Science.gov

Sample records for control directorate environmental

  1. 22 CFR 120.12 - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 120.12 Section 120.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.12 Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau...

  2. 22 CFR 120.12 - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 120.12 Section 120.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.12 Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau...

  3. 22 CFR 120.12 - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 120.12 Section 120.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.12 Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau...

  4. 22 CFR 120.12 - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 120.12 Section 120.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.12 Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau...

  5. 22 CFR 120.12 - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 120.12 Section 120.12 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.12 Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, Bureau...

  6. Environmental Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Helen, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental control units, or ECUs, are devices or systems which allow for alternate access to electronic or electrical devices and those objects, like draperies and doors, which may be adapted for use with electricity. Such devices offer the person with a mobility limitation the opportunity to control his or her environment, thus enhancing the…

  7. Optimal Control of the Starfire Beam Director

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    amplifier has built-in proportional plus integral ( PI ) control circuitry for the purpose of rejecting the back EMF. Since measured closed-loop amplifier...throughout a satellite pass. PI control yields zero steady state error to a step input. At worse case the commanded position input has a small...designed in a classical sense in that it consists of PI control and a lead, where high gain and the lead are required to achieve the necessary bandwidth

  8. MSFC Director James R. Thompson in Control Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Marshall's fifth Center Director, James R. Thompson (1986-1989), in the control room of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB)automated thermal protection system (TPS) removal facility. Under Dr. Thompson's leadership, the shuttle program was rekindled after the Challenger explosion. Return to Flight kept NASA 's future programs alive.

  9. Program director`s report for the Office of Health and Environmental Research

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    LBNL performs basic and applied research and develops technologies in support of the Department of Energy Office of Health and Environmental Research`s mission to explore and mitigate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy use and to advance solutions to major medical challenges. The ability of the Laboratory to engage in this mission depends upon the strength of its core competencies. In addition, there are several key capabilities that are crosscutting, or underlie, many of the core competencies. They are: bioscience and biotechnology; environmental assessment and remediation; advanced detector systems; materials characterization and synthesis; chemical dynamics, catalysis, and surface science; advanced technologies for energy supply and energy efficiency; particle and photon beams; national research facilities; computation and information management; engineering design and fabrication technologies; and education of future scientists and engineers. Research in progress and major accomplishments are summarized for projects in analytical technology; environmental research; health effects; molecular carcinogenesis; general life sciences; human genome project; medical applications; and imaging of E-binding proteins.

  10. Program director`s overview report for the Office of Health & Environmental Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, D.

    1994-02-01

    LBL performs basic and applied research and develops technologies in support of the Office of Health and Environmental Research`s mission to explore and mitigate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy use and to advance solutions to major medical challenges. The ability of the Laboratory to engage in this mission depends upon the strength of its core competencies. In addition, there are several key capabilities that are cross-cutting, or underlie, many of the core competencies. Attention is focused on the following: Facilities and resources; research management practices; research in progress; program accomplishments and research highlights; program orientation; work for non-OHER organizations DOE; critical issues; and resource orientation.

  11. Programs director`s report for the Office of Health and Environmental Research

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Since its establishment, the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has had responsibility for conducting biological research to develop the knowledge needed to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy use and development, including the potential health impacts of radiation. The Health Effects Research Program has established the basis for understanding the health consequences of radiation for humans, developed radiation dosimetry methodology, characterized and evaluated the health impacts of fossil fuels, and developed and conducted research to determine the health impacts of inhaled toxicants. The results of this research have provided input for setting genetic standards for radiation and chemical exposure.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Director`s overview of research performed for DOE Office of Health And Environmental Research

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    A significant portion of the research undertaken at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is focused on the strategic programs of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER). These programs, which include Environmental Processes (Subsurface Science, Ecosystem Function and Response, and Atmospheric Chemistry), Global Change (Climate Change, Environmental Vulnerability, and Integrated Assessments), Biotechnology (Human Genome and Structural Biology), and Health (Health Effects and Medical Applications), have been established by OHER to support DOE business areas in science and technology and environmental quality. PNL uses a set of critical capabilities based on the Laboratory`s research facilities and the scientific and technological expertise of its staff to help OHER achieve its programmatic research goals. Integration of these capabilities across the Laboratory enables PNL to assemble multidisciplinary research teams that are highly effective in addressing the complex scientific and technical issues associated with OHER-sponsored research. PNL research efforts increasingly are focused on complex environmental and health problems that require multidisciplinary teams to address the multitude of time and spatial scales found in health and environmental research. PNL is currently engaged in research in the following areas for these OHER Divisions: Environmental Sciences -- atmospheric radiation monitoring, climate modeling, carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ecological research, subsurface sciences, bioremediation, and environmental molecular sciences; Health Effects and Life Sciences -- cell/molecular biology, and biotechnology; Medical Applications and Biophysical Research -- analytical technology, and radiological and chemical physics. PNL`s contributions to OHER strategic research programs are described in this report.

  13. 76 FR 20354 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the.... Purpose: The committee will provide advice to the CDC Director on strategic and other broad issues...

  14. Controlling placement of nonspherical (boomerang) colloids in nematic cells with photopatterned director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chenhui; Turiv, Taras; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V.; Wei, Qi-Huo; de Pablo, Juan; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2017-01-01

    Placing colloidal particles in predesigned sites represents a major challenge of the current state-of-the-art colloidal science. Nematic liquid crystals with spatially varying director patterns represent a promising approach to achieve a well-controlled placement of colloidal particles thanks to the elastic forces between the particles and the surrounding landscape of molecular orientation. Here we demonstrate how the spatially varying director field can be used to control placement of non-spherical particles of boomerang shape. The boomerang colloids create director distortions of a dipolar symmetry. When a boomerang particle is placed in a periodic splay-bend director pattern, it migrates towards the region of a maximum bend. The behavior is contrasted to that one of spherical particles with normal surface anchoring, which also produce dipolar director distortions, but prefer to compartmentalize into the regions with a maximum splay. The splay-bend periodic landscape thus allows one to spatially separate these two types of particles. By exploring overdamped dynamics of the colloids, we determine elastic driving forces responsible for the preferential placement. Control of colloidal locations through patterned molecular orientation can be explored for future applications in microfluidic, lab on a chip, sensing and sorting devices.

  15. 5. "UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND 1A, DIRECTORATE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. "UNDERGROUND CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND 1-A, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB, 15 JAN 58, 3097.58." Two men working in the control room. Photo no. "3097 58; G-AFFTC 15 JAN 58, T.S. 1-A Control". - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 77 FR 58847 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC announces the following meeting of the aforementioned.... Purpose: The committee will provide advice to the CDC Director on policy and broad strategies that...

  17. 77 FR 19018 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC announces the.... Place: CDC, 1600 Clifton Road NE., Building 21, Rooms 1204 A/B, Atlanta, Georgia 30333. This meeting...

  18. Center Director Bridges addresses guests at ribbon cutting for the new Checkout & Launch Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KSC Director Roy Bridges addresses attendees at a ribbon cutting for the new Checkout and Launch Control System (CLCS) at the Hypergolic Maintenance Facility (HMF). The CLCS was declared operational in a ribbon cutting ceremony earlier. The new control room will be used to process the Orbital Maneuvering System pods and Forward Reaction Control System modules at the HMF. This hardware is removed from Space Shuttle orbiters and routinely taken to the HMF for checkout and servicing.

  19. [Environmental microbiological control].

    PubMed

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described.

  20. Distributed environmental control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    We present an architecture of distributed, independent control agents designed to work with the Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) simulation tool. CASE/A simulates behavior of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). We describe a lattice of agents capable of distributed sensing and overcoming certain sensor and effector failures. We address how the architecture can achieve the coordinating functions of a hierarchical command structure while maintaining the robustness and flexibility of independent agents. These agents work between the time steps of the CASE/A simulation tool to arrive at command decisions based on the state variables maintained by CASE/A. Control is evaluated according to both effectiveness (e.g., how well temperature was maintained) and resource utilization (the amount of power and materials used).

  1. Environmental carbon dioxide control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.; Gidaspow, D.

    1974-01-01

    A study of environmental carbon dioxide control for NASA EVA missions found solid potassium carbonate to be an effective regenerable absorbent in maintaining low carbon dioxide levels. The supported sorbent was capable of repeated regeneration below 150 C without appreciable degradation. Optimum structures in the form of thin pliable sheets of carbonate, inert support and binder were developed. Interpretation of a new solid-gas pore closing model helped predict the optimum sorbent and analysis of individual sorbent sheet performance in a thin rectangular channel sorber can predict packed bed performance.

  2. Director to Director.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents ideas about customer service that were offered by child care directors at the 1990 Directors' Network Conference. Topics include the implementation of infant and toddler care, parent evaluation forms, junior teacher helpers, parent involvement, credit card tuition payments, family picnics, center interviews and tours, and center telephone…

  3. 78 FR 64504 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD... Disparities Subcommittee, Advisory Committee to the Director, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S K-77, Atlanta, GA 30333; Telephone (770) 488-8200, Email: LEL1@cdc.gov . This notice is published less than...

  4. 22 CFR 130.10 - Information to be furnished by applicant or supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls. 130.10 Section 130.10 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT... § 130.10 Information to be furnished by applicant or supplier to the Directorate of Defense Trade... business of the applicant or supplier, as the case may be, and, if applicable, the employer and title;...

  5. Environmental Control Technology

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-10

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) study was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. On September 13, 1996, the ECTC completed an independent test block for a third-party company, Air Purification Inc. (API). For this testing, the ECTC's staff (O&M and Testing) were contracted to conduct performance and validation testing across a new, integrated emissions control device, the Rotorfilter{trademark}. This testing was conducted for a thirty (30) day period simultaneously with the B&W/CHX test block. The HAP testing resumed as this third-party test block was completed. Testing in September at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI's overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury

  6. Career Longevity among Southeastern Band Directors: Environmental, Personal, and Educational Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Sidney Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether variables reported in previous research on teacher turnover could be reduced to a number of factors, and to determine how those resulting factors affected career longevity in band directors. Career longevity was defined as the total number of years teaching. Literature on teacher turnover was…

  7. Test Platform for Advanced Digital Control of Brushless DC Motors (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A FY 2001 Center Director's Discretionary Fund task to develop a test platform for the development, implementation. and evaluation of adaptive and other advanced control techniques for brushless DC (BLDC) motor-driven mechanisms is described. Important applications for BLDC motor-driven mechanisms are the translation of specimens in microgravity experiments and electromechanical actuation of nozzle and fuel valves in propulsion systems. Motor-driven aerocontrol surfaces are also being utilized in developmental X vehicles. The experimental test platform employs a linear translation stage that is mounted vertically and driven by a BLDC motor. Control approaches are implemented on a digital signal processor-based controller for real-time, closed-loop control of the stage carriage position. The goal of the effort is to explore the application of advanced control approaches that can enhance the performance of a motor-driven actuator over the performance obtained using linear control approaches with fixed gains. Adaptive controllers utilizing an exact model knowledge controller and a self-tuning controller are implemented and the control system performance is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results.

  8. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  9. Polarization-controllable Airy beams generated via a photoaligned director-variant liquid crystal mask

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bing-Yan; Chen, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ji, Wei; Zheng, Li-Yang; Ge, Shi-Jun; Ming, Yang; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Researches on Airy beams have grown explosively since the first demonstration in 2007 due to the distinguishing properties of nondiffraction, transverse acceleration and self-healing. To date, a simple and compact approach for generating Airy beams in high quality and efficiency has remained challenging. Here, we propose and demonstrate a liquid crystal (LC) polarization Airy mask (PAM) featured by spatially variant LC azimuthal director. The PAM is fabricated through photoaligning LC via a polarization-sensitive alignment agent suophonic azo dye SD1. Thanks to the special design, a novel feature of polarization-controllable switch between dual Airy beams of orthogonal circular polarization is presented. The molecular-level continuity of LC director significantly improves the quality and efficiency of resultant Airy beams. Besides, the PAM can handle intense light due to the absence of absorptive electrodes. Additional merits of compact size, low cost and broad wavelength tolerance are also exhibited. This work settles a fundamental requirement for Airy beam applications of optical manipulations, biology science and even some uncharted territories. PMID:26626737

  10. 78 FR 66938 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--State, Tribal, Local and Territorial (STLT) Subcommittee In... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned...

  11. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  12. Sensors for Environmental Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research contract, GEO-CENTERS, Inc. developed a sensing element or 'optrode,' which NASA needed for space life support research to measure a hydroponic culture's pH factor. The company then commercialized the technology in the PC Based pH Monitoring System. The system employs the optrode to enable long term continuous monitoring of the pH level of fluids in standing and flowing conditions, an optoelectronic board with light sensors and detectors that fits into a desktop computer, and a fiber optic cable that connects the two. The system is effective in monitoring the pH output of industries to maintain ranges acceptable to the Environmental Protection Agency.

  13. 78 FR 17410 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance...

  14. 78 FR 62635 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance...

  15. 78 FR 70550 - Announcement of the Board of Directors for the National Environmental Education Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... and industry, all levels of government, public interest groups, and others can work cooperatively to expand the reach of environmental education and training programs beyond the traditional classroom. The... multiple departments, including internal audit; compliance and ethics; enterprise risk...

  16. Pacific Northwest Environmental Executive Directors: Science SessionSeattle, WA Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Science is one of many important factors that inform natural resource policy decisions. I will discuss past and current experiences on integrating science into environmental governance and stewardship, how some approaches have been more effective than others, how forecasted budg...

  17. 78 FR 42069 - Announcement of the Board of Directors for the National Environmental Education Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... groups, and others can work cooperatively to expand the reach of environmental education and training programs beyond the traditional classroom. The Foundation supports a grant program that promotes innovative..., Executive Recruiter of Jacobson Associates since 1995 and Freelance Communications work since 1994....

  18. 76 FR 57744 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) Correction: This notice was... Officer, ACD, CDC--ES, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S D-50, Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Telephone (404) 639-4690. E-mail: dbarrett@cdc.gov . The Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, has...

  19. 75 FR 53703 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health.... L. 92-463), the CDC announces the following meeting of the aforementioned subcommittee: Time and Date: 2 p.m.-3 p.m., September 23, 2010. Place: The teleconference will originate at the CDC....

  20. 77 FR 76046 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance with... and Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned committee: Time and Date: 3... subcommittee will provide advice to the CDC Director through the ACD on strategic and other broad issues...

  1. 17 CFR 229.401 - (Item 401) Directors, executive officers, promoters and control persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “family relationship” means any relationship by blood, marriage, or adoption, not more remote than first..., or as an affiliated person, director or employee of any investment company, bank, savings and...

  2. 17 CFR 229.401 - (Item 401) Directors, executive officers, promoters and control persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “family relationship” means any relationship by blood, marriage, or adoption, not more remote than first..., or as an affiliated person, director or employee of any investment company, bank, savings and...

  3. 17 CFR 229.401 - (Item 401) Directors, executive officers, promoters and control persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... “family relationship” means any relationship by blood, marriage, or adoption, not more remote than first..., or as an affiliated person, director or employee of any investment company, bank, savings and...

  4. 17 CFR 229.401 - (Item 401) Directors, executive officers, promoters and control persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “family relationship” means any relationship by blood, marriage, or adoption, not more remote than first..., or as an affiliated person, director or employee of any investment company, bank, savings and...

  5. 17 CFR 229.401 - (Item 401) Directors, executive officers, promoters and control persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “family relationship” means any relationship by blood, marriage, or adoption, not more remote than first..., or as an affiliated person, director or employee of any investment company, bank, savings and...

  6. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  7. EPA Regional Administrator and American Indian Environmental Office Director Present Recognition of Innovation to Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium's LEO Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Anchorage - February 10, 2016) Today, U.S. EPA Region 10 Administrator Dennis McLerran and EPA American Indian Environmental Office National Director JoAnn Chase will present a Recognition of Innovation award to the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium'

  8. 12 CFR 612.2140 - Directors-prohibited conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... business partner of the director, or any entity controlled by the director or such persons (alone or in... the director, any person residing in the director's household, any business partner of the director... residing in the director's household, any business partner of the director, any entity controlled by...

  9. 12 CFR 612.2140 - Directors-prohibited conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... business partner of the director, or any entity controlled by the director or such persons (alone or in... the director, any person residing in the director's household, any business partner of the director... residing in the director's household, any business partner of the director, any entity controlled by...

  10. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  11. Control theory analysis of a three-axis VTOL flight director. M.S. Thesis - Pennsylvania State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niessen, F. R.

    1971-01-01

    A control theory analysis of a VTOL flight director and the results of a fixed-based simulator evaluation of the flight-director commands are discussed. The VTOL configuration selected for this study is a helicopter-type VTOL which controls the direction of the thrust vector by means of vehicle-attitude changes and, furthermore, employs high-gain attitude stabilization. This configuration is the same as one which was simulated in actual instrument flight tests with a variable stability helicopter. Stability analyses are made for each of the flight-director commands, assuming a single input-output, multi-loop system model for each control axis. The analyses proceed from the inner-loops to the outer-loops, using an analytical pilot model selected on the basis of the innermost-loop dynamics. The time response of the analytical model of the system is primarily used to adjust system gains, while root locus plots are used to identify dominant modes and mode interactions.

  12. Environmental assessment of stillage control

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W. K.; Chang, H.

    1980-01-01

    The US government is encouraging increased production and use of gasohol in an effort to make the United States more energy independent. The current national goal is to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States by th end of 1980. Increased production of fuel ethanol in the years to come seems certain. In producing fuel ethanol (200 proof) from biomass feedstocks by fermentation, a liquid residue called stillage is produced. The concentration of BOD/sub 5/ in stillage is usually high compared to that in domestic waste, and this residue must go through a waste treatment process before discharge into bodies of water. While stillage has potential uses as an animal feed, soil amendment, and protein source for humans, the liquid remaining after useful stillage components have been extracted must still be treated before discharge to the environment. This paper identifies the types of stillage that are produced as well as their control. The concept of stillage control in the context of this paper includes both the uses and environmental control technology needs of stillage.

  13. Light-induced director-controlled microassembly of dye molecules from a liquid crystal matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloschenko, D.; Lavrentovich, O. D.

    1999-11-01

    We report on a light-induced phenomenon in dye-doped liquid crystals (LCs) with the distinctive features of molecular transport and assembly at micron scales. Under single-beam laser irradiation, the dye molecules phase separate from the LC host and assemble onto the cell substrate. Although the intensity of incident light is uniform within the irradiated area, the density of the adsorbed dye is modulated in accord with the director modulation of the LC. The dye molecules form a surface imprint that portrays orientational distortions of the LC host.

  14. 12 CFR 612.2145 - Director reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in the director's household, business partner, or any entity controlled by the director or such... transacts business with the institution or any institution supervised by the director's institution; and (2) The name and the nature of the business of any entity in which the director has a material...

  15. 12 CFR 612.2145 - Director reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in the director's household, business partner, or any entity controlled by the director or such... transacts business with the institution or any institution supervised by the director's institution; and (2) The name and the nature of the business of any entity in which the director has a material...

  16. Environmental control medical support team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The activities conducted in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support Team during December 7, 1987 through September 30, 1988 are summarized. The majority of the ongoing support has focused on the ECLSS area. Through a series of initial meetings with the ECLSS team and technical literature review, an initial list of critical topics was developed. Subtasks were then identified or additional related tasks received as action items from the ECLSS group meetings. Although most of the efforts focused on providing MSFC personnel with information regarding specific questions and problems related to ECLSS issues, other efforts regarding identifying an ECLSS Medical Support Team and constructing data bases of technical information were also initiated and completed. The specific tasks are as follows: (1) Provide support to the mechanical design and integration of test systems as related to microbiological concerns; (2) Assist with design of Human Subjects Test Protocols; (3) Interpretation and recommendations pertaining to air/water quality requirements; (4) Assist in determining the design specifications required as related to the Technical Demonstration Program; (5) Develop a data base of all microorganisms recovered from previous subsystem testing; (6) Estimates of health risk of individual microbes to test subjects; (7) Assist with setting limits for safety of test subjects; (8) Health monitoring of test subjects; (9) Assist in the preparation of test plans; (10) Assist in the development of a QA/QC program to assure the validity, accuracy and precision of the analyses; and (11) Assist in developing test plans required for future man in the loop testing.

  17. Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of recyclable resources in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water and oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection / suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  18. Environmental control of photosynthetic enhancement.

    PubMed

    Punnett, T

    1971-01-22

    The transition from granular to homogeneous chloroplasts in vivo in Egeria densa caused by environmental conditions was paralleled by a decrease in photosynthetic enhancement from 30 percent to nearly zero. The drop in enhancement can be explained either by a change in the partitioning of light energy between the two photosystems or a change to a single photosystem.

  19. Inverting the Pendulum Using Fuzzy Control (Center Director's Discretionary Fund (Project 93-02)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R. R.; Sutherland, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    A single pendulum was simulated in software and then built on a rotary base. A fuzzy controller was used to show its advantages as a nonlinear controller since bringing the pendulum inverted is extremely nonlinear. The controller was implemented in a Motorola 6811 microcontroller. A double pendulum was simulated and fuzzy control was used to hold it in a vertical position. The double pendulum was not built into hardware for lack of time. This project was for training and to show advantages of fuzzy control.

  20. High Performance, Robust Control of Flexible Space Structures: MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft systems have ambitious objectives that place stringent requirements on control systems. Achievable performance is often limited because of difficulty of obtaining accurate models for flexible space structures. To achieve sufficiently high performance to accomplish mission objectives may require the ability to refine the control design model based on closed-loop test data and tune the controller based on the refined model. A control system design procedure is developed based on mixed H2/H(infinity) optimization to synthesize a set of controllers explicitly trading between nominal performance and robust stability. A homotopy algorithm is presented which generates a trajectory of gains that may be implemented to determine maximum achievable performance for a given model error bound. Examples show that a better balance between robustness and performance is obtained using the mixed H2/H(infinity) design method than either H2 or mu-synthesis control design. A second contribution is a new procedure for closed-loop system identification which refines parameters of a control design model in a canonical realization. Examples demonstrate convergence of the parameter estimation and improved performance realized by using the refined model for controller redesign. These developments result in an effective mechanism for achieving high-performance control of flexible space structures.

  1. 78 FR 60876 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., 2013. Place: CDC, Building 21, Rooms 1204 A/B, 1600 Clifton Road NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30333....

  2. 78 FR 18602 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the.... Place: CDC, Building 21, Rooms 1204 A/B, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Status: Open...

  3. 78 FR 60876 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Place: CDC, Building 21, Rooms 1204 A/B, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30333. Status: Open...

  4. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-08-13

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system.

  5. 75 FR 7606 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the... Information: Anne C. Haddix, PhD, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S...

  6. Indoor Environmental Control Practices and Asthma Management.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Elizabeth C; Abramson, Stuart L; Sandel, Megan T

    2016-11-01

    Indoor environmental exposures, particularly allergens and pollutants, are major contributors to asthma morbidity in children; environmental control practices aimed at reducing these exposures are an integral component of asthma management. Some individually tailored environmental control practices that have been shown to reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations are similar in efficacy and cost to controller medications. As a part of developing tailored strategies regarding environmental control measures, an environmental history can be obtained to evaluate the key indoor environmental exposures that are known to trigger asthma symptoms and exacerbations, including both indoor pollutants and allergens. An environmental history includes questions regarding the presence of pets or pests or evidence of pests in the home, as well as knowledge regarding whether the climatic characteristics in the community favor dust mites. In addition, the history focuses on sources of indoor air pollution, including the presence of smokers who live in the home or care for children and the use of gas stoves and appliances in the home. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E antibody tests can be performed or the patient can be referred for allergy skin testing to identify indoor allergens that are most likely to be clinically relevant. Environmental control strategies are tailored to each potentially relevant indoor exposure and are based on knowledge of the sources and underlying characteristics of the exposure. Strategies include source removal, source control, and mitigation strategies, such as high-efficiency particulate air purifiers and allergen-proof mattress and pillow encasements, as well as education, which can be delivered by primary care pediatricians, allergists, pediatric pulmonologists, other health care workers, or community health workers trained in asthma environmental control and asthma education.

  7. Environmental Control Measures (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... child's exposure to cockroaches: Remove all food and water sources that can attract cockroaches. Use a suitable pesticide. Seal any cracks in walls and floors. Outdoor Controls When mold or pollen ...

  8. Environmental Control Measures (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and home improvement stores. continue Controlling pollens and molds Another reason to avoid humidifiers is that high levels of humidity promote mold growth. If you must use a humidifier, change ...

  9. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives.

  10. 78 FR 64503 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cancellation: This notice was published in the Federal..., Committee Management Specialist, Office Chief of Staff, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road NE., Mail Stop D-14, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, Telephone: (404) 639-7158, Fax: (404) 639-7212, Email: ghickman@cdc.gov . This notice...

  11. 75 FR 62844 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC announces the following meeting of the aforementioned committee: Time and Date: 8:30 a.m.-3 p.m., October 28, 2010. Place: CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE.,...

  12. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), CDC announces the following meeting of the aforementioned committee. Time and date: 8:30 a.m.-2:30 p.m., October 27, 2011. Place: CDC, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  13. 77 FR 74545 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... public review. Abstract of proposed collection: The export, temporary import, temporary export and... parts 120-130) and Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act. Any person who engages in the business of manufacturing or exporting defense articles, defense services, and related technical data, or the...

