. The as-prepared products have regular spherical shapes with diameters of 0.8-3.7 μm, the spheres consisted of small nanosheets, which are composed of small nanoparticles. As an important solar cell material, its photovoltaic property was also tested and the results showed a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.31%. With the help of reduced graphene, its conversion efficiency could be further increased to 6.18%. Compared with conventional Pt material used in counter electrodes of solar cells, this new material has an advantages of low-cost, facile synthesis and high efficiency with graphene assistance.

  9. p16-Cdk4-Rb axis controls sensitivity to a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor PD0332991 in glioblastoma xenograft cells.

    PubMed

    Cen, Ling; Carlson, Brett L; Schroeder, Mark A; Ostrem, Jamie L; Kitange, Gaspar J; Mladek, Ann C; Fink, Stephanie R; Decker, Paul A; Wu, Wenting; Kim, Jung-Sik; Waldman, Todd; Jenkins, Robert B; Sarkaria, Jann N

    2012-07-01

    Deregulation of the p16(INK4a)-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway is commonly detected in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and is a rational therapeutic target. Here, we characterized the p16(INK4a)-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway in the Mayo panel of GBM xenografts, established from primary tissue samples from patients with GBM, and evaluated their response to PD0332991, a specific inhibitor of Cdk4/6. All GBM xenograft lines evaluated in this study had disruptions in the p16(INK4a)-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway. In vitro evaluation using short-term explant cultures from selected GBM xenograft lines showed that PD0332991 effectively arrested cell cycle in G1-phase and inhibited cell proliferation dose-dependently in lines deleted for CDKN2A/B-p16(INK4a) and either single-copy deletion of CDK4 (GBM22), high-level CDK6 amplification (GBM34), or deletion of CDKN2C/p18(INK4c) (GBM43). In contrast, 2 GBM lines with p16(INK4a) expression and either CDK4 amplification (GBM5) or RB mutation (GBM28) were completely resistant to PD0332991. Additional xenograft lines were screened, and GBM63 was identified to have p16(INK4a) expression and CDK4 amplification. Similar to the results with GBM5, GBM63 was resistant to PD0332991 treatment. In an orthotopic survival model, treatment of GBM6 xenografts (CDKN2A/B-deleted and CDK4 wild-type) with PD0332991 significantly suppressed tumor cell proliferation and prolonged survival. Collectively, these data support the concept that GBM tumors lacking p16(INK4a) expression and with nonamplified CDK4 and wild-type RB status may be more susceptible to Cdk4/6 inhibition using PD0332991.

  10. Repression-Sensitization and Multidimensional Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Man, Anton; Ratti, Lucie LeMay

    1989-01-01

    Studied relationships among repression-sensitization and Levenson's three dimensions of perceived contingency (internal, powerful others, and chance) in college students (N=70). Found relationship between sensitization and belief in powerful others appeared to depend on the presence of a belief in chance control. (Author/ABL)

  11. Weight Control Through Covert Sensitization and False Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Charles H.; Denney, Douglas R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects (N=45) were treated with one of three weight control procedures: (a) attention placebo; (b) covert sensitization; and (c) covert sensitization augmented by false physiological feedback. Although all treatment groups lost weight, there was no differential weight loss among the groups at posttest or a 4-week follow-up test. (Author)

  12. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system`s designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy.

  13. A9C sensitive Cl− - accumulation in A. thaliana root cells during salt stress is controlled by internal and external calcium

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of chloride in salt stress symptoms and salt tolerance mechanisms in plants has been less investigated in the past. Therefore, we studied the salt-induced chloride influx in Arabidopsis expressing the GFP-based anion indicator Clomeleon. High salt concentrations induce two phases of chloride influx. The fast kinetic phase is likely caused by membrane depolarization, and is assumed to be mediated by channels. This is followed by a slower "saturation" phase, where chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Both phases of chloride uptake are dependent on the presence of external calcium. In general: with high [Ca2+] less chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, also the internal calcium availability has an impact on chloride transport. A complete block of the second phase of chloride influx is achieved by the anion channel blocker A9C and trivalent cations (La3+, Gd3+, and Al3+). Other channel blockers and diuretics were found to inhibit the process partially. The results suggest that several transporter species are involved here, including electroneutral cation-chloride-cotransporters, and a part of chloride possibly enters the cells through cation channels after salt application. PMID:23603974

  14. Sensitivity analysis of small circular cylinders as wake control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghini, Julio; Patino, Gustavo; Gioria, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    We apply a sensitivity analysis to a steady external force regarding control vortex shedding from a circular cylinder using active and passive small control cylinders. We evaluate the changes on the flow produced by the device on the flow near the primary instability, transition to wake. We numerically predict by means of sensitivity analysis the effective regions to place the control devices. The quantitative effect of the hydrodynamic forces produced by the control devices is also obtained by a sensitivity analysis supporting the prediction of minimum rotation rate. These results are extrapolated for higher Reynolds. Also, the analysis provided the positions of combined passive control cylinders that suppress the wake. The latter shows that these particular positions for the devices are adequate to suppress the wake unsteadiness. In both cases the results agree very well with experimental cases of control devices previously published.

  15. Cardiac R-wave detector with automatic sensitivity control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An electronic circuit that automatically changes its sensitivity was developed for detecting the bioelectric signal resulting from activation of the heart's ventricles. Regulation of sensitivity was accomplished with two feedback channels that maintain the sensitivity level between an upper and a lower limit. These limits are proportional to the R-wave amplitude. Tests on an experimental circuit demonstrated a capability to reject unwanted signal noise, illustrated difficulties encountered without sensitivity control, and presented closed loop transients which occurred for step changes in R-wave amplitude.

  16. The investigation on sensitive mapping of memory cell in microprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunqing, Yu; Long, Fan; Suge, Yue; Maoxin, Chen; Shougang, Du; Hongchao, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    The single event effects of the sensitivity of a circuit are investigated on a 32-bit microprocessor with a five-stage instruction pipeline by pulsed laser test. The investigation on sensitive mapping of the memory cell is illustrated and then the comparison between the sensitive mapping and the layout of the circuit is made. A comparison result indicates that the area of the sensitive node in sensitive mapping is just the location of the drain in the layout. Therefore, SEE sensitivity in sensitive mapping fits well with that in the physical layout of functional units, which can directly and objectively indicate the size and distribution of sensitive areas. The investigation of sensitive mapping is a meaningful way to verify the hardened effect and provide a reference for improving hardened design by combining with the physical layout.

  17. Orbit control at the ALS based on sensitivity matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, H.; Schachinger, L.; Ohgaki, H.

    1995-04-01

    A third-generation synchrotron-light source storage ring requires accurate orbit correction because its lattice is very sensitive to magnet imperfections and misalignments. If model-based control is used, calibration of this model is required in advance. Therefore, it is preferable to prepare some kind of model-free orbit control scheme that is complementary to model-based control. A sensitivity matrix (S matrix) works effectively as the kernel of a model-free orbit control system for a given optics of a lattice. This paper describes recent efforts in this respect at Advanced Light Source (ALS).

  18. Stupendous Role of Co-sensitizers in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Lingamallu; Narra, Vamsi Krishna; Jonnadula, Venkata Suman Krishna; Madoori, Mrinalini; Seelam, Prasanthkumar

    2017-09-16

    Co-sensitization in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) received significant attention for improving the efficiency and stability of renewable energy resources. In this context, ruthenium metal and porphyrin dyes based DSSCs achieved increment in power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 8 - 11% to 11-14% after addition of additives, co-adsorbents and co-sensitizers by reducing the aggregation and charge recombination. Among the three supporting materials, co-sensitizers played major role to enhance the performance and stability of DSSCs which assist in commercialization. In this review, we highlighted the importance of co-sensitizers in photovoltaic performance of ruthenium metal and porphyrin dye based solar cells. Consequently, co-sensitizers are rather important to modulate the PCE of DSSCs and find realistic future practical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A strategy to design novel structure photochromic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenjun; Wang, Jiaxing; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Yue; Jin, Jiayu; Zhang, Qiong; Hua, Jianli

    2015-01-01

    Two sensitizers with novel structure were designed and synthetized by introducing photochromic bisthienylethene (BTE) group into the conjugated system. Thanks to the photochromic effect the sensitizers have under ultraviolet and visible light, the conjugated bridge can be restructured and the resulting two photoisomers showed different behaviors in photovoltaic devices. This opens up a new research way for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:25716204

  20. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène; Vinter, Richard B.

    2015-04-15

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  1. NK sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells determined by a highly sensitive coupled luminescent method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogbomo, Henry; Hahn, Anke; Geiler, Janina; Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich . E-mail: Cinatl@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2006-01-06

    The measurement of natural killer (NK) cells toxicity against tumor or virus-infected cells especially in cases with small blood samples requires highly sensitive methods. Here, a coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase release from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of interleukin-2 activated NK cells against neuroblastoma cell lines. In contrast to most other methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with labeling substances which could be toxic or radioactive. The effective killing of tumor cells was achieved by low effector/target ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1. CLM provides highly sensitive, safe, and fast procedure for measurement of NK cell activity with small blood samples such as those obtained from pediatric patients.

  2. Directional sensitivity of hair cell afferents in the Octopus statocyst.

    PubMed

    Budelmann, B U; Williamson, R

    1994-02-01

    Changes in threshold sensitivity of hair cell afferents of the macula and crista of the Octopus statocyst were analyzed when the hair cells were stimulated with sinusoidal water movements from different directions. The experiments indicate that cephalopod statocyst hair cells are directionally sensitive in a way that is similar to the responses of the hair cells of the vertebrate vestibular and lateral line systems, with the amplitude of the response changing according to the cosine of the angle by which the direction of the stimulus (the deflection of the ciliary bundle) deviates from the direction of the hair cell's morphological polarization.

  3. Mechanisms of gravitational sensitivity of osteogenic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Buravkova, L B; Gershovich, P M; Gershovich, J G; Grigor'ev, A I

    2010-04-01

    This report is a detailed review of the current data on the mechanic and gravitational sensitivity of osteoblasts and osteogenic precursor cells in vitro. It summarizes the numerous responses of cells with an osteoblastic phenotype and osteogenic precursor cells and especially their responses to the alteration of their mechanic or gravitational surroundings. The review also discusses the osteogenic cell's pathways of signal transduction and the mechanisms of gravitational sensitivity. It was shown that the earliest multipotent stromal precursor cells of an adult organism's bone marrow can sense changes of intensity in a gravitational or mechanic field in model conditions, which may play a certain role in the development of osteopenia in microgravity.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimal Control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the transmission dynamics and optimal control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania. The threshold condition R0 for initial transmission of infection is obtained by next generation method. Biological sense of the threshold condition is investigated and discussed in detail. The sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number is presented and the most sensitive parameters are high lighted. On the basis of sensitivity analysis, some control strategies are introduced in the model. These strategies positively reduce the effect of the parameters with high sensitivity indices, on the initial transmission. Finally, an optimal control strategy is presented by taking into account the cost associated with control strategies. It is also shown that an optimal control exists for the proposed control problem. The goal of optimal control problem is to minimize, the cost associated with control strategies and the chances of infectious humans, exposed humans and vector population to become infected. Numerical simulations are carried out with the help of Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimal Control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the transmission dynamics and optimal control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania. The threshold condition R0 for initial transmission of infection is obtained by next generation method. Biological sense of the threshold condition is investigated and discussed in detail. The sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number is presented and the most sensitive parameters are high lighted. On the basis of sensitivity analysis, some control strategies are introduced in the model. These strategies positively reduce the effect of the parameters with high sensitivity indices, on the initial transmission. Finally, an optimal control strategy is presented by taking into account the cost associated with control strategies. It is also shown that an optimal control exists for the proposed control problem. The goal of optimal control problem is to minimize, the cost associated with control strategies and the chances of infectious humans, exposed humans and vector population to become infected. Numerical simulations are carried out with the help of Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure. PMID:27505634

  6. Sensitivity-based reactive power control for voltage profile improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Exposito, A.G.; Ramos, J.L.M. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Macias, J.L.R. ); Salinas, Y.C.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a procedure for dispatching reactive power when voltage deviations are not acceptable. The proposed method, intended for real-time use, determines which control variables are actually effective for solving voltage violations. Efficiency is measured according to sensitivities, current voltage profile and reserve margin of control variables. The selected control variables are rescheduled in proportion to their efficiency coefficients. State-of-the-art sparsity techniques are used to speed-up computation of sensitivities. An example is included to show effectiveness of the method.

  7. Cycloruthenated sensitizers: improving the dye-sensitized solar cell with classical inorganic chemistry principles.

    PubMed

    Robson, Kiyoshi C D; Bomben, Paolo G; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2012-07-14

    A divergence from the conventional approach to chromophore design has led to the establishment of many exciting new benchmarks for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), including the first documented power conversion efficiency in excess of 12% at 1 sun illumination [Yella et al., Science 2011, 334, 629]. Paramount to these advances is the deviation from polypyridyl ruthenium dyes bearing NCS(-) ligands, such as [Ru(dcbpy)(2)(NCS)(2)] (N3; dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine). While metal-free and porphyrin dyes have demonstrated much promise, the discovery that the NCS(-) ligands of N3 can be replaced by anionic, chelating cyclometalating ligands without compromising device efficiencies has ushered in a new era of ruthenium dye development. A particularly appealing feature of this class of dyestuff is that they offer acute control of the frontier molecular orbitals to enable the precise attenuation of both the ground and excited state redox potentials through judicious chemical modification of the aryl ring. This Perspective summarizes very recent developments in the field, and demonstrates how the new and rapidly expanding class of Ru-based sensitizers provides a conduit for enhancing the performance (and potentially the stability) of the DSSC.

  8. Epimorphin-Induced MET Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Cells to Platinum

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Kok-Hooi; Crow, Jennifer; Hirst, Jeff; Pressetto, Ziyan; Godwin, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Distinctive genotypic and phenotypic features of ovarian cancer via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been correlated with drug resistance and disease recurrence. We investigated whether therapeutic reversal of EMT could re-sensitize ovarian cancer cells (OCCs) to existing chemotherapy. We report that epimorphin, a morphogenic protein, has pivotal control over mesenchymal versus epithelial cell lineage decision of the putative OCCs. Exposure to epimorphin induced morphological changes reminiscent of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), but in a dose dependent manner, i.e., at 10 µg/mL of epimorphin cells obtain a more mesenchymal-like morphology while at 20 µg/mL of epimorphin cells display an epithelial morphology. The latter changes were accompanied by suppression of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin (∼8-fold↓, p<0.02), Twist1 (∼7-fold↓, p<0.03), dystroglycan (∼4-fold↓, p<0.01) and palladin (∼3-fold↓, p<0.01). Conversely, significant elevations of KLF4 (∼28-fold↑, p<0.002), β-catenin (∼6-fold↑, p<0.004), EpCAM (∼6-fold↑, p<0.0002) and occludin (∼15-fold↑, p<0.004) mRNAs as part of the commitment to the epithelial cell lineage were detected in response to 20 µg/mL of exogenous epimorphin. Changes in occludin mRNA levels were accompanied by a parallel, albeit weaker expression at the protein level (∼5-fold↑, p<0.001). Likewise, acquisition of epithelial-like properties, including mucin1, CK19, and β-catenin gene expression, was also obtained following epimorphin treatment. Further, MMP3 production was found to be reduced whereas laminin secretion was strongly amplified upon epimorphin-induced MET. These results suggest there is a dosage window for actions of epimorphin on cellular differentiation, wherein it can either suppress or enhance epithelial differentiation of OCCs. Importantly, induction of epithelial-like phenotypes by epimorphin led to an enhanced sensitivity to carboplatin. Overall, we

  9. Multilevel control optimization using subsystem relative performance index sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G. G.; Lehtinen, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    A method is presented for the design of optimal feedback controllers for large multivariable systems with subsystem sensitivity constraints. The weighted sum of subsystem and/or operational mode relative performance index sensitivities is defined as the overall performance index. The method is developed for linear systems with quadratic performance criteria and either full or partial state feedback. An example concerning the design of a stability augmentation system for a VTOL aircraft in the transition mode demonstrates the effectiveness of the design method.

  10. PCTAIRE1-knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to TNF family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Shi, Ranxin; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Reed, John C; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells.

  11. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Samuel, Ifor D W; Reiss, Peter; Aldakov, Dmitry

    2016-01-21

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (10(8) s(-1)) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures.

  12. Opaline backreflector coating in dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Herman, Lia Agustine; Yip, Chan Hoe; Wong, Chee Cheong

    2010-07-01

    Photonic crystals are ordered nanostructures that are designed to manipulate the propagation of light. The periodicity of a photonic crystal can be engineered to be highly reflective at selected wavelengths. In this work, a mono-layer and double-layer colloidal photonic crystal film were self-assembled on a glass substrate to be used as backreflectors in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The colloidal photonic crystal film consists of different polystyrene monodispersed particles with sizes between 200 nm and 290 nm. Making use of flow controlled vertical deposition (FCVD) method, opaline films of Bragg's reflection wavelength between 450 nm to 750 nm were achieved. These wavelengths were designed to match the absorption spectrum of the Ruthenium-complex dye used in DSSC. An enhancement in incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the opaline backreflector DSSC of about 30% at Bragg's peak wavelength has been achieved.

  13. On the sensitivity of intact cells to perturbation by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzemann, R.; Whitaker-Azmitia, P. ); Dains, K.; Lin, J. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparison was made of ethanol's effects on the order of plasma membranes in intact cells and some isolated membrane preparations. Order was assessed by steady-state fluorescence polarization techniques using the non-permeant probe, TMA-DPH. The data show that two cultured cells, rat neonatal astroglial and N2A neuroblastoma, were sensitive to significant ethanol-induced disordering within the anesthetically relevant range. Human erythrocytes, cultured fibroblasts and homogenized astroglial cells required higher ethanol concentrations to produce a similar effect. Intact erythrocytes were approximately twice as sensitive as erythrocyte ghost membranes to ethanol induced perturbation. The neonatal glial and N2A cells were approximately five times more sensitive than synaptic membranes to ethanol effects. DMPC and DMPC + cholesterol liposomes and myelin membranes were insensitive to ethanol's effects. The incorporation of 10 mole % ganglioside GM{sub 1} sensitized the liposomes to ethanol-induced perturbation.

  14. Humans are sensitive to attention control when predicting others’ actions

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Ana; Chapman, Craig S.; Enns, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of social perception report acute human sensitivity to where another’s attention is aimed. Here we ask whether humans are also sensitive to how the other’s attention is deployed. Observers viewed videos of actors reaching to targets without knowing that those actors were sometimes choosing to reach to one of the targets (endogenous control) and sometimes being directed to reach to one of the targets (exogenous control). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that observers could respond more rapidly when actors chose where to reach, yet were at chance when guessing whether the reach was chosen or directed. This implicit sensitivity to attention control held when either actor’s faces or limbs were masked (experiment 3) and when only the earliest actor’s movements were visible (experiment 4). Individual differences in sensitivity to choice correlated with an independent measure of social aptitude. We conclude that humans are sensitive to attention control through an implicit kinematic process linked to empathy. The findings support the hypothesis that social cognition involves the predictive modeling of others’ attentional states. PMID:27436897

  15. Selective calcium sensitivity in immature glioma cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wee, Shimei; Niklasson, Maria; Marinescu, Voichita Dana; Segerman, Anna; Schmidt, Linnéa; Hermansson, Annika; Dirks, Peter; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Westermark, Bengt; Uhrbom, Lene; Linnarsson, Sten; Nelander, Sven; Andäng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells are a subpopulation in aggressive cancers that exhibit traits shared with stem cells, including the ability to self-renew and differentiate, commonly referred to as stemness. In addition, such cells are resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy posing a therapeutic challenge. To uncover stemness-associated functions in glioma-initiating cells (GICs), transcriptome profiles were compared to neural stem cells (NSCs) and gene ontology analysis identified an enrichment of Ca2+ signaling genes in NSCs and the more stem-like (NSC-proximal) GICs. Functional analysis in a set of different GIC lines regarding sensitivity to disturbed homeostasis using A23187 and Thapsigargin, revealed that NSC-proximal GICs were more sensitive, corroborating the transcriptome data. Furthermore, Ca2+ drug sensitivity was reduced in GICs after differentiation, with most potent effect in the NSC-proximal GIC, supporting a stemness-associated Ca2+ sensitivity. NSCs and the NSC-proximal GIC line expressed a larger number of ion channels permeable to potassium, sodium and Ca2+. Conversely, a higher number of and higher expression levels of Ca2+ binding genes that may buffer Ca2+, were expressed in NSC-distal GICs. In particular, expression of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GRIA1, was found to associate with Ca2+ sensitive NSC-proximal GICs, and decreased as GICs differentiated along with reduced Ca2+ drug sensitivity. The correlation between high expression of Ca2+ channels (such as GRIA1) and sensitivity to Ca2+ drugs was confirmed in an additional nine novel GIC lines. Calcium drug sensitivity also correlated with expression of the NSC markers nestin (NES) and FABP7 (BLBP, brain lipid-binding protein) in this extended analysis. In summary, NSC-associated NES+/FABP7+/GRIA1+ GICs were selectively sensitive to disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, providing a potential target mechanism for eradication of an immature population of malignant cells.

  16. Exploiting nanocarbons in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond, and graphene find various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. Nanocarbons can be used as (1) active light-absorbing component, (2) current collector, (3) photoanode additive, or (4) counter electrode. Graphene-based materials have attracted considerable interest for catalytic counter electrodes, particularly in state-of-the-art dye sensitized solar cells with Co-mediators. The understanding of electrochemical charge-transfer at carbon surfaces is key to optimization of these solar cells, but the electrocatalysis on carbon surfaces is still a subject of conflicting debate. Due to the rich palette of problems at the interface of nanocarbons and photovoltaics, this review is selective rather than comprehensive. Its motivation was to highlight selected prospective inputs from nanocarbon science towards the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability, and cost.

  17. Thiocyanate-free ruthenium(II) sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells based on the cobalt redox couple.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuan-Lin; Clifford, John N; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Aswani, Yella; Palomares, Emilio; Lobello, Maria Grazia; Mosconi, Edoardo; De Angelis, Filippo; Ku, Wan-Ping; Chi, Yun; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Two thiocyanate-free ruthenium(II) sensitizers, TFRS-41 and TFRS-42, with distinctive dialkoxyphenyl thienyl substituents were successfully prepared and tested for potential applications in making dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Subsequent device fabrication was conducted by using a [Co(bpy)3 ](2+/3+) -based (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) electrolyte, for which the best performance data, namely, JSC =13.11 mA cm(-2) , VOC =862 mV, fill factor=0.771, and η=8.71%, were recorded for the sensitizer TFRS-42 with a 2,6-dialkoxyphenyl substituent under AM 1.5G irradiation. The markedly higher Voc value was confirmed by the longer electron lifetime revealed in transient photovoltage (TPV) measurements versus the TFRS-1 sensitizer. In addition, DFT calculation and detailed first-principles computational analysis were conducted to provide a rationale for the observed trends in their photovoltaic performances and electron lifetimes, with reference to different performances exhibited by three thiocyanate-free sensitizers, TFRS-1, TFRS-41 and TFRS-42, versus Z907 reference. Through the proper control of peripheral substituents, the thiocyanate-free ruthenium(II)-based DSC sensitizers can positively influence the performances of DSCs, with better light-harvesting capability and suppressed charge recombination, for DSC cells fabricated by using a [Co(bpy)3 ](2+/3+) -based electrolyte. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity.

  19. Y-27632 Increases Sensitivity of PANC-1 Cells to EGCG in Regulating Cell Proliferation and Migration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Bi, Yongyi

    2016-10-03

    BACKGROUND The study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of (1R,4r)-4-((R)-1-aminoethyl)-N-(pyridin-4-yl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y-27632) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells. EGCG, found in green tea, has been previously shown to be one of the most abundant and powerful catechins in cancer prevention and treatment. Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of rho-associated protein kinase 1, is widely used in treating cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS PANC-1 cells, maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) as well as different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL) of EGCG for 48 h. In addition, PANC-1 cells were treated separately with 60 μg/mL EGCG, 20 μM Y-27632, and EGCG combined with Y-27632 (60 μg/mL EGCG + 20 μM Y-27632) for 48 h. The effect of EGCG and Y-27632 on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 and transwell migration assays. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and Caspase-3 mRNA was determined by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS EGCG (20-80 μg/mL) inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Y-27632 enhanced the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG (by increasing the expression of PPARa and Caspase-3 mRNA) and suppressed cell proliferation. PANC-1 cell migration was inhibited by treatment with a combination of EGCG and Y-27632. CONCLUSIONS Y-27632 increases the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG in regulating cell proliferation and migration, which is likely to be related to the expression of PPARa mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA.

  20. Effect of troglitazone on radiation sensitivity in cervix cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Zhengzhe; Liu, Xianguang; Song, Hyejin; Choi, Chihwan; Kim, Won-Dong; Yu, Jae-Ran; Park, Woo-Yoon

    2012-06-01

    Troglitazone (TRO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist. TRO has antiproliferative activity on many kinds of cancer cells via G1 arrest. TRO also increases Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase. Cell cycle, and SOD and catalase may affect on radiation sensitivity. We investigated the effect of TRO on radiation sensitivity in cancer cells in vitro. Three human cervix cancer cell lines (HeLa, Me180, and SiHa) were used. The protein expressions of SOD and catalase, and catalase activities were measured at 2-10 µM of TRO for 24 hours. Cell cycle was evaluated with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Cell survival by radiation was measured with clonogenic assay. By 5 µM TRO for 24 hours, the mRNA, protein expression and activity of catalase were increased in all three cell lines. G0-G1 phase cells were increased in HeLa and Me180 by 5 µM TRO for 24 hours, but those were not increased in SiHa. By pretreatment with 5 µM TRO radiation sensitivity was increased in HeLa and Me180, but it was decreased in SiHa. In Me180, with 2 µM TRO which increased catalase but not increased G0-G1 cells, radiosensitization was not observed. ROS produced by radiation was decreased with TRO. TRO increases radiation sensitivity through G0-G1 arrest or decreases radiation sensitivity through catalase-mediated ROS scavenging according to TRO dose or cell types. The change of radiation sensitivity by combined with TRO is not dependent on the PPARγ expression level.

  1. Effect of troglitazone on radiation sensitivity in cervix cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Zhengzhe; Liu, Xianguang; Song, Hyejin; Choi, Chihwan; Kim, Won-Dong; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Troglitazone (TRO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist. TRO has antiproliferative activity on many kinds of cancer cells via G1 arrest. TRO also increases Cu2+/Zn2+-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase. Cell cycle, and SOD and catalase may affect on radiation sensitivity. We investigated the effect of TRO on radiation sensitivity in cancer cells in vitro. Materials and Methods Three human cervix cancer cell lines (HeLa, Me180, and SiHa) were used. The protein expressions of SOD and catalase, and catalase activities were measured at 2-10 µM of TRO for 24 hours. Cell cycle was evaluated with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Cell survival by radiation was measured with clonogenic assay. Results By 5 µM TRO for 24 hours, the mRNA, protein expression and activity of catalase were increased in all three cell lines. G0-G1 phase cells were increased in HeLa and Me180 by 5 µM TRO for 24 hours, but those were not increased in SiHa. By pretreatment with 5 µM TRO radiation sensitivity was increased in HeLa and Me180, but it was decreased in SiHa. In Me180, with 2 µM TRO which increased catalase but not increased G0-G1 cells, radiosensitization was not observed. ROS produced by radiation was decreased with TRO. Conclusion TRO increases radiation sensitivity through G0-G1 arrest or decreases radiation sensitivity through catalase-mediated ROS scavenging according to TRO dose or cell types. The change of radiation sensitivity by combined with TRO is not dependent on the PPARγ expression level. PMID:22984686

  2. Large pi-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Ito, Seigo

    2009-11-17

    Recently, dye-sensitized solar cells have attracted much attention relevant to global environmental issues. Thus far, ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complexes have proven to be the most efficient TiO(2) sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a gradual increment in the highest power conversion efficiency has been recognized in the past decade. More importantly, considering that ruthenium is a rare metal, novel dyes without metal or using inexpensive metal are desirable for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Large pi-aromatic molecules, such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and perylenes, are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, owing to their photostability and high light-harvesting capabilities that can allow applications in thinner, low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells. Porphyrins possess an intense Soret band at 400 nm and moderate Q bands at 600 nm. Nevertheless, the poor light-harvesting properties relative to the ruthenium complexes have limited the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) cells. Elongation of the pi conjugation and loss of symmetry in porphyrins cause broadening and a red shift of the absorption bands together with an increasing intensity of the Q bands relative to that of the Soret band. On the basis of the strategy, the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells has been improved intensively by the enhanced light absorption. Actually, some push-pull-type porphyrins have disclosed a remarkably high power conversion efficiency (6-7%) that was close to that of the ruthenium complexes. Phthalocyanines exhibit strong absorption around 300 and 700 nm and redox features that are similar to porphyrins. Moreover, phthalocyanines are transparent over a large region of the visible spectrum, thereby enabling the possibility of using them as "photovoltaic windows". However, the cell performance was poor, owing to strong aggregation and lack of directionality in the

  3. A strategy to design highly efficient porphyrin sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Chin-Li; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Hong, Shang-Hao; Lan, Chi-Ming; Kuo, Hshin-Hui; Lo, Chen-Fu; Hsu, Hung-Yu; Lin, Ching-Yao; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2011-08-21

    We designed highly efficient porphyrin sensitizers with two phenyl groups at meso-positions of the macrocycle bearing two ortho-substituted long alkoxyl chains for dye-sensitized solar cells; the ortho-substituted devices exhibit significantly enhanced photovoltaic performances with the best porphyrin, LD14, showing J(SC) = 19.167 mA cm(-2), V(OC) = 0.736 V, FF = 0.711, and overall power conversion efficiency η = 10.17%.

  4. Silicon-naphthalo/phthalocyanine-hybrid sensitizer for efficient red response in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bogyu; Margulis, George Y; Yum, Jun-Ho; Unger, Eva L; Hardin, Brian E; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D; Sellinger, Alan

    2013-02-15

    Introduction of a naphthalocyanine moiety to phthalocyanine allows for a gradual red shift of the absorption spectrum in the resulting chromophore. Using silicon as a core atom allows for the introduction of additional siloxane side chains which mitigate dye aggregation. A dye-sensitized solar cell with this hybrid sensitizer exhibits a broad and flat IPCE of 80% between 600 and 750 nm and high photocurrent densities of 19.0 mA/cm(2).

  5. Sensitivity analysis applied to stalled airfoil wake and steady control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino, Gustavo; Gioria, Rafael; Meneghini, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The sensitivity of an eigenvalue to base flow modifications induced by an external force is applied to the global unstable modes associated to the onset of vortex shedding in the wake of a stalled airfoil. In this work, the flow regime is close to the first instability of the system and its associated eigenvalue/eigenmode is determined. The sensitivity analysis to a general punctual external force allows establishing the regions where control devices must be in order to stabilize the global modes. Different types of steady control devices, passive and active, are used in the regions predicted by the sensitivity analysis to check the vortex shedding suppression, i.e. the primary instability bifurcation is delayed. The new eigenvalue, modified by the action of the device, is also calculated. Finally the spectral finite element method is employed to determine flow characteristics before and after of the bifurcation in order to cross check the results.

  6. Cell-Size Control

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Amanda A.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of a given type maintain a characteristic cell size to function efficiently in their ecological or organismal context. They achieve this through the regulation of growth rates or by actively sensing size and coupling this signal to cell division. We focus this review on potential size-sensing mechanisms, including geometric, external cue, and titration mechanisms. Mechanisms that titrate proteins against DNA are of particular interest because they are consistent with the robust correlation of DNA content and cell size. We review the literature, which suggests that titration mechanisms may underlie cell-size sensing in Xenopus embryos, budding yeast, and Escherichia coli, whereas alternative mechanisms may function in fission yeast. PMID:26254313

  7. Fabrication and photovoltaic characterization of bio-sensitized solar cells using myoglobin-based sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Chang, Chin-Hao; Lu, Hsueh-Pei; Wu, Tung-Kung; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2009-03-01

    Myoglobin (Mb), reconstituted zinc protoporphyrin-apomyoglobin (ZnMb), and eosin-modified ZnMb (EoZnMb) were used as photosensitizers to functionalize TiO2 nanocrystalline films for bio-sensitized solar-cell (BSSC) applications. For the Mb-sensitized SC, the poor cell performance was due to a reduction Fe(III) --> Fe(II) that produces a photocurrent density of the device smaller than its unsensitized counterpart. The efficiencies of power conversion of both ZnMb and EoZnMb-sensitized SC were enhanced about ten times due to superior charge separation between TiO2 and the protein, and due to smaller current leakage between TiO2 and the electrolyte. The cell performances of the BSSC devices are discussed in terms of an equivalent-circuit model.

  8. 48 CFR 952.204-71 - Sensitive foreign nations controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sensitive foreign nations controls. 952.204-71 Section 952.204-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  9. 48 CFR 952.204-71 - Sensitive foreign nations controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sensitive foreign nations controls. 952.204-71 Section 952.204-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  10. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  11. 48 CFR 952.204-71 - Sensitive foreign nations controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sensitive foreign nations controls. 952.204-71 Section 952.204-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  12. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells for MRI with single-cell sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ariza de Schellenberger, Angela; Kratz, Harald; Farr, Tracy D; Löwa, Norbert; Hauptmann, Ralf; Wagner, Susanne; Taupitz, Matthias; Schnorr, Jörg; Schellenberger, Eyk A

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive cell detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the development of cell therapies. However, clinically approved contrast agents that allow single-cell detection are currently not available. Therefore, we compared very small iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP) and new multicore carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (multicore particles, MCP) designed by our department for magnetic particle imaging (MPI) with discontinued Resovist(®) regarding their suitability for detection of single mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by MRI. We achieved an average intracellular nanoparticle (NP) load of >10 pg Fe per cell without the use of transfection agents. NP loading did not lead to significantly different results in proliferation, colony formation, and multilineage in vitro differentiation assays in comparison to controls. MRI allowed single-cell detection using VSOP, MCP, and Resovist(®) in conjunction with high-resolution T2*-weighted imaging at 7 T with postprocessing of phase images in agarose cell phantoms and in vivo after delivery of 2,000 NP-labeled MSC into mouse brains via the left carotid artery. With optimized labeling conditions, a detection rate of ~45% was achieved; however, the experiments were limited by nonhomogeneous NP loading of the MSC population. Attempts should be made to achieve better cell separation for homogeneous NP loading and to thus improve NP-uptake-dependent biocompatibility studies and cell detection by MRI and future MPI. Additionally, using a 7 T MR imager equipped with a cryocoil resulted in approximately two times higher detection. In conclusion, we established labeling conditions for new high-relaxivity MCP, VSOP, and Resovist(®) for improved MRI of MSC with single-cell sensitivity.

  13. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells for MRI with single-cell sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ariza de Schellenberger, Angela; Kratz, Harald; Farr, Tracy D; Löwa, Norbert; Hauptmann, Ralf; Wagner, Susanne; Taupitz, Matthias; Schnorr, Jörg; Schellenberger, Eyk A

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive cell detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the development of cell therapies. However, clinically approved contrast agents that allow single-cell detection are currently not available. Therefore, we compared very small iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP) and new multicore carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (multicore particles, MCP) designed by our department for magnetic particle imaging (MPI) with discontinued Resovist® regarding their suitability for detection of single mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by MRI. We achieved an average intracellular nanoparticle (NP) load of >10 pg Fe per cell without the use of transfection agents. NP loading did not lead to significantly different results in proliferation, colony formation, and multilineage in vitro differentiation assays in comparison to controls. MRI allowed single-cell detection using VSOP, MCP, and Resovist® in conjunction with high-resolution T2*-weighted imaging at 7 T with postprocessing of phase images in agarose cell phantoms and in vivo after delivery of 2,000 NP-labeled MSC into mouse brains via the left carotid artery. With optimized labeling conditions, a detection rate of ~45% was achieved; however, the experiments were limited by nonhomogeneous NP loading of the MSC population. Attempts should be made to achieve better cell separation for homogeneous NP loading and to thus improve NP-uptake-dependent biocompatibility studies and cell detection by MRI and future MPI. Additionally, using a 7 T MR imager equipped with a cryocoil resulted in approximately two times higher detection. In conclusion, we established labeling conditions for new high-relaxivity MCP, VSOP, and Resovist® for improved MRI of MSC with single-cell sensitivity. PMID:27110112

  14. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    High-Efficiency Solar - Cell Based on Dye-Sensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films,” a DSSC consists of four main components: a photoanode, a counter... solar cell modules. 2. Experiment and Calculations 2.1 Materials Commercial TiO2 paste was purchased from Dyesol, and additional nanophase TiO2 ...B.; Grätzel, M. A Low-Cost, High Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye_Sensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films. Nature 1991, 353, 737–740. 2. Snaith, H. J

  15. Controlling Cell Function with Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrksich, Milan

    2012-02-01

    This presentation will describe the use of patterned substrates to control cell shape with examples that illustrate the ways in which cell shape can regulate cell function. Most cells are adherent and must attach to and spread on a surface in order to survive, proliferate and function. In tissue, this surface is the extracellular matrix (ECM), an insoluble scaffold formed by the assembly of several large proteins---including fibronectin, the laminins and collagens and others---but in the laboratory, the surface is prepared by adsorbing protein to glass slides. To pattern cells, gold-coated slides are patterned with microcontact printing to create geometric features that promote cell attachment and that are surrounded by inert regions. Cells attach to these substrates and spread to adopt the shape defined by the underlying pattern and remain stable in culture for several days. Examples will be described that used a series of shapes to reveal the relationship between the shape of the cell and the structure of its cytoskeleton. These geometric cues were used to control cell polarity and the tension, or contractility, present in the cytoskeleton. These rules were further used to control the shapes of mesenchymal stem cells and in turn to control the differentiation of these cells into specialized cell types. For example, stem cells that were patterned into a ``star'' shape preferentially differentiated into bone cells whereas those that were patterned into a ``flower'' shape preferred a fat cell fate. These influences of shape on differentiation depend on the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. These examples, and others, reveal that shape is an important cue that informs cell function and that can be combined with the more common soluble cues to direct and study cell function.

