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Sample records for control e-csf osmolarity

  1. A dual-core double emulsion platform for osmolarity-controlled microreactor triggered by coalescence of encapsulated droplets.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xuewei; Hou, Likai; Ren, Yukun; Deng, Xiaokang; Lang, Qi; Jia, Yankai; Hu, Qingming; Tao, Ye; Liu, Jiangwei; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2016-05-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has provided a means to generate multi-core double emulsions, which are versatile platforms for microreactors in materials science, synthetic biology, and chemical engineering. To provide new opportunities for double emulsion platforms, here, we report a glass capillary microfluidic approach to first fabricate osmolarity-responsive Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W) double emulsion containing two different inner droplets/cores and to then trigger the coalescence between the encapsulated droplets precisely. To achieve this, we independently control the swelling speed and size of each droplet in the dual-core double emulsion by controlling the osmotic pressure between the inner droplets and the collection solutions. When the inner two droplets in one W/O/W double emulsion swell to the same size and reach the instability of the oil film interface between the inner droplets, core-coalescence happens and this coalescence process can be controlled precisely. This microfluidic methodology enables the generation of highly monodisperse dual-core double emulsions and the osmolarity-controlled swelling behavior provides new stimuli to trigger the coalescence between the encapsulated droplets. Such swelling-caused core-coalescence behavior in dual-core double emulsion establishes a novel microreactor for nanoliter-scale reactions, which can protect reaction materials and products from being contaminated or released.

  2. A dual-core double emulsion platform for osmolarity-controlled microreactor triggered by coalescence of encapsulated droplets

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xuewei; Hou, Likai; Ren, Yukun; Deng, Xiaokang; Lang, Qi; Jia, Yankai; Hu, Qingming; Tao, Ye; Liu, Jiangwei; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has provided a means to generate multi-core double emulsions, which are versatile platforms for microreactors in materials science, synthetic biology, and chemical engineering. To provide new opportunities for double emulsion platforms, here, we report a glass capillary microfluidic approach to first fabricate osmolarity-responsive Water-in-Oil-in-Water (W/O/W) double emulsion containing two different inner droplets/cores and to then trigger the coalescence between the encapsulated droplets precisely. To achieve this, we independently control the swelling speed and size of each droplet in the dual-core double emulsion by controlling the osmotic pressure between the inner droplets and the collection solutions. When the inner two droplets in one W/O/W double emulsion swell to the same size and reach the instability of the oil film interface between the inner droplets, core-coalescence happens and this coalescence process can be controlled precisely. This microfluidic methodology enables the generation of highly monodisperse dual-core double emulsions and the osmolarity-controlled swelling behavior provides new stimuli to trigger the coalescence between the encapsulated droplets. Such swelling-caused core-coalescence behavior in dual-core double emulsion establishes a novel microreactor for nanoliter-scale reactions, which can protect reaction materials and products from being contaminated or released. PMID:27279935

  3. Iodixanol versus low-osmolar contrast media for prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    PubMed

    From, Aaron M; Al Badarin, Firas J; McDonald, Furman S; Bartholmai, Brian J; Cha, Stephen S; Rihal, Charanjit S

    2010-08-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of our meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of iodixanol compared with low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) for prevention of CIN. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and internet sources of cardiology trial results for individual and relevant reviews of randomized, controlled trials, for the terms contrast media, contrast nephropathy, renal failure, iodixanol, Visipaque, and low-osmolar contrast media. All studies reported an incidence rate of CIN for each study group; there was no restriction on the definition of CIN. There were no restrictions on journal type or patient population. Overall, 36 trials were identified for analysis of aggregated summary data on 7166 patients; 3672 patients received iodixanol and 3494 patients received LOCM. Overall, iodixanol showed no statistically significant reduction in CIN incidence below that observed with heterogeneous comparator agents (P=0.11). Analysis of patient subgroups revealed that there was a significant benefit of iodixanol when compared with iohexol alone (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.55; P<0.001) but not when compared with LOCM other than iohexol or with other ionic dimers or among patients receiving intra-arterial contrast injections or among patients undergoing coronary angiography with or without percutaneous intervention. Analysis of aggregated summary data from multiple randomized, controlled trials of iodixanol against diverse LOCMs for heterogeneous procedures and definitions of CIN show an iodixanol-associated reduction that is suggestive but statistically nonsignificant.

  4. Low-Osmolar Diet and Adjusted Water Intake for Vasopressin Reduction in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Amro, Osama W; Paulus, Jessica K; Noubary, Farzad; Perrone, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a low-osmolar diet followed by adjusted water intake to achieve urine osmolality ≤ 280mOsm/kg water versus no intervention for 2 weeks. The primary outcome of the study was change (delta) in copeptin levels and urine osmolality between the intervention and control groups from baseline to 2 weeks. Fasting plasma copeptin level, 24-hour urine osmolality, and total solute intake. Baseline characteristics of the 2 groups were similar. Mean plasma copeptin levels and urine osmolality declined from 6.2±3.05 (SD) to 5.3±2.5pmol/L (P=0.02) and from 426±193 to 258±117mOsm/kg water (P=0.01), respectively, in the intervention group compared to a nonsignificant change in the control group (from 4.7±3.6 to 5.07±4pmol/L [P=0.2] and 329±159 to 349±139mOsm/kg water [P=0.3], respectively). The change in copeptin levels (primary outcome) and urine osmolality was statistically significant between the intervention and control groups (delta copeptin, -0.86±1.3 vs +0.39±1.2pmol/L [P=0.009]; delta urine osmolality, -167±264 vs +20±80mOsm/kg water [P=0.007], respectively). Total urinary solute decreased in only the intervention group and significantly differed between groups at week 1 (P=0.03), reducing mean water prescription from 3.2 to 2.6L/d. Small sample size and short follow-up. We developed a stepwise dietary intervention that led to a significant reduction in vasopressin secretion in patients with ADPKD. Furthermore, this intervention led to a reduction in water required for vasopressin reduction. Copyright © 2016

  5. Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

    2014-04-01

    Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable

  6. Tear Osmolarity and Correlation With Ocular Surface Parameters in Patients With Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Priya M; Karakus, Sezen; Agrawal, Devika; Hindman, Holly B; Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the distribution of tear film osmolarity in patients with dry eye and its association with other ocular surface parameters. Tear osmolarity and other quantitative dry eye parameters were obtained from patients with 1) clinically significant dry eye (significant symptoms and ocular surface staining, n = 131), 2) symptoms-only dry eye (significant symptoms but no significant ocular surface staining, n = 52), and 3) controls (no significant symptoms or staining, n = 42). Tear osmolarity varied significantly across groups (P = 0.01), with patients with clinically significant dry eye having the highest tear osmolarity (312.0 ± 16.9 mOsm/L), control patients having the lowest tear osmolarity (305.6 ± 9.7 mOsm/L), and patients with symptoms-only dry eye falling in between (307.4 ± 5.6 mOsm/L). Patients with clinically significant dry eye also tended to have a greater intereye difference in osmolarity (12.0 ± 13.4) than did the individuals with symptoms-only dry eye (9.1 ± 12.4) and controls (9.0 ± 7.4) (P = 0.06). In multivariable regression models, higher tear osmolarity was associated with higher Ocular Surface Disease Index, discomfort subscore (P = 0.02), and higher corneal and conjunctival staining scores (P < 0.01 for both). Worse eye tear osmolarity was not correlated with the corresponding tear film breakup time or Schirmer test (P > 0.05 for both). Individuals with symptomatic dry eye that is not yet clinically significant seem to have higher and more variable osmolarity measurements than controls, potentially indicating that changes in osmolarity precede clinical findings.

  7. Osmolarity: a decisive parameter of bowel agents in intestinal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Borthne, Arne S; Abdelnoor, Michael; Storaas, Trygve; Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Kløw, Nils-E

    2006-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the importance of the osmolarity of different oral agents for bowel distension and the level of related adverse events. The longitudinal design included the exposition of different oral MR agents on two separate occasions. Four groups of volunteers were randomly given 350 ml gastrografin of three different concentrations and water. On the second occasion they received mannitol, iohexol or iodixanol with equivalent osmolarities, but the control group (water) received mannitol. We recorded the outcomes as the degree of bowel distension determined as the mean bowel section area and the total level of discomfort recorded from a visual analogue scale (VAS). The statistical analysis included scatter plots with the best-fitted line with linear regression to study the association between osmolarity and section area and the association between osmolarity and adverse events. A dose-response association was found between increasing osmolarity levels and bowel area in square centimeters (P = 0.00001). A similar dose-response association existed between increasing levels of osmolarity and adverse events (P = 0.001). Osmolarity appears to be more important for bowel distension than the physico-chemical characteristics of the nonabsorbable oral agents. The optimum osmolarity level is determined by the patient's tolerance of the adverse events.

  8. The correlation between plasma osmolarity and tear osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maika; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Hisatomo; Fujimoto, Chiaki; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    To the correlation between plasma osmolarity (Posm) and tear osmolarity (Tosm) in patients (54 patients, 88 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery was evaluated. Before cataract surgery, routine pre-operative biochemical tests were performed, and Posm was determined from blood samples. Also, Tosm was measured using the TearLab system, and objective signs including tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining, and Schirmer's test were evaluated. Dry eye (DE) was diagnosed according to the Japanese criteria for DE. Of the 88 eyes, 4 were diagnosed as definite DE, 70 as probable DE, and 14 as normal. Since the number of definite DE was small, the eyes were divided into two groups: normal group (n = 14) and DE group (n = 74), which included definite DE (n = 4) and probable DE (n = 70). There was no correlation between Posm and Tosm, though Posm (293.32 mOsm/L) was significantly higher than Tosm (288.48 mOsm/L; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in Tosm between the normal group (288.29 mOsm/L) and the DE group (288.51 mOsm/L). No patients had a Tosm higher than 310 mOsm/L even in the DE group. Correlations between Posm/Tosm and each DE sign value were not found. Of 54 patients, 18 were diabetic. Posm was significantly higher in diabetic (295.78 mOsm/L) than in non-diabetic (292.36 mOsm/L; p = 0.014) patients, while there was no significant difference in Tosm between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The results suggest that Tosm is independent of Posm, and Tosm elevation in DE occurs by some local mechanisms.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Low-osmolarity ORS vs. Modified Rehydration Solution for Malnourished Children for Treatment of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition and Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ruchika; Kumar, Praveen; Aneja, S; Kumar, Virendra; Rehan, Harmeet S

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization-recommended rehydration solution for malnourished children (ReSoMal) for rehydrating severe acute malnourished children is not available in India. In present study, 110 consecutive children aged 6-59 months with severely acute malnourishment and acute diarrhea were randomized to low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) (osmolarity: 245, sodium: 75) with added potassium (20 mmol/l) or modified ReSoMal (osmolarity: 300, sodium: 45). In all, 15.4% of modified ReSoMal group developed hyponatremia as compared with 1.9% in low-osmolarity ORS, but none developed severe hyponatremia or hypernatremia. Both groups had equal number of successful rehydration (52 each). Both types of ORS were effective in correcting hypokalemia and dehydration, but rehydration was achieved in shorter duration with modified ReSoMal. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Osmolar Therapy in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tellen D.; Statler, Kimberly D.; Korgenski, E. Kent; Bratton, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe patterns of use for mannitol and hypertonic saline in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI), to evaluate any potential associations between hypertonic saline and mannitol use and patient demographic, injury, and treatment hospital characteristics, and to determine if the 2003 guidelines for severe pediatric TBI impacted clinical practice regarding osmolar therapy. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, January, 2001 to December, 2008 Patients Children (age < 18 years) with TBI and head/neck Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥ 3 who received mechanical ventilation and intensive care Interventions None Measurements and Main Results The primary outcome was hospital billing for parenteral hypertonic saline and mannitol use, by day of service. Overall, 33% (2,069 of 6,238) of the patients received hypertonic saline and 40% (2,500 of 6,238) received mannitol. Of the 1,854 patients who received hypertonic saline or mannitol for ≥ 2 days in the first week of therapy, 29% did not have ICP monitoring. After adjustment for hospital-level variation, primary insurance payer, and overall injury severity, use of both drugs was independently associated with older patient age, intracranial hemorrhage (other than epidural), skull fracture, and higher head/neck injury severity. Hypertonic saline use increased and mannitol use decreased with publication of the 2003 guidelines, and these trends continued through 2008. Conclusions Hypertonic saline and mannitol are used less in infants than in older children. The patient-level and hospital-level variation in osmolar therapy use and the substantial amount of sustained osmolar therapy without ICP monitoring suggest opportunities to improve the quality of pediatric TBI care. With limited high-quality evidence available, published expert guidelines appear to significantly impact clinical practice in this area. PMID:21926592

  11. Prediction of parenteral nutrition osmolarity by digital refractometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2011-05-01

    Infusion of high-osmolarity parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations into a peripheral vein will damage the vessel. In this study, the authors developed a refractometric method to predict PN formulation osmolarity for patients receiving PN. Nutrients in PN formulations were prepared for Brix value and osmolality measurement. Brix value and osmolality measurement of the dextrose, amino acids, and electrolytes were used to evaluate the limiting factor of PN osmolarity prediction. A best-fit equation was generated to predict PN osmolarity (mOsm/L): 81.05 × Brix value--116.33 (R(2) > 0.99). To validate the PN osmolarity prediction by these 4 equations, a total of 500 PN admixtures were tested. The authors found strong linear relationships between the Brix values and the osmolality measurement of dextrose (R(2) = 0.97), amino acids (R(2) = 0.99), and electrolytes (R(2) > 0.96). When PN-measured osmolality was between 600 and 900 mOsm/kg, approximately 43%, 29%, 43%, and 0% of the predicted osmolarity obtained by equations 1, 2, 3, and 4 were outside the acceptable 90% to 110% confidence interval range, respectively. When measured osmolality was between 900 and 1,500 mOsm/kg, 31%, 100%, 85%, and 15% of the predicted osmolarity by equations 1, 2, 3, and 4 were outside the acceptable 90% to 110% confidence interval range, respectively. The refractive method permits accurate PN osmolarity prediction and reasonable quality assurance before PN formulation administration.

  12. Osmolarity of prevalent eye drops, side effects, and therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Dutescu, Ralf M; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how the osmolarity of ophthalmic formulations affects the ocular surface. Because hyperosmolar eye drops could be therapeutic for treating corneal edema, this article presents an ex vivo model of corneal edema for testing ophthalmic drugs based on their osmolarity. The respective osmolarity of common eye drops found in the German market is also analyzed here. For modeling corneal edema, an Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test was used to simulate an ocular anterior chamber with a physiological corneal barrier. To induce corneal edema, the anterior chamber was supplied with a hypoosmolar medium (148 mOsm/L) for 24 hours. Preserved and preservative-free 5% sodium chloride (hyperosmolar Omnisorb and Ocusalin 5% UD) were used for 1 hour, on 5 corneas each, to test their efficiency to reduce corneal edema in this model. Corneal thickness was determined by optical coherence tomography. Osmolarity of 87 common eye drops was measured by freezing point osmometry. Ex vivo, the tested hypoosmolar condition induced corneal edema from 450 μm (±50 μm) at baseline to 851 μm (±94 μm, P < 0.0001). Omnisorb and Ocusalin 5% UD significantly reduced the corneal thickness by 279 μm (±28 μm, P < 0.001) for Omnisorb and 258 μm (±29 μm, P < 0.001) for Ocusalin 5% UD. Forty-three (49%) of the tested products had an osmolarity below and 44 (51%) above the physiological tear osmolarity of 289 mOsm/L. Osmolarity values of less than 200 mOsm/L were found in lubricant drops. The highest osmolarity was detected in Omnisorb (1955 mOsm/L). The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test has proven to be a reliable novel model of corneal edema for evaluating osmotic eye drops. Osmolarity measurements revealed a wide range from hypotonic to hypertonic formulations for commonly marketed ophthalmic drugs.

  13. Tear osmolarity measurements in dry eye related to primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Utine, Canan Asli; Bıçakçıgil, Müge; Yavuz, Sule; Çiftçi, Ferda

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the tear osmolarity in patients with dry eye syndrome related to primary Sjögren's Syndrome (SS). Twenty eyes of 10 patients with dry eye and primary SS (Group 1) and 20 eyes of 20 subjects who do not have dry eye syndrome (Group 2) were included in this cross-sectional study. In all eyes, ophthalmic examination was performed in the same order: International Ocular Surface Disease Index survey, visual acuity assessment, conjunctival hyperemia scoring, tear osmolarity measurement with TearLab(™) Osmolarity System, tear film break-up time assessment, corneal fluorescein staining scoring, ocular surface Lissamine Green staining scoring, anesthetized Schirmer test. Dry eye severity was graded according to Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) classification system. Four eyes with grade 1, four eyes with grade 2, seven eyes with grade 3, and five eyes with grade 4 dryness, according to DEWS system, were included. The mean tear osmolarity value was 301.9 ± 11.40 mOsm/L (range: 290-328) in Group 1, and 294.85 ± 8.33 mOsm/L (range: 283-311) in Group 2 (p = 0.03). In Group 1, tear osmolarity values were positively correlated with OSDI scores (r(18) = 0.55, r(2) = 0.31, p = 0.01), DEWS classification grades (r(18) = 0.73, r(2) = 0.54, p < 0.01), temporal and total corneal staining scores (r(18) = 0.67, r(2) = 0.44, p < 0.01, and r(18) = 0.51, r(2) = 0.26, p = 0.02, respectively), temporal conjunctival staining scores (r(18) = 58, r(2) = 0.34, p < 0.01); and negatively correlated with anesthetized Schirmer test results (r(18) = -0.62, r(2) = 0.38, p < 0.01) and TFBUT (r(18) = -0.50, r(2) = 0.25, p = 0.02). Tear osmolarity values were found to be greater in patients with dry eye syndrome related to primary SS compared to control subjects, and positively correlated with the severity of dry eye.

  14. Increased Tear Film Osmolarity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Duru, Necati; Altinkaynak, Hasan; Uysal, Betul Seher; Duru, Zeynep; Can, Mehmet Erol; Erten, Sukran; Yuksel, Nilay; Kalkan Akcay, Emine

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate tear film osmolarity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A total of 55 eyes from 55 patients with SLE and 47 eyes from 47 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were included in this study. Tear film osmolarity was evaluated with a lab-on-a-chip technique (TearLab; TearLab Corporation, San Diego, CA) in SLE patients in comparison with healthy individuals, and results were correlated to clinically available diagnostic tests for dry eye, such as tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer's test, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The mean tear film osmolarity in the SLE patients and healthy individuals was 306.02 ± 13.27 mOsm/L and 300.74 ± 9.11 mOsm/L, respectively, which made for a statistically significant difference (p = 0.020). In the SLE group, tear film osmolarity was negatively correlated with the Schirmer's test score and the BUT value (r = -0.295 p = 0.029 and r = 0.347 p = 0.009, respectively), whereas tear film osmolarity was not correlated with OSDI score (r = -0.182 p = 0.183). This study revealed that tear film hyperosmolarity and abnormal tear film function are associated with SLE.

  15. Tear Film Osmolarity in Subjects with Acute Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    NITODA, EIRINI; LAVARIS, ANASTASIOS; LAIOS, KONSTANTINOS; ANDROUDI, SOPHIA; KALOGEROPOULOS, CHRIS D; TSATSOS, MICHAEL; DAMASKOS, CHRISTOS; GARMPIS, NIKOLAOS; MOSCHOS, MARILITA M

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim: Acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergies. The pathogenetic mechanisms are based on an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. On the other hand, tear osmolarity has been suggested to be an index of ocular surface damage and inflammation. These data were the motive to investigate the levels of tear osmolarity in subjects with acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis, before and after administration of artificial tears. Patients and Methods: Forty-five subjects with acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis were randomly divided into three groups, based on the type of artificial tears that they received: Group A (Thera tears), Group B (Wet therapy) and Group C (Tears Naturale free). The eye drops were administered six times a day for 60 days and all subjects underwent grading of subjective symptoms and clinical examination at baseline and at the end of the treatment. Results: The diagnosis of severe eye disease, which was based on ocular surface disease index (OSDI; Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USA) and tear osmolarity values, concerned all patients at baseline. Although the administration of artificial tears significantly ameliorated the symptoms and the ocular variables in all groups, the results were better in the first group. Tear osmolarity was strongly and negatively correlated with tear film breakup time (BUT) and Schirmer I test at 2 months. Contrariwise, symptoms were eliminated, when tear osmolarity was decreased. Conclusion: Acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis is characterized by tear hyperosmolarity, which can be rehabilitated with the administration of hypotonic artificial tears. PMID:29475928

  16. Osmolarity as a contributing factor in topical drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Claire; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    Gels and dissolvable solids are drug delivery platforms being evaluated for application of active pharmaceutical ingredients, termed microbicides, which act topically against infection by sexually transmitted HIV. In previous work, we have investigated how dilution by naturally produced fluid from the vaginal mucosa affects drug transport into the vaginal wall. We expand on this work by no longer assuming a constant flux and instead developing a relation for fluid transport based on osmolarity - thus allowing fluid to pass both into and out of epithelial cells. This relation shows that varying the osmolarity of the applied solution can have a significant effect on the amount of drug delivered to its target while holding the applied amount constant. This effect is modulated by a dimensionless group that relates the rates of solute and solvent transport. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a tool to understand better how to manipulate solution osmolarity in order to improve drug delivery within safety parameters for mucosal tissue.

  17. Tear Film Osmolarity in Subjects with Acute Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Nitoda, Eirini; Lavaris, Anastasios; Laios, Konstantinos; Androudi, Sophia; Kalogeropoulos, Chris D; Tsatsos, Michael; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Moschos, Marilita M

    2018-01-01

    Acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergies. The pathogenetic mechanisms are based on an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. On the other hand, tear osmolarity has been suggested to be an index of ocular surface damage and inflammation. These data were the motive to investigate the levels of tear osmolarity in subjects with acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis, before and after administration of artificial tears. Forty-five subjects with acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis were randomly divided into three groups, based on the type of artificial tears that they received: Group A (Thera tears), Group B (Wet therapy) and Group C (Tears Naturale free). The eye drops were administered six times a day for 60 days and all subjects underwent grading of subjective symptoms and clinical examination at baseline and at the end of the treatment. The diagnosis of severe eye disease, which was based on ocular surface disease index (OSDI; Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USA) and tear osmolarity values, concerned all patients at baseline. Although the administration of artificial tears significantly ameliorated the symptoms and the ocular variables in all groups, the results were better in the first group. Tear osmolarity was strongly and negatively correlated with tear film breakup time (BUT) and Schirmer I test at 2 months. Contrariwise, symptoms were eliminated, when tear osmolarity was decreased. Acute allergic rhinoconjuctivitis is characterized by tear hyperosmolarity, which can be rehabilitated with the administration of hypotonic artificial tears. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Facile Determination of Sodium Ion and Osmolarity in Artificial Tears by Sequential DNAzymes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Eun-Song; Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Young-Pil

    2017-12-07

    Despite high relevance of tear osmolarity and eye abnormality, numerous methods for detecting tear osmolarity rely upon expensive osmometers. We report a reliable method for simply determining sodium ion-based osmolarity in artificial tears using sequential DNAzymes. When sodium ion-specific DNAzyme and peroxidase-like DNAzyme were used as a sensing and detecting probe, respectively, the concentration of Na⁺ in artificial tears could be measured by absorbance or fluorescence intensity, which was highly correlated with osmolarity over the diagnostic range ( R ² > 0.98). Our approach is useful for studying eye diseases in relation to osmolarity.

  19. Coupling Osmolarity Dynamics within Human Tear Film on an Eye-Shaped Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, R. J.; Driscoll, T. A.; Henshaw, W. D.; Banks, J. W.; King-Smith, P. E.

    2013-11-01

    The concentration of ions in the tear film (osmolarity) is a key variable in understanding dry eye symptoms and disease. We derived a mathematical model that couples osmolarity (treated as a single solute) and fluid dynamics within the tear film on a 2D eye-shaped domain. The model concerns the physical effects of evaporation, surface tension, viscosity, ocular surface wettability, osmolarity, osmosis and tear fluid supply and drainage. We solved the governing system of coupled nonlinear PDEs using the Overture computational framework developed at LLNL, together with a new hybrid time stepping scheme (using variable step BDF and RKC) that was added to the framework. Results of our numerical simulations show good agreement with existing 1D models (for both tear film and osmolarity dynamics) and provide new insight about the osmolarity distribution over the ocular surface during the interblink.

  20. Computed tear film and osmolarity dynamics on an eye-shaped domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longfei; Braun, Richard J.; Driscoll, Tobin A.; Henshaw, William D.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; King-Smith, P. Ewen

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of ions, or osmolarity, in the tear film is a key variable in understanding dry eye symptoms and disease. In this manuscript, we derive a mathematical model that couples osmolarity (treated as a single solute) and fluid dynamics within the tear film on a 2D eye-shaped domain. The model includes the physical effects of evaporation, surface tension, viscosity, ocular surface wettability, osmolarity, osmosis and tear fluid supply and drainage. The governing system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations is solved using the Overture computational framework, together with a hybrid time-stepping scheme, using a variable step backward differentiation formula and a Runge–Kutta–Chebyshev method that were added to the framework. The results of our numerical simulations provide new insight into the osmolarity distribution over the ocular surface during the interblink. PMID:25883248

  1. Red cell volume with changes in plasma osmolarity during maximal exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Beaumont, W.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the red cell in vivo was measured during acute changes in plasma osmolarity evoked through short (6 to 8 min) maximal exercise in six male volunteer subjects. Simultaneous measurements of mean corpuscular red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and plasma osmolarity showed that there was no change in the MCV or MCHC with a concomitant rise of nearly 6% in plasma osmolarity. Apparently, in vivo, the volume of the red cell in exercising healthy human subjects does not change measurably, in spite of significant changes in osmotic pressure of the surrounding medium. Consequently, it is not justified to correct postexercise hematocrit measurements for changes in plasma osmolarity.

  2. Changes in central sodium and not osmolarity or lactate induce panic-like responses in a model of panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Molosh, Andre I; Johnson, Philip L; Fitz, Stephanie D; Dimicco, Joseph A; Herman, James P; Shekhar, Anantha

    2010-05-01

    Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks that can be consistently provoked with intravenous (i.v.) infusions of hypertonic (0.5 M) sodium lactate (NaLac), yet the mechanism/CNS site by which this stimulus triggers panic attacks is unclear. Chronic inhibition of GABAergic synthesis in the dorsomedial hypothalamus/perifornical region (DMH/PeF) of rats induces a vulnerability to panic-like responses after i.v. infusion of 0.5 M NaLac, providing an animal model of panic disorder. Using this panic model, we previously showed that inhibiting the anterior third ventricle region (A3Vr; containing the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus, and anteroventral periventricular nucleus) attenuates cardiorespiratory and behavioral responses elicited by i.v. infusions of NaLac. In this study, we show that i.v. infusions of 0.5 M NaLac or sodium chloride, but not iso-osmolar D-mannitol, increased 'anxiety' (decreased social interaction) behaviors, heart rate, and blood pressure responses. Using whole-cell patch-clamp preparations, we also show that bath applications of NaLac (positive control), but not lactic acid (lactate stimulus) or D-mannitol (osmolar stimulus), increases the firing rates of neurons in the A3Vr, which are retrogradely labeled from the DMH/PeF and which are most likely glutamatergic based on a separate study using retrograde tracing from the DMH/PeF in combination with in situ hybridization for vesicular glutamate transporter 2. These data show that hypertonic sodium, but not hyper-osmolarity or changes in lactate, is the key stimulus that provokes panic attacks in panic disorder, and is consistent with human studies.

  3. Nephropathy after administration of iso-osmolar and low-osmolar contrast media: evidence from a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Lotrionte, Marzia; Thomsen, Henrik S; Romagnoli, Enrico; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Giordano, Arturo; Frati, Giacomo

    2014-03-15

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) may be a severe complication to the administration of iodine-based contrast media for diagnostic or interventional procedure using radiation exposure. Whether there is a difference in nephrotoxic potential between the various agents is uncertain. We aimed to perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials on iodine-based contrast agents. Randomized trials of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar contrast media were searched in CENTRAL, Google Scholar, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Scopus. Risk of CIN was appraised within a hierarchical Bayesian model computing absolute rates (AR) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% credibility intervals, and probability of being best (Pbest) for each agent. A total of 42 trials (10048 patients) were included focusing on 7 different iodine-based contrast media. Risk of CIN was similarly low with iodixanol (AR=5.7% [2.2%-13.9%], Pbest=18.8%), iomeprol (AR=6.0% [2.2%-15.4%], Pbest=24.8%), iopamidol (AR=6.1% [2.2%-15.5%], Pbest=21.5%), and ioversol (AR=6.0% [2.1%-16.4%], Pbest=31.3%). Conversely, CIN was twice as common with iohexol (AR=11.2% [4.1%-29.5%], Pbest=0.1%) and ioxaglate (AR=11.0% [4.0%-26.9%], Pbest<0.1%), with both proving less safe than iodixanol (respectively OR=2.18 [1.22-3.92] and 2.05 [1.26-3.29]), iomeprol (OR=2.08 [1.04-4.17] and 1.96 [1.06-3.48]) and iopamidol (OR=2.04 [1.15-3.85] and 1.92 [1.06-3.45]). Data on iopromide were less conclusive (AR=6.9% [2.6%-17.1%], Pbest=3.6%). Iodixanol, iomeprol, iopamidol and ioversol are iodine-based contrast media with a similar renal safety profile. Iohexol and ioxaglate have a poorer renal safety profile, whereas further data may be required on iopromide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sweat osmolarity shows intra-animal regional variation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Potts, Samantha; Thatcher, Rhys; Jones, Arwel W; Warren, Lori K; Tenbroeck, Saundra H; Nottage, Florence; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-10-01

    Sweating is important in regulating body temperature but can be a source of loss of both fluids and electrolytes. Although the process has been studied in horses, the variation in sweat osmolarity across the body has not. This work describes an investigation to determine if there is regional variation in the osmolarity of sweat across different anatomical regions of the horse. Ten horses were used in the study and were animals either stabled for riding lessons or had livery on-site. Sweat samples were collected from five regions on each horse following exercise and the osmolarity measurements were made using an Osmomat 030 (Gonotec, Berlin, Germany). Values were analysed by paired t-tests and analysis of variance. Samples from the back and ears had statistically (P < 0.05) lower osmolarity values than those seen for the neck and forelimb, with thigh values intermediate between the other two sets of values. Previous studies have used osmolarity values based on the sweat collected from the horse's back. The current work demonstrates that these values are probably an underestimation of electrolyte loss, which may have implications for the composition and administration of rehydration compounds. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Ion transport in rat liver mitochondria: the effect of the incubation medium osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Novgorodov, S A; Yaguzhinsky, L A

    1985-04-08

    A decrease in the incubation medium osmolarity from 320 to 120 mosM reverses the pH dependence of K+ efflux from rat liver mitochondria. The K+ efflux is no longer inhibited by oligomycin and a free radical scavenger butylhydroxytoluene. At 320 mosM, the addition of carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) accelerates the K+ efflux, while EGTA inhibits it. At 120 mosM these CCCP and EGTA effects are reversed. In either case the K+ efflux is inhibited by Mg2+. The decrease in osmolarity changes the ruthenium red-insensitive Ca2+ efflux in the same manner. It has thus been shown that the modification of the mitochondrial structure by changing the incubation medium osmolarity results in a qualitative alteration of the systems regulating the K+ and Ca2+ effluxes.

  6. Accuracy of prediction equations for serum osmolarity in frail older people with and without diabetes1234

    PubMed Central

    Siervo, Mario; Bunn, Diane; Prado, Carla M; Hooper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Serum osmolality is an accurate indicator of hydration status in older adults. Glucose, urea, and electrolyte concentrations are used to calculate serum osmolarity, which is an indirect estimate of serum osmolality, but which serum osmolarity equations best predict serum osmolality in the elderly is unclear. Objective: We assessed the agreement of measured serum osmolality with calculated serum osmolarity equations in older people. Design: Serum osmolality was measured by using freezing point depression in a cross-sectional study. Plasma glucose, urea, and electrolytes were analyzed and entered into 38 serum osmolarity-prediction equations. The Bland-Altman method was used to evaluate the agreement and differential bias between measured osmolality and calculated osmolarity. The sensitivity and specificity of the most-promising equations were examined against serum osmolality (reference standard). Results: A total of 186 people living in UK residential care took part in the Dehydration Recognition In our Elders study (66% women; mean ± SD age: 85.8 ± 7.9 y; with a range of cognitive and physical impairments) and were included in analyses. Forty-six percent of participants had impending or current dehydration (serum osmolality ≥295 mmol/kg). Participants with diabetes (n = 33; 18%) had higher glucose (P < 0.001) and serum osmolality (P < 0.01). Of 38 predictive equations used to calculate osmolarity, 4 equations showed reasonable agreement with measured osmolality. One [calculated osmolarity = 1.86 × (Na+ + K+) + 1.15 × glucose + urea +14; all in mmol/L] was characterized by narrower limits of agreement and the capacity to predict serum osmolality within 2% in >80% of participants, regardless of diabetes or hydration status. The equation's sensitivity (79%) and specificity (89%) for impending dehydration (≥295 mmol/kg) and current dehydration (>300 mmol/kg) (69% and 93%, respectively) were reasonable. Conclusions: The assessment of a panel of

  7. Proof of principle: hydration by low-osmolar mannitol-glucose solution alleviates undesirable renal effects of an iso-osmolar contrast medium in rats.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Erdmann; Ladwig, Mechthild; Sargsyan, Lilit; Cantow, Kathleen; Persson, Pontus B; Flemming, Bert

    2012-04-01

    Saline infusion is widely used to prevent contrast media (CM)-induced acute kidney injury, because it fosters diuresis. Osmodiuretics have a stronger diuretic effect than saline, yet previous trials indicate that osmodiuretic mannitol tends to promote rather than to prevent CM-induced acute kidney injury. However, these studies used hypertonic mannitol solutions that will result in rebound volume contraction. We hypothesize that combining the osmodiuretic effects of a nonhypertonic mannitol solution with sustained volume expansion alleviates undesirable renal effects of CM. Forty-four anesthetized rats were studied by 4 protocols. Urine flow rate, urine viscosity, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured. Intravenous infusions of hydration solutions were initiated 60 minutes before CM administration and continued throughout the observation period. Hydration by a 3.2% mannitol and 3.2% glucose solution infused at 12 mL/kg per hour (Mannit-Gluc regimen) was compared with a standard regimen of isotonic saline at 4 mL/kg per hour (NaCl regimen); greater infusion rates are required for the Mannit-Gluc regimen because of the profound diuretic effect of mannitol. Two CM were studied: iso-osmolar iodixanol (320 mg I/mL) and low-osmolar iopromide (370 mg I/mL), they were administered as 1.5-mL bolus injection into the thoracic aorta. The Mannit-Gluc regimen resulted in higher urine flow rates than the standard NaCl regimen, yet maintained a good volume status. By virtue of its stronger diuretic effect, the Mannit-Gluc regimen greatly diminished the increase in urine viscosity and completely prevented the transient decrease in GFR caused by iodixanol with the NaCl regimen. After iopromide, the differences between the hydration regimens were much less, as iopromide increased urine flow rates much more than iodixanol, thus resulting in a much smaller increase in viscosity than iodixanol and no decrease in GFR even with the NaCl regimen. This proof of principle study

  8. Are iso-osmolar, as compared to low-osmolar, contrast media cost-effective in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization? An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Swapnil; Akbari, Ayub; Wells, George A; Chow, Benjamin J W

    2018-04-23

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a prominent complication following cardiac catheterization, though the risk has progressively decreased in recent times with appropriate risk stratification and use of safer contrast agents. Despite data supporting further lowering of risk with the iso-osmolar agent, iodixanol, uptake has lagged, perhaps due to increased upfront cost of this agent. We undertook an economic analysis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a strategy utilizing iodixanol compared to using a low-osmolar contrast agent. We created a Markov model to evaluate the two strategies, and included a differential relative risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury, based on a systematic review of the literature. Downstream clinical events, including need for dialysis and mortality, were modeled using data from existing published literature. A third-party payer perspective was utilized for the analysis and presentation of the primary economic analysis. The strategy of using iodixanol dominated in both the low-risk and high-risk base case analyses. However, the difference was quite small in the low-risk scenario (lifetime cost: C$678,034 vs. C$678,059 and life expectancy: 19.80 vs. 19.72 years). The difference was more marked (life expectancy 15.65 vs. 14.15 years and cost C$680,989 vs. C$682,023) in the high-risk case analysis. This was robust across most of the variables tested in sensitivity analyses. The use of iodixanol, compared with low-osmolar contrast agents, for cardiac catheterization, results in a small benefit clinical outcomes, and in a savings in direct healthcare costs. Overall, our analysis supports the use of iodixanol for cardiac catheterization, especially in patients at high risk of acute kidney injury.