  14. 75 FR 48699 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--National Biosurveillance Advisory Subcommittee (NBAS) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC announces... tentatively scheduled for 10 a.m.-10:05 a.m. and 3:25 p.m.-3:30 p.m. Purpose: As a subcommittee to the...

  15. Passive environmental temperature control system

    DOEpatents

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  16. Environmental control implications of coal use

    SciTech Connect

    Wilzbach, K. E.; Livengood, C. D.; Farber, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Control Technology for Coal Utilization program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting DOE by providing information required in the planning and guidance of R and D programs for coal utilization technologies and the associated environmental controls. Both available and developing technologies for the entire energy system from the mine mouth through ultimate waste disposal are analyzed. The tools of technology assessment and systems analysis are used to provide balanced evaluations of the engineering, environmental, and economic aspects of the technologies, as well as identification of synergistic effects and secondary or indirect impacts. This paper deals with three topics: First, the assessments performed to date that indicate the nature of our current work are briefly reviewed. Next, the computerized models and data bases utilized in our assessments are described. Lastly, some of the results from a major ongoing study of environmental controls for industrial boilers are presented and their implications discussed.

  17. An empirical evaluation of devolving administrative control to Costa Rican hospital and clinic directors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Theodore; McKee, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In the early 2000s, Costa Rica implemented comprehensive reforms of its health care system, including devolving administrative power from the central government to some providers that remain part of the national system. In this article, we evaluate how this aspect of the reform affected clinic efficiency and population health by analyzing administrative data on regional providers and mortality rates in local areas. We compare changes in outcomes across time between areas that signed performance contracts with the central government and received limited budgetary control to those that continued to be managed directly by the central government. We believe the reform created opportunities for providers to become more efficient and effective. Our results suggest that the reform significantly decreased costs without adversely affecting quality of care or population health.

  18. The integrated environmental control model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  20. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  1. Environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

  2. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  3. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  4. The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Greenwood, F. H.; Thompson, C. D.; Willis, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) program was conceived to provide NASA with a prototype system representative of the Shuttle Environmental Control System (ECS). Discussed are the RSECS program objectives, predicated on updating and adding to the early system as required to retain its usefulness during the Shuttle ECS development and qualification effort. Ultimately, RSECS will be replaced with a flight-designed system using either refurbished development or qualification equipment to provide NASA with a flight simulation capability during the Shuttle missions. The RSECS air revitalization subsystem and the waste management support subsystem are being tested. A water coolant subsystem and a freon coolant subsystem are in the development and planning phases.

  5. 40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or...

  6. 40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or...

  7. 40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or...

  8. 40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or...

  9. 40 CFR 160.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Study director. 160.33 Section 160.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 160.33 Study director. For each study, a scientist or...

  10. The Director of Mobility Forces’ Role in the Command Control of Air Mobility Assets During Humanitarian Relief Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    U. S . Government. AFIT/ GMO /ENS/00E-02 Examining the Director of Mobility...RESEARCH PROJECT Timothy E. Bush, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /ENS/00E-02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...steadfast love, support and inspiration throughout the past year and our adventure together in the USAF. Also to my children , thank you for your

  11. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  12. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities or systems: (1) Temperature and humidity controls; (2) Ventilation and air filtration; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195... control and monitoring. (a) Environmental control. Where environmental conditions could reasonably...

  13. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities or systems: (1) Temperature and humidity controls; (2) Ventilation and air filtration; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195... control and monitoring. (a) Environmental control. Where environmental conditions could reasonably...

  14. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities or systems: (1) Temperature and humidity controls; (2) Ventilation and air filtration; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195... control and monitoring. (a) Environmental control. Where environmental conditions could reasonably...

  15. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  16. A Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Stanley, M. D.; Leblanc, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) provides a ground test bed to be used in the early accumulation of component and system operating data, the evaluation of potential system improvements, and possibly the analysis of Shuttle Orbiter test and flight anomalies. Selected components are being subjected to long term tests to determine endurance and corrosion resistance capability prior to Orbiter vehicle experience. Component and system level tests in several cases are being used to support flight certification of Orbiter hardware. These activities are conducted as a development program to allow for timeliness, flexibility, and cost effectiveness not possible in a program burdened by flight documentation and monitoring constraints.

  17. The Director's Link, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Doug, Ed.

    This document consists of the 2003 issues of a quarterly newsletter for Illinois early childhood program directors, providing information on current issues in early childhood education. Regular features in each issue include: "The Director's Toolbox," delineating practical suggestions for directors related to program policies and staff…

  18. Environmental control technology for biomass flash pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Seward, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    The rapid commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies will raise questions concerning the environmental impacts of these systems and the associated costs for appropriate control technologies. This study concentrates on characterizing the effluent emissions and control technologies for a dual fluid-bed pyrolysis unit run by Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. The ASU system produces a raw product gas that is passed through a catalytic liquefaction system to produce a fuel comparable to No. 2 fuel oil. Argonne National Laboratory is conducting a program that will survey several biomass systems to standardize the sampling techniques, prioritize standard analyses and develop a data base so that environmental issues later may be addressed before they limit or impede the commercialization of biomass gasification and pyrolysis technologies. Emissions will be related to both the current and anticipated emissions standards to generate material balances and set design parameters for effluent treatment systems. This will permit an estimate to be made of the capital and operating costs associated with these technologies.

  19. Electric airplane environmental control systems energy requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, L.B.

    1984-05-01

    The electric airplane environmental control system (ECS) design drivers is discussed for an electric airplane from two aspects. The first aspect considered is the type of aircraft. The three examples selected are the 150-passenger commercial airline transport, the military on-station electronic-surveillance patrol aircraft, and the air-defense interceptor fighter. These vehicle examples illustrate the effect of both mission and mission profile on the design requirements of the ECS and the differences that the requirements make on the resulting advantages and disadvantages of electrification. For the commercial transport, the selection of the air source for ventilation will be featured. For the patrol aircraft, the cooling unit will be evaluated. For the fighter, emphasis will be placed on the need for systems integration. The second and more important consideration is the definition of the environmental control system requirements for both energy supply and heat sink thermal management integration from the power plant (engine) that make an electric ECS viable for each type of vehicle.

  20. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Environmental control system transducer development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    A failure evaluation of the transducers used in the environmental control systems of the Apollo command service module, lunar module, and portable life support system is presented in matrix form for several generic categories of transducers to enable identification of chronic failure modes. Transducer vendors were contacted and asked to supply detailed information. The evaluation data generated for each category of transducer were compiled and published in failure design evaluation reports. The evaluation reports also present a review of the failure and design data for the transducers and suggest both design criteria to improve reliability of the transducers and, where necessary, design concepts for required redesign of the transducers. Remedial designs were implemented on a family of pressure transducers and on the oxygen flow transducer. The design concepts were subjected to analysis, breadboard fabrication, and verification testing.

  2. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  3. Design and Development of Lateral Flight Director

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlinski, Kim E.; Ragsdale, William A.

    1999-01-01

    The current control law used for the flight director in the Boeing 737 simulator is inadequate with large localizer deviations near the middle marker. Eight different control laws are investigated. A heuristic method is used to design control laws that meet specific performance criteria. The design of each is described in detail. Several tests were performed and compared with the current control law for the flight director. The goal was to design a control law for the flight director that can be used with large localizer deviations near the middle marker, which could be caused by winds or wake turbulence, without increasing its level of complexity.

  4. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  5. Flight directors for STOl aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Flight director logic for flight path and airspeed control of a powered-lift STOL aircraft in the approach, transition, and landing configurations are developed. The methods for flight director design are investigated. The first method is based on the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the pilot. The second method, proposed here, uses a fixed dynamic model of the pilot in a state space formulation similar to that of the OCM, and includes a pilot work-load metric. Several design examples are presented with various aircraft, sensor, and control configurations. These examples show the strong impact of throttle effectiveness on the performance and pilot work-load associated with manual control of powered-lift aircraft during approach. Improved performed and reduced pilot work-load can be achieved by using direct-lift-control to increase throttle effectiveness.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES: FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical objective of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Center is to verify environmental technology performance by obtaining objective quality-assured data, thus providing potential purchasers and permitters wi...

  7. Director`s series on proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E.

    1994-12-27

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  8. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, É.; Guenther, A.

    2007-12-01

    Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can

  9. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  10. Environmental controls on alpine cirque size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, Magali; Gunnell, Yanni; Calvet, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Pleistocene alpine cirques are emblematic landforms of mountain scenery, yet their deceptively simple template conceals complex controlling variables. This comparative study presents a new database of 1071 cirques, the largest of its kind, located in the French eastern Pyrenees. It is embedded in a review of previous work on cirque morphometry and thus provides a perspective on a global scale. First-order cirque attributes of length, width, and amplitude were measured; and their power as predictors of climatic and lithological variables and as proxies for the duration of glacier activity was tested using ANOVA, simple and multiple linear regression, and their various post-hoc tests. Conventional variables such as cirque aspect, floor elevation, and exposure with respect to regional precipitation-bearing weather systems are shown to present some consistency in spatial patterns determined by solar radiation, the morning-afternoon effect, and wind-blown snow accumulation in the lee of ridgetops. This confirms in greater detail the previously encountered links between landforms and climate. A special focus on the influence of bedrock lithology, a previously neglected nonclimatic variable, highlights the potential for spurious relations in the use of cirque size as a proxy of past environmental conditions. Cirques are showcased as complex landforms resulting from the combination of many climatic and nonclimatic variables that remain difficult to rank by order of importance. Apart from a few statistically weak trends, several combinations of different factors in different proportions are shown to produce similar morphometric outcomes, suggesting a case of equifinality in landform development.

  11. Vocational Director's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Earl, Comp.

    Designed for newly appointed vocational directors in Washington's community colleges, this handbook provides an overview of the functions associated with the administration of vocational education programs. Following a section outlining the role and qualifications of the vocational director, information is presented on the personnel…

  12. Ideas for Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents a variety of ideas and guidelines for day care directors on such topics as managing a procrastinator; improving annual reports; quality commandments; mini fiestas for children, parents, and teachers; selective reading for directors; morning exercise programs for the staff; and suggestions for successful fundraising. (BB)

  13. Athletic Director's Survival Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Mike; Giebel, Nancy

    This book examines the duties assigned to athletic directors, offering successful strategies for achieving them and materials to make their jobs easier (e.g., sample memos, letters, forms, and charts for interacting successfully with coaches, students, administrators, and parents). Section 1 discusses the director's work with student athletes and…

  14. Transitioning between Clerkship Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Stephen M.; Pary, Robert J.; Robinson, Stephen W.; Markwell, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors report on succession-planning for mid-level academic positions. Method: The authors describe the process of succession-planning between clerkship directors and the smooth transition resulting in one case. Results: Gradually transitioning allowed a new faculty person to assume the clerkship-director position with minimal…

  15. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  16. 30 CFR 282.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....12 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... marine, coastal, or human environment. (b)-(d) (e) The Director shall assure that a scheduled onsite... completion of the technical and environmental evaluations, approve, disapprove, or require modification...

  17. 30 CFR 282.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....12 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... marine, coastal, or human environment. (b)-(d) (e) The Director shall assure that a scheduled onsite... completion of the technical and environmental evaluations, approve, disapprove, or require modification...

  18. 30 CFR 282.12 - Director's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....12 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... marine, coastal, or human environment. (b)-(d) (e) The Director shall assure that a scheduled onsite... completion of the technical and environmental evaluations, approve, disapprove, or require modification...

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  20. 40 CFR 146.70 - Information to be evaluated by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area of review, their position relative to the injection formation and the direction of water movement... Director. 146.70 Section 146.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and...

  1. 40 CFR 146.70 - Information to be evaluated by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area of review, their position relative to the injection formation and the direction of water movement... Director. 146.70 Section 146.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and...

  2. 40 CFR 146.70 - Information to be evaluated by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area of review, their position relative to the injection formation and the direction of water movement... Director. 146.70 Section 146.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and...

  3. 40 CFR 146.70 - Information to be evaluated by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area of review, their position relative to the injection formation and the direction of water movement... Director. 146.70 Section 146.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and...

  4. 40 CFR 146.70 - Information to be evaluated by the Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area of review, their position relative to the injection formation and the direction of water movement... Director. 146.70 Section 146.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS Criteria and...

  5. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  6. 77 FR 61000 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance with... Inequities); discussion regarding organizing the workflow of the HDS going forward; and HDS membership...

  7. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    With growing world population, diminishing resources, and realization of the harmful effects of various pollutants, research focus in environmental management has shifted towards sustainability. The goal of a sustainable management strategy is to promote the structure and operati...

  8. Study of space shuttle environmental control and life support problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibble, K. P.; Riley, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Four problem areas were treated: (1) cargo module environmental control and life support systems; (2) space shuttle/space station interfaces; (3) thermal control considerations for payloads; and (4) feasibility of improving system reusability.

  9. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... function. Examples of environmental control functions include the following: to control room temperature, to answer a doorbell or telephone, or to sound an alarm for assistance. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... function. Examples of environmental control functions include the following: to control room temperature, to answer a doorbell or telephone, or to sound an alarm for assistance. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 75 FR 7483 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ...), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES); Correction AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting; meeting time correction. SUMMARY: A... INFORMATION CONTACT: Drue Barrett, PhD, Designated Federal Officer, ACD, CDC-ES, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., M/S...

  12. Students Speak With Flight Director Mike Sarafin

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA Flight Director Mike Sarafin participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students in the Galveston Independent...

  13. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  14. MSFC Skylab thermal and environmental control system mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the performance of the Skylab thermal and environmental control system is presented. Actual performance is compared to design and functional requirements and anomalies and discrepancies and their resolution are discussed. The thermal and environmental control systems performed their intended role. Based on the experience gained in design, development and flight, recommendations are provided which may be beneficial to future system designs.

  15. Ideas for Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ideas for directors. Topics include the safety of child care; profit sharing in child care; and ways to get audited, fashion a philosophy, ask for money, draw out shy employees, and beat stress. (RJC)

  16. New directors for ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Collaboration, which promotes the construction of a new linear collider to complement CERN's Large Hadron Collider, has appointed two new associate directors, who both take the reins this month.

  17. 75 FR 72831 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC announces the following meeting... and enter conference code 4305992. Purpose: The ES will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding...

  18. 76 FR 29755 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned subcommittee: Times and Dates: 1 p.m.-5 p.m., June 16, 2011 8:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m., June 17, 2011 Place: CDC, Thomas R. Harkin...

  19. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), CDC announces the following meeting of the aforementioned subcommittee: Time and Date: 9 a.m.-4 p.m., October 26, 2011. Place:...

  20. 76 FR 3909 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned subcommittee: Times and Dates: 1 p.m.-5 p.m., February 17, 2011; 8:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m., February 18, 2011. Place: CDC, Thomas R....

  1. 75 FR 57044 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC announces the following meeting... p.m., October 8, 2010. Place: CDC, Thomas R. Harkin Global Communications Center, Distance...

  2. 76 FR 55678 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned subcommittee: Time and Date: 1 p.m.-1..., please dial (877) 928-1204 and enter code 4305992. Purpose: The ES will provide counsel to the ACD,...

  3. 75 FR 61505 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS) Correction: This... to the ACD on strategic and other broad issues facing CDC. Matters To Be Discussed: Policy brief on health equity and social determinants of health; update on collaboration with the CDC Health...

  4. 75 FR 4830 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a... Prevention (CDC) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned subcommittee: Times and Dates: 3 p.m.-4 p.m., February 18, 2010. 8:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m., February 19, 2010. Place: CDC, Thomas R....

  5. 77 FR 34046 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Ethics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)--Ethics Subcommittee (ES) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the CDC announces the following meeting... and enter code 4305992. Purpose: The ES will provide counsel to the ACD, CDC, regarding a broad...

  6. 76 FR 12122 - Advisory Committee to the Director (ACD), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--National Biosurveillance Advisory Sbcommittee (NBAS) In... for the human health component of a national biosurveillance system. Matters to be Discussed: Agenda... enhancing the nation's biosurveillance capability. The agenda is subject to change as priorities...

  7. 76 FR 40768 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs: Directorate of Defense Trade Controls; Notifications to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... provide logistics support for the E-676 Airborne Warning and Control System (``AWACS'') AN/APY-2 Radar for... Lead Gyro Systems for F-15 Gun Targeting. The United States Government is prepared to license the... Enhanced Position Location Reporting System Extended Frequency--International (EPLRS-XF-I), Micro...

  8. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  9. Environmental Control of Root System Biology.

    PubMed

    Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Lobet, Guillaume; Dinneny, José R

    2016-04-29

    The plant root system traverses one of the most complex environments on earth. Understanding how roots support plant life on land requires knowing how soil properties affect the availability of nutrients and water and how roots manipulate the soil environment to optimize acquisition of these resources. Imaging of roots in soil allows the integrated analysis and modeling of environmental interactions occurring at micro- to macroscales. Advances in phenotyping of root systems is driving innovation in cross-platform-compatible methods for data analysis. Root systems acclimate to the environment through architectural changes that act at the root-type level as well as through tissue-specific changes that affect the metabolic needs of the root and the efficiency of nutrient uptake. A molecular understanding of the signaling mechanisms that guide local and systemic signaling is providing insight into the regulatory logic of environmental responses and has identified points where crosstalk between pathways occurs.

  10. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  11. Case Management Directors

    PubMed Central

    Bankston-White, Cheri; Birmingham, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: Case management directors are in a dynamic position to affect the transition of care for patients across the continuum, work with all levels of providers, and support the financial well-being of a hospital. Most importantly, they can drive good patient outcomes. Although the position is critical on many different levels, there is little to help guide a new director in attending to all the “moving parts” of such a complex role. The purpose of this two-part article is to provide case management directors, particularly new ones, with a framework for understanding and fulfilling their role. We have divided the guide into seven tracks of responsibility. Part 1 discusses the first four tracks: (1) staffing and human resources, (2) compliance and accreditation, (3) discharge planning, and (4) utilization review and revenue cycle. Part 2 addresses (5) internal departmental relationships (organizational), (6) external relationships (Community agency), and (7) quality and program outcomes. Primary Practice Setting: The information is most meaningful to those case management directors who work in either stand-alone hospitals or integrated health systems, and have frontline case managers reporting to them. Findings/Conclusions: Case management directors would benefit from further research and documentation of “best practices” related to their role, particularly in the areas of leadership and management. New directors would benefit from mentoring and networking with one another. Implications for Case Management: As new regulations and models of care bring increased emphasis and focus to transitions of care, the role of the case management director continues to evolve, growing in importance and complexity. The growing financial impact of readmissions also brings added scrutiny and increased pressure to get the transitions of care right the first time. To operate most effectively, case management directors must understand the full range of their

  12. Environmental Control in School Buildings Through Planting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winant, Rooskandar

    In searching for ways of providing suitable school buildings, consideration should be given to the possibility of providing outdoor teaching space and of controlling environment in whole or in part by the planting of shade trees in a carefully controlled manner. Such trees, suitably located, will not only provide shade but may aid ventilation and…

  13. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  14. Control and the Aged: Environmental or Personality Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.; Dey, Kay

    Control over self, lifestyle, and environment is a major factor in how one ages. To investigate how age acts as an environmental force in affecting perceptions of control, 45 adults, aged 60-80, from western Kansas were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), the Tiffany Experienced Control Scales (ECS), the Minnesota…

  15. Aquatic Plant Control and Environmental Consequences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    4), insects, and plant pathogens (2,3), but biological control reivains only a potential tool for large-scale control of aquatic weeds. Researchers in...fishes often do not feed selectively, yet there is no requirement for specific food selection by them. Use of Plant Pathogens k. Lack of information...on aquatic plant pathogens . Most work on plant pathogens , such as fungi, has been done on terrestrial species. Little is known with regard to methods

  16. Technical Justification for Radiation Controls at an Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DUPAQUIER, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the technical approach used to establish radiation protection controls over incoming radioactive materials to an environmental measurements laboratory at the Hanford Site. Conditions that would trigger internal dosimetry, posting.

  17. Controlling for exogenous environmental variables when using data envelopment analysis for regional environmental assessments.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Alexander J; Principe, Peter P; Shao, Yang

    2013-04-15

    Researchers are increasingly using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to examine the efficiency of environmental policies and resource allocations. An assumption of the basic DEA model is that decisionmakers operate within homogeneous environments. But, this assumption is not valid when environmental performance is influenced by variables beyond managerial control. Understanding the influence of these variables is important to distinguish between characterizing environmental conditions and identifying opportunities to improve environmental performance. While environmental assessments often focus on characterizing conditions, the point of using DEA is to identify opportunities to improve environmental performance and thereby prevent (or rectify) an inefficient allocation of resources. We examine the role of exogenous variables such as climate, hydrology, and topography in producing environmental impacts such as deposition, runoff, invasive species, and forest fragmentation within the United States Mid-Atlantic region. We apply a four-stage procedure to adjust environmental impacts in a DEA model that seeks to minimize environmental impacts while obtaining given levels of socioeconomic outcomes. The approach creates a performance index that bundles multiple indicators while adjusting for variables that are outside management control, offering numerous advantages for environmental assessment.

  18. A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

  19. Environmental control technology for atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M; Albanese, A S

    1980-01-01

    The impact of fossil fuel use in the United States on worldwide CO/sub 2/ emissions and the impact of increased coal utilization on CO/sub 2/ emission rates are assessed. The aspects of CO/sub 2/ control are discussed as well as the available CO/sub 2/ control points (CO/sub 2/ removal sites). Two control scenarios are evaluated, one based on the absorption of CO/sub 2/ contained in power plant flue gas by seawater; the other, based on absorption of CO/sub 2/ by MEA (Mono Ethanol Amine). Captured CO/sub 2/ is injected into the deep ocean in both cases. The analyses indicate that capture and disposal by seawater is energetically not feasible, whereas capture and disposal using MEA is a possibility. However, the economic penalities of CO/sub 2/ control are significant. The use of non-fossil energy sources, such as hydroelectric, nuclear or solar energy is considered as an alternative for limiting and controlling CO/sub 2/ emissions resulting from fossil energy usage.

  20. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  1. Biological consequences of environmental control through housing.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D H

    1975-01-01

    Housing was originally devised as a control of the thermal environment, but numerous other functions have been added with resulting competition and confusion. Current design gives insufficient attention to thermal factors and relies upon supplementary heating and cooling to compensate for faults. These are wasteful of energy, and the exhaust from air conditioners adds to the heat island conditions in city cores. The impact of consumerism on domestic space and the importance of personal space and privacy are reviewed. PMID:1157791

  2. Ideas for Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents child care center directors with a variety of relevant management ideas from business and the child care field. They include translating employee body language; leadership myths; on-the-job teacher training; undesirable bosses; wasting employee talent; voicing disagreement; employee anger; encouraging creativity; and coping with late…

  3. ICTP appoints new director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2009-11-01

    Fernando Quevedo of the University of Cambridge in the UK has been appointed as the new director of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy. Quevedo will officially begin his new role this month and replaces Katepalli Sreenivasan, the India-born physicist who has led the institute since 2003.

  4. Director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This technical memorandum contains brief technical papers describing research and technology development programs sponsored by the ARC Director's Discretionary Fund during fiscal year 1992 (Oct. 1991 through Sep. 1992). An appendix provides administrative information for each of the 45 sponsored research programs.

  5. Time Management for Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Ellen Hofstetter

    2005-01-01

    Time management is a skill. Like any new skill, it takes time and commitment to develop. A frequent complaint of center directors is not having enough time. Most work extremely long hours and still feel they are not getting enough done. This article presents ideas on how to manage time and work smarter, not harder. These ideas are the following:…

  6. The Director's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP) from the director's point of view, including the origins and basic structure of the program which ran for six years. The collaboration of teachers, advisers, and trainers is emphasized, research and evaluation procedures are discussed, and learning processes, computer studies, and distribution…

  7. ATA beam director experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Younger, F.C.; Cruz, G.E.; Nolting, E.

    1986-06-23

    This report describes beam director elements for an experiment at the Advanced Test Accelerator. The elements described include a vernier magnet for beam aiming, an achromat magnet, and an isolation system for the beam interface. These components are built at small scale for concept testing. (JDH)

  8. Optimal control theory for sustainable environmental management.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Yogendra; Diwekar, Urmila; Cabezas, Heriberto

    2008-07-15

    Sustainable ecosystem management aims to promote the structure and operation of the human components of the system while simultaneously ensuring the persistence of the structures and operation of the natural component. Given the complexity of this task owing to the diverse temporal and spatial scales and multidisciplinary interactions, a systems theory approach based on sound mathematical techniques is essential. Two important aspects of this approach are formulation of sustainability-based objectives and development of the management strategies. Fisher information can be used as the basis of a sustainability hypothesis to formulate relevant mathematical objectives for disparate systems, and optimal control theory provides the means to derive time-dependent management strategies. Partial correlation coefficient analysis is an efficient technique to identify the appropriate control variables for policy development. This paper represents a proof of concept for this approach using a model system that includes an ecosystem, humans, a very rudimentary industrial process, and a very simple agricultural system. Formulation and solution of the control problems help in identifying the effective management options which offer guidelines for policies in real systems. The results also emphasize that management using multiple parameters of different nature can be distinctly effective.