  16. FAK signalling controls insulin sensitivity through regulation of adipocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Cynthia T.; Shi, Sally Yu; Cai, Erica P.; Sivasubramaniyam, Tharini; Krishnamurthy, Mansa; Brunt, Jara J.; Schroer, Stephanie A.; Winer, Daniel A.; Woo, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a central role in integrin signalling, which regulates growth and survival of tumours. Here we show that FAK protein levels are increased in adipose tissue of insulin-resistant obese mice and humans. Disruption of adipocyte FAK in mice or in 3T3 L1 cells decreases adipocyte survival. Adipocyte-specific FAK knockout mice display impaired adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance on prolonged metabolic stress from a high-fat diet or when crossed on an obese db/db or ob/ob genetic background. Treatment of these mice with a PPARγ agonist does not restore adiposity or improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, inhibition of apoptosis, either genetically or pharmacologically, attenuates adipocyte death, restores normal adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity. Together, these results demonstrate that FAK is required for adipocyte survival and maintenance of insulin sensitivity, particularly in the context of adipose tissue expansion as a result of caloric excess. PMID:28165007

  17. Highly sensitive detection using Herriott cell for laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chongyi; Song, Guangming; Du, Yang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Wenju; Zhong, Liujun; Hu, Mai

    2016-11-01

    The tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the long absorption path technique is a significant method to detect harmful gas. The long optical path could come true by Herriott cell reducing the size of the spectrometers. A 15 cm long Herriott cell with 28.8 m optical absorption path after 96 times reflection was designed that enhanced detection sensitivity of absorption spectroscopy. According to the theory data of calculation, Herriott cell is analyzed and simulated by softwares Matlab and Lighttools.

  18. Probenecid Sensitizes Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem Cells to Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Maldonado, Vilma; Bahena, Ivan; Quintanar, Valeria; Patiño, Nelly; Carlos Martinez-Lazcano, Juan; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We used both in vitro cultures of neuroblastoma cell lines and nude-mice xenotransplants to explore the effects of co-administration of cisplatin and probenecid. Probenecid sensitized neuroblastoma cells, including tumor cells with stem features, to the effects of cisplatin, both in vitro and in vivo. This effect was mediated by an increase in the apoptotic cell death and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation. This effect is accompanied by modulation of the mRNA and protein of the drug efflux transporters MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP. The co-administration of probenecid with cisplatin should be explored as a possible therapeutic strategy.

  19. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of this grant, dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared and characterized. The solar cells were prepared using materials (dyes, electrolytes, transparent conductive oxide coated glass, nanocrystalline TiO2) entirely prepared in-house, as well as prepared using materials available commercially. Complete cells were characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell prepared at NASA had an AM0 efficiency of 1.22% for a 1.1 sq cm cell. Short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) for the cell were 6.95 mA, 618 mV and 42.8%, respectively. For comparison purposes, two commercially prepared dye-sensitized solar cells were obtained from Solaronix SA, Aubonne, Switzerland. The Solaronix cells were also characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell from Solaronix had an active area of 3.71 sq cm and measured an AM0 efficiency of 3.16%. with Isc, Voc and FF of 45.80 mA, 669.6 mV and 52.3%, respectively. Both cells from Solaronix were rapid thermal cycled between -80 C and 80 C. Thermal cycling led to a 4.6% loss of efficiency in one of the cells and led to nearly a complete failure in the second cell.

  20. Improving the sensitivity of negative controls in ancient DNA extractions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Bosong; Tan, Jingze; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li

    2009-04-01

    Much attention has been paid on ancient DNA (aDNA) studies, and negative control was used as one of the stringent quality assurance criteria in order to detect potential contamination. However, the results of some aDNA studies showed the evidence of contamination despite their negative controls failed to do so. Using lambda DNA to mock extraneous contaminating DNA, our study showed that aDNA had a property of improving the efficiency of extraction including contaminating DNA, while negative controls had low sensitivity to detect contamination. To circumvent this problem, carrier DNA such as poly(dA) is suggested to be introduced into aDNA extraction.

  1. Efffect of Aeroallergen Sensitization on Asthma Control in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In African-American adolescents with persistent asthma, allergic profile predicted the likelihood of having poorly controlled asthma despite guidelines-directed therapies. Our results suggest that tree and weed pollen sensitization are independent risk factors for poorly controlled asthma in this at-risk population. The study examined African-American children with difficult to treat asthma. The findings suggest that in addition to guidelines-directed asthma therapies, targeting the allergic component, particularly tree and weed pollen, is critical to achieving optimal asthma control in this at-risk population.

  2. Efffect of Aeroallergen Sensitization on Asthma Control in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In African-American adolescents with persistent asthma, allergic profile predicted the likelihood of having poorly controlled asthma despite guidelines-directed therapies. Our results suggest that tree and weed pollen sensitization are independent risk factors for poorly controlled asthma in this at-risk population. The study examined African-American children with difficult to treat asthma. The findings suggest that in addition to guidelines-directed asthma therapies, targeting the allergic component, particularly tree and weed pollen, is critical to achieving optimal asthma control in this at-risk population.

  3. Near-infrared squaraine co-sensitizer for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Hanumantha; Venkateswararao, A; Giribabu, L; Han, Liyuan; Bedja, Idriss; Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Islam, Ashraful; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-06-07

    A combination of squaraine-based dyes (SPSQ1 and SPSQ2) and a ruthenium-based dye (N3) were chosen as co-sensitizers to construct efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. The co-sensitization of squaraine dyes with N3 enhanced their light-harvesting properties as a result of the broad spectral coverage in the region 350-800 nm. The co-sensitized solar cells based on SPSQ2 + N3 showed the highest short circuit current density of 17.10 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage of 0.66 V and a fill factor of 0.73, resulting in the highest power conversion efficiency of 8.2%, which is higher than that of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on the individual SPSQ1 and SPSQ2 dyes. The high power conversion efficiency of SPSQ2 + N3 was ascribed to its good light-harvesting properties, which resulted from its broader incident photon current conversion spectrum than that of the individual dyes. The high electron life time and electron recombination, which were the main causes of the higher efficiency of the device, were successfully analysed and correlated using transient absorption spectrometry and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectrometry.

  4. Spatiotemporally controlled single cell sonoporation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhenzhen; Liu, Haiyan; Mayer, Michael; Deng, Cheri X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents unique approaches to enable control and quantification of ultrasound-mediated cell membrane disruption, or sonoporation, at the single-cell level. Ultrasound excitation of microbubbles that were targeted to the plasma membrane of HEK-293 cells generated spatially and temporally controlled membrane disruption with high repeatability. Using whole-cell patch clamp recording combined with fluorescence microscopy, we obtained time-resolved measurements of single-cell sonoporation and quantified the size and resealing rate of pores. We measured the intracellular diffusion coefficient of cytoplasmic RNA/DNA from sonoporation-induced transport of an intercalating fluorescent dye into and within single cells. We achieved spatiotemporally controlled delivery with subcellular precision and calcium signaling in targeted cells by selective excitation of microbubbles. Finally, we utilized sonoporation to deliver calcein, a membrane-impermeant substrate of multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1), into HEK-MRP1 cells, which overexpress MRP1, and monitored the calcein efflux by MRP1. This approach made it possible to measure the efflux rate in individual cells and to compare it directly to the efflux rate in parental control cells that do not express MRP1. PMID:23012425

  5. Mitochondrial matrix P53 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress☆

    PubMed Central

    Koczor, Christopher A.; Torres, Rebecca A.; Fields, Earl J.; Boyd, Amy; Lewis, William

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial matrix-specific p53 construct (termed p53–290) in HepG2 cells was utilized to determine the impact of p53 in the mitochondrial matrix following oxidative stress. H2O2 exposure reduced cellular proliferation similarly in both p53–290 and vector cells, and p53–290 cells demonstrating decreased cell viability at 1 mM H2O2 (~85% viable). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in p53–290 cells while no change was observed in vector cells. Oximetric analysis revealed reduced maximal respiration and reserve capacity in p53–290 cells. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial matrix p53 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress by reducing mtDNA abundance and mitochondrial function. PMID:23499753

  6. Pressure sensitivity of the vapor-cell atomic clock.

    PubMed

    Iyanu, Gebriel; Wang, He; Camparo, James

    2009-06-01

    Although atomic clocks have very low levels of frequency instability, they are nonetheless sensitive (albeit slightly) to various environmental parameters, including temperature, power supply voltage, and dc magnetic fields. In the terrestrial environment, however, atmospheric pressure (i.e., the air's molecular density) is not generally included in this list, because the air's density variations near the surface of the earth will typically have a negligible effect on the clock's performance. The situation is different, however, for clocks onboard satellites like Galileo, where manufacturing and testing are done at atmospheric pressure, while operation is in vacuum. The pressure sensitivity of atomic clocks, in particular vapor-cell atomic clocks, can therefore be of significance. Here, we discuss some of the ways in which changes in atmospheric pressure affect vapor-cell atomic clocks, and we demonstrate that, for one device, the pressure-sensitivity traces back to a pressure-induced change in the temperature of the clock's filter and resonance cells.

  7. Increased Perfusion Pressure Drives Renal T-Cell Infiltration in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rat.

    PubMed

    Evans, Louise C; Petrova, Galina; Kurth, Theresa; Yang, Chun; Bukowy, John D; Mattson, David L; Cowley, Allen W

    2017-09-01

    Renal T-cell infiltration is a key component of salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Here, we use an electronic servo-control technique to determine the contribution of renal perfusion pressure to T-cell infiltration in the SS rat kidney. An aortic balloon occluder placed around the aorta between the renal arteries was used to maintain perfusion pressure to the left kidney at control levels, ≈128 mm Hg, during 7 days of salt-induced hypertension, whereas the right kidney was exposed to increased renal perfusion pressure that averaged 157±4 mm Hg by day 7 of high-salt diet. The number of infiltrating T cells was compared between the 2 kidneys. Renal T-cell infiltration was significantly blunted in the left servo-controlled kidney compared with the right uncontrolled kidney. The number of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD4(+), and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were all significantly lower in the left servo-controlled kidney. This effect was not specific to T cells because CD45R(+) (B cells) and CD11b/c(+) (monocytes and macrophages) cell infiltrations were all exacerbated in the hypertensive kidneys. Increased renal perfusion pressure was also associated with augmented renal injury, with increased protein casts and glomerular damage in the hypertensive kidney. Levels of norepinephrine were comparable between the 2 kidneys, suggestive of equivalent sympathetic innervation. Renal infiltration of T cells was not reversed by the return of renal perfusion pressure to control levels after 7 days of salt-sensitive hypertension. We conclude that increased pressure contributes to the initiation of renal T-cell infiltration during the progression of salt-sensitive hypertension in SS rats. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Multidisciplinary optimization of controlled space structures with global sensitivity equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; James, Benjamin B.; Graves, Philip C.; Woodard, Stanley E.

    1991-01-01

    A new method for the preliminary design of controlled space structures is presented. The method coordinates standard finite element structural analysis, multivariable controls, and nonlinear programming codes and allows simultaneous optimization of the structures and control systems of a spacecraft. Global sensitivity equations are a key feature of this method. The preliminary design of a generic geostationary platform is used to demonstrate the multidisciplinary optimization method. Fifteen design variables are used to optimize truss member sizes and feedback gain values. The goal is to reduce the total mass of the structure and the vibration control system while satisfying constraints on vibration decay rate. Incorporating the nonnegligible mass of actuators causes an essential coupling between structural design variables and control design variables. The solution of the demonstration problem is an important step toward a comprehensive preliminary design capability for structures and control systems. Use of global sensitivity equations helps solve optimization problems that have a large number of design variables and a high degree of coupling between disciplines.

  9. Ionic liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gorlov, Mikhail; Kloo, Lars

    2008-05-28

    The potential of room-temperature molten salts (ionic liquids) as solvents for electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells has been investigated during the last decade. The non-volatility, good solvent properties and high electrochemical stability of ionic liquids make them attractive solvents in contrast to volatile organic solvents. Despite this, the relatively high viscosity of ionic liquids leads to mass-transport limitations. Here we review recent developments in the application of different ionic liquids as solvents or components of liquid and quasi-solid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of low bulk resistivity solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to identify critical parameters of single-junction solar cells and to determine their relative sensitivity, parametric analyses have been conducted with a computer code SPCOLAY. A receipt for high-efficiency cells emerges from the analyses that requires the primary ingredients of low bulk resistivity (0.1-0.2 ohm-cm), a bulk diffusion length as large as attainable (greater than 100 microns), and a small front surface recombination velocity (about 100 cm/sec). Other parameters appear to play less sensitive roles.

  11. Cell Cycle Dependence of TRAIL Sensitivity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    or presence of proteasome inhibitors and measured HIF-1α levels by immunoblotting. We also incubated cells in cobalt chloride (to mimic hypoxia) in...Indistinguishable results were obtained in cells exposed to cobalt chloride . Figure 5: Effects of proteasome inhibitors on HIF- 1α promoter activity (LNCaP...havegenerated luciferase-transduced variants of our human prostate cancer cell lines in order touse them to generate orthotopic tumors in nude mice that can

  12. Calcium influences sensitivity to growth inhibition induced by a cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While studies concerning mitogenic factors have been an important area of research for many years, much less is understood about the mechanisms of action of cell surface growth inhibitors. We have purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) which can reversibly inhibit the proliferation of diverse cell types. The studies discussed in this article show that three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibit sixty-fold greater sensitivity than other fibroblasts and epithelial-like cells to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. Growth inhibition induced by CeReS-18 treatment is a reversible process, and the three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibited either single or multiple cell cycle arrest points, although a predominantly G0/G1 cell cycle arrest point was exhibited in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The sensitivity of the mouse keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition was not affected by the degree of tumorigenic progression in the cell lines and was not due to differences in CeReS-18 binding affinity or number of cell surface receptors per cell. However, the sensitivity of both murine fibroblasts and keratinocytes could be altered by changing the extracellular calcium concentration, such that increased extracellular calcium concentrations resulted in decreased sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced proliferation inhibition. Thus the increased sensitivity of the murine keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18 could be ascribed to the low calcium concentration used in their propagation. Studies are currently under way investigating the role of calcium in CeReS-18-induced growth arrest. The CeReS-18 may serve as a very useful tool to study negative growth control and the signal transduction events associated with cell cycling.

  13. Calcium influences sensitivity to growth inhibition induced by a cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While studies concerning mitogenic factors have been an important area of research for many years, much less is understood about the mechanisms of action of cell surface growth inhibitors. We have purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) which can reversibly inhibit the proliferation of diverse cell types. The studies discussed in this article show that three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibit sixty-fold greater sensitivity than other fibroblasts and epithelial-like cells to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. Growth inhibition induced by CeReS-18 treatment is a reversible process, and the three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibited either single or multiple cell cycle arrest points, although a predominantly G0/G1 cell cycle arrest point was exhibited in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The sensitivity of the mouse keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition was not affected by the degree of tumorigenic progression in the cell lines and was not due to differences in CeReS-18 binding affinity or number of cell surface receptors per cell. However, the sensitivity of both murine fibroblasts and keratinocytes could be altered by changing the extracellular calcium concentration, such that increased extracellular calcium concentrations resulted in decreased sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced proliferation inhibition. Thus the increased sensitivity of the murine keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18 could be ascribed to the low calcium concentration used in their propagation. Studies are currently under way investigating the role of calcium in CeReS-18-induced growth arrest. The CeReS-18 may serve as a very useful tool to study negative growth control and the signal transduction events associated with cell cycling.

  14. Space Environmental Testing of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Anglin, Emily J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Scheiman, David A.; Castro, Stephenie L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells has lead NASA to investigate the potential of these devices for space power generation, Reported here is the first space environment characterization of these type of photovoltaic devices. Cells containing liquid electrolytes were exposed to simulated low-earth orbit conditions and their performance evaluated. All cells were characterized under simulated air mass zero (AMO) illumination. Complete cells were exposed to pressures less than 1 x 10(exp -7) torr for over a month, with no sign of sealant failure or electrolyte leakage. Cells from Solaronix SA were rapid thermal cycled under simulated low-earth orbit conditions. The cells were cycled 100 times from -80 C to 80 C, which is equivalent to 6 days in orbit. The best cell had a 4.6% loss in efficiency as a result of the thermal cycling,

  15. Control sensitivity indices for stability analysis of HVdc systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, O.B.; Gole, A.M.; Chapman, D.G.; Davies, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept called the ``Control Sensitivity Index`` of CSI, for the stability analysis of HVdc converters connected to weak ac systems. The CSI for a particular control mode can be defined as the ratio of incremental changes in the two system variables that are most relevant to that control mode. The index provides valuable information on the stability of the system and, unlike other approaches, aids in the design of the controller. It also plays an important role in defining non-linear gains for the controller. This paper offers a generalized formulation of CSI and demonstrates its application through an analysis of the CSI for three modes of HVdc control. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are confirmed by a detailed electromagnetic transients simulation of the ac/dc system. The paper concludes that the CSI can be used to improve the controller design and, for an inverter in a weak ac system, the conventional voltage control mode is more stable than the conventional {gamma} control mode.

  16. Photodamage of the cells in culture sensitized with bilirubin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlenkova, O. A.; Plavskaya, L. G.; Mikulich, A. V.; Leusenko, I. A.; Tretyakova, A. I.; Plavskii, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that exposure to radiation of LED sources of light with an emission band maximum at about 465 and 520 nm having substantially identical damaging effects on animal cells in culture, that are in a logarithmic growth phase and preincubated with pigment. Photobiological effect is caused by photodynamic processes involving singlet oxygen generated by triplet excited sensitizer. Mono-exponential type dependence of cell survival on the energy dose indicates that it is bilirubin that acts as a sensitizer but not its photoproducts. The inclusion of bilirubin in the cells, where it is primarily localized in the mitochondria cells, it is accompanied by multiple amplification photochemical stability compared to pigment molecules bound with albumin

  17. Organic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC): Properties from computation, progress and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obotowo, I. N.; Obot, I. B.; Ekpe, U. J.

    2016-10-01

    The advent of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) came at a time when the quest for alternative energy was high, replacing p-n junction photovoltaic devices. Its uniqueness arises from the fact that unlike the conventional systems where the semiconductor assumes the task of light absorption and charge transport, the two functions are separated in DSSC. Organic sensitizers have been used to harvest a large fraction of sunlight ranging from the UV region to the near infrared region of the spectrum leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to ∼ 10.65 % for metal-free organic sensitizers. Currently, experimental analysis of photo sensitizers utilized in DSSCs is often a trial and error process, often laborious and require extensive and expensive chemical synthesis. In most cases, disappointing results from late-stage of the dye synthesis indicate an urgent need to understand the properties of the dyes at a molecular level, before experiments take place. Fortunately, the use of quantum chemical calculations especially Density Functional Theory (DFT) to screen potential dyes has helped in developing efficient sensitizers and to reduce cost. In the present review article, we discuss the current state of the field, new concepts, design strategies, challenges facing the theoretical design and development of organic sensitizers for DSSCs and future perspectives.

  18. Brain Cancer Stem Cells Display Preferential Sensitivity to Akt Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Eyler, Christine E.; Foo, Wen-Chi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; McLendon, Roger E.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers, and conventional therapies are largely limited to palliation. Novel therapies targeted against specific molecular pathways may offer improved efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to conventional therapies, but initial clinical trials of molecular targeted agents in brain cancer therapy have been frequently disappointing. In brain tumors and other cancers, subpopulations of tumor cells have recently been characterized by their ability to self-renew and initiate tumors. Although these cancer stem cells, or tumor initiating cells, are often only present in small numbers in human tumors, mounting evidence suggests that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor maintenance and therapeutic resistance. Thus, the development of therapies that target cancer stem cell signal transduction and biologies may improve brain tumor patient survival. We now demonstrate that populations enriched for cancer stem cells are preferentially sensitive to an inhibitor of Akt, a prominent cell survival and invasion signaling node. Treatment with an Akt inhibitor more potently reduced the numbers of viable brain cancer stem cells relative to matched non-stem cancer cells associated with a preferential induction of apoptosis and a suppression of neurosphere formation. Akt inhibition also reduced the motility and invasiveness of all tumor cells but had a greater impact on cancer stem cell behaviors. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt activity in cancer stem cells increased survival of immunocompromised mice bearing human glioma xenografts in vivo. Together, these results suggest that Akt inhibitors may function as effective anti-cancer stem cell therapies. PMID:18802038

  19. Controlled reflectance solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, H.G.; Lillington, D.R.

    1989-06-13

    A solar cell is described comprising: A semiconductor body having a front layer of a first conductivity type and an adjacent back layer of a second conductivity type opposite of the first conductivity type. The front and back layers form front and back major surfaces, respectively the semiconductor body further having openings through the back major surface and back layer which form recesses extending to the front layer. The recesses having walls which are doped to the first conductivity type; a first electrical contact disposed in the recesses making electrical contact the first conductivity type layer; and a second electrical contact disposed on the back major surface making electrical contact to the second conductivity type layer.

  20. Checkpoint Inhibitor Sensitizes Human Tumor Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    One unfortunate and detrimental side effect of ionizing radiation as a treatment for cancer is the damage it imparts to normal tissue near the targeted tumor. Technology has improved radiation delivery, minimizing the volume of normal tissue in the radiation field, but has not eliminated it completely. Thus, the identification of drugs that increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation while sparing normal cells would go a long way toward improving patient quality of life and outcome.

  1. Recent developments in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Nafiseh; Tajabadi, Fariba; Taghavinia, Nima

    2014-12-15

    The knowledge of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has expanded considerably in recent years. They are multiparameter and complex systems that work only if various parameters are tuned simultaneously. This makes it difficult to target to a single parameter to improve the efficiency. There is a wealth of knowledge concerning different DSC structures and characteristics. In this review, the present knowledge and recent achievements are surveyed with emphasis on the more promising cell materials and designs.

  2. Organometal halide perovskites as useful materials in sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Nagarjuna, P

    2014-04-14

    Organometal halide perovskites offer dual potential properties as a light harvester and at the same time as a hole conductor in inorganic-organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells. The sequential deposition route provides a power conversion efficiency of 15% under standard AM1.5G test conditions. In this perspective, we will briefly summarize the development of perovskite-sensitized solar cells from their first report up to the present.

  3. Plectin deficiency in liver cancer cells promotes cell migration and sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Chao, Wei-Ting; Liao, Chen-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-02-17

    Plectin involved in activation of kinases in cell signaling pathway and plays important role in cell morphology and migration. Plectin knockdown promotes cell migration by activating focal adhesion kinase and Rac1-GTPase activity in liver cells. Sorafenib is a multi-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor that improves patient survival on hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the expression of plectin and cell migration as well as the sensitivity of hepatoma cell lines exposing to sorafenib. Hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 were used to examine the level of plectin expression and cell migration in comparison with Chang liver cell line. In addition, sensitivity of the 3 cell lines to sorafenib treatment was also measured. Expression of plectin was lower in PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 hepatoma cells than that of Chang liver cells whereas HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells exhibit higher rate of cell migration in trans-well migration assay. Immunohistofluorecent staining on E-cadherin revealed the highest rate of collective cell migration in HepG2 cells and the lowest was found in Chang liver cells. Likewise, HepG2 cell line was most sensitive to sorafenib treatment and Chang liver cells exhibited the least sensitivity. The drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment showed inverse correlation with the expression of plectin. We suggest that plectin deficiency and increased E-cadherin in hepatoma cells were associated with higher rates of cell motility, collective cell migration as well as higher drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive to bleomycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Rühle, Alexander; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Ho, Anthony D.; Debus, Jürgen; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to attenuate pulmonary damage induced by bleomycin-based anticancer treatments, but the influence of bleomycin on the stem cells themselves remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human bone marrow-derived MSCs are relatively sensitive to bleomycin exposure compared to adult fibroblasts. MSCs revealed increased levels of apoptosis after bleomycin treatment, while cellular morphology, stem cell surface marker expression and the ability for adhesion and migration remained unchanged. Bleomycin treatment also resulted in a reduced adipogenic differentiation potential of these stem cells. MSCs were found to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks induced by bleomycin, mostly through non-homologous end joining repair. Low mRNA and protein expression levels of the inactivating enzyme bleomycin hydrolase were detected in MSCs that may contribute to the observed bleomycin-sensitive phenotype of these cells. The sensitivity of MSCs against bleomycin needs to be taken into consideration for ongoing and future treatment protocols investigating these stem cells as a potential treatment option for bleomycin-induced pulmonary damage in the clinic. PMID:27215195

  5. Interfacial Engineering for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Fichou, Denis; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-20

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are promising solar-energy-conversion devices, as low-cost alternatives to the prevailing photovoltaic technologies. Compared with molecular dyes, nanocrystalline quantum dot (QD) light absorbers exhibit higher molar extinction coefficients and a tunable photoresponse. However, the power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSCs are generally below 9.5 %, far behind their molecular sensitizer counterparts (up to 13 %). These low PCEs have been attributed to a large free-energy loss during sensitizer regeneration, energy loss during the charge-carrier transport and transfer processes, and inefficient charge separation at the QD/electrolyte interfaces, and various interfacial engineering strategies for enhancing the PCE and cell stability have been reported. Herein, we review recent progress in the interfacial engineering of QDSCs and discuss future prospects for the development of highly efficient and stable QDSCs.

  6. Interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Roberto; Colonna, Daniele; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2013-02-11

    In this paper we analyze the interplay between transparency and efficiency in dye sensitized solar cells by varying fabrication parameters such as the thickness of the nano-crystalline TiO(2) layer, the dye loading and the dye type. Both transparency and efficiency show a saturation trend when plotted versus dye loading. By introducing the transparency-efficiency plot, we show that the relation between transparency and efficiency is linear and is almost independent on the TiO(2) thickness for a certain thickness range. On the contrary, the relation between transparency and efficiency depends strongly on the type of the dye. Moreover, we show that co-sensitization techniques can be effectively used to access regions of the transparency-efficiency space that are forbidden for single dye sensitization. The relation found between transparency and efficiency (T&E) can be the general guide for optimization of Dye Solar Cells in building integration applications.

  7. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2010-05-07

    A hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO(2) layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO(2) framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO(2) nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO(2) nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO(2) electrodes via biotemplating.

  8. Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity are two important process variables widely used in operation of SOFC cells, stacks, and generators. To illustrate the technical values, the definitions of these two variables as well as practical examples are particularly given in this paper. It is explicitly shown that the oxygen-leakage has a substantial effect on the actual fuel utilization, fuel sensitivity and V-I characteristics. An underestimation of the leakage flux could potentially results in overly consuming fuel and oxidizing Ni-based anode. A fuel sensitivity model is also proposed to help extract the leakage flux information from a fuel sensitivity curve. Finally, the "bending-over" phenomenon observed in the low-current range of a V-I curve measured at constant fuel-utilization is quantitatively coupled with leakage flux.

  9. Ion flow in cochlear hair cells and the regulation of hearing sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Patuzzi, Robert

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses how ion transport proteins in the hair cells of the mammalian cochlea work to produce a sensitive but stable hearing organ. The transport proteins in the inner and outer hair cells are summarized (including their current voltage characteristics), and the roles of these proteins in determining intracellular Ca(2+), membrane potential, and ultimately cochlear sensitivity are discussed. The paper also discusses the role of the Ca(2+) sequestration sacs in outer hair cells in the autoregulation of hair cell membrane potential and cochlear gain, and how the underdamped control of Ca(2+) within these sacs may produce the observed slow oscillations in cochlear sensitivity and otoacoustic emissions after cochlear perturbations, including perilymphatic perfusions and prolonged low-frequency tones. The relative insensitivity of cochlear gain to short-term changes in the endocochlear potential is also discussed.

  10. Induction of Epstein-Barr virus kinases to sensitize tumor cells to nucleoside analogues.

    PubMed

    Moore, S M; Cannon, J S; Tanhehco, Y C; Hamzeh, F M; Ambinder, R F

    2001-07-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV(+) Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 microM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 microM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 microM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells.

  11. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Kinases To Sensitize Tumor Cells to Nucleoside Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Stacy M.; Cannon, Jennifer S.; Tanhehco, Yvette C.; Hamzeh, Fayez M.; Ambinder, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells of some EBV-associated malignancies may facilitate selective killing of these tumor cells. We show that treatment of an EBV+ Burkitt's lymphoma cell line with 5-azacytidine led to a dose-dependent induction of EBV lytic antigen expression, including expression of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) and phosphotransferase (PT). Azacytidine treatment for 24 h modestly sensitized the cell line to all nucleosides tested. To better characterize EBV TK with regard to various nucleoside analogues, we expressed EBV TK in stable cell clones. Two EBV TK-expressing clones were moderately sensitive to high doses of acyclovir and penciclovir (PCV) (62.5 to 500 μM) and to lower doses of ganciclovir (GCV) and bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVdU) (10 to 100 μM) compared to a control clone and were shown to phosphorylate GCV. Similar experiments in a transient overexpression system showed more killing of cells transfected with the EBV TK expression vector than of cells transfected with the control mutant vector (50 μM GCV for 4 days). A putative PT was also studied in the transient transfection system and appeared similar to the TK in phosphorylating GCV and conferring sensitivity to GCV, but not in BVdU- or PCV-mediated cell killing. Induction of EBV kinases in combination with agents such as GCV merits further evaluation as an alternative strategy to gene therapy for selective killing of EBV-infected cells. PMID:11408227

  12. Predicting solar-cell dyes for co-sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, Sam L.; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.; McKechnie, Scott; Liu, Xiaogang

    2014-06-03

    A major limitation of using organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been their lack of broad optical absorption. Co-sensitization, in which two complementary dyes are incorporated into a DSC, offers a route to combat this problem. Here we construct and implement a design route for materials discovery of new dyes for co-sensitization, beginning with a chemically compatible series of existing laser dyes which are without an anchor group necessary for DSC use. We determine the crystal structures for this dye series, and use their geometries to establish the DSC molecular design prerequisites aided by density-functional theory and time-dependent density-functional theory calculations. Based on insights gained from these existing dyes, modified sensitizers are computationally designed to include a suitable anchor group. A DSC co-sensitization strategy for these modified sensitizers is predicted, using the central features of highest-occupied, and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital positioning, optical absorption properties, intramolecular charge-transfer characteristics, and steric effects as selection criteria. Through this molecular engineering of a series of existing non-DSC dyes, we predict new materials for DSC co-sensitization.

  13. Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    PubMed Central

    Swierk, John R.; Méndez-Hernández, Dalvin D.; McCool, Nicholas S.; Liddell, Paul; Terazono, Yuichi; Pahk, Ian; Tomlin, John J.; Oster, Nolan V.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (λ > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. We report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. The free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed. PMID:25583488

  14. Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    DOE PAGES

    Swierk, John R.; Méndez-Hernández, Dalvin D.; McCool, Nicholas S.; ...

    2015-01-12

    Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (λ > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. Here, we report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. As a result, themore » free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed.« less

  15. Design and simulation of adaptive optics controller based on mixed sensitivity H∞ control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dingan; Li, Xinyang; Peng, Zhenming

    2016-10-01

    Optical systems such as telescopes are very complex, and their model usually with the uncertainty. To deal with the uncertainty of adaptive optics system and improve system robust stability, the mixed sensitivity H-infinity control has been introduced to design system controller. In order to testify the validity, wavefront aberration correction capability, as well as the robust stability, has been compared between the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller and the classic integral controller. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the system with the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller, while can't guarantee a better correction performance, has greater robust stability than the one with the classic integral controller. That is to say, greater robust stability is achieved at the expense of the correction capability in the system with H-infinity controller. Moreover, the greater the uncertainty is, the more proceeds the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller will produce. It proves the efficiency of the mixed sensitivity H-infinity controller in dealing with the uncertainty of adaptive optics system.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells with 13% efficiency achieved through the molecular engineering of porphyrin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Simon; Yella, Aswani; Gao, Peng; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Curchod, Basile F E; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Nazeeruddin, Md Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells have gained widespread attention in recent years because of their low production costs, ease of fabrication and tunable optical properties, such as colour and transparency. Here, we report a molecularly engineered porphyrin dye, coded SM315, which features the prototypical structure of a donor-π-bridge-acceptor and both maximizes electrolyte compatibility and improves light-harvesting properties. Linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate the perturbations in the electronic structure that lead to improved light harvesting. Using SM315 with the cobalt(II/III) redox shuttle resulted in dye-sensitized solar cells that exhibit a high open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.91 V, short-circuit current density JSC of 18.1 mA cm(-2), fill factor of 0.78 and a power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells with 13% efficiency achieved through the molecular engineering of porphyrin sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Simon; Yella, Aswani; Gao, Peng; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Curchod, Basile F. E.; Ashari-Astani, Negar; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Nazeeruddin, Md. Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells have gained widespread attention in recent years because of their low production costs, ease of fabrication and tunable optical properties, such as colour and transparency. Here, we report a molecularly engineered porphyrin dye, coded SM315, which features the prototypical structure of a donor-π-bridge-acceptor and both maximizes electrolyte compatibility and improves light-harvesting properties. Linear-response, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate the perturbations in the electronic structure that lead to improved light harvesting. Using SM315 with the cobalt(II/III) redox shuttle resulted in dye-sensitized solar cells that exhibit a high open-circuit voltage VOC of 0.91 V, short-circuit current density JSC of 18.1 mA cm-2, fill factor of 0.78 and a power conversion efficiency of 13%.

  18. Performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a natural sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Zainal; Soeparman, Sudjito; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny; Sutanto, Bayu; Suyitno

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on natural sensitizers have become a topic of significant research because of their urgency and importance in the energy conversion field and the following advantages: ease of fabrication, low-cost solar cell, and usage of nontoxic materials. The natural sensitizer in DSSCs is responsible for the absorption of light as well as the injection of charges to the conduction band of the semiconductor such as TiO2 nanoparticles. In this study, the chlorophyll extracted from papaya leaves was used as a natural sensitizer. Dye molecules were adsorbed by TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces when submerged in the dye solution for 24 h. The concentration of the dye solution influences both the amount of dye loading and the DSSC performance. The amount of adsorbed dye molecules by TiO2 nanoparticle was calculated using a desorption method. As the concentration of dye solution was increased, the dye loading capacity and power conversion efficiency increased. Above 90 mM dye solution concentration, however, the DSSC efficiency decreased because dye precipitated on the TiO2 nanostructure. These characteristics of DSSCs were analyzed under the irradiation of 100 mW/cm2. The best performance of DSSCs was obtained at 90 mM dye solution, with the values of Voc, Jsc, FF, and efficiency of DSSCs being 0.561 V, 0.402 mA/cm2, 41.65%, and 0.094%, respectively.

  19. Multiple chemical sensitivity: controlled scientific studies as proof of causation.

    PubMed

    Tollefson, L

    1993-08-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity is an environmental illness that demands exacting methods of diagnosis. Proposed associations between symptoms and specific substances, whether to one substance or to multiple chemicals, need to be critically examined through adequately designed scientific studies. Appropriate methods for controlled scientific study of adverse reactions to chemicals are discussed as well as the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) experience with aspartame as an example of the need for controlled scientific studies to refute or confirm anecdotal evidence. Since 1986 the FDA has received reports of 265 cases of epileptic seizures temporally associated with the ingestion of aspartame. Information obtained from the complainants' medical records as well as data on consumption patterns, temporal relationships, and challenge tests do not support the claim that the occurrences of the seizures are linked to consumption of aspartame. In addition, two double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies failed to demonstrate an association between epileptic seizures in children and adults and the ingestion of aspartame.

  20. Dye-sensitized Solar Cells for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M. S.; Deol, Y. S.; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Narottam; Janu, Yojana

    2011-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) also known as Gratzel cells, have attracted the interests of researchers to a great extent because of its cost effective and easy manufacturing process without involving highly sophisticated lithographic technique and high cost raw materials as usually seen in conventional solar cell. Based on simple photo-electrochemical process, it has got immense potential in converting solar energy to electrical power in remote and desert area where the supply of conventional power is not possible. The overall peak power-production efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been reported around 11 percent, so they are best suited to low-density applications and the price-to-performance ratio obtained through these solar cells is superior to others. DSSCs have ability to absorb even diffused sunlight and therefore work in cloudy whether as well without much impact over the efficiency. The present communication deals with a review of our work on DSSCs wherein we have used cost effective natural dyes/pigments as a sensitizer of nc-TiO2 and discussed about various key factors affecting the conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  1. Solid-state photogalvanic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Berhe, Seare A; Gobeze, Habtom B; Pokharel, Sundari D; Park, Eunsol; Youngblood, W Justin

    2014-07-09

    Photogalvanic cells are photoelectrochemical systems wherein the semiconductor electrode is not a participant in primary photoinduced charge formation. The discovery of photoelectrochemical systems that successfully exploit secondary (thermal) electron injection at dye-semiconductor interfaces may enable studies of electron transfer at minimal driving force for electron injection into the semiconductor. In this study, we have examined thermal electron transfer from molecular sensitizers to nanostructured semiconductor electrodes composed of titanium dioxide nanorods by means of transient spectroscopy and the assembly and testing of photoelectrochemical cells. Electron-accepting molecular dyes have been studied alongside an arylamine electron donor. Thermal injection is estimated for a naphthacenequinone radical anion as a multiexponential decay process with initial decay lifetimes of 6 and 27 ps. The ambient electric field present during charge separation at a surface-adsorbed dye monolayer causes Stark shifts of the radical ion pair absorbance peaks that confounded kinetic estimation of thermal injection for a fullerene sensitizer. Electron-accepting dyes that operate by thermal injection into titanium dioxide function better in solid-state photoelectrochemical cells than in liquid-junction cells due to the kinetic advantage of solid-state cells with respect to photoinduced acceptor-quenching to form the necessary radical anion sensitizers.