  9. A meta-analysis of the risk of total cardiovascular events of isosmolar iodixanol compared with low-osmolar contrast media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bu-Chun; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Cheng; Li, Dong-Ye; Wang, Zhi-Rong

    2014-04-01

    The iso-osmolar contrast agent iodixanol may be associated with a lower incidence of cardiac events than low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM), but previous trials have yielded mixed results. To compare the risk of total cardiovascular events of the iso-osmolar contrast medium, iodixanol, to LOCM. Medical literature databases were searched to identify comparisons between iodixanol and LOCM with cardiovascular events as a primary endpoint. A random-effects model was used to obtain pooled odds ratio (OR) for within-hospital and 30-day events. A total of 2 prospective cross-sectional studies and 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (covering 6859 subjects) met our criteria. There was no significant difference in the incidence of within-hospital and 30-day cardiovascular events when iodixanol was compared with LOCM, with pooled OR of 0.72 (95%CI 0.49-1.06, p=0.09) and 1.19 (95%CI 0.70-2.02, p=0.53), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed no relative difference when iodixanol was compared with ioxaglate (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.50-1.70, p=0.80) and iohexol (OR=0.75, 95%CI 0.48-1.17, p=0.21). However, a reduction in the within-hospital cardiovascular events was observed when iodixanol was compared with LOCM in the RCT subgroup (OR=0.65, 95%CI 0.44-0.96, p=0.03). Sensitivity analyses revealed that three studies had a strong impact on the association of within-hospital cardiovascular events between iodixanol and LOCM. Meta-regression analysis failed to account for heterogeneity. No publication bias was detected. This meta-analysis demonstrates that there is no conclusive evidence that iodixanol is superior to LOCM overall with regard to fewer cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Assessment of tear film osmolarity using the TearLab™ osmometer in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Sebbag, Lionel; Park, Shin Ae; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J; Attar, Mayssa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab ™ osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements. Dogs with KCS were evaluated before and after 5 months' topical twice-daily therapy with 2% cyclosporine. Mean ± SD tear osmolarity (mOsm/L) was significantly higher in normal dogs (337.4 ± 16.2) than in dogs with KCS before therapy (306.2 ± 18.0; P < 0.0001), but not following therapy with 2% cyclosporine (330.5 ± 13.7; P = 1.00). Osmolarity readings lower than 325.5 mOsm/L were suggestive of KCS (84.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity). In normal dogs, tear osmolarity readings were stable during the daytime (P = 0.99). Repeated measurements revealed high variability and typically poor-to-moderate repeatability and reproducibility, although this was improved by taking three successive measurements at each session. Considering combined data from all dogs, a positive correlation existed between STT-1 and tear osmolarity measurements (Pearson's correlation test, P = 0.04, r = 0.62). Canine tear osmolarity as determined by TearLab ™ osmometer was variable, required multiple readings to be informative, and differed from values reported for humans. Dogs with KCS had a lower tear osmolarity than did normal dogs, and this increased following cyclosporine therapy. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Differentiation of osmotic and secretory diarrhoea by stool carbohydrate and osmolar gap measurements

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Rodriguez, J. A.; Salazar-Lindo, E.; Leon-Barua, R.

    1997-01-01

    

 Clinical features and laboratory tests that determine carbohydrate in faeces were evaluated to determine which was best able to distinguish between osmotic and secretory diarrhoea in infants and children. For this purpose 80 boys aged 3 to 24 months, with acute watery diarrhoea, were studied prospectively. The faecal osmolar gap (FOG) was calculated as: serum osmolarity − [2 × (faecal sodium + potassium concentration)]. Fifty eight patients were classified as having predominantly osmotic diarrhoea (FOG >100 mosmol/l), and 22 as having predominantly secretory diarrhoea (FOG ⩽100 mosmol/l). The two groups were comparable in their clinical features on admission, in the results of blood and urine tests, and in the evolution of their diarrhoeal illness. Evidence of steatorrhoea (by positive Sudan III test) and of acid faecal pH on admission were significantly more frequent in patients with osmotic diarrhoea. Mean (SD) faecal osmolarity was not significantly different between the two groups (319 (80) mosmol/l in secretory diarrhoea v 361 (123) mosmol/l in osmotic diarrhoea). Tests for reducing substances in faeces such as Benedict's test—with and without hydrolysis—and glucose strip, all showed a positive and significant association with osmotic diarrhoea (p <0.05, <0.025, <0.05, respectively). The presence of excess reducing substances (Benedict's test with hydrolysis >++) on admission was the most sensitive and specific test with the best predictive value for differentiating between the two types of watery diarrhoea.

 PMID:9370895

  12. Osmolyte Type and the Osmolarity Level Affect Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana; Farazmand, Ali

    2018-06-01

    The inductive effects of increased osmolarity on chondrogenesis are well approved. However, the effects of the osmolyte agent invoked to induce hyperosmolarity are largely neglected. Herein, we scrutinized how hyperosmotic conditions acquired by addition of different osmolytes would impact chondrogenesis. We briefly assessed whether such conditions would differentially affect hypertrophy and angiogenesis during MSC chondrogenesis. Chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression along with VEGF secretion during adipose-derived (AD)-MSC chondrogenesis under three osmolarity levels (350, 450, and 550 mOsm) using three different osmolytes (NaCl, sorbitol, and PEG) were assessed. MTT assay, qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, Alcian Blue staining, ELISA, and ALP assays proved osmolyte-type dependent effects of hyperosmolarity on chondrogenesis, hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. At same osmolarity level, PEG had least cytotoxic/cytostatic effect and most prohibitive effects on angiogenesis. As expected, all hyperosmolar conditions led to enhanced chondrogenesis with slightly varying degrees. PEG and sorbitol had higher chondro-promotive and hypertrophy-suppressive effects compared to NaCl, while NaCl had exacerbated hypertrophy. We observed that TonEBP was involved in osmoadaptation of all treatments in varying degrees. Of importance, we highlighted differential effects of hyperosmolarity obtained by different osmolytes on the efficacy of chondrogenesis and more remarkably on the induction/suppression of cartilage pathologic markers. Our study underlies the need for a more vigilant exploitation of physicobiochemical inducers in order to maximize chondrogenesis while restraining unwanted hypertrophy and angiogenesis.

  13. Effects of osmolarity on human epithelial conjunctival cells using an electrical technique.

    PubMed

    Bellotti, Mariela; Bast, Walter; Berra, Alejandro; Bonetto, Fabian J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the effect of different media osmolarity on a cell line monolayer of normal human conjunctival epithelia (IOBA-NHC) using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS). We built our own ECIS system. We fabricated biocompatible microelectrodes. We used a monolayer of IOBA-NHC cells with media at different osmolarities (315, 360, 446, and 617 mOsm/l). When there is an increase in hyperosmolarity, there is a slight decrease in the measured resistance of the naked microelectrode (without cells), whereas its capacitance remained practically unchanged. The evaluation of resistance and capacitance of a microelectrode covered by a monolayer of IOBA-NHC in relation to a naked microelectrode showed no difference in the standard media (315 mOsm/l), a small difference with 360 mOsm/l, and significant differences with hyperosmolarities of 446 mOsm/l and 610 mOsm/l. The resistance with a confluent cell monolayer is up to three times greater compared to the value of the resistance of the naked electrode with standard media. Both resistance and capacitance measurements for the cell monolayer were sensitive to changes in osmolarity.

  14. Osmolarity affects matrix synthesis in the nucleus pulposus associated with the involvement of MAPK pathways: A study of ex vivo disc organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Gan, Yibo; Xu, Yuan; Li, Songtao; Song, Lei; Li, Sukai; Li, Huijuan; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Matrix homeostasis within the nucleus pulposus (NP) is important for disc function. Unfortunately, the effects of osmolarity on NP matrix synthesis in a disc organ culture system and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study was to investigate the effects of different osmolarity modes (constant and cyclic) and osmolarity levels (hypo-, iso-, and hyper-) on NP matrix synthesis using a disc organ culture system and determine whether ERK1/2 or p38MAPK pathway has a role in this process. Porcine discs were cultured for 7 days in various osmotic media, including constant hypo-, iso-, hyper-osmolarity (330, 430, and 550 mOsm/kg, respectively) and cyclic-osmolarity (430 mOsm/kg for 8 h, followed by 550 mOsm/kg for 16 h). The role of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways were determined by their inhibitors U0126 and SB202190 respectively. The expression of SOX9 and downstream aggrecan and collagen II, biochemical content, and histology were used to assess NP matrix synthesis. The findings revealed that NP matrix synthesis was promoted in iso- and cyclic-osmolarity cultures compared to hypo- or hyper-osmolarity culture although the level of matrix synthesis in cyclic-osmolarity culture did not reach that in iso-osmolarity culture. Further analysis suggested that inhibition of the ERK1/2 or p38MAPK pathway in iso- and cyclic-osmolarity cultures reduced NP matrix production. Therefore, we concluded that the effects of osmolarity on NP matrix synthesis depend on osmolarity level (hypo-, iso-, or hyper-) and osmolarity mode (constant or cyclic), and the ERK1/2 and p38MAPK pathways may participate in this process. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1092-1100, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Low osmolar (non-ionic) contrast media versus high osmolar (ionic) contrast media in intravenous urography and enhanced computerized tomography: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Wangsuphachart, S

    1991-12-01

    The cost-effectiveness of three alternative policies for the use of intravenous contrast media for urography and enhanced computerized tomography (CT) are analyzed. Alternative #1 is to use high osmolar contrast media (HOCM) in all patients, the historical policy. Alternative #2 is to replace it with low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) in all patients. Alternative #3 is to use LOCM only in the high risk patients. Data on the 6,242 patients who underwent intravenous urography and enhanced CT at the Department of Radiology, Chulalongkorn Hospital in 1989 were used. Both societal and hospital viewpoints were analyzed. The incremental cost-effectiveness (ICE) between #2 and #1 was 26,739 Baht (US$1,070) per healthy day saved (HDS), while the ICE between #3 and #1 was 12,057 Baht (US$482) per HDS. For fatal cases only, ICE between #2 and #1 was 35,111 Baht (US$1,404) per HDS, while the ICE between #3 and #1 was 18,266 Baht (US$731) per HDS. The incremental cost (IC) per patient was 2,341 Baht (US$94) and 681 Baht (US$27) respectively. For the hospital viewpoint the ICE between #2 and #1 was 13,744 (US$550) and between #3 and #1 was 6,127 Baht (US$245) per HDS. The IC per patient was 1,203 Baht (US$48) and 346 Baht (US$14), respectively. From the sensitivity analysis, #3 should be used if the LOCM price is reduced more than 75% (equal to 626 Baht or less) and more than 80% of the patients are able to pay for the contrast media.

  16. Nephrotoxicity of high- and low-osmolar contrast media. The protective role of amlodipine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Duan, S B; Liu, F Y; Luo, J A; Wu, H W; Liu, R H; Peng, Y M; Yang, X L

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the nephrotoxicity of high- and low-osmolar contrast media (HOCM, LOCM) on kidneys in Sprague-Dawley rats. The protective role of amlodipine was studied. Forty rats of both sexes were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=8/group) and glycerine for inducing renal failure was given to all rats except controls. In diatrizoate-injected rats, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) were increased; levels of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), lipid peroxide (LPO) and calcium were also increased in renal tissues. There was no significant difference between LOCM (iohexol) animals and glycerol controls either in the renal levels of PLA2, LPO and calcium or in the levels of BUN and SCr. The histologic changes were milder in the LOCM animals than in the HOCM animals. In the group pretreated with amlodipine, no increase in the levels of BUN or SCr was discovered and the renal content of PLA2, LPO and calcium were significantly lower than in the HOCM group; the renal injuries induced by diatrizoate were alleviated. The HOCM, diatrizoate, was more toxic to rat kidneys than the LOCM iohexol; PLA2, LPO and calcium load played a role in producing renal function impairment induced by diatrizoate meglumine; amlodipine protected the renal tissue from nephrotoxicity induced by diatrizoate.

  17. Estimating the Osmolarities of Tears During Evaporation Through the "Eyes" of the Corneal Nerves.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Harumitsu; Mizerska, Kamila; Dallacasagrande, Valentina; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2017-01-01

    A population of corneal neurons in rats preferentially sense and monitor the hyperosmolar conditions of tears when the tears begin to evaporate during corneal dryness. The present study exploited this ability in an effort to estimate tear osmolarities by comparing the responses to corneal dryness to their responses to hyperosmolar stimuli. Extracellular recordings were performed from single neurons in the trigeminal ganglia innervating the corneas of rats. To determine the extent to which the corneal neurons' responses to drying of the cornea were induced via the activation by hyperosmolar stimuli, we assessed the responses to ocular instillation of 500 and 600 mOsm/L, and a graded series of hyperosmolar stimuli ranging from 350 to 1000 mOsm/L. The magnitudes of the responses to drying of the cornea were matched almost exactly to those induced by the ocular instillation of the 600 mOsm/L stimuli but not the 500 mOsm/L solutions. The response magnitudes to a graded series of hyperosmolar solutions were nearly linear from the 350 to the 600 mOsm/L stimuli, but reached a plateau or declined slightly thereafter. Our results demonstrate that the tear osmolarity in rats could reach 600 to 1000 mOsm/L during ocular dryness. Furthermore, a spontaneous eye blink could be generated at a tear osmolarity of approximately 400 mOsm/L if the blink is solely determined by hyperosmolar tears, but ocular surface cooling also can become a major factor if hyperosmolar tears occurring during ocular dryness lower the threshold of activation of the neurons.

  18. Assessment of tear osmolarity and other dry eye parameters in post-LASIK eyes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ziad; Szalai, Eszter; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo; Nemeth, Gabor

    2013-07-01

    To assess the tear osmolarity using the TearLab device after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and to compare the values with those obtained by traditional tear film tests before and after the procedure. Thirty eyes of 15 refractive surgery candidates (5 men and 10 women of mean age: 30.55 ± 11.79 years) were examined. Using a special questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index), subjective dry eye complaints were evaluated, and then, the tear osmolarity was measured with the TearLab system (TearLab Corporation) and conventional dry eye tests were carried out. Examinations were performed preoperatively and at 1, 30, and 60 days after the surgery. The mean value of tear osmolarity was 303.62 ± 12.29 mOsm/L before the surgery and 303.58 ± 20.14 mOsm/L at 60 days after the treatment (P = 0.69). Mean lid parallel conjunctival folds value was 0.68 ± 0.68 before the procedure and 0.58 ± 0.65 subsequent to surgery (P = 0.25). Meibomian gland dysfunction was not detected. No significant deviation was observed in the values of Schirmer test, corneal staining, tear break-up time, and lid parallel conjunctival folds when compared with postoperatively obtained values during the follow-up period (P > 0.05). During LASIK flap creation, intact corneal innervation is damaged, and the ocular surface lacrimal functional unit can be impaired. In our study, no abnormal dry eye test results were observed before or after the procedure. Based on our results, LASIK treatment is safe for dry eye involving the administration of adequate artificial tears for a minimum of 3 months.

  19. Assessment of dry eye in a GVHD murine model: Approximation through tear osmolarity measurement.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Nieto-Gómez, Cristina; García, Elisabet Martín; Ramos, Teresa L; Velasco, Almudena; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; Aijón, José; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye disease is one of the most frequent pathological events that take place in the course of the graft versus host disease (GVHD), and is the main cause of deterioration in quality of life for patients. Thus, demonstration of dry eye signs in murine models of oGVHD is crucial for the validation of these models for the study of the disease. Given the increasing evidence that tear osmolarity is an important player of dry eye disease, our purpose in this study was to validate the use of a reliable method to assess tear osmolarity in mice: the electrical impedance method. Then, we wanted to test its utility with an oGVHD model. Tear volume assessment was also performed, using the phenol red thread test. We found differences in tear osmolarity in mice that received a transplant with cells from bone marrow and spleen (the GVHD group) when compared with mice that only received bone marrow cells (the BM group) at day 7 (362 ± 8 mOsm/l and 345 ± 9 mOsm/l respectively; P < 0.01) and day 21 (348 ± 19 mOsm/l vs. 326 ± 15 mOsm/l; P < 0.05). We found also differences in tear volume at day 14 (2.30 ± 0.61 mm in oGVHD group and 2.89 ± 0.62 mm in BM group; P = 0.06) and at day 21 (2.10 ± 0.30 mm in oGVHD group and 2.89 ± 0.32 mm in BM group; P < 0.01). Besides this, we observed reduction in epithelial thickness between the GVHD and BM groups (37.0 ± 6.2 μm and 43.6 ± 3.3 μm respectively; P < 0.05). These data show the usefulness of the electrical impedance method to measure tear osmolarity in mice. We can also conclude that this oGVHD model mimics the tear film alterations found in human dry eye disease, what contributes to give relevance to this model for the study of GVHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Variability of Tear Osmolarity Measurements With a Point-of-Care System in Healthy Subjects-Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Baenninger, Philipp B; Voegeli, Susanne; Bachmann, Lucas M; Faes, Livia; Iselin, Katja; Kaufmann, Claude; Thiel, Michael A

    2018-04-04

    To assess the variability of osmolarity measured by the point-of-care TearLab system in healthy eyes. A systematic review was performed by searching MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Web of Science Databases until November 2016 and checking reference lists of included articles and reviews. The requirements for inclusion were the availability of TearLab results in healthy subjects and a minimum study sample of 20 eyes. Two reviewers assessed articles against the inclusion criteria, extracted relevant data, and examined the methodological quality. We computed the weighted mean osmolarity using the study size as the weighting factor and calculated the rate of subjects with osmolarity values >308 mOsm/L, the Dry Eye Workshop Report 2017 (DEWS) cut-off value for dry eye disease (DED). We repeated the analysis after excluding reports with a possible conflict of interest or missing description of subject selection. Searches retrieved 105 nonduplicate articles, and we included 33 studies investigating 1362 eyes of healthy participants who were asymptomatic and showed no clinical signs of DED. Sixty-three percent were female, and mean age was 37.3 years (range: 21.5-69.0 yr). Weighted mean osmolarity was 298 mOsm/L (95% confidence interval, 282-321 mOsm/L). The result of the subgroup analysis was similar. Overall, 386 of 1362 eyes (28.3%) fulfilled the DEWS's definition of DED (>308 mOsm/L). There is a high variability of osmolarity measurements with the TearLab system. A substantial number of healthy subjects fulfill the DEWS's definition of DED. We propose interpreting the TearLab osmolarity results cautiously and in the context of other established methods.

  1. Comparison of tear osmolarity and ocular comfort between daily disposable contact lenses: hilafilcon B hydrogel versus narafilcon A silicone hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Ozge; Gurdal, Canan; Bostancı-Ceran, Basak; Can, Izzet

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and ocular comfort with two different types of hydrogel daily disposable lenses. The right eyes of 15 first-time contact lens users were included in this prospective study. All eyes wore hilafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses for 8 h (group 1). After 1 week without contact lenses, all eyes wore narafilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses for 8 h (group 2). Tear osmolarity measurement was performed before and after 4 and 8 h of each contact lens wear. Ocular comfort was assessed after 4 and 8 h of each contact lens wear. In group 1, the mean baseline, 4- and 8-h tear osmolarity values were 293 ± 10.57, 303.00 ± 10.5 mOsm/L (p = 0.023), and 295.0 ± 1.4 mOsm/L (p > 0.05), respectively. In group 2, the mean baseline, 4- and 8-h tear osmolarity values were 294 ± 13.65, 300.9 ± 11.3 mOsm/L (p = 0.007), and 298.80 ± 7.2 mOsm/L (p > 0.05), respectively. In group 1, the mean comfort score was 7.20 ± 0.45 and 8.60 ± 0.45 at 4 and 8 h, respectively (p = 0.038). In group 2, the mean comfort score significantly decreased from 9.80 ± 0.45 to 7.80 ± 0.84 at 4 h (p = 0.039). Both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lenses elevated tear osmolarity during 8 h of contact lens wear. The increase in tear osmolarity with both contact lenses was below the cut-off value for dry eye and was not associated with ocular comfort.

  2. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    PubMed

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  3. Osmolar relation between cerebrospinal fluid and serum in hyperosmolar hypernatraemic dehydration.

    PubMed Central

    Habel, A H; Simpson, H

    1976-01-01

    The relation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum osmolality was studied in 16 patients with hyperosmolar hypernatraemic dehydration before treatment. After correcting shock and acidosis, 0-45% saline in 2-5 or 5% dextrose was infused in each patient over a 48- to 72-hour period. During rehydration, serum osmolality, electrolyte concentrations, urea nitrogen, and blood pH were measured sequentially. Five patients developed severe neurological abnormalities within 48 hours of addmission (convulsions 2, convulsions with hemiplegia 2, hemiplegia 1). Of these, 3 had residual defects on follow-up at least one year later. This group was indistinguishable from the 11 without significant neurological abnormality, both on clinical grounds before rehydration, and after analysis of admission and subsequent serum biochemical variables. A significant osmolar gap (greater than 4 mmol/kg H2O) between serum and CSF was found in 13 patients. Severe neurological disturbance only occurred when CSF osmolality exceeded that of serum by 7 or more mmol/kg H2O. Discriminant analysis of the paired osmolar data showed that D = -117+1-74 X(CSF osmolality) -1-41 X (serum osmolality), and that severe neurological abnormality was predicted when D was positive. PMID:11753

  4. [Comparison of diagnostic quality in hysterosalpingography between iodinated non-ionic contrast media with low and high osmolarity].

    PubMed

    Piccotti, K; Guida, D; Carbonetti, F; Stefanetti, L; Macioce, A; Cremona, A; David, V

    Comparison of diagnostic quality in hysterosalpingography between low and high-osmolality contrast media. We performed a retrospective evaluation of two cohorts of patients who underwent HSG using contrast media with different osmolarity: the first group ,47 patients, underwent hysterosalpingography in the period September 2011-December 2012 using Iopromide 370 mg/ml; the second group, 50 patients, underwent HSG from January 2013 to October 2013 using Iomeprol 400 mg/ml. Three radiologists, in consensus reading,, reviewed the radiographs by assessing the following four parameters: opacification of the uterine cavity, uterine profiles definition, Fallopian tubes visualization, contrast media spillage into peritoneum. A score-scale from 0 to 3 was assigned for each of the mentioned parameter (0 = minimum non-diagnostic exam, 1 = sufficient examination; 2 = good quality examination; maximum 3 = high quality images). We documented a statistically significant higher quality in displaying Fallopian tubes among patients studied through high osmolarity contrast medium (Iopromide 370 mg/ml) than what obtained through lower osmolarity contrast medium (Iomeprol 400 mg/ml). The use of high osmolarity contrast medium enabled better visualization of the tubes and a greater number of diagnoses of chronic aspecific salpigintis due to the increased osmolality and viscosity of Iomeprol 400 mg/ml. There were no significant differences between the two contrast agents in the evaluation of intra-uterine pathology and in the evaluation of the tubal patency.

  5. [Cerebral water and electrolytes during changes in the osmolarity and volume of the extracellular fluid].

    PubMed

    Pinegin, L E; Tibekina, L M; Shakhmatova, E I; Natochin, Iu

    1979-01-01

    The increase of osmolarity in the blood serum after administration of polyethylenglycol-400 (PEG) as well as the sharp increase of the renal loss of fluid under the influence of furosemide insignificantly affected the water contents in the white and grey brain substance. A slight dehydration of the grey substance occured on combination of osmotic gradient effect and the renal loss of fluid. Preservation of initial hydration of the brain within the skull on administration of PEG and furosemide is due to redistribution of the fluid phases: dehydration of cells is followed by an increase in the volume of sodium-containing tissue fluid where upon the amount of sodium and calcium in the tissue practically does not change.

  6. Comparative effects of glycerol and Urografin on cochlear blood flow and serum osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Noi, O; Makimoto, K

    1998-09-01

    Glycerol, an osmotic diuretic, has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of endolymphatic hydrops. Hearing improvements in hydropic ears are attributed to its dehydrating effect. In addition to this effect, glycerol also increases cochlear blood flow. Urografin, another hyperosmotic agent used for vasography, is similarly known to increase local blood flow. The present study compared these two hyperosmotic agents, glycerol and Urografin, in their effects on cochlear blood flow and serum osmolarity. Laser Doppler flowmetry on the lateral wall of the cochlea revealed that the increase in cochlear blood flow with a 30-min infusion (0.025 ml/min) of 76% Urografin continued for a longer time than with a 30-min infusion (0.025 ml/min) of 50% (v/v) glycerol. The significant increases appeared at 20 and 30 min after the infusion with the former; 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after the infusion with the latter. Intravenous infusion of these agents also caused elevation in serum osmolarity. This elevation was appreciably greater with Urografin infusion (maximal increase: about 30 mOsm on average) than with glycerol infusion (maximal increase: about 6 mOsm on average), and the former elevation appeared to be longer lasting than the latter. These differences were ascribed to differences between glycerol and Urografin with respect to the creation of an osmotic gradient across the capillary walls of cochlear blood vessels. Since glycerol penetrates the interstitial space and moves into inner ear fluids, the gradient may decline faster. It would be assumed that a higher concentration of the hyperosmotic agent in the capillary blood causes more vasodilatation and lowering of blood viscosity. Alternatively, direct action of these agents on the vascular wall may affect some biological processes, leading to vasodilatation in different degrees and durations with different agents. Hearing improvement with glycerol administration in hydropic ears was also discussed from the

  7. Oral sea buckthorn oil attenuates tear film osmolarity and symptoms in individuals with dry eye.

    PubMed

    Larmo, Petra S; Järvinen, Riikka L; Setälä, Niko L; Yang, Baoru; Viitanen, Matti H; Engblom, Janne R K; Tahvonen, Raija L; Kallio, Heikki P

    2010-08-01

    Dry eye is a common condition that can severely impair the quality of life. We aimed to find out whether oral sea buckthorn (SB) oil, containing (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids and antioxidants, affects dry eye. In this double-blind, randomized, parallel trial, 20- to 75-y-old women and men experiencing dry eye symptoms consumed 2 g of SB or placebo oil daily for 3 mo from fall to winter. One hundred participants were recruited and 86 completed the study. Clinical dry eye tests and symptom follow-ups were performed. Tear film hyperosmolarity is a focal factor in dry eye. There was a general increase in the osmolarity from baseline to the end of the intervention. Compared with the placebo group, the increase was significantly less in the SB group when all participants were included [intention to treat (ITT), P = 0.04] and when only participants consuming the study products for at least 80% of the intervention days were included [per protocol (PP), P = 0.02]. The maximum intensities of redness and burning tended to be lower in the SB group. In the ITT participants, the group difference was significant for redness (P = 0.04) but not for burning (P = 0.05). In the PP participants, the group difference was significant for burning (P = 0.04) but not for redness (P = 0.11). In conclusion, SB oil attenuated the increase in tear film osmolarity during the cold season and positively affected the dry eye symptoms.

  8. Pyruvate in reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salt corrected lactic acidosis in sever scald rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Shu-Ming; Li, Zong-Yu; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Zhou, Fang-Qiang

    2018-06-01

    A novel pyruvate-based oral rehydration salt (Pyr-ORS) was demonstrated of superiority over bicarbonate- or citrate-based one to preserve organ function and correct lactic acidosis in rehydration of lethal shock in animals. This study further compared these effects between low-osmolar Pyr-ORS and equimolar citrate-based counterpart. Eighty rats, using a fatal burn shock model, were randomized into four groups (two subgroups per group: n = 10): the sham group (group SR), Pyr-ORS group (group PR), WHO-ORS III group (group CR), and no rehydration group. ORS was delivered by manual gavage during 24 h following burns. Oral administration consisted of half of counted volume in the initial 8 h plus the rest in the later 16 h. Systemic hemodynamics, visceral organ surface blood flow, organ function, and metabolic acidosis were determined at 8 h and 24 h after burn. Another set of rats with identical surgical procedures without tests was observed for survival. Survival was markedly improved in the groups PR and CR; the former showed a higher survival rate than the latter at 24 h (40% versus 20%, P < 0.05). Systemic hemodynamics, visceral blood flow, and function of heart, liver, and kidney were greatly restored in group PR, compared with group CR (all P < 0.05). Hypoxic lactic acidosis was efficiently reversed in group PR, instead of group CR, (pH 7.36 versus 7.11, base excess 2.1 versus -9.1 mmol/L, lactate 4.28 versus 8.18 mmol/L; all P < 0.05) at 24 h after injury. Pyruvate was advantageous over citrate in low-osmolar ORS for protection of organs and survival; pyruvate, but not citrate, in the ORS corrected hypoxic lactic acidosis in rats subjected to lethal burn shock in 24 h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [The correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Sun, Xiyu; Yu, Ye; Xiong, Yan; Cui, Yuxin; Wang, Qinmei; Hu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) surgery. In this prospective clinical study, 31 patients undergoing FS-LASIK for myopia were recruited. The upper and lower tear meniscus volumes (UTMV and LTMV) were measured by customized anterior segment optical coherence tomography, tear film osmolarity was measured by a TearLab Osmolarity test device, central corneal sensation was measured by a Cochet-Bonner esthesiometer preoperatively, at 1 week, 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate whether the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation were changed after surgery. The correlations between these variables were analyzed by the Pearson correlation analysis. The tear film osmolarity was (310.03 ± 16.48) mOsms/L preoperatively, (323.51 ± 15.92) mOsms/L at 1 week, (319.93 ± 14.27) mOsms/L at 1 month, and (314.97±12.91) mOsms/L at 3 months. The UTMV was (0.42±0.15), (0.25± 0.09), (0.30±0.11), and (0.35±0.09) μL, respectively; the LTMV was (0.60±0.21),(0.37±0.08), (0.44± 0.14), and (0.52±0.17) μL, respectively. The tear film osmolarity was significantly higher at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively compared with the baseline (P=0.001, 0.004), and reduced to the preoperative level at 3 months (P=0.573). The UTMV, LTMV, and corneal sensation values presented significant decreases at all postoperative time points (all P<0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis showed the postoperative UTMV had a weak relationship with corneal sensation at 1 week after surgery (r=0.356,P=0.005). There were significant correlations between the preoperative LTMV and corneal sensation at 1 week, 1 and 3 months (respectively, r=0.422, 0.366, 0.352;P=0.001, 0.004, 0.006). No significant correlations were found between the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation after surgery

  10. Varied incidence of immediate adverse reactions to low-osmolar non-ionic iodide radiocontrast media used in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, S R; Lee, J H; Park, K H; Park, H J; Park, J W

    2017-01-01

    Low-osmolar non-ionic radiocontrast media (RCMs) are commonly used throughout hospitals. However, the incidence of immediate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to various low-osmolar non-ionic RCMs is not well studied. We compared the incidence of immediate ADRs among different low-osmolar non-ionic RCMs used in computed tomography (CT). Severance Hospital has collected data for adverse reactions occurring in-hospital using an internally developed system. Using this data, we reviewed 1969 immediate ADRs from 286 087 RCM-contrasted CT examinations of 142 099 patients and compared the immediate ADRs of iobitridol, iohexol, iopamidol, and iopromide. We analysed the incidence of immediate ADRs to different RCMs, as well as the effect of single or multiple CT examinations per day. Iopromide showed the highest incidence of immediate ADRs (1.03%) and was followed by iopamidol (0.67%), iohexol (0.64%), and iobitridol (0.34%). In cases of anaphylaxis, iopromide also showed the highest incidence (0.041%), followed by iopamidol (0.023%), iohexol (0.018%), and iobitridol (0.012%). Risk of immediate ADR due to multiple CT examinations (1.19%) was significantly higher than the risk due to a single CT examination (0.63%). Risk of anaphylaxis was also higher for multiple CT examinations (0.052%) than for a single CT examination (0.020%). The incidence of immediate ADRs varied according to the low-osmolar non-ionic RCM used. Iopromide-induced immediate ADRs were more frequent, while iobitridol was associated with fewer immediate ADRs than other RCMs. Multiple CT examinations per day resulted in a higher incidence of immediate ADRs and anaphylaxis than a single CT examination. Clinicians should consider these risk differences of immediate ADRs when prescribing contrasted CT examinations. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae filamentation/invasion pathway by osmotic stress in high-osmolarity glycogen pathway mutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, K. D.; Williams, K. E.; Ullmann, B. D.; Gustin, M. C.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are frequently used signal transduction mechanisms in eukaryotes. Of the five MAPK cascades in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway functions to sense and respond to hypertonic stress. We utilized a partial loss-of-function mutant in the HOG pathway, pbs2-3, in a high-copy suppressor screen to identify proteins that modulate growth on high-osmolarity media. Three high-copy suppressors of pbs2-3 osmosensitivity were identified: MSG5, CAK1, and TRX1. Msg5p is a dual-specificity phosphatase that was previously demonstrated to dephosphorylate MAPKs in yeast. Deletions of the putative MAPK targets of Msg5p revealed that kss1delta could suppress the osmosensitivity of pbs2-3. Kss1p is phosphorylated in response to hyperosmotic shock in a pbs2-3 strain, but not in a wild-type strain nor in a pbs2-3 strain overexpressing MSG5. Both TEC1 and FRE::lacZ expressions are activated in strains lacking a functional HOG pathway during osmotic stress in a filamentation/invasion-pathway-dependent manner. Additionally, the cellular projections formed by a pbs2-3 mutant on high osmolarity are absent in strains lacking KSS1 or STE7. These data suggest that the loss of filamentation/invasion pathway repression contributes to the HOG mutant phenotype.

  12. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae filamentation/invasion pathway by osmotic stress in high-osmolarity glycogen pathway mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, K D; Williams, K E; Ullmann, B D; Gustin, M C

    1999-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are frequently used signal transduction mechanisms in eukaryotes. Of the five MAPK cascades in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway functions to sense and respond to hypertonic stress. We utilized a partial loss-of-function mutant in the HOG pathway, pbs2-3, in a high-copy suppressor screen to identify proteins that modulate growth on high-osmolarity media. Three high-copy suppressors of pbs2-3 osmosensitivity were identified: MSG5, CAK1, and TRX1. Msg5p is a dual-specificity phosphatase that was previously demonstrated to dephosphorylate MAPKs in yeast. Deletions of the putative MAPK targets of Msg5p revealed that kss1delta could suppress the osmosensitivity of pbs2-3. Kss1p is phosphorylated in response to hyperosmotic shock in a pbs2-3 strain, but not in a wild-type strain nor in a pbs2-3 strain overexpressing MSG5. Both TEC1 and FRE::lacZ expressions are activated in strains lacking a functional HOG pathway during osmotic stress in a filamentation/invasion-pathway-dependent manner. Additionally, the cellular projections formed by a pbs2-3 mutant on high osmolarity are absent in strains lacking KSS1 or STE7. These data suggest that the loss of filamentation/invasion pathway repression contributes to the HOG mutant phenotype. PMID:10545444

  13. Effect of fluid countermeasures of varying osmolarity on cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Current operational procedures for shuttle crewmembers include the ingestion of a fluid countermeasure approximately 2 hours before reentry into the earth's gravitational field. The ingestion of the fluid countermeasure is thought to restore plasma volume and improve orthostatic responses upon reentry. The present countermeasure consists of ingesting salt tablets and water to achieve an isotonic solution. It has yet to be determined whether this is the optimal drink to restore orthostatic tolerance. It is also not known whether the drink solution is effective in increasing plasma volume. The purpose here is to evaluate the effectiveness of drink solutions of different osmolarity on restoring plasma volume and orthostatic responses. A hypertonic drink solution was more effective in restoring plasma volume after dehydration than an isotonic solution. However, there were no differences in their effects on an orthostatic challenge. These data suggest that the plasma volume differences produced in this study were not sufficient to produce differences in the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic challenge, or there are other changes that occur during space flight that are more important in determining orthostatic intolerance.