  9. Active Shielding and Control of Environmental Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsynkov, S. V.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the research project supported by NASA under grant # NAG-1-01064, we have studied the mathematical aspects of the problem of active control of sound, i.e., time-harmonic acoustic disturbances. The foundations of the methodology are described in our paper [1]. Unlike. many other existing techniques, the approach of [1] provides for the exact volumetric cancellation of the unwanted noise on a given predetermined region airspace, while leaving unaltered those components of the total acoustic field that are deemed as friendly. The key finding of the work is that for eliminating the unwanted component of the acoustic field in a given area, one needs to know relatively little; in particular, neither the locations nor structure nor strength of the exterior noise sources need to be known. Likewise, there is no need to know the volumetric properties of the supporting medium across which the acoustic signals propagate, except, maybe, in a narrow area of space near the perimeter of the protected region. The controls are built based solely on the measurements performed on the perimeter of the domain to be shielded; moreover, the controls themselves (i.e., additional sources) are concentrated also only on or near this perimeter. Perhaps as important, the measured quantities can refer to the total acoustic field rather than to its unwanted component only, and the methodology can automatically distinguish between the two. In [1], we have constructed the general solution for controls. The apparatus used for deriving this general solution is closely connected to the concepts of generalized potentials and boundary projections of Calderon's type. For a given total wave field, the application of a Calderon's projection allows one to definitively tell between its incoming and outgoing components with respect to a particular domain of interest, which may have arbitrary shape. Then, the controls are designed so that they suppress the incoming component for the domain

  10. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  11. Airborne Particulate Sampling in Environmental Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-15

    2, 5654, 37, JS) REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 15-07-2009 2. REPORT...OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON De-Ling Liu 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) (310)336-0062 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std

  12. Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

  13. 72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (PECMP) LOCATED AT WEST END OF LONG CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  15. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  16. Environmental and chemical controls on palagonitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, Bruce D.; Schiffman, Peter; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Clague, David A.

    2011-12-01

    Palagonitized sideromelane from submarine volcaniclastic, seafloor volcanic, marine phreatomagmatic, lacustine phreatomagmatic, and subglacial volcanic settings was investigated using in situ microanalysis to test if palagonite composition and texture are related to depositional environment. Palagonitization extent varies linearly and inversely with original sample porosity, suggesting that porosity is a controlling factor of palagonitization. Water absorbance of reflected infrared light varies linearly with water content derived from electron microprobe totals. Palagonite water content has a linear, inverse relationship to palagonitization extent. REEs are immobile during palagonitization, so they can be used to construct isocon diagrams for estimating major-element concentration changes. Major-element and overall mass changes during palagonitization vary widely (particularly for FeO and TiO2) and indicate that palagonitization cannot be an isovolumetric process. These parameters depend strongly on original sideromelane composition, thus requiring composition to be taken into account when performing global oceanic cation flux calculations. Subalkaline sideromelane dissolves much more rapidly than alkaline sideromelane during palagonitization. Two styles of palagonitization, burial-diagenesis (relatively long-duration, low water/rock; passive fluid circulation) and hydrothermal (relatively short-duration, high water/rock; hydrothermal fluid circulation), are recognized. Observed palagonite REE concentration gradients indicate that sideromelane dissolution must continue in the zone behind the advancing palagonitization front. MgO was found to be highly mobile during palagonitization. Observed palagonite MgO gradients are not developed during sideromelane dissolution, but instead record initiation of syn- and/or post-palagonitization conversion of the gel-palagonite layer to a phyllosillicate layer, consistent with evolution of sideromelane alteration layers toward

  17. Beam director design report

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  18. Controls on project proponents and environmental impact assessment effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Ortolano, L. )

    1993-01-01

    The degree of effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) for particular projects is associated with the existence of mechanisms of organizational control. Five dimensions of EIA effectiveness are considered: procedural compliance, completeness of EIA documents, methods to assess impacts, influence on project decisions, and weight given to environmental factors. Six mechanisms of control are introduced and illustrated by programs and projects in several countries. Experience in the Philippines under President Marcos demonstrates that procedural control in the form of EIA regulations, when used without other control mechanisms, will lead at most to token compliance. Judicial control, as practiced in the US, yields high procedural compliance. Evaluative control can yield effective EIA, but some systems based on this form of control treat only a small fraction of the major projects proposed. Both control exerted by development assistance organizations and control by professionals have great potential for yielding effective EIA, but that potential has not been fully realized. Control exerted directly by citizens or agencies not otherwise involved in EIA is uncommon, but cases from Taiwan demonstrate that those controls can be significant. An understanding of relationships between control mechanisms and EIA effectiveness is useful in designing EIA policies and programs.

  19. Responsibilities of directors of not-for-profit corporations faced with sharing control with other nonprofit organizations in health industry affiliations: a commentary on legal and practical realities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, L E

    1998-01-01

    This article concerns the legal responsibilities of not-for-profit corporation directors in merges and affiliations with other not-for-profits. The article considers three sets of legal duties board members have, ancillary contractual obligations, madatory statutes and procedural laws, and contextual legal duties.

  20. The Analysis of the Opinions of School Directors about Their Knowledge of the Curriculums and Their Support and Control in the Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the opinions of school directors related to their levels of recognition, comprehension and explanation, along with their support and their supervisory duties in the process of the implementation of the curriculum. Although this study is designed appropriately to the qualitative research design, phenomenological research design…

  1. Environmental specimen banking and poisons control--a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Jekat, F W; Eckard, R; Kemper, F H

    1993-11-01

    Today clinical toxicology and poisons control are widely lacking objective criteria, e.g., analytical data, figures of kinetics and metabolism in acute and chronic poisoning. Co-operation between clinical toxicology and an environmental specimen bank for human tissue will help to overcome many difficulties and complement one another. The possible power of such a co-operation is demonstrated by the example of the institutions in Münster, Germany. The successful strategies used for setting-up an environmental specimen bank for human tissue may also be applied in clinical toxicology and experimental toxicology. The frame of a university medical clinic seems to be the ideal basis of an effective co-operation of an Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissue, a Poisons Control Centre and clinical toxicology. In general a co-operation of an environmental specimen bank for human tissue and a poisons control centre will be cost-saving and beneficial to both and an environmental specimen bank for human tissue will gain the status of a unique tool for risk assessment of xenobiotics.

  2. Recent advances in environmental controls outside the home setting

    PubMed Central

    Hauptman, Marissa; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review It has been well studied that aeroallergen, mold, and airborne pollutant exposure in the inner-city home environment is associated with significant childhood asthma morbidity. Although the home environment has been extensively studied, the school environment is less well understood. Recent findings In this article, we discuss the relationship between environmental exposures within the school and daycare environment and pediatric asthma morbidity and novel environmental interventions designed to help mitigate pediatric asthma morbidity. Summary Studies assessing environmental exposures outside the home environment and interventions to mitigate these exposures have the potential to reduce pediatric asthma morbidity. Further study in this area should focus on the complex cost benefit analyses of environmental interventions outside the home setting, while controlling for the home environment. PMID:26859366

  3. Randomized controlled trials in environmental health research: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2008-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many ethical challenges, ranging from obtaining informed consent to minimizing risks to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research.

  4. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Augmentors and Resulting Flight Stability and Control (Center Director's Discretionary Fund Project 93-05, Part III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents the control requirements, the details of the designed Flight Control Augmentor's (FCA's), the static stability and dynamic stability wind tunnel test programs, the static stability and control analyses, the dynamic stability characteristics of the experimental Launch Vehicle (LV) with the designed FCA's, and a consideration of the elastic vehicle. Dramatic improvements in flight stability have been realized with all the FCA designs; these ranged from 41 percent to 72 percent achieved by the blunt TE design. The control analysis showed that control increased 110 percent with only 3 degrees of FCA deflection. The dynamic stability results showed improvements with all FCA designs tested at all Mach numbers tested. The blunt TE FCA's had the best overall dynamic stability results. Since the lowest elastic vehicle frequency must be well separated from that of the control system, the significant frequencies and modes of vibration have been identified, and the response spectra compared for the experimental LV in both the conventional and the aft cg configuration. Although the dynamic response was 150 percent greater in the aft cg configuration, the lowest bending mode frequency decreased by only 2.8 percent.

  5. Criticality of environmental information obtainable by dynamically controlled quantum probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Analia; Álvarez, Gonzalo A.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-10-01

    A universal approach to decoherence control combined with quantum estimation theory reveals a critical behavior, akin to a phase transition, of the information obtainable by a qubit probe concerning the memory time of environmental fluctuations of generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. The criticality is intrinsic to the environmental fluctuations but emerges only when the probe is subject to suitable dynamical control aimed at inferring the memory time. A sharp transition is anticipated between two dynamical phases characterized by either a short or long memory time compared to the probing time. This phase transition of the environmental information is a fundamental feature that characterizes open quantum-system dynamics and is important for attaining the highest estimation precision of the environment memory time under experimental limitations.

  6. Environmental control perspective for ethanol production from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.J.; Dock, J.S.; Malloy, M.C.; McNulty, W.B.; Rosen, L.A.; Simons, J.R.; Tomlinson, J.C.

    1980-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study identifying the environmental control technology issues associated with the expanded production of anhydrous ethanol from biomass. It provides an analysis of the environmental control aspects of biomass production and its subsequent conversion to ethanol and a perspective on associated environmental legislation. Two potential crops were selected as representative feedstocks to focus on the generic problems associated with an expanded ethanol production program. The primary feedstock evaluated was corn, and the secondary crop considered was sugar beets. Corn and sugar beets were chosen as representative starch and sugar crops, respectively, because they can be produced in large quantities and are grown in many regions of the contiguous United States. Minimum consideration was given to agricultural and food processing wastes because of their limited availability and poor handling characteristics for transportation. Cellulosic resources were not considered because the required conversion is not commercially available in the near term. (176 refs., 10 figs., 34 tabs.)

  7. Environmental Control for Regional Library Facilities. RR-80-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard G., Jr.

    This report presents an overview of the damage to library materials caused by uncontrollable environmental variables. The control of atmospheric pollutants, temperature, and humidity are discussed with regard to damage, standards, and the costs of deterioration due to these factors. Twelve references are listed. (FM)

  8. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science Manual I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The student materials present lessons about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Included are 18 units organized by objective, information, reference, procedure, and assignment. Each lesson involves concrete trade experience where science is applied. Unit titles are: safety and housekeeping,…

  9. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science I--Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The document presents lessons for teaching about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Intended for use with the assignments in the related science manual for students, each unit provides the teacher with objectives, a list of aids needed, procedures, a summary, and testing questions. There are 18…

  10. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  11. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the activities and progress of the pilot Air Pollution Control Technologies (APCT) portion of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program during the period from 09/15/97 to 09/15/02. The objective of the ETV Program is to verify the performance of...

  13. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  14. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195 Section 1271.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN...

  15. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  16. Economic convergence of environmental control and advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bolli, R.E.; Haslbeck, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emerging advanced technologies for environmental control have many advantages over conventional, single pollutant removal processes. Features include high efficiencies, multiple pollutant control and zero waste streams. In the past, the economics for state-of-the-art emission control processes could not compete with proven, low-efficiency scrubbers that create throw away by-products. With the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), the entire economic environment has changed. If a single process can provide a facility`s compliance requirements for Title I, Title III and Title IV of the CAAA, its net costs can be lower than conventional technology and actually provide economic incentives for overcontrol. The emission allowance program is maturing and the annual revenues from overcontrol of SO{sub 2} are easily quantified. The economics of NO{sub x} control and offsets are currently being realized as EPA identified Title IV requirements, and facilities begin to realize the impact from Title I NO{sub x} control. Air toxic control from Title III could require yet a third control process for a facility to maintain emission compliance. The costs associated with single control strategies vs. multiple pollutant control processes will be discussed and compared. This paper will also present a specific application of the NOXSO Process and identify the potential advantages that can transform advanced technologies, like NOXSO, into the prudent solution for overall environmental compliance.

  17. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for

  18. Indoor environmental control of tuberculosis and other airborne infections.

    PubMed

    Nardell, E A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the airborne infection of global importance, although many environmental interventions to control TB apply to influenza and other infections with airborne potential. This review focuses on the global problem and the current state of available environmental interventions. TB transmission is facilitated in overcrowded, poorly ventilated congregate settings, such as hospitals, clinics, prisons, jails, and refugee camps. The best means of TB transmission control is source control- to identify unsuspected infectious cases and to promptly begin effective therapy. However, even with active case finding and rapid diagnostics, not every unsuspected case will be identified, and environmental control measures remain the next intervention of choice. Natural ventilation is the main means of air disinfection and has the advantage of wide availability, low cost, and high efficacy-under optimal conditions. It is usually not applicable all year in colder climates and may not be effective when windows are closed on cold nights in warm climates, for security, and for pest control. In warm climates, windows may be closed when air conditioning is installed for thermal comfort. Although mechanical ventilation, if properly installed and maintained, can provide adequate air disinfection, it is expensive to install, maintain, and operate. The most cost-effective way to achieve high levels of air disinfection is upper room germicidal irradiation. The safe and effective application of this poorly defined intervention is now well understood, and recently published evidence-based application guidelines will make implementation easier.

  19. Development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. Recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. Here, we report the effects of shading by plants and biological control agents on the development and survival of anopheline and culicine mosquito larvae in man-made natural habitats in western Kenya. Trials consisted of environmental manipulation using locally available plants, the introduction of predatory fish and/or the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) in various combinations. Results Man-made habitats provided with shade from different crop species produced significantly fewer larvae than those without shade especially for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Larval control of the African malaria mosquito An. gambiae and other mosquito species was effective in habitats where both predatory fish and Bti were applied, than where the two biological control agents were administered independently. Conclusion We conclude that integration of environmental management techniques using shade-providing plants and predatory fish and/or Bti are effective and sustainable tools for the control of malaria and other mosquito-borne disease vectors. PMID:21733150

  20. Land use and transportation issues in environmental control.

    PubMed Central

    Liff, S D; Bellomo, S J

    1975-01-01

    Analyses have been made of the effects of environmental controls and planning at regional, subarea, and project levels. The results obtained at the regional level are reviewed for a proposed highway development around Baltimore, Md. The findings for both short-term and long-term effects of alternative transport policies are summarized in respect of population and employment, economic indicators, traffic and travel, air quality, water and solid waste, noise, and environmentally sensitive areas. Problems at subarea and project levels are briefly considered. PMID:1157795

  1. Urban malaria control situation and environmental issues, Madras City, India.

    PubMed

    Hyma, B; Ramesh, A; Chakrapani, K P

    1983-01-01

    Madras was one of 22 urban places in India where centrally sponsored urban malaria control schemes were introduced in 1971-1972. Yet since 1970, malaria cases have actually registered a significant increase in Madras. This paper deals with some critical environmental issues facing malaria control schemes. The overall spatial trends and patterns of malaria incidence are illustrated through maps for the years 1975-1981. Areas of high incidence are shown in the northern part of the city which is also traditionally an endemic area. The City Corporation has identified 17 high risk divisions accounting for 75% of the total registered cases in the city. High risk areas were found to be related to environmentally deteriorating areas such as high density, older, residential areas, slums and squatter settled areas along stretches of two rivers and a canal which traverse the city, and the low-lying poorly drained areas scattered over many parts of the city. The typical breeding grounds and sources of major vectors (anophelines and culicines) are presented. A relationship exists between the density of breeding sources (of Anopheles stephensi), such as private and public wells (in use and in disuse), overhead tanks and cisterns, and malaria cases. Field observations were made in detail in four selected high risk areas. Each area presents different environmental, epidemiological and human (social) factors in understanding malaria resurgence situation and demand different types of control measures. The problems of implementation of urban control schemes are found to be political, administrative, economic, social as well as environmental in nature. The persistence of malaria problems in the city has been attributed to slackening of malaria eradication measures, rapid urban growth and deteriorating environmental conditions with sewage, drainage and sanitation programmes lagging far behind the plans. The advantages and drawbacks of various antimalaria (mostly larval) measures in

  2. Summer Principals'/Directors' Orientation Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Robert L.; Garcia, Richard L.

    Intended to provide current or potential project principals/directors with the basic knowledge, skills, abilities, and sensitivities needed to manage a summer migrant school project in the local educational setting, this module provides instruction in the project management areas of planning, preparation, control, and termination. The module…

  3. Programmable immersive peripheral environmental system (PIPES): a prototype control system for environmental feedback devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frend, Chauncey; Boyles, Michael

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an environmental feedback device (EFD) control system aimed at simplifying the VR development cycle. Programmable Immersive Peripheral Environmental System (PIPES) affords VR developers a custom approach to programming and controlling EFD behaviors while relaxing the required knowledge and expertise of electronic systems. PIPES has been implemented for the Unity engine and features EFD control using the Arduino integrated development environment. PIPES was installed and tested on two VR systems, a large format CAVE system and an Oculus Rift HMD system. A photocell based end-to-end latency experiment was conducted to measure latency within the system. This work extends previously unpublished prototypes of a similar design. Development and experiments described in this paper are part of the VR community goal to understand and apply environment effects to VEs that ultimately add to users' perceived presence.

  4. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  5. Monitoring and process control of environmental laboratories: A multidisciplinary approach

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, N.C.; Farley, E.T.; Fedler, C.B.

    1996-12-31

    Faculty and students in three colleges and seven departments at Texas Tech University have jointly collaborated on research projects funded through the Texas Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. These biological and environmental projects were strengthened by inclusion of engineers, engineering technologists, computer scientists and others. The interdisciplinary team has identified technological limitations as well as designed, fabricated and tested low cost equipment to monitor and accurately control temperature, pressure, light intensity, and other conditions in environmental laboratories. Data gathered from up to 256 sensors are multiplexed and transmitted by an on-site 8085 microprocessor at 5-second intervals. The processed data are averaged once each minute by a 386-computer running the process control and archiving software. Data from the archives are displayed using Visual Basic and integrated into a graphic information system (GIS) capturing data through Arc/Info. Components of the process control and communication include a microprocessor controller module, an input and output module and a primary multiplexer module that interfaces with up to sixteen multiplexers or signal conditioning modules. The system is designed to monitor and regulate environmental conditions for culture and propagation of plants, fish, salamanders and other organisms. Simulation of seasonal changes can be programmed into the computer in addition to alarm conditions in the event of process failure. Benefits of this interdisciplinary project include not only providing state-of-the-art environmental monitoring and control of research facilities, but also real life experiences for students to define problems, design solutions, fabricate, install and test hardware and software. Perhaps, most importantly, is the opportunity for students and faculty in diverse fields to communicate and apply their expertise to solve real world problems.

  6. Director`s series on proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E.

    1995-11-17

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.

  7. Mechanisms in environmentally assisted one-photon phase control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Brumer, Paul

    2013-10-01

    The ability of an environment to assist in one-photon phase control relies upon entanglement between the system and bath and on the breaking of the time reversal symmetry. Here, one-photon phase control is examined analytically and numerically in a model system, allowing an analysis of the relative strength of these contributions. Further, the significant role of non-Markovian dynamics and of moderate system-bath coupling in enhancing one-photon phase control is demonstrated, and an explicit role for quantum mechanics is noted in the existence of initial non-zero stationary coherences. Finally, desirable conditions are shown to be required to observe such environmentally assisted control, since the system will naturally equilibrate with its environment at longer times, ultimately resulting in the loss of phase control.

  8. Director`s series on proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.C.

    1993-09-07

    Two essays are included in this booklet. Their titles are ``The Dynamics of the NPT Extension Decision`` and ``North Korea`s Nuclear Gambit.`` The first paper discusses the conference to be held in 1995 to review the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which will decide whether the treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Topics relevant to this discussion are: Arms control issues, the nuclear test ban, the limited test ban treaty, the French nuclear testing moratorium, former Soviet nuclear weapons, Iraq, North Korea, nuclear-weapon-free zones, security, controls on nuclear weapon materials, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, safeguards, politics, and organizational and procedural issues. The second paper examines short, medium, and long term issues entailed in Korea`s nuclear proliferation. Topics considered include: Korean unification, North Korean politics, the nuclear issue as leverage, and the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty.

  9. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  10. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  11. Browns Ferry waste heat greenhouse environmental control system design

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Stovall, T.K.; Hicks, N.G.; Pile, R.S.; Burns, E.R.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee Valley Authority and the Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona cooperated on the design of an experimental greenhouse located at TVA's Browns Ferry Nuclear Generating Station. Two greenhouse zones are heated by waste heat from the plant's condenser effluent. For comparison, a third greenhouse zone is heated conventionally (fossil-fueled burners) as a control. Design specifics for each of the three zones and a qualitative operating evaluation are presented.

  12. Environmental control system for Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Nelson, Matt; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Burton, Adam; Ramsey, Lawrence; Bender, Chad; Terrien, Ryan; Halverson, Samuel; Robertson, Paul; Roy, Arpita; Blank, Basil; Blanchard, Ken; Stefansson, Gudmundur

    2014-07-01

    HPF is an ultra-stable, precision radial velocity near infrared spectrograph with a unique environmental control scheme. The spectrograph will operate at a mid-range temperature of 180K, approximately half way between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature; it will be stable to sub -milli-Kelvin(mK) levels over a calibration cycle and a few mK over months to years. HPF's sensor is a 1.7 micron H2RG device by Teledyne. The environmental control boundary is a 9 m2 thermal enclosure that completely surrounds the optical train and produces a near blackbody cavity for all components. A large, pressure - stabilized liquid nitrogen tank provides the heat sink for the system via thermal straps while a multichannel resistive heater control system provides the stabilizing heat source. High efficiency multi-layer insulation blanketing provides the outermost boundary of the thermal enclosure to largely isolate the environmental system from ambient conditions. The cryostat, a stainless steel shell derived from the APOGEE design, surrounds the thermal enclosure and provides a stable, high quality vacuum environment. The full instrument will be housed in a passive 'meat -locker' enclosure to add a degree of additional thermal stability and as well as protect the instrument. Effectiveness of this approach is being empirically demonstrated via long duration scale model testing. The full scale cryostat and environmental control system are being constructed for a 2016 delivery of the instrument to the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. This report describes the configuration of the hardware and the scale-model test results as well as projections for performance of the full system.

  13. Apollo experience report: Command and service module environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samonski, F. H., Jr.; Tucker, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the design philosophy of the Apollo environmental control system together with the development history of the total system and of selected components within the system. In particular, discussions are presented relative to the development history and to the problems associated with the equipment cooling coldplates, the evaporator and its electronic control system, and the space radiator system used for rejection of the spacecraft thermal loads. Apollo flight experience and operational difficulties associated with the spacecraft water system and the waste management system are discussed in detail to provide definition of the problem and the corrective action taken when applicable.

  14. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the Moon and back again. The mission is similar to the Apollo approach with expanded capabilities and extended durations to support a larger crew and a longer mission. The Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and thermal control systems, will have to meet these new requirements, taking advantage of the latest in component development where necessary and applicable.

  15. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Cross, CIndy; Peterson, Laurie; Tuan, George

    2007-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. The CEV is being developed to transport the crew safely from the Earth to the Moon and back again. This year, the prime contractor has been selected, requirements have been refined, and development areas are being pursued. The Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system, which includes the life support and active thermal control systems, is moving one year closer to performing on orbit.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  17. Design and performance of Skylab thermal/environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    The function of the thermal/environmental control systems was to provide a comfortable thermal environment for the crew, to cool electronic components, to supply a controlled oxygen/nitrogen atmosphere, and to remove moisture, carbon dioxide, odors, and trace contaminants from the atmosphere. A separate refrigeration system was used to chill and freeze food and biomedical samples and to provide cold water for drinking. This paper describes system design and compares in-flight performance to preflight predictions. A discussion of in-flight anomalies and corrective actions is also included.

  18. On spatial scaling & environmental controls of soil organic carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of terrestrial land surface modulates the fluxes of energy, moisture, and greenhouse gases. However, representing the terrestrial heterogeneity of biogeochemistry in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We investigated the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls and predicted soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the state of Alaska, USA. We used over 500 soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at 50 m spatial resolution. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (100 m, 200 m, 500 m, 1 km, 2 km, 5 km, and 10 km) and generated SOC stock estimates for each scale till the predicted variance of SOC stocks became constant. We found different environmental factors as statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Topographic attributes were important predictors at finer scales whereas surficial geology types became significant predictors at larger spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and barren land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The controls (predictive power) of these environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with upscaling. Highest and lowest decrease in predictive power was observed for potential evapotranspiration (55%) and elevation (25%). Similarly, intermediate decrease was observed for temperature (45%), and barren land cover types (45%). The predicted variance of SOC stocks decreased by 45% as the spatial scaling was increased from 50 m to 10km. We believe the statistical structure of the scaling behavior of SOC stocks can inform ESMs in appropriately representing the spatial heterogeneity of SOC stocks.