  2. Conjugation of selenophene with bipyridine for a high molar extinction coefficient sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feifei; Cheng, Yueming; Yu, Qingjiang; Liu, Shi; Shi, Dong; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Peng

    2009-03-16

    A high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, featuring a conjugated electron-rich selenophene unit in its ancillary ligand, has been synthesized and demonstrated as an efficient sensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. A nanocrystalline titania film stained with this sensitizer shows improved optical absorptivity, which is highly desirable for dye-sensitized solar cells with a thin photoactive layer. With preliminary testing, this sensitizer has already achieved a high efficiency of 10.6% measured under the air mass 1.5 global conditions.

  3. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  4. Vegetable-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Antonino; Di Marco, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2015-05-21

    There is currently a large effort to improve the performance of low cost renewable energy devices. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are emerging as one of the most promising low cost photovoltaic technologies, addressing "secure, clean and efficient solar energy conversion". Vegetable dyes, extracted from algae, flowers, fruit and leaves, can be used as sensitizers in DSSCs. Thus far, anthocyanin and betalain extracts together with selected chlorophyll derivatives are the most successful vegetable sensitizers. This review analyses recent progress in the exploitation of vegetable dyes for solar energy conversion and compares them to the properties of synthetic dyes. We provide an in-depth discussion on the main limitation of cell performance e.g. dye degradation, effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of semiconducting nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, outlining future developments for the use of vegetable sensitizers in DSSCs. We also discuss the cost of vegetable dyes and how their versatility can boost the advancement of new power management solutions, especially for their integration in living environments, making the practical application of such systems economically viable. Finally, we present our view on future prospects in the development of synthetic analogues of vegetable dyes as sensitizers in DSSCs.

  5. Cell Size Control in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chien, An-Chun; Hill, Norbert S.; Levin, Petra Anne

    2012-01-01

    Like eukaryotes, bacteria must coordinate division with growth to ensure cells are the appropriate size for a given environmental condition or developmental fate. As single-celled organisms, nutrient availability is one of the strongest influences on bacterial cell size. Classic physiological experiments conducted over four decades ago first demonstrated that cell size is directly correlated with nutrient source and growth rate in the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. This observation subsequently served as the basis for studies revealing a role for cell size in cell cycle progression in a closely related organism, Escherichia coli. More recently, the development of powerful genetic, molecular, and imaging tools has allowed us to identify and characterize the nutrient-dependent pathway responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size with growth rate in the Gram-positive model organism B. subtilis. Here, we discuss the role of cell size in bacterial growth and development and propose a broadly applicable model for cell size control in this important and highly divergent domain of life. PMID:22575476

  6. Ultra-sensitive detection of rare T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Robins, Harlan; Desmarais, Cindy; Matthis, Jessica; Livingston, Robert; Andriesen, Jessica; Reijonen, Helena; Carlson, Christopher; Nepom, Gerold; Yee, Cassian; Cerosaletti, Karen

    2012-01-31

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled technologies that probe the adaptive immune system with unprecedented depth. We have developed a multiplex PCR method to sequence tens of millions of T cell receptors (TCRs) from a single sample in a few days. A method is presented to test the precision, accuracy, and sensitivity of this assay. T cell clones, each with one fixed productive TCR rearrangement, are doped into complex blood cell samples. TCRs from a total of eleven samples are sequenced, with the doped T cell clones ranging from 10% of the total sample to 0.001% (one cell in 100,000). The assay is able to detect even the rarest clones. The precision of the assay is demonstrated across five orders of magnitude. The accuracy for each clone is within an overall factor of three across the 100,000 fold dynamic range. Additionally, the assay is shown to be highly repeatable.

  7. Changing sensitivity to cell death during development of retinal photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Chiarini, Luciana B; Leal-Ferreira, Mona Lisa; de Freitas, Fabíola G; Linden, Rafael

    2003-12-15

    Photoreceptor cell death occurs during both normal and pathological retinal development. We tested for selective induction and blockade of cell death in either retinal photoreceptors or their precursors. Organotypical retinal explants from rats at postnatal days 3-11 were treated in vitro for 24 hr with thapsigargin, okadaic acid, etoposide, anisomycin, or forskolin. Explant sections were examined for cell death, and identification of either photoreceptors or proliferating/immediate postmitotic cells followed imunohistochemistry for either rhodopsin or bromodeoxyuridine and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively. Photoreceptor cell death was selectively induced by either thapsigargin or okadaic acid, whereas death of proliferating/immediate postmitotic cells was induced by etoposide. Prelabeling of proliferating precursors allowed direct demonstration of changing sensitivity of photoreceptors to various chemicals. Degeneration of both photoreceptors and proliferating/immediate postmitotic cells depended on protein synthesis. Increase of intracellular cyclic AMP blocked degeneration of postmitotic, but not of proliferating, photoreceptor precursors. The selective induction and blockade of cell death show that developing photoreceptors undergo progressive changes in mechanisms of programmed cell death associated with phenotypic differentiation.

  8. [Relationship between sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agent in vivo and in vitro: experiment with mouse lymphoma cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-gang; Li, Mo-lin; Shu, Xiao-hong; Jia, Yu-jie; Liu, Yong-ji; Li, Ming

    2007-06-12

    To study the relationship of the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agent between in vivo and in vitro. Mouse lymphoma cells of the line E14 were cultured and melphalan resistant EL4 cell line (EL4/melphalan) was established by culturing EL4 cells with continuous low-concentration and intermittent gradually-increasing-concentration of melphalan in vitro. MTT assay was used to evaluate the drug sensitivity and the resistance index of the EL4/melphalan cells to melphalan was calculated. EL4/melphalan and EL4 cells of the concentration of 5 x 10(8)/L were inoculated separately into 20 C57BL/6 mice subcutaneously. 12 days later, the EL4 and EL4/melphalan tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 2 groups respectively, 5 mice in each group. Treatment groups were given 7.5 mg/kg melphalan intraperitoneally, and control groups were given the same volume of normal saline. The tumor size was observed every other day. Compared with the EL4 cells, the EL4/melphalan cells had no obvious changes morphologically. They could grow in RPMI 1640 medium containing 5 mg/ml melphalan. The resistance index was 2.87 against melphalan. After the treatment of melphalan of the dose 7.5 mg/kg, the tumor sizes of the treatment groups and control groups inoculated with both EL4 cells and the EL4/melphalan cells gradually decreased at the similar speed, and about one week later all tumors disappeared. However, the tumors of the control groups grew progressively and all the mice died at last. The chemotherapeutic effects of tumors in vivo have nothing to do with the effects of the chemotherapeutic agents on tumor cells in vitro. The tumor cells resistant to melphalan in vitro remain sensitive to the drug in vivo.

  9. Soluble extracellular Klotho decreases sensitivity to cigarette smoke induced cell death in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blake, David J; Reese, Caitlyn M; Garcia, Mario; Dahlmann, Elizabeth A; Dean, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third leading cause of death in the US and is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response to cigarette smoke (CS). Exposure to CS induces oxidative stress and can result in cellular senescence in the lung. Cellular senescence can then lead to decreased proliferation of epithelial cells, the destruction of alveolar structure and pulmonary emphysema. The anti-aging gene, klotho, encodes a membrane bound protein that has been shown to be a key regulator of oxidative stress and cellular senescence. In this study the role of Klotho (KL) with regard to oxidative stress and cellular senescence was investigated in human pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke. Individual clones that stably overexpress Klotho were generated through retroviral transfection and geneticin selection. Klotho overexpression was confirmed through RT-qPCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Compared to control cells, constitutive Klotho overexpression resulted in decreased sensitivity to cigarette smoke induced cell death in vitro via a reduction of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in the expression of p21. Our results suggest that increasing Klotho level in pulmonary epithelial cells may be a promising strategy to reduce cellular senescence and mitigate the risk for the development of COPD.

  10. Modulating cell-to-cell variability and sensitivity to death ligands by co-drugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flusberg, Deborah A.; Sorger, Peter K.

    2013-06-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) holds promise as an anti-cancer therapeutic but efficiently induces apoptosis in only a subset of tumor cell lines. Moreover, even in clonal populations of responsive lines, only a fraction of cells dies in response to TRAIL and individual cells exhibit cell-to-cell variability in the timing of cell death. Fractional killing in these cell populations appears to arise not from genetic differences among cells but rather from differences in gene expression states, fluctuations in protein levels and the extent to which TRAIL-induced death or survival pathways become activated. In this study, we ask how cell-to-cell variability manifests in cell types with different sensitivities to TRAIL, as well as how it changes when cells are exposed to combinations of drugs. We show that individual cells that survive treatment with TRAIL can regenerate the sensitivity and death-time distribution of the parental population, demonstrating that fractional killing is a stable property of cell populations. We also show that cell-to-cell variability in the timing and probability of apoptosis in response to treatment can be tuned using combinations of drugs that together increase apoptotic sensitivity compared to treatment with one drug alone. In the case of TRAIL, modulation of cell-to-cell variability by co-drugging appears to involve a reduction in the threshold for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization.

  11. Capturing the Potential of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, James

    2010-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are a continually developing type of low-cost solar cells that have commercial efficiency around 6-10%. The proposed research here will be focusing on the photo-bleaching and improving techniques for electron transport. Nature has given us a goal to reach towards with proven techniques for converting light into energy with around 30-40% efficiency, however, chlorophyll, the light absorber in plants, is expensive and it is not practical to make solar cells with only chlorophyll as the absorber. One such alternative to chlorophyll is phthalocyanines which is a common industrial dye used in many applications. This dye has a common similar ring without the long phytol chain that chlorophyll has. Previous research has shown that encapsulating organic dyes can magnify the properties of dye from the increased concentration with a possible benefit of stabilizing the dye allowing it to slow down the photo bleaching significantly. Likewise, such encapsulation may help with thermal stability since many dye-sensitized solar cells require a liquid or gel solution that is sensitive to thermal expansion. Many researchers are also finding new ways to encapsulate the dyes or dope the p-n layers with nano and meso tubes to help with electron transport or build the p-n layers right in the tubes. This allows for countless layers and an overall more efficient design.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Pique, Alberto; Kushto, Gary P.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Arnold, Craig B.; Kafafi, Zakia H.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous, high surface area structure that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used to forward transfer a paste of commercial TiO2 nanopowder (P25) onto transparent conducting electrodes on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and rigid glass substrates. For the cells based on flexible PET substrates, the transferred TiO2 layers were sintered using an in-situ laser to improve electron paths without damaging PET substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of laser processing techniques to produce nc-TiO2 films (~10 μm thickness) on glass for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 8.7 mA/cm2, ff = 0.67, η = 4.0 % at 100 mW/cm2). This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  13. Cell biology. Metabolic control of cell death.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-09-19

    Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries, including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes, may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of "metabolic checkpoints" that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss.

  14. Co-sensitization of organic dyes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; Yang, Xichuan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-01-01

    Novel cyanine dyes, in which a tetrahydroquinoline derivative is used as an electron donor and 1-butyl-5-carboxy-3, 3-dimethyl-indol-1-ium moiety is used as an electron acceptor and anchoring group, were designed and synthesized for application in dye-sensitized solar cells. The photovoltaic performance of these solar cells depends markedly on the molecular structure of the dyes in terms of the n-hexyl chains and the methoxyl unit. Retardation of charge recombination caused by the introduction of n-hexyl chains resulted in an increase in electron lifetime. As a consequence, an improvement of open-circuit photovoltage (V(oc)) was achieved. Also, the electron injection efficiencies were improved by the introduction of methoxyl moiety, which led to a higher short-circuit photocurrent density (J(sc)). The highest average efficiency of the sensitized devices (η) was 5.6% (J(sc)=13.3 mA cm(-2), V(oc)=606 mV, and fill factor FF=69.1%) under 100 mW cm(-2) (AM 1.5G) solar irradiation. All of these dyes have very high absorption extinction coefficients and strong absorption in a relatively narrow spectrum range (500-650 nm), so one of our organic dyes was explored as a sensitizer in co-sensitized solar cells in combination with the other two other existing organic dyes. Interestingly, a considerably improved photovoltaic performance of 8.2% (J(sc)=20.1 mA cm(-2), V(oc)=597 mV, and FF=68.3%) was achieved and the device showed a panchromatic response with a high incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency exceeding 85% in the range of 400-700 nm.

  15. Generation of CD4+ blastoid T cells in recipients of BP/IFA-sensitized spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Kira, J; Itoyama, Y; Goto, I

    1990-06-01

    While sensitization of Lewis rats with BP/IFA does not induce EAE, recipients given BP/IFA-sensitized cells after culture with BP do develop EAE. To clarify the pathophysiology responsible for this discrepancy, cell dynamics were studied in the recipients. The CD4+ T cells from BP/IFA-sensitized donors showed no proliferative response to BP and no change in cell size or surface molecule expression, even in the presence of BP in culture. On the other hand, the recipient cells proliferated vigorously, regardless of the presence or absence of BP. In this case, a large number of CD4+ blastoid T cells was generated only in the presence of BP in culture. Such cells showed marked upregulation of CD4, CD2, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules, a finding we also observed in the case of BP-cultured cells from BP/CFA-sensitized rats with severe EAE. The proportion of CD4+ blastoid T cells generated after culture depended on the number of cells transferred and on the presence of BP in culture, and closely correlated with the severity of EAE in the recipients. These data suggest that BP/IFA-sensitization can also induce BP-reactive cells capable of becoming CD4+ blastoid T cells with marked upregulation of CD4, CD2, class I and II MHC, and IL2 receptor molecules directly related to potent encephalitogenicity, in vivo.

  16. Variation in sensitizing efficiency for SR 2508 in human cells dependent on glutathione content

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Mitchell, J.B.; de Graff, W.; Russo, A.; Glatstein, E.

    1986-09-01

    The observation by several authors and ourselves that manipulation of glutathione (GSH) levels in cultured cells would change the relative sensitization of hypoxic cells by nitroimidazole sensitizers led to the hypothesis that natural variation in GSH level could influence the sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER). Since many human tumor cell lines have shown high GSH levels, the A549 lung line, the HeLa line and a skin fibroblast line, the AG1522, were studied in monolayer culture in glass flasks. The GSH levels (nmol/mg protein) measured were 324 for A549, 103 for HeLa, and 32 f,r 1522 cells. For V-79 cells the level was 25 nmol/mg. In control experiments there was no effect of up to 10 mM SR 2508 in air but BSO (D,L-buthionine-S-R-sulfoximine) treatment modestly sensitized the A549 in air and nitrogen. Calculation of SER values at 1% survival revealed very little sensitization at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM SR 2508 for A549 cells (SER not significantly different than 1). At 5 mM the SER was 1.5 and at 10 mM 1.65. In contrast, the SER for fibroblasts was 1.65 at 0.5 mM and 2.2 at 1.0 mM SR 2508. The results for HeLa were intermediate, 1.25 and 1.45 at the same concentrations. Thus, the SER relates to the GSH levels in the cells. Treatment with BSO increased the sensitization of A549 to a level similar to that seen for AG1522 at 0.5 and 1.0 mM. These findings could explain the negative results of some sensitizer clinical trials.

  17. NHERF1 Enhances Cisplatin Sensitivity in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Tao; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Qiong; Shi, Wen; Wang, Qiqi; Yang, Ying; He, Junqi

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely utilized in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. However, resistance has been the major limitation. In this study, we found that Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 (NHERF1) was downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cells. Analysis based on a cervical cancer dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed association of NHERF1 expression with disease-free survival of patients received cisplatin treatment. NHERF1 overexpression inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant HeLa cells, whereas NHERF1 knockdown had inverse effects. While parental HeLa cells were more resistant to cisplatin after NHERF1 knockdown, NHERF1 overexpression in CaSki cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that NHERF1 significantly inhibited AKT and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that NHERF1 can sensitize cisplatin-refractory cervical cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumors. PMID:28085111

  18. Quantifying the Sensitivity of Human Immune Cells to Chemoattractant.

    PubMed

    Francis, Emmet A; Heinrich, Volkmar

    2017-03-14

    The efficient recruitment of immune cells is a vital cornerstone of our defense against infections and a key challenge of immunotherapeutic applications. It relies on the ability of chemotaxing cells to prioritize their responses to different stimuli. For example, immune cells are known to abandon gradients of host-cell-produced cytokines in favor of complement-derived anaphylatoxins, which then guide the cells toward nearby pathogen surfaces. The aptitude to triage stimuli depends on the cells' specific sensitivities to different chemoattractants. We here use human neutrophils as uniquely capable biodetectors to map out the anaphylatoxic cloud that surrounds microbes in the presence of host serum. We quantify the neutrophil sensitivity in terms of the ratio between the chemoattractant concentration c and the production rate j0 of the chemoattractant at the source surface. An integrative experimental/theoretical approach allows us to estimate the c/j0-threshold at which human neutrophils first detect nearby β-glucan surfaces as c/j0 ≈ 0.0044 s/μm.

  19. Spermatogonial stem cell sensitivity to capsaicin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mizrak, Sefika C; Gadella, Bart M; Erdost, Hatice; Ozer, Aytekin; van Pelt, Ana MM; van Dissel-Emiliani, Federica MF

    2008-01-01

    Background Conflicting reports have been published on the sensitivity of spermatogenesis to capsaicin (CAP), the pungent ingredient of hot chili peppers. Here, the effect of CAP on germ cell survival was investigated by using two testis germ cell lines as a model. As CAP is a potent agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and no information was available of its expression in germ cells, we also studied the presence of TRPV1 in the cultured cells and in germ cells in situ. Methods The rat spermatogonial stem cell lines Gc-5spg and Gc-6spg were used to study the effects of different concentrations of CAP during 24 and 48 h. The response to CAP was first monitored by phase-contrast microscopy. As germ cells appear to undergo apoptosis in the presence of CAP, the activation of caspase 3 was studied using an anti activated caspase 3 antibody or by quantifying the amount of cells with DNA fragmentation using flow cytometry. Immunolocalization was done with an anti-TRPV1 antibody either with the use of confocal microscopy to follow live cell labeling (germ cells) or on Bouin fixed paraffin embedded testicular tissues. The expression of TRPV1 by the cell lines and germ cells was confirmed by Western blots. Results Initial morphological observations indicated that CAP at concentrations ranging from 150 uM to 250 uM and after 24 and 48 h of exposure, had deleterious apoptotic-like effects on both cell lines: A large population of the CAP treated cell cultures showed signs of DNA fragmentation and caspase 3 activation. Quantification of the effect demonstrated a significant effect of CAP with doses of 150 uM in the Gc-5spg cell line and 200 uM in the Gc-6spg cell line, after 24 h of exposure. The effect was dose and time dependent in both cell lines. TRPV1, the receptor for CAP, was found to be expressed by the spermatogonial stem cells in vitro and also by premeiotic germ cells in situ. Conclusion CAP adversely affects spermatogonial survival

  20. Sensitivity of Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines to the cell cycle inhibitor roscovitine.

    PubMed

    Foell, Juergen L; Max, Daniela; Giersberg, Corinna; Korholz, Dieter; Staege, Martin S

    2008-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) has improved in recent decades. However, not all patients can be cured and the development of alternative treatment strategies is necessary. Gene expression in HL cell lines was analyzed using DNA microarrays and both conventional and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sensitivity of HL cell lines to the cell cycle inhibitor roscovitine was assessed in vitro. All HL cell lines express high levels of cyclin D2. Treatment of HL cells with roscovitine induced cell death in some cell lines whereas other cell lines were resistant to roscovitine. Roscovitine-sensitive cell lines were characterized by expression of T-cell markers and expressed high levels of the unusual cytokine interleukin-26. Roscovitine is a cytotoxic drug for a subpopulation of HL cells and might be an interesting agent for the treatment of patients with HL.

  1. Chloroquine Sensitizes Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells but Not Nasoepithelial Cells to Irradiation by Blocking Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Makowska, Anna; Eble, Michael; Prescher, Kirsten; Hoß, Mareike; Kontny, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma requires the application of high dosages of radiation, leading to severe long-term complications in the majority of patients. Sensitizing tumor cells to radiation could be a means to increase the therapeutic window of radiation. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells display alterations in autophagy and blockade of autophagy has been shown to sensitize them against chemotherapy. Methods We investigated the effect of chloroquine, a known inhibitor of autophagy, on sensitization against radiation-induced apoptosis in a panel of five nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and a SV40-transformed nasoepithelial cell line. Autophagy was measured by immunoblot of autophagy-related proteins, immunofluorescence of autophagosomic microvesicles and electron microscopy. Autophagy was blocked by siRNA against autophagy-related proteins 3, 5, 6 and 7 (ATG3, ATG5, ATG6 and ATG7). Results Chloroquine sensitized four out of five nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines towards radiation-induced apoptosis. The sensitizing effect was based on the blockade of autophagy as inhibition of ATG3, ATG5, ATG6 and ATG7 by specific siRNA could substitute for the effect of chloroquine. No sensitization was seen in nasoepithelial cells. Conclusion Chloroquine sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells but not nasoepithelial cells towards radiation-induced apoptosis by blocking autophagy. Further studies in a mouse-xenograft model are warranted to substantiate this effect in vivo. PMID:27902742

  2. A case-control study of wood dust exposure, mutagen sensitivity, and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Delclos, G L; Annegers, J F; Bondy, M L; Honn, S E; Henry, B; Hsu, T C; Spitz, M R

    1995-09-01

    The associations between lung cancer risk, mutagen sensitivity (a marker of cancer susceptibility), and a putative lung carcinogen, wood dust, were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study. There were 113 African -American and 67 Mexican-American cases with newly diagnosed, previously untreated lung cancer and 270 controls, frequency-matched on age, ethnicity, and sex. Mutagen sensitivity ( 1 chromatid break/cell after short-term bleomycin treatment) was associated with statistically significant elevated risk for lung cancer [odds ration (OR) = 4.3; 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 2.3-7.9]. Wood dust exposure was also a significant predictor of risk (overall OR = 3.5; CI = 1.4-8.6) after controlling for smoking and mutagen sensitivity. When stratified by ethnicity, wood dust exposure was s significant risk factor for African-Americans (OR = 5.5; CI = 1.6-18.9) but not for Mexican-Americans (OR = 2.0; CI = 0.5-8.1). The ORs were 3.8 and 4.8 for non-small cell lung cancer in Mexican-Americans (CI = 1.2-18.5). Stratified analysis suggested evidence of strong interactions between wood dust exposure and both mutagen sensitivity and smoking in lung cancer risk.

  3. Controlled Release in Transdermal Pressure Sensitive Adhesives using Organosilicate Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Sohel; Birdi, Anil; Qutubuddin, Syed; Lakatosh, Eric; Baskaran, Harihara

    2010-01-01

    Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) based pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) incorporating organo-clays at different loadings were fabricated via solution casting. Partially exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained for the hydroxyl terminated PDMS in ethyl acetate solvent as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Drug release studies showed that the initial burst release was substantially reduced and the drug release could be controlled by the addition of organo-clay. Shear strength and shear adhesion failure temperature (SAFT) measurements indicated substantial improvement in adhesive properties of the PSA nanocomposite adhesives. Shear strength showed more than 200 % improvement at the lower clay loadings and the SAFT increased by about 21% due to the reinforcement provided by the nano-dispersed clay platelets. It was found that by optimizing the level of the organosilicate additive to the polymer matrix, superior control over drug release kinetics and simultaneous improvements in adhesive properties could be attained for a transdermal PSA formulation. PMID:17786555

  4. Space Shuttle Orbiter entry guidance and control system sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Powell, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    An approach has been developed to determine the guidance and control system sensitivity to off-nominal aerodynamics for the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry. This approach, which uses a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom interactive, digital simulation, has been applied to both the longitudinal and lateral-directional axes for a portion of the orbiter entry. Boundary values for each of the aerodynamic parameters have been identified, the key parameters have been determined, and system modifications that will increase system tolerance to off-nominal aerodynamics have been recommended. The simulations were judged by specified criteria and the performance was evaluated by use of key dependent variables. The analysis is now being expanded to include the latest shuttle guidance and control systems throughout the entry speed range.

  5. Identification of a novel EGF-sensitive cell cycle checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Francesca . E-mail: francesca.walker@ludwig.edu.au; Zhang Huihua; Burgess, Antony W.

    2007-02-01

    The site of action of growth factors on mammalian cell cycle has been assigned to the boundary between the G1 and S phases. We show here that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is also required for mitosis. BaF/3 cells expressing the EGFR (BaF/wtEGFR) synthesize DNA in response to EGF, but arrest in S-phase. We have generated a cell line (BaF/ERX) with defective downregulation of the EGFR and sustained activation of EGFR signalling pathways: these cells undergo mitosis in an EGF-dependent manner. The transit of BaF/ERX cells through G2/M strictly requires activation of EGFR and is abolished by AG1478. This phenotype is mimicked by co-expression of ErbB2 in BaF/wtEGFR cells, and abolished by inhibition of the EGFR kinase, suggesting that sustained signalling of the EGFR, through impaired downregulation of the EGFR or heterodimerization, is required for completion of the cycle. We have confirmed the role of EGFR signalling in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle using a human tumor cell line which overexpresses the EGFR and is dependent on EGFR signalling for growth. These findings unmask an EGF-sensitive checkpoint, helping to understand the link between sustained EGFR signalling, proliferation and the acquisition of a radioresistant phenotype in cancer cells.

  6. Natural dyes as sensitizers to increase the efficiency in sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda, Bayron; Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a sandwich type solar cell consisting of a photoelectrode, a counter electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The photo electrode comprises of a titanium dioxide semiconducting thin film grown over a glass substrate which in-turn has a transparent thin conducting layer of tin oxide film doped with fluorine (FTO) coated over it. The aim of this work is to develop photoelectrodes with different dyes to increase the efficiency of this type of solar cells. Dyes obtained from fresh sources of maqui, black myrtle, spinach and a dye mixture of spinach and spinach-maqui-myrtle were used. The technique used for the extraction of the dyes was maceration for one day, in methanol. Colourants and photoelectrodes were studied using, UV-vis spectrophotometer for their spectral properties. Their photovoltaic properties such as efficiency, fill factor, open circuit voltage and short circuit current were studied using a solar simulator and source meter unit.

  7. Myc and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Bretones, Gabriel; Delgado, M Dolores; León, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Soon after the discovery of the Myc gene (c-Myc), it became clear that Myc expression levels tightly correlate to cell proliferation. The entry in cell cycle of quiescent cells upon Myc enforced expression has been described in many models. Also, the downregulation or inactivation of Myc results in the impairment of cell cycle progression. Given the frequent deregulation of Myc oncogene in human cancer it is important to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the role of Myc on cell cycle control. Several parallel mechanisms account for Myc-mediated stimulation of the cell cycle. First, most of the critical positive cell cycle regulators are encoded by genes induced by Myc. These Myc target genes include Cdks, cyclins and E2F transcription factors. Apart from its direct effects on the transcription, Myc is able to hyperactivate cyclin/Cdk complexes through the induction of Cdk activating kinase (CAK) and Cdc25 phosphatases. Moreover, Myc antagonizes the activity of cell cycle inhibitors as p21 and p27 through different mechanisms. Thus, Myc is able to block p21 transcription or to induce Skp2, a protein involved in p27 degradation. Finally, Myc induces DNA replication by binding to replication origins and by upregulating genes encoding proteins required for replication initiation. Myc also regulates genes involved in the mitotic control. A promising approach to treat tumors with deregulated Myc is the synthetic lethality based on the inhibition of Cdks. Thus, the knowledge of the Myc-dependent cell cycle regulatory mechanisms will help to discover new therapeutic approaches directed against malignancies with deregulated Myc. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion Guidance Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch. We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool ("Critical Factors Tool" or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  9. Cognitive control reduces sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Abigail A.; Silver, Shari H.; Veague, Heather B.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression describes a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls; and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural networks associated with executive function and cognitive control. Neural response was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an affect recognition task that included unfamiliar peer faces. We found that relatively fewer reports of being victimized by relational aggression was associated increased recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in response to the affect recognition task, as well as with greater competence on behavioral measures of executive function. Our results suggest that girls who are able to recruit specific frontal networks to improve cognitive and executive control are relatively less sensitive to relational aggression. PMID:20614370

  10. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y

    2016-10-06

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells-including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles-face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes' surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  11. Ligand Engineering for the Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Ruthenium Sensitizers and Cobalt Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Aghazada, Sadig; Gao, Peng; Yella, Aswani; Marotta, Gabriele; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joël; Moser, Jacques-E; De Angelis, Filippo; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-07-05

    Over the past 20 years, ruthenium(II)-based dyes have played a pivotal role in turning dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) into a mature technology for the third generation of photovoltaics. However, the classic I3(-)/I(-) redox couple limits the performance and application of this technique. Simply replacing the iodine-based redox couple by new types like cobalt(3+/2+) complexes was not successful because of the poor compatibility between the ruthenium(II) sensitizer and the cobalt redox species. To address this problem and achieve higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), we introduce here six new cyclometalated ruthenium(II)-based dyes developed through ligand engineering. We tested DSCs employing these ruthenium(II) complexes and achieved PCEs of up to 9.4% using cobalt(3+/2+)-based electrolytes, which is the record efficiency to date featuring a ruthenium-based dye. In view of the complicated liquid DSC system, the disagreement found between different characterizations enlightens us about the importance of the sensitizer loading on TiO2, which is a subtle but equally important factor in the electronic properties of the sensitizers.

  12. Decreased hydrocortisone sensitivity of T cell function in multiple sclerosis-associated major depression.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Anja; Otte, Christian; Krieger, Thorsten; Nicholls, Robert A; Krüger, Schulamith; Ziegler, Kristin J; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Heesen, Christoph; Gold, Stefan M

    2012-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS with a high prevalence of depression. Both MS and depression have been linked to elevated cortisol levels and inflammation, indicating disturbed endocrine-immune regulation. An imbalance in mineralocorticoid versus glucocorticoid signaling in the CNS has been proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism of depression. Intriguingly, both receptors are also expressed in lymphocytes, but their role for 'escape' of the immune system from endocrine control is unknown. Using steroid sensitivity of T cell function as a read-out system, we here investigate a potential role of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) versus glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulation in the immune system as a biological mechanism underlying MS-associated major depression. Twelve female MS patients meeting diagnostic criteria for current major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared to twelve carefully matched MS patients without depression. We performed lymphocyte phenotyping by flow cytometry. In addition, steroid sensitivity of T cell proliferation was tested using hydrocortisone as well as MR (aldosterone) and GR (dexamethasone) agonists. Sensitivity to hydrocortisone was decreased in T cells from depressed MS patients. Experiments with agonists suggested disturbed MR regulation, but intact GR function. Importantly, there were no differences in lymphocyte composition and frequency of T cell subsets, indicating that the differences in steroid sensitivity are unlikely to be secondary to shifts in the immune compartment. To our knowledge, this study provides first evidence for altered steroid sensitivity of T cells from MS patients with comorbid MDD possibly due to MR dysregulation.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO3.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haidong; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2010-12-21

    In research on alternative photoanode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), there is rarely any report on WO(3), probably due to its acidic surface and more positive (vs NHE) conduction band edge position compared to TiO(2) and ZnO. For the first time, dye-sensitized solar cells based on porous WO(3) nanoparticle films were successfully fabricated with efficiency of up to 0.75%. The multicrystalline structure of WO(3) was examined by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that significant performance enhancement can be obtained from treating the WO(3) nanoparticle film with TiCl(4); the TiCl(4)-treated WO(3) DSCs were recorded with efficiency reaching 1.46%.

  14. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ko, Min Jae; Sul, Soohwan; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The reported photocurrent density (JSC) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm2 despite the capability to generate 38 mA/cm2, which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high JSC of 30 mA/cm2. By Hg2+ doping into PbS, JSC is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved JSC is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg2+, which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high JSC, power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination. PMID:23308343

  15. Increased sensitivity to Vinca alkaloids in cells overexpressing calmodulin by gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Ido, M; Lagacé, L; Chafouleas, J G

    1990-10-15

    Mouse C127 cells, transfected with the chicken calmodulin (CaM) gene and overexpressing CaM protein, were used to evaluate the effect of elevated levels of CaM on the sensitivity of these cells to various anticancer drugs. Clones C2 and C3 overexpress CaM mRNA by 40- and 80-fold, respectively, and CaM protein 3- and 8-fold, respectively. These cell lines were tested for their sensitivity to vincristine, vinblastine, bleomycin, and Adriamycin by comparing the 50% inhibitory concentration in a 72-h growth inhibition assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration values for vincristine with C2 and C3 cells were 6.27 +/- 0.56 nM and 6.60 +/- 0.96 nM, respectively. These values were significantly lower than 13.9 +/- 0.79 nM for the parental C127 cells and 14.0 +/- 1.55 nM for clone 6.8 (the control cell line for transfection without the chicken CaM gene) at P less than or equal to 0.005. The proliferation of C2 and C3 cells was inhibited at lower concentrations of vinblastine as well. The 50% inhibitory concentration values for the C2 and C3 cell lines were approximately one-half those required for C127 or clone 6.8 cells. However, no significant difference in the sensitivity to the DNA-binding drugs, bleomycin and Adriamycin, was observed between the different cell lines. The uptake of [3H]vinblastine was evaluated and found to be increased 1.6- and 2.8-fold in C2 and C3 cells, respectively, as compared with that value obtained for C127 cells. Moreover, the efflux of [3H]vinblastine from vinblastine-loaded cells was also observed to be decreased in the C2 and C3 cell lines. These data suggest that the increase in CaM expression in the C2 and C3 cell lines might be related to the higher sensitivity of these cells to Vinca alkaloids. This increased sensitivity appears to be due to the increase in intracellular concentration of the Vinca alkaloids as a result of an increase in drug uptake and a decrease in efflux. Moreover, the increased sensitivity of clones C2 and C3 to Vinca

  16. ZnO nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Alex B F; Elam, Jeffrey W; Hupp, Joseph T; Pellin, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    We introduce high surface area ZnO nanotube photoanodes templated by anodic aluminum oxide for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Atomic layer deposition is utilized to coat pores conformally, providing a direct path for charge collection over tens of micrometers thickness. Compared to similar ZnO-based devices, ZnO nanotube cells show exceptional photovoltage and fill factors, in addition to power efficiencies up to 1.6%. The novel fabrication technique provides a facile, metal-oxide general route to well-defined DSSC photoanodes.

  17. ZnO nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, A. B. F.; Elam, J. W.; Hupp, J. T.; Pellin, M. J.

    2007-05-25

    We introduce high surface area ZnO nanotube photoanodes templated by anodic aluminum oxide for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Atomic layer deposition is utilized to coat pores conformally, providing a direct path for charge collection over tens of micrometers thickness. Compared to similar ZnO-based devices, ZnO nanotube cells show exceptional photovoltage and fill factors, in addition to power efficiencies up to 1.6%. The novel fabrication technique provides a facile, metal-oxide general route to well-defined DSSC photoanodes.

  18. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-05-04

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm(2) and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells.

  19. Connexin 43 inhibition sensitizes chemoresistant glioblastoma cells to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susan F; Varghese, Robin T; Lamouille, Samy; Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Kanabur, Pratik; Osimani, Alyssa M; Sharma, Shaan; Jourdan, Jane; Rodgers, Cara M; Simonds, Gary R; Gourdie, Robert G; Sheng, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of glioblastoma (GBM) to the front-line chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) continues to challenge GBM treatment efforts. The repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage by O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers one mechanism of TMZ resistance. Paradoxically, MGMT-deficient GBM patients survive longer despite still developing resistance to TMZ. Recent studies indicate that the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) renders GBM cells resistant to TMZ through its carboxyl terminus (CT). In this study, we report insights into how Cx43 promotes TMZ resistance. Cx43 levels were inversely correlated with TMZ sensitivity of GBM cells, including GBM stem cells. Moreover, Cx43 levels inversely correlated with patient survival, including as observed in MGMT-deficient GBM patients. Addition of the C-terminal peptide mimetic αCT1, a selective inhibitor of Cx43 channels, sensitized human MGMT-deficient and TMZ-resistant GBM cells to TMZ treatment. Moreover, combining αCT1 with TMZ blocked AKT/mTOR signaling, induced autophagy and apoptosis in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Our findings suggest that Cx43 may offer a biomarker to predict the survival of patients with MGMT-independent TMZ resistance, and that combining a Cx43 inhibitor with TMZ could enhance therapeutic responses in GBM and perhaps other TMZ-resistant cancers. PMID:26542214

  20. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-01-01

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27166761

  1. Connexin 43 Inhibition Sensitizes Chemoresistant Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan F; Varghese, Robin T; Lamouille, Samy; Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Kanabur, Pratik; Osimani, Alyssa M; Sharma, Shaan; Jourdan, Jane; Rodgers, Cara M; Simonds, Gary R; Gourdie, Robert G; Sheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Resistance of glioblastoma (GBM) to the front-line chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) continues to challenge GBM treatment efforts. The repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage by O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers one mechanism of TMZ resistance. Paradoxically, MGMT-deficient GBM patients survive longer despite still developing resistance to TMZ. Recent studies indicate that the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) renders GBM cells resistant to TMZ through its carboxyl terminus (CT). In this study, we report insights into how Cx43 promotes TMZ resistance. Cx43 levels were inversely correlated with TMZ sensitivity of GBM cells, including GBM stem cells. Moreover, Cx43 levels inversely correlated with patient survival, including as observed in MGMT-deficient GBM patients. Addition of the C-terminal peptide mimetic αCT1, a selective inhibitor of Cx43 channels, sensitized human MGMT-deficient and TMZ-resistant GBM cells to TMZ treatment. Moreover, combining αCT1 with TMZ-blocked AKT/mTOR signaling, induced autophagy and apoptosis in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Our findings suggest that Cx43 may offer a biomarker to predict the survival of patients with MGMT-independent TMZ resistance and that combining a Cx43 inhibitor with TMZ could enhance therapeutic responses in GBM, and perhaps other TMZ-resistant cancers. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Sensitizers containing donor cascade and rhodanine-3-acetic acid moieties for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Quan-Ping; Zhang, Lu; Liang, Mao; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2011-01-15

    Three organic dyes with D-{pi}-D-{pi}-A structure based on triarylamine, dimethylarylamine, and rhodanine-3-acetic acid moieties are designed and synthesized. Incorporating thiophene moieties into the system affords sensitizers with high molar extinction coefficients. These dyes were applied into nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} dye-sensitized solar cells through standard operations. For a typical device the maximal monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) can reach 73%, with a short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub sc}) of 7.3 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 636 mV, and a fill factor (ff) of 0.61, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency ({eta}) of 2.86%. (author)

  3. Testing of new hypoxic cell sensitizers in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, H.B.; Sinesi, M.S.

    1982-07-01

    We tested five agents as potential sensitizers of hypoxic cells in vivo in mammary tumors in C3H mice in comparison with misonidazole. The LD/sub 50/2/ for desmethylmisonidazole was 2.7 mg/g body wt, compared to 1.3 for misonidazole. It was as effective in reducing the TCD/sub 50/ of MDAH-MCa-4 as were equitoxic doses of misonidazole. the LD/sub 50/2/ of SR-2508 was 3.3 mg/g and was as effective a sensitizer as misonidazole. Ro 07-0741 was more toxic, with an LD/sub 50/2/ of 0.6 mg/g, but was as effective as misonidazole at equitoxic doses. NP-1 was also more toxic than misonidazole (LA/sub 50/2/ = 04 mg/g) but was a less effective sensitizer. Rotenone, which causes sensitization by inhibiting cellular respiration, thus increasing the diffusion distance of oxygen, was extremely toxic (LD/sub 50/2/ - 0.003 mg/g), and systemic respiratory inhibition and the radioprotective effects of the dimethyl sulfoxide used to dissolve it rendered it totally ineffective as a sensitizer in vivo.