  14. Dynamics of Escherichia coli’s passive response to a sudden decrease in external osmolarity

    PubMed Central

    Buda, Renata; Liu, Yunxiao; Yang, Jin; Hegde, Smitha; Stevenson, Keiran; Bai, Fan; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-01-01

    For most cells, a sudden decrease in external osmolarity results in fast water influx that can burst the cell. To survive, cells rely on the passive response of mechanosensitive channels, which open under increased membrane tension and allow the release of cytoplasmic solutes and water. Although the gating and the molecular structure of mechanosensitive channels found in Escherichia coli have been extensively studied, the overall dynamics of the whole cellular response remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize E. coli’s passive response to a sudden hypoosmotic shock (downshock) on a single-cell level. We show that initial fast volume expansion is followed by a slow volume recovery that can end below the initial value. Similar response patterns were observed at downshocks of a wide range of magnitudes. Although wild-type cells adapted to osmotic downshocks and resumed growing, cells of a double-mutant (ΔmscL,ΔmscS) strain expanded, but failed to fully recover, often lysing or not resuming growth at high osmotic downshocks. We propose a theoretical model to explain our observations by simulating mechanosensitive channels opening, and subsequent solute efflux and water flux. The model illustrates how solute efflux, driven by mechanical pressure and solute chemical potential, competes with water influx to reduce cellular osmotic pressure and allow volume recovery. Our work highlights the vital role of mechanosensation in bacterial survival. PMID:27647888

  15. Determining equilibrium osmolarity in poly(ethylene glycol)/chondrotin sulfate gels mimicking articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Sircar, S; Aisenbrey, E; Bryant, S J; Bortz, D M

    2015-01-07

    We present an experimentally guided, multi-phase, multi-species polyelectrolyte gel model to make qualitative predictions on the equilibrium electro-chemical properties of articular cartilage. The mixture theory consists of two different types of polymers: poly(ethylene gylcol) (PEG), chondrotin sulfate (ChS), water (acting as solvent) and several different ions: H(+), Na(+), Cl(-). The polymer chains have covalent cross-links whose effect on the swelling kinetics is modeled via Doi rubber elasticity theory. Numerical studies on equilibrium polymer volume fraction and net osmolarity (difference in the solute concentration across the gel) show a complex interplay between ionic bath concentrations, pH, cross-link fraction and the average charge per monomer. Generally speaking, swelling is aided due to a higher average charge per monomer (or a higher particle fraction of ChS, the charged component of the polymer), low solute concentration in the bath, a high pH or a low cross-link fraction. A peculiar case arises at higher values of cross-link fraction, where it is observed that increasing the average charge per monomer leads to gel deswelling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, E A; Tiffany, J M; Yokoi, N; Bron, A J

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2015-10-21

    To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Diagnostic accuracy study. Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality>300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality>300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve>0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report dehydration risk opportunistically when serum glucose, urea and electrolytes are measured for other reasons in

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Participants Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Reference standard for hydration status Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). Index tests 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Results Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality >300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve >0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++ K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Conclusions Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report

  19. A maximal incremental effort alters tear osmolarity depending on the fitness level in military helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Madinabeitia, Iker; Masiulis, Nerijus; Cárdenas, David

    2017-10-01

    Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. A tear sample was collected before and after physical effort to determine the exercise-induced changes on Tosm. The Bayesian statistical analysis demonstrated that Tosm significantly increased from 303.72 ± 6.76 to 310.56 ± 8.80 mmol/L after performance of a maximal incremental test. However, while the untrained group showed an acute Tosm rise (12.33 mmol/L of increment), the trained group experienced a stable Tosm physical effort (1.45 mmol/L). There was a significant positive linear association between fat indices and Tosm changes (correlation coefficients [r] range: 0.77-0.89), whereas the Tosm changes displayed a negative relationship with the cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2 max; r = -0.75) and performance parameters (r = -0.75 for velocity, and r = -0.67 for time to exhaustion). The findings from this study provide evidence that fitness level is a major determinant of Tosm response to maximal incremental physical effort, showing a fairly linear association with several indices related to fitness level. High fitness level seems to be beneficial to avoid Tosm changes as consequence of intense exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Tear Osmolarity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients With and Without Secondary Sjogren Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alex L K; Choy, Bonnie N K; Chan, Tommy C Y; Wong, Ian Y H; Lai, Jimmy S M; Mok, Mo Yin

    2017-07-01

    To compare tear osmolarity (TO) and other dry eye parameters in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with or without secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). Consecutive patients with RA were divided into a sSS group and no-sSS group using conventional diagnostic criteria by rheumatologists using symptomatology, Schirmer test score, and anti-Ro or anti-La autoantibody status. The TO, Ocular Surface Disease Index, dry eye disease (DED) parameters [such as tear breakup time (TBUT) and corneal staining score] and the systemic inflammatory markers [erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] were compared. Correlation analyses between TO and the DED parameters and inflammatory markers were also performed. A total of 42 cases with mean age 54.8 ± 12.3 were included, with 12 patients (29%) having sSS and 30 (71%) without sSS. TO was increased in both groups (329 ± 20 and 319 ± 25 mOsm/L, respectively), but no statistically significant difference was found between the 2 groups (P = 0.126). RA with sSS had significantly shorter TBUT, higher corneal staining score, and ESR CRP levels (P < 0.05). TO did not correlate with the Schirmer test score, but had significant positive correlations with age, corneal staining score, ESR, and CRP levels, and a significant negative correlation with TBUT. TO was increased in RA patients with or without sSS. There was no significant correlation between TO and the Schirmer test score, and the physician could not use TO to diagnose sSS. However, TO correlated well with both DED parameters (TBUT and corneal staining score) and systemic inflammatory markers (ESR and CRP).

  1. Increased Serum Sodium and Serum Osmolarity Are Independent Risk Factors for Developing Chronic Kidney Disease; 5 Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Niwa, Koichiro; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Jensen, Thomas; Bjornstad, Petter; Milagres, Tamara; Cicerchi, Christina; Song, Zhilin; Garcia, Gabriela; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. This study was a large-scale, single-center, retrospective 5-year cohort study at Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between 2004 and 2009. We analyzed 13,201 subjects who underwent annual medical examination of which 12,041 subjects (age 35 to 85) without DM and/or CKD were enrolled. This analysis evaluated age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, fasting glucose, BUN, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and calculated serum osmolarity. Elevated serum sodium was an independent risk factor for development of CKD (OR: 1.03, 95% CI, 1.00-1.07) after adjusted regression analysis with an 18 percent increased risk for every 5 mmol/L change in serum sodium. Calculated serum osmolarity was also an independent risk factor for CKD (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05) as was BUN (OR: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10) (independent of serum creatinine). Elevated serum sodium and calculated serum osmolarity are independent risk factors for developing CKD. This finding supports the role of limiting salt intake and preventing dehydration to reduce risk of CKD.

  2. Effects of viscosity on power and hand injection of iso-osmolar iodinated contrast media through thin catheters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, James J; Hogstrom, Barry; Malinak, Jiri; Ikei, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    It can be challenging to achieve adequate vessel opacification during percutaneous coronary interventions when using thin catheters, hand injection, and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) such as iodixanol (Visipaque™). To explore these limitations and the possibility to overcome them with iosimenol, a novel CM. Three X-ray contrast media with different concentrations were used in this study. A series of in vitro experiments established the relationship between injection pressure and flow rate in angiography catheters under various conditions. The experiments were conducted with power and hand injections and included a double-blind evaluation of user perception. By using hand injection, it was generally not possible to reach a maximum injection pressure exceeding 50 psi. The time within which volunteers were able to complete the injections, the area under the pressure-time curve (AUC), and assessment of ease of injection all were in favor of iosimenol compared with iodixanol, especially when using the 4F thin catheter. Within the pressure ranges tested, the power injections demonstrated that the amount of iodine delivered at a fixed pressure was strongly related to viscosity but unrelated to iodine concentration. There are substantial limitations to the amount of iodine that can be delivered through thin catheters by hand injection when iso-osmolar CM with high viscosity is used. The only viable solution, besides increasing the injection pressure, is to use a CM with lower viscosity, since the cost of increasing the concentration, in terms of increased viscosity and consequent reduction in flow, is too high. Iosimenol, an iso-osmolar CM with lower viscosity than iodixanol might therefore be a better alternative when thinner catheters are preferred, especially when the radial artery is used as the access site. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  3. Electrophoretic analysis of the major polypeptides of human erythrocyte membranes prepared by low and high osmolarity haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Zail, S S; Hoek, V D

    1975-04-16

    Human erythrocyte membranes were prepared in three ways: washing in hypotonic Tris buffer, pH 7.6, by lysis in isotonic Tris buffer pH 7.6 after incubation at 37 degrees C for 2 hours and by ultrasonication in an isotonic medium, pH 7.6. Analysis of the major polypeptides of the erythrocyte membranes by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a selective depletion of a major polypeptide representing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the membranes prepared by high osmolarity lysis. The pattern of seperation of the remaining polypeptides was identical in the 3 different membrane preparations.

  4. Up to 50-fold increase in urine viscosity with iso-osmolar contrast media in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Erdmann; Becker, Klaus; Ladwig, Mechthild; Wronski, Thomas; Persson, Pontus B; Flemming, Bert

    2010-08-01

    To compare changes in urinary viscosity in the renal tubules following administration of a high-viscosity iso-osmolar contrast agent (iodixanol) to that observed following administration of a less viscous, higher osmolar contrast agent (iopromide) in anesthetized rats. A total of 43 rats were studied. Experiments were approved by the Berlin, Germany, animal protection administration. A viscometer was developed to measure viscosity in minute samples (7 microL). Urine was collected, viscosity was measured (at 37 degrees C), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by means of creatinine clearance. Boluses of 1.5 mL of iodixanol (320 mg iodine per milliliter, iso-osmolar to plasma, high viscosity) or iopromide (370 mg iodine per milliliter, higher osmolality and lower viscosity than iodixanol) were injected into the thoracic aorta. There were five groups (seven rats per group). Groups 1 (iodixanol) and 2 (iopromide) had free access to water prior to the experiment; groups 3 (iodixanol) and 4 (iopromide) received an additional infusion of isotonic saline (4 mL/kg/h). Group 5 was treated as group 1 but received only 0.75 mL of iodixanol. The observation period was 100 minutes. Statistical comparisons were made by means of nonparametric procedures (Friedman test, Kruskal-Wallis test). Iodixanol increased urine viscosity from 0.69 to 36.7 mm(2)/sec; thus, urine became threefold more viscous than native iodixanol solution. The increase in urine viscosity after injection of iopromide was from 0.73 to 2.3 mm(2)/sec. While GFR was not significantly affected by iopromide, GFR transiently decreased by 50% after administration of iodixanol. Iopromide had a diuretic effect twofold greater than that of iodixanol. Saline infusion blunted the viscosity rise and transient decline in GFR caused by iodixanol, as did reducing the iodixanol dose by 50%. Contrast media, in particular iodixanol, increase urine viscosity (which is equal to tubular fluid viscosity in the

  5. [Efficacy and safety of reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts in treatment of dehydration in children with acute diarrhea--a multicenter, randomized, double blind clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dao-Feng; Guo, Wei; Tian, De-Ying; Luo, Xiao-Ping; He, Yong-Wen; Dai, Yong-An; Xu, Hua-Lin

    2007-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ROORS) in treatment of mild to moderate dehydration caused by acute diarrhea in children. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, positive drug controlled clinical trial was conducted in 125 cases aged 1 to 17 years. These children with acute diarrhea and signs of dehydration were randomly assigned to receive either ROORS (trial group, n = 62) or oral rehydration salts II (ORS II) (control group, n = 63). The volume of intravenous infusion were recorded. The improvements of systemic symtoms and signs, diarrhea, dehydration and total scores were compared between the two groups. The adverse events and changes of electrolyte and other laboratory tests during treatment were also observed and analyzed. The overall effective rates in trial group and control group were 96.8% and 96.8%, respectively. The recovery of systemic symptoms, dehydration signs and diarrhea occurred in 96%, 97% and 78% patients in trial groups, and 96%, 98% and 85% patients in control group. The scores of symptoms and signs in both groups decreased significantly after treatment. All the above parameters and the number of cases who needed intravenous infusion (41 vs. 39) were not statistically different between two groups. However, the average volume of intravenously infused fluids in trial group was (450.98 +/- 183.07) ml, 24.5% less than that in the control group (597.30 +/- 343.37) ml (P < 0.05). The mean serum Na(+) concentration elevated from (137.48 +/- 4.55) mmol/L to (139.52 +/- 3.25) mmol/L (P < 0.01) in control group after treatment, but the change was not statistically significant in trail group. Serum K(+), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-) and other laboratory result did not change significantly after treatment. The total scores in both groups decreased obviously after treatment, but no significant difference was demonstrated between two groups (P > 0.05). A case in trial group had mild abdominal distention and recovered

  6. Activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells enhances both the influx and efflux of K+ under conditions of hypo-osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Foster, Daniel J; Heacock, Anne M; Keep, Richard F; Fisher, Stephen K

    2008-05-01

    The ability of receptor activation to regulate osmosensitive K+ fluxes (monitored as 86Rb+) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma has been examined. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells in buffers rendered increasingly hypotonic by a reduction in NaCl concentration resulted in an enhanced basal efflux of Rb+ (threshold of release, 200 mOsM) but had no effect on Rb(+) influx. Addition of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M), potently enhanced Rb+ efflux (EC50 = 0.45 microM) and increased the threshold of release to 280 mOsM. Oxo-M elicited a similarly potent, but osmolarity-independent, enhancement of Rb+ influx (EC50 = 1.35 microM). However, when incubated under hypotonic conditions in which osmolarity was varied by the addition of sucrose to a fixed concentration of NaCl, basal- and Oxo-M-stimulated Rb+ influx and efflux were demonstrated to be dependent upon osmolarity. Basal- and Oxo-M-stimulated Rb+ influx (but not Rb+ efflux) were inhibited by inclusion of ouabain or furosemide. Both Rb+ influx and efflux were inhibited by removal of intracellular Ca2+ and inhibition of protein kinase C activity. In addition to Oxo-M, agonists acting at other cell surface receptors previously implicated in organic osmolyte release enhanced both Rb+ efflux and influx under hypotonic conditions. Oxo-M had no effect on cellular K+ concentration in SH-SY5Y cells under physiologically relevant reductions in osmolarity (0-15%) unless K+ influx was blocked. Thus, although receptor activation enhances the osmosensitive efflux of K+, it also stimulates K+ influx, and the latter permits retention of K+ by the cells.

  7. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Serum Osmolarity Levels and Some Parameters of Electrolytes in Females

    PubMed Central

    Attarzadeh Hosseini, Seyyed Reza; Sardar, Mohammad Ali; Hejazi, Keyvan; Farahati, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background So far, there have been a few and incoherent results about the effects of physical activities. Fasting in Ramadan has an effect on the level of osmolarity and the concentration of serum electrolytes both in active and inactive females. Objectives The aim of this study was to observe the changes of serum electrolytes and osmolarity levels according to regular exercise during fasting. Patients and Methods Twenty two healthy females who were elected by convenience sampling method were divided into two groups: 1) fasting + exercise (FE; n = 11) and 2) fasting + non exercise (FNE; n = 15). The FE group participated in aerobic training for four sessions per week during the fasting. All measurements were done once before the first day, on the second week, on the fourth week and two weeks after fasting month and these measures were used to analyze test results. Results The mean differences were as follows: significant weight loss, BMI, WHR, in two groups at the end of Ramadan (P < 0.05). The mean of weight, BMI, WHR, body fat, protein, mineral and total water showed no difference between groups (P > 0.05). Potassium, creatinine, urea and uric acid had been decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). Variance between groups was significant only in variable urea (P < 0.05). Variations within group had been changed in FBS; sodium, phosphorus and osmolarity levels were not changed significantly. Conclusions According to this result, regular exercise in case of fasting in Ramadan led to some changes in serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is important for female athletes to consider applying a suitable nutritious diet and sufficient water consumption during Ramadan PMID:23825979

  8. The effect of ramadan fasting and physical activity on body composition, serum osmolarity levels and some parameters of electrolytes in females.

    PubMed

    Attarzadeh Hosseini, Seyyed Reza; Sardar, Mohammad Ali; Hejazi, Keyvan; Farahati, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    So far, there have been a few and incoherent results about the effects of physical activities. Fasting in Ramadan has an effect on the level of osmolarity and the concentration of serum electrolytes both in active and inactive females. The aim of this study was to observe the changes of serum electrolytes and osmolarity levels according to regular exercise during fasting. TWENTY TWO HEALTHY FEMALES WHO WERE ELECTED BY CONVENIENCE SAMPLING METHOD WERE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS: 1) fasting + exercise (FE; n = 11) and 2) fasting + non exercise (FNE; n = 15). The FE group participated in aerobic training for four sessions per week during the fasting. All measurements were done once before the first day, on the second week, on the fourth week and two weeks after fasting month and these measures were used to analyze test results. THE MEAN DIFFERENCES WERE AS FOLLOWS: significant weight loss, BMI, WHR, in two groups at the end of Ramadan (P < 0.05). The mean of weight, BMI, WHR, body fat, protein, mineral and total water showed no difference between groups (P > 0.05). Potassium, creatinine, urea and uric acid had been decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). Variance between groups was significant only in variable urea (P < 0.05). Variations within group had been changed in FBS; sodium, phosphorus and osmolarity levels were not changed significantly. According to this result, regular exercise in case of fasting in Ramadan led to some changes in serum osmolarity index, electrolytes and water. Therefore, it is important for female athletes to consider applying a suitable nutritious diet and sufficient water consumption during Ramadan.

  9. Erythrocytes as Volume Markers in Experimental PD Show that Albumin Transport in the Extracellular Space Depends on PD Fluid Osmolarity

    PubMed Central

    Braide, Magnus; Delbro, Dick; Waniewski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Background: Macromolecules, when used as intraperitoneal volume markers, have the disadvantage of leaking into the surrounding tissue. Therefore, 51Cr-labeled erythrocytes were evaluated as markers of intraperitoneal volume and used in combination with 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin to study albumin transport into peritoneal tissues in a rat model of peritoneal dialysis (PD). ♦ Methods: Single dwells of 20 mL of lactate-buffered filter-sterilized PD fluid at glucose concentrations of 0.5%, 2.5%, and 3.9% were performed for 1 or 4 hours. Tissue biopsies from abdominal muscle, diaphragm, liver, and intestine, and blood and dialysate samples, were analyzed for radioactivity. ♦ Results: The dialysate distribution volume of labeled erythrocytes, measured after correction for lymphatic clearance to blood, was strongly correlated with, but constantly 3.3 mL larger than, drained volumes. Erythrocyte activity of rinsed peritoneal tissue biopsies corresponded to only 1 mL of dialysate, supporting our utilization of erythrocytes as markers of intraperitoneal volume. The difference between the distribution volumes of albumin and erythrocytes was analyzed to represent the albumin loss into the peritoneal tissues, which increased rapidly during the first few minutes of the dwell and then leveled out at 2.5 mL. It resumed when osmotic ultrafiltration turned into reabsorption and, at the end of the dwell, it was significantly lower for the highest osmolarity PD fluid (3.9% glucose). Biopsy data showed the lowest albumin accumulation and edema formation in abdominal muscle for the 3.9% fluid. ♦ Conclusion: Labeled erythrocytes are acceptable markers of intraperitoneal volume and, combined with labeled albumin, provided novel kinetic data on albumin transport in peritoneal tissues. PMID:26493751

  10. Non-invasive estimation of hydration status changes through tear fluid osmolarity during exercise and post-exercise rehydration.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Corey T; Reimel, Adam J; Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Pahnke, Matthew D; Baker, Lindsay B

    2015-05-01

    To determine if tear fluid osmolarity (Tosm) can track changes in hydration status during exercise and post-exercise rehydration. Nineteen male athletes (18-37 years, 74.6 ± 7.9 kg) completed two randomized, counterbalanced trials; cycling (~95 min) with water intake to replace fluid losses or water restriction to progressively dehydrate to 3 % body mass loss (BML). After exercise, subjects drank water to maintain body mass (water intake trials) or progressively rehydrate to pre-exercise body mass (water restriction trials) over a 90-min recovery period. Plasma osmolality (Posm) and Tosm measurements (mean of right and left eyes) were taken pre-exercise, during rest periods between exercise bouts corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 % BML, and rehydration at 2, 1, and 0 % BML. During exercise mean (± SD) Tosm was significantly higher in water restriction vs. water intake trials at 1 % BML (299 ± 9 vs. 293 ± 9 mmol/L), 2 % BML (301 ± 9 vs. 294 ± 9 mmol/L), and 3 % BML (302 ± 9 vs. 292 ± 8 mmol/L). Mean Tosm progressively decreased during post-exercise rehydration and was not different between trials at 1 % BML (291 ± 8 vs. 290 ± 7 mmol/L) and 0 % BML (288 ± 7 vs. 289 ± 8 mmol/L). Mean Tosm tracked changes in hydration status similar to that of mean Posm; however, the individual responses in Tosm to water restriction and water intake was considerably more variable than that of Posm. Tosm is a valid indicator of changes in hydration status when looking at the group mean; however, large differences among subjects in the Tosm response to hydration changes limit its validity for individual recommendations.

  11. Reconstruction of the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Signaling Pathway from the Halophilic Fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Konte, Tilen; Terpitz, Ulrich; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga grows between 1.7 and 5.1 M NaCl and is the most halophilic eukaryote described to date. Like other fungi, W. ichthyophaga detects changes in environmental salinity mainly by the evolutionarily conserved high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG pathway has been extensively studied in connection to osmotic regulation, with a valuable knock-out strain collection established. In the present study, we reconstructed the architecture of the HOG pathway of W. ichthyophaga in suitable S. cerevisiae knock-out strains, through heterologous expression of the W. ichthyophaga HOG pathway proteins. Compared to S. cerevisiae, where the Pbs2 (ScPbs2) kinase of the HOG pathway is activated via the SHO1 and SLN1 branches, the interactions between the W. ichthyophaga Pbs2 (WiPbs2) kinase and the W. ichthyophaga SHO1 branch orthologs are not conserved: as well as evidence of poor interactions between the WiSho1 Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and the WiPbs2 proline-rich motif, the absence of a considerable part of the osmosensing apparatus in the genome of W. ichthyophaga suggests that the SHO1 branch components are not involved in HOG signaling in this halophilic fungus. In contrast, the conserved activation of WiPbs2 by the S. cerevisiae ScSsk2/ScSsk22 kinase and the sensitivity of W. ichthyophaga cells to fludioxonil, emphasize the significance of two-component (SLN1-like) signaling via Group III histidine kinase. Combined with protein modeling data, our study reveals conserved and non-conserved protein interactions in the HOG signaling pathway of W. ichthyophaga and therefore significantly improves the knowledge of hyperosmotic signal processing in this halophilic fungus.

  12. Outcomes of corticosteroid prophylaxis for hypersensitivity reactions to low osmolar contrast media in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Young Hun; Park, Chang Min; Park, Heung Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2016-09-01

    Corticosteroid prophylaxis has been widely adopted for the prevention of acute allergic-like reactions to iodinated contrast media, but its use is still controversial because there is no strong evidence supporting its efficacy before administration of nonionic low osmolar contrast media (LOCM). To assess the outcomes of premedication in patients with previous acute allergic-like reactions to LOCM in clinical practice. A retrospective study was performed on 322 high-risk patients who were reexposed to LOCM after premedication composed of antihistamines and/or systemic corticosteroids because of a previous history of acute allergic-like reactions to LOCM. After premedication, 275 patients (85.4%) did not experience any reaction, but 47 patients (14.6%) still experienced a breakthrough reaction. The premedication rate and amount of corticosteroid administered were significantly higher in the nonrecurrence group than in the recurrence group (P = .04 and P = .04, respectively), and a linear trend was observed in the use of corticosteroid premedication and the efficacy of prevention (P for trend = .02). Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that corticosteroid premedication was effective in preventing recurrence (odds ratio, 0.284; 95% confidence interval, 0.103-0.784). Nonetheless, despite corticosteroid premedication, 3.4% of high-risk patients still experienced moderate to severe reactions, and 14.3% of patients with a severe index reaction again had a severe reaction. Premedication with corticosteroids seems to be helpful in reducing the overall rate of recurrence of acute allergic-like reactions to LOCM in high-risk patients, but patients with severe index reactions are still at risk of developing severe reactions despite corticosteroid premedication. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative study of flux of FITC-labeled Dextran 4000 on normal (iso)- and hyper-osmolarity in basal side in caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Rie; Tomita, Mikio; Hotta, Yoshiyuki; Nagira, Mayuko; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that the flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 4000 (FD-4) is transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers in a polarized fashion favoring the basal to apical direction under normal conditions (i.e., isotonic solution in basal side). Furthermore, FD-4 transport may occur via a process that included a certain degree of substrate specificity for polysaccharide and transcytosis. In the present study, we compared the flux of FD-4 in the basal to apical direction (efflux) and the apical to basal direction (influx) in stress conditions (i.e., hyperosmolarity in basal side) to those in normal conditions (i.e., iso-osmolarity in basal side). The efflux of FD-4 was increased by hyperosmolarity in basal side, but the influx was decreased when compared with normal conditions. Neither dextran 10, 000 nor colchicine inhibited the efflux of FD-4 in hyperosmolarity conditions. The inhibition of efflux of FD-4 was observed not by S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine but by sodium nitroprusside and sodium ferrocyanide. These results collectively suggest that hyperosmolarity in basal side accelerates the efflux of FD-4 across the transcellular route but not across the paracellular route in Caco-2 cell monolayers. And it is indicated that cyanide rather than nitric oxide is involved in dysfunction of the FD-4 efflux system irrespective of conditions such as normal osmolarity or hyperosmolarity.

  14. Activation of the Protein Kinase C1 Pathway upon Continuous Heat Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Triggered by an Intracellular Increase in Osmolarity due to Trehalose Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mensonides, Femke I. C.; Brul, Stanley; Klis, Frans M.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Teixeira de Mattos, M. Joost

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on physiological and molecular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat stress conditions. We observed that within a very narrow range of culture temperatures, a shift from exponential growth to growth arrest and ultimately to cell death occurred. A detailed analysis was carried out of the accumulation of trehalose and the activation of the protein kinase C1 (PKC1) (cell integrity) pathway in both glucose- and ethanol-grown cells upon temperature upshifts within this narrow range of growth temperatures. It was observed that the PKC1 pathway was hardly activated in a tps1 mutant that is unable to accumulate any trehalose. Furthermore, it was observed that an increase of the extracellular osmolarity during a continuous heat stress prevented the activation of the pathway. The results of these analyses support our hypothesis that under heat stress conditions the activation of the PKC1 pathway is triggered by an increase in intracellular osmolarity, due to the accumulation of trehalose, rather than by the increase in temperature as such. PMID:16085846

  15. Impact of iso-osmolar versus low-osmolar contrast agents on contrast-induced nephropathy and tissue reperfusion in unselected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the Contrast Media and Nephrotoxicity Following Primary Angioplasty for Acute Myocardial Infarction [CONTRAST-AMI] Trial).

    PubMed

    Bolognese, Leonardo; Falsini, Giovanni; Schwenke, Carsten; Grotti, Simone; Limbruno, Ugo; Liistro, Francesco; Carrera, Arcangelo; Angioli, Paolo; Picchi, Andrea; Ducci, Kenneth; Pierli, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting data have been reported on the effects of low-osmolar and iso-osmolar contrast media on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). In particular, no clinical trial has yet focused on the effect of contemporary contrast media on CI-AKI, epicardial flow, and microcirculatory function in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The Contrast Media and Nephrotoxicity Following Coronary Revascularization by Angioplasty for Acute Myocardial Infarction (CONTRAST-AMI) trial is a prospective, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group, noninferiority study aiming to evaluate the effects of the low-osmolar contrast medium iopromide compared to the iso-osmolar agent iodixanol on CI-AKI and tissue-level perfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Four hundred seventy-five consecutive, unselected patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to iopromide (n = 239) or iodixanol (n = 236). All patients received high-dose N-acetylcysteine and hydration. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with serum creatinine (sCr) increases ≥25% from baseline to 72 hours. Secondary end points were Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) myocardial perfusion grade, increase in sCr ≥50%, increase in sCr ≥0.5 or ≥1 mg/dl, and 1-month major adverse cardiac events. The primary end point occurred in 10% of the iopromide group and in 13% of the iodixanol group (95% confidence interval -9% to 3%, p for noninferiority = 0.0002). A TIMI myocardial perfusion grade of 0 or 1 was present in 14% of patients in the 2 groups. No differences between the 2 groups were found in any of the secondary analyses of sCr increase. No significant difference in 1-month major adverse cardiac events was found (8% vs 6%, p = 0.37). In conclusion, in a population of unselected patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

  16. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  17. Effects of pH, temperature, and osmolarity on the morphology and survival rate of primary hemocyte cultures from the mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yuhang; Yang, Xiaozhen; Cheng, Yongxu; Liang, Pan; Zhang, Jinbiao; Li, Meng; Shen, Cheng; Yang, Zhigang; Wang, Chun

    2013-10-01

    Hemocytes are the main immune defense cells in crustacean, and its in vitro culture can be a useful tool for the study of host and pathogen interaction. In the present study, the primary hemocyte culture of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), including mixed and single hemocyte, was set up for the first time. In this study, different pH (6.4, 6.8, 7.2, 7.6, and 8.0), temperature (26, 28, and 30°C), and osmolarity (500, 700, 900, 1,100, and 1,300 mOsm kg(-1)) values were tested. Moreover, the effects of two types of medium (1× L-15 and 3× L-15) with the same osmolarity on hemocyte culture were evaluated. After incubation at different culture conditions, the morphological changes (degranulation, lysis, shrinkage, and detachment) and survival rate of hemocytes were taken into account in order to evaluate the culture condition effect. Our results showed that the total hemocyte counts of Chinese mitten crab were about 2.5 × 10(7) cells ml(-1), and three subpopulations of hemocytes were distinguished as granulocytes (43.46 ± 4.98%), semigranulocytes (31.04 ± 1.95%), and hyalinocytes (25.50 ± 4.89%). The optimal culture condition for primary hemocytes of Chinese mitten crab was 3× L-15 medium, 1,100 mOsm kg(-1), pH 6.8 at 28°C. Hemocytes at optimal culture condition could retain a better morphology and higher survival rate: hemocytes retained a survival rate >60% after 5 d and >40% after 7 d. Furthermore, the hemocyte subpopulations were isolated by Percoll step gradient centrifugation and cultured in optimized hemocyte culture conditions. The results showed that hyalinocytes and semigranulocytes could maintain a survival rate of >50% after 15 d, while granulocytes only retained a survival rate of 26% after 5 d.

  18. Acute kidney damage induced by low- and iso-osmolar contrast media in rats: Comparison study with physiologic MRI and histologic-gene examination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Jiang; Bao, Mei-Ling; Wang, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the physiopathological effects of low- and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) on renal function with physiologic MRI and histologic-gene examination. Forty-eight rats underwent time-course DWI and DCE-MRI at 3.0 Tesla (T) before and 5-15 min after exposure of CM or saline (Iop.370: 370 mgI/mL iopromide; Iod.320: 320 mgI/mL iodixanol; Iod.270: 270 mgI/mL iodixanol; 4 gI/kg body weight). Intrarenal viscosity was reflected by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Renal physiologies were evaluated by DCE-derived glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal blood volume (RBV). Potential acute kidney injury (AKI) was determined by histology and the expression of kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1). Iop.370 mainly increased ADC in inner-medulla (△ADC IM : 12.3 ± 11.1%; P < 0.001). Iod.320 and Iod.270 mainly decreased ADC in outer-medulla (△ADC IM ; Iod.320: 16.8 ± 7.5%; Iod.270: 18.1 ± 9.5%; P < 0.001) and inner-medulla (△ADC IM ; Iod.320: 28.4 ± 9.3%; Iod.270: 30.3 ± 6.3%; P < 0.001). GFR, RBF and RBV were significantly decreased by Iod.320 (△GFR: 45.5 ± 24.1%; △RBF: 44.6 ± 19.0%; △RBV: 35.2 ± 10.1%; P < 0.001) and Iod.270 (33.2 ± 19.0%; 38.1 ± 15.6%; 30.1 ± 10.1%; P < 0.001), while rarely changed by Iop.370 and saline. Formation of vacuoles and increase in Kim-1 expression was prominently detected in group of Iod.320, while rarely in Iod.270 and Iop.370. Iso-osmolar iodixanol, given at high-dose, produced prominent AKI in nonhydrated rats. This renal dysfunction could be assessed noninvasively by physiologic MRI. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:291-302. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Strategies for repair of white matter: influence of osmolarity and microglia on proliferation and apoptosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in different basal culture media.