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is an exterior view of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator containing the ECLSS Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) testing facility at MSFC. At the bottom right is the data acquisition and control computers (in the blue equipment racks) that monitor the testing in the facility. The ITCS simulator facility duplicates the function, operation, and troubleshooting problems of the ITCS. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  20. Hyperbaric environmental control assembly for the Space Station Freedom airlock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubly, Robert P.; Schimenti, Dan

    The hyperbaric environmental control assembly (HECA) monitors and controls temperature, humidity and CO2 levels in the Space Station Freedom airlock when the airlock is used for extravehicular activity (EVA) prebreathing campouts and as a hyperbaric treatment facility. Prebreathing is required prior to extravehicular activity due to the differential between the station nominal pressure and the EVA suit pressure. Hyperbaric treatment is required in the event of decompression sickness. The HECA consists of an atmosphere recirculation circuit which provides air circulation and temperature control, and a separate CO2 and humidity control circuit. CO2 and latent water production rates have been calculated from established metabolic profiles for both campout and hyperbaric protocols. An analytical model has been used to predict carbon dioxide and humidity levels as functions of initial crewlock conditions and the specified loads. This model has demonstrated the suitability and robustness of the dual-bed molecular sieve system for the HECA.

  1. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; David S. Watson; Steve Purdy

    2006-04-30

    Although advanced lighting control systems offer significant energy savings, the high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output, in addition to 0-24 Volt and 0-10 Volt inputs. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multisensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including open and closed-loop daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the

  2. The TV Director/Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Colby

    The television director's job is to convey the meaning of the action which passes before his camera so that it is clear, its content is engrossing, and its presentation achieves the desired result. This textbook concentrates on the pictures and flow of action which are the director's tools for achieving his effect. The emphasis is on pictorial…

  3. When Directors Lose Their Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Directors of early childhood programs are an amazing lot! There's so much dedication, such hard work and creative problem solving. But then that inevitable undertow of deadlines, crises, and illness begins to suck directors down. With crisis management becoming a way of life, they don't even recognize their vital signs slipping away. The author…

  4. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  5. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection. PMID:27790274

  6. Environmental control of carbon allocation matters for modelling forest growth.

    PubMed

    Guillemot, Joannès; Francois, Christophe; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Soudani, Kamel; Marie, Guillaume; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Delpierre, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the importance of modulations of within-tree carbon (C) allocation by water and low-temperature stress for the prediction of annual forest growth with a process-based model. A new C allocation scheme was implemented in the CASTANEA model that accounts for lagged and direct environmental controls of C allocation. Different approaches (static vs dynamic) to modelling C allocation were then compared in a model-data fusion procedure, using satellite-derived leaf production estimates and biometric measurements at c. 10(4) sites. The modelling of the environmental control of C allocation significantly improved the ability of CASTANEA to predict the spatial and year-to-year variability of aboveground forest growth along regional gradients. A significant effect of the previous year's water stress on the C allocation to leaves and wood was reported. Our results also are consistent with a prominent role of the environmental modulation of sink demand in the wood growth of the studied species. Data available at large scales can inform forest models about the processes driving annual and seasonal C allocation. Our results call for a greater consideration of C allocation drivers, especially sink-demand fluctuations, for the simulations of current and future forest productivity with process-based models.

  7. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., social and environmental effects of Commission actions. It analyzes the potential effects of CPSC actions.... The Directorate acquires, compiles, and maintains economic data on movements and trends in the general... economic, societal, and environmental impact of product safety rules and standards. It performs...

  8. Extreme Precision Environmental Control for Next Generation Radial Velocity Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, Gudmundur K.; Hearty, Fred; Levi, Eric; Robertson, Paul; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad; Nelson, Matt; Halverson, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Extreme radial velocity precisions of order 10cm/s will enable the discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. Temperature and pressure variations inside a spectrograph can lead to thermomechanical instabilities in the optics and mounts, and refractive index variations in both the optical elements as well as the surrounding air. Together, these variations can easily induce instrumental drifts of several tens to hundreds of meters per second. Enclosing the full optical train in thermally stabilized high-vacuum environments minimizes such errors. In this talk, I will discuss the Environmental Control System (ECS) for the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF) spectrograph: a near infrared (NIR) facility class instrument we will commission at the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2016. The ECS will maintain the HPF optical bench stable at 180K at the sub milli-Kelvin level on the timescale of days, and at the few milli-Kelvin level over months to years. The entire spectrograph is kept under high-quality vacuum (<10-6 Torr), and environmental temperature fluctuations are compensated for with an actively controlled radiation shield outfitted with custom feedback electronics. High efficiency Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blankets, and a passive external thermal enclosure further isolate the optics from ambient perturbations. This environmental control scheme is versatile, suitable to stabilize both next generation NIR, and optical spectrographs. I will show how we are currently testing this control system for use with our design concept of the Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrograph (EPDS), the next generation optical spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. Our most recent results from full-scale stability tests will be presented.

  9. Environmental control and life support system: Analysis of STS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G.

    1980-01-01

    The capability of the orbiter environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) to support vehicle cooling requirements in the event of cabin pressure reduction to 9 psia was evaluated, using the Orbiter versions of the shuttle environmental consumbles usage requirement evaluation (SECURE) program, and using heat load input data developed by the spacecraft electrical power simulator (SEPS) program. The SECURE model used in the analysis, the timeline and ECLSS configuration used in formulating the analysis, and the results of the analysis are presented. The conclusion which may be drawn drom these results. is summarized. There are no significant thermal problems with the proposed mission. There are, however, several procedures which could be optimized for better performance: setting the cabin HX air bypass and the interchanger water bypass to the zero flow position is of questionable efficacy; the cabin air pressure monitoring procedure should be re-evaluated; and the degree of equipment power down specified for this analysis and no problems were noted.

  10. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching.

    PubMed

    Doust, Andrew N

    2007-02-01

    Variation in grass architecture profoundly affects light capture, competition, and reproductive success, and is responsive to environmental factors such as crowding and nutrient limitation. Recent work in both model and crop systems has uncovered many aspects of the genetic control of branching, including conservation of the MONOCULM1 and MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING/DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE/RAMOSUS (MAX/DAD/RMS) genetic pathways among the grasses and the model dicot systems of tomato, Arabidopsis, Petunia and pea. Parallel studies on the effect of environment on branching have also begun to uncover links between environmental sensing through phytochrome pathways, and resultant changes in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 expression, and meristem inhibition. Future work promises to integrate knowledge of phenotypic responses to environment with our understanding of the genetic and hormonal changes that underlie phenotypic change.

  11. ICU Director Data

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    Improving value within critical care remains a priority because it represents a significant portion of health-care spending, faces high rates of adverse events, and inconsistently delivers evidence-based practices. ICU directors are increasingly required to understand all aspects of the value provided by their units to inform local improvement efforts and relate effectively to external parties. A clear understanding of the overall process of measuring quality and value as well as the strengths, limitations, and potential application of individual metrics is critical to supporting this charge. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding value metrics, describe an approach to developing a value measurement program, and summarize common metrics to characterize ICU value. We first summarize how ICU value can be represented as a function of outcomes and costs. We expand this equation and relate it to both the classic structure-process-outcome framework for quality assessment and the Institute of Medicine’s six aims of health care. We then describe how ICU leaders can develop their own value measurement process by identifying target areas, selecting appropriate measures, acquiring the necessary data, analyzing the data, and disseminating the findings. Within this measurement process, we summarize common metrics that can be used to characterize ICU value. As health care, in general, and critical care, in particular, changes and data become more available, it is increasingly important for ICU leaders to understand how to effectively acquire, evaluate, and apply data to improve the value of care provided to patients. PMID:25846533

  12. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  13. Environmental control on cold-water carbonate mounds development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Raddatz, J.; Flögel, S.; Dullo, W.-Chr.; Exp. 307 Scientific Party, Iodp

    2009-04-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are very abundant along the European continental margin in intermediate water depths and are able to build up large mound structures. These carbonate mounds particularly occur in distinct mound provinces on the Irish and British continental margins. Previous investigations resulted in a better understanding of the cold-water coral ecology and the development of conceptual models to explain carbonate mound build-up. Two different hypotheses were evoked to explain the origin and development of carbonate mounds, external versus internal control (e.g., Freiwald et al. 2004 versus e.g. Hovland 1990). Several short sediment cores have been obtained from Propeller Mound, Northern Porcupine Seabight, indicating that cold-water corals grew during interglacial and warm interstadial periods of the Late Pleistocene controlled by environmental and climatic variability supporting the external control hypothesis (e.g. Dorschel et al. 2005, R

  14. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. At center left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This is a view of the ECLSS and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Test Facility in building 4755, MSFC. In the foreground is the 3-module ECLSS simulator comprised of the U.S. Laboratory Module Simulator, Node 1 Simulator, and Node 3/Habitation Module Simulator. On the left is the ITCS Simulator. The main function of the ITCS is to control the temperature of equipment and hardware installed in a typical ISS Payload Rack.

  16. Apollo experience report: Lunar module environmental control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, R. J.; Brady, J. C.; Collier, F.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of the environmental control subsystem is presented. Development, tests, checkout, and flight experiences of the subsystem are discussed; and the design fabrication, and operational difficulties associated with the various components and subassemblies are recorded. Detailed information is related concerning design changes made to, and problems encountered with, the various elements of the subsystem, such as the thermal control water sublimator, the carbon dioxide sensing and control units, and the water section. The problems associated with water sterilization, water/glycol formulation, and materials compatibility are discussed. The corrective actions taken are described with the expection that this information may be of value for future subsystems. Although the main experiences described are problem oriented, the subsystem has generally performed satisfactorily in flight.

  17. Space environmental effects on spacecraft thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartosik, L. G.; Babel, H. W.

    1990-01-01

    A large portion of the space based applications in the near future are for low Earth orbit (LEO) including the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The lifetime needs for materials on the SSF is 30 years. Materials must be selected which can withstand the deleterious effects of LEO. Environmental effects in the LEO include atomic oxygen, UV, ionizing radiation, and hypervelocity impact. These effects can adversely affect the surface properties of materials. This is particularly critical in the case of thermal control materials where the efficiency of the thermal control is dependent on the stability of the surface properties. The current baseline thermal coating for the SSF radiators is Ag Teflon. The surface property requirements for the coatings are a solar absorptance of 0.2 and an infrared emittance of 0.8. The effects of atomic oxygen and UV radiation on the baseline coating and several other candidate thermal control materials were studied. The thermal control radiator materials included Ag and Al backed Teflon, H2SO4 anodized Al, sputter deposited SiO2 on Al, and Ag and Al backed polychloro trifluoroethylene. The simulation of several of the LEO environment constituents provided a data base to aid in the selection of the radiator thermal control material to meet the life requirements of the SSF. The effects are illustrated of the environment on thermal control coatings and the importance of this factor in the selection process for long life spacecraft materials.

  18. Space station environmental control and life support systems conceptual studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Powell, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the establishment of a permanent manned Space Station requires the development of a comprehensive approach which combines new technologies and existing spacecraft subsystem capabilities into an optimum design. The present paper is concerned with studies which were conducted in connection with the development of the regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for the Space Station. Attention is given to the current state of the ECLSS subsystems and system level analytical selection and group studies related to the integrated system conceptual design.

  19. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  20. Manned Mars mission environmental control and life support subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    1986-01-01

    A specific design is not presented, but the general philosophy regarding potential Environmental Control/Life Support System (ECLSS) requirements, concepts, issues, and technology needs are discussed. The focus is on a manned Mars mission occurring in the late 1990's. Discussions on the Trans-Mars Vehicle, the Mars Excursion Module (MEM), and a Martian base facility are covered. The functions, performance requirements, and design loads of a typical ECLSS are listed, and the issues and technology briefly discussed. Several ECLSS concepts and options are identified, and comparative weights and volumes are provided for these. Several aspects of the space station ECLSS are contrasted with the Mars element ECLSS.

  1. Environmental control/life support system for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.; Schubert, F. H.; Dahlhausen, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The functional, operational, and design load requirements for the Environmental Control/Life Support System (ECLSS) are described. The ECLSS is divided into two groups: (1) an atmosphere management group and (2) a water and waste management group. The interaction between the ECLSS and the Space Station Habitability System is examined. The cruciform baseline station design, the delta and big T module configuration, and the reference Space Station configuration are evaluated in terms of ECLSS requirements. The distribution of ECLSS equipment in a reference Space Station configuration is studied as a function of initial operating conditions and growth orbit capabilities. The benefits of water electrolysis as a Space Station utility are considered.

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  3. Environmental control of the microfaunal community structure in tropical bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Kratina, Pavel; Petermann, Jana S; Marino, Nicholas A C; MacDonald, Andrew A M; Srivastava, Diane S

    2017-03-01

    Ecological communities hosted within phytotelmata (plant compartments filled with water) provide an excellent opportunity to test ecological theory and to advance our understanding of how local and global environmental changes affect ecosystems. However, insights from bromeliad phytotelmata communities are currently limited by scarce accounts of microfauna assemblages, even though these assemblages are critical in transferring, recycling, and releasing nutrients in these model ecosystems. Here, we analyzed natural microfaunal communities in leaf compartments of 43 bromeliads to identify the key environmental filters underlying their community structures. We found that microfaunal community richness and abundance were negatively related to canopy openness and vertical height above the ground. These associations were primarily driven by the composition of amoebae and flagellate assemblages and indicate the importance of bottom-up control of microfauna in bromeliads. Taxonomic richness of all functional groups followed a unimodal relationship with water temperature, peaking at 23-25°C and declining below and above this relatively narrow thermal range. This suggests that relatively small changes in water temperature under expected future climate warming may alter taxonomic richness and ecological structure of these communities. Our findings improve the understanding of this unstudied but crucial component of bromeliad ecosystems and reveal important environmental filters that likely contribute to overall bromeliad community structure and function.

  4. Lunar Module Environmental Control System Design Considerations and Failure Modes. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation seeks to describe the Lunar Module Environmental Control System (ECS) subsystem testing and redesign and seeks to summarize the in-flight failures of the Lunar Module (LM) Environmental Control System (ECS).

  5. ISS Update: Expedition 34 Flight Director Describes Station Science Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly interviews Chris Edelen, Expedition 34 Lead Flight Director, at Johnson Space Center’s Mission Control Center. Edelen has overseen the research and utiliza...

  6. 7 CFR 29.17 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.17 Director. Director or Acting Director, Tobacco Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture....

  7. Controllability in environmental enrichment for captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Schwandt, Melanie L; Smith, Heather F; Howell, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This study considers the use of nonsocial environmental enrichment by captive chimpanzees at the Primate Foundation of Arizona. The goal was to determine whether a relationship existed between controllability of enrichment items by captive chimpanzees and frequency of use. The study measured controllability, the ability of nonhuman animals to alter aspects of their environment by the potential destructibility of the enrichment item. This study examined additional factors that may affect enrichment use: individual age, sex, rearing history, social group composition, and availability of outdoor access. The chimpanzees in the study used destructible items--the enrichment category with the highest level of controllability--more than indestructible items across all age, sex, and rearing classes. Thus, controllability seems to be an important factor in chimpanzee enrichment. Younger individuals and groups with outdoor access used enrichment more than did older individuals and groups with indoor-only access. Individual sex, rearing history, and social group composition had minimal effects on enrichment use. These results support the importance of control to captive chimpanzees and further enable captive management to customize enrichment programs to the needs of particular animals.

  8. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  9. Space environmental effects on silvered Teflon thermal control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, C. S.; Stuckey, W. K.; Uht, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Cumulative space environmental effects on silver/fluorinated ethylene propylene (Ag/FEP) were a function of exposure orientation. Samples from nineteen silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP) thermal control surfaces recovered from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were analyzed to determine changes in this material as a function of position on the spacecraft. Although solar absorptance and infrared emittance of measured thermal blanket specimens are relatively unchanged from control specimen values, significant changes in surface morphology, composition, and chemistry were observed. We hypothesize that the FEP surfaces on the LDEF are degraded by UV radiation at all orientations, but that the damaged material has been removed by erosion from the blankets exposed to atomic oxygen flux and that contamination is masking the damage in some areas on the trays flanking the trailing edge.

  10. Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System - Flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the overall design of the Shuttle Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The Orbiter ECLSS consists of six major subsystems which accomplish the functions of providing a habitable pressurized cabin atmosphere and removing gaseous contaminants, controlling the temperature of the cabin and vehicle components within acceptable ranges, providing fire detection and suppression capability, maintaining a supply of potable water, collecting and removing metabolic waste materials, and providing utilities and access for extravehicular activity. The operational experience is summarized for the 45 space flights accomplished to date during which the Orbiter ECLSS has been demonstrated to perform reliably, and has proved to have the flexibility to meet a variety of mission needs. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedure changes which were implemented to resolve the problems.

  11. Adsorption Processes in Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, Liese Dall; Finn, John E.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft must maintain a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work. The system's functions include supplying the crew with oxygen and water as well as removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used in the past, logistics and safety factors of current and future missions in space make near-complete recycling of the cabin's air and water imperative. The recycling process may include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and other processes. Several of these operations can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are frequently good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relatively high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerability. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. This article focuses on three current spacecraft life support applications that often use adsorption technology: gas-phase trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal from cabin air, and potable water recovery from waste streams. In each application, adsorption technology has been selected for use on the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for each of these applications are discussed. Eventually, human space exploration may lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different requirements and resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Adsorption separation and

  12. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from short-duration shuttle missions lasting no more than several days to the medium-to-long-duration missions planned for the International Space Station, face a number of hazards that must be understood and mitigated for the mission to be carried out safely. Among these hazards are those posed by the internal environment of the spacecraft itself; through outgassing of toxic vapors from plastics and other items, failures or off-nominal operations of spacecraft environmental control systems, accidental exposure to hazardous compounds used in experiments: all present potential hazards that while small, may accumulate and pose a danger to crew health. The first step toward mitigating the dangers of these hazards is understanding the internal environment of the spacecraft and the compounds contained within it. Future spacecraft will have integrated networks of redundant sensors which will not only inform the crew of hazards, but will pinpoint the problem location and, through analysis by intelligent systems, recommend and even implement a course of action to stop the problem. This strategic plan details strategies to determine NASA's requirements for environmental monitoring and control systems for future spacecraft, and goals and objectives for a program to answer these needs.

  13. Are You a Codependent Director?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Anne M.

    1992-01-01

    Codependency and its effect on the professional lives of directors of early childhood programs is described. Characteristics of codependent administrators, the need for confrontation of codependent behaviors, and suggested sources of help for codependency are discussed. (LB)

  14. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DallBauman, L. A.; Finn, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  15. Adsorption processes in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems.

    PubMed

    DallBauman, L A; Finn, J E

    1999-01-01

    The environmental control and life support system on a spacecraft maintains a safe and comfortable environment in which the crew can live and work by supplying oxygen and water and by removing carbon dioxide, water vapor, and trace contaminants from cabin air. Although open-loop systems have been used successfully in the past for short-duration missions, the economics of current and future long-duration missions in space will make nearly complete recycling of air and water imperative. A variety of operations will be necessary to achieve the goal of nearly complete recycling. These include separation and reduction of carbon dioxide, removal of trace gas-phase contaminants, recovery and purification of humidity condensate, purification and polishing of wastewater streams, and others. Several of these can be performed totally or in part by adsorption processes. These processes are good candidates to perform separations and purifications in space due to their gravity independence, high reliability, relative high energy efficiency, design flexibility, technological maturity, and regenerative nature. For these reasons, adsorption has historically played a key role in life support on U.S. and Russian piloted spacecraft. Among the life support applications that can be achieved through use of adsorption technology are removal of trace contaminants and carbon dioxide from cabin air and recovery of potable water from waste streams. In each of these cases adsorption technology has been selected for use onboard the International Space Station. The requirements, science, and hardware for these applications are discussed. Human space exploration may eventually lead to construction of planetary habitats. These habitats may provide additional opportunities for use of adsorption processes, such as control of greenhouse gas composition, and may have different resources available to them, such as gases present in the planetary atmosphere. Separation and purification processes based on

  16. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  17. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  18. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  19. Turbulence flight director analysis and preliminary simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. E.; Klein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A control column and trottle flight director display system is synthesized for use during flight through severe turbulence. The column system is designed to minimize airspeed excursions without overdriving attitude. The throttle system is designed to augment the airspeed regulation and provide an indication of the trim thrust required for any desired flight path angle. Together they form an energy management system to provide harmonious display indications of current aircraft motions and required corrective action, minimize gust upset tendencies, minimize unsafe aircraft excursions, and maintain satisfactory ride qualities. A preliminary fixed-base piloted simulation verified the analysis and provided a shakedown for a more sophisticated moving-base simulation to be accomplished next. This preliminary simulation utilized a flight scenario concept combining piloting tasks, random turbulence, and discrete gusts to create a high but realistic pilot workload conducive to pilot error and potential upset. The turbulence director (energy management) system significantly reduced pilot workload and minimized unsafe aircraft excursions.

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Integrated Roadmap Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Jordan L.; Carrasquillo, Robyn; Bagdigian, Bob; Peterson, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This white paper documents a roadmap for development of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Systems (ECLSS) capabilities required to enable beyond-Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Exploration missions. In many cases, the execution of this Exploration-based roadmap will directly benefit International Space Station (ISS) operational capability by resolving known issues and/or improving overall system reliability. In addition, many of the resulting products will be applicable across multiple Exploration elements such as Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), Deep Space Habitat (DSH), and Landers. Within the ECLS community, this white paper will be a unifying tool that will improve coordination of resources, common hardware, and technologies. It will help to align efforts to focus on the highest priority needs that will produce life support systems for future human exploration missions that will simply run in the background, requiring minimal crew interaction.

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the development Water Processor located in two racks in the ECLSS test area at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Actual waste water, simulating Space Station waste, is generated and processed through the hardware to evaluate the performance of technologies in the flight Water Processor design.

  2. Hydrogen detection study. [for environmental control/life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; Powell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effectiveness was assessed of a hydrogen (H2) detection concept for regenerative environmental control life support systems (EC/LSS). The concept evaluated was that utilized for the electrochemical depolarized concentrator (EDC) design, constructed, and tested for the EC/LSS space station prototype program. The EDC contains combustible gas detectors (CGDs) which were evaluated with H2. The CGDs were evaluated for linearity, position sensitivity, reproducibility, ambient effects, repeatability, speed of response, recovery time, and interchangeability. The effectiveness of CGDs located within the EDC for sensing H2 leaks at various line replaceable units in the subsystem was determined. The effects of H2 leak rate, H2 concentration of leaking gas and air currents in the vicinity of the EDC were determined. Proposed improvements for the H2 detection concept were documented and alternative H2 detection approaches were identified and analyzed.

  3. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  4. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; Hanna, Joshua S.; Rawlins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  5. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  6. From Teacher to Day Care Center Director!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Viteri, Jorge Saenz

    This paper addresses the roles and responsibilities of a day care center director, based on the author's personal experience as an interim director during his junior year at college and a survey of other directors. The paper aims to provide insight into the reality of being a day care center director, particularly the acquisition of knowledge,…

  7. 40 CFR 792.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Study director. 792.33 Section 792.33...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.33 Study director. For each study... thereof, shall be identified as the study director. The study director has overall responsibility for...

  8. 40 CFR 792.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Study director. 792.33 Section 792.33...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.33 Study director. For each study... thereof, shall be identified as the study director. The study director has overall responsibility for...

  9. 40 CFR 792.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Study director. 792.33 Section 792.33...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.33 Study director. For each study... thereof, shall be identified as the study director. The study director has overall responsibility for...

  10. 40 CFR 792.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Study director. 792.33 Section 792.33...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.33 Study director. For each study... thereof, shall be identified as the study director. The study director has overall responsibility for...

  11. 40 CFR 792.33 - Study director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Study director. 792.33 Section 792.33...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Organization and Personnel § 792.33 Study director. For each study... thereof, shall be identified as the study director. The study director has overall responsibility for...

  12. 45 CFR 1700.5 - Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.5 Executive Director. (a) The Executive Director serves... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Executive Director. 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Public... laws. (b) The Executive Director is directly responsible to the Commission, works under the...

  13. 45 CFR 1700.5 - Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.5 Executive Director. (a) The Executive Director serves... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Executive Director. 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Public... laws. (b) The Executive Director is directly responsible to the Commission, works under the...

  14. 5 CFR 2638.504 - Director's finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director's finding. 2638.504 Section 2638... Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.504 Director's finding. (a) In general. If the Director has reason to believe that an employee is violating or has violated an ethics provision, the Director...

  15. Asbestos: scientific basis for environmental control of fibres.

    PubMed

    Acheson, E D; Gardner, M J

    1980-01-01

    Any review of the scientific evidence on which public policy is based must commence with a cautionary statement about the quality of the available data both about dust and about asbestos-related disease. Attention is drawn to some of the main problems. It is concluded that, in spite of their shortcomings, the data are sufficiently consistent to be useful in relation to some aspects of the problem of environmental control of the asbestos hazard. The question whether or not there is a threshold dose of fibre below which no biological effect occurs is of considerable importance in framing public policy. The evidence concerning the existence or otherwise of a threshold in relation to the different asbestos-related diseases is summarized. A summary is also given of the evidence about the shape of the dose-response curves for asbestos-related diseases in man. The paper concludes with a note on how scientific data may be summarized in a manner which may be helpful in formulating public policy with regard to a control limit.