  4. Osmotically sensitive renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O

    1993-07-01

    Renin secretion from juxtaglomerular (JG) cells is sensitive to external osmolality in a way that has been suggested to depend either on cellular volume or on effects on secretory granules. To distinguish between these possibilities, a technique for permeabilization of JG cell membranes was developed. Rat glomeruli with attached JG cells were isolated and permeabilized by 20 microM digitonin for 12 min and followed by continuous exposure to 2 microM digitonin. Experiments on proximal tubules showed that cellular volume was unaffected by changes in external sucrose concentration after a similar permeabilization procedure. With permeabilized JG cells the following changes in osmolality were tested (in mM sucrose): +90 (n = 6), +60 (n = 5), +30 (n = 6), +15 (n = 6), -15 (n = 5), -30 (n = 6), -60 (n = 6), and -90 (n = 6). With nonpermeabilized cells similar experiments were done with changes of +90 (n = 7), +30 (n = 4), -30 (n = 4), and -90 (n = 6) mM sucrose. Increases in osmolality caused inhibition of renin release, whereas decreases stimulated secretion. Within +/- 10% variations in osmolality there were no differences between the responses in permeabilized and intact cells, whereas the responses with larger changes were less in the permeabilized cells. Increase or decrease in urea concentration by 30 mM did not affect renin release. Thus water fluxes can influence renin release by a mechanism that is independent of cell volume.

  5. Hypoxic cell sensitizers and heavy charged-particle radiations.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J. D.; Urtasun, R. C.; Blakely, E. A.; Smith, K. C.; Tobias, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Stationary-phase populations of Chinese hamster V-79 cells were irradiated with 250 kV X-rays and the Bragg peaks (spread to a width of 4 cm) of energetic He-, C-, Ne-, and A-ion beams produced at the 184-inch cyclotron and BEVALAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Survival curves were generated with each radiation for cells suspended in air-saturated and nitrogen-saturated medium with and without sensitizer present. The oxygen enhancement ratios (OERs) measured for X-rays with 1mM metronidazole and 0.5 mM misonidazole were 2.0 and 1.6 respectively. The OERs without sensitizer for He-, C-, Ne-, and A-ion Bragg peaks were 2.4, 1.7, 1.6 and 1.4 respectively. For each type of radiation tested the presence of hypoxic-cell sensitizers resulted in an additional reduction in the measured OERs, indicating that these drugs should be of benefit in the radiotherapy planned with these and other high LET radiations. PMID:277223

  6. Particulate matter inflammation and receptor sensitivity are target cell specific.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Bellina; de Haar, Colin; Roy, Josee; Oortgiesen, Marga

    2002-02-01

    The complexity of primary source particulate matter (PM) and the various cell types encountered by its inhalation raise the possibility that target cells are differentially activated. Since epithelial cells, which line the nasal-tracheal-bronchial airways, and sensory C fibers, which terminate throughout this epithelial layer, are initially targeted by inhaled PM, we compared their relative biological response in vitro to PM originating from volcanic (MSH), anthropogenic (diesel), residential (woodstove), urban ambient (St. Louis, Ottawa), and industrial emission (coal fly ash, CFA; residual oil fly ash, ROFA; oil fly ash, OFA) sources. Increases in intracellular calcium (i.e., [Ca(2+)](i)) are a second-messenger event that indicates cellular activation and signal transduction, in both nerve and epithelial cells. Single-cell calcium imaging recordings were taken of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) exposed to selected PM (50 microg/ml or 30 microg/cm(2)). These cells responded with variable increases in [Ca(2+)](i) ranging from abrupt increases, which returned to baseline upon washing of the cells, to oscillations of the [Ca(2+)](i) that did not wash out. Increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and inflammatory cytokine (i.e., interleukin 6, IL-6) release were measured in populations of BEAS-2B cells exposed to PM (50 microg/ml) and were shown to significantly correlate (r(2) =.80). BEAS-2B cells, stained histochemically with cobalt, displayed a concentration-dependent precipitation in response to acid pH and capsaicin, indicating the presence of acid-sensitive pathways (e.g., VR1 and acid-sensitive receptors). To demonstrate the relevance of these pathways to inflammatory cytokine (i.e., IL-6) release, BEAS-2B cells were pretreated (15 min) with antagonists to the vanilloid (VR1) receptor (i.e., capsazepine, CPZ) or acid-sensitive pathways (i.e., amiloride) before their exposure to the selected PM. A significant reduction of IL-6 release occurred in response to all PM

  7. A Role for Regulatory T Cells in a Murine Model of Epicutaneous Toluene Diisocyanate Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Long, Carrie Mae; Marshall, Nikki B.; Lukomska, Ewa; Kashon, Michael L.; Meade, B. Jean; Shane, Hillary; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a leading cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma which impacts workers in a variety of industries worldwide. Recently, the robust regulatory potential of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has become apparent, including their functional role in the regulation of allergic disease; however, their function in TDI-induced sensitization has not been explored. To elucidate the kinetics, phenotype, and function of Tregs during TDI sensitization, BALB/c mice were dermally exposed (on each ear) to a single application of TDI (0.5–4% v/v) or acetone vehicle and endpoints were evaluated via RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The draining lymph node (dLN) Treg population expanded significantly 4, 7, and 9 days after single 4% TDI exposure. This population was identified using a variety of surface and intracellular markers and was found to be phenotypically heterogeneous based on increased expression of markers including CD103, CCR6, CTLA4, ICOS, and Neuropilin-1 during TDI sensitization. Tregs isolated from TDI-sensitized mice were significantly more suppressive compared with their control counterparts, further supporting a functional role for Tregs during TDI sensitization. Last, Tregs were depleted prior to TDI sensitization and an intensified sensitization response was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that Tregs exhibit a functional role during TDI sensitization. Because the role of Tregs in TDI sensitization has not been previously elucidated, these data contribute to the understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of chemical induced allergic disease. PMID:27103660

  8. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-08-15

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  9. Enhancement of Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuai

    Dye-Sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a class of third-generation solar devices. A notable feature of DSSC is that it can be manufactured by solution-based approach; this non-vacuum processing renders significant reduction in manufacturing costs. Different from conventional solar cells, in a DSSC, mesoporous semiconductor film with large surface areas is utilized for anchoring dye molecules, serving as light absorbing layer. Dye sensitizers play an important role in determining the final performance in DSSCs. Since the first highly-efficient DSSC was reported in 1991 sensitized by a ruthenium-based dye, numerous researchers have been focused on the development and characterization of various kinds of dyes for the applications in DSSCs. These include mainly metal complexes dyes, organic dyes, porphyrins and phthalocyanines dyes. The first part of my thesis work is to develop and test new dyes for DSSCs and a series of phenothiazine-based organic dyes and new porphyrin dyes are reported during the process. It has been realized that extending the response of dye sensitizers to a wider range of the solar spectrum is a key step in further improving the device efficiency. Typically, there are two ways for expanding the strong spectral response of DSSCs from visible to far red/NIR region. One approach is called co-sensitization. Herein, we demonstrate a new co-sensitization concept where small molecules is used to insert the interstitial site of between the pre-adsorbed large molecules. In this case, the co-adsorbed small ones is found to improve the light response and impede the back recombination, finally leading to the power conversion efficiency over 10% in conventional DSSC devices and a record-equaling efficiency of 9.2% in quasi-solid-state devices. I also implemented graphene sheets in the anode films for better charge transfer efficiency and break the energy conversion limit of co-sensitization in DSSCs. The optimal configuration between porphyrin dyes and

  10. Inhibition of the aquaporin 3 water channel increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, M; Bokaee, S; Davies, J; Harrington, K J; Pandha, H

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are intrinsic membrane proteins that facilitate selective water and small solute movement across the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigate the role of inhibiting AQPs in sensitising prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy. PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were cooled to 0, −5 and −10°C. The expression of AQP3 in response to freezing was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and western blot analysis. Aquaporins were inhibited using mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex, and cell survival was assessed using a colorimetric assay. There was a significant increase in AQP3 expression in response to freezing. Cells treated with AQP3 siRNA were more sensitive to cryoinjury compared with control cells (P<0.001). Inhibition of the AQPs by HgCl2 also increased the sensitivity of both cell lines to cryoinjury and there was a complete loss of cell viability at −10°C (P<0.01). In conclusion, we have shown that AQP3 is involved directly in cryoinjury. Inhibition of AQP3 increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to freezing. This strategy may be exploited in the clinic to improve the efficacy of prostate cryotherapy. PMID:19513079

  11. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-01-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research. PMID:27708359

  12. Monolithic-Structured Single-Layered Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Kim, Han Seong; Seo, Seon Hee; Lee, Dong Y.

    2016-10-01

    Textile-structured solar cells are frequently discussed in the literature due to their prospective applications in wearable devices and in building integrated solar cells that utilize their flexibility, mechanical robustness, and aesthetic appearance, but the current approaches for textile-based solar cells—including the preparation of fibre-type solar cells woven into textiles—face several difficulties from high friction and tension during the weaving process. This study proposes a new structural concept and fabrication process for monolithic-structured textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells that are fabricated by a process similar to the cloth-making process, including the preparation of wires and yarns that are woven for use in textiles, printed, dyed, and packaged. The fabricated single-layered textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells successfully act as solar cells in our study, even under bending conditions. By controlling the inter-weft spacing and the number of Ti wires for the photoelectrode conductor, we have found that the performance of this type of dye-sensitized solar cell was notably affected by the spacing between photoelectrodes and counter-electrodes, the exposed areas of Ti wires to photoelectrodes, and photoelectrodes’ surface morphology. We believe that this study provides a process and concept for improved textile-based solar cells that can form the basis for further research.

  13. Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells incorporating nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zusing; Chen, Chia-Ying; Roy, Prathik; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2011-09-14

    Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are interesting energy devices because of their (i) impressive ability to harvest sunlight and generate multiple electron/hole pairs, (ii) ease of fabrication, and (iii) low cost. The power conversion efficiencies (η) of most QDSSCs (typically <4%) are, however, less than those (up to 12%) of dye-sensitized solar cells, mainly because of narrow absorption ranges and charge recombination occurring at the QD-electrolyte and TiO(2)-electrolyte interfaces. To further increase the values of η of QDSSCs, it will be necessary to develop new types of working electrodes, sensitizers, counter electrodes and electrolytes. This Feature Article describes the nanomaterials that have been used recently as electronic conductors, sensitizers and counter electrodes in QDSSCs. The nature, size, morphology and quantity of these nanomaterials all play important roles affecting the efficiencies of electron injection and light harvesting. We discuss the behavior of several important types of semiconductor nanomaterials (sensitizers, including CdS, Ag(2)S, CdSe, CdTe, CdHgTe, InAs and PbS) and nanomaterials (notably TiO(2), ZnO and carbon-based species) that have been developed to improve the electron transport efficiency of QDSSCs. We point out the preparation of new generations of nanomaterials for QDSSCs and the types of electrolytes, particularly iodide/triiodide electrolytes (I(-)/I(3)(-)), polysulfide electrolytes (S(2-)/S(x)(2-)), and cobalt redox couples ([Co(o-phen)(3)(2+)/(3+)]), that improve their lifetimes. With advances in nanotechnology, we foresee significant improvements in the efficiency (η > 6%) and durability (>3000 h) of QDSSCs.

  14. Endotoxemia contributes to CD27+ memory B-cell apoptosis via enhanced sensitivity to Fas ligation in patients with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Yuan; Li, Yonghai; Kaplan, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral CD27+ memory B-cells become quantitatively reduced and dysfunctional in patients with cirrhosis through poorly characterized mechanisms. We hypothesized that the disappearance of CD27+ memory B-cells results from enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis caused by exposure to gut microbial translocation products. Using isolated naïve and memory B-cells from patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls, ex vivo and activation-induced sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis was assessed under relevant experimental conditions. We observed differential expression of CD95(Fas) in CD27+ B-cells from cirrhotic patients that was inversely correlated with peripheral CD27+ B-cell frequency. While memory B-cells from cirrhotic patients were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis ex vivo, Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)-ligation restored Fas-sensitivity. Sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis could be transferred to healthy donor memory B-cells by co-culturing these cells with plasma from cirrhotic patients, a sensitivity partially mediated by Fas and TLR4 signaling, and partially rescued via B-cell receptor crosslinking. We conclude that peripheral CD27+ memory B-cells in cirrhosis exhibit increased sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis in an activation-dependent manner to which endotoxin contributes, associated with reduced frequency of circulating memory B-cells. Destruction of this critical cell subset may contribute to the cirrhotic immunodeficiency state and heightened risk of systemic infections in advanced liver disease. PMID:27857173

  15. Iodine/iodide-free dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Shozo; Yu, Youhai; Manseki, Kazuhiro

    2009-11-17

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are built from nanocrystalline anatase TiO(2) with a 101 crystal face (nc-TiO(2)) onto which a dye is absorbed, ruthenium complex sensitizers, fluid I(-)/I(3)(-) redox couples with electrolytes, and a Pt-coated counter electrode. DSSCs have now reached efficiencies as high as 11%, and G24 Innovation (Cardiff, U.K.) is currently manufacturing them for commercial use. These devices offer several distinct advantages. On the basis of the electron lifetime and diffusion coefficient in the nc-TiO(2) layer, DSSCs maintain a diffusion length on the order of several micrometers when the dyed-nc-TiO(2) porous layer is covered by redox electrolytes of lithium and/or imidazolium iodide and their polyiodide salts. The fluid iodide/iodine (I(-)/I(3)(-)) redox electrolytes can infiltrate deep inside the intertwined nc-TiO(2) layers, promoting the mobility of the nc-TiO(2) layers and serving as a hole-transport material of DSSCs. As a result, these materials eventually give a respectable photovoltaic performance. On the other hand, fluid I(-)/I(3)(-) redox shuttles have certain disadvantages: reduced performance control and long-term stability and incompatibility with some metallic component materials. The I(-)/I(3)(-) redox shuttle shows a significant loss in short circuit current density and a slight loss in open circuit voltage, particularly in highly viscous electrolyte-based DSSC systems. Iodine can also act as an oxidizing agent, corroding metals, such as the grid metal Ag and the Pt mediator on the cathode, especially in the presence of water and oxygen. In addition, the electrolytes (I(-)/I(3)(-)) can absorb visible light (lambda = approximately 430 nm), leading to photocurrent loss in the DSSC. Therefore, the introduction of iodide/iodine-free electrolytes or hole-transport materials (HTMs) could lead to cost-effective alternatives to TiO(2) DSSCs. In this Account, we discuss the iodide/iodine-free redox couple as a substitute for the

  16. A Surface-Controlled Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency increased. Proposed technique for controlling recombination velocity on solar-cell surfaces provides cells of increased efficiency and open-circuit voltage. In present cells, uncontrolled surface recombination velocity degrades opencircuit voltage and efficiency. In cell using proposed technique, transparent conducting layer, insulated from cell contacts, biased to enable variable control of surface recombination velocity.

  17. A Surface-Controlled Solar Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1987-01-01

    Open-circuit voltage and cell efficiency increased. Proposed technique for controlling recombination velocity on solar-cell surfaces provides cells of increased efficiency and open-circuit voltage. In present cells, uncontrolled surface recombination velocity degrades opencircuit voltage and efficiency. In cell using proposed technique, transparent conducting layer, insulated from cell contacts, biased to enable variable control of surface recombination velocity.

  18. Voltage sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) in cultured neuronal hybrid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, C.L.; U'Prichard, D.C.; Noronha-Blob, L.

    1986-03-01

    Calcium entry via VSCC has been identified in selected, neuronal clonal cell lines using /sup 45/Ca uptake and the fluorescent calcium indicator, quin 2. VSCC in NG108-15 hybrid cells, differentiated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 mM, 4 days) have been further characterized. Depolarization (50 mM K/sup +/, dp) resulted in a rapid (15 sec) influx of Ca/sup 2 +/. Intracellular calcium concentrations were elevated approx. 3 fold from 223 +- 68 nM to 666 +- 74 nM. Dp-sensitive calcium entry was voltage dependent, independent of Na/sup +/, stimulated (40%) by the agonist Bay K 8644 (1..mu..M) and blocked by divalent cations (..mu..M range) and organic calcium channel antagonists (nM range) Bay K 8644, in the absence of KCl, failed to stimulate Ca/sup 2 +/ influx. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and tetraethylammonium had no effect on VSCC activity. Blockage of VSCC by nimodipine was reversed by increasing Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. IC/sub 50/ values were right shifted from 6.5 nM (1mM/sup 0/Ca/sup 2 +/) to 840 nM (10 mM Ca/sup 2 +/). Ca/sup 2 +/ entry was also stimulated by veratridine (VE), in a Na/sup +//sub 0/-sensitive manner. VE-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ entry was voltage-independent, TTX-sensitive, and was only 25% of dp-sensitive Ca/sup 2 +/ entry. These results together indicate that VSCC in neuronal cells offer a useful system for studying ion channel regulation.

  19. All-solid-state, semiconductor-sensitized nanoporous solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2012-05-15

    Despite the rapid increase in solar cell manufacturing capacity (~50 GW(p) in 2011), maintaining this continued expansion will require resolving some major fabrication issues. Crystalline Si, the most common type of cell, requires a large energy input in the manufacturing process, which results in an energy payback time of years. CdTe/CdS thin film cells, which have captured around 10% of the global market, may not be sustainable for very large-scale use because of limited Te availability. Thus, research in this field is emphasizing cells that are energy efficient and inexpensive and use readily available materials. The extremely thin absorber (ETA) cell, the subject of this Account, is one of these new generation cells. Since the active light absorber in an ETA cell is no more than tens of nanometers thick, the direct recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in the absorber should not compete as much with charge removal in the form of photocurrent as in thicker absorber materials. As a result, researchers expect that poorer quality semiconductors can be used in an ETA cell, which would expand the choice of semiconductors over those currently in use. We first describe the ETA cell, comparing and contrasting it to the dye-sensitized cell (DSC) from which it developed and describing its potential advantages and disadvantages. We then explain the mechanism(s) of operation of the ETA cell, which remain controversial: different ETA cells most likely operate by different mechanisms, particularly in their photovoltage generation. We then present a general description of how we prepare ETA cells in our laboratory, emphasizing solution methods to form the various layers and solution treatments of these layers to minimize manufacturing costs. This is followed by a more specific discussion of the various layers and treatments used to make and complete a cell with emphasis on solution treatments that are important in optimizing cell performance and explaining the

  20. Curcumin Sensitizes Silymarin to Exert Synergistic Anticancer Activity in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Amanda; Adeyeni, Temitope; San, KayKay; Heuertz, Rita M.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.

    2016-01-01

    We studied combinatorial interactions of two phytochemicals, curcumin and silymarin, in their action against cancer cell proliferation. Curcumin is the major component of the spice turmeric. Silymarin is a bioactive component of milk thistle used as a protective supplement against liver disease. We studied antiproliferative effects of curcumin alone, silymarin alone and combinations of curcumin and silymarin using colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, LoVo). Curcumin inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas silymarin showed significant inhibition only at the highest concentrations assessed. We found synergistic effects when colon cancer cells were treated with curcumin and silymarin together. The combination treatment led to inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to single compound treated cells. Combination treated cells exhibited marked cell rounding and membrane blebbing of apoptotic cells. Curcumin treated cells showed 3-fold more caspase3/7 activity whereas combination treated cells showed 5-fold more activity compared to control and silymarin treated cells. When DLD-1 cells were pre-exposed to curcumin, followed by treatment with silymarin, the cells underwent a high amount of cell death. The pre-exposure studies indicated curcumin sensitization of silymarin effect. Our results indicate that combinatorial treatments using phytochemicals are effective against colorectal cancer. PMID:27390600

  1. Factors controlling sensitivity in ultraviolet disinfection of secondary effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, R.G.; Ossoff, S.F.; Chang, C.H.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Lobe, D.C.; Johnson, D.

    1985-10-01

    Evaluation of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection must distinguish between the UV-sensitivity of the bacteria themselves and the difference between the UV intensity applied and that received by the organism caused primarily by UV-absorbing materials. Samples from a variety of wastewater effluents were irradiated in a simplified system where the factors controlling disinfection could be accurately measured. Total coliform survival was determined as a function of UV dose for both unfiltered and 10-..mu..m filtered effluent samples. Particles were counted by size class. Coliforms not associated with larger particles were only slightly less sensitive to UV light than cultured and purified E. coli. Particulate-associated coliforms were more resistant; resistance was determined by the number and size of suspended particles. At a UV dose of 26 mW x s/cm/sup 2/, survival was correlated best with the number of particles greater than 40 ..mu..m (r/sup 2/ = 0.55), suspended solids (r/sup 2/ = 0.55), and suspended solids removed by 10-..mu..m filtration (r/sup 2/ = 0.65).

  2. Do glial cells control pain?

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Marc R; Wen, Yeong-Ray; Decosterd, Isabelle; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2008-01-01

    Management of chronic pain is a real challenge, and current treatments focusing on blocking neurotransmission in the pain pathway have only resulted in limited success. Activation of glia cells has been widely implicated in neuroinflammation in the central nervous system, leading to neruodegeneration in many disease conditions such as Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis. The inflammatory mediators released by activated glial cells, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β can not only cause neurodegeneration in these disease conditions, but also cause abnormal pain by acting on spinal cord dorsal horn neurons in injury conditions. Pain can also be potentiated by growth factors such as BDNF and bFGF that are produced by glia to protect neurons. Thus, glia cells can powerfully control pain when they are activated to produce various pain mediators. We will review accumulating evidence supporting an important role of microglia cells in the spinal cord for pain control under injury conditions (e.g. nerve injury). We will also discuss possible signaling mechanisms in particular MAP kinase pathways that are critical for glia control of pain. Investigating signaling mechanisms in microglia may lead to more effective management of devastating chronic pain. PMID:18504511

  3. miR-25 modulates NSCLC cell radio-sensitivity through directly inhibiting BTG2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhiwei Liu, Yi Xiao, Bing Qian, Xiaosen

    2015-02-13

    A large proportion of the NSCLC patients were insensitive to radiotherapy, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study explored the role of miR-25 in regulating sensitivity of NSCLC cells to ionizing radiation (IR) and its downstream targets. Based on measurement in tumor samples from NSCLC patients, this study found that miR-25 expression is upregulated in both NSCLC and radio-resistant NSCLC patients compared the healthy and radio-sensitive controls. In addition, BTG expression was found negatively correlated with miR-25a expression in the both tissues and cells. By applying luciferase reporter assay, we verified two putative binding sites between miR-25 and BTG2. Therefore, BTG2 is a directly target of miR-25 in NSCLC cancer. By applying loss-and-gain function analysis in NSCLC cell lines, we demonstrated that miR-25-BTG2 axis could directly regulated BTG2 expression and affect radiotherapy sensitivity of NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • miR-25 is upregulated, while BTG2 is downregulated in radioresistant NSCLC patients. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiation induced apoptosis. • miR-25 directly targets BTG2 and suppresses its expression. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiotherapy through inhibiting BTG2 expression.

  4. Exercise-induced hemolysis in sickle cell anemia: shear sensitivity and erythrocyte dehydration.

    PubMed

    Platt, O S

    1982-05-01

    We describe a steady-state patient with sickle cell anemia (SS disease) who developed sporadic hemoglobinuria, historically related to vigorous exercise. We studied him and four other patients with SS disease and demonstrated exercise-induced hemoglobinemia. To see if SS erythrocytes were abnormally fragile when exposed to shear forces that could be generated in small vessels of exercising muscles, we exposed them to physiologic shear rates in a cone-plate viscometer. We show that SS erythrocytes are more shear sensitive than normal erythrocytes. This phenomenon is directly related to the presence of dehydrated cells as demonstrated by the increasing shear sensitivity of increasingly dehydrated cells separated on Stractan density gradients. Normal shear sensitivity could be restored to dehydrated layers by restoring normal hydration. Restoration of shear stability was complete in all layers except for the most dense ISC layer. A control group of patients with SC disease exhibited no exercise-induced hemoglobinemia, no abnormal shear sensitivity of whole blood, and only rare dehydrated ISCs. These studies suggest that the exercise-induced hemolysis in SS patients is related to the lysis of dehydrated, shear-sensitive cells. This same process may also contribute to the chronic hemolysis of SS disease--a phenomenon known to correlate with the numbers of dehydrated ISCs.

  5. Low-hazard metallography of moisture-sensitive electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, D E; Rodriguez, M A; McKenzie, B B; Papenguth, H W

    2011-08-01

    A low-hazard approach is presented to prepare metallographic cross-sections of moisture-sensitive battery components. The approach is tailored for evaluation of thermal (molten salt) batteries composed of thin pressed-powder pellets, but has general applicability to other battery electrochemistries. Solution-cast polystyrene is used to encapsulate cells before embedding in epoxy. Nonaqueous grinding and polishing are performed in an industrial dry room to increase throughput. Lapping oil is used as a lubricant throughout grinding. Hexane is used as the solvent throughout processing; occupational exposure levels are well below the limits. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy on cross-sections are used to analyse a thermal battery cell. Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction on oblique angle cut cells complement the metallographic analysis. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Review on Metallic and Plastic Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugis, A. R.; Mansa, R. F.; Sipaut, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSCs have promoted intense research due to their low cost and eco-friendly advantage over conventional silicon-based crystalline solar cells. In recent years, lightweight flexible types of DSSCs have attracted much intention because of drastic reduction in production cost and more extensive application. The substrate that used as electrode of the DSSCs has a dominant impact on the methods and materials that can be applied to the cell and consequently on the resulting performance of DSSCs. Furthermore, the substrates influence significantly the stability of the device. Although the power conversion efficiency still low compared to traditional glass based DSSCs, flexible DSSCs still have potential to be the most efficient and easily implemented technology.

  7. Study of gemcitabine-sensitive/resistant cancer cells by cell cloning and synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Abigail V; Siddique, Muhammad R; Filik, Jacob; Sandt, Christophe; Dumas, Paul; Cinque, Gianfelice; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Yang, Ying; Sulé-Suso, Josep

    2014-08-01

    Over the last few years, significant scientific insight on the effects of chemotherapy drugs at cellular level using synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy has been obtained. The work carried out so far has identified spectral differences in cancer cells before and after the addition of drugs. However, this had to account for the following issues. First, chemotherapy agents cause both chemical and morphological changes in cells, the latter being responsible for changes in the spectral profile not correlated with biochemical characteristics. Second, as the work has been carried out in mixed populations of cells (resistant and sensitive), it is important to distinguish the spectral differences which are due to sensitivity/resistance to those due to cell morphology and/or cell mixture. Here, we successfully cloned resistant and sensitive lung cancer cells to a chemotherapy drug. This allowed us to study a more uniform population and, more important, allowed us to study sensitive and resistant cells prior to the addition of the drug with S-FTIR microscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) did not detect major differences in resistant cells prior to and after adding the drug. However, PCA separated sensitive cells prior to and after the addition of the drug. This would indicate that the spectral differences between cells prior to and after adding a drug might reside on those more or less sensitive cells that have been able to remain alive when they were collected to be studied with S-FTIR microspectroscopy. This is a proof of concept and a feasibility study showing a methodology that opens a new way to identify the effects of drugs on more homogeneous cell populations using vibrational spectroscopy.

  8. Suppression of BRCA1 sensitizes cells to proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Y; Bouwman, P; Greco, D; Saarela, J; Yadav, B; Jonkers, J; Kuznetsov, S G

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 is a multifunctional protein best known for its role in DNA repair and association with breast and ovarian cancers. To uncover novel biologically significant molecular functions of BRCA1, we tested a panel of 198 approved and experimental drugs to inhibit growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depleted for BRCA1 by siRNA. 26S proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib emerged as a new class of selective BRCA1-targeting agents. The effect was confirmed in HeLa and U2OS cancer cell lines using two independent siRNAs, and in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with inducible deletion of Brca1. Bortezomib treatment did not cause any increase in nuclear foci containing phosphorylated histone H2AX, and knockdown of BRCA2 did not entail sensitivity to bortezomib, suggesting that the DNA repair function of BRCA1 may not be directly involved. We found that a toxic effect of bortezomib on BRCA1-depleted cells is mostly due to deregulated cell cycle checkpoints mediated by RB1-E2F pathway and 53BP1. Similar to BRCA1, depletion of RB1 also conferred sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas suppression of E2F1 or 53BP1 together with BRCA1 reduced induction of apoptosis after bortezomib treatment. A gene expression microarray study identified additional genes activated by bortezomib treatment only in the context of inactivation of BRCA1 including a critical involvement of the ERN1-mediated unfolded protein response. Our data indicate that BRCA1 has a novel molecular function affecting cell cycle checkpoints in a manner dependent on the 26S proteasome activity. PMID:25522274

  9. Absorption spectra and photovoltaic characterization of chlorophyllins as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Crupi, Cristina; Di Marco, Gaetano

    2014-11-11

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Chlorine-e6 (Chl-e6), a Chlorophyll a derivative, and Chl-e6 containing Cu, have been investigated by carrying out incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The effect of the metallic ion and the influence of the solvent polarity on the dye aggregation and their absorption bands have been analysed by performing electronic absorption measurements. The dependence of the photoelectrochemical parameters of these DSSCs on the electrolyte by the addition of pyrimidine and/or pyrrole has been discussed in details. For the first time I-V curves for a DSSC based on copper Chl-e6 dye have been shown and compared with Zn based chlorophyllin. Furthermore, the performance of a Cu-Chl-e6 based DSSC has been deeply improved by a progressive optimization of the TiO2 multilayer photoanode overcoming the best data reported in literature so far for this dye. It's worth to emphasize that, the analysis reported in this paper supplies very useful information which paves the way to further detailed studies turned to the employment of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells.

  10. Rose Bengal sensitized niobium pentaoxide photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beedri, Niyamat I.; Sayyed, Suhail A. A. R.; Jadkar, Sandesh R.; Pathan, Habib M.

    2017-05-01

    The present work deals with the study of Nb2O5 photoanode with low cost rose Bengal dye for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. Chemical route was used for preparation of nano-crystalline niobium pentaoxide (Nb2O5) and doctor blade method was employed for deposition of Nb2O5 films. The morphological and structural analysis of Nb2O5 photoanodes were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The SEM micrograph shows spherical granular grains with porous structure useful for dye adsorption. The XRD analysis shows the formation of pure orthorhombic phase of Nb2O5. The band gap value for Nb2O5 photoanode was calculated as 3.2 eV using diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). As an alternative to conventional ruthenium dye, we used rose Bengal (4, 5, 6, 7-tetrachloro- 20, 40, 50, 70 tetra-iodo-fluorescein) dye, which acts as a photo-sensitizer for DSSCs. The absorbance spectra of the rose Bengal dye was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The cell shows open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit photocurrent (Jsc) and fill factor around 0.53V, 0.13mA /cm2 and 22% respectively.

  11. Highly stable tandem solar cell monolithically integrating dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Sang Youn; Park, Se Jin; Joo, Oh-Shim; Jun, Yongseok; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    A highly stable monolithic tandem solar cell was developed by combining the heterogeneous photovoltaic technologies of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and solution-processed CuInxGa1-xSeyS1-y (CIGS) thin film solar cells. The durability of the tandem cell was dramatically enhanced by replacing the redox couple from to [Co(bpy)3]2+ /[Co(bpy)3]3+), accompanied by a well-matched counter electrode (PEDOT:PSS) and sensitizer (Y123). A 1000 h durability test of the DSSC/CIGS tandem solar cell in ambient conditions resulted in only a 5% decrease in solar cell efficiency. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical cell measurement, the enhanced stability of the tandem cell is attributed to minimal corrosion by the cobalt-based polypyridine complex redox couple. PMID:27489138

  12. Highly stable tandem solar cell monolithically integrating dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sang Youn; Park, Se Jin; Joo, Oh-Shim; Jun, Yongseok; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2016-08-04

    A highly stable monolithic tandem solar cell was developed by combining the heterogeneous photovoltaic technologies of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and solution-processed CuInxGa1-xSeyS1-y (CIGS) thin film solar cells. The durability of the tandem cell was dramatically enhanced by replacing the redox couple from to [Co(bpy)3](2+) /[Co(bpy)3](3+)), accompanied by a well-matched counter electrode ( PSS) and sensitizer (Y123). A 1000 h durability test of the DSSC/CIGS tandem solar cell in ambient conditions resulted in only a 5% decrease in solar cell efficiency. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical cell measurement, the enhanced stability of the tandem cell is attributed to minimal corrosion by the cobalt-based polypyridine complex redox couple.

  13. Highly stable tandem solar cell monolithically integrating dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sang Youn; Park, Se Jin; Joo, Oh-Shim; Jun, Yongseok; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2016-08-01

    A highly stable monolithic tandem solar cell was developed by combining the heterogeneous photovoltaic technologies of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and solution-processed CuInxGa1-xSeyS1-y (CIGS) thin film solar cells. The durability of the tandem cell was dramatically enhanced by replacing the redox couple from to [Co(bpy)3]2+ /[Co(bpy)3]3+), accompanied by a well-matched counter electrode (PEDOT:PSS) and sensitizer (Y123). A 1000 h durability test of the DSSC/CIGS tandem solar cell in ambient conditions resulted in only a 5% decrease in solar cell efficiency. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical cell measurement, the enhanced stability of the tandem cell is attributed to minimal corrosion by the cobalt-based polypyridine complex redox couple.

  14. rhomboid mediates specification of blue- and green-sensitive R8 photoreceptor cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Denise A; Chou, Wen-Hai; Phistry, Meridee M; Britt, Steven G

    2009-03-04

    Color vision is based on the differential color sensitivity of retinal photoreceptors, however the developmental programs that control photoreceptor cell differentiation and specify color sensitivity are poorly understood. In Drosophila there is growing evidence that the color sensitivity of the R8 cell within an individual ommatidium is regulated by an inductive signal from the adjacent R7 cell. We previously examined the retinal patterning defect in Scutoid mutants, which results from a disruption of rhomboid expression. Here we show that loss of rhomboid blocks the induction of Rh5 expression and misexpression of rhomboid leads to the inappropriate induction of Rh5. These effects are specific to rhomboid, because its paralogue roughoid is neither required nor sufficient for the induction of Rh5 expression. We show that rhomboid is required cell-autonomously within the R8 photoreceptor cells and nonautonomously elsewhere in the eye for Rh5 induction. Interestingly, we found that the Epidermal growth factor receptor is also required for Rh5 induction, and its activation is sufficient to rescue the loss of Rh5 induction in a rhomboid mutant. This suggests that rhomboid may function in R8 cells to activate Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in R7 cells and promote their differentiation to a signaling competent state.

  15. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats.

  16. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  17. Halogen Bonding Promotes Higher Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photovoltages.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Swords, Wesley B; Kellett, Cameron W; Du, Chuan; Lam, Brian; Dean, Rebecca K; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-08-24

    We report here an enhancement in photovoltage for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) where halogen-bonding interactions exist between a nucleophilic electrolyte species (I(-)) and a photo-oxidized dye immobilized on a TiO2 surface. The triarylamine-based dyes under investigation showed larger rate constants for dye regeneration (kreg) by the nucleophilic electrolyte species when heavier halogen substituents were positioned on the dye. The open-circuit voltages (VOC) tracked these kreg values. This analysis of a homologous series of dyes that differ only in the identity of two halogen substituents provides compelling evidence that the DSSC photovoltage is sensitive to kreg. This study also provides the first direct evidence that halogen-bonding interactions between the dye and the electrolyte can bolster DSSC performance.

  18. Natural dye -sensitized mesoporous ZnO solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wu, Guizhi; Li, Linyu; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng

    2011-02-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (N-DSSCs) were assembled using chlorophyll sensitized mesoporous ZnO (based on FTO) as the photoanode and platinum plate as the cathode. The natural dyes (chlorophyll) were extracted from spinach by simple procedure. The absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll were studied. Mesoporous ZnO (m-ZnO) applied to the N-DSSCs was synthesized through hydrothermal method. The structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and diffuse reflection. The results indicated that the samples had an average pore size of 17 nm and the m-ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. The performances of the N-DSSCs were investigated under AM 1.5G illumination. The Voc of the N-DSSCs was about 480mv, and the Isc was about 470μA. The performance of the N-DSSCs could be further improved by adjusting its structure.