    PubMed

    Kleinsimlinghaus, Karolina; Marx, Romy; Serdar, Meray; Bendix, Ivo; Dietzel, Irmgard D

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study has been to obtain high yields of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in culture. This is a first step in facilitation of myelin repair. We show that, in addition to factors, known to promote proliferation, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) the choice of the basal medium exerts a significant influence on the yield of OPCs in cultures from newborn rats. During a culture period of up to 9 days we observed larger numbers of surviving cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), and Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium (RPMI) compared with Neurobasal Medium (NB). A larger number of A2B5-positive OPCs was found after 6 days in RPMI based media compared with NB. The percentage of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells was largest in cultures maintained in DMEM and RPMI. The percentage of caspase-3 positive cells was largest in NB, suggesting that this medium inhibits OPC proliferation and favors apoptosis. A difference between NB and DMEM as well as RPMI is the reduced Na(+)-content. The addition of equiosmolar supplements of mannitol or NaCl to NB medium rescued the BrdU-incorporation rate. This suggested that the osmolarity influences the proliferation of OPCs. Plating density as well as residual microglia influence OPC survival, BrdU incorporation, and caspase-3 expression. We found, that high density cultures secrete factors that inhibit BrdU incorporation whereas the presence of additional microglia induces an increase in caspase-3 positive cells, indicative of enhanced apoptosis. An enhanced number of microglia could thus also explain the stronger inhibition of OPC differentiation observed in high density cultures in response to treatment with the cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. We conclude that a maximal yield of OPCs is obtained in a medium of an osmolarity higher than 280 mOsm plated at a relatively low density in the presence of as little microglia as technically

  20. A Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Tmk3 Participates in High Osmolarity Resistance, Cell Wall Integrity Maintenance and Cellulase Production Regulation in Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyu; Zhao, Qiushuang; Yang, Jinghua; Jiang, Baojie; Wang, Fangzhong; Liu, Kuimei; Fang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are important signal transduction pathways conserved in essentially all eukaryotes, but haven't been subjected to functional studies in the most important cellulase-producing filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Previous reports suggested the presence of three MAPKs in T. reesei: Tmk1, Tmk2, and Tmk3. By exploring the phenotypic features of T. reesei Δtmk3, we first showed elevated NaCl sensitivity and repressed transcription of genes involved in glycerol/trehalose biosynthesis under higher osmolarity, suggesting Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance via derepression of genes involved in osmotic stabilizer biosynthesis. We also showed significant downregulation of genes encoding chitin synthases and a β-1,3-glucan synthase, decreased chitin content, ‘budded’ hyphal appearance typical to cell wall defective strains, and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white/Congo red in the tmk3 deficient strain, suggesting Tmk3 is involved in cell wall integrity maintenance in T. reesei. We further observed the decrease of cellulase transcription and production in T. reesei Δtmk3 during submerged cultivation, as well as the presence of MAPK phosphorylation sites on known transcription factors involved in cellulase regulation, suggesting Tmk3 is also involved in the regulation of cellulase production. Finally, the expression of cell wall integrity related genes, the expression of cellulase coding genes, cellulase production and biomass accumulation were compared between T. reesei Δtmk3 grown in solid state media and submerged media, showing a strong restoration effect in solid state media from defects resulted from tmk3 deletion. These results showed novel physiological processes that fungal Hog1-type MAPKs are involved in, and present the first experimental investigation of MAPK signaling pathways in T. reesei. Our observations on the restoration effect during solid state cultivation suggest that T. reesei

  1. Salt-sensitivity of σH and Spo0A prevents sporulation of Bacillus subtilis at high osmolarity avoiding death during cellular differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Widderich, Nils; Rodrigues, Christopher D.A.; Commichau, Fabian M.; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Ramirez-Guadiana, Fernando H.; Rudner, David Z.; Bremer, Erhard

    2016-01-01

    Summary The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis frequently experiences high osmolarity as a result of desiccation in the soil. The formation of a highly desiccation-resistant endospore might serve as a logical osmostress escape route when vegetative growth is no longer possible. However, sporulation efficiency drastically decreases concomitant with an increase in the external salinity. Fluorescence microscopy of sporulation-specific promoter fusions to gfp revealed that high salinity blocks entry into the sporulation pathway at a very early stage. Specifically, we show that both Spo0A- and SigH-dependent transcription are impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the association of SigH with core RNA polymerase is reduced under these conditions. Suppressors that modestly increase sporulation efficiency at high salinity map to the coding region of sigH and in the regulatory region of kinA, encoding one the sensor kinases that activates Spo0A. These findings led us to discover that B. subtilis cells that overproduce KinA can bypass the salt-imposed block in sporulation. Importantly, these cells are impaired in the morphological process of engulfment and late forespore gene expression and frequently undergo lysis. Altogether our data indicate that B. subtilis blocks entry into sporulation in high-salinity environments preventing commitment to a developmental program that it cannot complete. PMID:26712348

  2. Salt-sensitivity of σ(H) and Spo0A prevents sporulation of Bacillus subtilis at high osmolarity avoiding death during cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    Widderich, Nils; Rodrigues, Christopher D A; Commichau, Fabian M; Fischer, Kathleen E; Ramirez-Guadiana, Fernando H; Rudner, David Z; Bremer, Erhard

    2016-04-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis frequently experiences high osmolarity as a result of desiccation in the soil. The formation of a highly desiccation-resistant endospore might serve as a logical osmostress escape route when vegetative growth is no longer possible. However, sporulation efficiency drastically decreases concomitant with an increase in the external salinity. Fluorescence microscopy of sporulation-specific promoter fusions to gfp revealed that high salinity blocks entry into the sporulation pathway at a very early stage. Specifically, we show that both Spo0A- and SigH-dependent transcription are impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the association of SigH with core RNA polymerase is reduced under these conditions. Suppressors that modestly increase sporulation efficiency at high salinity map to the coding region of sigH and in the regulatory region of kinA, encoding one the sensor kinases that activates Spo0A. These findings led us to discover that B. subtilis cells that overproduce KinA can bypass the salt-imposed block in sporulation. Importantly, these cells are impaired in the morphological process of engulfment and late forespore gene expression and frequently undergo lysis. Altogether our data indicate that B. subtilis blocks entry into sporulation in high-salinity environments preventing commitment to a developmental program that it cannot complete. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Re-exposure to low osmolar iodinated contrast media in patients with prior moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reactions: A multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Jung; Park, Jung-Won; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Mi-Yeong; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Nam, Young-Hee; Kim, Gun-Woo; Kim, Sujeong; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Jong-Sook; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of re-exposure to low-osmolar iodinated contrast medium (LOCM) in patients with a history of moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). We retrospectively evaluated a cohort comprising all subjects satisfying the following conditions at 11 centres: (1) experienced a moderate-to-severe HSR to LOCM by December 2014, and (2) underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography after the initial HSR between January 2014 and December 2014. A total of 150 patients with 328 instances of re-exposure were included; the recurrence rate of HSR was 19.5%. Patients with severe initial HSR exhibited a higher recurrence rate of severe HSR compared to patients with moderate initial HSR, despite more intensive premedication. In the multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for recurrence of HSR were diabetes, chronic urticaria, drug allergy other than to iodinated contrast media (ICM) and severe initial HSR. The risk of recurrent HSR was 67.1% lower in cases where the implicated ICM was changed to another one (odds ratio: 0.329; P = 0.001). However, steroid premedication did not show protective effects against recurrent HSR. In high-risk patients who have previously experienced a moderate-to-severe initial HSR to LOCM, we should consider changing the implicated ICM to reduce recurrence risk. • In patients with moderate-to-severe HSR, steroid premedication only shows limited effectiveness. • Changing the implicated ICM can reduce the recurrence of HSR to ICM. • Diabetes, chronic urticaria and drug allergies increase the risk of ICM HSR.

  4. Effect of controlled adverse chamber environment exposure on tear functions in silicon hydrogel and hydrogel soft contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ibrahim, Osama M A; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Ogawa, Junko; Dogru, Murat; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2011-11-11

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of controlled adverse chamber environment (CACE) exposure on tear function, including tear osmolarity, in subjects wearing narafilcon A versus those wearing etafilcon A soft contact lens (SCL). Thirty-one healthy subjects with no history of contact lens wear (13 women, 18 men; average age, 30.5 ± 6.5 years) were randomly divided into age- and sex-matched groups (15 subjects wearing narafilcon A SCL; 16 subjects wearing etafilcon A SCL) and entered a CACE for 20 minutes. All subjects underwent tear osmolarity, tear evaporation rate, strip meniscometry, tear film breakup time, fluorescein vital staining, and functional visual acuity measurement before and after exposure to the controlled adverse chamber. The mean blink rate increased with significant deteriorations in the mean symptom VAS scores, mean tear osmolarity, tear evaporation rate, strip meniscometry score, and tear stability with CACE exposure along with a decrease in visual maintenance ratio in functional visual acuity testing in etafilcon A wearers. The mean symptom VAS scores, mean tear evaporation rate, tear stability, blink rates, and visual maintenance ratios did not change significantly in narafilcon A wearers after CACE exposure. This study suggested marked tear instability, higher tear osmolarity, and increased tear evaporation with marked dry eye and visual symptomatology in nonadapted hydrogel SCL wearers, suggesting that silicone hydrogel SCLs may be suitable for persons who live and work in cool, low-humidity, and windy environments, as tested in this study.

  5. Binding of the Extracellular Eight-Cysteine Motif of Opy2 to the Putative Osmosensor Msb2 Is Essential for Activation of the Yeast High-Osmolarity Glycerol Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To adapt to environmental high osmolarity, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which regulates diverse osmoadaptive responses. Hog1 is activated through the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which consists of independent upstream signaling routes termed the SLN1 branch and the SHO1 branch. Here, we report that the extracellular cysteine-rich (CR) domain of the transmembrane-anchor protein Opy2 binds to the Hkr1-Msb2 homology (HMH) domain of the putative osmosensor Msb2 and that formation of the Opy2-Msb2 complex is essential for osmotic activation of Hog1 through the MSB2 subbranch of the SHO1 branch. By analyzing the phenotypes of mutants with Opy2 cysteine-to-alanine mutations, we deduced that the CR domain forms four intramolecular disulfide bonds. To probe for the potential induction of conformational changes in the Opy2-Msb2 complex by osmostress, we constructed mutants with a site-specific Cys-to-Ala mutation of the Opy2 CR domain and mutants with a Cys substitution of the Msb2 HMH domain. Each of these mutants had a reduced cysteine. These mutants were then combinatorially cross-linked using chemical cross-linkers of different lengths. Cross-linking between Opy2 Cys48 and Msb2 Cys1023 was sensitive to osmotic changes, suggesting that osmostress induced a conformational change. We therefore propose that the Opy2-Msb2 complex might serve as an osmosensor. PMID:26598606

  6. Less iodine injected for the same diagnostic performances: comparison of two low-osmolar contrast agents (iobitridol 350 and iopamidol 370) in coronary angiography and ventriculography: a randomized double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Maríia Teresa; Albarrán, Agustín; Hernández, Felipe; García Tejada, Julio; Zueco, Javier; Andreu, Javier; De la Torre, Jose-María; Figueroa, Alvaro; Sainz, Fermin; Tascón, Juan

    2010-08-01

    Mild reductions in iodine concentration could reduce acute side effects after intraarterial contrast media administration without affecting the quality of coronary artery images. This study was designed to show the equivalence in terms of image quality of two nonionic low-osmolar monomers, iobitridol 350 and iopamidol 370, and to compare their clinical safety in coronary angiography and ventriculography. In this multicentre, double-blind clinical trial, 98 adult patients were randomized to receive either iobitridol 350 or iopamidol 370. The image quality (primary evaluation criterion) of the whole examination was assessed using a 5-point scale (poor, fair, moderate, good, excellent). Secondary endpoints were the image quality per territory, diagnostic efficacy, practical comfort (5-point scale: impossible to evaluate, not practical, moderately practical, practical, very practical to use) and clinical safety (adverse events and vital signs). The proportions of examinations presenting with good or excellent global image quality was similar with both contrast media: 87.8% with iobitridol 350 vs. 89.8% with iopamidol 370. Similar results were observed when considering the image quality specifically for each major coronary artery and left ventricle. No difference between groups was found with respect to other secondary criteria. Adverse events occurred in 7 patients with iobitridol 350 (14.3%) and in 10 patients with iopamidol 370 (20.4%). This study showed that, with regard to image quality and diagnostic efficacy and using a lower iodine concentration, iobitridol 350 was comparable to iopamidol 370 in adult patients requiring coronary angiography and ventriculography for diagnostic indications.

  7. Protein kinase FgSch9 serves as a mediator of the target of rapamycin and high osmolarity glycerol pathways and regulates multiple stress responses and secondary metabolism in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Zhang, Chengqi; Yu, Fangwei; Yin, Yanni; Shim, Won-Bo; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Sch9 is one of the downstream effectors of the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 1 and plays multiple roles in stress resistance, longevity and nutrient sensing. However, the functions of Sch9 orthologs in filamentous fungi, particularly in pathogenic species, have not been characterized to date. Here, we investigated biological and genetic functions of FgSch9 in Fusarium graminearum. The FgSCH9 deletion mutant (ΔFgSch9) was defective in aerial hyphal growth, hyphal branching and conidial germination. The mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses, cell wall-damaging agents, and to rapamycin, while showing increased thermal tolerance. We identified FgMaf1 as one of the FgSch9-interacting proteins that plays an important role in regulating mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence of F. graminearum. Co-immunoprecipitation and affinity capture-mass spectrometry assays showed that FgSch9 also interacts with FgTor and FgHog1. More importantly, both ΔFgSch9 and FgHog1 null mutant (ΔFgHog1) exhibited increased sensitivity to osmotic and oxidative stresses. This defect was more severe in the FgSch9/FgHog1 double mutant. Taken together, we propose that FgSch9 serves as a mediator of the TOR and high osmolarity glycerol pathways, and regulates vegetative differentiation, multiple stress responses and secondary metabolism in F. graminearum. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The MAPKK FgMkk1 of Fusarium graminearum regulates vegetative differentiation, multiple stress response, and virulence via the cell wall integrity and high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yingzi; Liu, Zunyong; Zhang, Jingze; Shim, Won-Bo; Chen, Yun; Ma, Zhonghua

    2014-07-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play crucial roles in regulating fungal development, growth and pathogenicity, and in responses to the environment. In this study, we characterized a MAP kinase kinase FgMkk1 in Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of wheat head blight. Phenotypic analyses of the FgMKK1 mutant (ΔFgMKK1) showed that FgMkk1 is involved in the regulation of hyphal growth, pigmentation, conidiation, deoxynivalenol biosynthesis and virulence of F. graminearum. ΔFgMKK1 also showed increased sensitivity to cell wall-damaging agents, and to osmotic and oxidative stresses, but exhibited decreased sensitivity to the fungicides iprodione and fludioxonil. In addition, the mutant revealed increased sensitivity to a biocontrol agent, Trichoderma atroviride. Western blot assays revealed that FgMkk1 positively regulates phosphorylation of the MAP kinases Mgv1 and FgOs-2, the key component in the cell wall integrity (CWI) and high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signalling pathway respectively. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that Mgv1 interacts with a transcription factor FgRlm1. The FgRLM1 mutant (ΔFgRLM1) showed increased sensitivity to cell wall-damaging agents and exhibited decreased virulence. Taken together, our data indicated that FgMkk1 is an upstream component of Mgv1, and regulates vegetative differentiation, multiple stress response and virulence via the CWI and HOG signalling pathways. FgRlm1 may be a downstream component of Mgv1 in the CWI pathway in F. graminearum. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The influence of polymeric excipients on the process of pharmaceutical availability of therapeutic agents from a model drug form. Part I. In formulations with controlled disintegration and release time.

    PubMed

    Nachajski, Michal Jakub; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2010-01-01

    Pre-formulation research was conducted on the application of Ex. Echinaceae aq. siccum in the production of a quickly disintegrating suspension tablet, a lozenge with kariostatic sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), and, above all, a solid drug form with controlled release of therapeutic agents included in the extract. Morphological parameters of tablets obtained in the course of experiment were estimated and the profiles of the release (diffusion) ofhydrophilic therapeutic agents into model receptor fluids with varying values of osmolarity (0.1 mol HCl approximately 200 mOsm/l, hypotonic hydrating fluid approximately 143 mOsm/l, and compensatory paediatric fluid approximately 272 mOsm/l) were examined. The study focused on the technological problem of determining the effect of hydrogel Carbopol structure on the ordering of diffusion ofhydrophilic therapeutic agents from a model drug form (a tablet) into model fluids with variable osmolarity.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Continuous Micro-Pump Infusion of 3% Hypertonic Saline combined with Furosemide to Control Elevated Intracranial Pressure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuqian; Li, Zhihong; Li, Min; Yang, Yanlong; Wang, Bao; Gao, Li; Zhang, Xingye; Cheng, Hongyu; Fang, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Boliang; Gao, Guodong; Li, Lihong

    2015-06-17

    Elevated intracranial pressure is one of the most common problems in patients with diverse intracranial disorders, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Effective management for increased intracranial pressure is based mainly on surgical and medical techniques with hyperosmolar therapy as one of the core medical treatments. The study aimed to explore the effects of continuous micro-pump infusions of 3% hypertonic saline combined with furosemide on intracranial pressure control. We analyzed data on 56 eligible participants with intracranial pressure >20 mmHg from March 2013 to July 2014. The target was to increase and maintain plasma sodium to a level between 145 and 155 mmol/L and osmolarity to a level of 310 to 320 mOsmol/kg. Plasma sodium levels significantly increased from 138±5 mmol/L at admission to 151±3 mmol/L at 24 h (P<0.01). Osmolarity increased from 282±11 mOsmol/kg at baseline to 311±8 mOsmol/kg at 24 h (P<0.01). Intracranial pressure significantly decreased from 32±7 mmHg to 15±6 mmHg at 24 h (P<0.01). There was a significant improvement in CPP (P<0.01). Moreover, central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure, and Glasgow Coma Scale slightly increased. However, these changes were not statistically significant. Continuous infusion of 3% hypertonic saline + furosemide is effective and safe for intracranial pressure control.

  11. Commandeering Channel Voltage Sensors for Secretion, Cell Turgor, and Volume Control.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Rucha; Waghmare, Sakharam; Zhang, Ben; Larson, Emily; Lefoulon, Cécile; Gonzalez, Wendy; Blatt, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Control of cell volume and osmolarity is central to cellular homeostasis in all eukaryotes. It lies at the heart of the century-old problem of how plants regulate turgor, mineral and water transport. Plants use strongly electrogenic H + -ATPases, and the substantial membrane voltages they foster, to drive solute accumulation and generate turgor pressure for cell expansion. Vesicle traffic adds membrane surface and contributes to wall remodelling as the cell grows. Although a balance between vesicle traffic and ion transport is essential for cell turgor and volume control, the mechanisms coordinating these processes have remained obscure. Recent discoveries have now uncovered interactions between conserved subsets of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins that drive the final steps in secretory vesicle traffic and ion channels that mediate in inorganic solute uptake. These findings establish the core of molecular links, previously unanticipated, that coordinate cellular homeostasis and cell expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-Sodium Versus Standard-Sodium Peritoneal Dialysis Solution in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Bolesław; Tam, Paul; van der Sande, Frank M; Vychytil, Andreas; Schwenger, Vedat; Himmele, Rainer; Gauly, Adelheid

    2016-05-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions with reduced sodium content may have advantages for hypertensive patients; however, they have lower osmolarity and solvent drag, so the achieved Kt/Vurea may be lower. Furthermore, the increased transperitoneal membrane sodium gradient can influence sodium balance with consequences for blood pressure (BP) control. Prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial to prove the noninferiority of total weekly Kt/Vurea with low-sodium versus standard-sodium PD solution, with the lower confidence limit above the clinically accepted difference of -0.5. Hypertensive patients (≥ 1 antihypertensive drug, including diuretics, or office systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg) on continuous ambulatory PD therapy from 17 sites. 108 patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to 6-month treatments with either low-sodium (125 mmol/L of sodium; 1.5%, 2.3%, or 4.25% glucose; osmolarity, 338-491 mOsm/L) or standard-sodium (134 mmol/L of sodium; 1.5%, 2.3%, or 4.25% glucose; osmolarity, 356-509 mOsm/L) PD solution. Primary end point: weekly total Kt/Vurea; secondary outcomes: BP control, safety, and tolerability. Total Kt/Vurea was determined from 24-hour dialysate and urine collection; BP, by office measurement. Total Kt/Vurea after 12 weeks was 2.53 ± 0.89 in the low-sodium group (n = 40) and 2.97 ± 1.58 in the control group (n = 42). The noninferiority of total Kt/Vurea could not be confirmed. There was no difference for peritoneal Kt/Vurea (1.70 ± 0.38 with low sodium, 1.77 ± 0.44 with standard sodium), but there was a difference in renal Kt/Vurea (0.83 ± 0.80 with low sodium, 1.20 ± 1.54 with standard sodium). Mean daily sodium removal with dialysate at week 12 was 1.188 g higher in the low-sodium group (P < 0.001). BP changed marginally with standard-sodium solution, but decreased with low-sodium PD solution, resulting in less antihypertensive medication. Broader variability of study population than anticipated, particularly regarding residual kidney

  13. Comparison of ionic, monomer, high osmolar contrast media with non-ionic, dimer, iso-osmolar contrast media in ERCP.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawashima, Yohei; Mizukami, Hajime; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2013-09-20

    Pancreatitis is the most common and serious complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Several studies have compared contrast media (CM) with different osmolalities, but the results are conflicting. We conducted this study to clarify the difference between 2 CM used in ERCP. Five hundred and seventy-six patients were examined by using ERCP in our hospital during 2010. Out of these, 56 patients were enrolled in this study. We investigated the incidence of post ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and hyperamylasemia. Serum amylase levels were compared in the 2 groups. Twenty-seven patients were treated with iodixanol and 29 with diatrizoate meglumine Na. The rate of PEP in the diatrizoate meglumine Na group and iodixanol group was 0% (0/29) and 7.4% (2/27), respectively (P = 0.228). The rate of hyperamylasemia was 10.3% (3/29) and 14.8% (4/27), respectively (P = 0.70). There were no significant differences between two groups for amylase levels pre-procedure (P = 0.082), 3 h post procedure (P = 0.744), or next morning (P = 0.265). There were no significant differences in the rates of PEP or hyperamylasemia between CMs in ERCP. We believe it is unnecessary to use the more expensive low osmolality CM in ERCP to prevent PEP.

  14. [Efficacy of the subcutaneous route compared to intravenous hydration in the elderly hospitalised patient: a randomised controlled study].

    PubMed

    Duems Noriega, Oscar; Ariño Blasco, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The subcutaneous (SC) route has recently emerged as a rehydration method with potential advantages in the geriatric population. Nevertheless, little is known about its application during hospitalization. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the subcutaneous non-inferiority efficacy in hydration against the intravenous (IV) route in elderly patients with dehydration. A prospective, randomized and controlled interventional trial of patients 65 years and older admitted to an Acute Geriatric Unit with mild to moderate dehydration and oral intolerance, evaluating the non-inferiority of subcutaneous fluid therapy versus the intravenous route. The intervention consisted of the administration of up to 1.5 l/day/route for 72 hours subcutaneous vs. intravenous, evaluating the variations in biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, osmolarity), clinical outcome, and route related complications. Sixty seven patients completed the study (34 SC, age 86.4 ± 8.5 years, 41% women, vs. 33 IV, 84.3 ± 6.6, 54.5% women, with no significant differences). The amount of fluid administered per day by route was 1.320 ml ± 400 SC vs. 1.480 ml ± 340 IV, P = .092. During follow similar reductions were observed between groups without any statistical significance, with mean differences pre-postintervention of urea (49.6 ± 52.3 SC vs. 50.3 ± 52.3 IV, P=.96); creatinine (0.68 ± 0.66 SC vs. 0.60 ± 0.49 IV, P=.58), and osmolarity (15.6 ± 24.4 SC vs. 21.1 ± 31 IV, P=.43). Fewer catheter extraction episodes were observed in the SC group, which also was the group most prone to peri-clysis edema. The efficacy of subcutaneous rehydration in elderly hospitalized patients with mild-moderate dehydration is not inferior to that obtained intravenously, and may even have additional advantages. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Randomised controlled trial of topical antibacterial Manuka (Leptospermum species) honey for evaporative dry eye due to meibomian gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Albietz, Julie M; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of standardised Manuka (Leptospermum species) antibacterial honey as adjunctive twice daily treatment to conventional therapy (warm compresses, lid massage and preservative-free lubricant), in participants with evaporative dry eye due to moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction. This prospective, open-label study involved 114 participants. After two weeks of conventional therapy participants were randomised to one of three treatment groups: Optimel Antibacterial Manuka Eye Gel (98 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37), Optimel Manuka plus Lubricant Eye Drops (16 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37) and a control (conventional therapy) (n = 40). Clinical evaluations performed at baseline and Week 8 included: symptom scores (Ocular Surface Disease Index, Ocular Comfort Index), daily lubricant use, tear assessments (break-up time, secretion, osmolarity and InflammaDry), corneal sensation, ocular surface staining, meibomian gland secretion quality and expressibility, bulbar conjunctival, limbal and lid marginal redness and eyelid marginal bacterial cultures and colony counts. Significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) occurred at Week 8 in symptoms, tear break-up time, staining, tear osmolarity, meibum quality and bulbar, limbal and lid margin redness for all treatments. Improvement in staining was significantly greater with Optimel 16 per cent drops (p = 0.035). Significant improvements (p < 0.05) in meibomian gland expressibility and InflammaDry occurred for both Optimel treatments. Optimel 98 per cent gel was significantly more effective in improving meibum quality (p = 0.005) and gland expressibility (p = 0.042). Total eyelid marginal bacterial colony counts reduced significantly with Optimel 16 per cent drops (p = 0.03) but not the other treatments. Staphylococcus epidermidis counts reduced significantly with Optimel 16

  16. A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Two Forms of Omega-3 Supplements for Treating Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Deinema, Laura A; Vingrys, Algis J; Wong, Chinn Yi; Jackson, David C; Chinnery, Holly R; Downie, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of 2 forms of oral long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) essential fatty acid (EFA) supplements, phospholipid (krill oil) and triacylglyceride (fish oil), for treating dry eye disease (DED). Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was conducted at a single site and involved 60 participants with mild to moderate DED who were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 groups: placebo (olive oil), krill oil, or fish oil supplements. Participants received 1 of the 3 interventions: placebo (olive oil 1500 mg/day), krill oil (945 mg/day eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], + 510 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), or fish oil (1000 mg/day EPA + 500 mg/day DHA) for 90 days, with monthly study visits. Primary outcome measures were mean change in (1) tear osmolarity and (2) DED symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] score) between days 1 and 90. Secondary outcomes included mean change in key clinical signs (tear stability, tear production, ocular surface staining, bulbar and limbal redness, tear volume, anterior blepharitis, meibomian gland capping) and tear inflammatory cytokine levels. In total, 54 participants completed the study. At day 90, tear osmolarity was reduced from baseline with both krill oil (mean ± standard error of the mean: -18.6±4.5 mOsmol/l; n = 18; P < 0.001) and fish oil (-19.8±3.9 mOsmol/l; n = 19; P < 0.001) supplements, compared with placebo (-1.5±4.4 mOsmol/l; n = 17). OSDI score was significantly reduced at day 90 relative to baseline in the krill oil group only, compared with placebo (-18.6±2.4 vs. -10.5±3.3; P = 0.02). At day 90, there were also relative improvements in tear breakup time and ocular bulbar redness, compared with placebo, for both forms of ω-3 EFAs. Basal tear levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17A were significantly reduced in the krill oil group, compared with placebo, at day 90 (-27.1±10.9 vs. 46.5±30.4 pg/ml; P = 0.02). A moderate daily dose of both forms of long

  17. Rtt109-dependent histone H3 K56 acetylation and gene activity are essential for the biological control potential of Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Wang, Juan-Juan; Shao, Wei; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2018-04-27

    Rtt109 is a histone acetyltransferase that catalyzes histone H3K56 acetylation required for genomic stability, DNA damage repair and virulence-related gene activity in yeast-like human pathogens but remains functionally unknown in fungal insect pathogens. This study seeks to elucidate catalytic activity of Rtt109 orthologue and its possible role in sustaining biological control potential of Beauveria bassiana, a fungal entomopathogen. Deletion of rtt109 in B. bassiana abolished histone H3K56 acetylation and triggered histone H2A-S129 phosphorylation. Consequently, the deletion mutant showed increased sensitivities to the stresses of DNA damage, oxidation, cell wall perturbation, high osmolarity and heat shock during colony growth, severe conidiation defects under normal culture conditions, reduced conidial hydrophobicity, decreased conidial UV-B resistance, and attenuated virulence through normal cuticle infection. These phenotypic changes correlated well with reduced transcript levels of many genes, which encode the families of H2A-S129 dephosphorylation-related protein phosphotases, DNA damage-repairing factors, antioxidant enzymes, heat-shock proteins, key developmental activators, hydrophobins and cuticle-degrading Pr1 proteases respectively. Rtt109 can acetylate H3K56 and dephosphorylate H2A-S129 in direct and indirect manners respectively, and hence plays an essential role in sustaining genomic stability and global gene activity required for conidiation capacity, environmental fitness and pest-control potential in B. bassiana. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Your sexuality Birth control Birth control Birth control (also called contraception) may seem confusing ... What do I need to know about birth control? top The more you know about birth control, ...

  19. Effect of medium osmolarity and taurine on neuritic outgrowth from goldfish retinal explants.

    PubMed

    Cubillán, Lisbeth; Obregón, Francisco; Lima, Lucimey

    2009-01-01

    Taurine stimulates outgrowth of goldfish retinal explants in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, an effect related to calcium movement and protein phosphorylation. Since taurine is an osmoregulator in the central nervous system, and osmolality might influence regeneration, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the possible effect of hypo-osmolality on basal outgrowth and on the trophic action of the amino acid. Accordingly, goldfish retinal explants obtained after crushing the optic nerve were cultured in iso- and hypo-osmotic medium, the latter achieved by diluting the medium 10% 24 and 72 h after plating. The length and density of the neurites, measured after 5 days in culture, were significantly lower in the hypo- than in the iso-osmotic medium. Taurine stimulated the outgrowth under both conditions, but the percentage of increase was greater in iso-osmotic medium. Taurine concentration, determined by HPLC, did not significantly change in explants. Co-administration of beta-alanine and taurine impaired the trophic effect of taurine to a greater extent in the iso- than in hypo-osmotic medium, indicating a possible differential interaction with the taurine transporter which could be altered by osmotic stress. The exact mechanism of outgrowth regulation by hypotonicity requires further clarification, taking into considering possible modification of the taurine transporter.

  20. Dream controller

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  1. Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  2. Mosquito Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life Cycle Information from ... Repellent that is Right for You DEET Mosquito Control Methods Success in mosquito control: an integrated approach ...

  3. Propulsion controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkney, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Increased system requirements and functional integration with the aircraft have placed an increased demand on control system capability and reliability. To provide these at an affordable cost and weight and because of the rapid advances in electronic technology, hydromechanical systems are being phased out in favor of digital electronic systems. The transition is expected to be orderly from electronic trimming of hydromechanical controls to full authority digital electronic control. Future propulsion system controls will be highly reliable full authority digital electronic with selected component and circuit redundancy to provide the required safety and reliability. Redundancy may include a complete backup control of a different technology for single engine applications. The propulsion control will be required to communicate rapidly with the various flight and fire control avionics as part of an integrated control concept.

  4. Irrigation Controllers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With proper installation, programming, and maintenance, homeowners and businesses can use WaterSense labeled controllers instead of standard clock-timer controllers on their existing systems, and no longer worry about wasted water.

  5. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  6. Restructurable Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J. (Compiler); Howell, W. E. (Compiler); Bundick, W. T. (Compiler); Ostroff, A. J. (Compiler); Hueschen, R. M. (Compiler); Belcastro, C. M. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Restructurable control system theory, robust reconfiguration for high reliability and survivability for advanced aircraft, restructurable controls problem definition and research, experimentation, system identification methods applied to aircraft, a self-repairing digital flight control system, and state-of-the-art theory application are addressed.

  7. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  8. Genetic control of osmoadaptive glycine betaine synthesis in Bacillus subtilis through the choline-sensing and glycine betaine-responsive GbsR repressor.

    PubMed

    Nau-Wagner, Gabriele; Opper, Daniela; Rolbetzki, Anne; Boch, Jens; Kempf, Bettina; Hoffmann, Tamara; Bremer, Erhard

    2012-05-01

    Synthesis of the compatible solute glycine betaine confers a considerable degree of osmotic stress tolerance to Bacillus subtilis. This osmoprotectant is produced through the uptake of the precursor choline via the osmotically inducible OpuB and OpuC ABC transporters and a subsequent two-step oxidation process by the GbsB and GbsA enzymes. We characterized a regulatory protein, GbsR, controlling the transcription of both the structural genes for the glycine betaine biosynthetic enzymes (gbsAB) and those for the choline-specific OpuB transporter (opuB) but not of that for the promiscuous OpuC transporter. GbsR acts genetically as a repressor and functions as an intracellular choline sensor. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified GbsR protein showed that it binds the inducer choline with an apparent K(D) (equilibrium dissociation constant) of approximately 165 μM. Based on the X-ray structure of a protein (Mj223) from Methanococcus jannaschii, a homology model for GbsR was derived. Inspection of this GbsR in silico model revealed a possible ligand-binding pocket for choline resembling those of known choline-binding sites present in solute receptors of microbial ABC transporters, e.g., that of the OpuBC ligand-binding protein of the OpuB ABC transporter. GbsR was not only needed to control gbsAB and opuB expression in response to choline availability but also required to genetically tune down glycine betaine production once cellular adjustment to high osmolarity has been achieved. The GbsR regulatory protein from B. subtilis thus records and integrates cellular and environmental signals for both the onset and the repression of the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine.

  9. Osmotic Control of opuA Expression in Bacillus subtilis and Its Modulation in Response to Intracellular Glycine Betaine and Proline Pools

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tamara; Wensing, Annette; Brosius, Margot; Steil, Leif; Völker, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Glycine betaine is an effective osmoprotectant for Bacillus subtilis. Its import into osmotically stressed cells led to the buildup of large pools, whose size was sensitively determined by the degree of the osmotic stress imposed. The amassing of glycine betaine caused repression of the formation of an osmostress-adaptive pool of proline, the only osmoprotectant that B. subtilis can synthesize de novo. The ABC transporter OpuA is the main glycine betaine uptake system of B. subtilis. Expression of opuA was upregulated in response to both sudden and sustained increases in the external osmolarity. Nonionic osmolytes exerted a stronger inducing effect on transcription than ionic osmolytes, and this was reflected in the development of corresponding OpuA-mediated glycine betaine pools. Primer extension analysis and site-directed mutagenesis pinpointed the osmotically controlled opuA promoter. Deviations from the consensus sequence of SigA-type promoters serve to keep the transcriptional activity of the opuA promoter low in the absence of osmotic stress. opuA expression was downregulated in a finely tuned manner in response to increases in the intracellular glycine betaine pool, regardless of whether this osmoprotectant was imported or was newly synthesized from choline. Such an effect was also exerted by carnitine, an effective osmoprotectant for B. subtilis that is not a substrate for the OpuA transporter. opuA expression was upregulated in a B. subtilis mutant that was unable to synthesize proline in response to osmotic stress. Collectively, our data suggest that the intracellular solute pool is a key determinant for the osmotic control of opuA expression. PMID:23175650

  10. Genetic Control of Osmoadaptive Glycine Betaine Synthesis in Bacillus subtilis through the Choline-Sensing and Glycine Betaine-Responsive GbsR Repressor

    PubMed Central

    Nau-Wagner, Gabriele; Opper, Daniela; Rolbetzki, Anne; Boch, Jens; Kempf, Bettina; Hoffmann, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of the compatible solute glycine betaine confers a considerable degree of osmotic stress tolerance to Bacillus subtilis. This osmoprotectant is produced through the uptake of the precursor choline via the osmotically inducible OpuB and OpuC ABC transporters and a subsequent two-step oxidation process by the GbsB and GbsA enzymes. We characterized a regulatory protein, GbsR, controlling the transcription of both the structural genes for the glycine betaine biosynthetic enzymes (gbsAB) and those for the choline-specific OpuB transporter (opuB) but not of that for the promiscuous OpuC transporter. GbsR acts genetically as a repressor and functions as an intracellular choline sensor. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified GbsR protein showed that it binds the inducer choline with an apparent KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) of approximately 165 μM. Based on the X-ray structure of a protein (Mj223) from Methanococcus jannaschii, a homology model for GbsR was derived. Inspection of this GbsR in silico model revealed a possible ligand-binding pocket for choline resembling those of known choline-binding sites present in solute receptors of microbial ABC transporters, e.g., that of the OpuBC ligand-binding protein of the OpuB ABC transporter. GbsR was not only needed to control gbsAB and opuB expression in response to choline availability but also required to genetically tune down glycine betaine production once cellular adjustment to high osmolarity has been achieved. The GbsR regulatory protein from B. subtilis thus records and integrates cellular and environmental signals for both the onset and the repression of the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine. PMID:22408163

  11. Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Boeing Commercial Airplane Company's Flight Control Department engineers relied on Langley developed software package known as ORACLS to develop an advanced control synthesis package for both continuous and discrete control system. Package was used by Boeing for computerized analysis of new system designs. Resulting applications include a multiple input/output control system for the terrain-following navigation equipment of the Air Forces B-1 Bomber, and another for controlling in flight changes of wing camber on an experimental airplane. ORACLS is one of 1,300 computer programs available from COSMIC.

  12. Control Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Real-Time Innovations, Inc. (RTI) collaborated with Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Stanford University to leverage NASA research to produce ControlShell software. RTI is the first "graduate" of Ames Research Center's Technology Commercialization Center. The ControlShell system was used extensively on a cooperative project to enhance the capabilities of a Russian-built Marsokhod rover being evaluated for eventual flight to Mars. RTI's ControlShell is complex, real-time command and control software, capable of processing information and controlling mechanical devices. One ControlShell tool is StethoScope. As a real-time data collection and display tool, StethoScope allows a user to see how a program is running without changing its execution. RTI has successfully applied its software savvy in other arenas, such as telecommunications, networking, video editing, semiconductor manufacturing, automobile systems, and medical imaging.

  13. Voltage Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Power Efficiency Corporation, specifically formed to manufacture and develop products from NASA technology, has a license to a three-phase power factor controller originally developed by Frank Nola, an engineer at Marshall Space Flight Center. Power Efficiency and two major distributors, Performance Control and Edison Power Technologies, use the electronic control boards to assemble three different motor controllers: Power Commander, Performance Controller, and Energy Master. The company Power Factor Controller reduces excessive energy waste in AC induction motors. It is used in industries and applications where motors operate under variable loads, including elevators and escalators, machine tools, intake and exhaust fans, oil wells, conveyors, pumps, die casting, and compressors. Customer lists include companies such as May Department Stores, Caesars Atlantic City, Ford Motors, and American Axle.