  16. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mellert, David J; Williamson, W Ryan; Shirangi, Troy R; Card, Gwyneth M; Truman, James W

    2016-01-01

    Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement. Equipment tested here includes the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), the Urine Processing Assembly (UPA), the mass spectrometer filament assemblies and sample pumps for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) simulator facility (in the module in the right) duplicates the function and operation of the ITCS in the ISS U.S. Laboratory Module, Destiny. This facility provides support for Destiny, including troubleshooting problems related to the ITCS.

  18. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mellert, David J.; Williamson, W. Ryan; Shirangi, Troy R.; Card, Gwyneth M.; Truman, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability “hotspot” depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change. PMID:27223118

  19. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  20. Global Positioning Systems Directorate: GPS Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    29 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning Systems Directorate: GPS Update...Partnership Council 2015 29 Apr 2015 Global Positioning System Directorate Brig Gen Bill Cooley Director, Global Positioning Systems Directorate...UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Global Positioning Systems Directorate Mission: Acquire, deliver and sustain reliable G PS capabilities

  1. NASA Ames aerospace systems directorate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Directorate is one of four research directorates at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Directorate conducts research and technology development for advanced aircraft and aircraft systems in intelligent computational systems and human-machine systems for aeronautics and space. The Directorate manages research and aircraft technology development projects, and operates and maintains major wind tunnels and flight simulation facilities. The Aerospace Systems Directorate's research and technology as it relates to NASA agency goals and specific strategic thrusts are discussed.

  2. Environmental controls on sap flow in a northern hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Bovard, B D; Curtis, P S; Vogel, C S; Su, H-B; Schmid, H P

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to gain a detailed understanding of how photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), vapor pressure deficit (D) and soil water interact to control transpiration in the dominant canopy species of a mixed hardwood forest in northern Lower Michigan. An improved understanding of how these environmental factors affect whole-tree water use in unmanaged ecosystems is necessary in assessing the consequences of climate change on the terrestrial water cycle. We used continuously heated sap flow sensors to measure transpiration in mature trees of four species during two successive drought events. The measurements were scaled to the stand level for comparison with eddy covariance estimates of ecosystem water flux (Fw). Photosynthetically active radiation and D together explained 82% of the daytime hourly variation in plot-level transpiration, and low soil water content generally resulted in increased stomatal sensitivity to increasing D. There were also species-specific responses to drought. Quercus rubra L. showed low water use during both dry and wet conditions, and during periods of high D. Among the study species, Acer rubrum L. showed the greatest degree of stomatal closure in response to low soil water availability. Moderate increases in stomatal sensitivity to D during dry periods were observed in Populus grandidentata Michx. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. Sap flow scaled to the plot level and Fw demonstrated similar temporal patterns of water loss suggesting that the mechanisms controlling sap flow of an individual tree also control ecosystem evapotranspiration. However, the absolute magnitude of scaled sap flow estimates was consistently lower than Fw. We conclude that species-specific responses to PAR, D and soil water content are key elements to understanding current and future water fluxes in this ecosystem.

  3. Environmental controls on food web regimes: A fluvial perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Mary E.

    2006-02-01

    Because food web regimes control the biomass of primary producers (e.g., plants or algae), intermediate consumers (e.g., invertebrates), and large top predators (tuna, killer whales), they are of societal as well as academic interest. Some controls over food web regimes may be internal, but many are mediated by conditions or fluxes over large spatial scales. To understand locally observed changes in food webs, we must learn more about how environmental gradients and boundaries affect the fluxes of energy, materials, or organisms through landscapes or seascapes that influence local species interactions. Marine biologists and oceanographers have overcome formidable challenges of fieldwork on the high seas to make remarkable progress towards this goal. In river drainage networks, we have opportunities to address similar questions at smaller spatial scales, in ecosystems with clear physical structure and organization. Despite these advantages, we still have much to learn about linkages between fluxes from watershed landscapes and local food webs in river networks. Longitudinal (downstream) gradients in productivity, disturbance regimes, and habitat structure exert strong effects on the organisms and energy sources of river food webs, but their effects on species interactions are just beginning to be explored. In fluid ecosystems with less obvious physical structure, like the open ocean, discerning features that control the movement of organisms and affect food web dynamics is even more challenging. In both habitats, new sensing, tracing and mapping technologies have revealed how landscape or seascape features (e.g., watershed divides, ocean fronts or circulation cells) channel, contain or concentrate organisms, energy and materials. Field experiments and direct in situ observations of basic natural history, however, remain as vital as ever in interpreting the responses of biota to these features. We need field data that quantify the many spatial and temporal scales of

  4. Electric Power Research Institute: environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-04

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved continued investigations into the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process for the production of Anhydrous Calcium Sulfate (Anhydrite). The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. From May 3-18, the NYSEG Kintigh Station and the ECTC were off-line for a two-week scheduled Station outage. During the ECTC outage, the major systems of the Center were inspected, and several preventive maintenance activities were completed. A listing of the major O&M outage activities completed during this period is presented in the Pilot/Mini-Pilot section of this report. In May 1997, an extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was started following the NYSEG outage. The extension to the Anhydrite Production test block is being funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high- efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite project was conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension mainly used the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot wet FGD unit to reduce operating costs. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a useable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). The original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved

  5. Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Continuous Monitors in Controlled Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Patton, Allison P.; Zhang, Andrew; Fanac, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Weisel, Clifford P.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) contains a variety of toxic air pollutants, including diesel particulate matter (DPM) and gaseous contaminants (e.g., carbon monoxide (CO)). DPM is dominated by fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and can be representatively determined by its thermal-optical refractory as elemental carbon (EC) or light-absorbing characteristics as black carbon (BC). The currently accepted reference method for sampling and analysis of occupational exposure to DPM is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 5040. However, this method cannot provide in-situ short-term measurements of DPM. Thus, real-time monitors are gaining attention to better examine DE exposures in occupational settings. However, real-time monitors are subject to changing environmental conditions. Field measurements have reported interferences in optical sensors and subsequent real-time readings, under conditions of high humidity and abrupt temperature changes. To begin dealing with these issues, we completed a controlled study to evaluate five real-time monitors: Airtec real-time DPM/EC Monitor, TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor AM510 (PM2.5), TSI Condensation Particle Counter 3007, microAeth AE51 BC Aethalometer, and Langan T15n CO Measurer. Tests were conducted under different temperatures (55, 70, and 80 °F), relative humidity (10, 40, and 80%), and DPM concentrations (50 and 200 µg/m3) in a controlled exposure facility. The 2-hour averaged EC measurements from the Airtec instrument showed relatively good agreement with NIOSH Method 5040 (R2=0.84; slope=1.17±0.06; N=27) and reported ~17% higher EC concentrations than the NIOSH reference method. Temperature, relative humidity, and DPM levels did not significantly affect relative differences in 2-hour averaged EC concentrations obtained by the Airtec instrument versus the NIOSH method (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses, based on 1-min averaged data, suggested combined effects of up to 5

  6. ISS Update: Final Week for Long Time Flight Director Paul Dye – 01.11.13

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot sits down with Flight Director Paul Dye in the Station Flight Control Room. In his final week as a flight director, Dye discusses his experiences from the beginning ...

  7. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions for peatlands in Northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Dise, N.B.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S.

    1993-06-20

    Controls on methane emission from peatlands in northern Minnesota were investigated by correlation to environmental variables and by field manipulations. From September 1988 through September 1990, methane flux measurements were made at weekly to monthly intervals at six sites in the Marcell Experimental Forest, northern Minnesota (two open bog sites, two forested bog sites, a poor fen, and a fen lagg). Flux was related to water table position and peat temperature with simple correlations at individual sites and multiple regression on all sites together. The effect of water table was also investigated experimentally in {open_quotes}bog corrals{close_quotes} (open-ended metal enclosures set in the peat) in which water table was artificially raised to the surface in the driest peatland. Temperature largely controlled variation in flux within individual ecosystems at Marcell, but hydrology distinguished between-site variation. Water table position, peat temperature, and degree of peat humification explained 91% of the variance in log CH{sub 4} flux, predicted annual methane emission from individual wetlands successfully, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased emission by 2.5x and 2.2x, respectively. Just as expanding the scale of investigation from a single habitat in a wetland to several wetlands necessitates incorporation of additional variables to explain flux (water table, peat characteristics), modeling flux from several wetland regions, if possible, will require the addition of climate parameters. 30 refs., 8 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Environmental controls of marine productivity hot spots around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Strong, Aaron L.

    2015-08-01

    Antarctic coastal polynyas are biologically rich ecosystems that support large populations of mammals and birds and are globally significant sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide. To support local phytoplankton blooms, these highly productive ecosystems require a large input of iron (Fe), the sources of which are poorly known. Here we assess the relative importance of six different environmental factors in controlling the amount of phytoplankton biomass and rates of net primary production (NPP) in 46 coastal polynyas around Antarctica. Data presented here suggest that melting ice shelves are a primary supplier of Fe to coastal polynyas, with basal melt rates explaining 59% of the between-polynya variance in mean chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. In a multiple regression analysis, which explained 78% of the variance in chlorophyll a (Chl a) between polynyas, basal melt rate explained twice as much of the variance as the next most important variable. Fe upwelled from sediments, which is partly controlled by continental shelf width, was also important in some polynyas. Of secondary importance to phytoplankton abundance and NPP were sea surface temperature and polynya size. Surprisingly, differences in light availability and the length of the open water season explained little or none of the variance in either Chl a or NPP between polynyas. If the productivity of coastal polynyas is indeed sensitive to the release of Fe from melting ice shelves, future changes in ice shelf melt rates could dramatically influence Antarctic coastal ecosystems and the ability of continental shelf waters to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide. This article was corrected on 26 AUG 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  9. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  10. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  11. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  12. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  13. 40 CFR 270.135 - What must the Director include in a draft RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... draft RAP? 270.135 Section 270.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.135 What must the Director include in a draft RAP? If the Director prepares a draft RAP, it must include the: (a) Information required under §...

  14. Simple Instrumental and Visual Tests for Nonlaboratory Environmental Control

    PubMed Central

    Eksperiandova, L. P.; Khimchenko, S. V.; Stepanenko, N. A.; Shcherbakov, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Proposed are simple and available techniques that can be used for rapid and reliable environmental control specifically of natural water by means of instrumental and visual tests in outdoor conditions. Developed are the chemical colorimetric modes for fast detection of socially dangerous trace impurities in water such as Co(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) as well as NO2−-ions and Fe(III) serving as model impurities. Application of portable digital devices and scanner allows estimating the color coordinates and increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the tests. The combination of complex formation with preconcentration of colored complexes replaces the sensitive but time-consuming and capricious kinetic method that is usually used for this purpose at the more convenient and reliable colorimetric method. As the test tools, the following ones are worked out: polyurethane foam tablets with sorbed colored complexes, the two-layer paper sandwich packaged in slide adapter and saturated by reagents, and polyethylene terephthalate blister with dried reagents. Fast analysis of polyurethane foam tablets is realized using a pocket digital RGB-colorimeter or portable photometer. Express analysis of two-layer paper sandwich or polyethylene terephthalate blister is realized by visual and instrumental tests. The metrological characteristics of the developed visual and instrumental express analysis techniques are estimated. PMID:27247827

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-12-04

    The purpose of this study is to select the best technologies for the environmental control subsystem (ECS) for interior heating and cooling in electric and hybrid vehicles. The best technology must be selected from technologies that are available in the near term. The selected technology will serve as a basis on which development of a prototype ECS could start immediately. The technology selected as best ECS for the electric vehicle is the combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner. All of the major ECS components, i.e., the combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this best ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. At the same time, its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range. The required technology also minimizes risk for the vehicle manufacturer because little new capital investment will be needed to produce the ECS. Since electric vehicles are likely to be in limited production for several years, the technology is appropriate for the market size.

  16. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the fifth generation Urine Processor Development Hardware. The Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) is a part of the Water Recovery System (WRS) on the ISS. It uses a chase change process called vapor compression distillation technology to remove contaminants from urine. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  17. Commercial Crew Development Environmental Control and Life Support System Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) Project was a short term Project that was managed within the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office (C3PO) to help develop and demonstrate a small number of key human spaceflight capabilities in support of moving towards a possible commercial crew transportation system to low earth orbit (LEO). It was intended to foster entrepreneurial activities with a few selected companies. The other purpose of the Project was to try to reduce some of the possible risk with a commercial crew transportation system to LEO. The entrepreneurial activities were encouraged with these few selected companies by NASA providing only part of the total funding to complete specific tasks that were jointly agreed to by NASA and the company. These joint agreements were documented in a Space Act Agreement (SAA) that was signed by NASA and the company. This paper will provide an overview of the CCDev Project and it will also discuss in detail the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) tasks that were performed under CCDev.

  18. Environmental control of natural gap size distribution in tropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulamoussène, Youven; Bedeau, Caroline; Descroix, Laurent; Linguet, Laurent; Hérault, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances are the dominant form of forest regeneration and dynamics in unmanaged tropical forests. Monitoring the size distribution of treefall gaps is important to better understand and predict the carbon budget in response to land use and other global changes. In this study, we model the size frequency distribution of natural canopy gaps with a discrete power law distribution. We use a Bayesian framework to introduce and test, using Monte Carlo Markov chain and Kuo-Mallick algorithms, the effect of local physical environment on gap size distribution. We apply our methodological framework to an original light detecting and ranging dataset in which natural forest gaps were delineated over 30 000 ha of unmanaged forest. We highlight strong links between gap size distribution and environment, primarily hydrological conditions and topography, with large gaps being more frequent on floodplains and in wind-exposed areas. In the future, we plan to apply our methodological framework on a larger scale using satellite data. Additionally, although gap size distribution variation is clearly under environmental control, variation in gap size distribution in time should be tested against climate variability.

  19. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Testing Facility at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. These compact and powerful systems are collectively called the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems, or simply, ECLSS. This photograph shows the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which utilizes the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) technology. The VCD is used for integrated testing of the entire Water Recovery System (WRS) and development testing of the Urine Processor Assembly. The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank.

  20. OMNIHAB - a controlled environmental system for application in gravitational biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, Ralf; Hilbig, Reinhard; Anken, Ralf; Lebert, Michael; Häder, Donat

    Several "closed" habitats have been designed in the past for experiments with unicellular organisms as well as with multicellular animals and plants under long-term microgravity. Some of these environmental systems were flown successfully. The bioregenerative C.E.B.A.S.- Minimodul allowed the maintenance of higher plants (Ceratophyllum sp.), mollusks (Biomphalaria glabrata) and fish (swordtail Xiphophorus helleri, cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus) under spaceflight conditions (STS-89, STS-90 Neurolab, STS-107). A much simpler and smaller system, the OMEGAHAB, was successfully employed on the FOTON M-3 flight, containing cichlid fish larvae and unicellular algae (Euglena gracilis). Further aquatic habitats are under development (e.g., AquaHab, another aquatic research module especially dedicated to ground based, application-oriented research). These systems tend to be specialized, minimal ecosystems with limited research potential. Therefore, we propose to develop a controlled, multi-modular hardware to increase the diversity of experimental species to be flown together. Currently, a variety of plant and animal species are used as model systems. Combining as many of them as possible (and conducting a most effective sample-sharing among the different working groups) will strongly improve the cost-benefit ratio and thus effectiveness of a space- flight experiment in utilising limited resources at the maximum. The concept of OMNIHAB, an aquatic life support system comprising exchangeable modules, will be presented at the meeting.

  1. The Centaur Director kicks off Environment and Energy Awareness Week

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges (right) gets ready to drive an electric car, provided by Florida Power & Light, to the opening of Environmental and Energy Awareness Week at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Exhibits and displays by KSC and 45th Space Wing organizations detail accomplishments in minimizing environmental impacts and conserving resources. They are on view April 19 - 22 at various sites at KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  2. The Centaur Director kicks off Environment and Energy Awareness Week

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Environmental and Energy Awareness Week at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex kicked off with a visit by Center Director Roy Bridges and the Awareness team, who presented him with a t-shirt. Exhibits and displays by KSC and 45th Space Wing organizations detail accomplishments in minimizing environmental impacts and conserving resources. They are on view April 19 - 22 at various sites at KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  3. The Centaur Director kicks off Environment and Energy Awareness Week

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the opening of Environmental and Energy Awareness Week at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Center Director Roy Bridges talks to members of the Awareness team inside the United Space Alliance exhibit. The exhibits and displays by KSC and 45th Space Wing organizations detail accomplishments in minimizing environmental impacts and conserving resources. They are on view April 19 - 22 at various sites at KSC, Cape Canaveral Air Station and Patrick Air Force Base.

  4. Clergy Attitudes toward Funeral Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Richard A.; Goldberg, Helene

    1978-01-01

    On the whole, the experiences of clergy with funerals and funeral directors were positive, although a significant minority provided negative judgements. The general consensus of the clergy was that people did need more protection from inappropriate funeral practices than they were presently getting. (Author)

  5. An Academic Library Director's Bestiary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The article examines some of the non-routine challenges that an academic library director can expect to deal with during his or her career. Each challenge is discussed in a paragraph or two, beginning by characterizing the challenge as an animal that serves as a metaphor for unusual but nonetheless important conditions that can, sooner or later,…

  6. JSC director's discretionary fund program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Director's Discretionary Fund Program Annual Report provides a brief review of the status of projects undertaken during the 1990 fiscal year. Three space exploration initiative related issues were focused on: regenerative life support, human spacecraft design, and lunar surface habitat. A viable program of life sciences, space sciences, and engineering research has been maintained.

  7. Personality Characteristics of Training Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurgensen, Clifford E.

    1970-01-01

    Adjective Word Sort research into descriptors of managerial groups compared perceptions of business, industrial, and public utility executives by psychologists and other executives; psychologists' perceptions of military officers and government administrators; and training directors as viewed by members of the American Society for Training and…

  8. The Playwrights-Directors Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amor, Edward

    The playwrights-directors workshop at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) allows students of directing and playwriting to meet jointly to explore and solve problems in the creation and production of original one-act scripts. At the heart of the program is the belief that both playwriting and directing students profit from producing their efforts…

  9. Environmental Controls on Aerobic Methane Oxidation in Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, L.; Maltby, J.; Engbersen, N.; Zopfi, J.; Bange, H. W.; Elvert, M.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Kock, A.; Lehmann, M. F.; Treude, T.; Niemann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Large quantities of the greenhouse gas CH4 are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, and later into the atmosphere. Indeed, coastal seas account for more than 75% of global oceanic CH4 emissions. Yet, aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria (MOB) consume an important part of CH4 in the water column, thus mitigating CH4 release to the atmosphere. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic systems, in particular with regard to the variability of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentrations, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine the most important controlling factors, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of CH4, MOx, the composition of the MOB community, and physicochemical water column parameters in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Eckernförde(E-) Bay, Boknis Eck Time Series Station). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, seasonal stratification leads to hypoxia in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Methane is produced year-round in the sediments, resulting in accumulation of methane in bottom waters, and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were a) perturbations of the water column caused by storm events, currents or seasonal mixing, b) temperature and c) oxygen concentration. a) Perturbations of the water column led to a sharp decrease in MOx within hours, probably caused by replacement of 'old' water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of MOB. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though CH4 was abundant at all depths, MOx was highest in bottom waters (1-5 nM/d), which usually contain the lowest O2 concentrations. Lab-based experiments with adjusted O2

  10. Instrumentation for controlling and monitoring environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced Instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (EC/LSS) have been developed at Life Systems, Inc. The difference in specific EC/LSS instrumentation requirements and hardware during the transition from exploratory development to flight production stages are discussed. Details of prior control and monitor instrumentation designs are reviewed and an advanced design presented. The latter features a minicomputer-based approach having the flexibility to meet process hardware test programs and the capability to be refined to include the control dynamics and fault diagnostics needed in future flight systems where long duration, reliable operation requires in-flight hardware maintenance. The emphasis is on lower EC/LSS hardware life cycle costs by simplicity in instrumentation and using it to save crew time during flight operation.

  11. Design and evaluation of flight directors for V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review of model-based techniques for the design of aircraft flight directors is undertaken. An analytical director design technique which utilizes an optimal control model of the human pilot is then discussed in more detail. The analytical and experimental results of three specific director design studies are discussed, all involving control of a light utility helicopter. Finally, a general design methodology is discussed which can aid in the specification of pilot-centered display requirements.

  12. Environmental Controls of Microbial Resource Partitioning in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandeler, Ellen; Poll, Christian; Kramer, Susanne; Mueller, Karolin; Marhan, Sven

    2015-04-01

    The mineralization and flow of plant-derived carbon in soils is relevant to global carbon cycling. Current models of organismic carbon fluxes in soil assume that separate bacterial and fungal energy channels exist in soil. Recent studies disentangle the herbivore and detritivore pathways of microbial resource use, identify the key players contributing to these two different pathways, and determine to what extent microbial substrate use is affected by environmental controls. To follow the kinetics of litter and root decomposition and to quantify the contribution of key players, it is necessary to use isotopic approaches like PLFA-SIP and ergosterol-SIP. It was shown that bacteria and sugar consuming fungi initiated litter decomposition in an incubation experiment during the first two weeks, whereas higher fungi started to grow after the depletion of low molecular weight substrates. Analyses of PLFA-SIP revealed, for example, that fungi assimilated C directly from the litter, whereas bacteria took up substrates in the soil and therefore depended more on external transport processes than fungi. In addition, we will present data from a field experiment showing the incorporation of root and shoot litter C into organic and microbial C pools under field conditions over a period of two years. Similar amounts of C derived from the two resources differing in substrate quality and amount were incorporated into microbial C and ergosterol pools over time, indicating the importance of root-derived C for the soil food web. High incorporation of maize C (up to 76%) into ergosterol suggests fast and high assimilation of maize C into fungal biomass. Nevertheless, there is still a debate whether bacteria, archaea and fungi start feeding on new substrates at the same time or if their activity occurs at different successional stages. This presentation gives a summery of current knowledge on microbial resource partitioning under lab and field conditions.

  13. Gestation length in red deer: genetically determined or environmentally controlled?

    PubMed

    Asher, G W

    2007-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) of European origin (e.g. subspecies scoticus, hispanicus, hippelaphus) is a medium sized (100-150kg mature hind weight) ruminant that exhibits highly seasonally patterns of autumn conceptions and summer births. Historic data indicate average (+/- s.d.) gestation length of 233-234 (+/- 2-4) days. Recently, however, there has been growing awareness that there is considerably greater variation in gestation length than earlier indicated and that there is a significant element of environmental, and possibly even social, control over the duration of pregnancy in this species. Imposition of variable levels of nutrition over late pregnancy of red deer hinds has been observed to influence fetal growth trajectory and gestation length, with no apparent effect on birth weight. This supports a hypothesis that under conditions of modest feed imbalance, variation in gestation length compensates for variation in fetal growth trajectory to ensure optimisation of birth weight. More recent studies on primiparous (24 month old) red deer hinds have identified surprisingly large variation in gestation length (193-263 days) compared with adult hinds (228-243 days), with earlier conceiving individuals within the primiparous cohort expressing significantly longer gestation than the later conceiving hinds, resulting in a higher level of calving synchrony than expected from known conception dates. This introduces an intriguing hypothesis of social indicative effects on parturition timing to promote within-cohort birth synchrony. Collectively, these data debunk the commonly held notion that gestation length of red deer is genetically fixed within strict limits. A review of the literature points to this as possibly a common phenomenon across a range of non-domesticated ruminant species but this conclusion is not supported by numerous conflicting studies on domestic sheep and cattle.

  14. Genetic and Environmental Controls on Nitrous Oxide Accumulation in Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Saarenheimo, Jatta; Rissanen, Antti J.; Arvola, Lauri; Nykänen, Hannu; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Tiirola, Marja

    2015-01-01

    We studied potential links between environmental factors, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation, and genetic indicators of nitrite and N2O reducing bacteria in 12 boreal lakes. Denitrifying bacteria were investigated by quantifying genes encoding nitrite and N2O reductases (nirS/nirK and nosZ, respectively, including the two phylogenetically distinct clades nosZI and nosZII) in lake sediments. Summertime N2O accumulation and hypolimnetic nitrate concentrations were positively correlated both at the inter-lake scale and within a depth transect of an individual lake (Lake Vanajavesi). The variability in the individual nirS, nirK, nosZI, and nosZII gene abundances was high (up to tenfold) among the lakes, which allowed us to study the expected links between the ecosystem’s nir-vs-nos gene inventories and N2O accumulation. Inter-lake variation in N2O accumulation was indeed connected to the relative abundance of nitrite versus N2O reductase genes, i.e. the (nirS+nirK)/nosZI gene ratio. In addition, the ratios of (nirS+nirK)/nosZI at the inter-lake scale and (nirS+nirK)/nosZI+II within Lake Vanajavesi correlated positively with nitrate availability. The results suggest that ambient nitrate concentration can be an important modulator of the N2O accumulation in lake ecosystems, either directly by increasing the overall rate of denitrification or indirectly by controlling the balance of nitrite versus N2O reductase carrying organisms. PMID:25756328

  15. Computation Directorate 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, V E; Guse, J A

    2008-03-06

    If there is a single word that both characterized 2007 and dominated the thoughts and actions of many Laboratory employees throughout the year, it is transition. Transition refers to the major shift that took place on October 1, when the University of California relinquished management responsibility for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), became the new Laboratory management contractor for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In the 55 years under the University of California, LLNL amassed an extraordinary record of significant accomplishments, clever inventions, and momentous contributions in the service of protecting the nation. This legacy provides the new organization with a built-in history, a tradition of excellence, and a solid set of core competencies from which to build the future. I am proud to note that in the nearly seven years I have had the privilege of leading the Computation Directorate, our talented and dedicated staff has made far-reaching contributions to the legacy and tradition we passed on to LLNS. Our place among the world's leaders in high-performance computing, algorithmic research and development, applications, and information technology (IT) services and support is solid. I am especially gratified to report that through all the transition turmoil, and it has been considerable, the Computation Directorate continues to produce remarkable achievements. Our most important asset--the talented, skilled, and creative people who work in Computation--has continued a long-standing Laboratory tradition of delivering cutting-edge science even in the face of adversity. The scope of those achievements is breathtaking, and in 2007, our accomplishments span an amazing range of topics. From making an important contribution to a Nobel Prize-winning effort to creating tools that can detect malicious codes embedded in commercial software; from

  16. A Remote-Control Airship for Coastal and Environmental Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puleo, J. A.; O'Neal, M. A.; McKenna, T. E.; White, T.