  19. Natural dye -sensitized mesoporous ZnO solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wu, Guizhi; Li, Linyu; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng

    2010-10-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (N-DSSCs) were assembled using chlorophyll sensitized mesoporous ZnO (based on FTO) as the photoanode and platinum plate as the cathode. The natural dyes (chlorophyll) were extracted from spinach by simple procedure. The absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll were studied. Mesoporous ZnO (m-ZnO) applied to the N-DSSCs was synthesized through hydrothermal method. The structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and diffuse reflection. The results indicated that the samples had an average pore size of 17 nm and the m-ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. The performances of the N-DSSCs were investigated under AM 1.5G illumination. The Voc of the N-DSSCs was about 480mv, and the Isc was about 470μA. The performance of the N-DSSCs could be further improved by adjusting its structure.

  20. Stem cells and differentiated cells differ in their sensitivity to urine in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Balcerczyk, Daria; Buhl, Monika; Jundziłł, Arkadiusz; Nowacki, Maciej; Męcińska-Jundziłł, Kaja; Drewa, Tomasz

    2017-09-19

    Urinary tract regeneration using tissue engineering is one of the most challenging issues in the field of reconstructive urology. Cells seeded on scaffold are exposed to urine immediately after the implantation. The outcome of urinary bladder regeneration is depended on the ability of these cells to survive, proliferate and regenerate. The aim of this study was to compare a sensitivity of three different cell lines to urine in vitro. Three different cell lines were isolated from porcine bladder (urothelial cells, UCs and smooth muscle cells, SMCs) and adipose tissue (adipose-derived stem cells, ADSCs). Cell viability (MTT assay), proliferation (real-time cell analysis using xCELLigence system) and apoptosis/necrosis (flow cytometry) were analyzed after exposition to urine. ADSCs were the most sensitive to urine compared to two other tested cell lines. Among the bladder cell lines the urothelial cells were more resistant to urine than SMCs. Twenty four hour incubation of UCs, SMCs and ADSCs with urine lead to ∼40%, ∼70% and ∼90% reduction of their viability, respectively. The mechanism of urine mediated cytotoxicity differed depending on the tested cell type. Urothelial and smooth muscle cells seem to be more suitable for urinary bladder regeneration compared to mesenchymal stem cells, however these cells have limited application especially in the case of urinary bladder cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Silencing of tubulin binding cofactor C modifies microtubule dynamics and cell cycle distribution and enhances sensitivity to gemcitabine in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Herveau, Stéphanie; Matera, Eva-Laure; Laurier, Jean-Fabien; Dumontet, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC) is essential for the proper folding of α- and β-tubulins into microtubule polymerizable heterodimers. Because microtubules are considered major targets in the treatment of breast cancer, we investigated the influence of TBCC silencing on tubulin pools, microtubule dynamics, and cell cycle distribution of breast cancer cells by developing a variant MCF7 cells with reduced content of TBCC (MC-). MC- cells displayed decreased content in nonpolymerizable tubulins and increased content of polymerizable/microtubule tubulins when compared with control MP6 cells. Microtubules in MC- cells showed stronger dynamics than those of MP6 cells. MC- cells proliferated faster than MP6 cells and showed an altered cell cycle distribution, with a higher percentage in S-phase of the cell cycle. Consequently, MC- cells presented higher sensitivity to the S-phase-targeting agent gemcitabine than MP6 cells in vitro. Although the complete duration of mitosis was shorter in MC- cells and their microtubule dynamics was enhanced, the percentage of cells in G(2)-M phase was not altered nor was there any difference in sensitivity to antimicrotubule-targeting agents when compared with MP6 cells. Xenografts derived from TBCC variants displayed significantly enhanced tumor growth in vivo and increased sensitivity to gemcitabine in comparison to controls. These results are the first to suggest that proteins involved in the proper folding of cytoskeletal components may have an important influence on the cell cycle distribution, proliferation, and chemosensitivity of tumor cells.

  2. Nrf2 inhibition sensitizes cholangiocarcinoma cells to cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities of chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Samatiwat, Papavee; Prawan, Auemduan; Senggunprai, Laddawan; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor regulating antioxidant, cytoprotective, and metabolic enzymes, plays important roles in drug resistance and proliferation in cancer cells. The present study was aimed to examine the expression of Nrf2 in connection with chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. The basal levels of Nrf2 protein in cytosol and nuclear fractions of CCA cells were determined using Western blot analysis. Nrf2 mRNA expression of KKU-M156 and KKU-100 cells, representatives of low and high-Nrf2-expressing CCA cells, were silenced using siRNA. After knockdown of Nrf2, the sensitivity of those cells to the cytotoxicity of cisplatin (Cis) was enhanced in association with the increased release of AIF and downregulation of Bcl-xl in both cells. Also, knockdown of Nrf2 suppressed the replicative capability of those cells in colony-forming assay and enhanced their sensitivity to antiproliferative activity of Cis and 5-fluorouracil. The chemosensitizing effect was associated with the suppressed expression of Nrf2-regulated and Cis-induced antioxidant and metabolic genes including NQO1, HO-1, GCLC, TXN, MRP2, TKT, and G6PD. In cell cycle analysis, Nrf2 knockdown cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase and combination with Cis increased the accumulation of cells at S phase. The suppression of KKU-M156 cell proliferation was associated with the downregulation of cyclin D1 and increased level of p21. Inhibition of Nrf2 could be a novel strategy in enhancing antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agent in control of resistant cancer.

  3. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-25

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  4. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  5. Highly Sensitive Assay for Measurement of Arenavirus-cell Attachment.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Joseph P; Botten, Jason

    2016-03-02

    Arenaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses that cause severe human disease. The first step in the arenavirus life cycle is attachment of viral particles to host cells. While virus-cell attachment can be measured through the use of virions labeled with biotin, radioactive isotopes, or fluorescent dyes, these approaches typically require high multiplicities of infection (MOI) to enable detection of bound virus. We describe a quantitative (q)RT-PCR-based assay that measures Junin virus strain Candid 1 attachment via quantitation of virion-packaged viral genomic RNA. This assay has several advantages including its extreme sensitivity and ability to measure attachment over a large dynamic range of MOIs without the need to purify or label input virus. Importantly, this approach can be easily tailored for use with other viruses through the use of virus-specific qRT-PCR reagents. Further, this assay can be modified to permit measurement of particle endocytosis and genome uncoating. In conclusion, we describe a simple, yet robust assay for highly sensitive measurement of arenavirus-cell attachment.

  6. Doping of TiO2 for sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Roose, Bart; Pathak, Sandeep; Steiner, Ullrich

    2015-11-21

    This review gives a detailed summary and evaluation of the use of TiO2 doping to improve the performance of dye sensitized solar cells. Doping has a major effect on the band structure and trap states of TiO2, which in turn affect important properties such as the conduction band energy, charge transport, recombination and collection. The defect states of TiO2 are highly dependent on the synthesis method and thus the effect of doping may vary for different synthesis techniques, making it difficult to compare the suitability of different dopants. High-throughput methods may be employed to achieve a rough prediction on the suitability of dopants for a specific synthesis method. It was however found that nearly every employed dopant can be used to increase device performance, indicating that the improvement is not so much caused by the dopant itself, as by the defects it eliminates from TiO2. Furthermore, with the field shifting from dye sensitized solar cells to perovskite solar cells, the role doping can play to further advance this emerging field is also discussed.

  7. Space Telescope Sensitivity and Controls for Exoplanet Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Herein we address design considerations and outline requirements for space telescopes with capabilities for high contrast imaging of exoplanets. The approach taken is to identify the span of potentially detectable Earth-sized terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of the nearest stars within 30 parsecs and estimate their inner working angles, flux ratios, SNR, sensitivities, wavefront error requirements and sensing and control times parametrically versus aperture size. We consider 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16-meter diameter telescope apertures. The achievable science, range of telescope architectures, and the coronagraphic approach are all active areas of research and are all subject to change in a rapidly evolving field. Thus, presented is a snapshot of our current understanding with the goal of limiting the choices to those that appear currently technically feasible. We describe the top-level metrics of inner working angle, contrast and photometric throughput and explore how they are related to the range of target stars. A critical point is that for each telescope architecture and coronagraphic choice the telescope stability requirements have differing impacts on the design for open versus closed-loop sensing and control.

  8. Baroreflex Sensitivity Impairment During Hypoglycemia: Implications for Cardiovascular Control.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ajay D; Bonyhay, Istvan; Dankwa, Joel; Baimas-George, Maria; Kneen, Lindsay; Ballatori, Sarah; Freeman, Roy; Adler, Gail K

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown associations between exposure to hypoglycemia and increased mortality, raising the possibility that hypoglycemia has adverse cardiovascular effects. In this study, we determined the acute effects of hypoglycemia on cardiovascular autonomic control. Seventeen healthy volunteers were exposed to experimental hypoglycemia (2.8 mmol/L) for 120 min. Cardiac vagal baroreflex function was assessed using the modified Oxford method before the initiation of the hypoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp protocol and during the last 30 min of hypoglycemia. During hypoglycemia, compared with baseline euglycemic conditions, 1) baroreflex sensitivity decreases significantly (19.2 ± 7.5 vs. 32.9 ± 16.6 ms/mmHg, P < 0.005), 2) the systolic blood pressure threshold for baroreflex activation increases significantly (the baroreflex function shifts to the right; 120 ± 14 vs. 112 ± 12 mmHg, P < 0.005), and 3) the maximum R-R interval response (1,088 ± 132 vs. 1,496 ± 194 ms, P < 0.001) and maximal range of the R-R interval response (414 ± 128 vs. 817 ± 183 ms, P < 0.001) decrease significantly. These findings indicate reduced vagal control and impaired cardiovascular homeostasis during hypoglycemia.

  9. Cultured stem cells are sensitive to gravity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Konstantinova, N. A.; Buravkov, S. V.; Gershovich, Yu. G.; Grivennikov, I. A.

    2008-09-01

    Stem and precursor cells play an important role in development and regeneration. The state of these cells is regulated by biochemical substances, mechanical stimuli and cellular interactions. To estimate gravity effects we used two types of cultured stem cells: human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow and mice embryonic stem (mESC) line R1. Gravity changes were simulated by long-term (4-7 days) slow clinorotation and leaded to decreased hMSC proliferation, changes of cell morphology and modified F-actin cytoskeleton. We did not find the shifts in cell phenotype except for decreased expression of HLA 1 and CD105 but excretion of IL-6 into medium increased significantly. Remodeling of cytoskeleton started after first 4 h and was similar to preapoptotic changes. This data suggested the modification in cell adhesion and possible commitment of hMSC. It was observed that expression of alkaline phosphatase by MSC in osteogenic medium was more intensive in control. On the contrary, clinorotation did not change formation of mESC colonies and increased proliferation activity in LIF+-medium. However, the number of embryonic bodies after clinorotation was less than in static control. It is suggested that ESCs kept the viability and proliferative potential but decreased the differentiation ability after changes in gravity stimulation.

  10. ARID1A gene silencing reduces the sensitivity of ovarian clear cell carcinoma to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Changshuai; Zhang, Yinglan; Zhou, Xingnan; Lang, Jinghe

    2016-01-01

    In ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC), the mutation rate of the AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) gene is 46–57%. However, the effects of ARID1A gene silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the sensitivity of OCCC to cisplatin have not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the association between ARID1A gene silencing and drug resistance in OCCC. Three pairs of ARID1A gene siRNA fragments (siRNA-1, siRNA-2 and siRNA-3) were designed and transiently transfected into ES2 OCCC cells using RNAi Max reagent. Western blotting results demonstrated that the transfection reduced ARID1A protein expression levels, with the siRNA-3 group having the lowest levels. The IC50 value, determined using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay, was significantly increased by siRNA-3 transfection compared with that in blank control and negative control groups. The cell survival rate following treatment with 50 µM cisplatin for 48 h was significantly increased in the siRNA-3 group compared with the blank control and negative control groups. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the apoptosis rate for cisplatin-treated cells was significantly lower in cells with siRNA-3 transfection than in those without, and the apoptosis rate in siRNA-3-transfected cells was lower than that in the negative control group. Western blot analysis showed that the expression level of AKT in cisplatin-treated cells was significantly decreased compared with that in the negative control group, and the AKT expression level in cisplatin-treated cells was significantly higher with siRNA-3 transfection than without. Therefore, the results demonstrated that ARID1A siRNA efficiently decreased ARID1A expression, which reduced cisplatin chemosensitivity and cell apoptosis in ES2 OCCC cells via the regulation of AKT expression. PMID:28105136

  11. Trastuzumab Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Cells to EGFR-targeted Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Webster, Kristy T; Maihle, Nita J

    2010-03-27

    Early studies have demonstrated comparable levels of HER2/ErbB2 expression in both breast and ovarian cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a therapeutic monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, is FDA-approved for the treatment of both early and late stage breast cancer. However, clinical studies of trastuzumab in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients have not met the same level of success. Surprisingly, however, no reports have examined either the basis for primary trastuzumab resistance in ovarian cancer or potential ways of salvaging trastuzumab as a potential ovarian cancer therapeutic. An in vitro model of primary trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer was created by long-term culture of HER2-positive ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab treated vs. untreated parental cells were compared for HER receptor expression, trastuzumab sensitivity, and sensitivity to other HER-targeted therapeutics. In contrast to widely held assumptions, here we show that ovarian cancer cells that are not growth inhibited by trastuzumab are still responsive to trastuzumab. Specifically, we show that responsiveness to alternative HER-targeted inhibitors, such as gefitinib and cetuximab, is dramatically potentiated by long-term trastuzumab treatment of ovarian cancer cells. HER2-positive ovarian carcinoma-derived cells are, therefore, not "unresponsive" to trastuzumab as previously assumed, even when they not growth inhibited by this drug. Given the recent success of EGFR-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of other solid tumors, and the well-established safety profile of trastuzumab, results presented here provide a rationale for re-evaluation of trastuzumab as an experimental ovarian cancer therapeutic, either in concert with, or perhaps as a "primer" for EGFR-targeted therapeutics.

  12. Computational studies of quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Grigory

    This thesis presents a computational study of quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells. First part deals with the non-equilibrium many-body theory or non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) theory. In this approach I study electron dynamics in the quantum-dot sensitized solar cell subjected to time-dependent fields. NEGF theory, because it does not impose any conditions on a perturbation, is the fundamental one to describe ultrafast processes in small, strongly correlated systems and/or in strong fields. In this research I do not only perform analytical derivation, but also design and implement spectral numerical solution for the resulting complex system of partial integrodifferential equations. This numerical solution yielded an order of magnitude speedup over the methods used previously in the field. The forth chapter of this thesis deals with calculation of optical properties and the ground state configuration of Zn2SnO4 (ZTO). ZTO is used by experimentalists in UW to grow nanorods which are then sensitized by QDs. ZTO is a challenging material for computational analysis because of its inverse spinel structure; thus it has an immense number of configurations matching the X-ray diffraction experiments. I've applied a cluster expansion method and have found the ground state configuration and phase diagram for ZTO. Calculations of optical properties of ground state bulk ZTO were done with a recently developed DFT functional. The optical band gap obtained in these calculations matched the experimental value. The last chapter describes development of the general simulator for interdigitated array electrodes. The application of this simulation together with the experiments may lead to understanding of reaction parameters and mechanisms important for development of electrochemical solar cells.

  13. Clinical perspectives for the use of new hypoxic cell sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    Experience with high pressure oxygen in combination with radiotherapy has shown that, for some tumors at least, the presence of hypoxic cells is a limiting factor in the ability to cure these tumors even with conventional daily fractionation. This suggests that hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, of which misonidazole (MISO) is the prototype drug, may play a role in improving the cure-rate of some tumors when combined with daily fractionation. Even for those tumors for which no improvement is seen when combined with daily fractionation, it is likely that there will be an important role for these sensitizers by using them in combination with regimens of only a few dose fractions. Because of the limiting side effects of neuropathy, a less toxic radiosensitizer than MISO is required to gain the full clinical benefit of these drugs. A possible way of achieving this is to reduce the lipid solubility (lipophilicity) of the compounds while still retaining their electron-affinity. This reduces the concentration of drug in the neural tissues (brain, peripheral nerves) without affecting the tumor concentration. However, if the lipophilicity is too low, the drugs are unable to enter the hypoxic cells and hence lose their radiosensitivity efficiency. It would appear that a lipophilicity given by an octanol:water partition coefficient of approximately 0.04 is optimum (cf. MISO = 0.43) with the 2-nitroimidazole amide SR-2508 the best in this series. Tumor levels of this drug of at least 7-8 times those obtained with MISO should be attainable clinically for no increase in neurotoxicity. Another property of electron-affinic sensitizers shows clinical promise. This is their ability to preferentially sensitize tumors compared to normal tissues to the cytotoxic action of several chemotherapeutic agents.

  14. Quasi Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, M. A. K. Lakshman

    2013-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has been considered as an alternative to the conventional silicon solar cell because of low cost, easy fabrication and relatively high conversion efficiency. A DSSC consists of a dye-sensitized nanoparticulated TiO2 electrode, an electrolyte containing redox couple and a Pt coated counter electrode. Such solar cells based on an I-/I3- redox couple in an organic solvent usually have conversion efficiencies reaching around 11%. However, a major drawback of these solution based solar cells, originally developed by Gratzel and coworkers is the lack of long-term stability due to liquid leakage, usage of volatile liquids such as acetonitrile, electrode corrosion, and photodecomposition of the dye in the solvent medium. Therefore considerable research efforts have been made in recent years to replace the liquid electrolytes with solid polymer or quasi-solid polymer (gel) electrolytes. Among these approaches, the use of gel polymer electrolytes appears to give rise to successful results in terms of conversion efficiency. Conventional poly (ethylene oxide)(PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes exhibit poor ionic conductivities at room temperature, which is not sufficient for practical applications. Therefore, most of the recent studies have been directed to the preparation and characterization of gel polymer electrolytes which exhibit higher ionic conductivity at ambient temperature while maintain quai-solid structure. These gel polymer electrolytes prepared by incorporating a liquid electrolyte into a matrix polymer such as polyacrylonitrile(PAN), poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVdF), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and PEO have been employed in quasi-solid-state DSSCs to achieve power conversion efficiencies of more than 5%. Significant improvements have been achieved in recent years by modifications of the electrolytes by optimizing the ionic salt, introducing additives such as inorganic nanofillers, organic molecules and ionic liquids in

  15. Zinc inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation and sensitizes prostate cancer cells to cytotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Uzzo, Robert G; Leavis, Paul; Hatch, William; Gabai, Vladimir L; Dulin, Nickolai; Zvartau, Nadezhda; Kolenko, Vladimir M

    2002-11-01

    Prostate carcinogenesis involves transformation of zinc-accumulating normal epithelial cells to malignant cells, which do not accumulate zinc. In this study, we demonstrate by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry that physiological levels of zinc inhibit activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factor in PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells, reduce expression of NF-kappa B-controlled antiapoptotic protein c-IAP2, and activate c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases. Preincubation of PC-3 cells with physiological concentrations of zinc sensitized tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and paclitaxel mediated cell death as defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. These results suggest one possible mechanism for the inhibitory effect of zinc on the development and progression of prostate malignancy and might have important consequences for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. Isolation of cell cycle-dependent gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell

    SciTech Connect

    Stamato, T.D.; Weinstein, R.; Giaccia, A.; Mackenzie, L.

    1983-03-01

    A technique for the isolation of gamma ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants is described, which uses nylon cloth replica plating and photography with dark-field illumination to directly monitor colonies for growth after gamma irradiation. Two gamma ray-sensitive mutants were isolated using this method. One of these cells (XR-1) had a two-slope survival curve: an initial steep slope and then a flattening of the curve at about 10% survival. Subsequently, it was found that this cell is sensitive to gamma irradiation in G1, early S, and late G2 phases of the cell cycle, whereas in the resistant phase (late S phase) its survival approaches that of the parental cells. The D37 in the sensitive G1 period is approximately 30 rads, compared with 300 rads of the parental cell. This mutant cell is also sensitive to killing by the DNA breaking agent, bleomycin, but is relatively insensitive to UV light and ethyl methane sulfonate, suggesting that the defect is specific for agents that produce DNA strand breakage.

  17. Hypsometric control on glacier mass balance sensitivity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, D.; Sass, L.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Kienholz, C.; Larsen, C.; Burgess, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Mass loss from glaciers in Alaska is dominated by strongly negative surface balances, particularly on small, continental glaciers but can be highly variable from glacier to glacier. Glacier hypsometry can exert significant control on mass balance sensitivity, particularly if the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) is in a broad area of low surface slope. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in glacier response to future climate forcings on the basis of hypsometry. We first derive mass balance sensitivities (30-70 m ELA / 1° C and 40-90 m ELA / 50% decrease in snow accumulation) from the ~50-year USGS Benchmark glaciers mass balance record. We subsequently assess mean climate fields in 2090-2100 derived from the IPCC AR5/CMIP5 RCP 6.0 5-model mean. Over glaciers in Alaska, we find 2-4° C warming and 10-20% increase in precipitation relative to 2006-2015, but a corresponding 0-50% decrease in snow accumulation due to rising temperatures. We assess changes in accumulation area ratios (AAR) to a rising ELA using binned individual glacier hypsometries. For an ELA increase of 150 m, the mean statewide AAR drops by 0.45, representing a 70% reduction in accumulation area on an individual glacier basis. Small, interior glaciers are the primary drivers of this reduction and for nearly 25% of all glaciers, the new ELA exceeds the glacier's maximum elevation, portending eventual loss. The loss of small glaciers, particularly in the drier interior of Alaska will significantly modify streamflow properties (flashy hydrographs, earlier and reduced peak flows, increased interannual variability, warmer temperatures) with poorly understood downstream ecosystem and oceanographic impacts.

  18. Weavable dye sensitized solar cells exploiting carbon nanotube yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Josef; Kuanyshbekova, Zharkynay; Göktepe, Özer; Göktepe, Fatma; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2013-05-01

    Weavable Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) made with flexible yarns of conductive multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were produced having a power conversion efficiency above 3%. This was achieved with a specific design and careful consideration of the yarn function in the DSSC. Fermat yarns of MWNTs individually coated with mesoporous TiO2 layer were twisted together and coated with more mesoporous TiO2 to create a 3 dimensional photo electrode to overcome electron diffusion length issues. Archimedian yarns of MWNTs coated with a thin layer of platinum worked as a counter electrode to complete the architecture used in this DSSC.

  19. Towards low temperature sintering methods for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Sukanya

    Access to economically viable renewable energy sources is essential for the development of a globally sustainable society. Solar energy has a large potential to satisfy the future need for renewable energy sources. Dye sensitized solar cells are a third generation of photovoltaic technologies with the potential for low cost environmentally safe energy production. Commercialization of this technology requires that dye sensitized solar cells with higher efficiencies can be fabricated on flexible substrates. The commonly used material for the anode in a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell consists of titanium dioxide nanoparticles covered with a layer of light sensitizing dye. For efficient electron transport throughout the nanoparticle network, good particle interconnections are necessary. For low temperature processing these interconnections can be achieved through a hydrothermal process. The focus of this research is to understand at a fundamental level this reaction-based sintering process. A titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial titania nanoparticles and coated on a transparent conductive oxide substrate. The product of the hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide served to connect the nanoparticles thus improving the electrical conduction of the titania electrode; this was confirmed by solar cell testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To further understand the formation of interconnections during reactive sintering, a model system based on inert silica particles was investigated. Titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial silica particles and reacted. Three different types of silica particles were used: each with a different morphology. The silica-titania multilayers/powders were characterized using SEM, XRD and BET. The efficiency of DSSCs is higher when larger non-porous silica particles are used and thin nanocrystalline titania is coated on this superstructure. This gave insight into the locations where the reactive liquid

  20. Development of a highly sensitive galvanic cell oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Ogino, H; Asakura, K

    1995-02-01

    A highly sensitive galvanic cell oxygen sensor was successfully developed for determining parts per billion of oxygen in high purity gases such as nitrogen, argon, etc. The response of this improved sensor was proportional in the range of oxygen concentrations from 10.0 ppm to the detection limit. The response speed in this study was improved to within 90 sec for a 90% response. The detection limit was tentatively found to be less than 0.4 ppb corresponding to S N = 2 .

  1. Parallel Tandems of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with CNT Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Josef; Yuan, Chao-Chen; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2009-03-01

    In this presentation, we demonstrate the fabrication of monolithic parallel tandem dye sensitized solar cells using a semitransparent layer of carbon nanotubes. Each DSC sub-cell has titania photoelectrode with two different dyes: N 719 and N 749, which absorb light in different parts of solar spectrum. This layer of carbon nanotubes laminated on highly porous polymeric Millipore filter acts as both the collector of charge carrier and as the catalyst of the I/I3^- redox reaction that completes the function of the cell, overall allowing easier fabrication for tandem solar cell devices, with a potential for creating flexible devices in the future. The parallel tandem shows the total photocurrent which is nearly the sum of two Isc currents of constituent cells, and total Voc, which is average of two Voc, while conventional in-series DSC tandems show the lowest Voc and slightly increased Isc[1]. Thus the higher efficiency can be achieved in parallel DSC tandems, and we discuss the physical reasons for this effect. [1] Yanagida, et.al. J. of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry Volume 164, Issues 1-3, 1 June 2004, Pages 33-39

  2. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  3. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Khatani, Mehboob E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Mohamed, Norani Muti E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Hamid, Nor Hisham E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Samsudin, Adel E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  4. Bone cell survival in microgravity: evidence that modeled microgravity increases osteoblast sensitivity to apoptogens.

    PubMed

    Bucaro, M A; Fertala, J; Adams, C S; Steinbeck, M; Ayyaswamy, P; Mukundakrishnan, K; Shapiro, I M; Risbud, M V

    2004-11-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate the effects of modeled microgravity on the induction of osteoblast apoptosis. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were cultured in alginate carriers in the NASA-approved high aspect ratio vessel (HARV). This system subjects the cells to a time-averaged gravitational field (vector-averaged gravity) to simulate low gravity conditions. Cells were cultured in the HARV for five days, and then examined for apoptosis. In simulated microgravity, the cells remained vital, although analysis of expressed genes indicated that there was loss of the mature osteoblast phenotype. Additionally, we noted that there was a loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, a low level of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, as well as Akt protein, and the redox status of the cells was disturbed. All of these parameters indicated that vector-averaged gravity disrupts mitochondrial function, thereby sensitizing osteoblasts to apoptosis. We then used a challenge assay to evaluate the apoptotic sensitivity of the cells subjected to vector-averaged gravity. When challenged with staurosporine, cells subjected to vector-averaged gravity evidenced elevated levels of cell death relative to control cell populations. Another objective of the study was to improve upon conventional carriers by using alginate encapsulation to support cells in the HARV. We have demonstrated that the alginate carrier system affords a more robust system than surface-seeded carriers. This new system has the advantage of shielding cells from mechanical damage and fluid shear stresses on cells in the HARV, permitting carefully controlled studies of the effects of vector-averaged gravity.

  5. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin Uptake Correlates with the Sensitivity of Glioblastoma Cell Lines to Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Gerogianni, Paraskevi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

    2017-01-01

    99mTc-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) is a single-photon emission computed tomography tracer that has been used for brain tumor imaging. The aim of the study was to assess if 99mTc-TF uptake by glioblastoma cells correlates with their response to temozolomide (TMZ). We investigated the correlation of TMZ antitumor effect with the 99mTc-TF uptake in two glioblastoma cell lines. The U251MG cell line is sensitive to TMZ, whereas T98G is resistant. Viability and proliferation of the cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion assay and xCELLigence system. Cell cycle was analyzed with flow cytometry. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a gamma scintillation counter. TMZ induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in U251MG cells, whereas there was no effect on cell cycle in T98G cells. Lower 99mTc-TF uptake was observed in U251MG cells that were exposed to TMZ compared to control (P = 0.0159). No significant difference in respect to 99mTc-TF uptake was found in T98G cells when exposed to TMZ compared to control (P = 0.8). With 99mTc-TF, it was possible to distinguish between TMZ-sensitive and resistant glioblastoma cells within 6 h of treatment initiation. Thus, 99mTc-TF uptake may consist a novel approach to assess an early response of glioblastoma to chemotherapy and deserves further investigation. PMID:28217019

  6. Metformin inhibits RANKL and sensitizes cancer stem cells to denosumab.

    PubMed

    Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Menendez, Javier A

    2017-06-03

    The increased propensity of BRCA1 mutation carriers to develop aggressive breast tumors with stem-like properties begins to be understood in terms of osteoprotegerin (OPG)-unrestricted cross-talk between RANKL-overproducing progesterone-sensor cells and cancer-initiating RANK(+) responder cells that reside within pre-malignant BRCA1(mut/+) breast epithelial tissue. We recently proposed that, in the absence of hormone influence, cancer-initiating cells might remain responsive to RANKL stimulation, and hence to the therapeutic effects of the anti-RANKL antibody denosumab because genomic instability induced by BRCA1 haploinsufficiency might suffice to cell-autonomously hyperactivate RANKL gene expression. Here we report that the biguanide metformin prevents BRCA1 haploinsufficiency-driven RANKL gene overexpression, thereby disrupting an auto-regulatory feedback control of RANKL-addicted cancer stem cell-like states within BRCA1(mut/-) cell populations. Moreover, metformin treatment elicits a synergistic decline in the breast cancer-initiating cell population and its self-renewal capacity in BRCA1-mutated basal-like breast cancer cells with bone metastasis-initiation capacity that exhibit primary resistance to denosumab in mammosphere assays. The specific targeting of RANKL/RANK signaling with denosumab is expected to revolutionize prevention and treatment strategies currently available for BRCA1 mutation carriers. Our findings provide a rationale for new denosumab/metformin combinatorial strategies to clinically manage RANKL-related breast oncogenesis and metastatic progression.

  7. Truths and myths of oocyte sensitivity to controlled rate freezing.

    PubMed

    Coticchio, G; Bonu, M A; Sciajno, R; Sereni, E; Bianchi, V; Borini, A

    2007-07-01

    The mammalian oocyte is especially sensitive to cryopreservation. Because of its size and physiology, it can easily undergo cell death or sub-lethal damage as a consequence of intracellular ice formation, increase in the concentration of solutes and other undesired effects during the conversion of extracellular water into ice. This has generated the belief that oocyte storage cannot be achieved with the necessary efficiency and safety. However, many concerns raised by oocyte freezing are the result of unproven hypotheses or observations conducted under sometimes inappropriate conditions. For instance, spindle organization can undergo damage under certain freezing conditions but not with other protocols. The controversial suggestion that cryopreservation induces cortical granule discharge and zona pellucida hardening somehow questions the routine use of sperm microinjection. Damage to mouse oocytes caused by solute concentration is well documented but, in the human, there is no solid evidence that modifications of freezing mixtures, to prevent this problem, provide an actual advantage. The hope of developing oocyte cryopreservation as a major IVF option is becoming increasingly realistic, but major efforts are still required to clarify the authentic implications of oocyte cryopreservation at the cellular level and identify freezing conditions compatible with the preservation of viability and developmental ability.

  8. Stress-induced activity in the locus coeruleus is not sensitive to stressor controllability

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Ross A; Szot, Patricia; Baratta, Michael V; Bland, Sondra T; White, Sylvia S; Maier, Steven F; Neumaier, John F

    2009-01-01

    An important factor in determining the adverse consequences of a stress experience is the degree to which an individual can exert control over the stressor. Stressor controllability is known to influence brain norepinephrine levels, but its impact on activity in noradrenergic cell bodies is unknown. In the present study we investigated whether noradrenergic neurons within the locus coeruleus (LC), the major source of forebrain norepinephrine, are sensitive to stressor controllability. We exposed adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to escapable or yoked inescapable tailshock and assessed LC activity by measuring changes in the immediate early gene c-fos and the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We used in situ hybridization to measure levels of c-fos mRNA, TH mRNA, and TH primary transcript in the LC. In all three cases stress exposure increased expression relative to an unstressed homecage control group, but expression did not differ between controllable and uncontrollable stress. To further examine whether stressor controllability influences the number of stress-responsive LC neurons we performed double-label immunohistochemistry for TH and Fos protein. Again we detected an overall effect of stress, which did not differ between controllable and uncontrollable stress. We conclude that exposure to stress robustly increases expression of TH and c-fos in the LC, but this effect is not influenced by stressor controllability. To the extent that the expression of these genes reflects degree of neuronal activation, our results suggest that stress-induced activity of noradrenergic cell bodies in the LC is not sensitive to stressor controllability. PMID:19524553

  9. Microbeam studies of the sensitivity of structures within living cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braby, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Determining the biological effects of low doses of radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET) is complicated by the stochastic nature of charged-particle interactions. Populations of cells exposed to very low radiation doses contain a few cells which have been hit by a charged particle, while the majority of the cells receive no radiation damage. At somewhat higher doses, a few cells receive two or more events. Because the effects of damage produced by separate events can interact in the cell, we have had to make assumptions about the nature of these interactions in order to interpret the results of the experiments. Many of those assumptions can be tested if we can be sure of the number of charged-particle events which occur in individual cells, and correlate this number with the biological effect. We have developed a special irradiation facility at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to control the actual number of charged particle tracks that pass through cell nuclei. The beam from a 2 MeV tandem accelerator is collimated to approximately 5 microns. Cells, grown in special dishes with 1.5 microns thick plastic bottoms, are positioned so that the desired portion of the cell aligns with the collimator. A shutter in the beam line is opened and closed after the desired number of particle tracks has been counted. This approach can be used to investigate the effects of the interaction between irradiated and unirradiated cells in an organized system, as well as to study the effects of spatial and temporal distribution of radiation damage within single cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Microbeam studies of the sensitivity of structures within living cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braby, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Determining the biological effects of low doses of radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET) is complicated by the stochastic nature of charged-particle interactions. Populations of cells exposed to very low radiation doses contain a few cells which have been hit by a charged particle, while the majority of the cells receive no radiation damage. At somewhat higher doses, a few cells receive two or more events. Because the effects of damage produced by separate events can interact in the cell, we have had to make assumptions about the nature of these interactions in order to interpret the results of the experiments. Many of those assumptions can be tested if we can be sure of the number of charged-particle events which occur in individual cells, and correlate this number with the biological effect. We have developed a special irradiation facility at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to control the actual number of charged particle tracks that pass through cell nuclei. The beam from a 2 MeV tandem accelerator is collimated to approximately 5 microns. Cells, grown in special dishes with 1.5 microns thick plastic bottoms, are positioned so that the desired portion of the cell aligns with the collimator. A shutter in the beam line is opened and closed after the desired number of particle tracks has been counted. This approach can be used to investigate the effects of the interaction between irradiated and unirradiated cells in an organized system, as well as to study the effects of spatial and temporal distribution of radiation damage within single cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Syrosingopine sensitizes cancer cells to killing by metformin

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Don; Colombi, Marco; Hindupur, Sravanth K.; Betz, Charles; Lane, Heidi A.; El-Shemerly, Mahmoud Y. M.; Lu, Min; Quagliata, Luca; Terracciano, Luigi; Moes, Suzette; Sharpe, Timothy; Wodnar-Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Moroni, Christoph; Hall, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    We report that the anticancer activity of the widely used diabetic drug metformin is strongly potentiated by syrosingopine. Synthetic lethality elicited by combining the two drugs is synergistic and specific to transformed cells. This effect is unrelated to syrosingopine’s known role as an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporters. Syrosingopine binds to the glycolytic enzyme α-enolase in vitro, and the expression of the γ-enolase isoform correlates with nonresponsiveness to the drug combination. Syrosingopine sensitized cancer cells to metformin and its more potent derivative phenformin far below the individual toxic threshold of each compound. Thus, combining syrosingopine and codrugs is a promising therapeutic strategy for clinical application for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28028542

  12. Dna-Enhanced Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollum, Marvin; Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E.

    2013-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising alternative to the current silicon solar cell technologies. DSSCs have a lower manufacturing cost, can be made to be flexible, semi-transparent, and in any variety of colors for aesthetic applications. Despite these advantageous properties, the stability and power conversion efficiency of DSSCs are still lacking. Recently, we have shown that the adsorption of DNA onto the semiconductor surface of a typical DSSC improves its overall performance. Structure-function analysis, in conjunction with steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic studies, are currently being done to understand this phenomenon and to uncover the mechanism by which DNA boosts the overall performance of DSSCs. This new knowledge is expected to facilitate the rational design of DSSCs that exhibit higher power conversion efficiency than those currently available.

  13. Aluminum plasmonic nanoparticles enhanced dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yuxiang; Meng, Weisi; Cui, Kaiyu; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2014-03-10

    We present an investigation on utilizing plasmonic aluminium (Al) nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the optical absorption of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Al NPs exhibit not only the light absorption enhancement in solar cells with localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect but also the chemical stability to iodide/triiodide electrolyte. Besides, the lower work function (~4.06 eV), compared with that of TiO₂ (~4.6 eV), may suppress the quenching processes, such as charge transfer to metal NPs, to reduce the loss. Thus, high concentration of Al NPs could be incorporated into the TiO₂ anodes, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is improved by nearly 13%. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterization also indicates that the plasmonic DSCs with Al NPs present better electrochemical performance than regular ones, which contributes to the improvement of PCE of the device.