  14. Power Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) senses shifts in the relationship between voltage and current, and matches them with a motor's need. This prevents waste as motors do not need a high voltage when they are not operating at full load conditions. PFC is manufactured by Nordic Controls Company, among others, and has proved extremely cost effective.

  15. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Matras, S.

    1963-04-30

    This patent shows a method of making a fuel or control rod for a nuclear reactor. Fuel or control material is placed within a tube and plugs of porous metal wool are inserted at both ends. The metal wool is then compacted and the tube compressed around it as by swaging, thereby making the plugs liquid- impervious but gas-pervious. (AEC)

  16. Environmental Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Helen, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental control units, or ECUs, are devices or systems which allow for alternate access to electronic or electrical devices and those objects, like draperies and doors, which may be adapted for use with electricity. Such devices offer the person with a mobility limitation the opportunity to control his or her environment, thus enhancing the…

  17. Controlling chimeras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bick, Christian; Martens, Erik A.

    2015-03-01

    Coupled phase oscillators model a variety of dynamical phenomena in nature and technological applications. Non-local coupling gives rise to chimera states which are characterized by a distinct part of phase-synchronized oscillators while the remaining ones move incoherently. Here, we apply the idea of control to chimera states: using gradient dynamics to exploit drift of a chimera, it will attain any desired target position. Through control, chimera states become functionally relevant; for example, the controlled position of localized synchrony may encode information and perform computations. Since functional aspects are crucial in (neuro-)biology and technology, the localized synchronization of a chimera state becomes accessible to develop novel applications. Based on gradient dynamics, our control strategy applies to any suitable observable and can be generalized to arbitrary dimensions. Thus, the applicability of chimera control goes beyond chimera states in non-locally coupled systems.

  18. Detonation control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2016-10-25

    Detonation control modules and detonation control circuits are provided herein. A trigger input signal can cause a detonation control module to trigger a detonator. A detonation control module can include a timing circuit, a light-producing diode such as a laser diode, an optically triggered diode, and a high-voltage capacitor. The trigger input signal can activate the timing circuit. The timing circuit can control activation of the light-producing diode. Activation of the light-producing diode illuminates and activates the optically triggered diode. The optically triggered diode can be coupled between the high-voltage capacitor and the detonator. Activation of the optically triggered diode causes a power pulse to be released from the high-voltage capacitor that triggers the detonator.

  19. Controller for thermostatically controlled loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Ning; Zhang, Yu; Du, Pengwei; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2016-06-07

    A system and method of controlling aggregated thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) for demand response is disclosed. A targeted load profile is formulated and a forecasted load profile is generated. The TCAs within an "on" or "off" control group are prioritized based on their operating temperatures. The "on" or "off" status of the TCAs is determined. Command signals are sent to turn on or turn off the TCAs.

  20. Drug Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviton, Harvey S.

    1975-01-01

    This article attempts to assemble pertinent information about the drug problem, particularily marihuana. It also focuses on the need for an educational program for drug control with the public schools as the main arena. (Author/HMV)

  1. CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.; Ross, H.V.

    1958-11-18

    A control rod is described for a nuclear reactor. In certaln reactor designs it becomes desirable to use a control rod having great width but relatively llttle thickness. This patent is addressed to such a need. The neutron absorbing material is inserted in a triangular tube, leaving volds between the circular insert and the corners of the triangular tube. The material is positioned within the tube by the use of dummy spacers to achleve the desired absorption pattern, then the ends of the tubes are sealed with suitable plugs. The tubes may be welded or soldered together to form two flat surfaces of any desired width, and covered with sheetmetal to protect the tubes from damage. This design provides a control member that will not distort under the action of outside forces or be ruptured by gases generated within the jacketed control member.

  2. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  3. CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Shannon, R.H.; Williamson, H.E.

    1962-10-30

    A boiling water type nuclear reactor power system having improved means of control is described. These means include provisions for either heating the coolant-moderator prior to entry into the reactor or shunting the coolantmoderator around the heating means in response to the demand from the heat engine. These provisions are in addition to means for withdrawing the control rods from the reactor. (AEC)

  4. Airspace Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    This Doctrine Update highlights the revision of AFDD 3-52, Airspace Control, dated 2 February 2011. The AFDD was substantially revised...and must be completely reviewed. The format of the publication was changed to adhere to the LeMay Center doctrine document template and increases the...particular airspace control considerations in crisis response and in limited contingency operations. (Page 30) • Introducing to Air Force doctrine

  5. Decentralized control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Chris

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the time-delay problem and the reliability problem which arise in trying to perform robotic construction operations at a remote space location are presented. The effects of the time-delay upon the control system design will be itemized. A high level overview of a decentralized method of control which is expected to perform better than the centralized approach in solving the time-delay problem is given. The lower level, decentralized, autonomous, Troter Move-Bar algorithm is also presented (Troters are coordinated independent robots). The solution of the reliability problem is connected to adding redundancy to the system. One method of adding redundancy is given.

  6. Helicopter Controllability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    106 3. Program CC Systems Technology, Inc. (STI) of Hawthorne, CA., develops and markets PC control system analysis and design software including...is marketed in Palo Alto, Ca., by Applied i and can be used for both linear and non- linear control system analysis. Using TUTSIM involves developing...gravity centroid ( ucg ) can be calculated as 112 n m pi - 2 zi acg n i (7-5) where pi = poles zi = zeroes n = number of poles m = number of zeroes If K

  7. The transcriptional regulator, CosR, controls compatible solute biosynthesis and transport, motility and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Shikuma, Nicholas J; Davis, Kimberly R; Fong, Jiunn N C; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2013-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae inhabits aquatic environments and colonizes the human digestive tract to cause the disease cholera. In these environments, V. cholerae copes with fluctuations in salinity and osmolarity by producing and transporting small, organic, highly soluble molecules called compatible solutes, which counteract extracellular osmotic pressure. Currently, it is unclear how V. cholerae regulates the expression of genes important for the biosynthesis or transport of compatible solutes in response to changing salinity or osmolarity conditions. Through a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the salinity response of V. cholerae, we identified a transcriptional regulator we name CosR for compatible solute regulator. The expression of cosR is regulated by ionic strength and not osmolarity. A transcriptome analysis of a ΔcosR mutant revealed that CosR represses genes involved in ectoine biosynthesis and compatible solute transport in a salinity-dependent manner. When grown in salinities similar to estuarine environments, CosR activates biofilm formation and represses motility independently of its function as an ectoine regulator. This is the first study to characterize a compatible solute regulator in V. cholerae and couples the regulation of osmotic tolerance with biofilm formation and motility. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Transcriptional Regulator, CosR, Controls Compatible Solute Biosynthesis and Transport, Motility and Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Shikuma, Nicholas J.; Davis, Kimberly R.; Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Vibrio cholerae inhabits aquatic environments and colonizes the human digestive tract to cause the disease cholera. In these environments, V. cholerae copes with fluctuations in salinity and osmolarity by producing and transporting small, organic, highly soluble molecules called compatible solutes, which counteract extracellular osmotic pressure. Currently, it is unclear how V. cholerae regulates the expression of genes important for the biosynthesis or transport of compatible solutes in response to changing salinity or osmolarity conditions. Through a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of the salinity response of V. cholerae, we identified a transcriptional regulator we name CosR for compatible solute regulator. The expression of cosR is regulated by ionic strength and not osmolarity. A transcriptome analysis of a ΔcosR mutant revealed that CosR represses genes involved in ectoine biosynthesis and compatible solute transport in a salinity-dependent manner. When grown in salinities similar to estuarine environments, CosR activates biofilm formation and represses motility independently of its function as an ectoine regulator. This is the first study to characterize a compatible solute regulator in V. cholerae and couples the regulation of osmotic tolerance with biofilm formation and motility. PMID:22690884

  9. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  10. Under Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLawhorn, Kerry

    2001-01-01

    Explains how the Scotland County School District in Laurinburg, North Carolina, tackled the problem of controlling building and room keys for fifteen K-12 schools and 7,000 students by marrying a computerized records management system for key tracking with a patented hardware system that produces keys that can't be duplicated. (GR)

  11. Vehicle Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    UNISTICK is an airplane-like joystick being developed by Johnson Engineering under NASA and VA sponsorship. It allows a driver to control a vehicle with one hand, and is based upon technology developed for the Apollo Lunar Landings of the 1970's. It allows severely handicapped drivers to operate an automobile or van easily. The system is expected to be in production by March 1986.

  12. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  13. Effect of iodinated low-osmolar contrast media on the hemostatic system after intraarterial and intravenous contrast administration.

    PubMed

    Lukasiewicz, A; Lebkowska, U; Galar, M

    2012-01-01

    Some of the adverse clinical effects of intravascular radiological contrast agents include the interference of these contrast media with normal hemostatic processes. The aim of this report was to investigate in vivo whether a non-ionic iodinated contrast agent possess prothrombotic or anticoagulant properties. Hemostatic parameters: vWF (von Willebrand factor), F1+2 (prothrombin fragments 1+2), TAT (thrombin-antithrombin complexes), D-Dimer, β-TG (beta-thromboglobulin) were measured in a group of 35 patients. Blood samples for laboratory investigations were collected before and 30 min after the administration of a iodine contrast agent. There was observed statistically highly significant contrast-induced increase in TAT and F1+2 (p = 0.005 and p = 0.008, respectively). D-Dimer increase and decrease of β-TG and vWF after contrast medium administration were non significant. The volume of contrast medium has no influence on the assessed hemostatic parameters, while the type of contrast medium and/or the route of the contrast administration may significantly affect hemostatic parameters. We found significant effects of non-ionic agents on hemostatic activation. These effects may be important for adverse reactions and for thromboembolic complications.

  14. Dimethyl adenosine transferase (KsgA) deficiency in Salmonella Enteritidis confers susceptibility to high osmolarity and virulence attenuation in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Dimethyladenosine transferase (KsgA) performs diverse roles in bacteria including ribosomal maturation, DNA mismatch repair, and synthesis of KsgA is responsive to antibiotics and cold temperature. We previously showed that ksgA mutation in Salmonella Enteritidis results in impaired invasiveness i...

  15. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  16. Heliostat control

    DOEpatents

    Kaehler, James A.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in a system and method of controlling heliostat in which the heliostat is operable in azimuth and elevation by respective stepper motors and including the respective steps or means for calculating the position for the heliostat to be at a commanded position, determining the number of steps in azimuth and elevation for each respective motor to get to the commanded position and energizing both the azimuth and elevation stepper motors to run in parallel until predetermined number of steps away from the closest commanded position in azimuth and elevation so that the closest position has been achieved, and thereafter energizing only the remaining motor to bring it to its commanded position. In this way, the heliostat can be started from a stowed position in the morning and operated by a computer means to its commanded position and kept correctly oriented throughout the day using only the time of the day without requiring the usual sensors and feedback apparatus. A computer, or microprocessor, can then control a plurality of many heliostats easily and efficiently throughout the day.

  17. Control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derkacs, Thomas (Inventor); Fetheroff, Charles W. (Inventor); Matay, Istvan M. (Inventor); Toth, Istvan J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Although the method and apparatus of the present invention can be utilized to apply either a uniform or a nonuniform covering of material over many different workpieces, the apparatus (20) is advantageously utilized to apply a thermal barrier covering (64) to an airfoil (22) which is used in a turbine engine. The airfoil is held by a gripper assembly (86) while a spray gun (24) is effective to apply the covering over the airfoil. When a portion of the covering has been applied, a sensor (28) is utilized to detect the thickness of the covering. A control apparatus (32) compares the thickness of the covering of material which has been applied with the desired thickness and is subsequently effective to regulate the operation of the spray gun to adaptively apply a covering of a desired thickness with an accuracy of at least plus or minus 0.0015 inches (1.5 mils) despite unanticipated process variations.

  18. Control Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Wayne R.

    A control valve includes a first conduit having a first inlet and a first outlet and defining a first passage; a second conduit having a second inlet and a second outlet and defining a second passage, the second conduit extending into the first passage such that the second inlet is located within the first passage; and a valve plate disposed pivotably within the first passage, the valve plate defining a valve plate surface. Pivoting of the valve plate within the first passage varies flow from the first inlet to the first outlet and the valve plate is pivotal between amore » first position and a second position such that in the first position the valve plate substantially prevents fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage and such that in the second position the valve plate permits fluid communication between the first passage and the second passage.« less

  19. COPD - control drugs

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  20. The effects of transdermal testosterone and oestrogen therapy on dry eye in postmenopausal women: a randomised, placebo-controlled, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Golebiowski, Blanka; Badarudin, Noor; Eden, John; Gerrand, Leanne; Robinson, Jennifer; Liu, Jinzhu; Hampel, Ulrike; You, Jingjing; Stapleton, Fiona

    2017-07-01

    Sex hormones could provide a future treatment avenue for dry eye post menopause. However, there are few well-controlled studies. This study investigates the impact of testosterone and oestrogen on dry eye symptoms and signs in postmenopausal women. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted involving 40 women with dry eye (age 63.9±5.1 years, 13.2±6.3 years post menopause). Ten women were assigned to each of four treatment groups: transdermal testosterone, oestradiol, testosterone/oestradiol combination and placebo. Assessment at baseline and after 8 weeks: ocular symptoms, tear osmolarity, tear stability, tear secretion, meibomian gland assessment, corneal and conjunctival sensitivity, serum concentrations of 17β-oestradiol, 3-α-androstanediol-glucuronide and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Differences from placebo were examined using one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's t-test. Within-group analyses included paired t-tests and Spearman correlation. Dryness intensity after 8 weeks was significantly worse in the oestrogen group compared with placebo (p=0.04). No significant changes in other symptoms, tear function, meibomian gland function, lid morphology, corneal or conjunctival sensitivity were observed in any of the groups when compared with the change in placebo after 8 weeks. Within-group analyses showed increased tear secretion in the testosterone/oestradiol combination group (p=0.03) and a strong association between increased serum androgen and improved tear stability in the testosterone group (ρ=0.83,p=0.01). Oestrogen supplementation may worsen ocular symptoms in postmenopausal women with dry eye, whereas no impact of testosterone therapy on symptoms was apparent. The positive effects of oestrogen and testosterone on tear function require confirmation in a larger study, with sample size calculated from the data generated herein. Placebo control is essential in studies of dry eye therapies. ACTRN

  1. Power Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The device called the Power Factor Controller (PFC) offers exceptional energy conservation potential by virtue of its ability to sense shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow, and to match them with the motor's need. Originating from the solar heating/cooling program, the PFC senses a light load, it cuts the voltage level to the minimum needed which in turn reduces current flow and heat loss. Laboratory tests showed that the PFC could reduce power used by six to eight percent under normal motor loads, and as much as 65 percent when the motor was idling. Over 150 companies have been granted NASA licenses for commercial use of this technology. One system that utilizes this technology is the Vectrol Energy System, (VES) produced by Vectrol, Inc. a subsidiary of Westinghouse. The VES is being used at Woodward & Lothrop, on their escalators. Energy use is regulated according to how many people are on the escalator at any time. It is estimated that the energy savings are between 30 to 40 percent.

  2. Custom controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  3. Birth Control Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods fact ... To receive Publications email updates Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, or ...

  4. Output control using feedforward and cascade controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    An open-loop solution to the output control problem in SISO (single-input, single-output) systems by means of feedforward and cascade controllers is investigated. A simple characterization of feedforward controllers, which achieve steady-state disturbance rejection, is given in a transfer-function setting. Cascade controllers which cause steady-state command tracking are characterized. Disturbance decoupling and command matching controllers are identified. Conditions for existence of feedforward and cascade controllers are given. For unstable systems, it is shown that a stabilizing feedback controller can be used without affecting the feedforward and cascade controllers used for output control; hence, the three controllers can be designed independently. Output control by a combination of feedforward and feedback is discussed.

  5. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  6. CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES FOR THE VENTILATION SYSTEM AND A PLC SWITCH FOR AUTOMATIC CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) SYSTEM. THE AIR TESTING SYSTEM IS FREE STANDING AND THE FANS ARE COMPUTER-OPERATED. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  7. An intelligent traffic controller

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-11-01

    Advances in computing sciences have not been applied to traffic control. This paper describes the development of an intelligent controller. A controller with advanced control logic can significantly improve traffic flows at intersections. In this vei...

  8. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.T.; Pocard, J.A.; Bernard, T.

    1988-07-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, the authors used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, /sup 14/C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but notmore » those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared.« less

  9. Contact Control, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    von Sternberg, Alex

    The contact control code is a generalized force control scheme meant to interface with a robotic arm being controlled using the Robot Operating System (ROS). The code allows the user to specify a control scheme for each control dimension in a way that many different control task controllers could be built from the same generalized controller. The input to the code includes maximum velocity, maximum force, maximum displacement, and a control law assigned to each direction and the output is a 6 degree of freedom velocity command that is sent to the robot controller.

  10. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  11. Switching Systems: Controllability and Control Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-25

    controllable linear time invariant (LTI) systems ẋ = Ax+Bu are stabilizable and the stabilization can be always done by a...to control the system is bounded. As an application controllability conditions for a class of bimodal linear time invariant (LTI) systems are also...There exist a universal ( finite ) switching sequence σ such that the time varying system ẋ = A(σ)x+ B(σ)u is globally controllable . Proof: The

  12. Influence of RpoS, cAMP-receptor protein, and ppGpp on expression of the opgGH operon and osmoregulated periplasmic glucan content of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristina S; Pizarro, Ramón A; Antón, Dora N

    2009-11-01

    A transcriptional fusion (opgG1::MudJ) to the opgGH operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) LT2, isolated by resistance to mecillinam, was used to study the influence of global regulators RpoS, ppGpp, and cAMP/cAMP-receptor protein (CRP) on expression of the opgGH operon and osmoregulated periplasmic glucan (OPG) content. Neither high growth medium osmolarity nor absence of ppGpp or CRP had important effects on opgG1::MudJ expression in exponential cultures. However, under the same conditions, OPG content was strongly decreased by high osmolarity or cAMP/CRP defectiveness, and reduced to a half by lack of ppGpp. In stationary cultures, high osmolarity as well as CRP loss caused significant descents in opgG1::MudJ expression that were compensated by inactivation of RpoS sigma factor. No effect of RpoS inactivation on OPG content was observed. It is concluded that opgGH expression in S. Typhimurium is only slightly affected by high osmolarity, but is inversely modulated by RpoS level. On the other hand, osmolarity and the cAMP/CRP global regulatory system appear to control OPG content, either directly or indirectly, mainly at the post-transcriptional level.

  13. Substructural controller synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized design procedure which combines substructural synthesis, model reduction, decentralized controller design, subcontroller synthesis, and controller reduction is proposed for the control design of flexible structures. The structure to be controlled is decomposed into several substructures, which are modeled by component mode synthesis methods. For each substructure, a subcontroller is designed by using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. Then, a controller synthesis scheme called Substructural Controller Synthesis (SCS) is used to assemble the subcontrollers into a system controller, which is to be used to control the whole structure.

  14. Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  15. Organizational Control: Two Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouchi, William G.; Maguire, Mary Ann

    1975-01-01

    Distinguishes between two modes of organizational control, personal surveillance (behavior control) and the measurement of outputs (output control). Output control occurs in response to a manager's need to provide legitimate evidence of performance, while behavior control is exerted when means-ends relations are known and appropriate instruction…

  16. Malagasy Backward Object Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potsdam, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Backward control is an obligatory interpretational dependency between an overt controller and a nonovert controllee in which the controllee is structurally superior to the controller: "Meg persuaded [Delta]i" ["Roni to give up"]. It contrasts with ordinary forward control, in which the controller is structurally higher: "Meg persuaded Roni"…

  17. Directions in propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is research at NASA Lewis in the area of propulsion controls as driven by trends in advanced aircraft. The objective of the Lewis program is to develop the technology for advanced reliable propulsion control systems and to integrate the propulsion control with the flight control for optimal full-system control.

  18. Integrated Control Using the SOFFT Control Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1996-01-01

    The need for integrated/constrained control systems has become clearer as advanced aircraft introduced new coupled subsystems such as new propulsion subsystems with thrust vectoring and new aerodynamic designs. In this study, we develop an integrated control design methodology which accomodates constraints among subsystem variables while using the Stochastic Optimal Feedforward/Feedback Control Technique (SOFFT) thus maintaining all the advantages of the SOFFT approach. The Integrated SOFFT Control methodology uses a centralized feedforward control and a constrained feedback control law. The control thus takes advantage of the known coupling among the subsystems while maintaining the identity of subsystems for validation purposes and the simplicity of the feedback law to understand the system response in complicated nonlinear scenarios. The Variable-Gain Output Feedback Control methodology (including constant gain output feedback) is extended to accommodate equality constraints. A gain computation algorithm is developed. The designer can set the cross-gains between two variables or subsystems to zero or another value and optimize the remaining gains subject to the constraint. An integrated control law is designed for a modified F-15 SMTD aircraft model with coupled airframe and propulsion subsystems using the Integrated SOFFT Control methodology to produce a set of desired flying qualities.

  19. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  20. Control System Damps Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopf, E. H., Jr.; Brown, T. K.; Marsh, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    New control system damps vibrations in rotating equipment with help of phase-locked-loop techniques. Vibrational modes are controlled by applying suitable currents to drive motor. Control signals are derived from sensors mounted on equipment.

  1. Xenon International Automated Control

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-05

    The Xenon International Automated Control software monitors, displays status, and allows for manual operator control as well as fully automatic control of multiple commercial and PNNL designed hardware components to generate and transmit atmospheric radioxenon concentration measurements every six hours.

  2. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  3. Birth Control Explorer

    MedlinePlus

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 0 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  4. Riot Control Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  5. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Asthma Contact Us Share Asthma Triggers: Gain Control Breathing Freely: Controlling Asthma Triggers This video features ... Air Quality: Biological Pollutants Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma Top of Page Molds About Molds ...

  6. Anticipatory Neurofuzzy Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccullough, Claire L.

    1994-01-01

    Technique of feedback control, called "anticipatory neurofuzzy control," developed for use in controlling flexible structures and other dynamic systems for which mathematical models of dynamics poorly known or unknown. Superior ability to act during operation to compensate for, and adapt to, errors in mathematical model of dynamics, changes in dynamics, and noise. Also offers advantage of reduced computing time. Hybrid of two older fuzzy-logic control techniques: standard fuzzy control and predictive fuzzy control.

  7. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  8. Dynamic power flow controllers

    DOEpatents

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish

    2017-03-07

    Dynamic power flow controllers are provided. A dynamic power flow controller may comprise a transformer and a power converter. The power converter is subject to low voltage stresses and not floated at line voltage. In addition, the power converter is rated at a fraction of the total power controlled. A dynamic power flow controller controls both the real and the reactive power flow between two AC sources having the same frequency. A dynamic power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between two AC sources.

  9. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  10. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  11. Embryonic blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, David; Parvas, Maryam; Hermelo, Ismaïl; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development and adult life, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF has attracted interest as an active signaling medium that regulates brain development, homeostasis and disease. CSF is a complex protein-rich fluid containing growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The composition and substance concentrations of CSF are tightly controlled. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that embryonic CSF (eCSF) has a key function as a fluid pathway for delivering diffusible signals to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. From fetal stages through to adult life, CSF is primarily produced by the choroid plexus. The development and functional activities of the choroid plexus and other blood–brain barrier (BBB) systems in adults and fetuses have been extensively analyzed. However, eCSF production and control of its homeostasis in embryos, from the closure of the anterior neuropore when the brain cavities become physiologically sealed, to the formation of the functional fetal choroid plexus, has not been studied in as much depth and remains open to debate. This review brings together the existing literature, some of which is based on experiments conducted by our research group, concerning the formation and function of a temporary embryonic blood–CSF barrier in the context of the crucial roles played by the molecules in eCSF. PMID:25389383

  12. Control Reconfiguration of Command and Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    decision errors and control action delays upon entering a state. These two undesirable effects can be intertwined. To quantify their individual impact...19 6) Effect of...Study of the Effect of Supervisory Control on a Redundant Database Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 (Metzler and Wu, Report to AFRL 2005) 9.1) Problem

  13. Manual on Bibliographic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This manual outlines objectives, functions, and methods for establishing national bibliographic control as part of the development of a worldwide system for the control and exchange of bibliographic information. Chapters cover: (1) definitions of bibliographic control and related concepts including Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC) and…

  14. Try to Control Yourself!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esque, Timm J.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional management controls employees, but successful management encourages and enables employees to control themselves. Where control resides in an organization can be determined by examining its performance tracking systems. Most are management information systems. The best are owned and used by the employees to control and adjust their own…

  15. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  16. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  17. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  18. Precision digital control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  19. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  20. Fuzzy and neural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy logic and neural networks provide new methods for designing control systems. Fuzzy logic controllers do not require a complete analytical model of a dynamic system and can provide knowledge-based heuristic controllers for ill-defined and complex systems. Neural networks can be used for learning control. In this chapter, we discuss hybrid methods using fuzzy logic and neural networks which can start with an approximate control knowledge base and refine it through reinforcement learning.

  1. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  2. Spacecraft stability and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Today, satellite stability and control has become a higher priority. For a satellite design that is to have a life expectancy of 14 years, appropriate spacecraft flight control systems will be reviewed, stability requirements investigated, and an appropriate flight control system recommended in order to see the design process. Disturbance torques, including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques, will be assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torques can be determined. The control torques, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, and reaction control systems (RCSs), will be considered. Conditions for stability will also be considered.

  3. Digital Optical Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.

    1988-09-01

    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  4. Control rod drive

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Basil C.

    1986-01-01

    A control rod drive uses gravitational forces to insert one or more control rods upwardly into a reactor core from beneath the reactor core under emergency conditions. The preferred control rod drive includes a vertically movable weight and a mechanism operatively associating the weight with the control rod so that downward movement of the weight is translated into upward movement of the control rod. The preferred control rod drive further includes an electric motor for driving the control rods under normal conditions, an electrically actuated clutch which automatically disengages the motor during a power failure and a decelerator for bringing the control rod to a controlled stop when it is inserted under emergency conditions into a reactor core.

  5. Propulsion Controls, 1979. [air breathing engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of multivariable engine control is examined in order to determine future needs and problem areas and to establish the appropriate roles of government, industries, and universities in addressing these problems.

  6. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  7. Robot welding process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  8. Programmable Digital Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassick, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.

  9. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  10. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    DOEpatents

    Chapellier, R.A.; Rogers, I.

    1961-06-27

    Accurate and controlled drive for the control rod is from an electric motor. A hydraulic arrangement is provided to balance a piston against which a control rod is urged by the application of fluid pressure. The electric motor drive of the control rod for normal operation is made through the aforementioned piston. In the event scramming is required, the fluid pressure urging the control rod against the piston is relieved and an opposite fluid pressure is applied. The lack of mechanical connection between the electric motor and control rod facilitates the scramming operation.

  11. Learning Sequential Composition Control.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Esmaeil; Babuska, Robert; Lopes, Gabriel A D

    2016-11-01

    Sequential composition is an effective supervisory control method for addressing control problems in nonlinear dynamical systems. It executes a set of controllers sequentially to achieve a control specification that cannot be realized by a single controller. As these controllers are designed offline, sequential composition cannot address unmodeled situations that might occur during runtime. This paper proposes a learning approach to augment the standard sequential composition framework by using online learning to handle unforeseen situations. New controllers are acquired via learning and added to the existing supervisory control structure. In the proposed setting, learning experiments are restricted to take place within the domain of attraction (DOA) of the existing controllers. This guarantees that the learning process is safe (i.e., the closed loop system is always stable). In addition, the DOA of the new learned controller is approximated after each learning trial. This keeps the learning process short as learning is terminated as soon as the DOA of the learned controller is sufficiently large. The proposed approach has been implemented on two nonlinear systems: 1) a nonlinear mass-damper system and 2) an inverted pendulum. The results show that in both cases a new controller can be rapidly learned and added to the supervisory control structure.

  12. Temperature offset control system

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, M.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes a temperature offset control system for controlling the operation of both heating and air conditioning systems simultaneously contained within the same premises each of which is set by local thermostats to operate at an appropriate temperature, the offset control system comprising: a central control station having means for presetting an offset temperature range, means for sensing the temperature at a central location, means for comparing the sensed temperature with the offset temperature range, means responsive to the comparison for producing a control signal indicative of whether the sensed temperature is within the offset temperature range or beyondmore » the offset temperature range, and means for transmitting the control signal onto the standard energy lines servicing the premises; and a receiving station respectively associated with each heating and air conditioning system, the receiving stations each comprising means for receiving the same transmitted control signal from the energy lines, and switch means for controlling the energization of the respective system in response to the received control signal. The heating systems and associated local thermostat are disabled by the control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature above the lower end of the offset temperature range. The air conditioning systems and associated thermostats are disabled by the same control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature below the upper end of the offset temperature range.« less

  13. Towards autonomous fuzzy control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

  14. Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit" /> Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention & Control Topics Prevention & Control - General Public Prevention & Control - Immunocompromised ...

  15. Linear decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo C.; Longman, Richard W.; Phan, Minh

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this task. The simplest forms of learning control are based on the same concept as integral control, but operating in the domain of the repetitions of the task. This paper studies the use of such controllers in a decentralized system, such as a robot with the controller for each link acting independently. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures stability of the decentralized learning in the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  16. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nutrient Control Design Manual will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This manual will present ...

  17. Nutrient Control Seminars

    EPA Science Inventory

    These Nutrient Control Seminars will present an extensive state-of-the-technology review of the engineering design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorous control technologies and techniques applied at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These seminars will present ...

  18. Traffic control systems handbook.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    The Traffic Control Systems Handbook updates the 1996 edition (FHWA-SA-96-032). It serves as a basic reference in planning, designing and implementing traffic control systems. : Specific chapters include introduction, summary of available and emergin...

  19. Traffic control systems handbook

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 edition of "Traffic Control Systems Handbook" updates the 1996 edition (FHWA-SA-96-032). It serves as a basic reference in planning, designing and implementing traffic control systems. Specific chapters include introduction, summary of avail...

  20. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    ... or mood swings. When to Use a Backup Method Use a backup method of birth control, such as condom, diaphragm, or ... body may not absorb it. Use a backup method of birth control for the rest of that ...

  1. Outdoor Advertising Control

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-04-22

    The State of Montana agreed to provide "effective control" of outdoor adervtising by establishing a sign permit system; maintenance of an inventory of all permitted signs, and a periodic surveillance of the controlled routes to disvover unlawful sign...

  2. AEROSAT Access Control Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-10-01

    The report consists of three basic sections. Section 2 is a discussion of the communications concepts germane to AEROSAT access control. It defines and reviews the principles of multiplexing, multiple access, demand access, and access control and rel...

  3. Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  4. Aerosat Access Control Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-10-01

    The report consists of three basic sections. Section 2 is a discussion of the communications concepts germane to AEROSAT access control. It defines and reviews the principles of multiplexing, multiple access, demand access, and access control and rel...

  5. Birth control pills overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  6. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  7. Birth control pill - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  8. Cholera Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  9. Applications of control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taft, C. K.; Pokoski, J. L.; Murdoch, J. B.; Limbert, D. E.; Alperi, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Applications of control theory are considered in the areas of decoupling and wake steering control of submersibles, a method of electrohydraulic conversion with no moving parts, and socio-economic system modelling.

  10. SETI data controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosline, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Three data controllers developed for the SETI project are described. Two are used primarily for recording and playback of SETI data from the Radio Science Surveillance System (RSSS). The third is used as a SETI station controller for DSS 13.

  11. MEANS FOR CONTROLLING REACTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Nordheim, L.W.; Wigner, E.P.

    1961-06-27

    The patented means is described for controlling a nuclear reactor which comprises a tank containing a dispersion of a thermally fissionable material in a liquid moderator and a material convertible to a thermally fissionable material in a container disposed about the tank. The control means comprises a control rod chamber, containing only a liquid moderator, disposed within the container and adjacent to the tank and a control rod designed to be inserted into the chamber.

  12. System for controlling apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  13. CAS. Controlled Access Security

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, B.; Pomeroy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Security Alarm System is a data acquisition and control system which collects data from intrusion sensors and displays the information in a real-time environment for operators. The Access Control System monitors and controls the movement of personnel with the use of card readers and biometrics hand readers.

  14. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  15. Indirect decentralized learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  16. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  17. Control Measure Dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air pollution emissions from a range of regulated source types, whether directly through the use of technical measures, or indirectly through economic or other measures.

  18. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar has been constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  19. Air Traffic Control Radar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-13

    An Air Traffic Control radar is being constructed at Shiloh for the NASA control tower at the Shuttle Landing Facility. It will be used by NASA and the Eastern Range for surveillance of controlled air space in Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station restricted areas. Shiloh is on the northern end of Merritt Island.

  20. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-21

    Intersoft- ware, Logic Control Control y Aplicaciones , Dielsa, Eliop, EISA, Sainco CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Standard CTNE, Fagor Electronica, Piher...regulation systems Industrial turbine of advanced design Alfa Sewing Machines Control y Aplicaciones , Danobat, Etxe-Tar C02, CO and ultraviolet lasers

  1. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  2. Intermittent Control Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Thomas L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The technique of intermittent control systems for air quality control as developed and used by the Tennessee Valley Authority is investigated. Although controversial, all Tennessee Valley Authority sulfur dioxide elimination programs are scheduled to be operational this year. Existing or anticipated intermittent control systems are identified. (BT)

  3. Robust control of accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joel, W.; Johnson, D.; Chaouki, Abdallah T.

    1991-07-01

    The problem of controlling the variations in the rf power system can be effectively cast as an application of modern control theory. Two components of this theory are obtaining a model and a feedback structure. The model inaccuracies influence the choice of a particular controller structure. Because of the modelling uncertainty, one has to design either a variable, adaptive controller or a fixed, robust controller to achieve the desired objective. The adaptive control scheme usually results in very complex hardware; and, therefore, shall not be pursued in this research. In contrast, the robust control method leads to simpler hardware. However, robust control requires a more accurate mathematical model of the physical process than is required by adaptive control. Our research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) has led to the development and implementation of a new robust rf power feedback system. In this article, we report on our research progress. In section 1, the robust control problem for the rf power system and the philosophy adopted for the beginning phase of our research is presented. In section 2, the results of our proof-of-principle experiments are presented. In section 3, we describe the actual controller configuration that is used in LANL FEL physics experiments. The novelty of our approach is that the control hardware is implemented directly in rf. without demodulating, compensating, and then remodulating.

  4. Birth Control Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's in this article? What Is It? ... It Cost? Print What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

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    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is It? ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

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    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is It? ... Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  7. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is It? ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  8. Arbitrating Control of Control and Display Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugden, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    The ARINC 739 Switch is a computer program that arbitrates control of two multi-function control and display units (MCDUs) between (1) a commercial flight-management computer (FMC) and (2) NASA software used in research on transport aircraft. (MCDUs are the primary interfaces between pilots and FMCs on many commercial aircraft.) This program was recently redesigned into a software library that can be embedded in research application programs. As part of the redesign, this software was combined with software for creating custom pages of information to be displayed on a CDU. This software commands independent switching of the left (pilot s) and right (copilot s) MCDUs. For example, a custom CDU page can control the left CDU while the FMC controls the right CDU. The software uses menu keys to switch control of the CDU between the FMC or a custom CDU page. The software provides an interface that enables custom CDU pages to insert keystrokes into the FMC s CDU input interface. This feature allows the custom CDU pages to manipulate the FMC as if it were a pilot.

  9. Controls Considerations for Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discusses active control of turbine tip clearance from a control systems perspective. It is a subset of charts that were presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society of Air Breathing Engines which was held August 31 through September 5 in Cleveland, Ohio. The associated reference paper is cited at the end of the presentation. The presentation describes active tip clearance control research being conducted by NASA to improve turbine engine systems. The target application for this effort is commercial aircraft engines. However, it is believed that the technologies developed as part of this research will benefit a broad spectrum of current and future turbomachinery. The first part of the presentation discusses the concept of tip clearance, problems associated with it, and the benefits of controlling it. It lays out a framework for implementing tip clearance controls that enables the implementation to progress from purely analytical to hardware-in-the-loop to fully experimental. And it briefly discusses how the technologies developed will be married to the previously described ACC Test Rig for hardware-in-the-loop demonstrations. The final portion of the presentation, describes one of the key technologies in some detail by presenting equations and results for a functional dynamic model of the tip clearance phenomena. As shown, the model exhibits many of the clearance dynamics found in commercial gas turbine engines. However, initial attempts to validate the model identified limitations that are being addressed to make the model more realistic.