    2008-12-01

    The University of Delaware recently acquired an 18 m (60 ft) remote-control airship capable of carrying a 36 kg (120 lb) scientific payload for coastal and environmental research. By combining the benefits of tethered balloons (stable dwell time) and powered aircraft (ability to navigate), the platform allows for high-resolution data collection in both time and space. The platform was developed by Galaxy Blimps, LLC of Dallas, TX for collecting high-definition video of sporting events. The airship can fly to altitudes of at least 600 m (2000 ft) reaching speeds between zero and 18 m/s (35 knots) in winds up to 13 m/s (25 knots). Using a hand-held console and radio transmitter, a ground-based operator can manipulate the orientation and throttle of two gasoline engines, and the orientation of four fins. Airship location is delivered to the operator through a data downlink from an onboard altimeter and global positioning system (GPS) receiver. Scientific payloads are easily attached to a rail system on the underside of the blimp. Data collection can be automated (fixed time intervals) or triggered by a second operator using a second hand-held console. Data can be stored onboard or transmitted in real-time to a ground-based computer. The first science mission (Fall 2008) is designed to collect images of tidal inundation of a salt marsh to support numerical modeling of water quality in the Murderkill River Estuary in Kent County, Delaware (a tributary of Delaware Bay in the USA Mid-Atlantic region). Time sequenced imagery will be collected by a ten-megapixel camera and a thermal- infrared imager mounted in separate remote-control, gyro-stabilized camera mounts on the blimp. Live video- feeds will be transmitted to the instrument operator on the ground. Resulting time series data will ultimately be used to compare/update independent estimates of inundation based on LiDAR elevations and a suite of tide and temperature gauges.

  17. Energy and Environment Directorate Status Report March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2006-02-21

    The Energy and Environment Directorate (E& ED) is one of 13 directorates at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is operated by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We operate in the context of a national security laboratory and focus on meeting major national needs, especially from a long-term perspective. In the LLNL context, E&ED is a hybrid ''program'' and ''discipline'' directorate, combining the program development responsibilities in the national energy and environment arenas to the benefit of the entire Laboratory and also serving as the Laboratory's science base of atmospheric, earth, environmental, and energy science. This Status Report is part of the annual evaluation process required by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of its contract with UC. The annual review typically will focus on about one third of the activities and programs of a directorate, so that the entire organization is evaluated over a three-year window. This year's review is focused on the basic science foundations for the directorate and two major program areas in the directorate, with an update from a third program. The programs for review are: (1) Earth System Science and Engineering; (2) Nuclear Systems Science and Engineering; and (3) NARAC/IMAAC update. Major questions to be addressed during this review include: (1) Are the programmatic directions appropriate? How can they be improved? (2) What actions can E&ED take to ensure success? How well poised for success are the current staff and facilities? What additions are needed? (3) What recommendations can be made to the Director and the University? This Status Report provides background information on the entire directorate including the parts of the directorate that are the focus of this year's review by the Energy and Environment Directorate Review Committee, to be held March 6-9, 2006. The following sections describe the overall

  18. Geothermal energy environmental problems and control methods: review of recent findings

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, V.T.; Caskey, J.F.; Pfundstein, R.T.; Rifkin, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a literature review on the environmental concerns and associated control methods of geothermal energy utilization are presented. The document introduces the environmental problems associated with geothermal energy utilization; assesses the current status of control methods; references appropriate environmental documents; and identifies areas where additional environmental research is needed. The review attempts to consolidate current understanding of the environmental impact of geothermal energy development. Approximately 180 reports written by authors in industry, government and academia have been reviewed in the areas of air emissions, surface and subsurface liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, and induced seismicity.

  19. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  20. 75 FR 59679 - Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting Meeting: African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting. Time: Tuesday, October 19, 2010 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African...

  1. 7 CFR 28.951 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Administration § 28.951 Director. The Director... require in enforcing the regulations in this subpart. Fiber and Processing Tests...

  2. 28 CFR 800.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FUNCTIONS § 800.4 Director. (a) CSOSA is headed by a Director appointed by the President, by and with the... Executive Committee. The Executive Committee includes the four chief judges of the local and Federal...

  3. Mobile Training for Directors of Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Pearl; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the design, implementation, and impact of the Mobile Training for Directors of Day Care Centers (MTDDC) Program, a program that was created to provide directors with information to improve their administrative and organizational skills. (Author/RH)

  4. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... expected to cause contamination or cross-contamination of HCT/Ps or equipment, or accidental exposure of... environmental conditions could reasonably be expected to cause contamination or cross-contamination of HCT/Ps...

  5. TUESDAY: EPA Division Director to Highlight the New Norfolk Southern Eco Locomotives in Atlanta

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Regional Air, Pesticides, and Toxics Management Division Director Beverly Banister will speak at the Norfolk Southern Inman Yard during the unveiling of the nation's first 'Eco' locomotives.

  6. Director Circles of Conic Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Given a conic section, the locus of a moving point in the plane of the conic section such that the two tangent lines drawn to the conic section from the moving point are all mutually perpendicular is a curve. In the case of an ellipse and hyperbola this curve is a circle referred to as the director circle. In the case of the parabola this curve…

  7. JSC Director's Discretionary Fund Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Lyle M. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The JSC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Program 1991 Annual Report provides a brief status of the projects undertaken during the 1991 fiscal year. For this year, four space exploration initiative related issues were focused on: regenerative life support, human spacecraft design, lunar surface habitat, and in situ resource utilization. In this way, a viable program of life sciences, space sciences, and engineering research has been maintained. For additional information on any single project, the individual investigator should be contacted.

  8. New Director of Publications Selected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Joan

    2013-02-01

    AGU has announced that Brooks Hanson—former deputy editor of physical sciences for Science—will be its new director of publications. In the position, which he will assume on 25 February 2013, Hanson will work to evolve AGU's publishing program in a changing marketplace as well as to monitor and develop strategies to address public policy directives and options that impact the publishing of scholarly research.

  9. Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Active Thermal Control and Environmental Control and Life Support Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard A.; Boehm, Paul; Cross, Cynthia D.; Rains, George Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is the first crew transport vehicle to be developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the last thirty years. Orion is currently being developed to transport the crew safely beyond Earth orbit. This year, the vehicle focused on building the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT1) vehicle to be launched in September of 2014. The development of the Orion Active Thermal Control (ATCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System, focused on the integrating the components into the EFT1 vehicle and preparing them for launch. Work also has started on preliminary design reviews for the manned vehicle. Additional development work is underway to keep the remaining component progressing towards implementation on the flight tests of EM1 in 2017 and of EM2 in 2020. This paper covers the Orion ECLS development from April 2013 to April 2014

  10. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)

  11. Action for Environmental Quality. Standards and Enforcement for Air and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting and enforcing environmental quality standards for the nation. With the Clean Air Act of 1970 (P.L. 91-604) and the Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-500), the first truly nationwide control programs were established. This booklet is designed to inform the public…

  12. 36 CFR 1234.14 - What are the requirements for environmental controls for records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What are the requirements for environmental controls for records storage facilities? 1234.14 Section 1234.14 Parks, Forests, and Public... STORAGE FACILITIES Facility Standards § 1234.14 What are the requirements for environmental controls...

  13. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Crew § 460.11 Environmental control and life support systems. (a) An operator must provide atmospheric... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL...

  14. Environmental Control Exploration. Practical Arts. Instructor's Manual. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Martha; McKinley, Douglas

    This manual provides curriculum materials for implementing a career exploration class in environmental control occupations within a Practical Arts Education program for middle/junior high school students. Introductory materials include the program master sequence, a list of environmental control occupations, an overview of the competency-based…

  15. Evaluation of absorption cycle for space station environmental control system application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Oneill, M. J.; Reid, H. C.; Bisenius, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The study to evaluate an absorption cycle refrigeration system to provide environmental control for the space stations is reported. A zero-gravity liquid/vapor separator was designed and tested. The results were used to design a light-weight, efficient generator for the absorption refrigeration system. It is concluded that absorption cycle refrigeration is feasible for providing space station environmental control.

  16. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.24 Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and...

  17. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.24 Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and...

  18. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.24 Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and...

  19. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.24 Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and...

  20. 22 CFR 120.24 - Port Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Port Directors. 120.24 Section 120.24 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.24 Port Directors. Port Directors of U.S. Customs and Border Protection means the U.S. Customs and...

  1. Integration of Leadership Styles of School Director

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlovic, Nebojsa; Oljaca, Milka; Kostovic, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Management style can be defined as a special behavior of directors in the work process that affects the performance in an organization, in this case-school. Management style has two related meanings: first is behavior of directors to employees, second is directors' approach in school regarding management, participation of employees in decision…

  2. 45 CFR 1700.5 - Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Executive Director. 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.5 Executive Director. (a) The Executive Director...

  3. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where... employee is the head of an agency, the Director shall make any such recommendation to the President and...

  4. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where... employee is the head of an agency, the Director shall make any such recommendation to the President and...

  5. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where... employee is the head of an agency, the Director shall make any such recommendation to the President and...

  6. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where... employee is the head of an agency, the Director shall make any such recommendation to the President and...

  7. 5 CFR 2638.506 - Director's recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Director's recommendation. 2638.506... Cases Involving Individual Executive Agency Employees § 2638.506 Director's recommendation. (a) Where... employee is the head of an agency, the Director shall make any such recommendation to the President and...

  8. 48 CFR 1602.170-6 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 1602.170-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions of FEHBP Terms 1602.170-6 Director. Director means the Director of the Office of Personnel Management....

  9. 45 CFR 1700.5 - Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Executive Director. 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.5 Executive Director. (a) The Executive Director...

  10. Environmental controls on growth of the massive coral Porites.

    PubMed

    Lough; Barnes

    2000-03-15

    Annual density banding provided growth characteristics for 245 similar-sized, massive colonies of Porites from similar locations on 29 reefs from across the length and breadth of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Values obtained were density, extension rate, and calcification rate. Tissue thickness, the depth to which skeletons were occupied by tissue at the time of collection, was also measured. Extension rate, calcification rate, and tissue thickness were significantly greater at the top of colonies than at the sides. Extension rate and calcification rate decreased from north to south along the GBR (latitudinal range of approximately 9 degrees ) and were significantly and directly related to annual average sea surface temperature (SST; range approximately 25-27 degrees C). For each 1 degrees C rise in SST, average annual calcification increased by 0.39 g cm(-2) year(-1) and average annual extension increased by 3.1 mm year(-1) (c.f. average values of 1.63 g cm(-2) year(-1) and 12.9 mm year(-1), respectively). Density was inversely correlated with extension rate and increased with distance offshore. Data for massive Porites colonies from the GBR were extended though 20 degrees of latitude and an average annual SST range of 23-29 degrees C using published data for the Hawaiian Archipelago (Grigg, R.W., 1981. Coral reef development at high latitudes in Hawaii. Proc. 4th Int. Coral Reef Symp., Manila, Vol. 1, pp. 687-693; Grigg, R.W., 1997. Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain - revisited. Coral Reefs 16, S33-S38) and Phuket, Thailand (Scoffin. T.P., Tudhope. A.W., Brown. B.E., Chansang. H., Cheeney. R.F., 1992. Patterns and possible environmental controls of skeletogenesis of Porites lutea, South Thailand. Coral Reefs 11, 1-11). The response of calcification rate to temperature remained linear. Variation in annual average SST accounted for 84% of the variance. For each 1 degrees C rise in SST, average annual calcification increased by

  11. Hybrid control and acquisition system for remote control systems for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an alternative to a VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and a 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC for the real-time computation. The tests have demonstrated that a distributed control systems based on this architecture exhibits a delay time of less than 25 us on a single channel, i.e a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40 kHz (and up to 80 kHz). The system is now under extensive test in the remote controls of seismic sensors (to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors) of a large baseline suspended Michelson interferometer.

  12. Hybrid control and acquisition system for remote control systems for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, Fabio; Acernese, Fausto; Boiano, Alfonso; De Rosa, Rosario; Romano, Rocco; Barone, Fabrizio

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we describe the architecture and the performances of a hybrid modular acquisition and control system prototype for environmental monitoring and geophysics. The system, an alternative to a VME-UDP/IP based system, is based on a dual-channel 18-bit low noise ADC and a 16-bit DAC module at 1 MHz. The module can be configured as stand-alone or mounted on a motherboard as mezzanine. Both the modules and the motherboard can send/receive the configuration and the acquired/correction data for control through a standard EPP parallel port to a standard PC for the real-time computation. The tests have demonstrated that a distributed control systems based on this architecture exhibits a delay time of less than 25 us on a single channel, i.e a sustained sampling frequency of more than 40 kHz (and up to 80 kHz). The system is now under extensive test in the remote controls of seismic sensors (to simulate a geophysics networks of sensors) of a large baseline suspended Michelson interferometer.

  13. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  14. The U.S. and Environmental Pollution Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1974-01-01

    Background concerning legislation and development of environmental programs is detailed in the areas of air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, and multimedia toxic substances. Each section contains a discussion of scientific knowledge, health effects, costs, proposed standards, and possible approaches to the problems. (LS)

  15. Reduced Environmental Stimulation Techniques and Control of Psychological Dependencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, G. David

    Three areas of research have supported the conceptual relevance of Reduced Environmental Stimulation (RES) techniques in the management of psychological dependencies. First, preliminary studies through the late l960's indicated that relatively short periods of RES had a facilitative effect on the type of subject who might be most vulnerable to…

  16. NICKEL PLATING: INDUSTRY PRACTICES, CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared under the direction of EPA's ORD to assist the metal finishing community with the management of nickel plating environmental issues. This report provides the rationale for developing the document, identifies the intended user audience, and presents the fr...

  17. Environmental Pollution Control: Two Views from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1977-01-01

    Citizens exhibitied concern about pollution, a low level of trust in governmental and industrial efforts, and a low level of dedication to environmental protection. Demands to clean up the environment came from one segment of the population while demands to solve the energy crisis came from other segments. (AJ)

  18. A Theory and Model of Conflict Detection in Air Traffic Control: Incorporating Environmental Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Bolland, Scott; Humphreys, Michael S.; Neal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A performance theory for conflict detection in air traffic control is presented that specifies how controllers adapt decisions to compensate for environmental constraints. This theory is then used as a framework for a model that can fit controller intervention decisions. The performance theory proposes that controllers apply safety margins to…

  19. Global scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity

    DOE PAGES

    Ali, Ashehad; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; ...

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (Vc,m) rate scaled to 25°C (i.e., Vc,25; μmol CO2·m–2·s–1) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled to 25°C (i.e., J25; μmol electron·m–2·s–1) at the global scale.more » Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed Vc,25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2–2.5 times and 6–9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain ~56% and ~66% of the variation in Vc,25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. As a result, our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land–atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.« less

  20. Global scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Ashehad; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Reich, Peter B.; Bauerle, William L.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Santiago, Louis S.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (Vc,m) rate scaled to 25°C (i.e., Vc,25; μmol CO2·m–2·s–1) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled to 25°C (i.e., J25; μmol electron·m–2·s–1) at the global scale. Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed Vc,25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2–2.5 times and 6–9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain ~56% and ~66% of the variation in Vc,25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. As a result, our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land–atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.

  1. Global-scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ashehad A; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Fisher, Rosie A; Wullschleger, Stan D; Reich, Peter B; Vrugt, Jasper A; Bauerle, William L; Santiago, Louis S; Wilson, Cathy J

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (V(cm)) rate scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., V(c),25; μmol CO2 x m(-2)x s(-1)) and maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., J25; μmol electron x m(-2) x s(-1)) at the global scale. Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed V(c),25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2-2.5 times and 6-9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain -56% and -66% of the variation in V(c),25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. Our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land-atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.

  2. Environmental Controls of Soil Organic Carbon in Soils Across Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Carlos Alberto; Paz, Claudia; Phillips, Oliver; Nonato Araujo Filho, Raimundo; Lloyd, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Amazonian forests store and cycle a significant amount of carbon on its soils and vegetation. Yet, Amazonian forests are now subject to strong environmental pressure from both land use and climate change. Some of the more dramatic model projections for the future of the Amazon predict a major change in precipitation followed by savanization of most currently forested areas, resulting in major carbon losses to the atmosphere. However, how soil carbon stocks will respond to climatic and land use changes depend largely on how soil carbon is stabilized. Amazonian soils are highly diverse, being very variable in their weathering levels and chemical and physical properties, and thus it is important to consider how the different soils of the Basin stabilize and store soil organic carbon (SOC). The wide variation in soil weathering levels present in Amazonia, suggests that soil groups with contrasting pedogenetic development should differ in their predominant mechanism of SOC stabilization. In this study we investigated the edaphic, mineralogical and climatic controls of SOC concentration in 147 pristine forest soils across nine different countries in Amazonia, encompassing 14 different WRB soil groups. Soil samples were collected in 1 ha permanent plots used for forest dynamics studies as part of the RAINFOR project. Only 0-30 cm deep averages are reported here. Soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen and for their chemical (exchangeable bases, phosphorus, pH) and physical properties, (particle size, bulk density) and mineralogy through standard selective dissolution techniques (Fe and Al oxides) and by semi-quantitative X-Ray diffraction. In Addition, selected soils from each soil group had SOC fractionated by physical and chemical techniques. Our results indicate that different stabilization mechanisms are responsible for SOC stabilization in Amazonian soils with contrasting pedogenetic level. Ferralsols and Acrisols were found to have uniform mineralogy

  3. Aphid wing dimorphisms: linking environmental and genetic control of trait variation

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors underlie phenotypic variation. While research at the interface of evolutionary and developmental biology has made excellent advances in understanding the contribution of genes to morphology, less well understood is the manner in which environmental cues are incorporated during development to influence the phenotype. Also virtually unexplored is how evolutionary transitions between environmental and genetic control of trait variation are achieved. Here, I review investigations into molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity in the aphid wing dimorphism system. Among aphids, some species alternate between environmentally sensitive (polyphenic) and genetic (polymorphic) control of wing morph determination in their life cycle. Therefore, a traditional molecular genetic approach into understanding the genetically controlled polymorphism may provide a unique avenue into not only understanding the molecular basis of polyphenic variation in this group, but also the opportunity to compare and contrast the mechanistic basis of environmental and genetic control of similar dimorphisms. PMID:20083636

  4. Integrated environmental control and monitoring in the intelligent workplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This project involved the design and engineering of the control and monitoring of environmental quality - visual, thermal, air - in the Intelligent Workplace. The research objectives were to study the performance of the individual systems, to study the integration issues related to each system, to develop a control plan, and to implement and test the integrated systems in a real setting. In this project, a control strategy with related algorithms for distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers for negotiating central and individual control of HVAC, lighting, and enclosure was developed in order to maximize user comfort, and energy and environmental effectiveness. The goal of the control system design in the Intelligent Workplace is the integration of building systems for optimization of occupant satisfaction, organizational flexibility, energy efficiency and environmental effectiveness. The task of designing this control system involves not only the research, development and demonstration of state-of-the-art mechanical and electrical systems, but also their integration. The ABSIC research team developed functional requirements for the environmental systems considering the needs of both facility manager and the user. There are three levels of control for the environmental systems: scheduled control, sensor control, and user control. The challenges are to achieve the highest possible levels of energy effectiveness simultaneously with the highest levels of user satisfaction. The report describes the components of each system, their implementation in the Intelligent Workplace and related control and monitoring issues.

  5. Science Directorate Publications and Presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, F. G. (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This document lists the significant publications and presentation of the Science Directorate during the period January 1-December 31, 1999. Entries in the main part of the document are categorized according to NASA Reports (arranged by report number). Open Literature, and Presentations (arranged alphabetically by title). Most of the articles listed under Open Literature have appeared in refereed professional journals, books, monographs, or conference proceedings. Although many published abstracts are eventually expanded into full papers for publication in scientific and technical journals, they are often sufficiently comprehensive to include the significant results of the research reported. Therefore, published abstracts are listed separately in a section under Open Literature.

  6. Increasingly intolerable boundaries: future control of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, J

    2001-09-14

    In recent years, there have been a number of toxic accidents on the sea and on land which have caused pollution down current, down wind and down stream. Four were dramatic and these four have led to substantial changes in the way we deal with risk to the environment. There have also been increasing concerns about a less spectacular but equally concerning problem, acid rain, though attempts to deal with this problem have been less successful. Perhaps the drama was lacking. In all these cases, unfortunately, the less developed countries can ill afford the costs of prevention and this means they are often the home of environmentally unfriendly development. While the current approaches to such problems will continue, it is likely that the countries on the receiving end of such pollution, especially if they have economic and military power, will seek more forceful solutions. One outcome may be a UN-sponsored environmental police force.

  7. Molecular Ecology of Bacterial Population in Environmental Hazardous Chemical Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-14

    Pseudomonas putida F1 to measure toluene driven co-metabolic oxidation of TCE. (2) Demonstration of a new pathway for aerobic biodegradation of DDT...mediated by Alcaligenes eutrophus strain A5 previously shown competent for biodegradation of chlorobiphenyl congeners. (3) Confirmation that...the dynamics in microbial population density and activity during environmental biodegradation processes. Metabolism of PAHs. Pseudomonas £luorescens 5RL

  8. Environmental controls on the Emiliania huxleyi calcite mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horigome, M. T.; Ziveri, P.; Grelaud, M.; Baumann, K.-H.; Marino, G.; Mortyn, P. G.

    2014-04-01

    Although ocean acidification is expected to impact (bio) calcification by decreasing the seawater carbonate ion concentration, [CO32-], there is evidence of nonuniform response of marine calcifying plankton to low seawater [CO32-]. This raises questions about the role of environmental factors other than acidification and about the complex physiological responses behind calcification. Here we investigate the synergistic effect of multiple environmental parameters, including seawater temperature, nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) availability, and carbonate chemistry on the coccolith calcite mass of the cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the most abundant species in the world ocean. We use a suite of surface (late Holocene) sediment samples from the South Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean taken from depths lying above the modern lysocline (with the exception of eight samples that are located at or below the lysocline). The coccolith calcite mass in our results presents a latitudinal distribution pattern that mimics the main oceanographic features, thereby pointing to the potential importance of seawater nutrient availability (phosphate and nitrate) and carbonate chemistry (pH and pCO2) in determining coccolith mass by affecting primary calcification and/or the geographic distribution of E. huxleyi morphotypes. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating the combined effect of several environmental stressors on calcifying organisms to project their physiological response(s) in a high-CO2 world and improve interpretation of paleorecords.

  9. Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

    1980-06-01

    Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

  10. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-07-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. Of primary interest to the OTD is the development of technologies which result in faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than possible using conventional approaches. The objective of the GISC development project is to support these goals by developing a modular robotics control approach which reduces the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software and uses computer models to improve the safety of remote site cleanup while reducing the time and life cycle costs.

  11. Surveillance and Control of Malaria Transmission Using Remotely Sensed Meteorological and Environmental Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, R.; Adimi, F.; Nigro, J.

    2007-01-01

    Meteorological and environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters can most conveniently be obtained using remote sensing. Selected provinces and districts in Thailand and Indonesia are used to illustrate how remotely sensed meteorological and environmental parameters may enhance the capabilities for malaria surveillance and control. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  12. STS-1 environmental control and life support system. Consumables and thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steines, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS)/thermal systems analysis for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) was performed using the shuttle environmental consumables usage requirements evaluation (SECURE) computer program. This program employs a nodal technique utilizing the Fortran Environmental Analysis Routines (FEAR). The output parameters evaluated were consumable quantities, fluid temperatures, heat transfer and rejection, and cabin atmospheric pressure. Analysis of these indicated that adequate margins exist for the nonpropulsive consumables and related thermal environment.

  13. 78 FR 59729 - Final Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... alter any important attribute of the resource. Moderate. The environmental effects are sufficient to noticeably alter, but not destabilize important attributes of the resource. Large. The environmental effects... Commission. Aby Mohseni, Deputy Director, Environmental Protection and Performance Directorate, Division...