  14. Aluminum plasmonic nanoparticles enhanced dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yuxiang; Meng, Weisi; Cui, Kaiyu; Feng, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2014-03-10

    We present an investigation on utilizing plasmonic aluminium (Al) nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the optical absorption of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Al NPs exhibit not only the light absorption enhancement in solar cells with localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect but also the chemical stability to iodide/triiodide electrolyte. Besides, the lower work function (~4.06 eV), compared with that of TiO(2) (~4.6 eV), may suppress the quenching processes, such as charge transfer to metal NPs, to reduce the loss. Thus, high concentration of Al NPs could be incorporated into the TiO(2) anodes, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSCs is improved by nearly 13%. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) characterization also indicates that the plasmonic DSCs with Al NPs present better electrochemical performance than regular ones, which contributes to the improvement of PCE of the device.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Biggs, Mark J; Shapter, Joseph G

    2015-07-01

    As one type of emerging photovoltaic cell, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an attractive potential source of renewable energy due to their eco-friendliness, ease of fabrication, and cost effectiveness. However, in DSSCs, the rarity and high cost of some electrode materials (transparent conducting oxide and platinum) and the inefficient performance caused by slow electron transport, poor light-harvesting efficiency, and significant charge recombination are critical issues. Recent research has shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates to overcome these issues due to their unique electrical, optical, chemical, physical, as well as catalytic properties. This article provides a comprehensive review of the research that has focused on the application of CNTs and their hybrids in transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs), in semiconducting layers, and in counter electrodes of DSSCs. At the end of this review, some important research directions for the future use of CNTs in DSSCs are also provided.

  16. Specific β-Tubulin Isotypes Can Functionally Enhance or Diminish Epothilone B Sensitivity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Pei Pei; McCarroll, Joshua A.; Byrne, Frances L.; Garner, James; Kavallaris, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Epothilones are a new class of microtubule stabilizing agents with promising preclinical and clinical activity. Their cellular target is β-tubulin and factors influencing intrinsic sensitivity to epothilones are not well understood. In this study, the functional significance of specific β-tubulin isotypes in intrinsic sensitivity to epothilone B was investigated using siRNA gene knockdown against βII-, βIII- or βIVb-tubulins in two independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, NCI-H460 and Calu-6. Drug-treated clonogenic assays showed that sensitivity to epothilone B was not altered following knockdown of βII-tubulin in both NSCLC cell lines. In contrast, knockdown of βIII-tubulin significantly increased sensitivity to epothilone B. Interestingly, βIVb-tubulin knockdowns were significantly less sensitive to epothilone B, compared to mock- and control siRNA cells. Cell cycle analysis of βIII-tubulin knockdown cells showed a higher percentage of cell death with epothilone B concentrations as low as 0.5 nM. In contrast, βIVb-tubulin knockdown cells displayed a decrease in epothilone B-induced G2-M cell cycle accumulation compared to control siRNA cells. Importantly, βIII-tubulin knockdowns displayed a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells upon treatment with epothilone B, as detected using caspase 3/7 activity and Annexin-V staining. Higher concentrations of epothilone B were required to induce apoptosis in the βIVb-tubulin knockdowns compared to control siRNA, highlighting a potential mechanism underlying decreased sensitivity to this agent. This study demonstrates that specific β-tubulin isotypes can influence sensitivity to epothilone B and may influence differential sensitivity to this promising new agent. PMID:21738778

  17. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Bailey, M. J.; Coley, H.; Kirkby, K. J.; Jeynes, C.

    2010-06-01

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  18. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J.

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  19. A Hybrid Tandem Solar Cell Combining a Dye-Sensitized and a Polymer Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Liangzheng; Ye, Jiajiu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell was assambled by connecting a dye sensitized solar cell and a polymer solar cell in series. A N719 sensitized TiO2 was used as photocathode in dye-sensitized subcell, and a MEH-PPV/PCBM composite was used as active layer in the polymer subcell. The polymer subcell fabricated on the counter electrode of the dye sensitized solar cell. A solution processed TiO(x) layer was used as electron collection layer of the polymer sub cell and the charge recombination layer. The effects of the TiO(x) interlayer and the spectral overlap between the two sub cells have been studied and optimized. The results shows that a proper thickness of the TiO(x) layer is needed for tandem solar cells. Thick TiO(x) will enhance the series resistance, but too thin TiO(x), layer will damage the hole blocking effect and its hydrophilic. The resulting optimized tandem solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.28% with a V(oc) of 0.95 V under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination.

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Qin, J-Z; Xin, H; Nickoloff, B J

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  1. Study on the Fabrication of Paint-Type Si Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hee-Je; Wang, Yuting; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2013-10-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention with their quantum characteristics in the research field of photochemical solar cells. Si QD was introduced as one of alternatives to conventional QD materials. However, their large particles could not penetrate inside TiO2 layer. Therefore, this work proposed the paint-type Si QD-sensitized solar cell. Its heat durability was suitable for the fabrication of paint-type solar cell. Si QDs were fabricated by multihollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition and characterized. The paste type, sintering temperature, and Si ratio were controlled and analyzed for better performance. Finally, its performance was enhanced by ZnS surface modification and the whole process was much simplified without sensitizing process.

  2. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  3. Synthetic analogues of anthocyanins as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Petrov, Vesselin; Diniz, Ana M; Parola, A Jorge; Pina, Fernando

    2013-05-01

    Seven flavylium salt dyes were employed for the first time as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The theoretical and experimental wavelengths of the maximum absorbances, the HOMO and LUMO energy levels, the coefficients, the oscillator strengths and the dipole moments are calculated for these synthetic dyes. The introduction of a donor group in the flavylium molecular structure was investigated. Photophysical and photoelectrochemical measurements showed that some of these synthetic analogues of anthocyanins are very promising for DSSC applications. The best performance was obtained by a DSSC based on the novel compound 7-(N,N-diethylamino)-3',4'-dihydroxyflavylium which produced a 2.15% solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency, under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)) with a short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 12.0 mA cm(-2), a fill factor of 0.5 and an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.355 V; its incident photocurrent efficiency of 51% at the peak of the visible absorption band of the dye is remarkable. Our results demonstrated that the substitution of a hydroxylic group with a diethylamine unit in position 7 of ring A of the flavylium backbone expanded the π-conjugation in the dye and thus resulted in a higher absorption in the visible region and is advantageous for effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of TiO2.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  5. d-alpha-tocopherol control of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Azzi, A; Boscoboinik, D; Chatelain, E; Ozer, N K; Stäuble, B

    1993-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell growth is at the basis of neoplastic proliferation and arteriosclerotic lesions. In vitro proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, Balb c/3T3 fibroblasts, retinal neuroepithelial cells and neuroblastoma cells is inhibited by d-alpha-tocopherol. On the contrary Chinese hamster ovary cells, osteosarcoma cells and macrophages are not sensitive. PDGF-BB activated proliferation is highly d-alpha-tocopherol sensitive while lysophosphatidic acid induced growth is poorly inhibited. d-beta-Tocopherol, an analogue of d-alpha-tocopherol, with similar antioxidant properties, does not inhibit proliferation. Protein kinase C activity is inhibited by d-alpha-tocopherol but not by d-beta-tocopherol, suggesting a central role of this enzyme in the control of cell proliferation by d-alpha-tocopherol. Activation of the transcription activation complex AP-1 (but not NFKB) is prevented by d-alpha-tocopherol and not by d-beta-tocopherol.

  6. Anchoring Groups for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groupsare employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  7. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-07

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications.

  8. Fabrication, Optimization and Characterization of Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Ghann, William; Kang, Hyeonggon; Sheikh, Tajbik; Yadav, Sunil; Chavez-Gil, Tulio; Nesbitt, Fred; Uddin, Jamal

    2017-01-27

    The dyes extracted from pomegranate and berry fruits were successfully used in the fabrication of natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSC). The morphology, porosity, surface roughness, thickness, absorption and emission characteristics of the pomegranate dye sensitized photo-anode were studied using various analytical techniques including FESEM, EDS, TEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy. Pomegranate dye extract has been shown to contain anthocyanin which is an excellent light harvesting pigment needed for the generation of charge carriers for the production of electricity. The solar cell's photovoltic performance in terms of efficiency, voltage, and current was tested with a standard illumination of air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) having an irradiance of 100 mW/cm(2). After optimization of the photo-anode and counter electrode, a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2%, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.39 mV, and a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 12.2 mA/cm(2) were obtained. Impedance determination showed a relatively low charge-transfer resistance (17.44 Ω) and a long lifetime, signifying a reduction in recombination losses. The relatively enhanced efficiency is attributable in part to the use of a highly concentrated pomegranate dye, graphite counter electrode and TiCl4 treatment of the photo-anode.

  9. Activated Kupffer cells inhibit insulin sensitivity in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Tencerova, Michaela; Aouadi, Myriam; Vangala, Pranitha; Nicoloro, Sarah M.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Shen, Yuefei; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Pedersen, David J.; Gallagher-Dorval, Karen; Perugini, Richard A.; Gupta, Olga T.; Czech, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity promotes insulin resistance associated with liver inflammation, elevated glucose production, and type 2 diabetes. Although insulin resistance is attenuated in genetic mouse models that suppress systemic inflammation, it is not clear whether local resident macrophages in liver, denoted Kupffer cells (KCs), directly contribute to this syndrome. We addressed this question by selectively silencing the expression of the master regulator of inflammation, NF-κB, in KCs in obese mice. We used glucan-encapsulated small interfering RNA particles (GeRPs) that selectively silence gene expression in macrophages in vivo. Following intravenous injections, GeRPs containing siRNA against p65 of the NF-κB complex caused loss of NF-κB p65 expression in KCs without disrupting NF-κB in hepatocytes or macrophages in other tissues. Silencing of NF-κB expression in KCs in obese mice decreased cytokine secretion and improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance without affecting hepatic lipid accumulation. Importantly, GeRPs had no detectable toxic effect. Thus, KCs are key contributors to hepatic insulin resistance in obesity and a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disease.—Tencerova, M., Aouadi, M., Vangala, P., Nicoloro, S. M., Yawe, J. C., Cohen, J. L., Shen, Y., Garcia-Menendez, L., Pedersen, D. J., Gallagher-Dorval, K., Perugini, R. A., Gupta, O. T., Czech, M. P. Activated Kupffer cells inhibit insulin sensitivity in obese mice. PMID:25805830

  10. Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  11. Preselection Thymocytes Are More Sensitive to T Cell Receptor Stimulation Than Mature T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Gayle M.; Schober, Sonya L.; Endrizzi, Bart T.; Dutcher, Angela K.; Jameson, Stephen C.; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    1998-01-01

    During T cell development, thymocytes which are tolerant to self-peptides but reactive to foreign peptides are selected. The current model for thymocyte selection proposes that self-peptide–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes that bind the T cell receptor with low affinity will promote positive selection while those with high affinity will result in negative selection. Upon thymocyte maturation, such low affinity self-peptide–MHC ligands no longer provoke a response, but foreign peptides can incidentally be high affinity ligands and can therefore stimulate T cells. For this model to work, thymocytes must be more sensitive to ligand than mature T cells. Contrary to this expectation, several groups have shown that thymocytes are less responsive than mature T cells to anti-T cell receptor for antigen (TCR)/CD3 mAb stimulation. Additionally, the lower TCR levels on thymocytes, compared with T cells, would potentially correlate with decreased thymocyte sensitivity. Here we compared preselection thymocytes and mature T cells for early activation events in response to peptide–MHC ligands. Remarkably, the preselection thymocytes were more responsive than mature T cells when stimulated with low affinity peptide variants, while both populations responded equally well to the antigenic peptide. This directly demonstrates the increased sensitivity of thymocytes compared with T cells for TCR engagement by peptide–MHC complexes. PMID:9815264

  12. Novel proteasome inhibitor ixazomib sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoyu; Chen, Zhenghu; Hu, Ting; Wang, Long; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Yanling; Sun, Wenijing; Guan, Shan; Pang, Jonathan C.; Woodfield, Sarah E.; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial malignant solid tumor seen in children and continues to lead to the death of many pediatric cancer patients. The poor outcome in high risk NB is largely attributed to the development of chemoresistant tumor cells. Doxorubicin (dox) has been widely employed as a potent anti-cancer agent in chemotherapeutic regimens; however, it also leads to chemoresistance in many cancer types including NB. Thus, developing novel small molecules that can overcome dox-induced chemoresistance is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. Here we show that the second generation proteasome inhibitor ixazomib (MLN9708) not only inhibits NB cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in vitro but also enhances dox-induced cytotoxicity in NB cells. Ixazomib inhibits dox-induced NF-κB activity and sensitizes NB cells to dox-induced apoptosis. More importantly, ixazomib demonstrated potent anti-tumor efficacy in vivo by enhancing dox-induced apoptosis in an orthotopic xenograft NB mouse model. Collectively, our study illustrates the anti-tumor efficacy of ixazomib in NB both alone and in combination with dox, suggesting that combination therapy including ixazomib with traditional therapeutic agents such as dox is a viable strategy that may achieve better outcomes for NB patients. PMID:27687684

  13. Sensitivity analysis for the control of supersonic impinging jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Joseph W.; Hildebrand, Nathaniel

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of a supersonic jet that impinges perpendicularly on a flat plate depend on complex interactions between fluid turbulence, shock waves, and acoustics. Strongly organized oscillations emerge, however, and they induce loud, often damaging, tones. We investigate this phenomenon using unstructured, high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and global stability analysis. Our flow configurations precisely match laboratory experiments with nozzle-to-wall distances of 4 and 4.5 jet diameters. We use multi-block shift-and-invert Arnoldi iteration to extract both direct and adjoint global modes that extend upstream into the nozzle. The frequency of the most unstable global mode agrees well with that of the emergent oscillations in the LES. We compute the "wavemaker" associated with this mode by multiplying it by its corresponding adjoint mode. The wavemaker shows that this instability is most sensitive to changes in the base flow slightly downstream of the nozzle exit. By modifying the base flow in this region, we then demonstrate that the flow can indeed be stabilized. This explains the success of microjets as an effective noise control measure when they are positioned around the nozzle lip. Computational resources were provided by the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility.

  14. Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rat livers sensitize colon cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, E; Chen, J; Ouyang, N; Wang, M; Exton, M S; Heemann, U

    2001-05-04

    Metastasis of colorectal carcinomas rarely occurs in cirrhotic livers. Our study investigated the influence of activated Kupffer cells from cirrhotic rat livers on hepatic colonization and FasR-mediated apoptosis of colon cancer cells. A rat colon cancer cell line, RCN-9, was used to inoculate rat livers. Treatment with conditioned media of Kupffer cells isolated from CCl(4)-induced cirrhotic rat livers (cirrhotic KCM) significantly reduced the incidence of hepatic colonization of RCN-9 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) on RCN-9 cells was evaluated using [(3)H]-release assay. RCN-9 cells were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by cirrhotic Kupffer cells, but were sensitized to TIL-mediated killing after treatment with cirrhotic KCM. The specific killing induced by TILs was FasR-mediated, as it was inhibited by ZB4, an antagonistic anti-FasR antibody. In agreement, cirrhotic KCM increased recombinant Fas ligand-induced apoptosis of RCN-9 cells, and up-regulated FasR expression on RCN-9 cells as evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells in cirrhotic livers sensitize metastatic colon cancer cells to FasR-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating the receptors, which thus prepare them to be eliminated by infiltrating lymphocytes.

  15. Adenovirus-Mediated FKHRL1/TM Sensitizes Melanoma Cells to Apoptosis Induced by Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E.; McNally, Lacey R.; Nitz, Jonathan; McMasters, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Melanoma exhibits variable resistance to the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). We evaluated the potential of adenovirus expressing forkhead human transcription factor like 1 triple mutant (Ad-FKHRL1/TM) to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ. Four melanoma cell lines were treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ, alone or in combination. Apoptosis was assessed by activation and inhibition of caspase pathway, nuclei fragmentation, and annexin V staining. The potential therapeutic efficacy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ was also assessed in a mouse melanoma xenograft model. Combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ resulted in greater cell killing (<20% cell viability) compared with single therapy and controls (p<0.05). Combination indices of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ therapy indicated significant (p<0.05) synergistic killing effect. Greater apoptosis induction was found in cells treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ than with Ad-FKHRL1/TM or TMZ-treated cells alone. Treatment with TMZ enhanced adenovirus transgene expression in a cell type-dependent manner. In an in vivo model, combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ results in greater tumor growth reduction in comparison with single treatments. We suggest that Ad-FKHRL1/TM is a promising vector to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ, and that a combination of both approaches would be effective in the clinical setting. PMID:25238278

  16. Sensitivity of Edge Detection Methods for Quantifying Cell Migration Assays

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, Katrina K.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative imaging methods to analyze cell migration assays are not standardized. Here we present a suite of two-dimensional barrier assays describing the collective spreading of an initially-confined population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To quantify the motility rate we apply two different automatic image detection methods to locate the position of the leading edge of the spreading population after , and hours. These results are compared with a manual edge detection method where we systematically vary the detection threshold. Our results indicate that the observed spreading rates are very sensitive to the choice of image analysis tools and we show that a standard measure of cell migration can vary by as much as 25% for the same experimental images depending on the details of the image analysis tools. Our results imply that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to meaningfully compare previously published measures of cell migration since previous results have been obtained using different image analysis techniques and the details of these techniques are not always reported. Using a mathematical model, we provide a physical interpretation of our edge detection results. The physical interpretation is important since edge detection algorithms alone do not specify any physical measure, or physical definition, of the leading edge of the spreading population. Our modeling indicates that variations in the image threshold parameter correspond to a consistent variation in the local cell density. This means that varying the threshold parameter is equivalent to varying the location of the leading edge in the range of approximately 1–5% of the maximum cell density. PMID:23826283

  17. Sensitivity of edge detection methods for quantifying cell migration assays.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Katrina K; Simpson, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative imaging methods to analyze cell migration assays are not standardized. Here we present a suite of two-dimensional barrier assays describing the collective spreading of an initially-confined population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To quantify the motility rate we apply two different automatic image detection methods to locate the position of the leading edge of the spreading population after 24, 48 and 72 hours. These results are compared with a manual edge detection method where we systematically vary the detection threshold. Our results indicate that the observed spreading rates are very sensitive to the choice of image analysis tools and we show that a standard measure of cell migration can vary by as much as 25% for the same experimental images depending on the details of the image analysis tools. Our results imply that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to meaningfully compare previously published measures of cell migration since previous results have been obtained using different image analysis techniques and the details of these techniques are not always reported. Using a mathematical model, we provide a physical interpretation of our edge detection results. The physical interpretation is important since edge detection algorithms alone do not specify any physical measure, or physical definition, of the leading edge of the spreading population. Our modeling indicates that variations in the image threshold parameter correspond to a consistent variation in the local cell density. This means that varying the threshold parameter is equivalent to varying the location of the leading edge in the range of approximately 1-5% of the maximum cell density.

  18. B cell repertoires in HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization therapy.

    PubMed

    Beausang, John F; Fan, H Christina; Sit, Rene; Hutchins, Maria U; Jirage, Kshama; Curtis, Rachael; Hutchins, Edward; Quake, Stephen R; Yabu, Julie M

    2017-01-13

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. Sensitization refers to pre-existing antibodies against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein and remains a major barrier to successful transplantation. Despite implementation of desensitization strategies, many candidates fail to respond. Our objective was to determine whether measuring B cell repertoires could differentiate candidates that respond to desensitization therapy. We developed an assay based on high-throughput DNA sequencing of the variable domain of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin genes to measure changes in B cell repertoires in 19 highly HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization and 7 controls with low to moderate HLA sensitization levels. Responders to desensitization had a decrease of 5% points or greater in cumulated calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) levels, and non-responders had no decrease in cPRA. Dominant B cell clones were not observed in highly sensitized candidates, suggesting that the B cells responsible for sensitization are either not present in peripheral blood or present at comparable levels to other circulating B cells. Candidates that responded to desensitization therapy had pre-treatment repertoires composed of a larger fraction of class-switched (IgG and IgA) isotypes compared to non-responding candidates. After B cell depleting therapy, the proportion of switched isotypes increased and the mutation frequencies of the remaining non-switched isotypes (IgM and IgD) increased in both responders and non-responders, perhaps representing a shift in the repertoire towards memory B cells or plasmablasts. Conversely, after transplantation, non-switched isotypes with fewer mutations increased, suggesting a shift in the repertoire towards naïve B cells. Relative abundance of different B cell isotypes is strongly perturbed by desensitization therapy and transplantation, potentially reflecting changes in the relative

  19. Control of local immunity by airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weitnauer, M; Mijošek, V; Dalpke, A H

    2016-03-01

    The lung is ventilated by thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbial compounds, most of them harmless contaminants. Airway epithelial cells are known to have innate sensor functions, thus being able to detect microbial danger. To avoid chronic inflammation, the pulmonary system has developed specific means to control local immune responses. Even though airway epithelial cells can act as proinflammatory promoters, we propose that under homeostatic conditions airway epithelial cells are important modulators of immune responses in the lung. In this review, we discuss epithelial cell regulatory functions that control reactivity of professional immune cells within the microenvironment of the airways and how these mechanisms are altered in pulmonary diseases. Regulation by epithelial cells can be divided into two mechanisms: (1) mediators regulate epithelial cells' innate sensitivity in cis and (2) factors are produced that limit reactivity of immune cells in trans.

  20. Reactive oxygen species induce a Ca(2+)-spark increase in sensitized murine airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Qing-Rong; Ma, Yun-Fei; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Xiao-Jing; Shen, Jinhua; Guo, Donglin; Zheng, Yun-Min; Wang, Yong-Xiao; Ji, Guangju; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2013-05-10

    The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of spontaneous, transient, localized Ca(2+) increases (known as Ca(2+) sparks) in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs) in an experimental allergic asthma mouse model has not yet been investigated. We used laser confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes to measure ROS levels and Ca(2+) sparks, and we found that both events were significantly increased in TSMCs obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/-challenged mice compared with control mice. ROS levels began to increase in TSMCs after the first OVA challenge, and this increase was sustained. However, this elevation and Ca(2+)-spark increase was abolished after the administration of the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) for 5days. Furthermore, a similar inhibition was also observed following the direct perfusion of NACA into cells isolated from the (OVA)-sensitized mice that were not treated with NACA. Moreover, we used 0.1-mM caffeine treatment to increase the Ca(2+) sparks in single TSMCs and observed cell shortening. In addition, we did not find increases in the mRNA levels of ryanodine (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3Rs) receptors in the tracheal smooth muscle cells of (OVA)-sensitized mice compared with controls. We concluded that ROS and Ca(2+) sparks increased in (OVA)-sensitized TSMCs. We found that ROS induces Ca(2+) sparks, and increased Ca(2+) sparks resulted in the contraction of (OVA)-sensitized TSMCs, resulting in the generation of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). This effect may represent a novel mechanism for AHR pathogenesis and might provide insight into new methods for the clinical prevention and treatment of asthma and asthmatic AHR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential Inhibitory Influence of miRNA 210 on Regulatory T Cells during Epicutaneous Chemical Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Long, Carrie Mae; Lukomska, Ewa; Marshall, Nikki B.; Nayak, Ajay; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a potent low molecular weight chemical sensitizer and a leading cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma. The regulatory potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been recognized in a variety of disease states, including allergic disease; however, the roles of miRNAs in chemical sensitization are largely unknown. In a previous work, increased expression of multiple miRNAs during TDI sensitization was observed and several putative mRNA targets identified for these miRNAs were directly related to regulatory T-cell (Treg) differentiation and function including Foxp3 and Runx3. In this work, we show that miR-210 expression is increased in the mouse draining lymph node (dLN) and Treg subsets following dermal TDI sensitization. Alterations in dLN mRNA and protein expression of Treg related genes/putative miR-210 targets (foxp3, runx3, ctla4, and cd25) were observed at multiple time points following TDI exposure and in ex vivo systems. A Treg suppression assay, including a miR-210 mimic, was utilized to investigate the suppressive ability of Tregs. Cells derived from TDI sensitized mice treated with miR-210 mimic had less expression of miR-210 compared to the acetone control suggesting other factors, such as additional miRNAs, might be involved in the regulation of the functional capabilities of these cells. These novel findings indicate that miR-210 may have an inhibitory role in Treg function during TDI sensitization. Because the functional roles of miRNAs have not been previously elucidated in a model of chemical sensitization, these data contribute to the understanding of the potential immunologic mechanisms of chemical induced allergic disease. PMID:28035981

  2. Neural control of motile activity of light-sensitive iridophores in the neon tetra.

    PubMed

    Nagaishi, H; Oshima, N

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with skin pieces revealed that the sympathetic nervous system controls the activity of the light-sensitive iridophores in the stripes of the neon tetra. The spectral peak reflected from the cells was shifted toward longer wavelengths as a result of a direct interaction between norepinephrine and alpha-adrenoceptors present on the cell membrane. Adenosine accelerated the recovery from the effects of the amine. Such regulation seems to operate when fish are in an excited state or under stress. Since alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and melatonin caused the responses only at high concentrations, it is possible that these peptides and amine do not affect the properties of the light-reflecting cells in vivo.

  3. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid sensitizes hepatocarcinoma cells to artemisinin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liping; Pang, Yilin; Qin, Guiqi; Xi, Gaina; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and artesunate (ARS), two artemisinin derivatives, have efficacious anticancer activities against human hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells. This study aims to study the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), a Ras inhibitor, in HCC cells (Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines). FTS pretreatment significantly enhanced DHA/ARS-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, Bak/Bax activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-8 and -9 activations, characteristics of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. Pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK (caspase-8 inhibitor) potently prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS, and pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) significantly inhibited the loss of ΔΨm induced by DHA/ARS treatment or the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS in HCC cells. Furthermore, silencing Bak/Bax modestly but significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS. Interestingly, pretreatment with an antioxidant N-Acetyle-Cysteine (NAC) significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS instead of the combination treatment of ARS and FTS, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) played a key role in the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS. Similar to FTS, DHA/ARS also significantly prevented Ras activation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that FTS potently sensitizes Huh-7 and HepG2 cells to artemisinin derivatives via accelerating the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:28182780

  4. [Antisense oligonucleotide against survivin induces apoptosis and enhances adriamycin sensitivity of SMMC-7721/ADM cells].

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Fang, Chi-hua; Zhang, Gang-qing; Yan, Zheng

    2006-11-01

    To explore the effects of survivin-specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASODN) delivered via liposome on the growth and apoptosis of drug-resistant human hepatic cancer cell line SMMC-7721/ADM and the sensitivity of the cells to adriamycin (ADM). SMMC-7721/ADM cells were divided into 6 groups and treated with liposome, ADM, sense oligonucleotide (SODN), SODN+ADM, 400 ng/ml ASODN, and 400 ng/ml ASODN+ADM group, respectively. MTT assay was used to calculate the relative survival rates of the cells, and the changes in cell apoptosis and cycle were detected with flow cytometry. RT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expressions of survivin mRNA and protein, respectively. The apoptotic rate of ASODN-treated cells was much higher than that of the control cells. survivin protein expression showed no significant variation between cells treated with liposome, ADM, SODN, and SODN+ADM (P>0.05), whereas compared with these 4 groups, cells treated with 400 ng/ml ASODN and 400 ng/ml ASODN+ADM had significantly lowered survivin mRNA expression (P<0.05), without significant differences between the latter two groups (P>0.05). SMMC-7721/ADM cells cultured in the presence of ASODN and adriamycin showed significant growth inhibition in comparison with ASODN group and ADM group. survivin-specific ASODN can enhance the sensitivity of SMMC-7721/ADM cells to ADM by depressing survivin expression in the cells, thus improves the effect of ADM chemotherapy for liver cancer.

  5. Effect of simulated microgravity on oxidation-sensitive gene expression in PC12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ohwon; Sartor, Maureen; Tomlinson, Craig R.; Millard, Ronald W.; Olah, Mark E.; Sankovic, John M.; Banerjee, Rupak K.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen utilization by and oxygen dependence of cellular processes may be different in biological systems that are exposed to microgravity (micro-g). A baseline in which cellular changes in oxygen sensitive molecular processes occur during micro-g conditions would be important to pursue this question. The objective of this research is to analyze oxidation-sensitive gene expression in a model cell line [rat pheochromocytoma (PC12)] under simulated micro-g conditions. The PC12 cell line is well characterized in its response to oxygen, and is widely recognized as a sensitive model for studying the responses of oxygen-sensitive molecular and cellular processes. This study uses the rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) designed at NASA to simulate micro-g. Gene expression in PC12 cells in response to micro-g was analyzed by DNA microarray technology. The microarray analysis of PC12 cells cultured for 4 days under simulated micro-g under standardized oxygen environment conditions revealed more than 100 genes whose expression levels were changed at least twofold (up-regulation of 65 genes and down-regulation of 39 genes) compared with those from cells in the unit gravity (unit-g) control. This study observed that genes involved in the oxidoreductase activity category were most significantly differentially expressed under micro-g conditions. Also, known oxidation-sensitive transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor-2α, c-myc, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ were changed significantly. Our initial results from the gene expression microarray studies may provide a context in which to evaluate the effect of varying oxygen environments on the background of differential gene regulation of biological processes under variable gravity conditions.

  6. Effect of simulated microgravity on oxidation-sensitive gene expression in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ohwon; Sartor, Maureen; Tomlinson, Craig R.; Millard, Ronald W.; Olah, Mark E.; Sankovic, John M.; Banerjee, Rupak K.

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen utilization by and oxygen dependence of cellular processes may be different in biological systems that are exposed to microgravity (micro-g). A baseline in which cellular changes in oxygen sensitive molecular processes occur during micro-g conditions would be important to pursue this question. The objective of this research is to analyze oxidation-sensitive gene expression in a model cell line [rat pheochromocytoma (PC12)] under simulated micro-g conditions. The PC12 cell line is well characterized in its response to oxygen, and is widely recognized as a sensitive model for studying the responses of oxygen-sensitive molecular and cellular processes. This study uses the rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) designed at NASA to simulate micro-g. Gene expression in PC12 cells in response to micro-g was analyzed by DNA microarray technology. The microarray analysis of PC12 cells cultured for 4 days under simulated micro-g under standardized oxygen environment conditions revealed more than 100 genes whose expression levels were changed at least twofold (up-regulation of 65 genes and down-regulation of 39 genes) compared with those from cells in the unit gravity (unit-g) control. This study observed that genes involved in the oxidoreductase activity category were most significantly differentially expressed under micro-g conditions. Also, known oxidation-sensitive transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor-2α, c-myc, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ were changed significantly. Our initial results from the gene expression microarray studies may provide a context in which to evaluate the effect of varying oxygen environments on the background of differential gene regulation of biological processes under variable gravity conditions. PMID:19081771

  7. Cooperation between human cells sensitive to UVA radiations: a clue to the mechanism of cellular hypersensitivity associated with different clinical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Giannelli, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Six fibroblast strains sensitive to long wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA) and one control strain were used to see if cooperation between the different cell strains could modify the abnormally high yield of single-strand DNA breaks (SSB) in the sensitive strains caused by UVA irradiation in complete Dulbecco's MEM. The sensitive strains were established from individuals showing proneness to different types of light-induced skin damage (actinic reticuloid, familial actinic keratoses with internal malignancies, and unusual frequency of basal cell carcinomata). When sensitive and normal cells were cocultivated, the UVA-induced SSB decreased in the sensitive cells and increased in the normal ones by amounts proportional to the ratio of the two types of cells in the mixtures. Furthermore the regression of SSB, in the sensitive cells, on the proportion of normal cells in the mixture extrapolated to normal levels of SSB when the proportion of normal cells increased to one. Cocultivation of different sensitive cells did not reduce the UVA-induced SSB to levels below those of the less sensitive cell strains. From these results we conclude that substances, present in limiting amounts, even in normal cells, can be transferred from cell to cell, presumably by metabolic cooperation, and modify the yield of SSB caused by UVA radiation. The abnormal yields of SSB in the sensitive cells appear to be entirely attributable to deficits in the substances responsible for the intercellular cooperation. We suggest that such substances are small molecular weight scavengers of active oxygen species.

  8. Mixed sensitivity H-infinity control of an adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dingan; Li, Xinyang; Peng, Zhenming

    2016-09-01

    Design of the controller of an adaptive optical system is very complex because its model is usually with uncertainty. To deal with uncertainty and to improve robust stability, the mixed sensitivity H∞ control has been introduced to design the controller. In order to testify the validity, wavefront aberration correction capability as well as the robust stability has been compared between the mixed sensitivity H∞ controller and the classic integral controller. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the system with the mixed sensitivity H∞ controller, though it cannot guarantee a better correction performance, has greater robust stability than the one with the classic integral controller. That is to say, greater robust stability is achieved at the expense of the correction capability in the system with H∞ controller. Moreover, the greater the uncertainty is, the more proceeds the mixed sensitivity H∞ controller will produce. It proves the efficiency of the mixed sensitivity H∞ controller in dealing with uncertainty in adaptive optics system.

  9. Influence of wound fluid on chemotherapy sensitivity in primary breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingchao; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Hao; Ou, Xunyan; Zhao, Zuowei; Wang, Dan; Liu, Caigang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of WF on chemotherapy sensitivities of primary breast cancer cells from breast cancer patients by using CD-DST. Results In general, the WF-treated cells showed remarkable increase in survival rates as compared to the control cells cultured without WF among different anticancer drug subgroups. This trend was generally observed in all the tumor cells from the premenopausal, postmenopausal, T2, N0, N1, luminal B, and TN patients. Methods The sensitivities of WF-treated primary breast cancer cells, from 21 patients who underwent a radical resection for breast cancer from September 2014 to July 2015, to anticancer drugs: EPI, CDDP, DOC, VNR, 5-FU+LV, and PAC, were obtained using CD-DST. The survival rates of the breast cancer cells were recorded and used to gauge the chemotherapeutic effect. Conclusions Surgery-induced WF promotes the drug resistance of primary breast cancer cells to chemotherapy, suggesting that surgery may have adverse effects on breast cancer patients. More studies are needed to investigate the key factors in WF that enhance the susceptibility to chemotherapy drugs. PMID:27542254

  10. A quantitative proteomics-based signature of platinum sensitivity in ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaofeng; Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O.; Fu, Cexiong; Pappin, Darryl J.; Lucito, Robert; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Although DNA encodes the molecular instructions that underlie control of cell function, it is the proteins that are primarily responsible for implementing those instructions. Therefore, quantitative analyses of the proteome would be expected to yield insights into important candidates for the detection and treatment of disease. We present an iTRAQ (Isobaric Tagging for Relative and Absolute Quantification)-based proteomic analysis of 10 ovarian cancer cell lines and 2 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. We profiled the abundance of 2659 cellular proteins, of which 1273 were common to all 12 cell lines. Of the 1273, 75 proteins exhibited elevated expression, and 164 proteins had diminished expression in the cancerous cells compared to the normal cell lines. The iTRAQ expression profiles allowed us to segregate cell lines based upon sensitivity and resistance to carboplatin. Importantly, we observed no substantial correlation between protein abundance and RNA expression or epigenetic, DNA methylation data. Furthermore, we could not discriminate between sensitivity and resistance to carboplatin on the basis of RNA expression and DNA methylation data alone. This study illustrates the importance of proteomics-based discovery for defining the basis for the carboplatin response in ovarian cancer and highlights candidate proteins, particularly involved in cellular redox regulation, homologous recombination and DNA damage repair, that otherwise could not have been predicted from whole genome and expression data sources alone. PMID:25406946

  11. Mutant U2AF1-expressing cells are sensitive to pharmacological modulation of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Cara Lunn; White, Brian S.; Tripathi, Manorama; Tapia, Roberto; Ley, James N.; Ndonwi, Matthew; Kim, Sanghyun; Shao, Jin; Carver, Alexa; Saez, Borja; Fulton, Robert S.; Fronick, Catrina; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Webb, Thomas R.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Somatic mutations in spliceosome genes are detectable in ∼50% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We hypothesize that cells harbouring spliceosome gene mutations have increased sensitivity to pharmacological perturbation of the spliceosome. We focus on mutant U2AF1 and utilize sudemycin compounds that modulate pre-mRNA splicing. We find that haematopoietic cells expressing mutant U2AF1(S34F), including primary patient cells, have an increased sensitivity to in vitro sudemycin treatment relative to controls. In vivo sudemycin treatment of U2AF1(S34F) transgenic mice alters splicing and reverts haematopoietic progenitor cell expansion induced by mutant U2AF1 expression. The splicing effects of sudemycin and U2AF1(S34F) can be cumulative in cells exposed to both perturbations—drug and mutation—compared with cells exposed to either alone. These cumulative effects may result in downstream phenotypic consequences in sudemycin-treated mutant cells. Taken together, these data suggest a potential for treating haematological cancers harbouring U2AF1 mutations with pre-mRNA splicing modulators like sudemycins. PMID:28067246

  12. 11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  13. Porphyrin sensitizers with π-extended pull units for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nagannagari Masi; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Rajan, Yesudoss Christu; Guo, Bo-Cheng; Lan, Chi-Ming; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Yeh, Chen-Yu

    2013-06-07

    New π-extended porphyrin dyes YD26-YD29 with long alkoxyl chains at the ortho positions of the meso-phenyls, and meta di-tert-butylphenyl-substituted porphyrins YD12-CN, and YD13-CN were synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells, and their optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties were investigated and compared with those of YD12 and YD13. The absorption spectra of YD26-YD29 showed a slight red shift of Soret bands and blue shift of Q bands as compared to the meta-substituted porphyrins due to the electron-donating effects of dioctyloxy substituents at the ortho-positions of the meso-phenyl rings. Replacement of the carboxyl with a cyanoacrylic acid as the anchoring group results in significant broadening and red shifts of the absorptions, which is due to the strong electronic coupling between the pull unit and the porphyrin ring facilitated by the C≡C triple bond. The electrochemical studies and quantum-chemical calculations (DFT) indicated that the ortho alkoxy-substituted sensitizers exhibit lower oxidation potential, i.e. a higher HOMO energy level, and their HOMO-LUMO gaps are comparable to the meta-substituted analogues. The photovoltaic measurements confirmed that the ortho-octyloxy groups in the two meso-phenyls of YD26 and YD27 play a significant role in preventing dye aggregation thereby enhancing the corresponding short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. The power conversion efficiency (η) of YD26 is 8.04%, which is 11% higher than that of YD12, whereas the efficiency of YD27 is 6.03%, which is 135% higher than that of YD13. On the other hand, the poor performance of YD28 and YD29 is due to the floppy structural nature and limited molecular rigidity of the cyanoacrylic acid anchor.