  10. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  11. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  12. Control and optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  13. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    PubMed

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  14. Recursive Deadbeat Controller Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh Q.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive algorithm for a deadbeat predictive controller design. The method combines together the concepts of system identification and deadbeat controller designs. It starts with the multi-step output prediction equation and derives the control force in terms of past input and output time histories. The formulation thus derived satisfies simultaneously system identification and deadbeat controller design requirements. As soon as the coefficient matrices are identified satisfying the output prediction equation, no further work is required to compute the deadbeat control gain matrices. The method can be implemented recursively just as any typical recursive system identification techniques.

  15. Decentralized adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  16. Span of control matters.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Deb; Jeska, Susan; Karnas, Joan; Miller, Sue E; Pechacek, Judy; Rheault, Lolita

    2004-09-01

    Prompted by manager concerns about span of control, a large, integrated health system set out to determine if span of control really mattered. Was there something to it, or was it just an excuse for poor performance? A team of middle managers studied the problem and ultimately demonstrated a strong relationship between span of control and employee engagement. Consequently, it was decided to add 4 management positions to note the effect. One year later, positive changes were observed in employee engagement scores in all 4 areas. This study suggests careful review of manager spans of control to address the untoward effects of large spans of control on employee engagement.

  17. Water heater control module

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  18. Controls and guidance research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homaifar, Abdollah; Dunn, Derome; Song, Yong-Duan; Lai, Steven H.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of the control group are concentrated on research and education. The control problem of the hypersonic space vehicle represents an important and challenging issue in aerospace engineering. The work described in this report is part of our effort in developing advanced control strategies for such a system. In order to achieve the objectives stated in the NASA-CORE proposal, the tasks were divided among the group based upon their educational expertise. Within the educational component we are offering a Linear Systems and Control course for students in electrical and mechanical engineering. Also, we are proposing a new course in Digital Control Systems with a corresponding laboratory.

  19. CONTROL FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lichtenberger, H.V.; Cameron, R.A.

    1959-03-31

    S>A control rod operating device in a nuclear reactor of the type in which the control rod is gradually withdrawn from the reactor to a position desired during stable operation is described. The apparatus is comprised essentially of a stop member movable in the direction of withdrawal of the control rod, a follower on the control rod engageable with the stop and means urging the follower against the stop in the direction of withdrawal. A means responsive to disengagement of the follower from the stop is provided for actuating the control rod to return to the reactor shut-down position.

  20. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a remotely controllable mixing system in which a plurality of mixing assemblies are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly employs a central chamber and two outer, upper and lower chambers. Valves are positioned between chambers, and these valves for a given mixing assembly are operated by upper and lower control rotors, which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors. Additionally, a hoop is compressed around upper control rotors and a hoop is compressed around lower control rotors to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors and drive rotors. The drive rollers are driven by a motor.

  1. STOVL Control Integration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, C.; Mcdowell, P.; Watts, S.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated flight/propulsion control for an advanced vector thrust supersonic STOVL aircraft, was developed by Pratt & Whitney and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace East. The IFPC design was based upon the partitioning of the global requirements into flight control and propulsion control requirements. To validate the design, aircraft and engine models were also developed for use on a NASA Ames piloted simulator. Different flight control implementations, evaluated for their handling qualities, are documented in the report along with the propulsion control, engine model, and aircraft model.

  2. Intelligent Control Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a three phase research program into intelligent control systems are presented. The first phase looked at implementing the lowest or direct level of a hierarchical control scheme using a reinforcement learning approach assuming no a priori information about the system under control. The second phase involved the design of an adaptive/optimizing level of the hierarchy and its interaction with the direct control level. The third and final phase of the research was aimed at combining the results of the previous phases with some a priori information about the controlled system.

  3. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  4. Integration of Fire Control, Flight Control and Propulsion Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    process of preparation to a degree imocmpatible with fast moving technology. Undoubtedly something can be done to see that US authors produce papers...PDU provide a true "Up Front" system controller. Fast selection of Air to Air Mode is provided by 2 pushbuttons on the throttle. Pushing one or both...nature of the load snd its effect on the generation system. This calculation will include Load Power, Reactance, Nature - continuous or intermittent

  5. LSST camera control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Stuart; Thaler, Jon; Schalk, Terry; Huffer, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The LSST Camera Control System (CCS) will manage the activities of the various camera subsystems and coordinate those activities with the LSST Observatory Control System (OCS). The CCS comprises a set of modules (nominally implemented in software) which are each responsible for managing one camera subsystem. Generally, a control module will be a long lived "server" process running on an embedded computer in the subsystem. Multiple control modules may run on a single computer or a module may be implemented in "firmware" on a subsystem. In any case control modules must exchange messages and status data with a master control module (MCM). The main features of this approach are: (1) control is distributed to the local subsystem level; (2) the systems follow a "Master/Slave" strategy; (3) coordination will be achieved by the exchange of messages through the interfaces between the CCS and its subsystems. The interface between the camera data acquisition system and its downstream clients is also presented.

  6. Controlling chaos faster.

    PubMed

    Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  7. CRUCIFORM CONTROL ROD JOINT

    DOEpatents

    Thorp, A.G. II

    1962-08-01

    An invention is described which relates to nuclear reactor control rod components and more particularly to a joint between cruciform control rod members and cruciform control rod follower members. In one embodiment this invention provides interfitting crossed arms at adjacent ends of a control rod and its follower in abutting relation. This holds the members against relative opposite longitudinal movement while a compression member keys the arms against relative opposite rotation around a common axis. Means are also provided for centering the control rod and its follower on a common axis and for selectively releasing the control rod from its follower for the insertion of a replacement of the control rod and reuse of the follower. (AEC)

  8. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  9. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  10. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  11. Microfluidic proportional flow controller

    PubMed Central

    Prentice-Mott, Harrison; Toner, Mehmet; Irimia, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Precise flow control in microfluidic chips is important for many biochemical assays and experiments at microscale. While several technologies for controlling fluid flow have been implemented either on- or off-chip, these can provide either high-speed or high-precision control, but seldom could accomplish both at the same time. Here we describe a new on-chip, pneumatically activated flow controller that allows for fast and precise control of the flow rate through a microfluidic channel. Experimental results show that the new proportional flow controllers exhibited a response time of approximately 250 ms, while our numerical simulations suggest that faster actuation down to approximately 50 ms could be achieved with alternative actuation schemes. PMID:21874096

  12. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    DOEpatents

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  13. Nuclear reactor control

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Warnick, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    1. In a nuclear reactor incorporating a plurality of columns of tubular fuel elements disposed in horizontal tubes in a mass of graphite wherein water flows through the tubes to cool the fuel elements, the improvement comprising at least one control column disposed in a horizontal tube including fewer fuel elements than in a normal column of fuel elements and tubular control elements disposed at both ends of said control column, and means for varying the horizontal displacement of the control column comprising a winch at the upstream end of the control column and a cable extending through the fuel and control elements and attached to the element at the downstream end of the column.

  14. Innovation for Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic Controls Inc.'s refuse-fired steam generating facility led to the development of an air pollution equipment control device. The device is currently marketed by two NASA/Langley Research Center employees. It automatically senses and compensates for the changes in smoke composition when refuse is used as a fuel by adjusting the precipitator's voltage and current to permit maximum collection of electrically charged dust particles. The control adapts to any electrostatic precipitator and should have extensive commercial applications.

  15. Perspectives on Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    perspective. He traces the important and integral place of arms control diplomacy to United States traditions, and projects continuing relevance for... The second is commonality surrounding the ongoing arms control process on nuclear weapons and missiles between America and Russia that needs...summits were built around arms control discussions, large delegations met frequently in places like Geneva, and even trivial changes in the arms

  16. Supervisory control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    The various functions of a computer are considered that serve in connecting the man, with his displays and controls, to an external environment, manipulator activators and the interoceptors that are in the actuators, and to the interosensors and the motors or the actuators to drive the sensors. Projected is an improved exoskeleton mechanism with computer control and some supervisory control that may give a quadriplegic the ability to walk and run around.

  17. Solar Collector Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A system for controlling the movement in azimuth and elevation of a large number of sun following solor energy collectors from a single controller...The system utilizes servo signal generators, a modulator and a demodulator for transmitting the servo signals, and stepping motors for controlling...remotely located solar collectors. The system allows precise tracking of the sun by a series of solar collectors without the necessity or expense of individualized solar trackers. (Author)

  18. Robust Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    time control system algorithms that will perform adequately (i.e., at least maintain closed-loop system stability) when ucertain parameters in the...system design models vary significantly. Such a control algorithm is said to have stability robustness-or more simply is said to be "robust". This...cas6s above, the performance is analyzed using a covariance analysis. The development of all the controllers and the performance analysis algorithms is

  19. Adaptive Decentralized Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    and implementation of the decentralized controllers. It raises, however, many difficult questions regarding the conditions under which such a scheme ...adaptive controller, and a general form of the model reference adaptive controller (4]. We believe that this work represents a significant advance in the...Comparing the adaptive system with the tuned system results in the development of a generic adaptive error system. Passivity theory was used to derive

  20. Modular Battery Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  1. Nonlinear Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Finite -dimensional regulators for a class of infinite dimensional systems ,” Systems and Control Letters, 3 (1983), 7-12. [11] B...semiglobal stabilizability by encoded state feedback,” to appear in Systems and Control Letters. 22 29. C. De Persis, A. Isidori, “Global stabilization of...nonequilibrium setting, for both finite and infinite dimensional control systems . Our objectives for distributed parameter systems included

  2. Nonlinear Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-18

    J.M. Schumacher, Finite -dimensional regulators for a class of infinite dimensional systems . Systems and Control Letters, 3 (1983), 7-12. [39J J.M...for the control of certain examples or system classes us- ing particular feedback design methods ([20, 21, 16, 17, 19, 18]). Still, the control of...long time existence and asymptotic behavior for certain examples or system classes using particular feedback design methods (see, e.g., [20, 21, 16, 17

  3. TACS Central Control Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-12

    PULSE RTC REAL TIME CLOCK -{> I . SIGNAL INVERSION UASC UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL - ---- 4w SPECIAL INTERFACE CONTROLLER Fiq. 2-1. MAC hardware...34 Universal Asynchronous Serial Controller" (UASC) cards. The cards implement an RS-232 standard interface. All controllers are set to operate at a data...Bridwell and I. Richer, "A Preliminary Design of a TDMA System for FLEETSAT," Technical Note 1975-5, Lincoln Laboratory, M.I.T. (12 March 1975), DDC

  4. A Community Controls Loosestrife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Marykay

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Purple Loosestrife Project, an innovative outreach and educational program to provide a biological control of purple loosestrife. Involves cooperation of community, teachers, and students. (YDS)

  5. Controlling Industrial Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Handbook gives basic comprehensive information on noise in industrial environments. Intended to aid engineers in understanding measuring and controlling noise whether or not they have experiences in acoustics.

  6. Device Oriented Project Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions havemore » been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.« less

  7. Detonation command and control

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Jonathan Lee; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  8. The ISOLDE control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  9. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  10. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  11. Strain actuated aeroelastic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on strain actuated aeroelastic control are presented. Topics covered include: structural and aerodynamic modeling; control law design methodology; system block diagram; adaptive wing test article; bench-top experiments; bench-top disturbance rejection: open and closed loop response; bench-top disturbance rejection: state cost versus control cost; wind tunnel experiments; wind tunnel gust alleviation: open and closed loop response at 60 mph; wind tunnel gust alleviation: state cost versus control cost at 60 mph; wind tunnel command following: open and closed loop error at 60 mph; wind tunnel flutter suppression: open loop flutter speed; and wind tunnel flutter suppression: closed loop state cost curves.

  12. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  13. MOSFET Power Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J.; Jones, K.

    1986-01-01

    High current and voltage controlled remotely. Remote Power Conroller includes two series-connected banks of parallel-connected MOSFET's to withstand high current and voltage. Voltage sharing between switch banks, low-impedance, gate-drive circuits used. Provided controlled range for turn on. Individually trimmable to insure simultaneous switching within few nanoseconds during both turn on and turn off. Control circuit for each switch bank and over-current trip circuit float independently and supplied power via transformer T1 from inverter. Control of floating stages by optocouplers.

  14. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  15. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  16. Robust Control Design for Flight Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    controller may be designed to produce desired responses to pilot commands, responses to external (atmospheric) disturbances may be unusual and...suggested for stabilizing open loop unstable aircraft result in nonminimum phase zeros in the dynamics as seen by the pilot . This issue has not been...stability test it does retain several essential features of the popular single loop test developed by Nyquist. In particular, it identifies a Nyquist

  17. Controls for space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balas, Mark

    1991-11-01

    Assembly and operation of large space structures (LSS) in orbit will require robot-assisted docking and berthing of partially-assembled structures. These operations require new solutions to the problems of controls. This is true because of large transient and persistent disturbances, controller-structure interaction with unmodeled modes, poorly known structure parameters, slow actuator/sensor dynamical behavior, and excitation of nonlinear structure vibrations during control and assembly. For on-orbit assembly, controllers must start with finite element models of LSS and adapt on line to the best operating points, without compromising stability. This is not easy to do, since there are often unmodeled dynamic interactions between the controller and the structure. The indirect adaptive controllers are based on parameter estimation. Due to the large number of modes in LSS, this approach leads to very high-order control schemes with consequent poor stability and performance. In contrast, direct model reference adaptive controllers operate to force the LSS to track the desirable behavior of a chosen model. These schemes produce simple control algorithms which are easy to implement on line. One problem with their use for LSS has been that the model must be the same dimension as the LSS - i.e., quite large. A control theory based on the command generator tracker (CGT) ideas of Sobel, Mabins, Kaufman and Wen, Balas to obtain very low-order models based on adaptive algorithms was developed. Closed-loop stability for both finite element models and distributed parameter models of LSS was proved. In addition, successful numerical simulations on several LSS databases were obtained. An adaptive controller based on our theory was also implemented on a flexible robotic manipulator at Martin Marietta Astronautics. Computation schemes for controller-structure interaction with unmodeled modes, the residual mode filters or RMF, were developed. The RMF theory was modified to compensate

  18. Controls for space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balas, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Assembly and operation of large space structures (LSS) in orbit will require robot-assisted docking and berthing of partially-assembled structures. These operations require new solutions to the problems of controls. This is true because of large transient and persistent disturbances, controller-structure interaction with unmodeled modes, poorly known structure parameters, slow actuator/sensor dynamical behavior, and excitation of nonlinear structure vibrations during control and assembly. For on-orbit assembly, controllers must start with finite element models of LSS and adapt on line to the best operating points, without compromising stability. This is not easy to do, since there are often unmodeled dynamic interactions between the controller and the structure. The indirect adaptive controllers are based on parameter estimation. Due to the large number of modes in LSS, this approach leads to very high-order control schemes with consequent poor stability and performance. In contrast, direct model reference adaptive controllers operate to force the LSS to track the desirable behavior of a chosen model. These schemes produce simple control algorithms which are easy to implement on line. One problem with their use for LSS has been that the model must be the same dimension as the LSS - i.e., quite large. A control theory based on the command generator tracker (CGT) ideas of Sobel, Mabins, Kaufman and Wen, Balas to obtain very low-order models based on adaptive algorithms was developed. Closed-loop stability for both finite element models and distributed parameter models of LSS was proved. In addition, successful numerical simulations on several LSS databases were obtained. An adaptive controller based on our theory was also implemented on a flexible robotic manipulator at Martin Marietta Astronautics. Computation schemes for controller-structure interaction with unmodeled modes, the residual mode filters or RMF, were developed. The RMF theory was modified to compensate

  19. Compact, Reliable EEPROM Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Kleyner, Igor

    2010-01-01

    A compact, reliable controller for an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) has been developed specifically for a space-flight application. The design may be adaptable to other applications in which there are requirements for reliability in general and, in particular, for prevention of inadvertent writing of data in EEPROM cells. Inadvertent writes pose risks of loss of reliability in the original space-flight application and could pose such risks in other applications. Prior EEPROM controllers are large and complex and do not provide all reasonable protections (in many cases, few or no protections) against inadvertent writes. In contrast, the present controller provides several layers of protection against inadvertent writes. The controller also incorporates a write-time monitor, enabling determination of trends in the performance of an EEPROM through all phases of testing. The controller has been designed as an integral subsystem of a system that includes not only the controller and the controlled EEPROM aboard a spacecraft but also computers in a ground control station, relatively simple onboard support circuitry, and an onboard communication subsystem that utilizes the MIL-STD-1553B protocol. (MIL-STD-1553B is a military standard that encompasses a method of communication and electrical-interface requirements for digital electronic subsystems connected to a data bus. MIL-STD- 1553B is commonly used in defense and space applications.) The intent was to both maximize reliability while minimizing the size and complexity of onboard circuitry. In operation, control of the EEPROM is effected via the ground computers, the MIL-STD-1553B communication subsystem, and the onboard support circuitry, all of which, in combination, provide the multiple layers of protection against inadvertent writes. There is no controller software, unlike in many prior EEPROM controllers; software can be a major contributor to unreliability, particularly in fault

  20. Temperature Control. Honeywell Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    Presents planning considerations in selecting proper temperature control systems. Various aspects are discussed including--(1) adequate environmental control, (2) adequate control area, (3) control system design, (4) operators rate their systems, (5) type of control components, (6) basic control system, (7) automatic control systems, and (8)…

  1. Differences in the regulation of ochratoxin A by the HOG pathway in Penicillium and Aspergillus in response to high osmolar environments.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Dominic; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Geisen, Rolf

    2013-07-19

    Penicillium verrucosum, P. nordicum and Aspergillus carbonarius are three important ochratoxin A producing species. P. verrucosum is in addition able to produce citrinin. It has been shown earlier that P. nordicum is adapted to NaCl rich environments like salt rich dry cured foods or even salines. In this organism, the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A plays an adaptive role in this habitat. P. verrucosum generally can be found on cereals, but occasionally also on salt rich dry cured foods. In contrast A. carbonarius usually cannot be found in NaCl rich environments, but it occurs in another environment with high concentration of solutes, e.g., in sugar rich substrates like grapes and grape juices. Usually osmotic challenging conditions activate the HOG MAP kinase signal cascade, which in turn activates various osmo-regulated genes. In the current analysis, it could be demonstrated that in case of P. nordicum and P. verrucosum the NaCl induced production of ochratoxin A is correlated to the phosphorylation status of the HOG MAP kinase. Just the opposite was true for A. carbonarius. In this case, also higher amounts of NaCl in the medium lead to an increased phosphorylation status of HOG, but no increase in ochratoxin biosynthesis was observed. In contrast to the Penicillia, higher NaCl concentrations lead to a rapid cessation of growth by A. carbonarius. High glucose concentrations have much less impact on growth and the phosphorylation of HOG.

  2. Influence of molecular size and osmolarity of sugars and dextrans on the synthesis of outer membrane proteins O-8 and O-9 of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaji, H; Mizuno, T; Mizushima, S

    1979-01-01

    Supplementation of the growth medium with high concentrations of sugars or low-molecular-weight dextrans results in a drastic change in the ratio of outer membrane proteins O-8 and O-9, due to induction of O-8 synthesis and suppression of O-9 synthesis. Sugars and dextrans of molecular weights greater than 600 to 700 switched the synthesis of O-9 to that of O-8 more effectively than those of lower molecular weight, although the effect was almost the same within each of the two groups irrespective of the differences in molecular weight within the group. Proteins O-8 or O-9, or both, are responsible for the formation of pores that allow the passive diffusion of hydrophilic molecules whose molecular weights are smaller than about 600 (T. Nakae, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 71:877-884, 1976). The results indicate that substances that cannot pass through the outer membrane switch the synthesis of O-9 to that of O-8 more effectively than those that can penetrate this membrane with the aid of O-8, O-9, or both. It is suggested that the osmotic pressure exerted on the outer membrane plays an important role in the regulation of synthesis of the two proteins. PMID:391802

  3. The high-osmolarity glycerol- and cell wall integrity-MAP kinase pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in adaptation to the action of killer toxin HM-1.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Masahiko; Furuichi, Yasuhiro; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2012-11-01

    Fps1p is an aquaglyceroporin important for turgor regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously we reported the involvement of Fps1p in the yeast-killing action of killer toxin HM-1. The fps1 cells showed a high HM-1-resistant phenotype in hypotonic medium and an HM-1-susceptible phenotype in hypertonic medium. This osmotic dependency in HM-1 susceptibility was similar to those observed in Congo red, but different from those observed in other cell wall-disturbing agents. These results indicate that HM-1 exerts fungicidal activity mainly by binding and inserting into the yeast cell wall structure, rather than by inhibiting 1,3-β-glucan synthase. We next determined HM-1-susceptibility and diphospho-MAP kinase inductions in S. cerevisiae. In the wild-type cell, expressions of diphospho-Hog1p and -Slt2p, and mRNA transcription of CWP1 and HOR2, were induced within 1 h after an addition of HM-1. ssk1 and pbs2 cells, but not sho1 and hkr1 cells, showed HM-1-sensitive phenotypes and lacked inductions of phospho-Hog1p in response to HM-1. mid2, rom2 and bck1 cells showed HM-1-sensitive phenotypes and decreased inductions of phospho-Slt2p in response to HM-1. From these results, we postulated that the Sln1-Ypd1-Ssk1 branch of the high-osmolality glycerol (HOG) pathway and plasma membrane sensors of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway detect cell wall stresses caused by HM-1. We further suggested that activations of both HOG and CWI pathways have an important role in the adaptive response to HM-1 toxicity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Incidence, Classification, and Management of Acute Adverse Reactions to the Low-Osmolar Iodinated Contrast Media Isovue and Ultravist in Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Yuhao; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Luo, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Xinyu; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-03-01

    Some epidemiologic surveillance studies have recorded adverse drug reactions to radiocontrast agents. We aimed to investigate the incidence and management of acute adverse reactions (AARs) to Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning.Data from 137,473 patients were analyzed. They had undergone enhanced CT scanning with intravenous injection of Ultravist-370 or Isovue-370 during the period of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2012 in our hospital. We investigated and classified AARs according to the American College of Radiology and the Chinese Society of Radiology (CSR) guidelines for iodinated contrast media. We analyzed risk factors for AARs and compared the AARs induced by Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370.Four hundred and twenty-eight (0.31%) patients experienced AARs, which included 330 (0.24%) patients with mild AARs, 82 (0.06%) patients with moderate AARs, and 16 (0.01%) patients with severe AARs (including 3 cases of cardiac arrest and one case of death). The incidence of AARs was higher with Ultravist-370 than with Isovue-370 (0.38% vs 0.24%, P < 0.001), but only for mild AARs (0.32% vs 0.16%, P < 0.001). Analyses on risk factors indicated that female patients (n = 221, 0.43%, P < 0.001), emergency patients (n = 11, 0.51%, P < 0.001), elderly patients aged 50 to 60 years (n = 135, 0.43%, P < 0.001), and patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) (n = 55, 0.51%, P < 0.001) had a higher risk of AARs. Cutaneous manifestations (50.52%)-especially rash (59.74%)-were the most frequent mild AARs. Cardiovascular manifestations accounted for most moderate and severe AARs (62.91% and 48.28%, respectively). After proper management, the symptoms and signs of 96.5% of the AARs resolved within 24 hours without sequelae.Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 are safe for patients undergoing enhanced CT scanning. The incidence of AARs is higher with Ultravist-370 than with Isovue-370, but this difference is limited only to the mild AARs. The incidence of AARs could be affected by multiple factors.

  5. Astrocytic and neuronal accumulation of elevated extracellular K+ with a 2/3 K+/Na+ flux ratio—consequences for energy metabolism, osmolarity and higher brain function

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Leif; Xu, Junnan; Song, Dan; Yan, Enzhi; Gu, Li; Peng, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Brain excitation increases neuronal Na+ concentration by 2 major mechanisms: (i) Na+ influx caused by glutamatergic synaptic activity; and (ii) action-potential-mediated depolarization by Na+ influx followed by repolarizating K+ efflux, increasing extracellular K+ concentration. This review deals mainly with the latter and it concludes that clearance of extracellular K+ is initially mainly effectuated by Na+,K+-ATPase-mediated K+ uptake into astrocytes, at K+ concentrations above ~10 mM aided by uptake of Na+,K+ and 2 Cl− by the cotransporter NKCC1. Since operation of the astrocytic Na+,K+-ATPase requires K+-dependent glycogenolysis for stimulation of the intracellular ATPase site, it ceases after normalization of extracellular K+ concentration. This allows K+ release via the inward rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1, perhaps after trans-astrocytic connexin- and/or pannexin-mediated K+ transfer, which would be a key candidate for determination by synchronization-based computational analysis and may have signaling effects. Spatially dispersed K+ release would have little effect on extracellular K+ concentration and allow K+ accumulation by the less powerful neuronal Na+,K+-ATPase, which is not stimulated by increases in extracellular K+. Since the Na+,K+-ATPase exchanges 3 Na+ with 2 K+, it creates extracellular hypertonicity and cell shrinkage. Hypertonicity stimulates NKCC1, which, aided by β-adrenergic stimulation of the Na+,K+-ATPase, causes regulatory volume increase, furosemide-inhibited undershoot in [K+]e and perhaps facilitation of the termination of slow neuronal hyperpolarization (sAHP), with behavioral consequences. The ion transport processes involved minimize ionic disequilibria caused by the asymmetric Na+,K+-ATPase fluxes. PMID:23986689

  6. [Significance of hypo-osmolar diets for oral nutrition build-up in very severe malabsorption--clinical observations exemplified by infants with subtotal small intestine resection].

    PubMed

    Niessen, K H; Teufel, M

    1984-01-01

    Regenerative and adaptive processes of the gut are apparently analogous to the absorption rate in small bowel diseases. These processes can be enhanced by the prolongation of passage time which, in turn, is influenced by the osmolality of the formula diet. Since infants who have undergone a subtotal bowel resection, like other children with serious diseases of the small bowel, are extraordinarily sensitive to hyperosmolar food, any preparation with special indications should be balanced and rendered hypoosmolar in full caloric concentration. Such formulas may well facilitate food supply to infants and, in case of short bowel syndrome, encourage more pronounced morphologic adaptation.

  7. The Incidence, Classification, and Management of Acute Adverse Reactions to the Low-Osmolar Iodinated Contrast Media Isovue and Ultravist in Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Yuhao; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Luo, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Xinyu; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Some epidemiologic surveillance studies have recorded adverse drug reactions to radiocontrast agents. We aimed to investigate the incidence and management of acute adverse reactions (AARs) to Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning. Data from 137,473 patients were analyzed. They had undergone enhanced CT scanning with intravenous injection of Ultravist-370 or Isovue-370 during the period of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2012 in our hospital. We investigated and classified AARs according to the American College of Radiology and the Chinese Society of Radiology (CSR) guidelines for iodinated contrast media. We analyzed risk factors for AARs and compared the AARs induced by Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370. Four hundred and twenty-eight (0.31%) patients experienced AARs, which included 330 (0.24%) patients with mild AARs, 82 (0.06%) patients with moderate AARs, and 16 (0.01%) patients with severe AARs (including 3 cases of cardiac arrest and one case of death). The incidence of AARs was higher with Ultravist-370 than with Isovue-370 (0.38% vs 0.24%, P < 0.001), but only for mild AARs (0.32% vs 0.16%, P < 0.001). Analyses on risk factors indicated that female patients (n = 221, 0.43%, P < 0.001), emergency patients (n = 11, 0.51%, P < 0.001), elderly patients aged 50 to 60 years (n = 135, 0.43%, P < 0.001), and patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) (n = 55, 0.51%, P < 0.001) had a higher risk of AARs. Cutaneous manifestations (50.52%)—especially rash (59.74%)—were the most frequent mild AARs. Cardiovascular manifestations accounted for most moderate and severe AARs (62.91% and 48.28%, respectively). After proper management, the symptoms and signs of 96.5% of the AARs resolved within 24 hours without sequelae. Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 are safe for patients undergoing enhanced CT scanning. The incidence of AARs is higher with Ultravist-370 than with Isovue-370, but this difference is limited only to the mild AARs. The incidence of AARs could be affected by multiple factors. PMID:27015204

  8. Adverse reactions of low osmolar non-ionic and ionic contrast media when used together or separately during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Juergens, Craig P; Khaing, Aye Mi; McIntyre, Geraldine J; Leung, Dominic Y C; Lo, Sidney T H; Fernandes, Clyne; Hopkins, Andrew P

    2005-09-01

    Due to perceived advantages in the use of non-ionic contrast agents for diagnostic angiography and ionic agents for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), patients often receive various combinations of both types of agents. To assess potential adverse effects of non-ionic and ionic contrast media when used together or separately during percutaneous coronary intervention. We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of 532 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in our institution. Patients were divided into two groups: those that underwent diagnostic angiography and "follow on" PCI; and those that underwent "planned" PCI. The groups were subdivided on the basis of the use of the ionic agent ioxaglate or the non-ionic agent iopromide during PCI. The frequency of allergic reactions and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were noted. With respect to the "follow on" group, allergic reactions occurred in 9 of 150 patients (6.0%) who received the combination of ioxaglate and iopromide versus 1 of 93 (1.1%) who only received iopromide (p=0.094). There was no difference with respect to MACE [6 (4.0%) ioxaglate and iopromide versus 4 (4.3%) iopromide alone, p=1.00]. In the "planned" group, 7 of 165 patients (4.2%) receiving ioxaglate had an allergic reaction as opposed 0.0% (0 of 124 patients) in the iopromide group (p=0.021). All contrast reactions were mild. The incidence of a MACE was similar in both groups [1 (0.6%) ioxaglate versus 2 (1.6%) iopromide, p=0.579]. The incidence of allergic reactions was similar if ioxaglate was used alone or in combination with iopromide (p=0.478). Whilst combining ionic and non-ionic contrast agents in the same procedure was not associated with any more adverse reactions than using an ionic contrast agent alone, the ionic contrast agent ioxaglate was associated with the majority of allergic reactions. With respect to choice of contrast agent, using the non-ionic agent iopromide alone for coronary intervention is associated with the lowest risk of an adverse event.

  9. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschorn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  10. Birth Control - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand Section Birth Control Methods - English PDF Birth Control Methods - myanma bhasa (Burmese) PDF ... Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Before Your Vasectomy - English PDF Before Your Vasectomy - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin ...

  11. Aircraft thrust control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Neil (Inventor); Day, Stanley G. (Inventor); Collopy, Paul D. (Inventor); Bennett, George W. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An integrated control system for coaxial counterrotating aircraft propulsors driven by a common gas turbine engine. The system establishes an engine pressure ratio by control of fuel flow and uses the established pressure ratio to set propulsor speed. Propulsor speed is set by adjustment of blade pitch.

  12. CONTROL IN NUCLEAR REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.R.

    1963-01-16

    An arrangement was described for scramming a reactor in an emergency. Control rods were position adjusted by an electric motor and transmission. A locking system kept the control rods in position but was arranged to be released in an emergency to allow the rods to drop into their shutdown position. (C.E.S.)

  13. DIESEL NOX CONTROL APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a project to design, develop, and demonstrate a diesel engine nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) control package that will meet the U.S. Navy's emission control requirements. (NOTE: In 1994, EPA issued a Notice for Proposed Rule Making (NP...

  14. Fluid delivery control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  15. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  16. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  17. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  18. Readings in program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor); Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Under the heading of Program Control, a number of related topics are discussed: cost estimating methods; planning and scheduling; cost overruns in the defense industry; the history of estimating; the advantages of cost plus award fee contracts; and how program control techniques led to the success of a NASA development project.

  19. Nonlinear and adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, Michael

    1989-01-01

    The primary thrust of the research was to conduct fundamental research in the theories and methodologies for designing complex high-performance multivariable feedback control systems; and to conduct feasibiltiy studies in application areas of interest to NASA sponsors that point out advantages and shortcomings of available control system design methodologies.

  20. Touch sensors and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the equipment employed and results obtained in experiments with tactile feedback and different levels of automatic control. In the experiments described tactile feedback was investigated by incorporating a touch sensing and touch display system into a teleoperator, while the levels of automatic control were investigated by incorporating supervisory control features in the teleoperator control system. In particular, a hand contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the contact between the end-effector and the object being touched or manipulated is described, as well as a jaw contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the shape and location of the object held in the remote jaws, and an arm control system consisting of a control station where the operator controls the motion of the arm by transmitting commands, a remote station that accepts the commands and uses them, and a communications link that limits information flow. In addition, an algorithmic language for remote manipulation is described, and the desired features that an automatic arm controller should possess are reviewed.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  2. Rethinking Coercive Control.

    PubMed

    Stark, Evan

    2009-12-01

    The critical appraisals of Coercive Control focus largely on what my analysis implies for intervention, a matter to which the book devotes only limited space. In this reply, I reiterate core concepts in the book and acknowledge that much more work is needed to translate the realities of coercive control into practical legal and advocacy strategies. I review how coercive control differs from partner assaults and so why it merits a distinct response; the extent to which coercive control targets gender identity; the wisdom of complementing the focus on violence with an emphasis on male domination, sexual inequality and personal liberty; what this implies for shelters and the law; why sexual inequality differentiates coercive control from female partner abuse of men; how sexual equality can be both cause and antidote for coercive control; why I think an affirmative concept of freedom is essential to grasp the human rights violations inflicted by coercive control; and what it means to "story" coercive control by integrating women into the larger liberty narrative on which our national identity rests.

  3. Woody competition control

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Lowery

    1986-01-01

    Control of woody competition is necessary to maintain shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) as an important component of natural stands and to maximize shortleaf pine plantation productivity in the Southeast. Competition control is key to maximizing timber production since growth is moisture-limited over much of its range. Volume growth gains of 40% have been reported...

  4. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  5. Microcomputer Controlled Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, John; Knaggs, David

    1982-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-controlled system which determines the current/voltage characteristics of a resistor, lamp, and diode, detailing system elements, construction, and providing printout of the program developed to provide control and arithmetic functions necessary to complete the experiment. (SK)

  6. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  7. Individual tree control

    Treesearch

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  8. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  9. Avian influenza control strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control strategies for avian influenza in poultry vary depending on whether the goal is prevention, management, or eradication. Components used in control programs include: 1) education which includes communication, public awareness, and behavioral change, 2) changes to production and marketing sys...

  10. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  11. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  12. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected spacecraft response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach can be used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and the spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the effector performance characteristics, a database of information relating the effector commands and the desired vehicle response can be used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands can be analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center (Ref. 1) to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods can be used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands is established, it can be used in place of traditional control laws and gains set. This pattern recognition approach can be compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  13. QUALITY CONTROLS FOR PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to present an overview of the quality control (QC) sections of a draft EPA document entitled, "Quality Assurance/Quality Control Guidance for Laboratories Performing PCR Analyses on Environmental Samples." This document has been prepared by th...

  14. Resisting Mind Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides conceptual analyses of mind control techniques along with practical advice on how to resist these techniques. The authors stress that effective mind control stems more from everyday social relations than from exotic technological gimmicks. Suggestions are given for resisting persuasion, resisting systems, and challenging the system.…

  15. Attoliter Control of Microliquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, Fumito; Kuroiwa, Hiroyuki; Nakada, Akira; Kosaka, Kouji; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    The technology of the sub-femtoliter volume control of liquids in nanometer range pipettes (nanopipettes) has been developed for carrying out surgical operations on living cells. We focus attention on an interface forming between oil and water in a nanopipette. The interface position can be moved by increasing or decreasing the input pressure. If the volume of liquid in the nanopipette can be controlled by moving the position of the interface, cell organelles can be discharged or suctioned and a drug-solution can be injected into the cell. Quantity volume control in the pico-attoliter range using a tapered nanopipette is controlled by the condition of an interface with a convex shape toward the top of the nanopipette. The volume can be controlled by the input pressure corresponding to the interfacial radius without the use of a microscope by preliminarily preparing the pipette shape and the interface radius as a function of the input pressure.