  14. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  15. Report: EPA’s Office of Environmental Information Should Improve Ariel Rios and Potomac Yard Computer Room Security Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #12-P-0879, September 26, 2012. The security posture and in-place environmental control review of the computer rooms in the Ariel Rios and Potomac Yard buildings revealed numerous security and environmental control deficiencies.

  16. Wakimoto to head NSF geosciences directorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-11-01

    Roger Wakimoto has been selected as the new assistant director for the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO), the agency announced on 7 November. Wakimoto, who has been director of the NSF-sponsored National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo., since 2010, begins his NSF appointment in February 2013. His selection culminates a national search begun last year to find a successor to former GEO assistant director Tim Killeen, whose term ended in June 2012. Margaret Cavanaugh has served as acting assistant director since Killeen's departure. An AGU member, Wakimoto is a geophysicist with expertise in tornadoes, thunderstorms, and other severe weather. He previously served as associate director for NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory and as a professor and chair of the Department of Atmospheric Science at the University of California, Los Angeles.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, CATALYTICA COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, INC., XONON FLAMELESS COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Xonon Cool Combustion System manufactured by Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc., formerly Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., to control NOx emissions from gas turbines that operate wit...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, HONEYWELL POWER SYSTEMS, INC. PARALLON 75 KW TURBOGENERATOR WITH CO EMISSIONS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Greenhouse Gas Technology Center (GHG Center), one of six verification organizations under the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program, evaluated the performance of the Parallon 75 kW Turbogenerator (Turbogenerator) with carbon monoxide (CO) emissions control syst...

  19. Space shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1973-01-01

    The study of the space shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system is summarized. Design approaches, system descriptions, maintenance requirements, testing requirements, instrumentation, and ground support equipment requirements are discussed.

  20. Shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system computer program, supplement 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayotte, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    The computer programs developed to simulate the RSECS (Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System) were described. These programs were prepared to provide pretest predictions, post-test analysis and real time problem analysis for RSECS test planning and evaluation.

  1. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions — Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D. J.; Anderson, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Planetary protection (PP) represents additional requirements for Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLSS). PP guidelines will affect operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions.

  2. A BCI-based Environmental Control System for Patients with Severe Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Wang, Qihong; Li, Kai; He, Shenghong; Qin, Si; Feng, Zhenghui; Chen, Yang; Song, Pingxia; Yang, Tingyan; Zhang, Yuandong; Yu, Zhuliang; Hu, Yaohua; Shao, Ming; Li, Yuanqing

    2017-01-09

    This study proposes an event-related potential (ERP) BCI-based environmental control system that integrates household electrical appliances, a nursing bed, and an intelligent wheelchair to provide daily assistance to paralyzed patients with severe spinal cord injuries (SCIs).

  3. A guide to onboard checkout. Volume 2: Environmental control and life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A description of space station equipment for environmental control and life support is presented. Reliability and maintenance procedures are reviewed. Failure analysis and checkout tests are discussed. The strategy for software checkout is noted.

  4. Computation Directorate Annual Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D L; McGraw, J R; Ashby, S F; McCoy, M G; Michels, T C; Eltgroth, P G

    2004-03-12

    Big computers are icons: symbols of the culture, and of the larger computing infrastructure that exists at Lawrence Livermore. Through the collective effort of Laboratory personnel, they enable scientific discovery and engineering development on an unprecedented scale. For more than three decades, the Computation Directorate has supplied the big computers that enable the science necessary for Laboratory missions and programs. Livermore supercomputing is uniquely mission driven. The high-fidelity weapon simulation capabilities essential to the Stockpile Stewardship Program compel major advances in weapons codes and science, compute power, and computational infrastructure. Computation's activities align with this vital mission of the Department of Energy. Increasingly, non-weapons Laboratory programs also rely on computer simulation. World-class achievements have been accomplished by LLNL specialists working in multi-disciplinary research and development teams. In these teams, Computation personnel employ a wide array of skills, from desktop support expertise, to complex applications development, to advanced research. Computation's skilled professionals make the Directorate the success that it has become. These individuals know the importance of the work they do and the many ways it contributes to Laboratory missions. They make appropriate and timely decisions that move the entire organization forward. They make Computation a leader in helping LLNL achieve its programmatic milestones. I dedicate this inaugural Annual Report to the people of Computation in recognition of their continuing contributions. I am proud that we perform our work securely and safely. Despite increased cyber attacks on our computing infrastructure from the Internet, advanced cyber security practices ensure that our computing environment remains secure. Through Integrated Safety Management (ISM) and diligent oversight, we address safety issues promptly and aggressively. The safety of our

  5. 76 FR 21748 - Health Disparities Subcommittee (HDS), Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...), Advisory Committee to the Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ACD, CDC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), CDC announces the... p.m., until 1 p.m. Purpose: The Subcommittee will provide advice to the CDC Director through the...

  6. Special environmental control and life support equipment test analyses and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David M.

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes NAS8-38250 contract events, 'Special Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Test Analysis and Hardware'. This report is technical and includes programmatic development. Key to the success of this contract was the evaluation of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) test results via sophisticated laboratory analysis capabilities. The history of the contract, including all subcontracts, is followed by the support and development of each Task.

  7. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  8. High-Frequency Sound Interaction in Ocean Sediments: Modeling Environmental Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    High-Frequency Sound Interaction in Ocean Sediments: Modeling Environmental Controls Michael Richardson Kevin Briggs Dawn Lavoie Dale Bibee Naval...SUBTITLE High-Frequency Sound Interaction in Ocean Sediments: Modeling Environmental Controls 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...rectangle centered at 30° 07.23’N; 85° 47.54’W was sampled using normal-incidence echo sounding , side-scan sonar, bottom photography with stereo and

  9. Environmental control system development for manned spacecraft 1960-1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popma, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of environmental revitalization techniques from their beginnings in caisson and submarine habitats, up to the present time. The use of CO2 adsorbents, such as LiOH and their application to the first U.S. manned spaceflight is described, together with the beginnings of the regenerable CO2 sorber technology using molecular sieves and its ultimate application to Skylab. The concepts and hardware systems used for atmospheric revitalization on all major U.S. ground-based manned tests is detailed, including CO2 reduction and O2 generation processes. Current research and development efforts are also outlined. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the recently completed SSP, the most advanced and complete ECS that has been fabricated to date.

  10. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  11. Phosphorus fertilization for rice and control of environmental pollution problems.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, A T M A; Kennedy, I R; Ahmed, M F; Kecskés, M L

    2007-07-01

    Aim of this study to review information on various aspects of P fertilization in rice i.e., P nutrition of rice, P response of rice plant, P availability in rice soils and P adsorption in rice soils for better understanding of P fertilization in rice culture. A substantial portion of the applied P along with the soil P is lost from rice fields to water bodies causing environmental pollution problems through eutrophication. These pollution problems can be minimized by using proper source of P as fertilizer, proper timing and methods of P fertilizer application, soil P management, transport management, use of plant growth promoting microorganisms which helps in efficient use of P by crops and use of green manure crops which improves soil fertility as well as helps in efficient use of P by crops.

  12. Station Commander Congratulates New Flight Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum congratulates Judd Frieling, Tomas Gonzalez-Torres and Greg Whitney on being selected as NASA's newest flight directors. ...

  13. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods.

  14. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  15. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  16. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  17. Environmental control and waste management system design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandy, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Passive device contains both solid and liquid animal waste matter for extended period without being cleaned and without contaminating animal. Constant airflow dries solid waste and evaporates liquid matter. Technique will maintain controlled atmospheric conditions and cage cleanliness during periods of 6 months to 1 year.

  18. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  19. [Environmental control and life support system of spacecraft].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xue-fu; Fu, Lan; Deng, Yi-bing

    2003-01-01

    Environment control and life support system is a very complicated and important subsystem of manned spacecraft. It is a key technology must be broken through for the realization of manned space flight. Its functions, technical requirements and main technology were reviewed in this paper. Its test verification was also discussed.

  20. ORION Environmental Control and Life Support Systems Suit Loop and Pressure Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckhardt, Brad; Conger, Bruce; Stambaugh, Imelda C.

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA's ORION Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Project at Johnson Space Center's (JSC), the Crew and Thermal Systems Division has developed performance models of the air system using Thermal Desktop/FloCAD. The Thermal Desktop model includes an Air Revitalization System (ARS Loop), a Suit Loop, a Cabin Loop, and Pressure Control System (PCS) for supplying make-up gas (N2 and O2) to the Cabin and Suit Loop. The ARS and PCS are designed to maintain air quality at acceptable O2, CO2 and humidity levels as well as internal pressures in the vehicle Cabin and during suited operations. This effort required development of a suite of Thermal Desktop Orion ECLSS models to address the need for various simulation capabilities regarding ECLSS performance. An initial highly detailed model of the ARS Loop was developed in order to simulate rapid pressure transients (water hammer effects) within the ARS Loop caused by events such as cycling of the Pressurized Swing Adsorption (PSA) Beds and required high temporal resolution (small time steps) in the model during simulation. A second ECLSS model was developed to simulate events which occur over longer periods of time (over 30 minutes) where O2, CO2 and humidity levels, as well as internal pressures needed to be monitored in the cabin and for suited operations. Stand-alone models of the PCS and the Negative Pressure relief Valve (NPRV) were developed to study thermal effects within the PCS during emergency scenarios (Cabin Leak) and cabin pressurization during vehicle re-entry into Earth's atmosphere. Results from the Orion ECLSS models were used during Orion Delta-PDR (July, 2014) to address Key Design Requirements (KDR's) for Suit Loop operations for multiple mission scenarios.

  1. NASA Ames Research Center R and D Services Directorate Biomedical Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollitt, J.; Flynn, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate teams with NASA, other government agencies and/or industry investigators for the development, design, fabrication, manufacturing and qualification testing of space-flight and ground-based experiment hardware for biomedical and general aerospace applications. In recent years, biomedical research hardware and software has been developed to support space-flight and ground-based experiment needs including the E 132 Biotelemetry system for the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), E 100 Neurolab neuro-vestibular investigation systems, the Autogenic Feedback Systems, and the Standard Interface Glove Box (SIGB) experiment workstation module. Centrifuges, motion simulators, habitat design, environmental control systems, and other unique experiment modules and fixtures have also been developed. A discussion of engineered systems and capabilities will be provided to promote understanding of possibilities for future system designs in biomedical applications. In addition, an overview of existing engineered products will be shown. Examples of hardware and literature that demonstrate the organization's capabilities will be displayed. The Ames Research Center R&D Services Directorate is available to support the development of new hardware and software systems or adaptation of existing systems to meet the needs of academic, commercial/industrial, and government research requirements. The Ames R&D Services Directorate can provide specialized support for: System concept definition and feasibility Mathematical modeling and simulation of system performance Prototype hardware development Hardware and software design Data acquisition systems Graphical user interface development Motion control design Hardware fabrication and high-fidelity machining Composite materials development and application design Electronic/electrical system design and fabrication System performance verification testing and qualification.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  3. 76 FR 43649 - Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 2, 2011, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Place: African Development...

  4. Application of geophysical methods for environmental control in mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.; Muellerova, J.; Hofrichterova, L.

    1994-12-31

    In areas affected by mining operations, a variety of methods ar necessary to acquire information for making decisions related to environmental protection. Of great importance are geophysical methods to collect data about: seismic activity and seismic hazard in the area of interest; radon risk; damage to rock massif resulting from mining operations and development of subsidence depression as mining advances; inhomogeneities in compactness of gangue fills and defects in dams and roadbeds; and hydrodynamic changes and contamination of groundwater. The importance of geophysical methods has increased recently, particularly as applied to monitoring or to the repeatable measurement-variant on fixed points. In the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin, a seismic station of the first range OKP was built in 1980. Between 1986 and 1990, the regional diagnostic polygon was established, involving 10 three-component stations uniformly distributed throughout the Ostrava-Karvina Basin that allows seismic activity--both natural and, particularly, that induced by mining operations--to be monitored continuously. Analysis of seismic events related to the advance of mining and to engineering and geological conditions enabled researchers to develop a seismic hazard map for surface facilities. This map is useful for design purposes and for making decisions related to maintenance and damages. Emanation measurements, together with other geophysical methods (e.g., resistivity, seismic, acoustic, and thermic measurements), are utilized to determine stability conditions in the area and to observe development of subsidence depressions and slope deformations. Some of the results from these surveys are given.

  5. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Brigitte; Lefebvre, Gaëtan; Muranyi-Kovacs, Camille; Hilaire, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France) following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%), which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas. PMID:28335456

  6. Environmental controls on pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus initiation and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lareau, Neil P.; Clements, Craig B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present the first direct observational evidence that the condensation level in pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus clouds can be significantly higher than the ambient lifted condensation level. In addition, we show that the environmental thermodynamic profile, day-to-day variations in humidity, and ambient wind shear all exert significant influence over the onset and development of pyroconvective clouds. These findings are established using a scanning Doppler lidar and mobile radiosonde system during two large wildfires in northern California, the Bald Fire and the Rocky Fire. The lidar is used to distinguish liquid water from smoke backscatter during the plume rise, and thus provides a direct detection of plume condensations levels. Plume tops are subsequently determined from both the lidar and nearby radar observations. The radiosonde data, obtained adjacent to the fires, contextualize the lidar and radar observations, and enable estimates of the plume ascent, convective available potential energy, and equilibrium level. A noteworthy finding is that in these cases, the convective condensation level, not the lifted condensation level, provides the best estimate of the pyrocumulus initiation height.

  7. Environmental controls on pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus initiation and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lareau, N. P.; Clements, C. B.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the first direct observational evidence that the condensation level in pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus clouds can significantly exceed the ambient lifted condensation level. In addition, we show that the environmental thermodynamic profile, day-to-day variations in humidity, and ambient wind shear all exert significant influence over the onset and development of pyroconvective clouds. These findings are established using a scanning Doppler lidar and mobile radiosonde system during two large wildfires in Northern California, the Bald and Rocky Fires. The lidar is used to distinguish liquid water from smoke backscatter during the plume rise, and thus provides a direct detection of plume condensations levels. Plume tops are subsequently determined from both the lidar and nearby radar observations. The radiosonde data, obtained adjacent to the fires, contextualizes the lidar and radar observations, and enables estimates of the plume ascent, convective available potential energy, and equilibrium level. A note worthy finding is that in these cases the Convective Condensation Level, not the Lifted Condensation Level, provides the best estimate of the pyrocumulus initiation height.

  8. 40 CFR 270.150 - How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... decision on my RAP application? 270.150 Section 270.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.150 How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application? (a) The Director must consider and respond to any significant...

  9. 40 CFR 270.175 - For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... choose to modify my final RAP? 270.175 Section 270.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) How May My Rap Be Modified, Revoked and Reissued, Or Terminated? § 270.175 For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP? (a) The Director may...

  10. 40 CFR 270.150 - How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... decision on my RAP application? 270.150 Section 270.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.150 How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application? (a) The Director must consider and respond to any significant...

  11. 40 CFR 270.150 - How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... decision on my RAP application? 270.150 Section 270.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.150 How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application? (a) The Director must consider and respond to any significant...

  12. 40 CFR 270.150 - How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... decision on my RAP application? 270.150 Section 270.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.150 How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application? (a) The Director must consider and respond to any significant...

  13. 40 CFR 270.175 - For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... choose to modify my final RAP? 270.175 Section 270.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) How May My Rap Be Modified, Revoked and Reissued, Or Terminated? § 270.175 For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP? (a) The Director may...

  14. 40 CFR 270.150 - How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... decision on my RAP application? 270.150 Section 270.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Getting A Rap Approved § 270.150 How will the Director make a final decision on my RAP application? (a) The Director must consider and respond to any significant...

  15. 40 CFR 270.175 - For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... choose to modify my final RAP? 270.175 Section 270.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) How May My Rap Be Modified, Revoked and Reissued, Or Terminated? § 270.175 For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP? (a) The Director may...

  16. 40 CFR 270.175 - For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... choose to modify my final RAP? 270.175 Section 270.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) How May My Rap Be Modified, Revoked and Reissued, Or Terminated? § 270.175 For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP? (a) The Director may...

  17. 40 CFR 270.175 - For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... choose to modify my final RAP? 270.175 Section 270.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) How May My Rap Be Modified, Revoked and Reissued, Or Terminated? § 270.175 For what reasons may the Director choose to modify my final RAP? (a) The Director may...

  18. Environmental assessment of curly top virus control in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-15

    Curly top is a viral disease of sugarbeets, tomatoes, melons, peppers, beans, cucumbers, squash, pumpkins, spinach, vineseed and other commercially important crops, including ornamentals. Curly top not only infects commercial crops, but at times devastates backyard vegetable and flower gardens. The only known vector of curly top is Circulifer tenellus, commonly known as the beet leafhopper. Control of the beet leafhopper may take place at various locations throughout the San Joaquin Valley, Salinas Valley, Cuyama Valley, Antelope Valley of northern Los Angeles County, Riverside County and the Imperial Valley (See Maps in Appendix ``E``), including portions of Merced, Fresno, Kings. Kern, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, Riverside and Imperial Counties. The size of the control program is totally dependent on the location, size, nd distribution of the beet leafhopper population. In a year with a low population, only 80,000 acres in western Fresno, Kings, and Kern Counties may require treatment. In a drought year, the treatment required may increase to more than 200,000 acres and include some inter-coastal valleys of Monterey, San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara Counties. Not all areas require treatment on an annual basis and at no time is the entire area subject to blanket treatment. The Curly Top Virus Control Program (CTVCP) was instrumental in supporting research which developed an antisera allowing the use of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to determine the presence, on a percentage basis, of curly top virus. Thus, the amount of virus found in a given area lends weight to treatment priorities.

  19. Environmental constraints modify the way an interceptive action is controlled.

    PubMed

    Morice, Antoine H P; François, Matthieu; Jacobs, David M; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-04-01

    This study concerns the process by which agents select control laws. Participants adjusted their walking speed in a virtual environment in order to intercept approaching targets. Successful interception can be achieved with a constant bearing angle (CBA) strategy that relies on prospective information, or with a modified required velocity (MRV) strategy, which also includes predictive information. We manipulated the curvature of the target paths and the display condition of these paths. The curvature manipulation had large effects on the walking kinematics when the target paths were not displayed (informationally poor display). In contrast, the walking kinematics were less affected by the curvature manipulation when the target paths were displayed (informationally rich display). This indicates that participants used an MRV strategy in the informationally rich display and a CBA strategy in the informationally poor display. Quantitative fits of the respective models confirm this information-driven switch between the use of a strategy that relies on prospective information and a strategy that includes predictive information. We conclude that agents are able of taking advantage of available information by selecting a suitable control law.

  20. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the authorized representative of such official....

  1. The Curriculum Director: Power vs. Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reader, William; Taylor, Bob L.

    A study was done at the University of Colorado to determine the qualifications, priorities, behaviors, and authority base of effective curriculum directors in six Colorado school districts. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative research. The qualitative data were obtained by observing and interviewing the curriculum directors and by…

  2. Director Turnover: An Australian Academic Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ryan, Yoni

    2012-01-01

    Although it can be argued that directors of central academic development units (ADUs) are critical to the implementation of university teaching and learning strategies, it would appear there is a high director turnover rate. While research in the USA, the UK, and Australia illustrates that ADUs are frequently closed or restructured, that research…

  3. Beyond Field Education: Leadership of Field Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Mindy R.; Sodhi, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of the field director's role outside of field education, specifically in the following 3 areas of leadership: (1) curricular, (2) programmatic, and (3) institutional. A survey was conducted to explore the field director's input targeted in these areas beyond prescribed field education tasks. The…

  4. 75 FR 64641 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... petition for review in Business Roundtable, et al. v. SEC, No. 10-1305 (D.C. Cir., filed Sept. 29, 2010) (``Business Roundtable''), the effective and compliance dates of amendments to the federal proxy and related... state law rights to nominate and elect directors to company boards of directors. We are publishing...

  5. Predictors of Choral Directors' Voice Handicap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Vocal demands of teaching are considerable and these challenges are greater for choral directors who depend on the voice as a musical and instructive instrument. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine choral directors' vocal condition using a modified Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and (2) determine the extent to which the major variables…

  6. 30 CFR 736.14 - Director's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Director's decision. 736.14 Section 736.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Director's decision. (a) After considering all relevant information received under § 736.12 of this...

  7. 50 CFR 10.21 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Addresses § 10.21 Director. (a) Mail forwarded to the Director for law enforcement purposes should be addressed: Chief, Division of Law Enforcement, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 3247, Arlington, VA... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Fauna (CITES), injurious wildlife, Wild Bird Conservation Act...

  8. 18 CFR 701.100 - Field Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Directors. 701.100 Section 701.100 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Field Organization § 701.100 Field Directors. The Council may employ as professional staff...

  9. 18 CFR 701.100 - Field Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Field Directors. 701.100 Section 701.100 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Field Organization § 701.100 Field Directors. The Council may employ as professional staff...

  10. 18 CFR 701.100 - Field Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field Directors. 701.100 Section 701.100 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Field Organization § 701.100 Field Directors. The Council may employ as professional staff...

  11. 18 CFR 701.100 - Field Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Field Directors. 701.100 Section 701.100 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Field Organization § 701.100 Field Directors. The Council may employ as professional staff...

  12. 18 CFR 701.100 - Field Directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Field Directors. 701.100 Section 701.100 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Field Organization § 701.100 Field Directors. The Council may employ as professional staff...

  13. 12 CFR 619.9235 - Outside director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outside director. 619.9235 Section 619.9235 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9235 Outside director..., employee, agent, or stockholder of any Farm Credit System institution....

  14. Maine Adult Education Director's Handbook, 2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Maine Adult Education Directors' Handbook offers a basic overview of the Adult and Community Education system in Maine. The information is general and intended to provide a background to the person initially becoming involved in adult education--director, teacher, school board member, advisory council member or superintendent. The Handbook is…

  15. Mercury mine drainage and processes that control its environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mine drainage from mercury mines in the California Coast Range mercury mineral belt is an environmental concern because of its acidity and high sulfate, mercury, and methylmercury concentrations. Two types of mercury deposits are present in the mineral belt, silica-carbonate and hot-spring type. Mine drainage is associated with both deposit types but more commonly with the silica-carbonate type because of the extensive underground workings present at these mines. Mercury ores consisting primarily of cinnabar were processed in rotary furnaces and retorts and elemental mercury recovered from condensing systems. During the roasting process mercury phases more soluble than cinnabar are formed and concentrated in the mine tailings, commonly termed calcines. Differences in mineralogy and trace metal geochemistry between the two deposit types are reflected in mine drainage composition. Silica-carbonate type deposits have higher iron sulfide content than hot- spring type deposits and mine drainage from these deposits may have extreme acidity and very high concentrations of iron and sulfate. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in mine drainage are relatively low at the point of discharge from mine workings. The concentration of both mercury species increases significantly in mine drainage that flows through and reacts with calcines. The soluble mercury phases in the calcines are dissolved and sulfate is added such that methylation of mercury by sulfate reducing bacteria is enhanced in calcines that are saturated with mine drainage. Where mercury mine drainage enters and first mixes with stream water, the addition of high concentrations of mercury and sulfate generates a favorable environment for methylation of mercury. Mixing of oxygenated stream water with mine drainage causes oxidation of dissolved iron(II) and precipitation of iron oxyhydroxide that accumulates in the streambed. Both mercury and methylmercury are strongly adsorbed onto iron oxyhydroxide over the p

  16. Assessing Environmental DNA Detection in Controlled Lentic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Gregory R.; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hill, Jeffrey E.; Shea, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling strategies for rare species. The certainty of species detection relies on understanding false positive and false negative error rates. We used artificial ponds together with logistic regression models to assess the detection of African jewelfish eDNA at varying fish densities (0, 0.32, 1.75, and 5.25 fish/m3). Our objectives were to determine the most effective water stratum for eDNA detection, estimate true and false positive eDNA detection rates, and assess the number of water samples necessary to minimize the risk of false negatives. There were 28 eDNA detections in 324, 1-L, water samples collected from four experimental ponds. The best-approximating model indicated that the per-L-sample probability of eDNA detection was 4.86 times more likely for every 2.53 fish/m3 (1 SD) increase in fish density and 1.67 times less likely for every 1.02 C (1 SD) increase in water temperature. The best section of the water column to detect eDNA was the surface and to a lesser extent the bottom. Although no false positives were detected, the estimated likely number of false positives in samples from ponds that contained fish averaged 3.62. At high densities of African jewelfish, 3–5 L of water provided a >95% probability for the presence/absence of its eDNA. Conversely, at moderate and low densities, the number of water samples necessary to achieve a >95% probability of eDNA detection approximated 42–73 and >100 L, respectively. Potential biases associated with incomplete detection of eDNA could be alleviated via formal estimation of eDNA detection probabilities under an occupancy modeling framework; alternatively, the filtration of hundreds of liters of water may be required to achieve a high (e.g., 95%) level of certainty that African jewelfish eDNA will be detected at low densities (i.e., <0.32 fish/m3 or 1.75 g/m3). PMID:25079969

  17. Fostering Environmental Control in a Young Child with Rett Syndrome: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; And Others

    The progress of a 4-year-old child with Rett Syndrome (a developmental disability resulting in severe mental and physical deficits in female children) in learning simple environmental control over an 18-month-period is described. A systematic program providing for contingency control of toys and music via switches was provided in the child's…

  18. The control and prevention of seizures in children, a developmental and environmental approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewinn, E. B.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of neurophysiological and developmental factors in controlling and preventing seizure mechanisms is detailed. It is shown that as cortical control advances with maturation, it requires increasingly severe environmental adversity to release this residual defensive reflex mechanism. Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is discouraged because of possible undesirable neuronal effects on the very young brain.