  14. Sensitivity of neoplastic cells to senescence unveiled under standard cell culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Zieba, Jolanta; Ksiazkiewcz, Magdalena; Janik, Karolina; Banaszczyk, Mateusz; Peciak, Joanna; Piaskowski, Sylwester; Lipinski, Marek; Olczak, Michal; Stoczynska-Fidelus, Ewelina; Rieske, Piotr

    2015-05-01

    Cancer cells are typically defined as infinitely proliferating, whereas normal cells (except stem cells) are considered as being programmed to become senescent. Our data show that this characterization is misleading. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification, TP53 sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for MUC1 and SCGB2A2 and immunocytochemistry, together with senescence detection assay and real-time microscopic observations were used to analyze primary neoplastic cells isolated from prostate, breast and colorectal tumors, as well as stable cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-468, SW962, SK-MEL28, NCI-H1975 and NCI-H469). In all cases of primary cancer cell cultures, in vitro conditions rapidly revealed senescence in the majority of cells. Two out of six stable cancer cell lines did not exhibit any senescence-associated-β-Galactosidase-positive cells. Interestingly, four cell lines had small sub-populations of senescent cells (single SA-β-Gal-positive cells). Primary neoplastic cells from different types of cancer (prostate, breast, colon cancer) appear to be senescent in vitro. Apparently, cancer cell lines that have been used for many years in drug-testing analyses have constantly been misleading researchers in terms of the general sensitivity of cancer cells to senescence. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  16. Doped zinc oxide window layers for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Neetu; Kumar, Vijay; Purohit, L. P.; Kapoor, Avinashi; Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M.; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2013-10-01

    The present paper reports the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), where boron doped ZnO (BZO) and aluminum-boron co-doped ZnO (AZB) thin films were used as front window electrodes. The highly crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel route were used as host material for the dye. The efficiencies of the DSSCs formed using the BZO and AZB as window layers were obtained to be 1.56 and 1.84%, respectively. The enhanced efficiency in the case of an AZB window layer based DSSC is attributed to the increase in conductivity induced by co-doping of Al and B and an increase in the number of conducting pathways between the window layer and NPs provided by the nanorods. This facilitates a new approach in the window layer (doped ZnO) for DSSC application.

  17. Efficiency Records in Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Albero, Josep; Atienzar, Pedro; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review article is to show the progress achieved in the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by evolution in the structure and composition of the dye. After an initial brief description of DSSCs and the operating mechanism the major part of the present article is organized according to the type of dye, trying to show the logic in the variation of the dye structure in order to achieve strong binding on the surface of the layer of nanoparticulate TiO2 , efficient interfacial electron injection between the excited dye and the semiconductor, and minimization of the unwanted dark current processes. Besides metal complexes, including polypyridyls and nitrogenated macro rings, organic dyes and inorganic light harvesters such as quantum dots and perovskites have also been included in the review. The last section summarizes the current state of the art and provides an overview on future developments in the field.

  18. Plasmonic nanoparticles enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Meng, Weisi; Huang, Yidong

    2013-12-01

    Here we present investigations on utilizing two kinds of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Au@PVP NPs is proposed and present the specialty of adhesiveness to dye molecules, which could help to localize additional dye molecules near the plasmonic NPs, hence increasing the optical absorption consequently the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSCs by 30% from 3.3% to 4.3%. Meanwhile, an irregular Au-Ag alloy popcorn-shaped NPs (popcorn NPs) with plenty of fine structures is also proposed and realized to enhance the light absorption of DSC. A pronounced absorption enhancement in a broadband wavelength range is observed due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon at different wavelengths. The PCE is enhanced by 32% from 5.94% to 7.85%.

  19. Fabrication, Optimization and Characterization of Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghann, William; Kang, Hyeonggon; Sheikh, Tajbik; Yadav, Sunil; Chavez-Gil, Tulio; Nesbitt, Fred; Uddin, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The dyes extracted from pomegranate and berry fruits were successfully used in the fabrication of natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSC). The morphology, porosity, surface roughness, thickness, absorption and emission characteristics of the pomegranate dye sensitized photo-anode were studied using various analytical techniques including FESEM, EDS, TEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy. Pomegranate dye extract has been shown to contain anthocyanin which is an excellent light harvesting pigment needed for the generation of charge carriers for the production of electricity. The solar cell’s photovoltic performance in terms of efficiency, voltage, and current was tested with a standard illumination of air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) having an irradiance of 100 mW/cm2. After optimization of the photo-anode and counter electrode, a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2%, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.39 mV, and a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 12.2 mA/cm2 were obtained. Impedance determination showed a relatively low charge-transfer resistance (17.44 Ω) and a long lifetime, signifying a reduction in recombination losses. The relatively enhanced efficiency is attributable in part to the use of a highly concentrated pomegranate dye, graphite counter electrode and TiCl4 treatment of the photo-anode.

  20. Fabrication, Optimization and Characterization of Natural Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ghann, William; Kang, Hyeonggon; Sheikh, Tajbik; Yadav, Sunil; Chavez-Gil, Tulio; Nesbitt, Fred; Uddin, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The dyes extracted from pomegranate and berry fruits were successfully used in the fabrication of natural dye sensitized solar cells (NDSSC). The morphology, porosity, surface roughness, thickness, absorption and emission characteristics of the pomegranate dye sensitized photo-anode were studied using various analytical techniques including FESEM, EDS, TEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy. Pomegranate dye extract has been shown to contain anthocyanin which is an excellent light harvesting pigment needed for the generation of charge carriers for the production of electricity. The solar cell’s photovoltic performance in terms of efficiency, voltage, and current was tested with a standard illumination of air-mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5 G) having an irradiance of 100 mW/cm2. After optimization of the photo-anode and counter electrode, a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2%, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.39 mV, and a short-circuit current density (Isc) of 12.2 mA/cm2 were obtained. Impedance determination showed a relatively low charge-transfer resistance (17.44 Ω) and a long lifetime, signifying a reduction in recombination losses. The relatively enhanced efficiency is attributable in part to the use of a highly concentrated pomegranate dye, graphite counter electrode and TiCl4 treatment of the photo-anode. PMID:28128369

  1. Charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi

    2015-03-01

    The effect of charge transport on the photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was investigated by the experimental results and the ion transport. The short current photocurrent density (Jsc) is determined by the electron transport in porous TiO2 when the diffusion limited current (Jdif) due to the {{I}3}- transport is larger than the photo-generated electron flux (Jg) estimated from the light harvesting efficiency of dye-sensitized porous TiO2 and the solar spectrum. However, the Jsc value is determined by the ion transport in the electrolyte solution at Jdif < Jg. The J value becomes constant against light intensity, and is expressed as the saturated current (Jscs). The {{J}s} value depends on the thickness (d) of the TiO2 layer, the initial concentration (COX0), and the diffusion coefficient (DOXb) of {{I}3}-. These suitable parameters were determined by using the ion transport. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  2. A microscale neuron and Schwann cell coculture model for increasing detection sensitivity of botulinum neurotoxin type A.

    PubMed

    Hong, Won S; Young, Edmond W K; Tepp, William H; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent and specific biomolecule that is both implicated as a potential threat in bioterrorism and used in therapeutics. Highly sensitive and robust assays that measure BoNT activity are needed to manage outbreak or controlled distribution of BoNT. Current in vivo and in vitro assays have limitations, including high costs and variability for mouse bioassays, extensive preparations for primary and stem cell-derived neurons, and inherent low sensitivity for cell lines. Sensitivity of cell lines can be increased by direct differentiation and with their physiological relevance (compared with cell-free strategies) and robustness (compared with primary cell strategies); adopting cell lines is an attractive alternative to in vivo assays. Here, we present two distinct strategies that improved sensitivity of a cell line to BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) without direct differentiation. We developed a cell-based BoNT assay using microscale culture and coculture of neuronal and Schwann cell lines, NG108-15 and S16, respectively, to improve both sensitivity and physiological relevance. Results showed that NG108-15 and S16 coculture decreased EC50 from 12.5 to 0.8ng/µl (p < 0.001) in macroscale and from 2.6 to 1.1ng/µl (p = 0.006) in microscale. In addition, NG108-15 monoculture at microscale decreased EC50 from 12.5 to 2.6ng/µl (p < 0.001) compared with macroscale. Finally, controlling the spatial arrangement of microscale coculture revealed that S16-derived soluble factors can increase sensitivity. Thus, our study demonstrates two distinct strategies for increasing the sensitivity of a cell line to BoNT using coculture and microscale culture, thereby advancing assay technology for BoNT detection.

  3. Novel energy relay dyes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Ko, Min Jae; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-02-28

    4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) were used as novel energy relay dyes (ERDs) for an efficient energy transfer to the N719 dye in I(-)/I3(-) based liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the ERDs, either as an additive in the electrolyte or as a co-adsorbent, greatly enhanced the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), mainly because of an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc). This was attributed to the effects of non-radiative Förster-type excitation energy transfer as well as the radiative (emission)-type fluorescent energy transfer to the sensitizers. The net PCEs for the N719-sensitized DSSCs with DAPI and H33342 were 10.65% and 10.57%, and showed an improvement of 12.2% and 11.4% over control devices, respectively.

  4. A Role for Regulatory T Cells in a Murine Model of Epicutaneous Toluene Diisocyanate Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Long, Carrie Mae; Marshall, Nikki B; Lukomska, Ewa; Kashon, Michael L; Meade, B Jean; Shane, Hillary; Anderson, Stacey E

    2016-07-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a leading cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma which impacts workers in a variety of industries worldwide. Recently, the robust regulatory potential of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has become apparent, including their functional role in the regulation of allergic disease; however, their function in TDI-induced sensitization has not been explored. To elucidate the kinetics, phenotype, and function of Tregs during TDI sensitization, BALB/c mice were dermally exposed (on each ear) to a single application of TDI (0.5-4% v/v) or acetone vehicle and endpoints were evaluated via RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The draining lymph node (dLN) Treg population expanded significantly 4, 7, and 9 days after single 4% TDI exposure. This population was identified using a variety of surface and intracellular markers and was found to be phenotypically heterogeneous based on increased expression of markers including CD103, CCR6, CTLA4, ICOS, and Neuropilin-1 during TDI sensitization. Tregs isolated from TDI-sensitized mice were significantly more suppressive compared with their control counterparts, further supporting a functional role for Tregs during TDI sensitization. Last, Tregs were depleted prior to TDI sensitization and an intensified sensitization response was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that Tregs exhibit a functional role during TDI sensitization. Because the role of Tregs in TDI sensitization has not been previously elucidated, these data contribute to the understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of chemical induced allergic disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Force Control by Flexible Manipulator Based on Resonance Ratio Control using Position Sensitive Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper presents a novel force controller to suppress torsional vibration of two-mass resonant system. The resonance ratio control is one of the effective control methods of two-mass resonant system. In this method, the ratio between the resonant frequency of motor and arm is determined arbitrary according to the feedback of estimated reaction torque. The reaction torque is estimated by using position sensitive detector (PSD). Since the estimation method does not need the parameter identification, the torsion information is obtained with accuracy. To attain the affinity and adaptability to environment, motion systems should control the reaction force from the environment. In the force control system, the force response is regarded as a disturbance of the arm portion. The arm disturbance is observed by the arm disturbance observer. The proposed force control system is based on both the conventional PD control and the resonance ratio control and the determination method of pole placement is discussed. The proposed force control system can realize both the suppression of the inner torsional reaction torque and the adaptation to outer force inputs. The numerical and experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

  6. Performance Maintenance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Latent Heat Storage Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruki, Naoto; Horibe, Akihiko

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in various renewable energies. Among them, solar cell production has increased markedly because the photovoltaic is a clean and safe power generation method. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has attracted much attention as an alternative to silicon solar cells due to lower manufacturing costs and plentiful resources for DSSC production. However, the performance of DSSCs has been limited by their durability and low photoelectric conversion efficiency. Temperature control of DSSCs via phase-change materials (PCMs) is expected to improve performance. In this study, DSSCs were heated or cooled with a heat exchanger copper block that was in contact with a PCM (heptadecane), while being irradiated by a solar simulator light source. The durability and photoelectric conversion efficiency of the DSSC improved under PCM temperature control.

  7. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Gentle Control When Predicting Children's Subsequent Academic Functioning: Evidence of Mediation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Seay, Danielle M.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and…

  8. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Gentle Control When Predicting Children's Subsequent Academic Functioning: Evidence of Mediation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Seay, Danielle M.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and…

  9. Diacylglycerol Metabolism and Signaling is a Driving Force Underlying FASN Inhibitor Sensitivity in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel I.; Li, Daniel S.; Lowe, Wallace; Heuer, Timothy; Kemble, George; Nomura, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) generates the de novo source of lipids for cell proliferation and is a promising cancer therapy target. Development of FASN inhibitors, however, necessitates a better understanding of sensitive and resistant cancer types to optimize patient treatment. Indeed, testing the cytotoxic effects of FASN inhibition across human cancer cells revealed diverse sensitivities. We show here that metabolic incorporation of glucose into specific complex lipid species strongly predicts FASN inhibitor sensitivity. We also show that the levels of one of these lipid classes, protein kinase C (PKC) stimulators diacylglycerols, are lowered upon FASN inhibitor treatment in sensitive compared to resistant cells and that PKC activators and inhibitors rescue cell death in sensitive cells and sensitize resistant cells, respectively. Our findings not only reveal a biomarker for predicting FASN sensitivity in cancer cells, but also a put forth a heretofore unrecognized mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of FASN inhibitors. PMID:25871544

  10. Propranolol sensitizes thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Jun; Shen, Chen-Tian; Song, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Treatment options for advanced metastatic or progressive thyroid cancers are limited. Although targeted therapy specifically inhibiting intracellular kinase signaling pathways has markedly changed the therapeutic landscape, side-effects and resistance of single agent targeted therapy often leads to termination of the treatment. The objective of the present study was to identify the antitumor property of the non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol for thyroid cancers. Human thyroid cancer cell lines 8505C, K1, BCPAP and BHP27 were used in the present study. Broad β-blocker propranolol and β2-specific antagonist ICI118551, but not β1-specific antagonist atenolol, inhibited the growth of 8505C and K1 cells. Propranolol treatment inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of 8505C cells in vitro and in vivo, which are closely associated with decreased expressions of cyclin D1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) also decreased following propranolol intervention. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the 8505C xenografts validated shrinkage of the tumors in the propranolol-treated group when compared to the phosphate‑buffered saline treated group. Finally, we found that propranolol can amplify the cytotoxicity of vemurafenib and sensitize thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib. Our present results suggest that propranolol has potential activity against thyroid cancers and investigation of the combination with targeted molecular therapy for progressive thyroid cancers could be beneficial.

  11. Organic sensitizers featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]-thiophene for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kimin; Ju, Myung Jong; Song, Juman; Choi, In Taek; Do, Kwangsuk; Choi, Hyeju; Song, Kihyung; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Ko, Jaejung

    2013-08-01

    An efficient organic sensitizer (JK-306) featuring a planar indeno[1,2-b]thiophene as the π-linker of a bridging unit for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was synthesized. The sensitizer had a strong molar absorption coefficient and a red-shifted absorption band compared with JK-305, which resulted in a significant increase in the short-circuit photocurrent density. We incorporated a highly congested bulky amino group into the 2',4'-dihexyloxybiphenyl-4-yl moiety, an electron donor, to diminish the charge recombination and to prevent aggregation of the sensitizer. Under standard AM 1.5G solar conditions, JK-306-sensitized cells in the presence of co-adsorbents chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and 4-[bis(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)amino]benzoic acid (HC-A), which afforded an overall conversion efficiency of 8.37% and 8.52%, respectively. Upon changing the I(-) /I3 (-) electrolyte to the Co(II) /Co(III) redox couple, the cell gave rise to a significantly improved conversion efficiency of 10.02% with the multifunctional HC-A, which is one of the highest values reported for DSSCs with a cobalt-based electrolyte. Furthermore, the JK-306-based solar cell with a polymer gel electrolyte revealed a high conversion efficiency of 7.61%, which is one of the highest values for cells based on organic sensitizers.

  12. Comparison of Dye-Sensitized Rutile- and Anatase-Based TiO2 Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, N. G.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and optimize the new dye-sensitized solar cell technology. In view of the infancy of rutile material development for solar cells, the PV response of the dye-sensitized rutile-based solar cell is remarkably close to that of the anatase-based cell.

  13. Novel Ruthenium Sensitizers with a Phenothiazine Conjugated Bipyridyl Ligand for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    She, Zhijie; Cheng, Yangyang; Zhang, Luoqiang; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Di; Guo, Qiang; Lan, Jingbo; Wang, Ruilin; You, Jingsong

    2015-12-23

    Two efficient ruthenium sensitizers with a phenothiazine-modified bipyridine as an ancillary ligand, coded SCZ-1 and SCZ-2, have been developed as dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Both sensitizers exhibit low-energy metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands centered at 539 nm with high molar extinction coefficients of 1.77 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) for SCZ-1 and 1.66 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) for SCZ-2, which are significantly higher than the corresponding value for the reference N719 (1.27 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)), indicating that the light-harvesting capacity of ruthenium sensitizers can be reinforced by introducing phenothiazine moieties into the bipyridine ligand. Under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)), SCZ-1 and SCZ-2 sensitized DSSC devices show impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCE) up to 10.4% by using of iodide-based electrolytes, which exceeds that of N719 (9.9%) under the same conditions. Both of the open circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF) of SCZ-sensitized solar cells approximate to those of N719-sensitized cell. The relatively higher efficiencies of the SCZ-sensitized cells than that of N719-sensitized cell come from their higher short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC), which may be mainly attributed to the high absorption coefficient. The absorption spectrum and device efficiency of SCZ-1 are both quite close to those of SCZ-2, suggesting that the difference in alkyl chains on the N atom of phenothiazine is not a decisive factor in affecting the photovoltaic performance of dyes.

  14. Cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizers bearing a triphenylamino group for p-type NiO dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiqiang; Natu, Gaytri; Wu, Yiying

    2013-09-11

    We report the synthesis, photophysical, and electrochemical studies of a series of cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizers carrying triphenylamino linkers for p-type NiO dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The general structure of these ruthenium sensitizers is Ru[N∧N]2[N∧C], where [N∧N] is a diimine ligand and [N∧C] is a cyclometalated ligand. The triphenylamino group is attached to the -para position of the ruthenium-carbon bond of the [N∧)] ligand as a linker to bridge the ruthenium chromophore and the NiO surface and to enhance the electronic coupling for hole injection. As a result, cells made with these sensitizers generate higher short-circuit currents (Jsc) than cells sensitized with our prior sensitizers with phenylene linkers. Morever the N∧N ligands are systematically tuned from 2,2'-bipyridine (O3), to 1,10-phenanthroline (O13), and to bathophenanthroline (O17). Following the series, the conjugation of the N∧N ligand is increased, which results in the enhancement of extinction coefficient and the red shift of light absorption. However the solar cell sensitized with O3 still gives the largest Jsc of 3.04 mA/cm2. The large Jsc highlights the promising potential of using these cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizers for NiO DSSCs. In addition, the carrier dynamics of these solar cells has been systematically studied by intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). The results suggest that the O3 solar cell giving the largest Jsc is likely caused by the slow geminate charge recombination and efficient dye regeneration.

  15. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  16. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  17. Human regulatory B cells control the TFH cell response.

    PubMed

    Achour, Achouak; Simon, Quentin; Mohr, Audrey; Séité, Jean-François; Youinou, Pierre; Bendaoud, Boutahar; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Follicular helper T (TFH) cells support terminal B-cell differentiation. Human regulatory B (Breg) cells modulate cellular responses, but their control of TFH cell-dependent humoral immune responses is unknown. We sought to assess the role of Breg cells on TFH cell development and function. Human T cells were polyclonally stimulated in the presence of IL-12 and IL-21 to generate TFH cells. They were cocultured with B cells to induce their terminal differentiation. Breg cells were included in these cultures, and their effects were evaluated by using flow cytometry and ELISA. B-cell lymphoma 6, IL-21, inducible costimulator, CXCR5, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expressions increased on stimulated human T cells, characterizing TFH cell maturation. In cocultures they differentiated B cells into CD138(+) plasma and IgD(-)CD27(+) memory cells and triggered immunoglobulin secretions. Breg cells obtained by Toll-like receptor 9 and CD40 activation of B cells prevented TFH cell development. Added to TFH cell and B-cell cocultures, they inhibited B-cell differentiation, impeded immunoglobulin secretions, and expanded Foxp3(+)CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) follicular regulatory T cells. Breg cells modulated IL-21 receptor expressions on TFH cells and B cells, and their suppressive activities involved CD40, CD80, CD86, and intercellular adhesion molecule interactions and required production of IL-10 and TGF-β. Human Breg cells control TFH cell maturation, expand follicular regulatory T cells, and inhibit the TFH cell-mediated antibody secretion. These novel observations demonstrate a role for the Breg cell in germinal center reactions and suggest that deficient activities might impair the TFH cell-dependent control of humoral immunity and might lead to the development of aberrant autoimmune responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and characterization of highly efficient porphyrin sensitizers for green see-through dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsueh-Pei; Mai, Chi-Lun; Tsia, Chen-Yuan; Hsu, Shun-Ju; Hsieh, Chou-Pou; Chiu, Chien-Lan; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2009-11-28

    YD12 (eta = 6.7%) is a green sensitizer remarkable for its outstanding cell performance beyond that of N719 (eta = 6.1%) with no added scattering layer; the additional scattering layer assists N719 in promoting the efficiency in the red shoulder of the spectrum, but has only a small effect on the improvement of the cell performance for porphyrins.

  19. Identification of transporters associated with Etoposide sensitivity of stomach cancer cell lines and methotrexate sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines by quantitative targeted absolute proteomics.

    PubMed

    Obuchi, Wataru; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Uchida, Yasuo; Ohmine, Ken; Yamori, Takao; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Membrane transporter proteins may influence the sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer drugs that can be recognized as substrates. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins that play a key role in the drug sensitivity of stomach and breast cancer cell lines by measuring the absolute protein expression levels of multiple transporters and other membrane proteins and examining their correlation to drug sensitivity. Absolute protein expression levels of 90 membrane proteins were examined by quantitative targeted absolute proteomics using liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. Among them, 11 and 14 membrane proteins, including transporters, were present in quantifiable amounts in membrane fraction of stomach cancer and breast cancer cell lines, respectively. In stomach cancer cell lines, the protein expression level of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) was inversely correlated with etoposide sensitivity. MK571, an MRP inhibitor, increased both the cell-to-medium ratio of etoposide and the etoposide sensitivity of MRP1-expressing stomach cancer cell lines. In breast cancer cell lines, the protein expression level of reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) was directly correlated with methotrexate (MTX) sensitivity. Initial uptake rate and steady-state cell-to-medium ratio of [(3)H]MTX were correlated with both RFC1 expression level and MTX sensitivity. These results suggest that MRP1 modulates the etoposide sensitivity of stomach cancer cell lines and RFC1 modulates the MTX sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that absolute quantification of multiple membrane proteins could be a useful strategy for identification of candidate proteins involved in drug sensitivity.

  20. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-porphyrin conjugates as broadly absorbing sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Warnan, Julien; Favereau, Ludovic; Meslin, Frédéric; Severac, Marjorie; Blart, Errol; Pellegrin, Yann; Jacquemin, Denis; Odobel, Fabrice

    2012-08-01

    A series of four new push-pull zinc porphyrin-based dyes was synthesised for hybrid photovoltaic solar cells with a view to enhancing the light-harvesting efficiency at approximately 550 nm with a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) unit. The strength of the donor side of the push-pull porphyrin was tuned by affixing the electron-rich 4,4'-dimethoxydiphenylamine group at the meso position of the macrocycle, and the influence of the distance between the semiconductor surface and the porphyrin chromophore was assessed by introducing different π-conjugated spacers. Charge-transfer transitions over great distances were characterised by electronic absorption spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The absorption and photoactivity spectra of the new bichromophoric dyes spans the whole visible spectrum to the red, implying a better light-harvesting efficiency than regular porphyrin as the absorption spectra of DPP and porphyrin complement one another. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies accordingly increase from 2.40 to 5.19 %. Interestingly, the best overall efficiency was reached with dye 3, which lacks the powerful donating group in the meso position of the porphyrin core. Optical and electrochemical measurements coupled to time dependent (TD)-DFT calculations give insight into the deleterious effect of the 4,4'-dimethoxydiphenylamine unit on the photovoltaic performances, paving the way towards the design of efficient push-pull porphyrin-based sensitizers. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Dynamic Modulation of Thymidylate Synthase Gene Expression and Fluorouracil Sensitivity in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wakasa, Kentaro; Kawabata, Rumi; Nakao, Seiki; Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Taguchi, Kenichi; Uchida, Junji; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Fukushima, Masakazu; Oda, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers have revolutionized cancer chemotherapy. However, many biomarker candidates are still in debate. In addition to clinical studies, a priori experimental approaches are needed. Thymidylate synthase (TS) expression is a long-standing candidate as a biomarker for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment of cancer patients. Using the Tet-OFF system and a human colorectal cancer cell line, DLD-1, we first constructed an in vitro system in which TS expression is dynamically controllable. Quantitative assays have elucidated that TS expression in the transformant was widely modulated, and that the dynamic range covered 15-fold of the basal level. 5-FU sensitivity of the transformant cells significantly increased in response to downregulated TS expression, although being not examined in the full dynamic range because of the doxycycline toxicity. Intriguingly, our in vitro data suggest that there is a linear relationship between TS expression and the 5-FU sensitivity in cells. Data obtained in a mouse model using transformant xenografts were highly parallel to those obtained in vitro. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that TS expression is a determinant of 5-FU sensitivity in cells, at least in this specific genetic background, and, therefore, support the possibility of TS expression as a biomarker for 5-FU-based cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25881233

  2. Functional inactivation of Rb sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Danos, Arpad M.; Liao, Yang; Li, Xuan; Du, Wei

    2012-01-01

    We showed previously that inactivation of TSC2 induces death in cancer cells lacking the Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor under stress conditions, suggesting that inactivation of TSC2 can potentially be used as an approach to specifically kill cancers that have lost WT Rb. As Rb is often inactivated in cancers by overexpression of cyclin D1, loss of p16ink4a cdk inhibitor, or expression of viral oncoproteins, it will be interesting to determine if such functional inactivation of Rb would similarly sensitize cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell death. In addition, many cancers lack functional Pten, resulting in increased PI3K/Akt signaling that has been shown to modulate E2F-induced cell death. Therefore it will be interesting to test whether loss of Pten will affect TSC2 inactivation induced killing of Rb mutant cancer cells. Here, we show that overexpression of Cyclin D1 or the viral oncogene E1a sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death and growth inhibition. On the other hand, knockdown of p16ink4a sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in a manner that is likely dependant on serum induction of Cyclin D1 to inactivate the Rb function. Additionally, we demonstrate that loss of Pten does not interfere with TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in Rb mutant cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that TSC2 is potentially a useful target for a large spectrum of cancer types with an inactivated Rb pathway. PMID:23022476

  3. Functional inactivation of Rb sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Danos, Arpad M; Liao, Yang; Li, Xuan; Du, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We showed previously that inactivation of TSC2 induces death in cancer cells lacking the Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor under stress conditions, suggesting that inactivation of TSC2 can potentially be used as an approach to specifically kill cancers that have lost WT Rb. As Rb is often inactivated in cancers by overexpression of cyclin D1, loss of p16(ink4a) cdk inhibitor, or expression of viral oncoproteins, it will be interesting to determine if such functional inactivation of Rb would similarly sensitize cancer cells to TSC2 inactivation induced cell death. In addition, many cancers lack functional Pten, resulting in increased PI3K/Akt signaling that has been shown to modulate E2F-induced cell death. Therefore it will be interesting to test whether loss of Pten will affect TSC2 inactivation induced killing of Rb mutant cancer cells. Here, we show that overexpression of Cyclin D1 or the viral oncogene E1a sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death and growth inhibition. On the other hand, knockdown of p16(ink4a) sensitizes cancer cells to TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in a manner that is likely dependant on serum induction of Cyclin D1 to inactivate the Rb function. Additionally, we demonstrate that loss of Pten does not interfere with TSC2 knockdown induced cell death in Rb mutant cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that TSC2 is potentially a useful target for a large spectrum of cancer types with an inactivated Rb pathway.

  4. Central sensitization associated with low fetal hemoglobin levels in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Darbari, Deepika S; Vaughan, Kathleen J; Roskom, Katherine; Seamon, Cassie; Diaw, Lena; Quinn, Meghan; Conrey, Anna; Schechter, Alan N; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Waclawiw, Myron A; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Belfer, Inna; Taylor, James G

    2017-09-29

    Pain is the hallmark of sickle cell anemia (SCA), presenting as recurrent acute events or chronic pain. Central sensitization, or enhanced excitability of the central nervous system, alters pain processing and contributes to the maintenance of chronic pain. Individuals with SCA demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to painful stimuli however central mechanisms of pain have not been fully explored. We hypothesized that adults with SCA would show evidence of central sensitization as observed in other diseases of chronic pain. We conducted a prospective study of static and dynamic quantitative sensory tests in 30 adults with SCA and 30 matched controls. Static thermal testing using cold stimuli showed lower pain thresholds (p=0.04) and tolerance (p=0.04) in sickle cell subjects, but not for heat. However, SCA subjects reported higher pain ratings with random heat pulses (p<0.0001) and change in scores with temporal summation at the heat pain threshold (p=0.002). Similarly, with the use of pressure pain stimuli, sickle cell subjects reported higher pain ratings (p=0.04), but not higher pressure pain tolerance/thresholds or allodynia to light tactile stimuli. Temporal summation pain score changes using 2 pinprick probes (256 and 512mN) were significantly greater (p=0.004 and p=0.008) with sickle cell, and delayed recovery was associated with lower fetal hemoglobin (p=0.002 and 0.003). Exaggerated temporal summation responses provide evidence of central sensitization in SCA. The association with fetal hemoglobin suggests this known SCA modifier may have a therapeutic role in modulating central sensitization. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  5. Arylamine organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao; Chen, Jun

    2013-04-21

    Arylamine organic dyes with donor (D), π-bridge (π) and acceptor (A) moieties for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received great attention in the last decade because of their high molar absorption coefficient, low cost and structural variety. In the early stages, the efficiency of DSCs with arylamine organic dyes with D-π-A character was far behind that of DSCs with ruthenium(II) complexes partly due to the lack of information about the relationship between the chemical structures and the photovoltaic performance. However, exciting progress has been recently made, and power conversion efficiencies over 10% were obtained for DSCs with arylamine organic dyes. It is thus that the recent research and development in the field of arylamine organic dyes employing an iodide/triiodide redox couple or polypyridyl cobalt redox shuttles as the electrolytes for either DSCs or solid-state DSCs has been summarized. The cell performance of the arylamine organic dyes are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of arylamine organic dyes, demonstrating the advantages/disadvantages of each class, and pointing out the field that needs to reinforce the research direction in the further application of DSCs.

  6. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) priming sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuting; El-Khoueiry, Anthony; Taverna, Pietro; Ljungman, Mats; Neamati, Nouri

    2015-11-01

    Promoter DNA hypermethylation is an important biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), supporting the potential utility of demethylating agents in this disease. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) is a second-generation hypomethylating agent formulated as a dinucleotide of decitabine and deoxyguanosine that yields longer half-life and more extended decitabine exposure than decitabine IV infusion. Here we performed preclinical evaluation of SGI-110 in HCC models to guide the design of a phase I/II clinical trial. HCC cell lines and xenograft models were used to determine the antitumor activity of SGI-110 as a single agent and in combination with oxaliplatin. Pretreatment with low doses of SGI-110 significantly synergized with oxaliplatin yielding enhanced cytotoxicity. The combination of SGI-110 and oxaliplatin was well tolerated and significantly delayed tumor growth in mice compared to oxaliplatin alone. Bromouridine-labeled RNA sequencing (Bru-seq) was employed to elucidate the effects of SGI-110 and/or oxaliplatin on genome-wide transcription. SGI-110 and the combination treatment inhibited the expression of genes involved in WNT/EGF/IGF signaling. DNMT1 and survivin were identified as novel PD markers to monitor the efficacy of the combination treatment. In conclusion, SGI-110 priming sensitizes HCC cells to oxaliplatin by inhibiting distinct signaling pathways. We expect that this combination treatment will show low toxicity and high efficacy in patients. Our study supports the use of the combination of low doses of SGI-110 and oxaliplatin in HCC patients.

  7. Equine Airway Mast Cells are Sensitive to Cell Death Induced by Lysosomotropic Agents.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, S; Riihimäki, M; Pejler, G; Waern, I

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are known for their detrimental effects in various inflammatory conditions. Regimens that induce selective mast cell apoptosis may therefore be of therapeutic significance. Earlier studies have demonstrated that murine- and human-cultured mast cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis induced by the lysosomotropic agent LeuLeuOMe (LLME). However, the efficacy of lysosomotropic agents for inducing apoptosis of in vivo-derived airway mast cells and the impact on mast cells in other species have not been assessed. Here we addressed whether lysosomotropic agents can induce cell death of equine in vivo-derived mast cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from horses were incubated with LLME at 15-100 μm for up to 48 h. The overall cell viability was unaffected by 15 μm LLME up to 48 h, whereas a relatively modest drop in total cell counts (~30%) was seen at the highest LLME dose used. In contrast to the relatively low effect on total cell counts, LLME efficiently and dose dependently reduced the number of mast cells in BAL fluids, with an almost complete depletion (96%) of mast cells after 24 h of incubation with 100 μm LLME. A significant but less dramatic reduction (up to ~45%) of lymphocytes was also seen, whereas macrophages and neutrophils were essentially resistant. The appearance of apoptotic bodies suggested a mechanism involving apoptosis rather than necrosis. These findings suggest that equine airway mast cells are highly sensitive to lysosomotropic agents. Possibly, lysosomotropic agents could be of therapeutic value to treat disorders involving harmful accumulation of mast cells in the airways.

  8. Tyrosinase overexpression promotes ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by quercetin and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Thilakavathy; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Limesand, Kirsten H; Burd, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been used for the treatment of melanoma for decades. However, monotherapy with this chemotherapeutic agent results only in moderate response rates. To improve tumor response to DTIC current clinical trials in melanoma focus on combining a novel targeted agent with chemotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that tyrosinase which is commonly overexpressed in melanoma activates the bioflavonoid quercetin (Qct) and promotes an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage response. This response sensitizes melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase to DTIC. In DB-1 melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase (Tyr(+) cells), the threshold for phosphorylation of ATM and p53 at serine 15 was observed at a low dose of Qct (25 microM) when compared to the mock transfected pcDNA3 cells, which required a higher dose (75 microM). Both pcDNA3 and Tyr(+) DB-1 cells demonstrated similar increases in phosphorylation of p53 at other serine sites, but in the Tyr(+) cells, DNApk expression was found to be reduced compared to control cells, indicating a shift towards an ATM-mediated response. The DB-1 control cells were resistant to DTIC, but were sensitized to apoptosis with high dose Qct, while Tyr(+) cells were sensitized to DTIC with low or high dose Qct. Qct also sensitized SK Mel 5 (p53 wildtype) and 28 (p53 mutant) cells to DTIC. However, when SK Mel 5 cells were transiently transfected with tyrosinase and treated with Qct plus DTIC, SK Mel 5 cells demonstrated a more than additive induction of apoptosis. Therefore, this study demonstrates that tyrosinase overexpression promotes an ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by Qct treatment and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine. In conclusion, these results suggest that Qct or Qct analogues may significantly improve DTIC response rates in tumors that express tyrosinase.

  9. Galectin-3 inhibition sensitizes human renal cell carcinoma cells to arsenic trioxide treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yangyang; Gu, Xin; Gong, Mancheng; Guo, Guiying; Han, Kaiyu; An, Ruihua

    2013-01-01

    The anti-tumor effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) were well established in acute promyelocytic leukemia, but not in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent evidences indicate that galectin-3 (Gal-3) plays an anti-apoptotic role in chemotherapy induced tumor cell death. This study was intended to clarify the exact roles of Gal-3 performed in ATO-induced apoptosis in RCC cells. Weak apoptosis was observed in Gal-3-positive RCC cells (Caki-1, Caki-2, 786-0, and ACHN) following ATO treatment. However, ATO treatment upregulated Gal-3 expression concurrently caused a Synexin-cooperated translocation of Gal-3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Gal-3-knockdown cells were more sensitive to ATO treatment as indicated by a strong mitochondria-dependent apoptosis following ATO treatment. Meanwhile, Gal-3 was found to inhibit ATO-induced apoptosis through enhancing Bcl-2 expression and stabilizing mitochondria. To confirm the results obtained from genetic method, we employed a Gal-3 inhibitor, modified citrus prectin (MCP), and co-treated the RCC cells with ATO. The cells showed an increased apoptosis in the syngeneic application of Gal-3 inhibition and ATO compared with ATO application alone. Based on these results, we conclude that Gal-3 inhibition sensitizes human renal cell carcinoma cells to ATO treatment through increasing mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Our studies implicate synergetic application of ATO and Gal-3 inhibition as a potential strategy for RCC treatment. PMID:23917726

  10. Resveratrol sensitizes glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide by inducing cell apoptosis and promoting differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Liu, Yaodong; Jiao, Yumin; Guo, Anchen; Xu, Xiaoxue; Qu, Xianjun; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Jizong; Li, Ye; Cao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma-initiating cells play crucial roles in the origin, growth, and recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme. The elimination of glioblastoma-initiating cells is believed to be a key strategy for achieving long-term survival of glioblastoma patients due to the highly resistant property of glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been widely studied as a promising candidate for cancer prevention and treatment. Whether resveratrol could enhance the sensitivity of glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide therapy has not yet been reported. Here, using patient-derived glioblastoma-initiating cell lines, we found that resveratrol sensitized glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that resveratrol enhanced glioblastoma-initiating cells to temozolomide-induced apoptosis through DNA double-stranded breaks/pATM/pATR/p53 pathway activation, and promoted glioblastoma-initiating cell differentiation involving p-STAT3 inactivation. Our results propose that temozolomide and resveratrol combination strategy may be effective in the management of glioblastoma patients, particularly for those patients who have been present with a high abundance of glioblastoma-initiating cells in their tumors and show slight responsiveness to temozolomide.