  16. Control of Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Dall’Asta, Luca; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-01-01

    The controllability of a network is a theoretical problem of relevance in a variety of contexts ranging from financial markets to the brain. Until now, network controllability has been characterized only on isolated networks, while the vast majority of complex systems are formed by multilayer networks. Here we build a theoretical framework for the linear controllability of multilayer networks by mapping the problem into a combinatorial matching problem. We found that correlating the external signals in the different layers can significantly reduce the multiplex network robustness to node removal, as it can be seen in conjunction with a hybrid phase transition occurring in interacting Poisson networks. Moreover we observe that multilayer networks can stabilize the fully controllable multiplex network configuration that can be stable also when the full controllability of the single network is not stable. PMID:26869210

  17. Control of flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements for future space missions indicate that many of these spacecraft will be large, flexible, and in some applications, require precision geometries. A technology program that addresses the issues associated with the structure/control interactions for these classes of spacecraft is discussed. The goal of the NASA control of flexible structures technology program is to generate a technology data base that will provide the designer with options and approaches to achieve spacecraft performance such as maintaining geometry and/or suppressing undesired spacecraft dynamics. This technology program will define the appropriate combination of analysis, ground testing, and flight testing required to validate the structural/controls analysis and design tools. This work was motivated by a recognition that large minimum weight space structures will be required for many future missions. The tools necessary to support such design included: (1) improved structural analysis; (2) modern control theory; (3) advanced modeling techniques; (4) system identification; and (5) the integration of structures and controls.

  18. Gendering Coercive Control.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin L

    2009-12-01

    This article examines the theory of gender presented in Stark's Coercive Control: How Men Entrap Women in Personal Life. Stark suggests that gender is a form of structural inequality that makes women more vulnerable than men to the strategies of coercive control. However, Stark assumes rather than demonstrates that gendered structural inequality increases women's vulnerability. In this article, the author applies the multilevel theory of gender as identity, interaction, and social structure to document the multiple ways coercive control is gendered. The author argues that, to understand the gender dynamics of coercive control, researchers must examine the interactions across levels of gender. The author concludes with an assessment of the prospects and pitfalls of applying the concept of coercive control to renew the feminist social movement to end domestic violence.

  19. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  20. Controlled electromigration protocol revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharinov, Vyacheslav S.; Baumans, Xavier D. A.; Silhanek, Alejandro V.; Janssens, Ewald; Van de Vondel, Joris

    2018-04-01

    Electromigration has evolved from an important cause of failure in electronic devices to an appealing method, capable of modifying the material properties and geometry of nanodevices. Although this technique has been successfully used by researchers to investigate low dimensional systems and nanoscale objects, its low controllability remains a serious limitation. This is in part due to the inherent stochastic nature of the process, but also due to the inappropriate identification of the relevant control parameters. In this study, we identify a suitable process variable and propose a novel control algorithm that enhances the controllability and, at the same time, minimizes the intervention of an operator. As a consequence, the algorithm facilitates the application of electromigration to systems that require exceptional control of, for example, the width of a narrow junction. It is demonstrated that the electromigration rate can be stabilized on pre-set values, which eventually defines the final geometry of the electromigrated structures.

  1. Autorotation flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward N. (Inventor); Aponso, Bimal L. (Inventor); Lee, Dong-Chan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides computer implemented methodology that permits the safe landing and recovery of rotorcraft following engine failure. With this invention successful autorotations may be performed from well within the unsafe operating area of the height-velocity profile of a helicopter by employing the fast and robust real-time trajectory optimization algorithm that commands control motion through an intuitive pilot display, or directly in the case of autonomous rotorcraft. The algorithm generates optimal trajectories and control commands via the direct-collocation optimization method, solved using a nonlinear programming problem solver. The control inputs computed are collective pitch and aircraft pitch, which are easily tracked and manipulated by the pilot or converted to control actuator commands for automated operation during autorotation in the case of an autonomous rotorcraft. The formulation of the optimal control problem has been carefully tailored so the solutions resemble those of an expert pilot, accounting for the performance limitations of the rotorcraft and safety concerns.

  2. Control technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaechter, D. B.

    1982-03-01

    The main objectives of the control technology development task are given in the slide below. The first is to develop control design techniques based on flexible structural models, rather than simple rigid-body models. Since large space structures are distributed parameter systems, a new degree of freedom, that of sensor/actuator placement, may be exercised for improving control system performance. Another characteristic of large space structures is numerous oscillatory modes within the control bandwidth. Reduced-order controller design models must be developed which produce stable closed-loop systems when combined with the full-order system. Since the date of an actual large-space-structure flight is rapidly approaching, it is vitally important that theoretical developments are tested in actual hardware. Experimental verification is a vital counterpart of all current theoretical developments.

  3. Cyclic control stick

    DOEpatents

    Whitaker, Charles N.; Zimmermann, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    A cyclic control stick of the type used in helicopters for reducing the safety hazards associated with such a mechanism in the event of a crewman being thrown violently into contact with the cyclic control stick resulting from a crash or the like. The cyclic control stick is configured to break away upon the exertion of an impact force which exceeds a predetermined value and/or is exerted for more than a momentary time duration. The cyclic control stick is also configured to be adjustable so as to locate the grip thereof as far away from the crewman as possible for safety reasons without comprising the comfort of the crewman or the use of the control stick, and a crushable pad is provided on the top of the grip for impact energy absorbing purposes.

  4. Intelligent Flow Control Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.

  5. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  6. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  7. 3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE ROCK CONTROL CENTER, OPERATIONS CONTROL. AS SYSTEM BECOMES INCREASINGLY AUTOMATED, EAGLE ROCK WILL BECOME MORE AND MORE THE CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT. - Eagle Rock Operations Control Center, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Fault tolerant control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

  9. Oilwell Power Controller (OPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Oil Well Power Controller (OPC) prototype units is nearing completion. This device is an oilwell beam pump controller and data logger. Applications for this device have been for an electrical power saving device, pump off control, parafffin detection, demand power load control, chemical treatment data, dynamometer and pump efficiency data. Preliminary results appear vary promising. A total of ten OPC rod pump controllers were assembled and installed on oilwells in several areas of Central and Western United States. Data was analyzed on these wells and forwarded to the participating oil companies. Cost savings on each individual oil well participatingmore » in the OPC testing vary considerably, savings on some situations have been outstanding. In situations where the pump efficiency was determined to be low, the cost savings have been considerable. Cost savings due to preventive maintenance are also present, but are difficult to pin point an exact dollar amount at the present time. A break out of actual cost data obtained on some of the oilwells controlled and monitored with the oilwell power controller.« less

  10. Deadbeat Predictive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh

    1997-01-01

    Several new computational algorithms are presented to compute the deadbeat predictive control law. The first algorithm makes use of a multi-step-ahead output prediction to compute the control law without explicitly calculating the controllability matrix. The system identification must be performed first and then the predictive control law is designed. The second algorithm uses the input and output data directly to compute the feedback law. It combines the system identification and the predictive control law into one formulation. The third algorithm uses an observable-canonical form realization to design the predictive controller. The relationship between all three algorithms is established through the use of the state-space representation. All algorithms are applicable to multi-input, multi-output systems with disturbance inputs. In addition to the feedback terms, feed forward terms may also be added for disturbance inputs if they are measurable. Although the feedforward terms do not influence the stability of the closed-loop feedback law, they enhance the performance of the controlled system.

  11. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, L.K.

    1979-12-07

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  12. Flash protection controller

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, Lee K.

    1981-01-01

    A controller provides a high voltage to maintain an electro-optic shutter in a transparent condition until a flash of light which would be harmful to personnel is sensed by a phototransistor. The controller then shorts the shutter to ground to minimize light transmission to the user and maintains light transmission at the pre-flash level for a predetermined time to allow the flash to subside. A log converter and differential trigger circuit keep the controller from being triggered by other light flashes which are not dangerous.

  13. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  14. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  16. Infection prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-03-18

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the third essential skills cluster - infection prevention and control. It provides an overview and discussion of the key skills and behaviours that must be demonstrated to meet the standards set by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. In doing so, it considers the key principles of infection prevention and control, including local and national policies, standard infection control precautions, risk assessment, standard isolation measures and asepsis.

  17. Cockpit control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnewski, David; Snow, Russ M.; Paufler, Dave; Schnieder, George; Athousake, Roxanne; Combs, Lisa

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a detail design for the cockpit control system of the Viper PFT. The statement of work for this project requires provisions for control of the ailerons, elevator, rudder, and elevator trim. The system should provide adjustment for pilot stature, rigging, and maintenance. MIL-STD-1472 is used as a model for human factors criterion. The system is designed to the pilot limit loading outlined in FAR part 23.397. The general philosophy behind this design is to provide a simple, reliable control system which will withstand the daily abuse that is experienced in the training environment without excessive cost or weight penalties.

  18. What is system control?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1999-11-01

    Just as the aviation industry needs air-traffic controllers to manage the movement of airplanes for safety and commerce, so too, the electricity industry requires system operators. The electrical-system-control functions encompass a range of activities that support commercial transactions and maintain bulk-power reliability. As part of a project for the Edison Electric Institute, the authors examined the functions and costs of system control and the issues that need to be resolved in a restructured electricity industry (Hirst and Kirby 1998).

  19. Decentralized stochastic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speyer, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Decentralized stochastic control is characterized by being decentralized in that the information to one controller is not the same as information to another controller. The system including the information has a stochastic or uncertain component. This complicates the development of decision rules which one determines under the assumption that the system is deterministic. The system is dynamic which means the present decisions affect future system responses and the information in the system. This circumstance presents a complex problem where tools like dynamic programming are no longer applicable. These difficulties are discussed from an intuitive viewpoint. Particular assumptions are introduced which allow a limited theory which produces mechanizable affine decision rules.

  20. COMPOSITE CONTROL ROD

    DOEpatents

    Rock, H.R.

    1963-12-24

    A composite control rod for use in controlling a nuclear reactor is described. The control rod is of sandwich construction in which finned dowel pins are utilized to hold together sheets of the neutron absorbing material and nonabsorbing structural material thereby eliminating the need for being dependent on the absorbing material for structural support. The dowel pins perform the function of absorbing the forces due to differential thermal expansion, seating further with the fins into the sheets of material and crushing before damage is done either to the absorbing or non-absorbing material. (AEC)

  1. Control of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Stefan

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of active control of jet noise, knowledge of the noise generation mechanisms in natural jets is essential. Once these mechanisms are determined, active control can be used to manipulate the noise production processes. We investigated the evolution of the flow fields and the acoustic fields of rectangular and circular jets. A predominant flapping mode was found in the supersonic rectangular jets. We hope to increase the spreading of supersonic jets by active control of the flapping mode found in rectangular supersonic jets.

  2. [Quality control in anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Ramón, J M

    1995-03-01

    The process of quality control and auditing of anesthesiology allows us to evaluate care given by a service and solve problems that are detected. Quality control is a basic element of care giving and is only secondarily an area of academic research; it is therefore a meaningless effort if the information does not serve to improve departmental procedures. Quality assurance procedures assume certain infrastructural requirements and an initial period of implementation and adjustment. The main objectives of quality control are the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to anesthesia, assurance of the availability and proper management of resources and, finally, the well-being and safety of the patient.

  3. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K

    2001-02-21

    Programs at LLNL that involve large laser systems--ranging from the National Ignition Facility to new tactical laser weapons--depend on the maintenance of laser beam quality through precise control of the optical wavefront. This can be accomplished using adaptive optics, which compensate for time-varying aberrations that are often caused by heating in a high-power laser system. Over the past two decades, LLNL has developed a broad capability in adaptive optics technology for both laser beam control and high-resolution imaging. This adaptive optics capability has been based on thin deformable glass mirrors with individual ceramic actuators bonded to the back. In themore » case of high-power lasers, these adaptive optics systems have successfully improved beam quality. However, as we continue to extend our applications requirements, the existing technology base for wavefront control cannot satisfy them. To address this issue, this project studied improved modeling tools to increase our detailed understanding of the performance of these systems, and evaluated novel approaches to low-order wavefront control that offer the possibility of reduced cost and complexity. We also investigated improved beam control technology for high-resolution wavefront control. Many high-power laser systems suffer from high-spatial-frequency aberrations that require control of hundreds or thousands of phase points to provide adequate correction. However, the cost and size of current deformable mirrors can become prohibitive for applications requiring more than a few tens of phase control points. New phase control technologies are becoming available which offer control of many phase points with small low-cost devices. The goal of this project was to expand our wavefront control capabilities with improved modeling tools, new devices that reduce system cost and complexity, and extensions to high spatial and temporal frequencies using new adaptive optics technologies. In FY 99, the second

  4. Splines and control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.

  5. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-02-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  6. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  7. Analyzing Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Interactive controls analysis (INCA) program developed to provide user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control. Designed for use with both small- and large-order systems. Using interactive-graphics capability, INCA user quickly plots root locus, frequency response, or time response of either continuous-time system or sampled-data system. Configuration and parameters easily changed, allowing user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in very convenient manner. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  8. Surface controlled blade stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Russell, Larry R.

    1983-01-01

    Drill string stabilizer apparatus, controllable to expand and retract entirely from the surface by control of drill string pressure, wherein increase of drill string pressure from the surface closes a valve to create a piston means which is moved down by drill string pressure to expand the stabilizer blades, said valve being opened and the piston moving upward upon reduction of drill string pressure to retract the stabilizer blades. Upward and downward movements of the piston and an actuator sleeve therebelow are controlled by a barrel cam acting between the housing and the actuator sleeve.

  9. Planning in air traffic control

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the planning activities of en route air traffic controllers. : Controllers were placed in the role of planners and verbalized a plan for controlling traffic to a tactician : (another controller) who implemented ...

  10. Control in the Chemical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses various control techniques used in chemical processes, including measuring devices, controller functions, control valves, and feedforward and feedback actions. Applications of control to a real chemical plant are exemplified. (CC)

  11. Phase Control in Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Seoane, Jesús M.; Mariño, Inés P.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Meucci, Riccardo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Phase Control of Chaos * Description of the model * Numerical exploration of phase control of chaos * Experimental evidence of phase control of chaos * Phase Control of Intermittency in Dynamical Systems * Crisis-induced intermittency and its control * Experimental setup and implementation of the phase control scheme * Phase control of the laser in the pre-crisis regime * Phase control of the intermittency after the crisis * Phase control of the intermittency in the quadratic map * Phase Control of Escapes in Open Dynamical Systems * Control of open dynamical systems * Model description * Numerical simulations and heuristic arguments * Experimental implementation in an electronic circuit * Conclusions and Discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  12. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  13. Insecticides and Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  14. Engine speed control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Nakamura, N.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes an engine speed control apparatus. The system comprises an actuator for adjusting an engine speed, a first unit for computing a desired engine speed, a second unit for detecting the actual engine speed, and a third unit for detecting the difference between the outputs of the first and second units. The system also includes a fourth unit for computing a control pulse width for the actuator in accordance with the output of the third unit, a fifth unit for generating a control signal, a sixth unit for driving the actuator in response to the output of themore » fifth unit, and a seventh unit for computing an optimal halt time to interrupt the driving of the actuator. The actuator is driven intermittently in conformity in the control pulse width and the halt time.« less

  15. Thermal control canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for maintaining a heat dissipating load at a substantially constant temperature, and more particularly, to such an apparatus where in variable conductance heat pipes control the radiating area of a radiator is described.

  16. Technologies for Legionella Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation includes a review of new Office of Water document entitled "Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems", and discussion on ORD research projects involving Legionella and disinfection.

  17. Ferroelectric Light Control Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A light control device is formed by ferroelectric material and N electrodes positioned adjacent thereto to define an N-sided regular polygonal region or circular region there between where N is a multiple of four.

  18. Traffic control device conspicuity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    The conspicuity of a traffic control device (TCD) is defined as the probability that the device will be noticed. However, there is no agreed-upon measure of what constitutes being noticed. Various measures have been suggested, including eye fixations...

  19. CHLORINATED SOLVENT PLUME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water plumes of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

  20. Engineering of metabolic control

    DOEpatents

    Liao, James C.

    2006-10-17

    The invention features a method of producing heterologous molecules in cells under the regulatory control of a metabolite and metabolic flux. The method can enhance the synthesis of heterologous polypeptides and metabolites.

  1. Engineering of metabolic control

    DOEpatents

    Liao, James C.

    2004-03-16

    The invention features a method of producing heterologous molecules in cells under the regulatory control of a metabolite and metabolic flux. The method can enhance the synthesis of heterologous polypeptides and metabolites.

  2. Telerobot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Tso, Kam S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to an operator interface for controlling a telerobot to perform tasks in a poorly modeled environment and/or within unplanned scenarios. The telerobot control system includes a remote robot manipulator linked to an operator interface. The operator interface includes a setup terminal, simulation terminal, and execution terminal for the control of the graphics simulator and local robot actuator as well as the remote robot actuator. These terminals may be combined in a single terminal. Complex tasks are developed from sequential combinations of parameterized task primitives and recorded teleoperations, and are tested by execution on a graphics simulator and/or local robot actuator, together with adjustable time delays. The novel features of this invention include the shared and supervisory control of the remote robot manipulator via operator interface by pretested complex tasks sequences based on sequences of parameterized task primitives combined with further teleoperation and run-time binding of parameters based on task context.

  3. Motivation from control.

    PubMed

    Eitam, Baruch; Kennedy, Patrick M; Tory Higgins, E

    2013-09-01

    Human motivation is sensitive to value-to the outcomes of actions. People invest mental and physical resources for obtaining desired results or for stopping and reversing undesired ones. Accordingly, people's motivation is sensitive to information about their standing in relation to outcome attainment ('outcome feedback'). In this paper, we argue and present the first evidence for the existence of another motivational sensitivity in humans-a sensitivity to our degree of control on the environment and hence to information about that control ('control feedback'). We show that when actions have even trivial and constant perceptual effects, participants' motivation to perform is enhanced. We then show that increased motivation is not because more information about task performance is available and that motivation is increased only in conditions in which control over the effects can be firmly established by the mind. We speculate on the implications for understanding motivation, and potentially, physical and mental health.

  4. Odor Control Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Amos; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Dispersion, chemical oxidation, and masking are reviewed as techniques primarily employed for odor control. Devices and systems, costs, and problems of measurement are considered in light of environmental agencies' efforts to curb smelly emissions. (BL)

  5. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  6. Environmental Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbush, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on environment control systems for electric flight systems are presented. Schematics and flow diagrams of fresh air source and air conditioning systems, and vapor cycle and air cycle parts lists are presented.

  7. Gun control saves lives.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-05-19

    Reducing firearm mortality by means of stricter gun control is one of the most important short- to medium-term measures to address the burden of violence in South Africa, while longer-term interventions and policy measures take effect.

  8. Control of microbial contamination.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdade, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Two specific applications are discussed of microbial contamination control in planetary quarantine. Under the first concept, using the clean room to control environmental microorganisms, the objective is to reduce the microbial species and keep the numbers of microorganisms within an enclosure at a low level. The clean room concept is aimed at obtaining a product that has a controlled and reduced level of microbial contamination. Under the second concept, using the microbiological barrier to control microbial contamination of a specific product, the barrier techniques are designed to prevent the entry of any microorganisms into a sterile work area. Thus the assembly of space flight hardware within the confines of a microbiological barrier is aimed at obtaining a sterile product. In theory and practice, both approaches are shown to be applicable to the planetary quarantine program.

  9. ELECTRONIC PHASE CONTROL CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, J.D.; Klein, W.W.; Hansen, C.F.

    1959-04-21

    An electronic circuit is described for controlling the phase of radio frequency energy applied to a multicavity linear accelerator. In one application of the circuit two cavities are excited from a single radio frequency source, with one cavity directly coupled to the source and the other cavity coupled through a delay line of special construction. A phase detector provides a bipolar d-c output signal proportional to the difference in phase between the voltage in the two cavities. This d-c signal controls a bias supply which provides a d-c output for varying the capacitnce of voltage sensitive capacitors in the delay line. The over-all operation of the circuit is completely electronic, overcoming the time response limitations of the electromechanical control systems, and the relative phase relationship of the radio frequency voltages in the two caviiies is continuously controlled to effect particle acceleration.

  10. JPL Contamination Control Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakkolb, Brian

    2013-01-01

    JPL has extensive expertise fielding contamination sensitive missions-in house and with our NASA/industry/academic partners.t Development and implementation of performance-driven cleanliness requirements for a wide range missions and payloads - UV-Vis-IR: GALEX, Dawn, Juno, WFPC-II, AIRS, TES, et al - Propulsion, thermal control, robotic sample acquisition systems. Contamination control engineering across the mission life cycle: - System and payload requirements derivation, analysis, and contamination control implementation plans - Hardware Design, Risk trades, Requirements V-V - Assembly, Integration & Test planning and implementation - Launch site operations and launch vehicle/payload integration - Flight ops center dot Personnel on staff have expertise with space materials development and flight experiments. JPL has capabilities and expertise to successfully address contamination issues presented by space and habitable environments. JPL has extensive experience fielding and managing contamination sensitive missions. Excellent working relationship with the aerospace contamination control engineering community/.

  11. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  12. Tight Diabetes Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... results? Here's what they found in the tight-control group as compared with the standard-treatment group: Diabetic ... where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's Sabores de Cuba - 2016-08-book-sabores-de-cuba.html ...

  13. Smart flight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Brett; Bartlett, James P.; O'Hearn, Steve; Adams, Clinton

    2001-04-01

    Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire technology was used as primary flight control actuators on a 99-inch wingspan remote controlled aircraft. Modifications were made to a Dynaflite Butterfly and its Futaba remote control system. Comparisons were recorded between the original Futaba electric motor servo system and the SMA actuator system in terms of input power requirement, response time, actuation geometry, output power, and proportional control characteristics. The advantages and limitations of this application of SMA technology were exposed. This project shed light on further possibilities for use of SMA technology that could eliminate much of the weight, complexity, and cost associated with current use of remote actuation and linkage systems. It is the author's hope that the information presented herein will help facilitate further development of SMA in highly critical miniature applications.

  14. Tuberculosis and infection control.

    PubMed

    Karim, Kelvin

    Against a background of rising tuberculosis (TB) rates, increasing incidence of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, coupled with the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), the need for effective TB infection control has never been more vital (World Health Organization (WHO), 2009). TB infection control has been defined as 'a combination of measures aimed at minimizing the risk of TB transmission within populations' (WHO, 2009: p.ix). Health professionals are frequently confused about appropriate infection control measures when caring for patients affected by infectious respiratory tuberculosis (Mohandas and Cunniffe, 2009). This article aims to address the key infection control measures required to optimize patient care and reduce the risk of TB transmission within hospital and community settings.

  15. Interface Control Specification

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-06-12

    The Requirements Specification Document (#9933.04) identifies the overall system level requirements of the Gary-Chicago-Milwaukee (GCM) Corridor Transportation Information Center (C-TIC). This document provides details about the data and control flow...

  16. Train Control and Operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-06-01

    ATO (automatic train operation) and ATC (automatic train control) systems are evaluated relative to available technology and cost-benefit. The technological evaluation shows that suitable mathematical models of the dynamics of long trains are require...

  17. System access control study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-06-01

    The report presents a summary of a study conducted for the Transportation Systems Center of promising access control techniques which are applicable to an aeronautical satellite system. Several frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time divis...

  18. Active control of convection

    SciTech Connect

    Bau, H.H.

    Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such amore » way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.« less

  19. Uncertainty and Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Faisal; Bland, Amy R.; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    A growing trend of neuroimaging, behavioral, and computational research has investigated the topic of outcome uncertainty in decision-making. Although evidence to date indicates that humans are very effective in learning to adapt to uncertain situations, the nature of the specific cognitive processes involved in the adaptation to uncertainty are still a matter of debate. In this article, we reviewed evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes are at the heart of uncertainty in decision-making contexts. Available evidence suggests that: (1) There is a strong conceptual overlap between the constructs of uncertainty and cognitive control; (2) There is a remarkable overlap between the neural networks associated with uncertainty and the brain networks subserving cognitive control; (3) The perception and estimation of uncertainty might play a key role in monitoring processes and the evaluation of the “need for control”; (4) Potential interactions between uncertainty and cognitive control might play a significant role in several affective disorders. PMID:22007181

  20. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  1. Neural Architectures for Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  2. Innovative Control Effectors (ICE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Figure 4-1 shows the ICE high AOA roll performance goals compared to several current fighter aircraft. For this comparison, the 1-DOF roll equation ...9 ]Body The first bracketed term in equation (1) is recognizable as the expression for Cnpdyn. The second term represents control power for controls...deflected to provide Cn’MAX, trimmed in pitch and roll. The user selects the maximum sideslip to augment by specifying f. Equation (1) can be

  3. PRESSURE SYSTEM CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Esselman, W.H.; Kaplan, G.M.

    1961-06-20

    The control of pressure in pressurized liquid systems, especially a pressurized liquid reactor system, may be achieved by providing a bias circuit or loop across a closed loop having a flow restriction means in the form of an orifice, a storage tank, and a pump connected in series. The subject invention is advantageously utilized where control of a reactor can be achieved by response to the temperature and pressure of the primary cooling system.

  4. Telerobotic controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, W. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Rhoades, Don

    1987-01-01

    To meet NASA's space station's needs and growth, a modular and generic approach to robotic control which provides near-term implementation with low development cost and capability for growth into more autonomous systems was developed. The method uses a vision based robotic controller and compliant hand integrated with the Remote Manipulator System arm on the Orbiter. A description of the hardware and its system integration is presented.

  5. QUALITY CONTROL OF PHARMACEUTICALS.

    PubMed

    LEVI, L; WALKER, G C; PUGSLEY, L I

    1964-10-10

    Quality control is an essential operation of the pharmaceutical industry. Drugs must be marketed as safe and therapeutically active formulations whose performance is consistent and predictable. New and better medicinal agents are being produced at an accelerated rate. At the same time more exacting and sophisticated analytical methods are being developed for their evaluation. Requirements governing the quality control of pharmaceuticals in accordance with the Canadian Food and Drugs Act are cited and discussed.

  6. Digital flight control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  7. Ergatic dynamic control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, V. V. (Editor); Drozdova, T. I. (Editor); Antomonov, Y. G. (Editor); Golego, V. N. (Editor); Ivakhnenko, A. G. (Editor); Meleshev, A. M. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis and analysis of systems containing a man in their control circuits are considered. The concepts of ergonomics and ergatic systems are defined, and tasks and problems of ergonomics are outlined. The synthesis of the structure of an astronautic ergatic organism is presented, as well as the synthesis of nonstationary ergatic systems. Problems of selecting the criteria for complex systems are considered, and the results are presented from a study of ergatic control systems with any degree of human participation.

  8. Integrated mobile robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amidi, Omead; Thorpe, Charles

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the structure, implementation, and operation of a real-time mobile robot controller which integrates capabilities such as: position estimation, path specification and tracking, human interfaces, fast communication, and multiple client support. The benefits of such high-level capabilities in a low-level controller was shown by its implementation for the Navlab autonomous vehicle. In addition, performance results from positioning and tracking systems are reported and analyzed.

  9. Drone Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  10. Supercavitating Vehicle Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-10

    herein as winglets , are supported by a strut attached to the vehicle. The angle of attack of each winglet is controlled by a winglet actuator. The... winglet assembly may be extended into or retracted from the water by means of a spring-loaded actuated mount, which pivots the strut supporting the... winglet . When fully retracted, the winglet assembly is contained completely within the cavity. [0014] The segmented ring wing is controlled by one or more

  11. Lighting Control Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-26

    Shorter payback periods After 19 Cost Benefit of Powerlink Rule of Thumb for Powerlink: Powerlink becomes more cost effective beyond 16 controlled...web enabled control (and management software) Increase in level of integration between building systems Increase in new features, functions, benefits ...focus on reducing run-time via Scheduling, Sensing, Switching Growing focus on payback Direct energy cost (with demand) Additional maintenance benefits

  12. Valve for fluid control

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C.; Paul, Phillip H.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  13. Overflow control valve

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv; Kessinger, Boyd A.; Parlak, Edward A.

    1984-07-24

    An overflow control valve for use in a liquid sodium coolant pump tank which valve can be extended to create a seal with the pump tank wall or retracted to break the seal thereby accommodating valve removal. An actuating shaft which controls valve disc position also has cams which bear on roller surfaces to force retraction of a sliding cylinder against spring tension to retract the cylinder from sealing contact with the pump tank.

  14. International Drug Control Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    control agreements.1 Narcotic drugs include cannabis, cannabis resin, coca leaf , cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2...cocaine is far more difficult to detect than the 300 to 500 kilograms of coca leaf that are required to make that same kilogram. Also, because crops...for legalizing the production and sale of coca leaf , which is currently an internationally controlled narcotic substance? And how can the United

  15. Integrated mobile robot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amidi, Omead; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the strucwre implementation and operation of a real-time mobile robot controller which integrates capabilities such as: position estimation path specification and hacking human interfaces fast communication and multiple client support The benefits of such high-level capabilities in a low-level controller was shown by its implementation for the Naviab autonomous vehicle. In addition performance results from positioning and tracking systems are reported and analyzed.

  16. Quality Control of Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Leo; Walker, George C.; Pugsley, L. I.

    1964-01-01

    Quality control is an essential operation of the pharmaceutical industry. Drugs must be marketed as safe and therapeutically active formulations whose performance is consistent and predictable. New and better medicinal agents are being produced at an accelerated rate. At the same time more exacting and sophisticated analytical methods are being developed for their evaluation. Requirements governing the quality control of pharmaceuticals in accordance with the Canadian Food and Drugs Act are cited and discussed. PMID:14199105

  17. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, H.B.; Weiss, A.A.

    1959-08-18

    A shadow control device for controlling a nuclear reactor is described. The device comprises a series of hollow neutron-absorbing elements arranged in groups, each element having a cavity for substantially housing an adjoining element and a longitudinal member for commonly supporting the groups of elements. Longitudinal actuation of the longitudinal member distributes the elements along its entire length in which position maximum worth is achieved.

  18. Arms Control Fellowship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) has announced that it is accepting applications for visiting scholars under the William C. Foster Fellows Program for 1986-1987. This program is designed to give specialists in the physical sciences and other disciplines relevant to ACDA activities an opportunity to participate actively in the arms control and disarmament activities of this agency and to give ACDA the perspective and expertise that such people can offer.

  19. Vector control in leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Kishore, K; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Dinesh, D S; Kumar, A J; Das, P; Bhattacharya, S K

    2006-03-01

    Indoor residual spraying is a simple and cost effective method of controlling endophilic vectors and DDT remains the insecticide of choice for the control of leishmaniasis. However resistance to insecticide is likely to become more widespread in the population especially in those areas in which insecticide has been used for years. In this context use of slow release emulsified suspension (SRES) may be the best substitute. In this review spraying frequencies of DDT and new schedule of spray have been discussed. Role of biological control and environment management in the control of leishmaniasis has been emphasized. Allethrin (coil) 0.1 and 1.6 per cent prallethrin (liquid) have been found to be effective repellents against Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Indian kalaazar. Insecticide impregnated bednets is another area which requires further research on priority basis for the control of leishmaniasis. Role of satellite remote sensing for early prediction of disease by identifying the sandflygenic conditions cannot be undermined. In future synthetic pheromons can be exploited in the control of leishmaniasis.

  20. Decoupled Modulation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaobu; Huang, Renke; Huang, Zhenyu

    The objective of this research work is to develop decoupled modulation control methods for damping inter-area oscillations with low frequencies, so the damping control can be more effective and easier to design with less interference among different oscillation modes in the power system. A signal-decoupling algorithm was developed that can enable separation of multiple oscillation frequency contents and extraction of a “pure” oscillation frequency mode that are fed into Power System Stabilizers (PSSs) as the modulation input signals. As a result, instead of introducing interferences between different oscillation modes from the traditional approaches, the output of the new PSS modulationmore » control signal mainly affects only one oscillation mode of interest. The new decoupled modulation damping control algorithm has been successfully developed and tested on the standard IEEE 4-machine 2-area test system and a minniWECC system. The results are compared against traditional modulation controls, which demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the newly-developed decoupled modulation damping control algorithm.« less

  1. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  2. Infection control for norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, L.; Park, G. W.; Vega, E.; Hall, A.; Parashar, U.; Vinjé, J.; Lopman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infections are notoriously difficult to prevent and control, owing to their low infectious dose, high shedding titre, and environmental stability. The virus can spread through multiple transmission routes, of which person-to-person and foodborne are the most important. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have helped to establish norovirus as the most common cause of sporadic gastroenteritis and the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis across all ages. In this article, we review the epidemiology and virology of noroviruses, and prevention and control guidelines, with a focus on the principles of disinfection and decontamination. Outbreak management relies on sound infection control principles, including hand hygiene, limiting exposure to infectious individuals, and thorough environmental decontamination. Ideally, all infection control recommendations would rely on empirical evidence, but a number of challenges, including the inability to culture noroviruses in the laboratory and the challenges of outbreak management in complex environments, has made it difficult to garner clear evidence of efficacy in certain areas of infection control. New experimental data on cultivable surrogates for human norovirus and on environmental survivability and relative resistance to commonly used disinfectants are providing new insights for further refinining disinfection practices. Finally, clinical trials are underway to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines, which may shift the current infection control principles to more targeted interventions. PMID:24813073

  3. Coastal Erosion Control Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal erosion is bad because the ecosystem there will be washed away and the animals could drown or be displaced and have to adapt to a new ecosystem that they are not prepared for. I'm interested in this problem because if there aren't beaches when I grow up I won't be able to do the things I would really like to do. I would like to be a marine biologist. Secondly, I don't want to see beach houses washed away. I would like to see people live in harmony with their environment. So, to study ways in which to preserve beaches I will make and use models that test different erosion controls. Two different ideas for erosion control I tested are using seaweed or a rock berm. I think the rock berm will work better than the model of seaweed because the seaweed is under water and the waves can carry the sand over the seaweed, and the rock berm will work better because the rocks will help break the waves up before they reach the shore and the waves can not carry the sand over the rocks that are above the water. To investigate this I got a container to use to model the Gulf of Mexico coastline. I performed several test runs using sand and water in the container to mimic the beach and waves from the Gulf of Mexico hitting the shoreline. I did three trials for the control (no erosion control), seaweed and a rock berm. Rock berms are a border of a raised area of rock. The model for seaweed that I used was plastic shopping bags cut into strips and glued to the bottom of my container to mimic seaweed. My results were that the control had the most erosion which ranged from 2.75 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The seaweed was a little better than the control but was very variable and ranged from 1.5 - 3 inches over 3 trials. The rock berm worked the best out of all at controlling erosion with erosion ranging from 1.5 - 2 inches. My hypothesis was correct because the rock berm did best to control erosion compared to the control which had no erosion control and the model with seaweed.

  4. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  5. Controlled Quantum Packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    We look at time evolution of a physical system from the point of view of dynamical control theory. Normally we solve motion equation with a given external potential and we obtain time evolution. Standard examples are the trajectories in classical mechanics or the wave functions in Quantum Mechanics. In the control theory, we have the configurational variables of a physical system, we choose a velocity field and with a suited strategy we force the physical system to have a well defined evolution. The evolution of the system is the 'premium' that the controller receives if he has adopted the right strategy. The strategy is given by well suited laboratory devices. The control mechanisms are in many cases non linear; it is necessary, namely, a feedback mechanism to retain in time the selected evolution. Our aim is to introduce a scheme to obtain Quantum wave packets by control theory. The program is to choose the characteristics of a packet, that is, the equation of evolution for its centre and a controlled dispersion, and to give a building scheme from some initial state (for example a solution of stationary Schroedinger equation). It seems natural in this view to use stochastic approach to Quantum Mechanics, that is, Stochastic Mechanics [S.M.]. It is a quantization scheme different from ordinary ones only formally. This approach introduces in quantum theory the whole mathematical apparatus of stochastic control theory. Stochastic Mechanics, in our view, is more intuitive when we want to study all the classical-like problems. We apply our scheme to build two classes of quantum packets both derived generalizing some properties of coherent states.