  19. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Crew § 460.11 Environmental control and life support systems. (a) An operator must provide atmospheric... or flight crew must monitor and control the following atmospheric conditions in the inhabited areas... revitalization; (2) Pressure, temperature and humidity; (3) Contaminants that include particulates and...

  20. 30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC-3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF STATION 70.5. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Apollo command and service module and lunar module environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, J. C.; Hughes, D. F.; Samonski, F. H., Jr.; Young, R. W.; Browne, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental control systems and system requirements of the Apollo command service module and the lunar module are described. The overall performance of both systems during the Apollo program is discussed. Other topics covered include: dust control, EVA provisions, Apollo 13 emergency, component redundancy, modular construction, and subatmospheric design.

  2. 76 FR 69293 - U.S. Army Installation Management Command; Notice of Issuance of Director's Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... applied to the environmental remediation of DU contamination at the Schofield Barracks and Pohakuloa... the environmental remediation of DU contamination as requested by the Petitioner. Fines assessed for... COMMISSION U.S. Army Installation Management Command; Notice of Issuance of Director's Decision Notice...

  3. Genetic and environmental control of host-gut microbiota interactions

    PubMed Central

    Org, Elin; Parks, Brian W.; Joo, Jong Wha J.; Emert, Benjamin; Schwartzman, William; Kang, Eun Yong; Mehrabian, Margarete; Pan, Calvin; Knight, Rob; Gunsalus, Robert; Drake, Thomas A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics provides a potentially powerful approach to dissect host-gut microbiota interactions. Toward this end, we profiled gut microbiota using 16s rRNA gene sequencing in a panel of 110 diverse inbred strains of mice. This panel has previously been studied for a wide range of metabolic traits and can be used for high-resolution association mapping. Using a SNP-based approach with a linear mixed model, we estimated the heritability of microbiota composition. We conclude that, in a controlled environment, the genetic background accounts for a substantial fraction of abundance of most common microbiota. The mice were previously studied for response to a high-fat, high-sucrose diet, and we hypothesized that the dietary response was determined in part by gut microbiota composition. We tested this using a cross-fostering strategy in which a strain showing a modest response, SWR, was seeded with microbiota from a strain showing a strong response, A×B19. Consistent with a role of microbiota in dietary response, the cross-fostered SWR pups exhibited a significantly increased response in weight gain. To examine specific microbiota contributing to the response, we identified various genera whose abundance correlated with dietary response. Among these, we chose Akkermansia muciniphila, a common anaerobe previously associated with metabolic effects. When administered to strain A×B19 by gavage, the dietary response was significantly blunted for obesity, plasma lipids, and insulin resistance. In an effort to further understand host-microbiota interactions, we mapped loci controlling microbiota composition and prioritized candidate genes. Our publicly available data provide a resource for future studies. PMID:26260972

  4. Environmental controls on drainage behavior of an ephemeral stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Vrugt, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Streambed drainage was measured at the cessation of 26 ephemeral streamflow events in Rillito Creek, Tucson, Arizona from August 2000 to June 2002 using buried time domain reflectometry (TDR) probes. An unusual drainage response was identified, which was characterized by sharp drainage from saturation to near field capacity at each depth with an increased delay between depths. We simulated the drainage response using a variably saturated numerical flow model representing a two-layer system with a high permeability layer overlying a lower permeability layer. Both the observed data and the numerical simulation show a strong correlation between the drainage velocity and the temperature of the stream water. A linear combination of temperature and the no-flow period preceding flow explained about 90% of the measured variations in drainage velocity. Evaluation of this correlative relationship with the one-dimensional numerical flow model showed that the observed temperature fluctuations could not reproduce the magnitude of variation in the observed drainage velocity. Instead, the model results indicated that flow duration exerts the most control on drainage velocity, with the drainage velocity decreasing nonlinearly with increasing flow duration. These findings suggest flow duration is a primary control of water availability for plant uptake in near surface sediments of an ephemeral stream, an important finding for estimating the ecological risk of natural or engineered changes to streamflow patterns. Correlative analyses of soil moisture data, although easy and widely used, can result in erroneous conclusions of hydrologic cause—effect relationships, and demonstrating the need for joint physically-based numerical modeling and data synthesis for hypothesis testing to support quantitative risk analysis.

  5. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    PubMed

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  6. Multifunctional Cooling Garment for Space Suit Environmental Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Ferl, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits face daunting challenges, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for longduration missions while minimizing weight and water venting. We have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative, multipurpose garment for thermal and humidity control inside a space suit pressure garment that is simple, rugged, compact, and lightweight. The garment is a based on a conventional liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that has been modified to directly absorb latent heat as well as sensible heat. This hybrid garment will prevent buildup of condensation inside the pressure garment, prevent loss of water by absorption in regenerable CO2 removal beds, and conserve water through use of advanced lithium chloride absorber/radiator (LCAR) technology for nonventing heat rejection. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by sizing the critical components for the hybrid garment, developing fabrication methods, building and testing a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrating by test that its performance is suitable for use in space suit life support systems.

  7. Multifunctional Cooling Garment for Space Suit Environmental Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Ferl, Janet; Cencer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these future space suits face daunting challenges, since they must maintain healthy and comfortable conditions inside the suit for long-duration missions while minimizing weight and water venting. We have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative, multipurpose garment for thermal and humidity control inside a space suit pressure garment that is simple, rugged, compact, and lightweight. The garment is a based on a conventional liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) that has been modified to directly absorb latent heat as well as sensible heat. This hybrid garment will prevent buildup of condensation inside the pressure garment, prevent loss of water by absorption in regenerable CO2 removal beds, and conserve water through use of advanced lithium chloride absorber/radiator (LCAR) technology for nonventing heat rejection. We have shown the feasibility of this approach by sizing the critical components for the hybrid garment, developing fabrication methods, building and testing a proof-of-concept system, and demonstrating by test that its performance is suitable for use in space suit life support systems.

  8. Connecticut environmental law handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wertam, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of business' obligations in chapters on: water pollution control; water resources; hazardous waste management; air pollution control; solid waste management; The Connecticut Environmental Policy and Protection Acts; DEP rules of practice; environmental torts; and a chapter discussing trends and expected legislation for the 1990s, and other DEP programs. In addition to its coverage of the regulatory picture, this edition specifically addresses the significant developments of the past year, including Connecticut's new effluent testing requirements, the new hazardous waste recycling regulations, revised permitting requirements for the resource recovery and solid waste management plan, revised reports to fire marshals and health directors, and new right-to-know reporting requirements.

  9. Integration of thermal and environmental control systems during Space Station Freedom early assembly phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pietro, David A.; Tandler, John J.

    1992-07-01

    An overview of Space Station Freedom Thermal Control System (TCS) and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) integration is presented for Stages 2-6. Particular attention is given to issues associated with integrating five distinct, functioning spacecraft with hardware not specifically designed for intermediate stages. Areas specifically addressed include integrated ECLSS temperature and humidity control performance, thermal load balancing, performance and verification requirements, interface verification procedures, TCS activation sequence, resource allocation and Space Shuttle integration.

  10. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System: Verification for the Pressurized Mating Adapters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of three subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). PMA 1 and PMA 2 flew to ISS on Flight 2A and PMA 3 flew to ISS on Flight 3A. This paper provides a summary of the PMAs ECLS design and the detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for the PMAs.

  11. Legal Issues for the Medical Director.

    PubMed

    Trulove, William G

    2015-09-04

    The nephrologist serving as medical director of a dialysis clinic must understand that the role of director is not simply an extension of being a good nephrologist. The two roles-nephrology practice and the leadership of a dialysis clinic-may be filled by a single person. However, each role contains unique tasks, requiring specific skill sets, and each role comes with inherent, associated legal risks. The medical director assumes a new level of responsibility and accountability defined by contractual obligations to the dialysis provider and by state and federal regulations. Hence, a medical director is accountable not only for providing standard-of-care treatment to his or her private practice patients dialyzed at the clinic but also for maintaining the safety of the dialysis clinic patient population and staff. Accordingly, a nephrologist serving in the role of medical director faces distinct legal risks beyond typical professional liability concerns. The medical director must also be mindful of regulatory compliance, unique avenues to licensure board complaints, and implications of careless communication habits. A thoughtful and prepared medical director can mitigate these risk exposures by understanding the sources of these challenges: contractual obligations, pertinent regulatory responsibilities, and the modern electronic communications environment.

  12. Computer-controlled environmental test systems - Criteria for selection, installation, and maintenance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    Applications for presently marketed, new computer-controlled environmental test systems are suggested. It is shown that capital costs of these systems follow an exponential cost function curve that levels out as additional applications are implemented. Some test laboratory organization changes are recommended in terms of new personnel requirements, and facility modification are considered in support of a computer-controlled test system. Software for computer-controlled test systems are discussed, and control loop speed constraints are defined for real-time control functions. Suitable input and output devices and memory storage device tradeoffs are also considered.

  13. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  14. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  15. [Research and development of technique of regenerative environmental control and life support system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kang-han; Fu, Lan; Han, Yong-qiang; Li, Jun-rong

    2003-01-01

    Environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) is a critical subsystem of manned spacecraft that has the most typical characteristics of manned space flight. It is an indispensable safeguard for the life of astronaut in space. This article reviewed the main techniques and developments of oxygen and water closed loop recycling in regenerative environmental control and life support system. Through comparing and analyzing the current state of its space application as well as the strong and weak points of different technique routes, the directions of research and development of oxygen and water recycling technique for space station are proposed.

  16. 16 CFR 1000.28 - Directorate for Economic Analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.28 Directorate for Economic Analysis. The Directorate for Economic Analysis, which is managed by the Associate Executive Director for Economic Analysis, is responsible for...

  17. Method for neural network control of motion using real-time environmental feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method of motion control for robotics and other automatically controlled machinery using a neural network controller with real-time environmental feedback. The method is illustrated with a two-finger robotic hand having proximity sensors and force sensors that provide environmental feedback signals. The neural network controller is taught to control the robotic hand through training sets using back- propagation methods. The training sets are created by recording the control signals and the feedback signal as the robotic hand or a simulation of the robotic hand is moved through a representative grasping motion. The data recorded is divided into discrete increments of time and the feedback data is shifted out of phase with the control signal data so that the feedback signal data lag one time increment behind the control signal data. The modified data is presented to the neural network controller as a training set. The time lag introduced into the data allows the neural network controller to account for the temporal component of the robotic motion. Thus trained, the neural network controlled robotic hand is able to grasp a wide variety of different objects by generalizing from the training sets.

  18. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  19. Electron Microscopy in the Catalysis of Alkane Oxidation, Environmental Control, and Alternative Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Pratibha L.; Calvino, Jose J.

    2005-08-01

    The key role of electron microscopy in understanding and creating advanced catalyst materials and processes in selective alkane oxidation, environmental control, and alternative energy sources is reviewed. In many technological processes, catalysts are increasingly nanoscale heterogeneous materials. With growing regulatory guidelines requiring efficient and environmentally compatible catalytic processes, it is crucial to have a fundamental understanding of the catalyst nanostructure and modes of operation under reaction conditions to design novel catalysts and processes. The review highlights the pioneering development and applications of atomic resolution in situ-environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) for probing dynamic catalysis directly at the atomic level, high-resolution electron microscopy, and analytical spectroscopic methods in the development of alkane catalyzation, environmental protection, and new energy sources.

  20. 77 FR 9198 - Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, February 28, 2012, 8:45 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400 I Street NW., Suite...

  1. 17 CFR 200.13 - Executive Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... management improvements, telecommunications and information technology policies, and other government-wide... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Organization and Program Management General Organization... Office of Information Technology. In addition, the Executive Director implements the following...

  2. 76 FR 64892 - Board of Directors Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, October 25, 2011, 8:45 a.m. to 12 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400 I Street, NW., Suite...

  3. Environmental control and control of the environment: the basis of longevity in bivalves.

    PubMed

    Abele, Doris; Philipp, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Longevity and ageing are two sides of a coin, leaving the question open as to which one is the cause and which one the effect. At the individual level, the physiological rate of ageing determines the length of life (= individual longevity, as long as death results from old age and not from disease or other impacts). Individual longevity depends on the direct influence of environmental conditions with respect to nutrition, and the possibility for and timing of reproduction, as well as on the energetic costs animals invest in behavioural and physiological stress defence. All these environmental effectors influence hormonal and cellular signalling pathways that modify the individual physiological condition, the reproductive strategy, and the rate of ageing. At the species level, longevity (= maximum lifespan) is the result of an evolutionary process and, thus, largely determined by the species' behavioural and physiological adaptations to its ecological niche. Specifically, reproductive and breeding strategies have to be optimized in relation to local environmental conditions in different habitats. As a result of adaptive and evolutionary processes, species longevity is genetically underpinned, not necessarily by a few ageing genes, but by an evolutionary process that has hierarchically shaped and optimized species genomes to function in a specific niche or environmental system. Importantly, investigations and reviews attempting to unravel the mechanistic basis of the ageing process need to differentiate clearly between the evolutionary process shaping longevity at the species level and the regulatory mechanisms that alter the individual rate of ageing.

  4. Compendium of Directors Colloquia 1999-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Director s colloquium series was established primarily to provide a mechanism to bring high profile individuals to the Center to present new and innovative ideas to the entire Ames staff. More focused lecture series are arranged by specific divisions or departments. Before the year 1999, there is only a fragmentary record of who spoke in this series. Announcements to the staff were sent via land mail, and tickets were required to attend the colloquium. In 1999, the notification to attend colloquia became electronic and the entire resident staff was invited to attend. The centerwide announcement archive established in this timeframe created a lasting record of the Director s colloquia. The "Office of the Chief Scientist" at Ames had the responsibility for administering the colloquium series. When I became Chief Scientist on June 29, 1998, the program was not being used extensively and this continued to be the case through the years 1999-2002 of Harry McDonald s tenure as Director (see graph below). During Scott Hubbard s tenure as Director (September 19, 2002- February 15, 2006), the Director's colloquium series was used exclusively for high profile speakers from outside Ames whom he selected, such as lab directors from other research organizations around the Bay Area. During Pete Worden s tenure as Ames Director (May 4, 2006 -present) the colloquium series gained far greater use. First, I had greater discretion to select speakers for the colloquium series. Secondly, beginning in 2007, we established a 10-week Director's Colloquium Summer Series focused on enriching the experience of our many summer interns, and giving our top researchers within Ames Research Center an opportunity to present their work to the Center. The summer program has received rave reviews. This compendium contains a compilation of one-page descriptions (title, abstract and speaker biographies) for all of the 171 colloquia presented from the beginning of 1999 to October of 2012. The list of

  5. Controlling Environmental Policy: The limits of public law in Germany and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    In Controlling Environmental Policy: The Limits of public law in Germany and the United States, Yale University Law Professor Susan Rose-Ackerman provides an informative description and critique of environmental policy-making in Germany, with frequent cross-references to the comparable attributes of the American system. As described by Rose-Ackerman, the German system shares many features of its American counterpart, particularly its reliance on engineering-based command-and-control regulatory strategies and a complex division of regulatory responsibility between national and state governments. Yet, these surface similarities mask important differences. According to the author, the German bureaucracy operates with less effective legislative and judicial supervision than its American counterpart, and Germany delegates more authority for both making and implementing environmental policymaking to the state governments.

  6. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Measuring New Environmental Paradigm Based on Students' Knowledge about Ecosystem and Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putrawan, I. Made

    2015-01-01

    This research is aimed at obtaining information related to instrument development of Students' New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) based on their knowledge about ecosystem and Locus of Control (LOC). A survey method has been carried out by selecting senior high school students randomly with n = 362 (first stage 2013) and n = 722 (2014). Data analysed…

  8. Critical parts are stored and shipped in environmentally controlled reusable container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerfeld, K. R.

    1966-01-01

    Environmentally controlled, hermetically sealed, reusable metal cabinet with storage drawers is used to ship and store sensitive electronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic parts or medical supplies under extreme weather or handling conditions. This container is compatible with on-site and transportation handling facilities.

  9. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-01-01

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications. PMID:26569264

  10. Nonflammable coolants for space vehicle environmental control systems Compatibility of component materials with selected dielectric fluids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. T.; Korpolinski, T. S.; Mace, E. W.

    1971-01-01

    This paper summarizes a 4-year effort to evaluate and implement a nonflammable substitute coolant for application in the Saturn instrument unit (IU) environmental control system (ECS). Discussed are candidate material evaluations, detailed investigations of the properties of the coolant selected, and a summary of the implementation into a flight vehicle.

  11. Manned space station environmental control and life support system computer-aided technology assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Pickett, S. J.; Sage, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program for assessing manned space station environmental control and life support systems technology is described. The methodology, mission model parameters, evaluation criteria, and data base for 17 candidate technologies for providing metabolic oxygen and water to the crew are discussed. Examples are presented which demonstrate the capability of the program to evaluate candidate technology options for evolving space station requirements.

  12. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry...

  13. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry...

  14. 14 CFR 460.11 - Environmental control and life support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental control and life support systems. 460.11 Section 460.11 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry...

  15. Determination of foliar uptake of water droplets on waxy leaves in controlled environmental system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pertinent techniques for determination of plant cuticle permeability are needed to select proper doses of active ingredients and spray additives to improve pesticide application efficacy. A controlled environmental system with 100% relative humidity was developed for direct measurements of foliar up...

  16. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  17. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: combustion 2000 session; advanced research and technology development session; commercial/industrial combustion systems session; alternative fuels utilization session; environmental control poster session; and advanced combustion technology poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Abatement and Pollution Control Training and Educational Programs Presented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This catalog is a compilation of training course and educational program descriptions in abatement and pollution control scheduled by the Environmental Protection Agency. Descriptions of programs include prerequisites, class size, and length of time with the content goals. Also given is general information concerning tuition fees, waiver requests,…

  19. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, KMC CONTROLS, INC. SLE-1001 SIGHT GLASS MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the KMC SLE-1001 Sight Glass Monitor manufactured by KMC Controls, Inc. The sight glass monitor (SGM) fits over the sight glass that may be installed in a refrigeration system for the pur...

  1. Electrical Procedures and Environmental Control Systems. Building Maintenance. Module IV. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Garry

    This curriculum guide, one of six modules keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides materials for two units on electrical procedures and environmental control systems. Unit 1, on electrical procedures, includes the following lessons: electrical safety; troubleshooting and…

  2. Use of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Technique in an Environmental Control Systems Course at an Undergraduate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhury, I.

    2002-01-01

    Construction science students in an environmental control course (n=153) engaged in reciprocal peer tutoring. The technique had a significant positive effect on performance, and students felt that it forced them to apply content and provided review and practice opportunities. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

  3. Other Challenges in the Development of the Orbiter Environmental Control Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibb, J. W.; Mcintosh, M. E.; Heinrich, S. R.; Thomas, E.; Steele, M.; Schubert, F.; Koszenski, E. P.; Wynveen, R. A.; Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Development of the Space Shuttle orbiter environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) included the identification and resolution of several interesting problems in several systems. Some of these problems occurred late in the program, including the flight phase. Problems and solutions related to the ammonia boiler system (ABS), smoke detector, water/hydrogen separator, and waste collector system (WCS) are addressed.

  4. Shuttle environmental and thermal control/life support system computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfers, F. A.; Ayotte, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer programs developed to simulate the RSECS (representative shuttle environmental control system) are described. These programs were prepared to provide pretest predictions, post-test analysis and real-time problem analysis for RSECS test planning and evaluation. These programs are on a magnetic tape cassette and on a disc device that is part of the WANG-2200 series computer system.

  5. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groves, Curtis; Ilie, Marcel; Schallhorn, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft components may be damaged due to airflow produced by Environmental Control Systems (ECS). There are uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow field around a spacecraft from the ECS System. This paper describes an approach to estimate the uncertainty in using CFD to predict the airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft.

  7. 36 CFR 1234.14 - What are the requirements for environmental controls for records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... storage space that is designed to preserve them for their full retention period. New records storage... environmental controls for records storage facilities? 1234.14 Section 1234.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT FACILITY STANDARDS FOR...

  8. Purification, storage, and pathogenicity assay of rice false smut fungus under controlled environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice false smut, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is serious disease that affects grain yield and quality. In the present study, a method to purify, store, and evaluate pathogenicity of U. virens under controlled environmental conditions was developed. Yellow chlamydospores were collected from fresh...

  9. Space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for the design and operation of the space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basic optimization program, (2) off design performance, (3) radiator/evaporator expendable usage, (4) component weights, and (5) computer program operating procedures.

  10. Flight operations and performance of Skylab life support and environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    The design and performance of the Skylab thermal and environmental control systems is considered. The Orbital Workshop had a combined active and passive thermal control system. The refrigeration system was designed to store food and biomedical samples and to cool drinking water. The atmosphere control system included active humidity control, molecular sieves and charcoal canisters to control carbon dioxide, odor, and contaminants, and the gas supply system. Mission support preparation, including instrumentation, ground data system, system troubleshooting, and training, is surveyed. Major in-flight anomalies occurred with the thermal control system when the meteoroid shield was lost during SL-1 ascent and when the Airlock Module coolant loop malfunctioned during SL-2 manned operations. The atmosphere control system performed without major anomaly throughout the manned missions.

  11. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE PAGES

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a dataset with reasonablemore » fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, 500 m, 1, 2, 5, 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 to ~ 500 m, and remained

  12. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE PAGES

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-02

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data setmore » with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m

  13. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a dataset with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, 500 m, 1, 2, 5, 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 to ~ 500 m, and

  14. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a dataset with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, 500 m, 1, 2, 5, 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83-0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 to ~ 500 m, and remained constant beyond

  15. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data set with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83-0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained

  16. Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) phase 3 simplified integrated test trace contaminant control subsystem performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system testing has been conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center since 1986. The phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted from July 30, 1989, through August 11, 1989, tested an integrated air revitalization system. During this test, the trace contaminant control subsystem (TCCS) was directly integrated with the bleed stream from the carbon dioxide reduction subsystem. The TCCS performed as expected with minor anomalies. The test set the basis for further characterizing the TCCS performance as part of advance air revitalization system configurations.

  17. Financial and environmental costs of manual versus automated control of end-tidal gas concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tay, S; Weinberg, L; Peyton, P; Story, D; Briedis, J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies that reduce the economic and environmental costs of anaesthesia have had limited assessment. We hypothesised that automated control of end-tidal gases, a new feature in anaesthesia machines, will consistently reduce volatile agent consumption cost and greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the planned replacement of anaesthesia machines in a tertiary hospital, we performed a prospective before and after study comparing the cost and greenhouse gas emissions of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane when using manual versus automated control of end-tidal gases. We analysed 3675 general anaesthesia cases with inhalational agents: 1865 using manual control and 1810 using automated control. Volatile agent cost was $18.87/hour using manual control and $13.82/hour using automated control: mean decrease $5.05/hour (95% confidence interval: $0.88-9.22/hour, P=0.0243). The 100-year global warming potential decreased from 23.2 kg/hour of carbon dioxide equivalents to 13.0 kg/hour: mean decrease 10.2 kg/hour (95% confidence interval: 2.7-17.7 kg/hour, P=0.0179). Automated control reduced costs by 27%. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 44%, a greater than expected decrease facilitated by a proportional reduction in desflurane use. Automated control of end-tidal gases increases participation in low flow anaesthesia with economic and environmental benefits.

  18. Probing microelectromechanical systems in an environmentally controlled chamber using long working distance interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylemez, E.; Plass, R. A.; Ashurst, W. R.; de Boer, M. P.

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that the environment in which micromechanical systems operate significantly affects their performance. It is, therefore, important to characterize micromachine behavior in environments where the humidity, pressure, and chemical composition of the ambient can be precisely controlled. Achieving such a level of environmental control presents significant challenges in view of the required instrumentation. To that end, a custom micromachine characterization system is built that allows for full environmental control (pressure, humidity, and gas composition) while retaining full micromachine characterization techniques (long working distance interferometry, electrical probe connectivity, actuation scripting capability). The system also includes an effective in situ surface cleaning mechanism. As an example of the system's utility, a microcantilever crack healing experiment is conducted and surface adhesion energy measurements are tracked over time after a step change in humidity is applied.

  19. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  20. Requirements for quality control of analytical data for the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was established for the investigation and remediation of inactive US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and facilities that have been declared surplus in terms of their previous uses. The purpose of this document is to Specify ER requirements for quality control (QC) of analytical data. Activities throughout all phases of the investigation may affect the quality of the final data product, thus are subject to control specifications. Laboratory control is emphasized in this document, and field concerns will be addressed in a companion document Energy Systems, in its role of technical coordinator and at the request of DOE-OR, extends the application of these requirements to all participants in ER activities. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, participants are encouraged to discuss any questions with the ER Quality Assurance (QA) Office, the Analytical Environmental Support Group (AESG), or the Analytical Project Office (APO).