  11. Host cell reactivation studies with epidermal cells of mice sensitive and resistant to carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.E.; Strickland, A.G.

    1984-03-01

    Primary epidermal cells from AKR, BALB/c, CD-1, and SENCAR mice, listed in order of least to most sensitive to epidermal carcinogenesis by initiation and promotion protocols, were found to be equally competent to ''reactivate'' herpes simplex virus type 1 irradiated by germicidal ultraviolet radiation. Nontumorigenic BALB/c epidermal cell lines selected in vitro for resistance to terminal differentiation after in vivo or in vitro treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens showed virus survival curves similar to those of primary cells. Similarly, primary cultures which were allowed to grow to confluency following a single treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (100 ng/ml) retained normal host cell reactivation. Host cell reactivation studies with mouse dermal fibroblasts could not be done because of the failure of the herpes simplex virus to infect these cells and produce plaques. These results demonstrate that survival of ultraviolet light-damaged virus in primary epidermal cells in culture is unrelated to whether the cells are derived from mice sensitive or resistant to epidermal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, virus survival is not changed by tumor promoter treatment or by treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens which results in differentiation-resistant cells.

  12. ATM-deficiency sensitizes Mantle Cell Lymphoma cells to PARP-1 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Chris T.; Muzik, Huong; Turhan, Ali G.; Zamò, Alberto; O’Connor, Mark J.; Bebb, D. Gwyn; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition is toxic to cells with mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, a concept, termed synthetic lethality. However, whether this approach is applicable to other human cancers with defects in other DNA repair genes has yet to be determined. The Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene is altered in a number of human cancers including Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL). Here, we characterize a panel of MCL cell lines for ATM status and function and investigate the potential for synthetic lethality in MCL in the presence of small molecule inhibitors of PARP-1. We show that Granta-519 and UPN2 cells have low levels of ATM protein, are defective in DNA damage-induced ATM-dependent signaling, are radiation sensitive and have cell cycle checkpoint defects: all characteristics of defective ATM function. Significantly, Granta-519 and UPN2 cells were more sensitive to PARP-1 inhibition, than were the ATM-proficient MCL cell lines examined. Furthermore, the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib (previously known as AZD2281/KU-0059436) significantly decreased tumour growth and increased overall survival in mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of ATM-deficient Granta-519 cells, while producing only a modest effect on overall survival of mice bearing xenografts of the ATM-proficient cell line, Z138. Thus, PARP inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of MCL and the concept of synthetic lethality extends to human cancers with ATM alterations. PMID:20124459

  13. Proliferative control in Drosophila stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlmaier, Alexander; Edgar, Bruce A

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between cell growth (cell mass increase over time) and cell division is poorly understood in animal stem cells. Recent studies in several Drosophila stem cell types have provided the tools to interrogate this relationship. In several cases (brat, mei-P26, pros, bam, lethal giant larvae, polo), mutations have been defined that trigger tumorous overproliferation of progenitor cells and reveal how unrestricted self-renewing capacity is controlled. Moreover, microRNAs have been discovered as essential regulators of stem cell division rate and identity, suggesting that stem cell self-renewal depends on protein translational control. Biosynthetic capacity has also been found to be limiting for stem cell division rates. Finally, asymmetric cell division can impose dominant differentiation signals in a stem cell's daughter, and this can inhibit the stem cell-specific proliferation signature and lock in cell cycle exit.

  14. Theoretical screening of novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianxi; Du, Yuchang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Sun, Yuanwei; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin; Pan, Xu

    2014-12-10

    Alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizers have attracted great attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies, among which YD2 has reached 11% while YD2-o-C8 has reached 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers. Design and screening of porphyrin sensitizer candidates with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still very important. Twenty novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrin sensitizer candidates composed of the donors diarylamino-, tri-4-methylphenyl-, tri-hydroxyl- and tri-amino-substituted zinc porphyrins as well as the selected acceptors E, M, Q, R and S have been designed and calculated at the density functional B3LYP level. YD2 and YD2-o-C8 are also calculated at the same level for comparison. The result shows that the sensitizer candidates all have smaller HOMO-LUMO gaps as well as wider and red-shifted absorption bands than those of YD2 and YD2-o-C8. Most of the sensitizer candidates have appropriate HOMO and LUMO energy levels relative to the redox potential of the mediator and the TiO2 conduction band, showing that they are promising to provide comparable or even higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies than 11% of YD-2 or 11.9% of YD2-o-C8.

  15. Theoretical screening of novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianxi; Du, Yuchang; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Sun, Yuanwei; Li, Dacheng; Dou, Jianmin; Pan, Xu

    2014-12-01

    Alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizers have attracted great attention in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their excellent photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies, among which YD2 has reached 11% while YD2-o-C8 has reached 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers. Design and screening of porphyrin sensitizer candidates with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still very important. Twenty novel alkyne bridged zinc porphyrin sensitizer candidates composed of the donors diarylamino-, tri-4-methylphenyl-, tri-hydroxyl- and tri-amino-substituted zinc porphyrins as well as the selected acceptors E, M, Q, R and S have been designed and calculated at the density functional B3LYP level. YD2 and YD2-o-C8 are also calculated at the same level for comparison. The result shows that the sensitizer candidates all have smaller HOMO-LUMO gaps as well as wider and red-shifted absorption bands than those of YD2 and YD2-o-C8. Most of the sensitizer candidates have appropriate HOMO and LUMO energy levels relative to the redox potential of the mediator and the TiO2 conduction band, showing that they are promising to provide comparable or even higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies than 11% of YD-2 or 11.9% of YD2-o-C8.

  16. Antisense expression of PKCα improved sensitivity of SGC7901/VCR cells to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Da-Long; Sui, Feng-Ying; Du, Cheng; Zhang, Cheng-Wen; Hui, Bin; Xu, Shui-Ling; Lu, Huan-Zhang; Song, Guo-Jie

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether antisense blocking of protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) would reverse multi-drug resistance (MDR) in the vincristine (VCR)-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/VCR. METHODS: SGC7901/VCR cells expressing antisense PKCα, SGC7901/VCR/aPKC, were established by transfection with a recombinant plasmid reversely inserted with PKCα cDNA. Empty vector (PCI-neo)-transfected cell clones, SGC7901/VCR/neo, served as the control. Western blot method was used to detect PKCα content in SGC7901, SGC7901/VCR, SGC7901/VCR/neo and SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells, using PKCα-specific antibody. The sensitivity of SGC7901, SGC7901/VCR, SGC7901/VCR/neo and SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells to doxorubicin (DOX) in vitro was determined by MTT assay. The uptake of DOX in these cells was detected with fluorescence spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that the PKCα protein level was about 8.7-fold higher in SGC7901/VCR cells than that in SGC7901 cells, whereas the protein expression of PKCα was reduced by 78% in SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells when compared with the SGC7901/VCR cells. SGC7901/VCR/aPKC cells had a 4.2-fold increase in DOX cytotoxicity, accompanied by a 1.7-fold increase of DOX accumulation in comparison with SGC7901/VCR cells. CONCLUSION: PKCα positively regulates MDR in SGC7901 cells, and inhibition of PKCα can partially attenuate MDR in human gastric cancer cells. PMID:19291828

  17. Electron transfer kinetics in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierk, John R.

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical (WS-DSPECs) cells utilize molecular sensitizers absorbed on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes to harvest visible light, inject photoexcited electrons into the conduction band of TiO2, and finally transfer holes across the TiO2 surface to water oxidation catalysts, which in turn oxidize water to give molecular oxygen and four protons. Within the TiO2 layer photoinjected electrons are transported to a transparent conductor back contact and from there to a dark cathode to reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. WS-DSPECs offer several advantages for alternative solar fuels systems: the use of low-cost materials, tunable molecular sensitizers, and relaxed catalytic turnover requirements to name a few. Despite these advantageous features, power conversion efficiencies in WS-DSPECs are generally low. Broadly, this thesis explores the fundamental electron transfer processes that control the efficiency of these cells. Chapter 1 presents a survey of the previous literature and individually considers each component of a WS-DSPEC (water oxidation catalyst, sensitizers, electrode materials, redox mediators, and overall system design). Chapter 2 presents a novel method of preparing a WS-DSPEC that utilizes crystalline IrO2 nanoparticles directly sintered to TiO2 as a water oxidation catalyst and describes a previously unknown electron-scavenging pathway by IrO2. Chapter 3 explores how electron trapping by and proton intercalation into TiO2 controls the photoelectrochemical performance of WS-DSPECs. Chapter 4 characterizes how electron recombination with the oxidized sensitizer and electron scavenging by the IrO 2 catalyst combine to limit the concentration of conduction band electrons and by extension photocurrent in WS-DSPECs. Chapter 5 demonstrates the use of the first totally organic sensitizers for light driven water-splitting and explores how the molecular and electronic structure of a sensitizer affects the electron transfer

  18. Constitutive Lck activity drives sensitivity differences between CD8+ memory T cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Moogk, Duane; Zhong, Shi; Yu, Zhiya; Liadi, Ivan; Rittase, William; Fang, Victoria; Dougherty, Janna; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Osman, Iman; Zhu, Cheng; Varadarajan, Navin; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Frey, Alan B.; Krogsgaard, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    CD8+ T cells develop increased sensitivity following antigen experience, and differences in sensitivity exist between T cell memory subsets. How differential TCR signaling between memory subsets contributes to sensitivity differences is unclear. We show in mouse effector memory T cells (TEM) that more than 50% of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) exists in a constitutively active conformation, compared with less than 20% in central memory T cells (TCM). Immediately proximal to Lck signaling, we observed enhanced Zap-70 phosphorylation in TEM following TCR ligation compared with TCM. Further, we observed superior cytotoxic effector function in TEM compared with TCM, and provide evidence that this results from a lower probability of TCM reaching threshold signaling due to the decreased magnitude of TCR-proximal signaling. We provide evidence that the differences in Lck constitutive activity between CD8+ TCM and TEM are due to differential regulation by SH2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (Shp-1) and C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), and use modeling of early TCR signaling to reveal the significance of these differences. We show that inhibition of Shp-1 results in increased constitutive Lck activity in TCM to levels similar to TEM, as well as increased cytotoxic effector function in TCM. Together, this work demonstrates a role for constitutive Lck activity in controlling antigen sensitivity, and suggests that differential activities of TCR-proximal signaling components may contribute to establishing the divergent effector properties of TCM and TEM. This work also identifies Shp-1 as a potential target to improve the cytotoxic effector functions of TCM for adoptive cell therapy applications. PMID:27271569

  19. Molecular mechanisms controlling the cell cycle in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Abdelalim, Essam M

    2013-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are originated from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst stage embryo. They can proliferate indefinitely, maintain an undifferentiated state (self-renewal), and differentiate into any cell type (pluripotency). ES cells have an unusual cell cycle structure, consists mainly of S phase cells, a short G1 phase and absence of G1/S checkpoint. Cell division and cell cycle progression are controlled by mechanisms ensuring the accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. Therefore, control of cell cycle is a complicated process, involving several signaling pathways. Although great progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of ES cell cycle, many regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell cycle of ES cells and describes the relationship existing between cell cycle progression and the self-renewal.

  20. Are in vitro estimates of cell diffusivity and cell proliferation rate sensitive to assay geometry?

    PubMed

    Treloar, Katrina K; Simpson, Matthew J; McElwain, D L Sean; Baker, Ruth E

    2014-09-07

    Cells respond to various biochemical and physical cues during wound-healing and tumour progression. in vitro assays used to study these processes are typically conducted in one particular geometry and it is unclear how the assay geometry affects the capacity of cell populations to spread, or whether the relevant mechanisms, such as cell motility and cell proliferation, are somehow sensitive to the geometry of the assay. In this work we use a circular barrier assay to characterise the spreading of cell populations in two different geometries. Assay 1 describes a tumour-like geometry where a cell population spreads outwards into an open space. Assay 2 describes a wound-like geometry where a cell population spreads inwards to close a void. We use a combination of discrete and continuum mathematical models and automated image processing methods to obtain independent estimates of the effective cell diffusivity, D, and the effective cell proliferation rate, λ. Using our parameterised mathematical model we confirm that our estimates of D and λ accurately predict the time-evolution of the location of the leading edge and the cell density profiles for both assay 1 and assay 2. Our work suggests that the effective cell diffusivity is up to 50% lower for assay 2 compared to assay 1, whereas the effective cell proliferation rate is up to 30% lower for assay 2 compared to assay 1.

  1. Influence of cell fabrication procedure on the performance of the dye sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Jen, C Y; Munukutla, L V; Radhakrishnan, S; Kannan, A M; Htun, A

    2012-03-01

    The recent technological advancements of the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) fabrication technology is gaining momentum as a low cost and simple fabrication technology to convert solar energy into electric energy. A systematic study of the DSSC fabrication procedure and its influence on the cell efficiency are presented in this paper. Preparation of the titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer on the working electrode was the most significant process improvement made to enhance cell efficiency. The Coatema tool was used to develop an automated TiO2 coating process, which yielded layer thicknesses with minimum micro cracks and repeatable TiO2 weight loading in the range of 8-13 microm. Secondary process improvements implemented were: vacuum drying step for the TiO2 layer, dilution ratio of the sensitized dye and sealant thickness. These optimized cell fabrication steps enhanced cell efficiencies over 200% and reduced total process time. The work in progress demonstrated higher cell efficiency slightly greater than 9% by reducing the cell size using the optimized fabrication process described in this paper. We are confident that higher efficiency cells can be fabricated with this optimized fabrication process illustrated in this paper.

  2. Quality Assurance in the Polio Laboratory. Cell Sensitivity and Cell Authentication Assays.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Glynis

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of poliovirus surveillance is largely dependent on the quality of the cell lines used for virus isolation, which is the foundation of poliovirus diagnostic work. Many cell lines are available for the isolation of enteroviruses, whilst genetically modified L20B cells can be used as a diagnostic tool for the identification of polioviruses. To be confident that cells can consistently isolate the virus of interest, it is necessary to have a quality assurance system in place, which will ensure that the cells in use are not contaminated with other cell lines or microorganisms and that they remain sensitive to the viruses being studied.The sensitivity of cell lines can be assessed by the regular testing of a virus standard of known titer in the cell lines used for virus isolation. The titers obtained are compared to previously obtained titers in the same assay, so that any loss of sensitivity can be detected.However, the detection of cell line cross contamination is more difficult. DNA bar coding is a technique that uses a short DNA sequence from a standardized position in the genome as a molecular diagnostic assay for species-level identification. For almost all groups of higher animals, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 of mitochondrial DNA (CO1) is emerging as the standard barcode region. This region is 648 nucleotide base pairs long in most phylogenetic groups and is flanked by regions of conserved sequences, making it relatively easy to isolate and analyze. DNA barcodes vary among individuals of the same species to a very minor degree (generally less than 1-2 %), and a growing number of studies have shown that the COI sequences of even closely related species differ by several per cent, making it possible to identify different species with high confidence.

  3. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  4. Imaging structure sensitive catalysis on different shape-controlled platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M; Solla-Gullón, José; Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J; Aldaz, Antonio; Montiel, Vicente; Herrero, Enrique

    2010-04-28

    The structure sensitive catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles (NPs) is directly imaged using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). We synthesize and compare four types of Pt NPs: spherical, cubic, hexagonal, and tetrahedral-octahedral. Our SECM images show the hexagonal Pt NPs displaying the highest activity for ORR in two acid electrolytes. Meanwhile, cubic and tetrahedral-octahedral NPs drastically change their activity depending on specific adsorption of the different anions in solution. The NPs morphology produces predominant crystallographic planes at the surface of these shape-controlled Pt NPs, which are responsible for their different catalytic activity. Our results translate the studies on Pt single crystal electrodes present in the literature into Pt NPs that are useful as a catalyst in real fuel cells.

  5. Pressure-Sensitive System for Gas-Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesaro, Richard S; Matz, Norman

    1948-01-01

    A thermodynamic relation is derived and simplified for use as a temperature-limiting control equation involving measurement of gas temperature before combustion and gas pressures before and after combustion. For critical flow in the turbine nozzles of gas-turbine engines, the control equation is further simplified to require only measurements upstream of the burner. Hypothetical control systems are discussed to illustrate application of the control equations.

  6. PES1 regulates sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wei; Qu, Like; Meng, Lin; Liu, Caiyun; Wu, Jian; Shou, Chengchao

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► PES1 was overexpressed in diverse cancer cell lines. ► PES1-ablation enhances DNA damage response by decreasing DNA repair. ► PES1-ablation increases the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. ► PES1-ablation is associated with diminished nuclear entry of RAD51. -- Abstract: PES1 (also known as Pescadillo), a nucleolar protein, was involved in biogenesis of ribosomal RNA. Up-regulation of PES1 has been documented in some human cancers, indicating that PES1 may play some crucial roles in tumorigenesis. In our previous study, it was found that silencing of PES1 resulted in decreased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. We also noticed that depletion of PES1 altered expression profiles of diverse genes. In the present study, we validated the expression changes of a subset of genotoxic stress-related genes in PES1-silenced HCT116 cells by quantitative RT-PCR. The steady and etoposide-induced phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) were higher in PES1-silenced cells than in control cells. Besides, etoposide-induced γ-H2AX persisted longer in PES1-silenced cells after removing the etoposide. Next, results of comet assay revealed decreased DNA repair after PES1-ablation. PES1-ablated cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents, which could be reversed by reconstitution with exogenous PES1. Furthermore, deletion of PES1 diminished steady and DNA damage-induced levels of nuclear RAD51. Our results uncover a potential role of PES1 in chemoresistance by regulating DNA damage response in colorectal cancer cells.

  7. Paris Saponin I Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cell Lines to Cisplatin via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuichuan; Du, Leiwen; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Xinhai; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Background Dose-related toxicity is the major restriction of cisplatin and cisplatin-combination chemotherapy, and is a challenge for advanced gastric cancer treatment. We explored the possibility of using Paris saponin I as an agent to sensitize gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, and examined the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry and Annexin V/PI staining. The P21waf1/cip1, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. Results The results revealed that PSI sensitized gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, with low toxicity. The IC50 value of cisplatin in SGC-7901 cell lines was decreased when combined with PSI. PSI promoted cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in a cisplatin concentration-dependent manner. Bcl-2 protein expression decreased, but Bax, caspase-3, and P21waf1/cip1 protein expression increased with PSI treatment. Conclusions The underlying mechanism of Paris saponin I may be related to targeting the apoptosis pathway and cell cycle blocking, which suggests that PSI is a potential therapeutic sensitizer for cisplatin in treating gastric cancer. PMID:27755523

  8. Autophagy suppression sensitizes glioma cells to IMP dehydrogenase inhibition-induced apoptotic death.

    PubMed

    Isakovic, Andjelka M; Dulovic, Marija; Markovic, Ivanka; Kravic-Stevovic, Tamara; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Isakovic, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the role of autophagy, a process of controlled self-digestion, in the in vitro anticancer action of the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor ribavirin. Ribavirin-triggered oxidative stress, caspase activation, and apoptotic death in U251 human glioma cells were associated with the induction of autophagy, as confirmed by intracellular acidification, appearance of autophagic vesicles, conversion of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II, and degradation of autophagic target p62/sequestosome 1. Ribavirin downregulated the activity of autophagy-inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), as indicated by a decrease in phosphorylation of the mTORC1 substrate ribosomal p70S6 kinase and reduction of the mTORC1-activating Src/Akt signaling. Guanosine supplementation inhibited, while IMPDH inhibitor tiazofurin mimicked ribavirin-mediated autophagy induction, suggesting the involvement of IMPDH blockade in the observed effect. Autophagy suppression by ammonium chloride, bafilomycin A1, or RNA interference-mediated knockdown of LC3 sensitized glioma cells to ribavirin-induced apoptosis. Ribavirin also induced cytoprotective autophagy associated with Akt/mTORC1 inhibition in C6 rat glioma cells. Our data demonstrate that ribavirin-triggered Akt/mTORC1-dependent autophagy counteracts apoptotic death of glioma cells, indicating autophagy suppression as a plausible therapeutic strategy for sensitization of cancer cells to IMPDH inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitization of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells for LCL161-induced cell death by targeting redox homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Haß, Christina; Belz, Katharina; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Fulda, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Disturbed redox homeostasis with both elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant defense mechanisms has been reported in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We therefore hypothesized that inhibition of pathways responsible for ROS detoxification renders ALL cells more susceptible for cell death. Here, we report that pharmacological inhibitors of key pathways for the elimination of ROS, i.e. Erastin, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and Auranofin, sensitize ALL cells for cell death upon treatment with the Smac mimetic LCL161 that antagonizes Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Erastin, BSO or Auranofin significantly increase LCL161-induced cell death and also act in concert with LCL161 to profoundly suppress long-term clonogenic survival in several ALL cell lines. Erastin or BSO cooperates with LCL161 to stimulate ROS production and lipid peroxidation prior to cell death. ROS production and lipid peroxidation are required for this cotreatment-induced cell death, since ROS scavengers or pharmacological inhibition of lipid peroxidation provides significant protection against cell death. These results emphasize that inhibition of antioxidant defense mechanisms can serve as a potent approach to prime ALL cells for LCL161-induced cell death.

  10. The supercoiling sensitivity of a bacterial tRNA promoter parallels its responsiveness to stringent control.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bossi, N; Guérin, M; Rahmouni, R; Leng, M; Bossi, L

    1998-01-01

    In Salmonella typhimurium, expression of the hisR locus, a tRNA operon, decreases upon inhibiting DNA gyrase. Here, the hisR promoter dependence on negative DNA supercoiling was examined in vivo and in vitro. Mutant analysis showed the sequence determinants of this dependence to lie in the region between the -10 box and the transcription start site. As with most promoters subject to stringent control, this portion of the hisR promoter is C-G-rich. Replacing a C/G bp with T/A at position -7 partially relieves the supercoiling response while changing the sequence between -5 and + 1 (-CCCCCG-) for -GTTAA- abolishes the response in vitro and in vivo. The relief of the supercoiling dependence closely correlates with increased promoter susceptibility to melting in vivo and a lesser requirement for initiating nucleotides in the formation of stable initiation complexes in vitro. Studies in isoleucine-starved cells showed that such sequence changes mitigate and abolish the hisR promoter response to stringent control, respectively. The data presented suggest that the hisR promoter's sensitivity to stringent regulation arises from the same physical property that confers supercoiling sensitivity, i.e. resistance to melting. We propose that the stringent control mechanism acts by hampering the ability of RNA polymerase to melt the DNA helix. PMID:9550733

  11. Results of an integrated structure-control law design sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Next generation air and space vehicle designs are driven by increased performance requirements, demanding a high level of design integration between traditionally separate design disciplines. Interdisciplinary analysis capabilities have been developed, for aeroservoelastic aircraft and large flexible spacecraft control for instance, but the requisite integrated design methods are only beginning to be developed. One integrated design method which has received attention is based on hierarchal problem decompositions, optimization, and design sensitivity analyses. This paper highlights a design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changess in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient that finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.

  12. Radio sensitizing effect of aloe polysaccharide on pancreatic cancer bxpc-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunjin; Xu, Feng

    2016-07-01

    The roles of autophagy in pancreatic cancers are complex and may differ depending on tumor type or context. This study aimed to investigate if aloe polysaccharide can be used as a radio-sensitizing chemical to induce autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3 cells were divided into four groups: A control group, an aloe polysaccharide only group, a radiation only group and a radiation combined with aloe polysaccharide group (combination group). Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultra structural changes of autophagosomes in each cell group. The mRNA expressions of ULK1, GABARAPL1, BECN1, and BCL-2 were detected by real-time PCR. Autophagosomes or autophagolysosomes were observed in all experimental groups except the control group. Compared with the control group, ULK1 mRNA expression was up-regulated and BECN1 and BCL-2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in all groups (P<0.05); changes in expression were most obvious in the combination group (P<0.05). GABARAPL1 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the combination group (P<0.05), but had no significant changes among other groups. In brief, aloe polysaccharide induces autophagy in pancreatic carcinoma BxPC-3 cells both alone and in concert with radiation. Autophagic cell death may be one of the mechanisms producing a radiosensitizing effect.

  13. Novel expanded porphyrin sensitized solar cells using boryl oxasmaragdyrin as the sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Mane, Sandeep B; Hu, Jyun-Yu; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Luo, Liyang; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2013-08-07

    Oxasmaragdyrin boron complexes were prepared and applied in DSSCs. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap analyses and theoretical calculations revealed that these expanded porphyrins are ideal sensitizers for DSSCs. A device containing oxasmaragdyrin-BF2 as the sensitizer achieves an energy conversion efficiency of 5.7%.

  14. Toward interaction of sensitizer and functional moieties in hole-transporting materials for efficient semiconductor-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Sang Hyuk; Lim, Choong-Sun; Chang, Jeong Ah; Lee, Yong Hui; Maiti, Nilkamal; Kim, Hi-Jung; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael; Seok, Sang Il

    2011-11-09

    Sb(2)S(3)-sensitized mesoporous-TiO(2) solar cells using several conjugated polymers as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) are fabricated. We found that the cell performance was strongly correlated with the chemical interaction at the interface of Sb(2)S(3) as sensitizer and the HTMs through the thiophene moieties, which led to a higher fill factor (FF), open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), and short-circuit current density (J(sc)). With the application of PCPDTBT (poly(2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)) as a HTM in a Sb(2)S(3)-sensitized solar cell, overall power conversion efficiencies of 6.18, 6.57, and 6.53% at 100, 50, and 10% solar irradiation, respectively, were achieved with a metal mask.

  15. Effects of prolonged hypoxia on the growth and radiation sensitivity of mammalian cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Shrieve, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize a model system in which to study hypoxic cell biology in vitro as a function of time under growth and metabolism resulting from prolonged hypoxia affect cellular radiation sensitivity. EMT6/SF cells were grown in monolayers on glass 60 mm petri dishes that had been modified to permit the addition of hypoxic solutions of test drugs or radiolabeled compounds without breaking the system open to air. These dishes were then sealed in aluminum chambers that were evacuated and re-filled eight times with 95% nitrogen/5% carbon dioxide (O/sub 2/ < 10 ppm). EMT6/SF cells that were maintained at 37 C under hypoxic conditions showed no increase in cell number for up to 70 h. The mitotic index of hypoxic cultures was less than 0.1%, compared to 2.3-3.0% in aerated cultures. The plating efficiency of hypoxic cells decreased with time to 20-30% of control values by 70 h. Aerated cultures consumed glucose more rapidly than hypoxic ones, but, on a per cell basis, hypoxic and aerated cells consumed glucose at equal rates (ca. 1.2 x 10/sup -4/ ..mu..g/cell/h). Virtually 100% of the glucose consumed was converted into lactic acid in both aerated and hypoxic cultures.

  16. Efficient ruthenium sensitizer with an extended π-conjugated terpyridine ligand for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hironobu; Fukushima, Kei; Urayama, Ayako; Arakawa, Hironori

    2015-09-21

    A ruthenium sensitizer with an extended π-conjugated terpyridine (TUS-42) has been synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Upon extension of the π-conjugated system of the terpyridine ligand, the conversion efficiency of the DSC with TUS-42 improved successfully to 10.7%, which is almost comparable to that of one of the most efficient ruthenium sensitizers (Black dye). Interestingly, an extremely large short-circuit current density (Jsc) value (22.7 mA/cm(2)) was obtained in the DSC with TUS-42 even though the amount of dye adsorption to the TiO2 photoelectrode is relatively small.

  17. Polarization of NK cell cytoskeleton upon conjugation with sensitive target cells.

    PubMed

    Carpén, O; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P; Saksela, E

    1983-12-01

    We studied the cytoskeletal changes in natural killer (NK) cells during conjugate formation, i.e., when NK cells make contact with sensitive vs resistant target cells. F-actin and vinculin were seen to polarize at the contact sites upon conjugation with sensitive K562 cells, whereas in conjugates with resistant Raji target cells such an orientation was an infrequent finding. Myosin and two other cytoskeletal proteins, spectrin and vimentin, on the other hand, showed a random distribution in conjugating NK cells regardless of the target cell type. Hence the cytoskeletal redistribution associated with conjugation seems to be different from the receptor capping phenomenon, which is accompanied by clustering of actin, myosin, vimentin, and spectrin. On the basis of these results it seems probable that the lytic conjugate formation in NK-mediated cytotoxicity is associated with the formation of a specific type of junction that involves actin and vinculin. This cytoskeletal reorganization precedes and could be a prerequisite for the polarization of the cellular secretory apparatus and may be functionally responsible for the required cytokinetic movements.

  18. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  19. Bcl-2high mantle cell lymphoma cells are sensitized to acadesine with ABT-199

    PubMed Central

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; Rosich, Laia; López-Guerra, Mònica; Roldán, Jocabed; Rodríguez, Vanina; Lee-Vergés, Eriong; de Frías, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Campo, Elias; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    Acadesine is a nucleoside analogue with known activity against B-cell malignancies. Herein, we showed that in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells acadesine induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through turning on the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery. At the molecular level, the compound triggered the activation of the AMPK pathway, consequently modulating known downstream targets, such as mTOR and the cell motility-related vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). VASP phosphorylation by acadesine was concomitant with a blockade of CXCL12-induced migration. The inhibition of the mTOR cascade by acadesine, committed MCL cells to enter in apoptosis by a translational downregulation of the antiapoptotic Mcl-1 protein. In contrast, Bcl-2 protein levels were unaffected by acadesine and MCL samples expressing high levels of Bcl-2 tended to have a reduced response to the drug. Targeting Bcl-2 with the selective BH3-mimetic agent ABT-199 sensitized Bcl-2 high MCL cells to acadesine. This effect was validated in vivo, where the combination of both agents displayed a more marked inhibition of tumor outgrowth than each drug alone. These findings support the notions that antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family regulate MCL cell sensitivity to acadesine and that the combination of this agent with Bcl-2 inhibitors might be an interesting therapeutic option to treat MCL patients. PMID:26110568

  20. Porphyrin-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs): a Review.

    PubMed

    Birel, Özgül; Nadeem, Said; Duman, Hakan

    2017-02-16

    The current review aims to collect short information about photovoltaic performance and structure of porphyrin-based sensitizers used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Sensitizer is the key component of the DSSC device. Structure of sensitizer is important to achieve high photovoltaic performance. Porphyrin derivatives are suitable for DSSC applications due to their thermal, electronic and photovoltaic properties. It describes some electrochemical and spectral properties as well as thestructure of porphyrin dyes used in dye based-solar cells.

  1. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOEpatents

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  2. Application of creatinine-sensitive biosensor for hemodialysis control.

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, O A; Marchenko, S V; Sergeyeva, T A; Kukla, A L; Pavlyuchenko, A S; Krasyuk, E K; Soldatkin, A P; El'skaya, A V

    2012-05-15

    The highly sensitive and selective potentiometric biosensor for creatinine determination has been developed by us earlier. In it, pH-sensitive field effect transistors were used as transducer and immobilized creatinine deiminase (EC 3.5.4.21)--as a biosensitive element. In the work presented, we optimized this biosensor for creatinine analysis in real samples of dialysate in patients with renal failure. The optimized version of biosensor was applied for on-line monitoring of the level of creatinine in the patient's dialysate fluid in the course of dialysis session. High correlation between the biosensor analysis and traditional Jaffe method was demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Robustness, flexibility, and sensitivity in a multifunctional motor control model.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, David N; Gill, Jeffrey P; Shaw, Kendrick M; Thomas, Peter J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2017-02-01

    Motor systems must adapt to perturbations and changing conditions both within and outside the body. We refer to the ability of a system to maintain performance despite perturbations as "robustness," and the ability of a system to deploy alternative strategies that improve fitness as "flexibility." Different classes of pattern-generating circuits yield dynamics with differential sensitivities to perturbations and parameter variation. Depending on the task and the type of perturbation, high sensitivity can either facilitate or hinder robustness and flexibility. Here we explore the role of multiple coexisting oscillatory modes and sensory feedback in allowing multiphasic motor pattern generation to be both robust and flexible. As a concrete example, we focus on a nominal neuromechanical model of triphasic motor patterns in the feeding apparatus of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. We find that the model can operate within two distinct oscillatory modes and that the system exhibits bistability between the two. In the "heteroclinic mode," higher sensitivity makes the system more robust to changing mechanical loads, but less robust to internal parameter variations. In the "limit cycle mode," lower sensitivity makes the system more robust to changes in internal parameter values, but less robust to changes in mechanical load. Finally, we show that overall performance on a variable feeding task is improved when the system can flexibly transition between oscillatory modes in response to the changing demands of the task. Thus, our results suggest that the interplay of sensory feedback and multiple oscillatory modes can allow motor systems to be both robust and flexible in a variable environment.

  4. Lung tumorigenic response of strain A mice exposed to hypoxic cell sensitizers alone and in combination with gamma-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mian, T.A.; Theiss, J.C.; Grdina, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of metronidazole, misonidazole, and desmethylmisonidazole on the induction of lung adenomas in the strain A mouse was examined. Two dose levels of the hypoxic cell sensitizers, 0.2 and 0.6 mg/g, were used either alone or in combination with 900 rads of gamma-radiation in a fractionated dose schedule of twice a week for 3 weeks. In the groups of mice which received hypoxic cell sensitizers only, the prevalence and the mean number of lung tumors per mouse were somewhat increased (p less than 0.10) in the group receiving the higher dose (0.6 mg/g) of misonidazole but was not significantly different from results for the control animals in the other two sensitizer groups. The combination of hypoxic cell sensitizer and radiation did not show any significant enhancement of lung tumor response when compared with the group which received radiation only. The dose of radiation used in this study significantly enhanced lung tumor formation in mice when compared with that in the control group. Thus, under the experimental exposure conditions used in this investigation, which were somewhat similar to the exposure conditions occurring in clinical treatment, each of the hypoxic cell sensitizers tested failed to sensitize significantly the mice to the carcinogenic effects of gamma-radiation.

  5. Ketogenic diet sensitizes glucose control of hippocampal excitability1

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Masahito; Ruskin, David N.; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Boison, Detlev; Masino, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    A high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for refractory epilepsy, yet myriad metabolic effects in vivo have not been reconciled clearly with neuronal effects. A KD limits blood glucose and produces ketone bodies from β-oxidation of lipids. Studies have explored changes in ketone bodies and/or glucose in the effects of the KD, and glucose is increasingly implicated in neurological conditions. To examine the interaction between altered glucose and the neural effects of a KD, we fed rats and mice a KD and restricted glucose in vitro while examining the seizure-prone CA3 region of acute hippocampal slices. Slices from KD-fed animals were sensitive to small physiological changes in glucose, and showed reduced excitability and seizure propensity. Similar to clinical observations, reduced excitability depended on maintaining reduced glucose. Enhanced glucose sensitivity and reduced excitability were absent in slices obtained from KD-fed mice lacking adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs); in slices from normal animals effects of the KD could be reversed with blockers of pannexin-1 channels, A1Rs, or KATP channels. Overall, these studies reveal that a KD sensitizes glucose-based regulation of excitability via purinergic mechanisms in the hippocampus and thus link key metabolic and direct neural effects of the KD. PMID:25170119

  6. Effect of Fibroblast-Like Cells of Mesenchymal Origin of Cytotoxic Activity of Lymphocytes against NK-Sensitive Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Lupatov, A Yu; Kim, Ya S; Bystrykh, O A; Vakhrushev, I V; Pavlovich, S V; Yarygin, K N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    We studied immunosuppressive properties of skin fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells against NK cells. In vitro experiments showed that mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from human umbilical cord and human skin fibroblasts can considerably attenuate cytotoxic activity of NK cells against Jurkat cells sensitive to NK-mediated lysis. NK cells cultured in lymphocyte population exhibited higher cytotoxic activity than isolated NK cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells or fibroblasts added 1:1 to lymphocyte culture almost completely suppressed NK cell cytotoxicity. This suggests that fibroblast-like cells can suppress not only isolated NK cells, but also NK cells in natural cell microenvironment.

  7. Advances in techniques of testing mycobacterial drug sensitivity, and the use of sensitivity tests in tuberculosis control programmes

    PubMed Central

    Canetti, G.; Fox, Wallace; Khomenko, A.; Mahler, H. T.; Menon, N. K.; Mitchison, D. A.; Rist, N.; Šmelev, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    In a paper arising out of an informal international consultation of specialists in the bacteriology of tuberculosis held in 1961, an attempt was made to formulate criteria, and specify technical procedures, for reliable tests of sensitivity (the absolute-concentration method, the resistance-ratio method and the proportion method) to the 3 main antituberculosis drugs (isoniazid, streptomycin and p-aminosalicylic acid). Seven years later, a further consultation was held to review the latest developments in the field and to suggest how sensitivity tests might be put to practical use in tuberculosis control programmes. The participants reached agreement on how to define drug sensitivity and resistance, and stressed the importance of using a discrimination approach to the calibration of sensitivity tests. Their views are contained in the present paper, which also includes descriptions of the sensitivity tests used by the Medical Research Council of Great Britain for first- and second-line drugs (minimal inhibitory concentration and resistance-ratio methods), the two main variants of the proportion method developed by the Institut Pasteur, Paris, and a method for calibrating sensitivity tests. PMID:5309084

  8. A Strategy to Delay the Development of Cisp