  6. Beyond Control Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay

    2017-01-01

    For NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) Lunar Rover Mission, we are moving away from a control center concept, to a fully distributed operation utilizing control nodes, with decision support from anywhere via mobile devices. This operations concept will utilize distributed information systems, notifications, mobile data access, and optimized mobile data display for off-console decision support. We see this concept of operations as a step in the evolution of mission operations from a central control center concept to a mission operations anywhere concept. The RP example is part of a trend, in which mission expertise for design, development and operations is distributed across countries and across the globe. Future spacecraft operations will be most cost efficient and flexible by following this distributed expertise, enabling operations from anywhere. For the RP mission we arrived at the decision to utilize a fully distributed operations team, where everyone operates from their home institution, based on evaluating the following factors: the requirement for physical proximity for near-real time command and control decisions; the cost of distributed control nodes vs. a centralized control center; the impact on training and mission preparation of flying the team to a central location. Physical proximity for operational decisions is seldom required, though certain categories of decisions, such as launch abort, or close coordination for mission or safety-critical near-real-time command and control decisions may benefit from co-location. The cost of facilities and operational infrastructure has not been found to be a driving factor for location in our studies. Mission training and preparation benefit from having all operators train and operate from home institutions.

  7. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  8. Aquatic plant control research

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N.; Ghio, E.G.

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Threemore » types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.« less

  9. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  10. Opisthorchiasis control in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jongsuksuntigul, P; Imsomboon, T

    2003-11-01

    History of opisthorchiasis control started in 1950 as a small scale helminthiasis control program in some high risk areas. Following a number of studies and trial projects of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, the national liver fluke control program has been developed and operated under several National Public Health Development Plans. Presently, the program is being operated in some provinces of the Central, and all provinces of the Northeast and North of Thailand. The main strategies for liver fluke control comprise of three interrelated approaches, namely stool examinations and treatment of positive cases with praziquantel for eliminating human host reservoir; health education for a promotion of cooked fish consumption to prevent infection, and the improvement of hygienic defecation for the interruption of disease transmission. Between 1984 and 1987, the positive rate of liver fluke infection was 63.6%. In 1988, the positive rate went down to 35.6%. Following the region wide control program started in 1989, the annual positive rates had subsequently decreased to 9.4% in the year 2001. The prevalence rate was remarkably high in the North and moderately high in the Northeast, while the prevalence in the Central region was considerably low and there was no evidence of disease transmission in the South.

  11. Modeling Pilot Pulse Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine; Aponso, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    In this study, behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots from the experimental pool using markedly different control techniques (styles) while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to issue and cease pulse commands. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to perceive and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess' pilot Structural Model. The Pulse Models used in conjunction with the pilot Structural Model closely recreated the pilot data both in the frequency and time domains during closed-loop simulation. This indicates that for the range of tasks and control styles encountered, the models captured the fundamental mechanisms governing pulsive and control processes. The pilot Pulse Models give important insight for the amount of remnant (stick output uncorrelated with the forcing function) that arises from nonlinear pilot technique, and for the remaining remnant arising from different sources unrelated to tracking control (i.e. neuromuscular tremor, reallocation of cognitive resources, etc.).

  12. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  13. Control networks and hubs.

    PubMed

    Gratton, Caterina; Sun, Haoxin; Petersen, Steven E

    2018-03-01

    Executive control functions are associated with frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular brain regions that interact through distributed large-scale networks. Here, we discuss how fMRI functional connectivity can shed light on the organization of control networks and how they interact with other parts of the brain. In the first section of our review, we present convergent evidence from fMRI functional connectivity, activation, and lesion studies that there are multiple dissociable control networks in the brain with distinct functional properties. In the second section, we discuss how graph theoretical concepts can help illuminate the mechanisms by which control networks interact with other brain regions to carry out goal-directed functions, focusing on the role of specialized hub regions for mediating cross-network interactions. Again, we use a combination of functional connectivity, lesion, and task activation studies to bolster this claim. We conclude that a large-scale network perspective provides important neurobiological constraints on the neural underpinnings of executive control, which will guide future basic and translational research into executive function and its disruption in disease. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state power controllers (SSPC's) are to be considered for use as replacements of electromechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 v(dc). They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near the utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small gauge wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, onboard testing, power management, and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability. Conventional systems require the heavy gage load wiring and the control wiring to be routed from the bus to the load to other remote relay contacts, switches, sensors, etc. and to the circuit breaker located in the flight engineer's compartment for purposes of manual reset.

  15. 13. CONTROL ROOM OF GENE PUMPING STATION. CONTROL CUBICLES ARRAYED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CONTROL ROOM OF GENE PUMPING STATION. CONTROL CUBICLES ARRAYED BEHIND MANAGER'S ART DECO-STYLE CONTROL DESK, WITH CONTROL CUBICLE 1 AT FAR RIGHT AND CONTROL CUBICLE 9 AT FAR LEFT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Dynamic PID loop control

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    2011-06-01

    The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters oscillation.

  17. Techniques for debris control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will summarize a range of techniques which have been proposed for controlling the growth of man-made debris in earth orbit. Several techniques developed in studies at the Johnson Space Center will be described in detail. These techniques include the retrieval of inoperative satellites with an orbital maneuvering vehicle and self-disposal devices for satellites and upper stages. Self-disposal devices include propulsive deorbit motors and passive drag-augmentation devices. Concepts for sweeping small debris from the orbital environment will also be described. An evaluation of the technical feasibility and economic practicality of the various control methods will be summarized. In general, methods which prevent the accumulation of large debris objects were found to provide greater promise for control of the debris problem than methods of removing small debris particles.

  18. Controlling nuclear RNA levels.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Manfred; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2018-05-10

    RNA turnover is an integral part of cellular RNA homeostasis and gene expression regulation. Whereas the cytoplasmic control of protein-coding mRNA is often the focus of study, we discuss here the less appreciated role of nuclear RNA decay systems in controlling RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)-derived transcripts. Historically, nuclear RNA degradation was found to be essential for the functionalization of transcripts through their proper maturation. Later, it was discovered to also be an important caretaker of nuclear hygiene by removing aberrant and unwanted transcripts. Recent years have now seen a set of new protein complexes handling a variety of new substrates, revealing functions beyond RNA processing and the decay of non-functional transcripts. This includes an active contribution of nuclear RNA metabolism to the overall cellular control of RNA levels, with mechanistic implications during cellular transitions.

  19. Toy Control Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, H A; Ormond, C; Seeger, B R

    1991-08-01

    The Toy Control Program for the Apple IIe microcomputer is a software and hardware package developed for the training of single-switch scanning skills. The specially designed scanning programs provide on screen visual feedback and activate a battery-powered toy to reinforce performance. This study examined whether the training of preschool subjects in single-switch scanning skills with the Toy Control Program would result in increased task completion scores and increased levels of attention to task, as compared with conditions of toy activation only and microcomputer programs with screen reinforcement only. The results showed that the subjects paid significantly more attention to the toys as reinforcers (p less than .01). No significant difference was found for the performance results of the three conditions. These findings support the use of a program like the Toy Control Program, which integrates the instructional capabilities of a computer with the reinforcement potential of a toy and the creativity of a therapist.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Howard, D.F.; Motta, E.E.

    1961-06-27

    A method for controlling the excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor throughout the core life while maintaining the neutron flux distribution at the desired level is described. The control unit embodies a container having two electrodes of different surface area immersed in an electrolytic solution of a good neutron sbsorbing metal ion such as boron, gadolinium, or cadmium. Initially, the neutron absorber is plated on the larger electrode to control the greater neutron flux of a freshly refueled core. As the fuel burns up, the excess reactivity decreases and the neutron absorber is then plated onto the smaller electrode so that the number of neutrons absorbed also decreases. The excess reactivity in the core may thus be maintained without the introduction of serious perturbations in the neutron flux distributibn.

  1. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  2. Distributed environmental control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    We present an architecture of distributed, independent control agents designed to work with the Computer Aided System Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A) simulation tool. CASE/A simulates behavior of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). We describe a lattice of agents capable of distributed sensing and overcoming certain sensor and effector failures. We address how the architecture can achieve the coordinating functions of a hierarchical command structure while maintaining the robustness and flexibility of independent agents. These agents work between the time steps of the CASE/A simulation tool to arrive at command decisions based on the state variables maintained by CASE/A. Control is evaluated according to both effectiveness (e.g., how well temperature was maintained) and resource utilization (the amount of power and materials used).

  3. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Dunlap, IL

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  4. AMBER instrument control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Coarer, Etienne P.; Zins, Gerard; Gluck, Laurence; Duvert, Gilles; Driebe, Thomas; Ohnaka, Keiichi; Heininger, Matthias; Connot, Claus; Behrend, Jan; Dugue, Michel; Clausse, Jean Michel; Millour, Florentin

    2004-09-01

    AMBER (Astronomical Multiple BEam Recombiner) is a 3 aperture interferometric recombiner operating between 1 and 2.5 um, for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The control software of the instrument, based on the VLT Common Software, has been written to comply with specific features of the AMBER hardware, such as the Infrared detector read out modes or piezo stage drivers, as well as with the very specific operation modes of an interferomtric instrument. In this respect, the AMBER control software was designed to insure that all operations, from the preparation of the observations to the control/command of the instrument during the observations, would be kept as simple as possible for the users and operators, opening the use of an interferometric instrument to the largest community of astronomers. Peculiar attention was given to internal checks and calibration procedures both to evaluate data quality in real time, and improve the successes of long term UV plane coverage observations.

  5. Control Techtronics International

    SciTech Connect

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installedmore » and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.« less

  6. SERVOMOTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeille, S.M.

    1958-12-01

    Control systems for automatic positioning of an electric motor operated vapor valve are described which is operable under the severe conditions existing in apparatus for electro-magnetlcally separating isotopes. In general, the system includes a rotor for turning the valve comprising two colls mounted mutually perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus. The coils are furnished with both a-c and d- c current by assoclate control circuitry and a position control is provided for varying the ratlo of the a-c currents in the coils and at the same time, but in an inverse manner, the ratio between the d-c currents in the coils is varied. With the present system the magnitude of the motor torque is constant for all valves of the rotor orientatlon angle.

  7. Neuromorphic walking gait control.

    PubMed

    Still, Susanne; Hepp, Klaus; Douglas, Rodney J

    2006-03-01

    We present a neuromorphic pattern generator for controlling the walking gaits of four-legged robots which is inspired by central pattern generators found in the nervous system and which is implemented as a very large scale integrated (VLSI) chip. The chip contains oscillator circuits that mimic the output of motor neurons in a strongly simplified way. We show that four coupled oscillators can produce rhythmic patterns with phase relationships that are appropriate to generate all four-legged animal walking gaits. These phase relationships together with frequency and duty cycle of the oscillators determine the walking behavior of a robot driven by the chip, and they depend on a small set of stationary bias voltages. We give analytic expressions for these dependencies. This chip reduces the complex, dynamic inter-leg control problem associated with walking gait generation to the problem of setting a few stationary parameters. It provides a compact and low power solution for walking gait control in robots.

  8. Test Control Center

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-25

    At the test observation periscope in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., visitors can observe a test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine exactly as test engineers might see it during a real engine test. The Test Control Center exhibit exactly simulates not only the test control environment, but also the procedure of testing a rocket engine. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative dispays and exhibits from NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion and remote sensing applications. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  9. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Graham, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A wholly mechanical compact control device is designed for automatically rendering the core of a fission reactor subcritical in response to core temperatures in excess of the design operating temperature limit. The control device comprises an expansible bellows interposed between the base of a channel in a reactor core and the inner end of a fuel cylinder therein which is normally resiliently urged inwardly. The bellows contains a working fluid which undergoes a liquid to vapor phase change at a temperature substantially equal to the design temperature limit. Hence, the bellows abruptiy expands at this limiting temperature to force the fuel cylinder outward and render the core subcritical. The control device is particularly applicable to aircraft propulsion reactor service. (AEC)

  10. Schistosomiasis: eradication or control

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, G.T.

    Schistosomiasis cannot be eradicated from the world at this time. However, it can be eradicated from focal areas where major improvements in the standard of living have occurred. In most areas control of biological transmission can be obtained by a systematic use of chemotherapy along with other methods including control of snails and reduction in both water contamination and contact. In some areas, where the prevalence and intensity of infection are very high, the only reasonable objective is control of the disease. Disease morbidity correlates with intensity of infection and can probably be reduced with repeated courses of chemotherapy. Themore » appropriate application of a schistosomal vaccine, when it becomes available, will expedite the eradication of this parasite, which infects greater than 200 million people.« less

  11. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  12. Timing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, Gordon A. (Inventor); Wells, Jr., George H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A timing control system is disclosed which is particularly useful in connection with simulated mortar shells. Special circuitry is provided to assure that the shell does not overshoot, but rather detonates early in case of an improper condition; this ensures that ground personnel will not be harmed by a delayed detonation. The system responds to an externally applied frequency control code which is configured to avoid any confusion between different control modes. A premature detonation routine is entered in case an improper time-setting signal is entered, or if the shell is launched before completion of the time-setting sequence. Special provisions are also made for very early launch situations and improper detonator connections. An alternate abort mode is provided to discharge the internal power supply without a detonation in a manner that can be externally monitored, thereby providing a mechanism for non-destructive testing. The abort mode also accelerates the timing function for rapid testing.

  13. Timing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, Gordon A. (Inventor); Wells, George H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A timing control system is disclosed which is particularly useful in connection with simulated mortar shells. Special circuitry is provided to assure that the shell does not over shoot, but rather detonates early in case of an improper condition; this ensures that ground personnel will not be harmed by a delayed detonation. The system responds to an externally applied frequency control code which is configured to avoid any confusion between different control modes. A premature detonation routine is entered in case an improper time-setting signal is entered, or if the shell is launched before completion of the time-setting sequence. Special provisions are also made for very early launch situations and improper detonator connections. An alternate abort mode is provided to discharge the internal power supply without a detonation in a manner that can be externally monitored, thereby providing a mechanism for non-destructive testing. The abort mode also accelerates the timing function for rapid testing.

  14. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbonmore » facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.« less

  15. Computer-controlled attenuator.

    PubMed

    Mitov, D; Grozev, Z

    1991-01-01

    Various possibilities for applying electronic computer-controlled attenuators for the automation of physiological experiments are considered. A detailed description is given of the design of a 4-channel computer-controlled attenuator, in two of the channels of which the output signal can change by a linear step, in the other two channels--by a logarithmic step. This, together with the existence of additional programmable timers, allows to automate a wide range of studies in different spheres of physiology and psychophysics, including vision and hearing.

  16. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  17. REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeill, J.H.; Estabrook, J.Y.

    1960-05-10

    A reactor control system including a continuous tape passing through a first coolant passageway, over idler rollers, back through another parallel passageway, and over motor-driven rollers is described. Discrete portions of fuel or poison are carried on two opposed active sections of the tape. Driving the tape in forward or reverse directions causes both active sections to be simultaneously inserted or withdrawn uniformly, tending to maintain a more uniform flux within the reactor. The system is particularly useful in mobile reactors, where reduced inertial resistance to control rod movement is important.

  18. Solar Array Tracking Control

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, Alexander

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D) convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed atmore » compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  19. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOEpatents

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  20. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1958-10-14

    Methods of controlling reactors are presented. Specifically, a plurality of neutron absorber members are adjustably disposed in the reactor core at different distances from the center thereof. The absorber members extend into the core from opposite faces thereof and are operated by motive means coupled in a manner to simultaneously withdraw at least one of the absorber members while inserting one of the other absorber members. This feature effects fine control of the neutron reproduction ratio by varying the total volume of the reactor effective in developing the neutronic reaction.

  2. Neural control of muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Markelonis, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cholinergic innervation regulates the physiological and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms that appear to be involved in this regulation include soluble, neurally-derived polypeptides, transmitter-evoked muscle activity and the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, itself. Despite extensive research, the interacting neural mechanisms that control such macromolecules as acetylcholinesterase, the acetylcholine receptor and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase remain unclear. It may be that more simplified in vitro model systems coupled with recent dramatic advances in the molecular biology of neurally-regulated proteins will begin to allow researchers to unravel the mechanisms controlling the expression and maintenance of these macromolecules.

  3. Blood Pressure Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Engineering Development Laboratory developed a system for the cardiovascular study of weightless astronauts. This was designed to aid people with congestive heart failure and diabetes. While in space, astronauts' blood pressure rises, heart rate becomes unstable, and there are sometimes postflight lightheadedness or blackouts. The Baro-Cuff studies the resetting of blood pressure. When a silicone rubber chamber is strapped to the neck, the Baro-Cuff stimulates the carotid arteries by electronically controlled pressure application. Blood pressure controls in patients may be studied.

  4. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  5. Pointing control for LDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  6. Temporal Dynamic Controllability Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Paul H.; Muscettola, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    An important issue for temporal planners is the ability to handle temporal uncertainty. We revisit the question of how to determine whether a given set of temporal requirements are feasible in the light of uncertain durations of some processes. In particular, we consider how best to determine whether a network is Dynamically Controllable, i.e., whether a dynamic strategy exists for executing the network that is guaranteed to satisfy the requirements. Previous work has shown the existence of a pseudo-polynomial algorithm for testing Dynamic Controllability. Here, we greatly simplify the previous framework, and present a true polynomial algorithm with a cutoff based only on the number of nodes.

  7. Towards cheaper control centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel

    1994-01-01

    Today, any approach to the design of new space systems must take into consideration an important constraint, namely costs. This approach is our guideline for new missions and also applies to the ground segment, and particularly to the control center. CNES has carried out a study on a recent control center for application satellites in order to take advantage of the experience gained. This analysis, the purpose of which is to determine, a posteriori, the costs of architecture needs and choices, takes hardware and software costs into account and makes a number of recommendations.

  8. Stochastic Feedforward Control Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1990-01-01

    Class of commanded trajectories modeled as stochastic process. Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research and development program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center aimed at developing capabilities for increases in capacities of airports, safe and accurate flight in adverse weather conditions including shear, winds, avoidance of wake vortexes, and reduced consumption of fuel. Advances in techniques for design of modern controls and increased capabilities of digital flight computers coupled with accurate guidance information from Microwave Landing System (MLS). Stochastic feedforward control technique developed within context of ATOPS program.

  9. AUTOMATIC LIGHT CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Artzt, M.

    1957-08-27

    A control system for a projection kinescope used in a facsimile scanning system and, in particular, meams for maintaining substantially constant the light emanating from the flying spot on the face of the kinescope are described. In general, the invention provides a feeler member disposed in such a position with respect to a projecting lens as to intercept a portion of the light striking the lens. Suitable circuitry in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube provides a signal proportional to the light intensity of the flying spot. The grid bias on the kinescope is controlled by this signal to maintain the intensity of the spot substantially constant.

  10. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  11. Intermittent control: a computational theory of human control.

    PubMed

    Gawthrop, Peter; Loram, Ian; Lakie, Martin; Gollee, Henrik

    2011-02-01

    The paradigm of continuous control using internal models has advanced understanding of human motor control. However, this paradigm ignores some aspects of human control, including intermittent feedback, serial ballistic control, triggered responses and refractory periods. It is shown that event-driven intermittent control provides a framework to explain the behaviour of the human operator under a wider range of conditions than continuous control. Continuous control is included as a special case, but sampling, system matched hold, an intermittent predictor and an event trigger allow serial open-loop trajectories using intermittent feedback. The implementation here may be described as "continuous observation, intermittent action". Beyond explaining unimodal regulation distributions in common with continuous control, these features naturally explain refractoriness and bimodal stabilisation distributions observed in double stimulus tracking experiments and quiet standing, respectively. Moreover, given that human control systems contain significant time delays, a biological-cybernetic rationale favours intermittent over continuous control: intermittent predictive control is computationally less demanding than continuous predictive control. A standard continuous-time predictive control model of the human operator is used as the underlying design method for an event-driven intermittent controller. It is shown that when event thresholds are small and sampling is regular, the intermittent controller can masquerade as the underlying continuous-time controller and thus, under these conditions, the continuous-time and intermittent controller cannot be distinguished. This explains why the intermittent control hypothesis is consistent with the continuous control hypothesis for certain experimental conditions.

  12. Controllability of Surface Water Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riasi, M. Sadegh; Yeghiazarian, Lilit

    2017-12-01

    To sustainably manage water resources, we must understand how to control complex networked systems. In this paper, we study surface water networks from the perspective of structural controllability, a concept that integrates classical control theory with graph-theoretic formalism. We present structural controllability theory and compute four metrics: full and target controllability, control centrality and control profile (FTCP) that collectively determine the structural boundaries of the system's control space. We use these metrics to answer the following questions: How does the structure of a surface water network affect its controllability? How to efficiently control a preselected subset of the network? Which nodes have the highest control power? What types of topological structures dominate controllability? Finally, we demonstrate the structural controllability theory in the analysis of a wide range of surface water networks, such as tributary, deltaic, and braided river systems.

  13. 77. Deputy commander's launch control console, fire control panel missing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. Deputy commander's launch control console, fire control panel missing at right, south side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. 17. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR FILTER #9: CONTROL SWITCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR FILTER #9: CONTROL SWITCHES CONTROL BY PERCENTAGE OF VALVE OPENINGS INFLUENT, EFFLUENT, DRAINAGE, BACKWASH AND SURFACE WASH. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN CONTROL STATION, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL IN CONTROL STATION, VIEW TOWARDS WEST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Control Station, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  16. 3. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF CONTROL PANELS SHOWING MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VAL CONTROL STATION, VIEW OF CONTROL PANELS SHOWING MAIN PRESSURE GAUGES, LOOKING NORTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Control Station, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Fuzzy control of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeley, J. J.; Niederauer, G. M.; Ahlstrom, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of an adaptive fuzzy control algorithm implemented on a VLSI chip for the control of a magnetic bearing was considered. The architecture of the adaptive fuzzy controller is similar to that of a neural network. The performance of the fuzzy controller is compared to that of a conventional controller by computer simulation.

  18. Commercializing Biological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  19. Birth control pills - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Birth Control Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  20. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  1. Desiccant humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amazeen, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A regenerable sorbent system was investigated for controlling the humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the space shuttle cabin atmosphere. The sorbents considered for water and carbon dioxide removal were silica gel and molecular sieves. Bed optimization and preliminary system design are discussed along with system optimization studies and weight penalites.

  2. Quality Control Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 18 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of quality control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and…

  3. Control, Control, Complete Control!!! Neurotic Control Relationships and the Development of Dysfunctional Organizational Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Astrid

    A case study illustrates the concept of the neurotic organization by describing the development of "Central Control College" over a period of 11 years. In this period of time, the college moved from a small, informal organization to a highly developed compulsive institution. The image of neurosis has been applied in the organizational…

  4. Nutrient Control Design Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this EPA design manual is to provide updated, state‐of‐the‐technology design guidance on nitrogen and phosphorus control at municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Similar to previous EPA manuals, this manual contains extensive information on the principles ...

  5. Russian Flight Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-20

    NASA Deputy Administrator Fred Gregory, left, joins Russian Federal Space Agency Deputy General-Director Nikolai Moiseev, Wednesday, April 21, 2004, at the Russian Mission Control Center outside Moscow to view the docking of the Expedition 9 crew to the International Space Station in a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  7. Controlled Waveform Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, L. J.; Schlllig, J. B.

    Issues for the design and operation of high field controlled waveform magnets and their power supplies are discussed. The basic technical elements are reviewed and applied to problems specific to this class of magnets. Examples are given along with a guide to the literature.

  8. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  9. Distributed numerical controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orban, Peter E.

    2001-12-01

    While the basic principles of Numerical Controllers (NC) have not changed much during the years, the implementation of NCs' has changed tremendously. NC equipment has evolved from yesterday's hard-wired specialty control apparatus to today's graphics intensive, networked, increasingly PC based open systems, controlling a wide variety of industrial equipment with positioning needs. One of the newest trends in NC technology is the distributed implementation of the controllers. Distributed implementation promises to offer robustness, lower implementation costs, and a scalable architecture. Historically partitioning has been done along the hierarchical levels, moving individual modules into self contained units. The paper discusses various NC architectures, the underlying technology for distributed implementation, and relevant design issues. First the functional requirements of individual NC modules are analyzed. Module functionality, cycle times, and data requirements are examined. Next the infrastructure for distributed node implementation is reviewed. Various communication protocols and distributed real-time operating system issues are investigated and compared. Finally, a different, vertical system partitioning, offering true scalability and reconfigurability is presented.

  10. Adaptive sequential controller

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  11. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  12. Chemistry for Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Larry

    This booklet presents some methods of quantitative chemical analysis currently used in the field of fresh water pollution control. Only those tests that may be performed with little or no special reagents or pieces of equipment are listed. The booklet addresses the following determinations: (1) acidity; (2) alkalinity; (3) chloride; (4) hardness;…

  13. Japanese Quality Control Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    In recent years, United States scholars with an interest in international business and organizational communication have begun to notice the success of Japanese "quality control circles." These are small groups, usually composed of seven to ten workers, who are organized at the production levels within most large Japanese factories. A…

  14. Cognitive Control Acts Locally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notebaert, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive control adjusts information processing to momentary needs and task requirements. We investigated conflict adaptation when participants are performing two tasks, a Simon task and a SNARC task. The results indicated that one congruency effect (e.g., Simon) was reduced after conflict in the other task (e.g., SNARC), but only when both tasks…

  15. Biological control of ticks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  16. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  17. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  18. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  19. Controlling HR Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellig, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    Controlling human resources costs is critical for a competitive advantage. More money will have to be invested in education and training because of an inadequate, ill-prepared group of entry-level workers. Commitment to employees will have to be considered in relation to the increased investment in them. (JOW)

  20. Instrumentation Control Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  1. Ocean Data Quality Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-18

    the aero- sol at the coincident time and location of the satellite SST retrievals. This informa- tion is available in the daytime for the anti-solar...are of the same form, such as probabilities or standard normal deviates. A quality control decision-making algorithm in use at the U.S. Navy oceano

  2. Spectroscopic analysis and control

    DOEpatents

    Tate; , James D.; Reed, Christopher J.; Domke, Christopher H.; Le, Linh; Seasholtz, Mary Beth; Weber, Andy; Lipp, Charles

    2017-04-18

    Apparatus for spectroscopic analysis which includes a tunable diode laser spectrometer having a digital output signal and a digital computer for receiving the digital output signal from the spectrometer, the digital computer programmed to process the digital output signal using a multivariate regression algorithm. In addition, a spectroscopic method of analysis using such apparatus. Finally, a method for controlling an ethylene cracker hydrogenator.

  3. Lighting Control Systems Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    cost, both initial and operating. Initially, the control system designer must collect in- formation and then study and weigh several areas including...8217odLe 045. Pearl Harbor. III: Code 11 Pearl Harbor ar ho I ir I L ’ odk 402. R IYI& [’. Plearl II arbor I II: Li bra ry. Pearl HaIitrbor. I ai

  4. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  5. How to Control Graffiti.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in chemical technology can control graffiti by using chemicals that emulsify and soften the paint and are then rinsed with water under pressure. Protective coatings are applied that allow the easy removal of spray paint by a variety of methods. (Author/MLF)

  6. Active weld control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Bradley W.; Burroughs, Ivan A.

    1994-01-01

    Through the two phases of this contract, sensors for welding applications and parameter extraction algorithms have been developed. These sensors form the foundation of a weld control system which can provide action weld control through the monitoring of the weld pool and keyhole in a VPPA welding process. Systems of this type offer the potential of quality enhancement and cost reduction (minimization of rework on faulty welds) for high-integrity welding applications. Sensors for preweld and postweld inspection, weld pool monitoring, keyhole/weld wire entry monitoring, and seam tracking were developed. Algorithms for signal extraction were also developed and analyzed to determine their application to an adaptive weld control system. The following sections discuss findings for each of the three sensors developed under this contract: (1) weld profiling sensor; (2) weld pool sensor; and (3) stereo seam tracker/keyhole imaging sensor. Hardened versions of these sensors were designed and built under this contract. A control system, described later, was developed on a multiprocessing/multitasking operating system for maximum power and flexibility. Documentation for sensor mechanical and electrical design is also included as appendices in this report.

  7. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  8. Noise Control through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennino, Martha

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the public education and information programs on noise pollution control currently in operation within the Metropolitan Washington, D.C. area that have been either developed or implemented under the auspices of the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. (BT)

  9. Controlling Landscape Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuss, James Robert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of common grass and broadleaf weeds through the use of mulches and herbicides. The section on mulches discusses the different types of mulching materials, their advantages and disadvantages, herbicide-mulch combinations, and lists source of…

  10. Convergence, Degeneracy, and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David W.; Crinion, Jenny; Price, Cathy J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the neural representation and control of language in normal bilingual speakers provides insights into the factors that constrain the acquisition of another language, insights into the nature of language expertise, and an understanding of the brain as an adaptive system. We illustrate both functional and structural brain changes…

  11. Improved chain control operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    In California, field maintenance personnel use turntable signs to advise motorists of chain control conditions on rural : highways and freeways. To do this an operator has to park, exit the vehicle, turn the sign on the shoulder and then : walk acros...

  12. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  13. Contamination control device

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Robert M.; Cronin, John C.

    1977-01-01

    A contamination control device for use in a gas-insulated transmission bus consisting of a cylindrical center conductor coaxially mounted within a grounded cylindrical enclosure. The contamination control device is electrically connected to the interior surface of the grounded outer shell and positioned along an axial line at the lowest vertical position thereon. The contamination control device comprises an elongated metallic member having a generally curved cross-section in a first plane perpendicular to the axis of the bus and having an arcuate cross-section in a second plane lying along the axis of the bus. Each opposed end of the metallic member and its opposing sides are tapered to form a pair of generally converging and downward sloping surfaces to trap randomly moving conductive particles in the relatively field-free region between the metallic member and the interior surface of the grounded outer shell. The device may have projecting legs to enable the device to be spot welded to the interior of the grounded housing. The control device provides a high capture probability and prevents subsequent release of the charged particles after the capture thereof.

  14. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat [NE Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  15. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  16. Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Integrated Component Systems, Inc. incorporated information from a NASA Tech Briefs article into a voltage-controlled oscillator it designed for a customer. The company then applied the technology to its series of phase-locked loop synthesizers, which offer superior phase noise performance.

  17. Myopia Control: A Review.

    PubMed

    Walline, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Slowing the progression of myopia has become a considerable concern for parents of myopic children. At the same time, clinical science is rapidly advancing the knowledge about methods to slow myopia progression. This article reviews the peer-reviewed literature regarding several modalities attempting to control myopia progression. Several strategies have been shown to be ineffective for myopia control, including undercorrection of myopic refractive error, alignment fit gas-permeable contact lenses, outdoor time, and bifocal of multifocal spectacles. However, a recent randomized clinical trial fitted progressing myopic children with executive bifocals for 3 years and found a 39% slowing of myopia progression for bifocal-only spectacles and 50% treatment effect for bifocal spectacles with base-in prism, although there was not a significant difference in progression between the bifocal-only and bifocal plus prism groups. Interestingly, outdoor time has shown to be effective for reducing the onset of myopia but not for slowing the progression of myopic refractive error. More effective methods of myopia control include orthokeratology, soft bifocal contact lenses, and antimuscarinic agents. Orthokeratology and soft bifocal contact lenses are both thought to provide myopic blur to the retina, which acts as a putative cue to slow myopic eye growth. Each of these myopia control methods provides, on average, slightly less than 50% slowing of myopia progression. All studies have shown clinically meaningful slowing of myopia progression, including several randomized clinical trials. The most investigated antimuscarinic agents include pirenzepine and atropine. Pirenzepine slows myopia progression by approximately 40%, but it is not commercially available in the United States. Atropine provides the best myopia control, but the cycloplegic and mydriatic side effects render it a rarely prescribed myopia control agent in the United States. However, low-concentration atropine has

  18. Kinematic control of walking.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, F; Ivanenko, Y P; Zago, M

    2002-10-01

    The planar law of inter-segmental co-ordination we described may emerge from the coupling of neural oscillators between each other and with limb mechanical oscillators. Muscle contraction intervenes at variable times to re-excite the intrinsic oscillations of the system when energy is lost. The hypothesis that a law of coordinative control results from a minimal active tuning of the passive inertial and viscoelastic coupling among limb segments is congruent with the idea that movement has evolved according to minimum energy criteria (1, 8). It is known that multi-segment motion of mammals locomotion is controlled by a network of coupled oscillators (CPGs, see 18, 33, 37). Flexible combination of unit oscillators gives rise to different forms of locomotion. Inter-oscillator coupling can be modified by changing the synaptic strength (or polarity) of the relative spinal connections. As a result, unit oscillators can be coupled in phase, out of phase, or with a variable phase, giving rise to different behaviors, such as speed increments or reversal of gait direction (from forward to backward). Supra-spinal centers may drive or modulate functional sets of coordinating interneurons to generate different walking modes (or gaits). Although it is often assumed that CPGs control patterns of muscle activity, an equally plausible hypothesis is that they control patterns of limb segment motion instead (22). According to this kinematic view, each unit oscillator would directly control a limb segment, alternately generating forward and backward oscillations of the segment. Inter-segmental coordination would be achieved by coupling unit oscillators with a variable phase. Inter-segmental kinematic phase plays the role of global control variable previously postulated for the network of central oscillators. In fact, inter-segmental phase shifts systematically with increasing speed both in man (4) and cat (38). Because this phase-shift is correlated with the net mechanical power

  19. Loudspeakers: Modeling and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ali, Khalid Mohammad

    This thesis documented a comprehensive study of loudspeaker modeling and control. A lumped-parameter model for a voice-coil loudspeaker in a vented enclosure was presented that derived from a consideration of physical principles. In addition, a low-frequency (20 Hz to 100 Hz), feedback control method designed to improve the nonlinear performance of the loudspeaker and a suitable performance measure for use in design and evaluation were proposed. Data from experiments performed on a variety of actual loudspeakers confirmed the practicality of the theory developed in this work. The lumped-parameter loudspeaker model, although simple, captured much of the nonlinear behavior of the loudspeaker. In addition, the model formulation allowed a straightforward application of modern control system methods and lent itself well to modern parametric identification techniques. The nonlinear performance of the loudspeaker system was evaluated using a suitable distortion measure that was proposed and compared with other distortion measures currently used in practice. Furthermore, the linearizing effect of feedback using a linear controller (both static and dynamic) was studied on a class of nonlinear systems. The results illustrated that the distortion reduction was potentially significant and a useful upper bound on the closed-loop distortion was found based on the sensitivity function of the system's linearization. A feedback scheme based on robust control theory was chosen for application to the loudspeaker system. Using the pressure output of the loudspeaker system for feedback, the technique offered significant advantages over those previously attempted. Illustrative examples were presented that proved the applicability of the theory developed in this dissertation to a variety of loudspeaker systems. The examples included a vented loudspeaker model and actual loudspeakers enclosed in both vented and sealed configurations. In each example, predictable and measurable distortion

  20. Turbomachinery Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Aksit, Mahmut F.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling interface clearances is the most cost effective method of enhancing turbomachinery performance. Seals control turbomachinery leakages, coolant flows and contribute to overall system rotordynamic stability. In many instances, sealing interfaces and coatings are sacrificial, like lubricants, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. They are subjected to abrasion, erosion, oxidation, incursive rubs, foreign object damage (FOD) and deposits as well as extremes in thermal, mechanical, aerodynamic and impact loadings. Tribological pairing of materials control how well and how long these interfaces will be effective in controlling flow. A variety of seal types and materials are required to satisfy turbomachinery sealing demands. These seals must be properly designed to maintain the interface clearances. In some cases, this will mean machining adjacent surfaces, yet in many other applications, coatings are employed for optimum performance. Many seals are coating composites fabricated on superstructures or substrates that are coated with sacrificial materials which can be refurbished either in situ or by removal, stripping, recoating and replacing until substrate life is exceeded. For blade and knife tip sealing an important class of materials known as abradables permit blade or knife rubbing without significant damage or wear to the rotating element while maintaining an effective sealing interface. Most such tip interfaces are passive, yet some, as for the high-pressure turbine (HPT) case or shroud, are actively controlled. This work presents an overview of turbomachinery sealing. Areas covered include: characteristics of gas and steam turbine sealing applications and environments, benefits of sealing, types of standard static and dynamics seals, advanced seal designs, as well as life and limitations issues.